of generality” is thus reinforced. The science of generality as science of the political is constituted in autonomy (but also complementarity with regard to the science of “universality” (philosophy, ethics and law and to the science of particularity (special sectors of the political and social being. The general is real only in relation to the universal, as a particularisation of the universal, and to the particular, as a universalisation of the particular. On the one hand, this precludes the danger of sham universality, i.e. of arrogant aspiration of universality to pass for generality, and, on the other hand, the danger of false generality, i.e. of futile aspiration of particularity to be hypostasized as political generality. As a first-rate expert, the political scientist must therefore, simultaneously and necessarily – being an “expert for generality” – be an expert for both “universality” and “particularity”.
A. D. Voskresensky
Full Text Available Out of all the departments of political sciences in Russia - the Department at MGIMO-University is probably the oldest one. In fact it is very young. While MGIMO-University is celebrating its 70th anniversary the Department of Political Sciences turns 15. Despite the fact that political analyst is a relatively new profession in Russia, it acquired a legal standing only in the 1990s, the political science school at MGIMO-University is almost as old as the university itself. Unlike many other universities, focused on the training teachers of political science or campaign managers MGIMO-University has developed its own unique political science school of "full cycle", where students grow into political sciences from a zero level up to the highest qualifications as teachers and researchers, and campaign managers, consultants and practitioners. The uniqueness of the school of political science at MGIMO-University allows its institutional incarnation -the Department of Political Science - to offer prospective studentsa training in a wide range of popular specialties and specializations, while ensuring a deep theoretical and practical basis of the training. Studying at MGIMO-University traditionally includes enhanced linguistic component (at least two foreign languages. For students of international relations and political science learning foreign languages is particularly important.It allows not only to communicate, but also to produce expertise and knowledge in foreign languages.
A common complaint from political scientists involved in the study of religion is that religious issues have been largely overlooked by political science. Through a content analysis of leading political science and sociology journals from 2000 to 2010, this article considers the extent of this claim. The results show that political science…
The AJPS is published by the African Association of Political Science (AAPS), with the aim of providing a platform for African perspectives on issues of politics, economy and society in Africa. It is published 2 times a year - in June and December, and targeted at the social science community, policy-makers, and university ...
Scheufele, Dietram A.
Scientific debates in modern societies often blur the lines between the science that is being debated and the political, moral, and legal implications that come with its societal applications. This manuscript traces the origins of this phenomenon to professional norms within the scientific discipline and to the nature and complexities of modern science and offers an expanded model of science communication that takes into account the political contexts in which science communication takes place. In a second step, it explores what we know from empirical work in political communication, public opinion research, and communication research about the dynamics that determine how issues are debated and attitudes are formed in political environments. Finally, it discusses how and why it will be increasingly important for science communicators to draw from these different literatures to ensure that the voice of the scientific community is heard in the broader societal debates surrounding science. PMID:25225389
Scheufele, Dietram A
Scientific debates in modern societies often blur the lines between the science that is being debated and the political, moral, and legal implications that come with its societal applications. This manuscript traces the origins of this phenomenon to professional norms within the scientific discipline and to the nature and complexities of modern science and offers an expanded model of science communication that takes into account the political contexts in which science communication takes place. In a second step, it explores what we know from empirical work in political communication, public opinion research, and communication research about the dynamics that determine how issues are debated and attitudes are formed in political environments. Finally, it discusses how and why it will be increasingly important for science communicators to draw from these different literatures to ensure that the voice of the scientific community is heard in the broader societal debates surrounding science.
The value of political science in information culture of society reveals; the main indicators of the public status of political science are investigated; the main functions of political science in the activity of actors of society are characterised.
Lewis, Orion; Steinmo, Sven
In this essay, we explore the epistemological and ontological assumptions that have been made to make political science "scientific." We show how political science has generally adopted an ontologically reductionist philosophy of science derived from Newtonian physics and mechanics. This mechanical framework has encountered problems and constraints on its explanatory power, because an emphasis on equilibrium analysis is ill-suited for the study of political change. We outline the primary differences between an evolutionary ontology of social science and the physics-based philosophy commonly employed. Finally, we show how evolutionary thinking adds insight into the study of political phenomena and research questions that are of central importance to the field, such as preference formation.
Berling, Trine Villumsen; Bueger, Christian
The simplistic but still influential, idea of a clear-cut boundary between science and politics does not capture the complexities of the ongoing “dialogue between science and politics”. Perhaps it never did. Critical Social Science from Mannheim to Kratochwil has made this painstakingly clear...
Harrison, K.; Hoberg, G. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada)
Case studies of seven controversial substances suspected of causing cancer in humans were analysed: the pesticides Alar and Alachor, urea-formaldehyde foam insulation, radon gas, dioxin, saccharin, and asbestos. Government regulation of toxic substances in Canada and the U.S. were examined. The strengths and weaknesses of each country`s approach were weighted according to five criteria: stringency and timeliness of the regulatory decision, balancing of risks and benefits by decision makers, opportunities for public participation, and the interpretation of science in regulatory decision making. Dramatically different approaches to regulatory science in the two countries were highlighted. The Canadian approach is exemplified by closed decision making, case-by-case review relying heavily on expert judgement, and limited public debate. In contrast, the American approach is characterized by publication of lengthy rationales for regulatory decisions, reliance on standardized procedures for risk assessment, and controversy surrounding the interpretation of scientific evidence. The general conclusion was that both the Canadian and U.S.approaches offer uncertain risks and benefits; the key question is how the risks compare with the benefits, and which consequences are valued the most. Extensive bibliographic notes are provided for each chapter.
Isacoff, Jonathan B.
This article argues for a political science discipline and teaching framework predicated empirically on the study of "real-world problems" and normatively on promoting civic engagement among political science students. I argue for a rethinking of political science and political science education in view of the pragmatist thought of John…
Dominguez, Casey B. K.; Smith, Keith W.; Williams, J. Michael
This study tests, and finds support, for the hypotheses that a student who majors in political science will have stronger feelings of political competence and will be more willing to engage in hypothetical political actions than two peer groups: (a) those who major in other fields and (b) those who show an interest in politics but have not studied…
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Duarte, José L; Crawford, Jarret T; Stern, Charlotta; Haidt, Jonathan; Jussim, Lee; Tetlock, Philip E
Psychologists have demonstrated the value of diversity--particularly diversity of viewpoints--for enhancing creativity, discovery, and problem solving. But one key type of viewpoint diversity is lacking in academic psychology in general and social psychology in particular: political diversity. This article reviews the available evidence and finds support for four claims: (1) Academic psychology once had considerable political diversity, but has lost nearly all of it in the last 50 years. (2) This lack of political diversity can undermine the validity of social psychological science via mechanisms such as the embedding of liberal values into research questions and methods, steering researchers away from important but politically unpalatable research topics, and producing conclusions that mischaracterize liberals and conservatives alike. (3) Increased political diversity would improve social psychological science by reducing the impact of bias mechanisms such as confirmation bias, and by empowering dissenting minorities to improve the quality of the majority's thinking. (4) The underrepresentation of non-liberals in social psychology is most likely due to a combination of self-selection, hostile climate, and discrimination. We close with recommendations for increasing political diversity in social psychology.
Craig W. Allin
The National Wilderness Preservation System reflects the triumph of politics over science. The history of wilderness allocation has reflected political rather than scientific sensibilities. The preeminence of politics over science extends to wilderness management as well and is illustrated here by representative examples from the modern history of Yellowstone National...
Lena Ingilæ Landsem
Full Text Available The article examines the interplay between science and politics in minority research in the period 1979 to mid-1980s at the University of Tromsø. Research was influenced by different conditions at the time, such as political events and policy priorities and ideological of streams in academia. Three factors influenced the choice of theme, priorities and approaches to minority research in North Norway. The first factor was the damming of the Alta-Kautokeino river, followed by Sami rights struggle and political changes towards the Sami population in Norway. What consequences did the political case for the research for the academic environment in the Northern Norway? The second factor was the research program run by the Norwegian general scientific Research (NAVF. An analysis on the relevant themes and focus areas within minority research is undertaken on basis of the research program. Finally I will use the methodological and research political discussions on emic and etic research positions that took place in the 1980s. Was it the Sami themselves, or also the researchers belonging to the majority that had the right to pursue research on the Sami? Sources consist of internal documents, reports, research papers and oral sources from the UiT.
Brown, Mark B
This essay examines five ideal-typical conceptions of politics in science and technology studies. Rather than evaluating these conceptions with reference to a single standard, the essay shows how different conceptions of politics serve distinct purposes: normative critique, two approaches to empirical description, and two views of democracy. I discuss each conception of politics with respect to how well it fulfills its apparent primary purpose, as well as its implications for the purpose of studying a key issue in contemporary democratic societies: the politicization of science. In this respect, the essay goes beyond classifying different conceptions of politics and also recommends the fifth conception as especially conducive to understanding and shaping the processes whereby science becomes a site or object of political activity. The essay also employs several analytical distinctions to help clarify the differences among conceptions of politics: between science as 'political' (adjective) and science as a site of 'politics' (noun), between spatial-conceptions and activity-conceptions of politics, between latent conflicts and actual conflicts, and between politics and power. The essay also makes the methodological argument that the politics of science and technology is best studied with concepts and methods that facilitate dialogue between actors and analysts. The main goal, however, is not to defend a particular view of politics, but to promote conversation on the conceptions of politics that animate research in social studies of science and technology.
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Maranto, Robert; Woessner, Matthew C.
In this article, the authors talk about the relevance of American political science and America. Political science has enormous strengths in its highly talented practitioners and sophisticated methods. However, its disconnection from its host society, while not so severe as for fields like English and sociology, nonetheless poses an existential…
Simona Kustec Lipicer
Full Text Available Times when relations between politics and sports did not exist – be it in everyday practices or within scientific research – is definitely long gone, if they ever even existed. Nevertheless, it seems today that, especially within scientific research, these relations do not receive appropriate attention in the territories of former socialist sports superpowers, being a priori denied and considered as unimportant. That is why the key motive of this article is to initiate a discussion about the relevance of knowledge and research of the relations between politics and sport from two perspectives – the existing world-wide political science research experiences gained so far and already conducted researches in the territory of former Yugoslavia. In doing so, we first theoretically define the context of sports and politics, and then with the use of the literature review method analyse their mutual connectivity in the world and, more narrowly, within the work of the scientific community in the region of former Yugoslavia. Based on the gained conclusions which confirm a tight and constant, but also often abstract and flat-rate understood interplay between both analysed phenomena, a special typology for their in-depth and political-science-focused study is delivered. It is believed that distinctions between political, polity and policy approaches to sport decisively influence the mode of their future interplay.
In a recent article in "Academic Questions" political scientists Robert Maranto and Matthew C. Woessner have suggested a program to reform their discipline and enhance its social utility. They encourage researchers to engage with consequential social issues and educate the public, while admonishing political scientists to resist partisan advocacy…
School nurses throughout the nation, individually and collectively, work to bring about change for the school nursing profession and to safeguard the health of children and the public. School nurses practice amidst education reform, health care reform, changes in society, and medical and technological advancements. School nurses must be active in decisions that affect their daily practice by involvement in the local, state, and federal political process. School nurses must craft the art and develop the science of political advocacy.
Carpes, Mariana; Knoblich, Ruth
An increasing number of scholars have begun to see science and technology as relevant issues in International Relations (IR), acknowledging the impact of material elements, technical instruments, and scientific practices on international security, statehood, and global governance. This two-volume collection brings the debate about science and technology to the center of International Relations. It shows how integrating science and technology translates into novel analytical frameworks, conceptual approaches and empirical puzzles, and thereby offers a state-of-the-art review of various methodological and theoretical ways in which sciences and technologies matter for the study of international affairs and world politics. The authors not only offer a set of practical examples of research frameworks for experts and students alike, but also propose a conceptual space for interdisciplinary learning in order to improve our understanding of the global politics of science and technology.
Julián Andrés Caicedo Ortiz
Full Text Available The article proposes an epistemological interpretation of the disciplinary development of political science in Colombia. Through a hermeneutical exercise it builds the need to think and recognize the political science in a (trans disciplinary way to show then that in the process of formation of the different faculties have participated professionals from different branches, revealing the difficulty to set up programs with disciplinary specificities. The article concludes that this transdisciplinary methodology leads to a diversity and an evanescent definition of the object of study, that while not constituting an epistemological disadvantage, prove the lack of a cohesive and identity element for the discipline
Jansson, Maria; Wendt, Maria; Ase, Cecilia
In this article, we present the results of a research project where we have tried to elaborate more socially inclusive ways of teaching and learning political science by making use of a specific feminist method of analyzing social relations--memory work. As a method, memory work involves writing and interpreting stories of personal experience,…
Author Guidelines. The African Journal of Political Science is an externally refereed journal published twice a year-June and December. Contributions, which may be submitted in English or French, should be not more than 8,000 words. The author's name, rank, institutional affiliation and address should be on the title page, ...
This paper tests a hypothesized linear relationship between social background and final grades in several political science courses that I taught at the University of Central Arkansas. I employ a cross-sectional research design and ordinary least square (OLS) estimators to test the foregoing hypothesis. Relying on a sample of up to 204…
Chamberlain, Robert P.
Concept mapping is a pedagogical technique that was developed in the 1970s and is being used in K-12 and postsecondary education. Although it has shown excellent results in other fields, it is still rare in political science. In this research note, I discuss the implementation and testing of concept mapping in my Advanced Introduction to…
Lawrence, Christopher N.; Dion, Michelle L.
Weblogs (or blogs), as a form of communication on the Internet, have recently risen in prominence but may be poorly understood by both faculty and students. This article explains how blogs differ from other online communication tools and how political science faculty can make use of blogs in their classes. The focus is on using blogs as part of…
Govea, Rodger M.
Discusses how and why one might want to teach a political science course on the topic of terrorism on the college level. Information is presented on course objectives, organization, relevant literature, and the results of a survey demonstrating the educational effects of instruction on terrorism. (Author/DB)
Lewis, Jeremy R. T.
This critical review of 13 political science software simulations and tutorials rates the programs both by quality of presentation and by educational content. Courseware does have a truly interactive nature yet allows the student to be in an active mode of control. The software programs reviewed feature a variety of graphic, textual, and…
This article tests a relationship between class attendance and final grades in several political science courses that I taught at the University of Georgia, University of Vermont, and University of Central Arkansas between the Fall 2000 and Spring 2006 semesters. The study employs ordinary least square estimators to test the foregoing hypothesis.…
Community health educators are well versed in the behavior sciences, including intervention theories. However, most public health professionals are not familiar with the policy theories related to political advocacy. Because health educators are engaging in policy advocacy more frequently, and as a result of the profession including policy…
Kanchan, Tanuj; Krishan, Kewal
This communication highlights a very pertinent and recent case of an erroneous representation of the Indian borders in an article 'India by the numbers' by Richard Van Noorden in Nature ( http://www.nature.com/news/india-by-the-numbers-1.17519 ) where a considerable part of the Jammu and Kashmir State of India is missing in the map incorporated in the article. The article received a series of comments showing disappointment on the issue and a need for the correction to the depicted Indian borders. The editor instead of making corrections to the map has issued a statement that 'the map shows land areas currently administered by the Indian Government', that in no way can be considered as an acceptable argument. We wish the focus of this well written article had remained on science rather than introducing unnecessary controversies.
... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Political organizations; generally. 1.527-1... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Farmers' Cooperatives § 1.527-1 Political organizations; generally. Section 527 provides that a political organization is considered an organization exempt from...
This mixed-methods study examined the long-term associations between two kinds of politics courses--required political science courses and required family policy courses--and the political participation, knowledge, skill, efficacy, and politically engaged identity of child and family studies alumni. Two special cases were examined: those who…
McCright, Aaron M; Dentzman, Katherine; Charters, Meghan; Dietz, Thomas
In recent years, some scholars, journalists, and science advocates have promoted broad claims that ‘conservatives distrust science’ or ‘conservatives oppose science’. We argue that such claims may oversimplify in ways that lead to empirical inaccuracies. The Anti-Reflexivity Thesis suggests a more nuanced examination of how political ideology influences views about science. The Anti-Reflexivity Thesis hypothesizes that some sectors of society mobilize to defend the industrial capitalist order from the claims of environmentalists and some environmental scientists that the current economic system causes serious ecological and public health problems. The Anti-Reflexivity Thesis expects that conservatives will report significantly less trust in, and support for, science that identifies environmental and public health impacts of economic production (i.e., impact science) than liberals. It also expects that conservatives will report a similar or greater level of trust in, and support for, science that provides new inventions or innovations for economic production (i.e., production science) than liberals. Analyzing data from a recent survey experiment with 798 adults recruited from the US general public, our results confirm the expectations of the Anti-Reflexivity Thesis. Conservatives report less trust in impact scientists but greater trust in production scientists than their liberal counterparts. We argue that further work that increases the accuracy and depth of our understanding of the relationship between political ideology and views about science is likely crucial for addressing the politicized science-based issues of our age. (letter)
Congress tried to balance politics and science in the selection process for a nuclear waste repository site but gave up and simply declared a winner. The reasons and consequences of this action disturbed the author. He says several forces converted to account for this dramatic turn of events. first, political resistance from potential host states convinced some that no repository would be built if congress failed to act. Second, steep cost escalations in the cumbersome selection process created pressure for decisive action. and, third, a feeling emerged that the Yucca Mountain site had the greatest likelihood of meeting criteria for a safe, permanent repository. He believes the original process, established in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), could have been made to work. NWPA was not a mistake, he states, the mistake was a failure to implement the act fully and to encourage public involvement
Chekunova Marina A.
Full Text Available Nowadays, in transformation of the realm of political communication, a more important part is given to the so-called «new social media». Previously, political communication was seen as a process of production, dissemination and perception of political information for the purpose of achieving a consent regarding one or another political action. Additionally, communication appeared as a mechanism of one-way information exchange. Under new conditions, political communication becomes a tool of ensuring the process of preparation, making and implementing political decisions. In a modern understanding, an informational message is built by means of specific cooperation between communicants. In this regard, information sources appear as a specific base for state actions. This paper deals with old (traditional and new social media and lists several characteristics that help distinguish these media. It also shows how authorities and representatives of political opposition can use social media to achieve their political purposes. This article analyses not only benefits but also drawbacks in the application of new information technologies in politics, considering a problem of manipulation as a main disadvantage. It also compares the use of social networks by authorities in Russia and abroad. Because of differences in political culture, social networks are not popular with Russian authorities. However, the number of social networking users among Russian politicians is increasing year by year. Moreover, the most popular network with them is Twitter. A conclusion can be drawn that new media play an important role in creating a system of rules of conduct on the Internet and in establishing a specific culture of electronic communication between representatives of authority and society.
John R. Dudeney
Full Text Available For over 50 years the Antarctic has been governed through the Antarctic Treaty, an international agreement now between 49 nations of whom 28 Consultative Parties (CPs undertake the management role. Ostensibly, these Parties have qualified for their position on scientific grounds, though diplomacy also plays a major role. This paper uses counts of policy papers and science publications to assess the political and scientific outputs of all CPs over the last 18 years. We show that a subset of the original 12 Treaty signatories, consisting of the seven claimant nations, the USA and Russia, not only set the political agenda for the continent but also provide most of the science, with those CPs producing the most science generally having the greatest political influence. None of the later signatories to the Treaty appear to play a major role in managing Antarctica compared with this group, with half of all CPs collectively producing only 7% of the policy papers. Although acceptance as a CP requires demonstration of a substantial scientific programme, the Treaty has no formal mechanism to review whether a CP continues to meet this criterion. As a first step to addressing this deficiency, we encourage the CPs collectively to resolve to hold regular international peer reviews of their individual science programmes and to make the results available to the other CPs.
Nuclear energy, stem cell technology, GMOs: the more science advances, the more society seems to resist. But are we really watching a death struggle between opposing forces, as so many would have it? Can today’s complex technical policy decisions coincide with the needs of a participatory democracy? Are the two sides even equipped to talk to each other? Beyond Technocracy: Science, Politics and Citizens answers these questions with clarity and vision. Drawing upon a broad range of data and events from the United States and Europe, and noting the blurring of the expert/lay divide in the knowledge base, the book argues that these conflicts should not be dismissed as episodic, or the outbursts of irrationality and ignorance, but recognized as a critical opportunity to discuss the future in which we want to live.
O. S. Tokovenko
Full Text Available The paper is submitted to a scientific discussion the possibility of considering the idea of political science, based on the criteria of intellectual integrity and disciplinary unity. In this context, generally accepted among professionals and political scientists idea that political science as a scientific discipline occurs in the early twentieth century and its conceptual framework is still in a state of development, and a long preceding period should be characterized as a period of political thought is being challenged. The main idea that is being proved is recognition the existence of such scientific discipline as political science requires recognition of the existence of specific inherent ideals of science, cognitive standards, rules, procedures, explanations, etc. They allow political thinkers from the ancient world as well as modern researchers to combine it into a single, unique, different from others in their methodological principles and heuristic potential Science. It is convinced that the existence of intellectual integrity and disciplinary unity in Political Science is possible due to the existence of the ideals of scholarship, which are closely related to the cultural and historical context in which Political Science is being developed. The possibility of applying such disciplinary and integrated approach is considered as an example of the impact that was made by changes of the Great French Revolution and its consequences on transformation of the conceptual framework of Political Science. It is concluded that the consideration of the peculiarities of political thought development in the social and cultural contexts related to the events of the Great French Revolution and its consequences argues that political science is responsive to changing the social context, makes changes in categorical apparatus, introduces the new field of scientific inquiry, actualized subject field. These actions are due to the specific disciplinary unity
Although the study of LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender) politics appears to be widely accepted within political science, a recent survey of political scientists reported some skepticism about its legitimacy and scholarly worth (Novkov and Barclay 2010). This article examines potential concerns about LGBT studies and draws attention to the…
Liesen, Laurette T; Walsh, Mary Barbara
The term "biopolitics" carries multiple, sometimes competing, meanings in political science. When the term was first used in the United States in the late 1970s, it referred to an emerging subdiscipline that incorporated the theories and data of the life sciences into the study of political behavior and public policy. But by the mid-1990s, biopolitics was adopted by postmodernist scholars at the American Political Science Association's annual meeting who followed Foucault's work in examining the power of the state on individuals. Michel Foucault first used the term biopolitics in the 1970s to denote social and political power over life. Since then, two groups of political scientists have been using this term in very different ways. This paper examines the parallel developments of the term "biopolitics," how two subdisciplines gained (and one lost) control of the term, and what the future holds for its meaning in political science.
Rosenberg, Shawn W.
At the beginning of the 21st century, the field of political psychology; like the social sciences more generally, is being challenged. New theoretical direction is being demanded from within and a greater epistemological sophistication and ethical relevance is being demanded from without. In response, direction for a reconstructed political psychology is offered here. To begin, a theoretical framework for a truly integrative political psychology is sketched. This is done in light of the appar...
Draper, Geoffrey M.; Liu, Baodong; Riesenfeld, Richard F.
The use of computer software to facilitate learning in political science courses is well established. However, the statistical software packages used in many political science courses can be difficult to use and counter-intuitive. We describe the results of a preliminary user study suggesting that visually-oriented analysis software can help…
This article examines metacognitive-based teaching strategies and provides preliminary evidence about their effectiveness in the political science classroom. In a 2013 Fall semester Introduction to Political Science course, three metacognitive-based teaching strategies were designed and implemented for improving student learning through greater…
AAPS, African Political Science and Globalisation: Which Way Forward? L. Adele Jinadu. Abstract. (Af. J. Political Science: 2002 7(2): 1-10). Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ajps.v7i2.27328 · AJOL African Journals Online.
Browne, A J
Previous notions of science as impartial and value-neutral have been refuted by contemporary views of science as influenced by social, political and ideological values. By locating nursing science in the dominant political ideology of liberalism, the author examines how nursing knowledge is influenced by liberal philosophical assumptions. The central tenets of liberal political philosophy - individualism, egalitarianism, freedom, tolerance, neutrality, and a free-market economy - are primarily manifested in relation to: (i) the individualistic focus of our science; (ii) our view of society as essentially egalitarian and equitable; (iii) our preference for politically neutral knowledge development, and (iv) an economy of knowledge development that supports rather than challenges the status quo. I argue that exposing, rather than ignoring, the liberal ideological values inherent in nursing science will render these assumptions open to debate, stimulate ongoing development of critically oriented knowledge, and increase our capacity to influence the social, political and economic determinants of health.
Full Text Available This article analyzes general perceptions of a good political leader of post-Soviet Kyrgyzstan by looking at how political leadership is perceived by the ordinary people in the country. This issue seems to be particularly important with country taking a new route – parliamentary republic and facing crisis of political leadership as a result of two revolutions of 2005 and 2010. Furthermore the article sheds some light at people's expectations which are important due to the presidential elections in fall 2011. The article looks at what type of a leader the people of Kyrgyzstan wish to see, and what are the qualities (personal or professional a political leader must possess. In an attempt to answer these questions, the article identifies ten main qualities of a “good” political leader for Kyrgyzstan as a result of a filed study and tries to evaluate the Kyrgyz case within a broader body of literature about political leadership.
American Political Science Association (NJ1), 2011
Is political science positioned to embrace and incorporate the changing demographics, increasing multicultural diversity, and ever-growing disparities in the concentration of wealth present in many nation-states? Can political science do so within its research, teaching, and professional development? These two questions were the focus of the work…
Full Text Available This article intends to analyze the institutionalization of political science in Brazil through the expansion of the graduate system and evaluation process, which promoted research and scientific evaluations of institutions with Master`s and doctoral degree programs by an assessment model based on peer reviews and the rating of scientific production. The focus here is on Political Science in comparison with its neighboring disciplines, Sociology and Anthropology. We attempt to consider the timing of the process of academic institutionalization of Political Science, as well as its consequences for the consolidation of the field nowadays.
Young, Mitchell; Sørensen, Mads P.; Bloch, Carter Walter
are shared by researchers as well; however, below the surface is a paradox that is rarely discussed. The political system and the science system understand and pursue these concepts and objectives differently. Through two case studies on high-performing university-based research environments in Denmark......, the cases demonstrate why the relationship between the science system and the political system needs to be understood as a horizontal rather than a vertical relationship, and using concepts from organizational theory, provides a model and terminology for identifying and analyzing the types of mechanisms...... and strategic responses that the science system uses to shield itself from political steering pressures....
Toplak, Cirila; Pikalo, Jernej; Luksic, Igor
In the paper we attempt to address principal issues of political history as part of the political science curriculum today, ranging from "what to teach" to "how to teach." Assuming the necessity in contemporary information society of selecting information rather than only accessing it, we propose approaches, such as topics networking, to create…
Coward, H. Roberts
Procedures for the operation of the Political-Military Exercise (PME) are detailed in this handbook as a means of involving political science students in the actual dynamics of international policy-making decisions through the PME game experience. Two basic designs for operating the simulation exercise are presented with a discussion of the format…
Teitelbaum, Michael S
The interconnections between politics and the dramatic demographic changes under way around the world have been neglected by the two research disciplines that could contribute most to their understanding: demography and political science. Instead, this area of 'political demography' has largely been ceded to political activists, pundits, and journalists, leading often to exaggerated or garbled interpretation. The terrain includes some of the most politically sensitive and contested issues: alleged demographically determined shifts in the international balance of power; low fertility, population decline, and demographic ageing; international migration; change in national identity; and compositional shifts in politically sensitive social categories and human rights. Meanwhile many governments and non-governmental actors have actively pursued varieties of 'strategic demography', deploying fertility, mortality, or migration as instruments of domestic or international policy. Political scientists and demographers could and should use their knowledge and analytic techniques to improve understanding and to moderate excessive claims and fears on these topics.
In responding to critics and reviewers of my book, "How the Cold War Transformed Philosophy of Science," I attempt to identify some misleading conventional wisdom about the place of values in philosophy of science and then offer three distinct ways in which philosophers of science can engage their work with ongoing social and political currents.
Breivik, Patricia Senn, Ed.
This collection of essays focuses on group social and political action as it relates to libraries and their environments. The introduction discusses the group-concept approach to studying library and information science. The essays are case studies of interest group politics, including: (1) the imprisonment of a librarian who refused to give…
Book review of: Kapiszewski (Diana), Maclean (Lauren M.), Read (Benjamin L.) Field Research in Political Science. Practices and Principles. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2015 (Strategies for Social Inquiry). XIV + 456 p. Figures. Annexe. Bibliogr. Index.......Book review of: Kapiszewski (Diana), Maclean (Lauren M.), Read (Benjamin L.) Field Research in Political Science. Practices and Principles. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2015 (Strategies for Social Inquiry). XIV + 456 p. Figures. Annexe. Bibliogr. Index....
Full Text Available The article discusses sociological foundations of normative institutionalism in political science. Section 1 introduces different types of institutionalism. Section 3 compares the old with the new institutionalism. Since new institutionalism is sociological in nature, section 4 links new institutionalism with social behavior. Section 5 discusses common features of all types of institutionalism. Sections 6-8 lays out main elements of normative institutionalism. Section 9 concludes by highlighting the relevance of new institutionalism for political science. .
Nestle, Marion; Nesheim, Malden C
.... They are also hard to understand. In Why Calories Count, Marion Nestle and Malden Nesheim explain in clear and accessible language what calories are and how they work, both biologically and politically...
Kirchner, James W.
Science plays an essential role in public policy by outlining the factual foundations of policy debates. As a result, science often becomes a political football, with partisans dismissing or misrepresenting scientific findings that conflict with their political views. Here I argue that scientists can most effectively speak out, not as activists supporting particular political causes, but instead as advocates for a fundamentally rational public discourse, one that starts from the facts—not from whatever one might choose to believe—and then explores how society should respond to the challenges that they pose.
Full Text Available Public sphere is a social space, open to active individual access and free discussion, rescued from state intervention, where communicative action free from violence and individual benefits is undertaken; and rational-critical discourse is built. Political advertisement is the type advertising which aims at directing voters or the government to a particular action, having them adopt a certain view or approach. The concept of political advertising emerged with the practice of using commercial advertising techniques to promote a party, candidate or an idea. Justice and Development Party (JDP, has been ruling Turkey since 2002. The leader of the party is Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan. It is a conservative party and has carried out some practices that could be regarded as negative. Anti-secular attitudes are also among these practices. Thus, analysing the political advertisements of JDP has proved to be interesting. Public sphere studies are mostly conducted through news stories and columns in media. In that sense, it is significant to analyse political advertisements in terms of public sphere. In this study, the political advertisements of the ruling Justice and Development Party (JDP in the process of Turkish General Parliamentary Election, 2011 have been analysed. The political advertisements in question have been analysed via Sabah newspaper. The reason for choosing Sabah is that it supports JDP as an example of partisan press. The samples have been taken from 2 weeks before the elections. Accordingly, as a full-page advertisement is published every day, 14 political advertisement analyses have been conducted in total. Political advertisements have been analysed using qualitative text analysis. As the study follows the path of public place-political advertising relationship, it finds meaning in itself.
Full Text Available During the last three decades, the scientific theory of global warming has become a political ideology. Significant political components are found both in the premises and (especially in the consequences. But witnessed also at least a decade of negationism: global warming research programs are questionable regarding methodology and the ethics of research. Face to all contestations, “Global warming theory” has already become “Global climate change theory”. It is true that global warming ideology preparing a global governing over a strictly limited number of people?
Analysing Memoir Topic Trends in the Social and Political Sciences in the Faculty of Arts, Media and Social Sciences at NUR. ... The causal mechanism evolves from popular discussion in the media, leading to student interest, and eventually to student-selected research topics. The most obvious examples were government ...
Jong, de W.; Arts, B.J.M.; Krott, M.
The use of theory in forest policy studies has given a new face to forest policy science, as it matured from an applied academic field to a specialized sub-discipline. In addition to doing science to support policy, forest policy academics engage in research to expand policy sciences. The link to
Jacobi, L.R. Jr.
This paper was first presented at the annual meeting of the HPS in New Orleans in 1984. Twelve years later, the basic lessons learned are still found to be valid. In 1984, the following things were found to be true: A government agency is preferred by the public over a private company to manage radioactive waste. Semantics are important--How you say it is important, but how it is heard is more important. Public information and public relations are very important, but they are the last thing of concern to a scientist. Political constituency is important. Don't overlook the need for someone to be on your side. Don't forget that the media is part of the political process-they can make you or break you. Peer technical review is important, but so is citizen review. Sociology is an important issue that scientists and technical people often overlook. In summary, despite the political nature of radioactive waste disposal, it is as true today as it was in 1984 that technical facts must be used to reach sound technical conclusions. Only then, separately and openly, should political factors be considered. So, what can be said today that wasn't said in 1984? Nothing. open-quotes It's deja vu all over again.close quotes
This book presents a collection of critical thinking that concern cultural, social and political issues for science education in the Nordic countries. The chapter authors describe specific scenarios to challenge persisting views, interrogate frameworks and trouble contemporary approaches...... to researching teaching and learning in science. Taking a point of departure in empirical examples from the Nordic countries the collection of work is taking a critical sideways glance at the Nordic education principles. Critical examinations target specifically those who are researching in the fields of science...... education research to question whether conventional research approaches, foci and theoretical approaches are sufficient in a world of science education that is neither politically neutral, nor free of cultural values. Attention is not only on the individual learner but on the cultural, social and political...
Naik, Pramod V
This biography is a short yet comprehensive overview of the life of Meghnad Saha, the mastermind behind the frequently used Saha equations and a strong contributor to the foundation of science in India. The author explores the lesser known details behind the man who played a major role in building scientific institutions in India, developed the breakthrough theory of thermal ionization, and whose fervor about India’s rapid progress in science and technology, along with concern for uplifting his countrymen and optimizing resources, led him to eventually enter politics and identify the mismanagement of many programs of national importance to Parliament. This book is free of most academic technicalities, so that the reader with general scientific knowledge can read and understand it easily. One interested only in Saha’s contribution to physics can pick up just that part and read it. Conversely, the average reader may skip the technical chapters, and read the book without loss of continuity or generality to s...
Sheehan, Helena M
This paper is an examination of the philosophical and political legacy of John Desmond Bernal. It addresses the evidence of an emerging consensus on Bernal based on the recent biography of Bernal by Andrew Brown and the reviews it has received. It takes issue with this view of Bernal, which tends to be admiring of his scientific contribution, bemused by his sexuality, condescending to his philosophy and hostile to his politics. This article is a critical defence of his philosophical and political position
Sheehan, Helena M [Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland)
This paper is an examination of the philosophical and political legacy of John Desmond Bernal. It addresses the evidence of an emerging consensus on Bernal based on the recent biography of Bernal by Andrew Brown and the reviews it has received. It takes issue with this view of Bernal, which tends to be admiring of his scientific contribution, bemused by his sexuality, condescending to his philosophy and hostile to his politics. This article is a critical defence of his philosophical and political position.
Carter, J. M.; Goldman, G. T.; Barry, J.
The United States federal government has long relied on independent science to inform policy decisions that impact public health and safety, and the environment. Yet, losses of scientific integrity in federal decisionmaking have persisted, politicizing science and undermining science-based public health protections the government is charged with overseeing. However, politicization of science has accelerated in recent months. Focusing on a series of recent case studies, we investigated different tactics used by political actors to undermine the use of independent science in the policy making process. In this talk, we will highlight and discuss many of these tactics used in the current political era including the delay of science-based decisions, disbanding scientific advisory boards, and the dismissal of scientific evidence. Additionally, this talk will be followed by a discussion of what we might expect for federal scientific integrity in the next few years.
Esaiasson, Peter; Persson, Mikael
The article evaluates the civic implications of studying political science. Previous research has argued that learning rational choice models of political behavior could be detrimental to civic outcomes. However, results from our two panel surveys of students at Swedish universities show the opposite: studying political science has positive…
Hamann, Kerstin; Pollock, Philip H.; Wilson, Bruce M.
Political science, as a discipline, is a relative newcomer to the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL). We examine authorship patterns of SoTL articles in "PS: Political Science & Politics," the "Journal of Political Science Education," and "International Studies Perspectives" from 1998-2008. Our findings indicate more collaborative SoTL…
Ryan, Mark A.
Debate rages over which water bodies in the US are protected under federal law by the Clean Water Act. Science shows that isolated wetlands and headwater systems provide essential downstream services, but convincing politicians is another matter.
Nørgaard, Asbjørn Sonne
Scientific debate requires a common understanding of what constitutes good research. The purpose of this article is to establish such an understanding. The purpose of political science is to uncover, understand and explain the conformist aspect of social behavior, well aware that not all behavior...... is systematically determined by society. Good political science ought to be grounded in two questions: What do we know, and what are we going to learn? Research question and theory are decisive, while all discussion about methodology and design is about subjecting our prejudices and expectations to the most...
This article critically examines the political dimension of prevention science by asking how it constructs the problems for which prevention is seen as the solution and how it enables the monitoring and control of these problems. It also seeks to examine how prevention science has established a sphere for legitimate political deliberation and which kinds of statements are accepted as legitimate within this sphere. The material consists of 14 publications describing and discussing the goals, concepts, promises and problems of prevention science. The analysis covers the period from 1993 to 2012. The analysis shows that prevention science has established a narrow definition of "prevention", including only interventions aimed at the reduction of risks for clinical disorders. In publications from the U.S. National Institute of Drug Abuse, the principles of prevention science have enabled a commitment to a zero-tolerance policy on drugs. The drug using subject has been constructed as a rational choice actor lacking in skills in exerting self-control in regard to drug use. Prevention science has also enabled the monitoring and control of expertise, risk groups and individuals through specific forms of data gathering. Through the juxtaposition of the concepts of "objectivity" and "morality", prevention science has constituted a principle of delineation, disqualifying statements not adhering to the principles of prevention science from the political field, rendering ethical and conflictual dimensions of problem representations invisible. The valorisation of scientific accounts of drugs has acted to naturalise specific political ideals. It simultaneously marginalises the public from the public policy process, giving precedence to experts who are able to provide information that policy-makers are demanding. Alternative accounts, such as those based on marginalisation, poverty or discrimination are silenced within prevention science. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights
Davis, Ollye G., Comp.
The third edition of an annotated guide to library materials is designed and intended for students majoring in political science; however, it would also be useful for instructors and students in the other social science disciplines. This handbook is divided into two sections: General Reference Books in the Social Sciences, and Guides and…
Full Text Available As a logical starting point structuring the entire theoretical field of political analysis, Hobbes’s definition of the state of nature is a key for understanding his science of politics. The paper shows that the concept of the state of nature implies two fundamentally distinct types of states in which neither people nor troubles with which they are faced are identical. In the original state of nature conflicts among people stem directly from their nature. Based on the analysis of Hobbes’s understanding of human nature and critical reading of his interpretation of the state of nature by Jean Hampton, the paper identifies the mechanism by which reason and passion turn the state of nature into a state of war. However, alongside the original state of nature, a historical state of nature also coexists, in which conflicts spring from religious views and political beliefs immanent to people as religious and political beings, and as beings of language and conscience. What is crucial for conflicts in this historical state of nature is the influence exerted by language as a discursive context on human action. As the state of war feeds from both human nature and history, any attempt of overcoming the state of nature must abandon them: the state is necessarily an artificial and ahistorical project, based on science of politics as a new political language appropriate for human self-preservation.
Evans, Heather K.
In this article, the author addresses both the costs and benefits of implementing clickers into an introductory political science course. Comparing student responses to a mid-semester survey in both a clicker and non-clicker course, the results show that students have higher satisfaction of the course and instructor, higher exam scores, and feel…
Four studies, each on health technology assessment (HTA) in a different country, are presented in this volume. Conveying differing levels of sensitivity to political aspects of HTA, their storylines are similar in terms of the importance of the institutional structures that produce HTA and mediate its influence on health policy decision making. Regarding the internal politics of HTA, the latter appears to have developed in a relatively depoliticized environment, supported by a dense and varied web of institutional sites for funding, production, and consumption of HTA, buffered from the capricious impacts of electoral politics. Regarding external politics, HTA in all the countries began with relatively politically innocuous studies of technologies recognized to be of major import to national health systems or researcher-initiated studies. However, with increased focus in health systems on explicit determination of health benefits baskets, the role of HTA has become more high profile. This means that political accountability for the entire HTA process will increase. The implication is that future management of HTA programs will require self-conscious attention to the building of institutions capable of handling the delicate process of integrating science and politics in health policy.
It is published 2 times a year - in June and December, and targeted at the social science community, policy-makers, and university students. Contributions are in either English or French. With effect from the year 2000, it will be published in Arabic by the Institute of African Research and Studies, Cairo University, Egypt ...
Ellis, Cali Mortenson; Sami, Rahul
Prediction markets are designed to aggregate the information of many individuals to forecast future events. These markets provide participants with an incentive to seek information and a forum for interaction, making markets a promising tool to motivate student learning. We carried out a quasi-experiment in an introductory political science class…
Navarro, Raul Bejar; And Others
College level political science teaching in developing nations will be more relevant to students if it is developed within an interdisciplinary framework and is related to theories of organization, conflict, and social ecology. Journal available from UNIPUB, Box 433, Murray Hill Station, New York, New York 10016. (Author/DB)
Yanus, Alixandra B.; O'Connor, Karen; Weakley, Jon L.
Community colleges occupy a growing role in the American education system. Their unique cross-section of students poses a challenge for teachers of political science. This paper uses information from a survey completed by over 2,000 students at 20 colleges and universities across the United States to shed light on some of the most significant…
Collins, Todd A.; Knotts, H. Gibbs; Schiff, Jen
We know little about the amount of career preparation offered to students in political science departments. This lack of information is particularly troubling given the state of the current job market and the growth of applied degree programs on university campuses. To address this issue, this article presents the results of a December 2010 survey…
Towner, Terri L.
Research on the influence of class size on student academic achievement is important for university instructors, administrators, and students. The article examines the influence of class size--a small section versus a large section--in introductory political science courses on student grades in two comparable semesters. It is expected that…
Franklin, Daniel; Weinberg, Joseph; Reifler, Jason
In the interest of developing a combination of teaching techniques designed to maximize efficiency "and" quality of instruction, we have experimentally tested three separate and relatively common teaching techniques in three large introductory political science classes at a large urban public university. Our results indicate that the…
Johnson, Gary R
Politics and the life sciences--also referred to as biopolitics--is a field of study that seeks to advance knowledge of politics and promote better policymaking through multidisciplinary analysis that draws on the life sciences. While the intellectual origins of the field may be traced at least into the 1960s, a broadly organized movement appeared only with the founding of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences (APLS) in 1980 and the establishment of its journal, Politics and the Life Sciences ( PLS ), in 1982. This essay--contributed by a past journal editor and association executive director--concludes a celebration of the association's thirtieth anniversary. It reviews the founding of the field and the association, as well as the contributions of the founders. It also discusses the nature of the empirical work that will advance the field, makes recommendations regarding the identity and future of the association, and assesses the status of the revolution of which the association is a part. It argues that there is progress to celebrate, but that this revolution--the last of three great scientific revolutions--is still in its early stages. The revolution is well-started, but remains unfinished.
Link, P.K. [ed.
A total of 48 papers were presented at the Engineering Geology and Geotechnical Engineering 30th Symposium. These papers are presented in this proceedings under the following headings: site characterization--Pocatello area; site characterization--Boise Area; site assessment; Idaho National Engineering Laboratory; geophysical methods; remediation; geotechnical engineering; and hydrogeology, northern and western Idaho. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.
A total of 48 papers were presented at the Engineering Geology and Geotechnical Engineering 30th Symposium. These papers are presented in this proceedings under the following headings: site characterization--Pocatello area; site characterization--Boise Area; site assessment; Idaho National Engineering Laboratory; geophysical methods; remediation; geotechnical engineering; and hydrogeology, northern and western Idaho. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database
Governments currently classify illicit drugs for various purposes: to guide courts in the sentencing of convicted violators of drug control laws, to prioritize targets of prevention measures and to educate the public about relative risks of the various drugs. It has been proposed that classification should be conducted by scientists and drug experts rather than by politicians, so that it will reflect only accurate factual knowledge of drug effects and risks rather than political biases. Although this is an appealing goal, it is inherently impossible because rank-ordering of the drugs inevitably requires value judgements concerning the different types of harm. Such judgements, even by scientists, depend upon subjective personal criteria and not only upon scientific facts. Moreover, classification that is meant to guide the legal system in controlling dangerous drug use can function only if it is in harmony with the values and sentiments of the public. In some respects, politicians may be better attuned to public attitudes and wishes, and to what policies the public will support, than are scientific experts. The problems inherent in such drug classification are illustrated by the examples of cannabis and of salvinorin A. They raise the question as to whether the classification process really serves any socially beneficial purpose.
This paper explores how Ulrich Beck's world-risk-society theory (WRST) and Bruno Latour's Actor-Network Theory (ANT) can be combined to advance a theory of cosmopolitics. On the one hand, WRST helps to examine 'cosmopolitan politics', how actors try to inject cosmopolitanism into existing political practices and institutions anchored in the logic of nationalism. On the other hand, ANT sheds light on 'cosmological politics', how scientists participate in the construction of reality as a reference point for political struggles. By combining the WRST and ANT perspectives, it becomes possible to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of cosmopolitics that takes into account both political and ontological dimensions. The proposed synthesis of WRST and ANT also calls for a renewal of critical theory by making social scientists aware of their performative involvement in cosmopolitics. This renewal prompts social scientists to explore how they can pragmatically support certain ideals of cosmopolitics through continuous dialogues with their objects of study, actors who inhabit different nations and different cosmoses. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2015.
Zhou, Yinhua; Datta, Saheli; Salter, Charlotte
The governments of China, India, and the United Kingdom are unanimous in their belief that bioinformatics should supply the link between basic life sciences research and its translation into health benefits for the population and the economy. Yet at the same time, as ambitious states vying for position in the future global bioeconomy they differ considerably in the strategies adopted in pursuit of this goal. At the heart of these differences lies the interaction between epistemic change within the scientific community itself and the apparatus of the state. Drawing on desk-based research and thirty-two interviews with scientists and policy makers in the three countries, this article analyzes the politics that shape this interaction. From this analysis emerges an understanding of the variable capacities of different kinds of states and political systems to work with science in harnessing the potential of new epistemic territories in global life sciences innovation. PMID:27546935
This examination of the mediation strategies of a very popular factual science comic strip series from the 1960s and 1970s illustrates, in this case by highlighting the ways in which women were targeted as an audience, that science popularisations are always political. For that reason, they should not be evaluated merely in terms of scientific accuracy. I demonstrate tensions between the dissemination model of communication used in the distribution of science popularisations, on the one hand, with the advocacy of a dialogue model in their content, on the other. © The Author(s) 2015.
Four identifiable disciplinary goals can be discerned from the development of political science as a discipline. These goals indicate that political science students will (1) attain knowledge about political systems (national and international); (2) gain an understanding of how politics works; (3) develop critical thinking skills; and, (4) learn…
Bhatti, Khadijah Z; Nguyen, Antoinette T; Stuart, Gretchen S
Medical abortion is a safe, effective, and acceptable option for patients seeking an early nonsurgical abortion. In 2014, medical abortion accounted for nearly one third (31%) of all abortions performed in the United States. State-level attempts to restrict reproductive and sexual health have recently included bills that require physicians to inform women that a medical abortion is reversible. In this commentary, we will review the history, current evidence-based regimen, and regulation of medical abortion. We will then examine current proposed and existing abortion reversal legislation. The objective of this commentary is to ensure physicians are armed with rigorous evidence to inform patients, communities, and policy makers about the safety of medical abortion. Furthermore, given the current paucity of evidence for medical abortion reversal, physicians and policy makers can dispel bad science and misinformation and advocate against medical abortion reversal legislation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The reviewer describes Radiant Science, Dark Politics: A Memoir of the Nuclear Age in contrast to a memoir by James R. Killian, Jr., a contemporary of Kamen. Kamen, co-discoverer of carbon-14 and a valued member of the Berkeley Radiation Laboratory, was fired in 1944 and blackballed as a security risk. Rehabilitated by the end of the war, his continued fight against political injustice through the McCarthy era colors the book and, for the reviewer, makes it self-serving. Kamen's later scientific work reflected his desire to work alone rather than in collaboration
Bean, Michael J
The Endangered Species Act of 1973 is one of the nation's most significant and most controversial environmental laws. Over three-and-a-half decades, it has profoundly influenced both private and federal agency behavior. As the scope of that influence has come to be recognized, a law that is ostensibly to be guided by science has inevitably become entangled in politics. The generality of many of the law's key provisions has produced continuing uncertainty and conflict over some basic issues. Among these are what species or other taxa are potentially subject to the Act's protections, what the extent of those protections is, and whether the Act's ultimate goal of recovery is one that is being effectively achieved. New challenges face the administrators of this law, including that of incorporating climate change considerations into the decisions made under the Act, and responding to the information made available by recent advances in genetics. This paper provides a brief overview of the Endangered Species Act's history and its key provisions, and a more in-depth look at some of the current and recurrent controversies that have attended its implementation.
Archer, Candace C.; Miller, Melissa K.
Prior research in political science and other disciplines demonstrates the pedagogical and practical benefits of active learning. Less is known, however, about the extent to which active learning is used in political science classrooms. This study assesses the prioritization of active learning in "gateway" political science courses, paying…
Jun 8, 2014 ... There is a deep yearning both by intellectuals and other people in general ..... within neo-liberal discourse, the dark side of which was said to be the state. The post-colonial state, it was maintained, .... facilitated by what has become known as the 'language turn' in social. 7- NEOCOSMOS- Thinking Political ...
No Abstract Available African Journal of Political Science Vol.8(2) 2003: 11-32. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ajps.v8i2.27352 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...
Slaus, Ivo; Kurjak, Asim
The relationship between science, politics and religion is discussed, with special reference to the effect of scientific discoveries on the improvement of the quality of everyday life. It is concluded that the results of scientific research lead to prosperity of man and nations. However, the society appears to insufficiently use these advantages which can be partly the result of failing to recognize the connection between basic science and products that re-define everyday life. On the other hand, problems might originate from the aversion towards the risks as well as from short-term planning.
... Over Navigation Links National Institute of General Medical Sciences Site Map Staff Search My Order Search the ... NIGMS Website Research Funding Research Training News & Meetings Science Education About NIGMS Feature Slides View All Slides ...
Jacob N. Shapiro
Full Text Available Terrorist groups repeatedly take actions that are ultimately politically counter-productive. Sometimes these are the result of deliberate calculations that happen to be mistaken - Al-Qaeda’s decision to conduct the 9/11 attacks is the most obvious example of an ultimately self-defeating operation. Sometimes they reflect the challenges groups face in controlling their operatives: Al-Qaeda in Iraq’s excessive public violence against other Sunni organisations stand out. At other times they appear to steer difficult political waters quite effectively despite of deep internal divisions—Hamas is the exemplar here. This article reviews recent developments in the literature on terrorist decision-making in economics and political science. Overall, tremendous advances have been made in the last 10 years, but much work remains to be done. In particular, it is argued that the literature needs to do better at testing its theories in inferentially credible ways and at considering terrorism as one tactical option among many for opposition political groups.
This article re-contextualizes Sigmund Freud's interest in the idea of the inheritance of acquired characteristics in terms of the socio-political connotations of Lamarckism and Darwinism in the 1930s and 1950s. Many scholars have speculated as to why Freud continued to insist on a supposedly outmoded theory of evolution in the 1930s even as he was aware that it was no longer tenable. While Freud's initial interest in the inheritance of phylogenetic memory was not necessarily politically motivated, his refusal to abandon this theory in the 1930s must be understood in terms of wider debates, especially regarding the position of the Jewish people in Germany and Austria. Freud became uneasy about the inheritance of memory not because it was scientifically disproven, but because it had become politically charged and suspiciously regarded by the Nazis as Bolshevik and Jewish. Where Freud seemed to use the idea of inherited memory as a way of universalizing his theory beyond the individual cultural milieu of his mostly Jewish patients, such a notion of universal science itself became politically charged and identified as particularly Jewish. The vexed and speculative interpretations of Freud's Lamarckism are situated as part of a larger post-War cultural reaction against Communism on the one hand (particularly in the 1950s when Lamarckism was associated with the failures of Lysenko), and on the other hand, against any scientific concepts of race in the wake of World War II.
Science diplomacy is a widely practiced area of international affairs, but academic research is rather sparse. The role of academia within this field of politics-science interaction has hardly been considered. This article analyzes this scholarly perspective: Based on a literature review, a case study of a German science diplomacy program is used to explore objectives, benefits, and constraints of science diplomacy for participating scholars. While political approaches suggest an ideal world where both sides profit from the collaboration, the findings of the case study point to another conclusion which shows that the interaction of scholars and officials in science diplomacy is far more complex. Thus, the contribution is regarded as both a useful starting point for further research and for a critical reflection of academics and politicians in science diplomacy practice to gauge what can be expected from the collaboration and what cannot.
Allen, Meg; Brewer, Paul R.
This article uses a case study to illustrate how science fair projects--which traditionally focus on "hard science" topics--can contribute to political science education. One of the authors, a high school student, conducted an experimental study of politics for her science fair project. The other author, a faculty member, was asked to advise the…
This book analyses the emergence of a transformed Big Science in Europe and the United States, using both historical and sociological perspectives. It shows how technology-intensive natural sciences grew to a prominent position in Western societies during the post-World War II era, and how their development cohered with both technological and social developments. At the helm of post-war science are large-scale projects, primarily in physics, which receive substantial funds from the public purse. Big Science Transformed shows how these projects, popularly called 'Big Science', have become symbols of progress. It analyses changes to the political and sociological frameworks surrounding publicly-funding science, and their impact on a number of new accelerator and reactor-based facilities that have come to prominence in materials science and the life sciences. Interdisciplinary in scope, this book will be of great interest to historians, sociologists and philosophers of science.
Ishiyama, John; Miles, Tom; Balarezo, Christine
In this article, we investigate the graduate curricula of political science programs and 122 Ph.D.-granting political science programs in the United States and how they seek to prepare political science teachers. We first investigate whether the department offers a dedicated political science course at the graduate level on college teaching, and…
Full Text Available The development of computational data science techniques in natural language processing and machine learning algorithms to analyze large and complex textual information opens new avenues for studying the interaction between economics and politics. We apply these techniques to analyze the design of financial regulatory structure in the United States since 1950. The analysis focuses on the delegation of discretionary authority to regulatory agencies in promulgating, implementing, and enforcing financial sector laws and overseeing compliance with them. Combining traditional studies with the new machine learning approaches enables us to go beyond the limitations of both methods and offer a more precise interpretation of the determinants of financial regulatory structure.
Aykut, Stefan C.
Taking as a starting point the communications at an international conference held in Paris in 2014, the article analyzes the construction of confidence in climate sciences and politics. How, by which methods and procedures, do climate modeling communities establish the validity of their models? What link can be established between the confidence in numerical simulations of global warming and in the capacity of the international system to successfully tackle the climate issue? The article shows that the existence of a close link between these different forms of confidence questions common belief that expertise should be completely separated from the political process. More generally, it examines the necessity of a 'constitution' for the science-policy relationship at the global level at a time where new paradigms for research and for policy converge toward increasing importance of regional and local levels
Nye, Mary Jo
The names of Karl Popper, Michael Polanyi, and Thomas Kuhn are well-known among scientists and among historians and philosophers of science. Around 1960 they published books that excited considerable discussion because of their independent rejection of the philosophical tradition that uses simple empiricism or positivism to differentiate science from religion, metaphysics, ideology, or pseudo-science. Popper's original field of expertise was scientific education and psychology. Polanyi had a distinguished career in physical chemistry and chemical physics, while Kuhn worked briefly in solid-state physics before turning to the philosophy of science. Their descriptions of scientific practices and values have roots not only in their scientific educations and experiences, but also in the political questions of their time. This paper focuses on political dimensions in the philosophical work of these three twentieth-century figures.
Unlike other disciplines in the social sciences, there has been relatively little attention paid to the structure of the undergraduate political science curriculum. This article reports the results of a representative survey of 200 political science programs in the United States, examining requirements for quantitative methods, research methods,…
Jagers Op Akkerhuis, G.A.J.M.
The large number of discoveries in the last few decades has caused a scientific crisis that is characterised by overspecialisation and compartmentalisation. To deal with this crisis, scientists look for integrating approaches, such as general laws and unifying theories. Representing what can be
Gabel, Matthew; Gooblar, Jonathan; Roe, Catherine M; Selsor, Natalie J; Morris, John C
Americans' confidence in science varies based on their political ideology. This ideological divide has potentially important effects on citizens' engagement with and participation in clinical studies of Alzheimer disease (AD). A probability sample of 1583 Americans was surveyed about their willingness to participate in longitudinal AD research and about their political attitudes. These survey results were compared with a survey of 382 participants in a longitudinal AD study at the Knight Alzheimer Disease Research Center. Among Americans, more conservative ideology decreases willingness to participate in a hypothetical longitudinal cohort study of AD both directly and through its negative effect on confidence in science. The Knight Alzheimer Disease Research Center study participants expressed more liberal ideology and greater confidence in science than Americans in general. Of the survey respondents opposed to participation, over a quarter changed to neutral or positive if the study returned their research results to them. Clinical studies of AD are likely biased toward participants who are more liberal and have higher confidence in science than the general population. This recruitment bias may be reduced by lowering the trust demanded of participants through measures such as returning research results to participants.
Johal, Jaspreet; Loukas, Marios; Oskouian, Rod J; Tubbs, R Shane
The issue of co-author relationships on medical sciences journal publications has become more pronounced as advances in technology have enabled collaboration across countries and institutions to occur much more efficiently. These relationships often have underlying political motivations and outcomes, including career advancement, attempting to increase prestige of a project, and maintaining research grants. Some authors may be listed as senior or honorary authors despite offering little or no contribution to the original research project. This may be done in an effort to enhance the gravitas of a research project, and attain publication in a highly regarded medical journal. The current review covers the topic of political co-authorship and germane literature and lists strategies to combat this phenomenon. Such co-authorship practices corrupt the integrity of the research process as they attempt to bypass the safeguard that medical journals and institutions have put in place to prevent fraud and falsification. A number of strategies have been proposed to combat the practice of co-authorship, but it may ultimately be an unavoidable feature of contemporary medical research publishing that is difficult to police. Clin. Anat. 30:831-834, 2017. © 2017Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Marks, Michael P.
This article suggests strategies for promoting scholarly discussion and critical thinking in political science classes. When scholars study politics they are engaged in an investigation into the dynamics of governance, not a debate over personal political beliefs. The problem with a politicized classroom is that it gives students a false…
The field of political science has encountered a unique obstacle in its development. Contemporary political theory has diverged in opposite paths, becoming more conceptual and abstract as well as focused and concrete. The unfortunate result of this has been a lack of clarity in communicating political theory to a new generation of political…
Anson, Ian G.
In the present study I examine meaning-making as an integral aspect of successful writing assignments in political science. Results of a semester-long quasi-experimental pilot study show that meaning-making writing tasks help students in Introduction to American Politics courses become more politically engaged through the inculcation of civic…
Bergbower, Matthew L.
For many political science programs, research methods courses are a fundamental component of the recommended undergraduate curriculum. However, instructors and students often see these courses as the most challenging. This study explores when it is most appropriate for political science majors to enroll and pass a research methods course. The…
Borsboom, Denny; Wijsen, Lisa D.
The distinction between facts and moral values is highly desirable: science and politics should keep to their own territories. Traditionally speaking, science can be seen as an ivory tower, which attempts to do its job in isolation of external influences. Politics does not mandate methods of scientific research or standards of justification;…
Hendrickson, Ryan C.; Mueller, Melinda A.; Strand, Jonathan R.
A considerable amount of research exists about political science careers at community colleges and liberal arts institutions, as well as about training and hiring practices across different types of institutions. However, there is virtually no commentary available on political science careers at comprehensive institutions, where a significant…
Siver, Christi; Greenfest, Seth W.; Haeg, G. Claire
While the literature emphasizes the importance of teaching political science students methods skills, there currently exists little guidance for how to assess student learning over the course of their time in the major. To address this gap, we develop a model set of assessment tools that may be adopted and adapted by political science departments…
Hatemi, Peter K
The collection of papers in this special edition of Twin Research and Human Genetics represents a major land-mark at the intersection of behavioral genetics and political science. This issue is the fruit of 20 political scientists attending the Behavioral Genetics Association Methods Workshop in Boulder and a hands-on training practicum at the Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, and includes results from the first wave of political science twin surveys.
The paper examines the history and contemporary position of political science in Croatia from the perspective of the relationship and influence between external factors and internal actors. The first part analyses the combination of external factors (in the first place, the nature of the political-ideological system and its changes) and internal actors (particularly the two leading groupings at the Faculty of Political Science – the philosophers and jurists, as bearers of opposite appro...
Harman, John D.; Bowers, James R.
Maintains that the issue of political correctness has gained wide coverage in the press as it relates to higher education academic policy. Reports on a survey of 196 New York State political scientists. Finds that they perceive political correctness as an issue on their college campus and in the discipline, but not in their departments. (CFR)
Unlike religion or politics, science is thought to be value free, and free of subjectivity. The author's thesis is that scientists carry the same cultural baggage as do other human beings. Where uncertainty exists, we often invent explanatory myths; we call them knowledge, or science. An example is our belief in the harmfulness of radiation at low (environmental or occupational exposure) levels. This thesis (myth) is widely accepted as established fact, not only among the lay public, but among the scientific community as well. Historically, it was thought that radiation effects obeyed a threshold response. Occupational exposure standards were based upon such a presumption. Following the second world war, however, this strategy was reconsidered, based on genetic studies and the observation that genetic phenomena were important in carcinogenesis. On the basis of prudence, public policy authorities adopted a policy in which it was assumed that even very low doses of radiation might be harmful. Evidence to the contrary has been suppressed. Indeed, the literature is full of reports suggesting that animals exposed to low doses of radiation benefit from those exposures. Such benefits include enhancement of the immune system, increased resistance to infection, and increased longevity. Several mechanisms have been proposed which might explain how such effects could occur. There is now a new wave of interest in low dose phenomena, and in the adaptive mechanisms which exist. Whether this shall result in a reconsideration of the radiation paradigm is still to be seen
Nisbet, Matthew; Markowitz, Ezra M
As social scientists have investigated the political and social factors influencing public opinion in science-related policy debates, there has been growing interest in the implications of this research for public communication and outreach. Given the level of political polarization in the United States, much of the focus has been on partisan differences in public opinion, the strategies employed by political leaders and advocates that promote those differences, and the counter-strategies for overcoming them. Yet this focus on partisan differences tends to overlook the processes by which core beliefs about science and society impact public opinion and how these schema are often activated by specific frames of reference embedded in media coverage and popular discourse. In this study, analyzing cross-sectional, nationally representative survey data collected between 2002 and 2010, we investigate the relative influence of political partisanship and science-related schema on Americans' support for embryonic stem cell research. In comparison to the influence of partisan identity, our findings suggest that generalized beliefs about science and society were more chronically accessible, less volatile in relation to media attention and focusing events, and an overall stronger influence on public opinion. Classifying respondents into four unique audience groups based on their beliefs about science and society, we additionally find that individuals within each of these groups split relatively evenly by partisanship but differ on other important dimensions. The implications for public engagement and future research on controversies related to biomedical science are discussed.
How did behavioralism, one of the most influential approaches to the academic study of politics in the twentieth century, become so prominent so quickly? I argue that many political scientists have either understated or ignored how the Ford Foundation's Behavioral Sciences Program gave form to behavioralism, accelerated its rise, and helped root it in political science. I then draw on archived documents from Ford as well as one of its major grantees, U. C. Berkeley, to present several examples of how Ford used its funds to encourage the behavioral approach at a time when it had few adherents among political scientists. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
JUAN FUENTES VERA
Full Text Available This article focus on political science as a matter of study in the programs of the National Academy for Political and Strategic Studies, in order to explain the reason of including this discipline, particularly in its relation with security and defense. It is focused on the object of study of political science, thus delivering precisions about the concept of politics among others related. It also emphasizes some aspects that have been important in this discipline, including some modern epistemological debates, and also open the scope of possibilities that today can be offered as matters of study in a world yielded to the dynamics of the globalization.
Methodologists in political science have advocated for causal process tracing as a way of providing evidence for causal mechanisms. Recent analyses of the method have sought to provide more rigorous accounts of how it provides such evidence. These accounts have focused on the role of process tracing for causal inference and specifically on the way it can be used with case studies for testing hypotheses. While the analyses do provide an account of such testing, they pay little attention to the narrative elements of case studies. I argue that the role of narrative in case studies is not merely incidental. Narrative does cognitive work by both facilitating the consideration of alternative hypotheses and clarifying the relationship between evidence and explanation. I consider the use of process tracing in a particular case (the Fashoda Incident) in order to illustrate the role of narrative. I argue that process tracing contributes to knowledge production in ways that the current focus on inference tends to obscure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Debate over whether human activity causes Earth climate change obscures the immensity of the dynamic systems that create and maintain climate on the planet. Anthropocentric debate leads people to believe that they can alter these planetary dynamic systems to prevent that they perceive as negative climate impacts on human civilization. Although politicians offer simplistic remedies, such as the Kyoto Protocol, global climate continues to change naturally. Better planning for the inevitable dislocations that have followed natural global climate changes throughout human history requires us to accept the fact that climate will change, and that human society must adapt to the changes. Over the last decade, the scientific literature reported a shift in emphasis from attempting to build theoretical models of putative human impacts on climate to understanding the planetwide dynamic processes that are the natural climate drivers. The current scientific literature is beginning to report the history of past climate change, the extent of natural climate variability, natural system drivers, and the episodicity of many climate changes. The scientific arguments have broadened from focus upon human effects on climate to include the array of natural phenomena that have driven global climate change for eons. However, significant political issues with long-term social consequences continue their advance. This paper summarizes recent scientific progress in climate science and arguments about human influence on climate. ?? 2004. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.
Agarwala, Rina; Teitelbaum, Emmanuel
Despite the size and growth of political science and sociology relative to other disciplines, political science and sociology graduate students have received a declining share of funding for dissertation field research in recent years. Specifically, political science and sociology students are losing out to competitive applicants from…
O'Connor, Karen; Yanus, Alixandra B.
This paper examines whether there is a continued gender gap in the political interest and engagement of first-year college students enrolled in introductory American politics classes. Using data from a survey completed by over 2,000 students at 20 colleges and universities across the United States, we look for variations in students' plans to…
That public health policy and practice should be evidence based is a seemingly uncontroversial claim. Yet governments and citizens routinely reject the best available evidence and prefer policies that reflect other considerations and concerns. The most common explanations of this paradox emphasise scientific disagreement, the power of 'politics', or the belief that scientists and policymakers live in two separate communities that do not communicate. However, another explanation may lie in the limits of the very notion of evidence-based policy making. In fact, the social science discipline of political science offers a rich body of theory and empirical evidence to explain the apparent gap between evidence and policy. This essay introduces this literature with a particular emphasis on a recent book by Katherine Smith, Beyond evidence-based policy in public health: the interplay of ideas. As the title suggests, Smith argues that what matters for public health policy is less scientific evidence and much more a more complex set of ideas. Based on detailed case studies of UK tobacco and health inequality policy, Smith offers a richly textured alternative account of what matters for policy making. This excellent book is part of a small but growing body of political science research on public health policy that draws on contemporary theories of policy change and governance more generally. This essay provides a window on this research, describes some examples, but emphasises that public health scholars and practitioners too often retain a narrow if not naive view of the policy-making process. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Full Text Available This article aims to present a brief overview of the evolving debates on the problem of the identity of political theory, mainly in the Anglophone academic context since the end of the 1950’s. At least three ways of identifying the nature of political theory have shaped those de-bates: the scientistic, the normative and the historical.
Cassese, Erin C.; Bos, Angela L.; Duncan, Lauren E.
The New Research on Gender in Political Psychology Conference brought together new and experienced teachers with interests in gender politics. The conference session "Teaching Gender throughout the Curriculum" generated a great deal of discussion concerning the pedagogical practice of gender mainstreaming. Gender mainstreaming--the integration of…
Animation has long been overlooked as source for political thought. The aim of this thesis is to rectify this, and it will do so in two ways. First, it makes a theoretical and empirical case for animation as an intellectual source of political thought that should be used along with philosophical
Thomas Piketty's imposing volume has brought serious economics firmly into the mainstream of public debate on inequality, yet political science has been mostly absent from this debate. This article argues that political science has an essential contribution to make to this debate, and that Piketty's important and powerful book lacks a clear political theory. It develops this argument by first assessing and critiquing the changing nature of political science and its account of contemporary capitalism, and then suggesting how Piketty's thesis can be complemented, extended and challenged by focusing on the ways in which politics and collective action shape the economy and the distribution of income and wealth. Although Capital's principal message is that 'capital is back' and that without political interventions active political interventions will continue to grow, a political economy perspective would suggest another rather more fundamental critique: the very economic forces Piketty describes are embedded in institutional arrangements which can only be properly understood as political phenomena. In a sense capital itself - the central concept of the book - is almost meaningless without proper consideration of its political foundations. Even if the fact of capital accumulation may respond to an economic logic, the process is embedded in a very political logic. The examples of housing policy and the regulation, and failure to regulate, financial markets are used to illustrate these points. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.
Madsen, Poul Thois
Politics and economics interact. As a consequence, political science textbooks must often relate to the economic dimension--implicitly or explicitly. But we know very little about how these textbooks relate to economics. Are they merely unreflective customers of neoclassical economics or do they strive for a cross-disciplinary approach? An…
Glover, Robert W.; Tagliarina, Daniel
Political science is a challenging field, particularly when it comes to undergraduate teaching. If we are to engage in something more than uncritical ideological instruction, it demands from the student a willingness to approach alien political ideas with intellectual generosity. Yet, students within introductory classes often harbor inherited…
The Honest Broker is a must-read for any scientist with even a modest interest in environmental policy or politics, and I recommend it especially to scientists unfamiliar with the continuing controversy over how scientists misuse science in environmental policy and politics. The ...
This is a book review of "Chesapeake Bay Blues: Science, Politics, and the Struggle to Save the Bay". This book is very well written and provides an easily understandable description of the political challenges faced by those proposing new or more stringent environmental regulat...
In China, the philosophy of science and technology (PST) is derived from "Dialectics of Nature" (DN), which is based on Engels' unfinished book "Dialektik der Natur." DN as a political ideology provides political guidance for scientists and engineers. Therefore, since 1981, "Introduction to Dialectics of Nature" (IDN)…
Wells, Dominic D.; Nemire, Nathan A.
This exercise introduces students to the application of statistics and its investigative methods in political science. It helps students gain a better understanding and a greater appreciation of statistics through a real world application.
Aspinwall, Mark D.; Schneider, Gerald
Recent research on European integration has largely profited from the institutionalist turn in political science. Theoretical progress has, however, been hampered by the diverse understandings of this new research tradition. This paper tries to tackle the conceptual diversity in a positive way. We first analyze the neo-institutionalist turn in political science and European studies and then move on to a detailed analysis and comparison of the three competing approaches sociological, histori...
Full Text Available This is the English translation of a speech Bergson made at Lycée Henri-IV on July 30, 1892. This is an interesting text because it anticipates Bergson’s last book, his The Two Sources of Morality and Religion. Like the distinction in The Two Sources between the open and the closed, “Politeness” defines its subject matter in two ways. There is what Bergson calls “manners” and there is true politeness. For Bergson, both kinds of politeness concern equality. Manners or material politeness amount to the ritualized greetings and formalities by means of which we usually define politeness. Unfortunately and like The Two Sources, Bergson attributes this formalized relation to other human beings with primitive and “inferior races.” Nevertheless, Bergson sees in these formalities an attempt, in the name of equality, to ignore other people’s talents and merits so that one can dominate morally superior people. In contrast, true politeness or “spiritual politeness” consists in “intellectual flexibility.” When one meets a person of superior morality, one is flexible in one’s relation to him or her; one abandons the formalities in order to really live her life and think her thoughts. Here we find equality too: “what defines this very polite person is to prefer each of his friends over the others, and to succeed in this way in loving them equally.” After making a comparison to dance, Bergson defines spiritual politeness as “a grace of the mind.” Since both kinds of politeness concern equality, Bergson associates both with justice. However, beyond these two kinds of politeness and justice there is “politeness of the heart,” which concerns charity. In order to indicate politeness of the heart, Bergson describes the kind of person, a sensitive person, who anxiously awaits a word of praise in order to feel good about herself but who also, when she hears a word of reproach, is thrown into sadness. Although Bergson calls the
Kota Kitagawa; Arata Uemura
This article traces the pattern of confl ict, collaboration, and compromise among trade unions, employers, political parties, executive branches, and economic research institutes in Germany, all of which have different stances regarding the introduction of a general statutory minimum wage there. This article examines the degree of political intervention in collective bargaining autonomy. First, it identifi es the factors that bring about differences in stance. Second, it addresses the issue o...
Full Text Available This article deals with the emergence of social sciences in Spain at the end of the nineteenth century. It focuses on the Royal Academy of moral and political sciences, whose creation in 1857, on the French model, was part of the reorganisation of public education, but also an ideological reaction of the conservative party (partido moderado, which returned to power after the 1854-1956 Revolution. The Academy was officially in charge of propagating the political doctrines of the regime (namely “doctrinaire” liberalism and of countering socialism at the scientific level. This paper shows the methodological relevance of studying such a multidisciplinary institution in order to grasp simultaneously the pluralistic scientific matrix of the social sciences as well as the political issues that surround them. It analyses the content and the evolution of moral and political sciences between 1857 and 1923 and highlights the multiple factors that played an active role in the emergence of the social sciences: the legacy of former scholarly disciplines, the impact of the propagation of naturalistic theories during the liberal revolution of 1868, and the critique of liberalism and liberal sciences following the social and political crisis from the 1880s onwards.
Hooghe, Marc; Oser, Jennifer
The literature on political parties suggests that strong partisan identities are associated with citizens' effective interaction with the political system, and with higher levels of political trust. Traditionally, party identity therefore is seen as a mechanism that allows for political integration. Simultaneously, however, political parties have gained recent attention for their role in promoting societal polarization by reinforcing competing and even antagonistic group identities. This article uses General Social Survey data from 1972 - 2014 to investigate the relationship between partisan strength and both political and generalized trust. The findings show that increases in partisan strength are positively related to political trust, but negatively related to generalized trust. This suggests that while partisan strength is indeed an important linkage mechanism for the political system, it is also associated with a tendency toward social polarization, and this corrosive effect thus far has not gained sufficient attention in literature on party identity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gagnon, France; Bergeron, Pierre; Clavier, Carole; Fafard, Patrick; Martin, Elisabeth; Blouin, Chantal
Written by a group of political science researchers, this commentary focuses on the contributions of political science to public health and proposes research avenues to increase those contributions. Despite progress, the links between researchers from these two fields develop only slowly. Divergences between the approach of political science to public policy and the expectations that public health can have about the role of political science, are often seen as an obstacle to collaboration between experts in these two areas. Thus, promising and practical research avenues are proposed along with strategies to strengthen and develop them. Considering the interdisciplinary and intersectoral nature of population health, it is important to create a critical mass of researchers interested in the health of populations and in healthy public policy that can thrive working at the junction of political science and public health. © 2017 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Future levels of funding for the astronomical and other sciences seem more uncertain than ever. What factors are responsible and which can scientists do something about? The story is much more complicated -- and fluid -- than the simple narrative about an "anti-science" political atmosphere that scientists sometimes settle on.
Apr 15, 2009 ... a niche for themseslves in the male-dominated genre of science and become inspirations for other women. This book is a collection of biographical and autobiographical essays of the lives of women scientists in India and is an initiative of the Women in Science panel of the Indian Academy of Sciences.
What are the relational dimensions of politics? Does the way that people and organizations are connected to each other matter? Are our opinions affected by the people with whom we talk? Are legislators affected by lobbyists? Is the capacity of social movements to mobilize affected by the structure of societal networks? Powerful evidence in the…
Photo 01: Dr William C. Harris, Director-General, Science Foundation Ireland (left) with R. Cashmore. Photos 02, 03: Dr William C. Harris, Director-General, Science Foundation Ireland signing the CERN guest book with R. Cashmore.
American Political Science Association (NJ1), 2005
In March 2004, the National Science Foundation funded a two-day workshop by the American Political Science Association (APSA) on the advancement of women in academic political science in the United States. The workshop was prompted by an alarming stall in the number of women entering the discipline and persisting through early years of faculty…
The current economic and financial crisis is also a political crisis that requires a rethinking of public engagement with science. In the past, the dominant focus of science, technology and society (STS) has led to a blind spot: political understanding and engagement of policy-makers and politicians with science, which is an integral part of any public engagement. Arguably, it is bound to and emerges from what Ezrahi calls collective political imaginaries. These are necessary fictions, which are causative and performative. In crude form, they manifest themselves in short-term impact measurements of every unit of scientific activity with citizens as the fictitious ultimate beneficiaries. In the future, STS can gain from coming up with a workable definition of the public interest with a focus on the public value of science. It can investigate collective imaginaries as they emerge from interactions with new media. As necessary fictions they may hold answers we never imagined them to hold.
Full-text: The way nuclear energy technology 'escapes' a deliberate justification approach as an energy technology on a transnational level is today in sharp contrast with the way fossil fuel energy technologies are subject of global negotiations driven by the doom of climate change. The claim put forward in this lecture is that this 'denial' is a symptom of a contemporary settled 'comfort of polarisation' around the use of nuclear energy technology that is deeply rooted in the organisational structures of politics, science and informed civil society. The lecture argues for the need to develop a new rationale that aims to seek societal trust 'by method instead of proof', taking into account that the outcome of such a justification process might as well be an acceptance or a rejection of the technology. It sketches what this 'deliberate-political' approach would be in theory and practice, briefly hits at two contemporary myths that would relativize the need for this approach and concludes with a 'pragmatic' list of elements of an advanced framework for deliberation on nuclear energy technology and on energy in general. (author)
David SG Goodman
Full Text Available The decision by the Chinese Communist Party in 2012 to move to open direct national elections was taken in order to ensure political stability and continued economic growth, and to enhance its position of leadership. The first national general election in 2015 followed in the wake of the landmark Constituent Assembly. Victory in 2015 by the Chinese Communist Party has been accompanied by political stability and sustained economic growth. Though there is likely to be greater competition in the General Election of 2020 the principle change in politics has been the emergence of significant public policy debate. Issues of corruption, housing, and regional development are likely to be major considerations during the election, alongside debate on the simultaneous referenda that have been called on Tibet and federalism.
Full Text Available The Normality of EU Sport Policy Studies: Disciplinary Locus in Political Science, Sport Science or Elsewhere? Mainstream European integration research has shown that research on the EU tends to follow the conjunctures of European integration itself. This realisation has led to some debate on which branch of political science – international relations or government – or indeed other academic disciplines is/are the most appropriate locus for such research. The paper takes these debates one step further by looking at the occurrence of ‘EU & sport’ studies within the wider field of EU studies. The main material used comes from the ECLAS database. Findings lead to a discussion of whether ‘EU & sport’ studies should rather be for EU specialists or for sport specialists and a plea for disciplinary normalisation whereby sport science would need to get more directly involved (without necessarily overwriting political science. Some ideas are added regarding the need for a mapping of Central & Eastern European scholarship. Normalita politických studií EU v oblasti sportu: místo v oborech politologie, sportovních vědách či jinde? Hlavní integrační proudy v evropském výzkumu dokumentují, že výzkum v EU má tendenci zkoumat evropskou integraci jako takovou. Toto poznání vedlo k diskusi, v kterém oboru politologie – mezinárodní vztahy či vláda – nebo i v jiných akademických disciplínách je nejvhodnější místo pro takový výzkum. Stať se pokouší posunout tyto diskuse o krok dále tím, že studie o „EU a sportu“ se posuzují v širším záběru EU studií. Hlavní informační zdroje pocházejí z databáze ECLAS. Naše zjištění vedou k diskusi o problematice „EU a sportu“ v tom smyslu, zda by tyto studie měly být spíše určeny odborníkům EU, nebo sportovním specialistům. Důležitá je otázka disciplinární začlenění této problematiky, s širším zapojením sportovních věd (aniž by
Kent, Michael; Wade, Peter
This article analyses interrelations between genetic ancestry research, political conflict and social identity. It focuses on the debate on race-based affirmative action policies, which have been implemented in Brazil since the turn of the century. Genetic evidence of high levels of admixture in the Brazilian population has become a key element of arguments that question the validity of the category of race for the development of public policies. In response, members of Brazil's black movement have dismissed the relevance of genetics by arguing, first, that in Brazil race functions as a social--rather than a biological--category, and, second, that racial classification and discrimination in this country are based on appearance, rather than on genotype. This article highlights the importance of power relations and political interests in shaping public engagements with genetic research and their social consequences.
Kent, Michael; Wade, Peter
This article analyses interrelations between genetic ancestry research, political conflict and social identity. It focuses on the debate on race-based affirmative action policies, which have been implemented in Brazil since the turn of the century. Genetic evidence of high levels of admixture in the Brazilian population has become a key element of arguments that question the validity of the category of race for the development of public policies. In response, members of Brazil’s black movement have dismissed the relevance of genetics by arguing, first, that in Brazil race functions as a social – rather than a biological – category, and, second, that racial classification and discrimination in this country are based on appearance, rather than on genotype. This article highlights the importance of power relations and political interests in shaping public engagements with genetic research and their social consequences. PMID:27479998
Full Text Available This issue of the Journal of Social Science Education deals with the financial and economic crises, its causes and the consequences which could be drawn for civic and economic education. As far as economic and civic educators are expected to behave like communicators of established scientific knowledge received from economics or political science, they also are hit by the crisis of these two disciplines which is induced by their severe shortcomings in the crisis. The conventional wisdom of economics or of political science failed to provide an early warning system of potentially dangerous institutions, policies or outcomes. On the contrary, among the main causes of the financial crisis and its political and economic failures are: policy recommendations delivered by the Chicago school of economics, beliefs and decisions of the economic and political elites encouraged by mainstream economics and economic liberalism, and, last but not least, an increasing self-restraint of the state towards the market, fed by political theories based on the idea that (financial markets should best control themselves. The financial-economic-political crisis cannot be understood without its ideological, institutional and political framework, and this framework cannot be understood without taking into account its foundations in mainstream economics and the economic mode of thinking which is also flourishing in political science. The significant shift of power in favour of the international financial industries has to be considered, too. Disentangling the intricate causes of the intertwined crises and discussing its consequences – also for education at universities – is a challenging task taken up by the authors of this and the next issue of the JSSE.
Perspectives in Education ... This paper explores the situated nature of the epistemological values of a social science discipline as it finds expression in a particular department. ... Keywords: Academic literacies; epistemology; disciplinary tribes and territories; teaching and learning regimes; teaching the social sciences ...
Wigelsworth, Jeffrey R
This article explores the enticement of consumers for natural philosophy (buyers of books, audiences at public lectures and purchasers of instruments) in London between 1695 and 1720 through advertisements placed in two political newspapers. This twenty-five-year period witnessed both the birth of public science and the rage of party politics. A consideration of public science adverts within the Whig-leaning Post Man and the Tory-leaning Post Boy reveals that members of both the Whig and Tory parties were equally targeted and that natural philosophy was sold to London's reading population in bipartisan fashion. In the process of integrating natural philosophy into the wider culture through commercial sales, political allegiances were not imprinted on the advertising process. This conclusion raises questions regarding the historiographical assertion of Whig-supported public science and Tory opposition to it at the level of consumers.
Unruh Cohen, A. L.
Energy and climate policies are important drivers of domestic and international politics. They are also sources of controversy and polarization. Input from scientists is critical to identifying problems and their solutions for our domestic and international energy and climate challenges. I will discuss how issues come to the attention of lawmakers, how they determine the solutions they wish to pursue and how scientists can meaningfully engage in that process. Based on my experience working on energy and climate legislation in Congress for the last decade, I will provide practical advice on establishing trust and developing relationships with lawmakers.
Soyfer, V N
The Soviet communist regime had devastating consequences on the state of Russian twentieth century science. Country Communist leaders promoted Trofim Lysenko--an agronomist and keen supporter of the inheritance of acquired characters--and the Soviet government imposed a complete ban on the practice and teaching of genetics, which it condemned as a "bourgeois perversion". Russian science, which had previously flourished, rapidly declined, and many valuable scientific discoveries made by leading Russian geneticists were forgotten.
Mindel, Adrian; Sawleshwarkar, Shailendra
The present review assesses the protection that condoms offer against sexually transmissible infections (STI) and the impact that social, political and religious opinion in the USA has had in the past 8 years on promoting condoms for safer sex. Condoms offer protection against most STI. However, the degree of protection depends on correct and consistent use, the type of sexual activity and the biological characteristics of different infections. Cross-sectional and case-control studies and other observational data provide the majority of evidence for STI prevention. Condoms provide a high level of protection against those infections that are transmitted mainly via infected secretions, including HIV, gonorrhoea, chlamydia and trichomoniasis. Protection against those infections transmitted via skin and mucous membrane contact, including Herpes simplex virus infection and human papilloma virus, appears to be less. The Bush administration, driven by conservative political, social and religious elements in the USA, has mounted a concerted campaign to undermine the role of the condom in health-promotion activities in the USA and overseas by undervaluing and misrepresenting scientific data, and through a sustained and well-funded promotion of abstinence-only education. However, this has lead to considerable controversy and disillusionment with abstinence-only education, both at home and abroad, and there is now incontrovertible evidence that abstinence-only programs are ineffectual.
Bayraktutan, Günseli; Binark, Mutlu; Çomu, Tuğrul; Doğu, Burak; İslamoğlu, Gözde; Telli Aydemir, Aslı
This study is a part of a comprehensive research supported by TÜBİTAK SOBAG (The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey - Social Sciences and Humanities Research Grant Group), which investigates with quantitative and qualitative methods the practices involved in the usage of the social media by political parties and political party leaders as a channel/area for political communication. The aim for this study is to demonstrate, within the framework of the developing citizenshi...
Gasim, Gamal; Stevens, Tara; Zebidi, Amira
All undergraduate students are required by state law to take six credited hours in political science. This study will help us identify if differences exist in self-determination among students enrolled in American Public Policy and American Government at a large, Southwestern public university. Because some types of motivation are associated with…
Full Text Available In what Paolo Grossi calls «the sapiential Middle Ages» jurists engaged themselves in defining a set of rules aiming at the settlement of boundary disputes, which previously were not established by any normative text. The Corpus Iuris concerns nearly exclusively boundary disputes between private individuals. References to texts of the Roman law were meant to give ‘authority’ to resolutions often based upon customary praxis. The norms elaborated by Middle Ages jurists are thus given a formal legal shape; yet, they are linked to a perception of the boundaries between communities that was affected by the displacements, the customs, the common needs of everyday life. On the other side the existence of actual neat demarcations was linked to the exertion of certain rights and privileges rather than to an exclusive and absolute political claim.
Bernier, Nicole F; Clavier, Carole
The past few years have seen the emergence of claims that the political determinants of health do not get due consideration and a growing demand for better insights into public policy analysis in the health research field. Several public health and health promotion researchers are calling for better training and a stronger research culture in health policy. The development of these studies tends to be more advanced in health promotion than in other areas of public health research, but researchers are still commonly caught in a naïve, idealistic and narrow view of public policy. This article argues that the political science discipline has developed a specific approach to public policy analysis that can help to open up unexplored levers of influence for public health research and practice and that can contribute to a better understanding of public policy as a determinant of health. It describes and critiques the public health model of policy analysis, analyzes political science's specific approach to public policy analysis, and discusses how the politics of research provides opportunities and barriers to the integration of political science's distinctive contributions to policy analysis in health promotion.
Full Text Available Political parties have important roles in the political decision making process on identifying the demand for public goods and services. In this context, political parties have significant impacts on identification and implementation of forestry policies. Their election manifestos/declarations have statements on forests and forestry, which are important sources of information for those parties' forestry policies. In this study, election manifestos of 11 parties that participated in the general elections that took place on June 7, 2015 and November 1, 2015 in Turkey were studied. Data were analysed with “Document Analyses” and “Content Analyses”, then evaluated under eight titles. As a result of these assessments, the conclusion was that; there are significant differences between the parties' approaches to forests: some of them consider the forest not as an entity but as a source of income, developing populist discourses that are sure to appeal to the general public, through ambitious or impossible promises. It can also be said that the political parties fail to base their views on forests on reliable data.
Madsen, Poul Thøis
Politics and economics interact. As a consequence, political science textbooks must often relate to the economic dimension—implicitly or explicitly. But we know very little about how these textbooks relate to economics. Are they merely unreflective customers of neoclassical economics or do...... they strive for a cross-disciplinary approach? An analysis of five American textbooks identifies two very different and concurrent interactions between politics and economics. The first is a theoretically conceived market economy in which market forces independently drive growth and create equilibrium, where...... politics has a rather secluded role. The second is the actually existing mixed economy, characterized by increased inequality, economic concentration, power, and environmental problems, influenced by a state forced to regulate. The problems of operating with such a dichotomy— and possible solutions...
In 2010, Mackenbach reflected on England's lack of success in reducing health inequalities between 1997 and 2010, asserting that "it is difficult to imagine a longer window of opportunity for tackling health inequalities"; asking "[i]f this did not work, what will?"; and concluding that reducing health inequalities was not politically feasible at least in that jurisdiction. Exploring the empirics of that observation offers a window into the politics of reducing health inequalities. For purposes of future comparative research, I outline three (not mutually exclusive) perspectives on political feasibility, identify their implications for a political science of health inequalities, and explore what they mean for advocacy in support of reducing those inequalities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rest, Kathleen M; Halpern, Michael H
Our nation's health and prosperity are based on a foundation of independent scientific discovery. Yet in recent years, political interference in federal government science has become widespread, threatening this legacy. We explore the ways science has been misused, the attempts to measure the pervasiveness of this problem, and the effects on our long-term capacity to meet today's most complex public health challenges. Good government and a functioning democracy require public policy decisions to be informed by independent science. The scientific and public health communities must speak out to defend taxpayer-funded science from political interference. Encouragingly, both the scientific community and Congress are exploring ways to restore scientific integrity to federal policymaking.
Experimentation has formed the basis for modern scientific discovery. Francis Bacon (1561– 1626), “the father of empiricism,” was one of the first to propose a method of science based on experimentation that results in new theories that can again be tested by experimentation. At first, experiments
Bastos, Wilma S.
In this work, the evolution of Science and Technology policy in USA is analyzed in its three phases, after the Second World War. The financial policy for Research and Development during the governments Reagan, Bush and Clinton is also delineated and, finally, Latin America situation is exposed in this scenery (author)
In approaching how the grotesque is--or should be--situated within contemporary science (biology) education practices, Weinstein and Broda undertake a passionate reclaim of an education that is at the same time scientific, critical, and liberatory. However legitimate, their work offers more than they probably could have anticipated: It exemplifies…
This article aims to deepen our understanding of the transatlantic circulation of scientific ideas during the Cold War by looking at the importation of behavioralism in European political science. It analyses the social, institutional, and intellectual dynamics that led to the creation, in 1970, of a transnational organization that aimed to promote behavioralism in Europe: the European Consortium for Political Research (ECPR). Using qualitative material drawn from archives and interviews, the study shows that the creation of the ECPR was the joint product of academic, scientific, and political rivalries. It argues that the founding of the organization served a purpose for several agents (chiefly, academic entrepreneurs and philanthropic foundations) who pursued different strategies in different social fields in the context of the Cold War. More broadly, it suggests that the postwar development of the social sciences and the circulation of scientific ideas are best accounted for by mapping sociological interactions between scientific fields and neighboring social spheres. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Mügge, Liza; Evans, Elizabeth; Engeli, Isabelle
Major changes have occurred in the teaching of gender since the shift from women’s studies to gender studies. In some institutions gender studies became a separate and interdisciplinary track within social sciences and humanities, while in others it either lacked integration or disappeared altogether. What do these developments mean for gender in political science curricula? In this symposium scholars from different European countries, including Austria, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain and th...
Li, Carl Ka-hei
Scholars such as Darko Suvin have successfully argued for science fiction (SF) as fiction that portrays political alternatives through a focus on cognitive processes. This conception of SF minimizes the importance of character emotions, which has opened it to criticism from those who argue in favor
Jepsen, Kim Sune; Bertilsson, T Margareta
Cochlear Implantation is now regarded as the most successful medical technology. It carries promises to provide deaf/hearing impaired individuals with a technological sense of hearing and an access to participate on a more equal level in social life. In this article, we explore the adoption of cochlear implantations among Danish users in order to shed more light on their social and political implications. We situate cochlear implantation in a framework of new life science advances, politics, and user experiences. Analytically, we draw upon the notion of social imaginary and explore the social dimension of life science through a notion of public politics adopted from the political theory of John Dewey. We show how cochlear implantation engages different social imaginaries on the collective and individual levels and we suggest that users share an imaginary of being "wired to freedom" that involves new access to social life, continuous communicative challenges, common practices, and experiences. In looking at their lives as "wired to freedom," we hope to promote a wider spectrum of civic participation in the benefit of future life science developments within and beyond the field of Cochlear Implantation. As our empirical observations are largely based in the Scandinavian countries (notably Denmark), we also provide some reflections on the character of the technology-friendly Scandinavian welfare states and the unintended consequences that may follow in the wake of rapid technology implementation of life science in society.
DeLaet, Debra L.
This article provides an overview of a classroom project, titled the Priorities Project, which is designed to promote responsible and informed civic engagement on the part of students in upper level political science courses at Drake University. It provides an overview of the Priorities Project, a brief summary highlighting the process and results…
The goal of this analysis was to obtain local citation behavior data on undergraduates researching history, political science, and sociology papers. The study found that students cited books and journals even with the availability of web sources; however, usage varied by subject. References to specific websites' domains also varied across subject…
This article offers a theoretical proposal of how political science graduate programs can emphasize teaching in the discipline by creating the subfield of the scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL). Currently, these programs neither prepare their students for academic positions where teaching is valued nor participate in a disciplinary trend…
Student evaluations of quantitative methods courses in political science often reveal they are characterised by aversion, alienation and anxiety. As a solution to this problem, this paper describes a pedagogic research project with the aim of embedding quantitative methods by stealth into the first-year undergraduate curriculum. This paper…
Hummer, Jill Abraham
In 1991, the APSA Task Force on Political Science recommended elements of a curricular structure that would best promote student learning. The report stated that there should be a capstone experience at the end of the senior year and that the capstone should require students to integrate their whole learning experience in the major. This article…
Benhart, John E.; Margin, Alex
This teacher's guide focuses on the value and functions of wetlands by integrating science and the politics of wetlands into a geographic framework. Wetlands are highly dynamic, diverse, and prolific ecosystems. The volume advocates a need for mutual understanding and harmony of effort in order to deal with the complex issues of the wetlands. The…
Bowers, David Alexander, Jr.
Asserts that commercial online computer services provide a wealth of features that can be helpful in teaching political science. Discusses four commercial services and recommends the use of Prodigy because of its ability to link one article to other articles of related content. (CFR)
O'Neill, Patrick B.; Harsell, Dana Michael
The authors describe the theoretical preparation provided to students in advance of a limited-duration experiential learning experience in Washington DC in a Master's level course for students in Business or Public Administration. The students consider theoretical perspectives from economics, political science, and public administration with…
Fisher, Celia B.; Busch-Rossnagel, Nancy A.; Jopp, Daniela S.; Brown, Joshua L.
In this article we present a vision of applied developmental science (ADS) as a means of promoting social justice and socio-political well-being. This vision draws upon the field's significant accomplishments in identifying and strengthening developmental assets in marginalized youth communities, understanding the effects of poverty and racial…
Ekström, Linda; Lundholm, Cecilia
A review of research into teaching and learning in political science education concludes that this literature emphasizes student outcomes and "show and tell" descriptions of pedagogical interventions (Craig 2014). The present study instead aims to open the "black box" of conceptual learning in political science, illustrating…
Udim, Davies Kelvin; Etim, Eyo Akon
This paper examines the use of multimedia in teaching and learning of political science in University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. A survey research was adopted and the tool employed for this research study was a questionnaire titled "Use of Multimedia in Teaching and Learning of Political Science in University of Uyo" (UMTLPSUU).…
White, M. J.
The possible impact on public policy and organizational decision making of operations research/management science (OR/MS) is discussed. Criticisms based on the assumption that OR/MS will have influence on decision making and criticisms based on the assumption that it will have no influence are described. New directions in the analysis of analysis and in thinking about policy making are also considered.
The question of whether there are social implications of linguistic choices in unifying a text is investigated empirically by this study which accounts for the interpretation of implicatures in conversation and written texts. It considers Relevance Theory (Sperber and Wilson 1988, Blakemore 1987, Blass 1990) to be the explanation of the unity of the text, as opposed to semantic theories of cohesion (Halliday and Hasan 1976) or pragmatic theories of coherence (van Dijk 1977). This study presents a model of three types of textual unifiers: overt (referring specifically to the text), embedded (referring to intra- and extra-textual information), and inference (not referring to the text at all). It hypothesizes that different genres are characterized by the predominance of different types of textual unifiers, and that readers will prefer those texts that rely on inferential unifiers which emphasize the reader's ability to participate in creating the meaning of the text. Eighteen texts of 275 words each are selected from three genres: scientific magazines, introductory science textbooks, and essays on science. The texts are found to vary significantly by genre in the type of textual unifier used. An Overtness Index expresses the ratio of the marked forms: science textbooks have more Overt unifiers (such as connective phrases) and thus a high Overtness Index; essays rely more on Inference unifiers (not represented by words) and thus have a low Overtness Index. The texts are submitted to 188 readers, and a significantly high number of all types of readers prefer the texts with the lower Overtness Indices-the essays. Thus a low Overtness Index is one feature of texts preferred by readers, supporting the hypotheses that genres of texts vary in the type of unifier used and that readers prefer texts that allow them to participate in constructing the meaning of the text.
Coyle, Philip E. [Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation, Washington, DC (United States)
America's missile defense systems are deployed at home and abroad. This includes the Groundbased Missile Defense (GMD) system in Alaska and California, the Phased Adaptive Approach in Europe (EPAA), and regional systems in the Middle East and Asia. Unfortunately these systems lack workable architectures, and many of the required elements either don't work or are missing. Major review and reconsideration is needed of all elements of these systems. GMD performance in tests has gotten worse with time, when it ought to be getting better. A lack of political support is not to blame as the DoD spends about $10 billion per year, and proposes to add about $5 billion over the next five years. Russia objects to the EPAA as a threat to its ICBM forces, and to the extensive deployment of U.S. military forces in countries such as Poland, the Czech Republic and Romania, once part of the Soviet Union. Going forward the U.S. should keep working with Russia whose cooperation will be key to diplomatic gains in the Middle East and elsewhere. Meanwhile, America's missile defenses face an enduring set of issues, especially target discrimination in the face of attacks designed to overwhelm the defenses, stage separation debris, chaff, decoys, and stealth. Dealing with target discrimination while also replacing, upgrading, or adding to the many elements of U.S. missiles defenses presents daunting budget priorities. A new look at the threat is warranted, and whether the U.S. needs to consider every nation that possesses even short-range missiles a threat to America. The proliferation of missiles of all sizes around the world is a growing problem, but expecting U.S. missile defenses to deal with all those missiles everywhere is unrealistic, and U.S. missile defenses, effective or not, are justifying more and more offensive missiles.
Coyle, Philip E.
America's missile defense systems are deployed at home and abroad. This includes the Groundbased Missile Defense (GMD) system in Alaska and California, the Phased Adaptive Approach in Europe (EPAA), and regional systems in the Middle East and Asia. Unfortunately these systems lack workable architectures, and many of the required elements either don't work or are missing. Major review and reconsideration is needed of all elements of these systems. GMD performance in tests has gotten worse with time, when it ought to be getting better. A lack of political support is not to blame as the DoD spends about $10 billion per year, and proposes to add about $5 billion over the next five years. Russia objects to the EPAA as a threat to its ICBM forces, and to the extensive deployment of U.S. military forces in countries such as Poland, the Czech Republic and Romania, once part of the Soviet Union. Going forward the U.S. should keep working with Russia whose cooperation will be key to diplomatic gains in the Middle East and elsewhere. Meanwhile, America's missile defenses face an enduring set of issues, especially target discrimination in the face of attacks designed to overwhelm the defenses, stage separation debris, chaff, decoys, and stealth. Dealing with target discrimination while also replacing, upgrading, or adding to the many elements of U.S. missiles defenses presents daunting budget priorities. A new look at the threat is warranted, and whether the U.S. needs to consider every nation that possesses even short-range missiles a threat to America. The proliferation of missiles of all sizes around the world is a growing problem, but expecting U.S. missile defenses to deal with all those missiles everywhere is unrealistic, and U.S. missile defenses, effective or not, are justifying more and more offensive missiles
Charlton, Bruce G
It is plausible to assume that in the future science will form the compulsory core element both of school curricula and multi-disciplinary undergraduate degrees. But for this to happen entails a shift in the emphasis and methods of science teaching, away from the traditional concern with educating specialists and professionals. Traditional science teaching was essentially vocational, designed to provide precise and comprehensive scientific knowledge for practical application. By contrast, future science teaching will be a general education, hence primarily conceptual. Its aim should be to provide an education in flexible rationality. Vocational science teaching was focused on a single-discipline undergraduate degree, but a general education in abstract systematic thinking is best inculcated by studying several scientific disciplines. In this sense, 'science' is understood as mathematics and the natural sciences, but also the abstract and systematic aspects of disciplines such as economics, linguistics, music theory, history, sociology, political science and management science. Such a wide variety of science options in a multi-disciplinary degree will increase the possibility of student motivation and aptitude. Specialist vocational science education will progressively be shifted to post-graduate level, in Masters and Doctoral programs. A multi-disciplinary and conceptually-based science core curriculum should provide an appropriate preparation for dealing with the demands of modern societies; their complex and rapidly changing social systems; and the need for individual social and professional mobility. Training in rational conceptual thinking also has potential benefits to human health and happiness, since it allows people to over-ride inappropriate instincts, integrate conflicting desires and pursue long-term goals.
The story of Edward Teller is the story of the twentieth century. Born in Hungary in 1908, Teller witnessed the rise of Nazism and anti-Semitism, two world wars, the McCarthy era, and the changing face of big science. A brilliant and controversial figure whose work on nuclear weapons was key to the American war effort, Teller has long believed in freedom through strong defense, a philosophy reflected in his stance on arms control and nuclear policy. These extraordinary recollections at last reveal the man behind the headlines-passionate and humorous, devoted and loyal. In clear and compelling prose, Teller tells of the people, events, and ideas that shaped him as a scientist, beginning with his early love of music and math, and continuing with his study of quantum physics with Werner Heisenberg. Present at many of the pivotal moments in modern science, Teller also describes his friendships with some of the century's greatest minds-Einstein, Bohr, Fermi, Szilard, von Neumann, Oppenheimer-and offers an honest a...
Bruff, Ian; Hartmann, Eva
In this paper, we critically assess two of the key conceptual foundations for the comparative capitalisms (CC) literatures, neo-pluralist political science and economic sociology, in order to identify more clearly the deep intellectual roots of these literatures. Principally, we focus on how...... the strengths of neo-pluralism and economic sociology – their attention to detail in considering the huge range of ‘types’ of capitalism that exist across the world – come at a high price. Put briefly, the redefinition of ‘capitalism’ as ‘the economy’ concentrates research agendas on the specific political...
Full Text Available This research is aimed to design reading materials for the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, UIN Syarif HIdayatullah Jakarta, due to the absence of such specific materials in the market. To produce satisfactory teaching materials, the researcher did some steps i.e. doing needs analysis, reviewing the principles of materials design and reading strategies, designing course framework, designing syllabus, designing the reading materials, and implementing the sample lessons. The needs analysis was intended to find out what the students needed and to find out the subjects the students learned from the institution in order to produce adequate reading materials. Based on the needs analysis, the researcher then identified the global aims of the course, thereby, the writer designed course framework. This course framework contained general points of reading themes and topics, information of classroom activities that followed up reading, the length of study session, the number of the course meetings, and the number of participants. The course framework became the basis to write the syllabus. Finally the syllabus became the basis for designing reading materials.
In China, the philosophy of science and technology (PST) is derived from "Dialectics of Nature" (DN), which is based on Engels' unfinished book Dialektik der Natur. DN as a political ideology provides political guidance for scientists and engineers. Therefore, since 1981, "Introduction to Dialectics of Nature" (IDN) has been an obligatory course for master's degree students who study natural science or technology. In 1987, DN was renamed PST by the Chinese government in order to communicate and do research. The IDN teachers constitute most of the scholars who research PST. Nowadays, in China, PST includes philosophy of nature, philosophy of science, philosophy of technology, sociology of science, sociology of technology, "science, technology and society," history of science, history of technology, management of science, and management of technology due to having too many IDN teachers. In fact, it is neither a branch of philosophy, nor a subject. The number of the IDN teachers has been increasing since 1981, which makes PST a miscellaneous collection of many branches or subjects. Finally, PST is facing two new challenges: the reduction of IDN and academic corruption.
The availability of financial resources continues to be one of the greatest limiting factors to NASA’s planetary science agenda. Historians and members of the space science community have offered many explanations for the scientific, political, and economic actions that combine to form NASA’s planetary science efforts, and this essay will use budgetary and historical analysis to examine how each of these factors have impacted the funding of U.S. exploration of the solar system. This approach will present new insights into how the shifting fortunes of the nation’s economy or the changing priorities of political leadership have affected government investment in science broadly, and space science specifically. This paper required the construction of a historical NASA budget data set displaying layered fiscal information that could be compared equivalently over time. This data set was constructed with information collected from documents located in NASA’s archives, the Library of Congress, and at the Office of Management and Budget at the White House. The essay will examine the effects of the national gross domestic product, Federal debt levels, the budgets of other Federal agencies engaged in science and engineering research, and party affiliation of leadership in Congress and the White House on the NASA budget. It will also compare historic funding levels of NASA’s astrophysics, heliophysics, and Earth science efforts to planetary science funding. By examining the history of NASA’s planetary science efforts through the lens of the budget, this essay will provide a clearer view of how effectively the planetary science community has been able to align its goals with national science priorities.
In approaching how the grotesque is—or should be—situated within contemporary science (biology) education practices, Weinstein and Broda undertake a passionate reclaim of an education that is at the same time scientific, critical, and liberatory. However legitimate, their work offers more than they probably could have anticipated: It exemplifies how the textual structure of a research article can be such as to "tip-off" readers about how it is supposed to be understood. In this way, what one learns from reading the manuscript is grounded on the way the authors examine the data presented. That is, the findings are not intrinsic to the materials collected, but constructed within the analyses that precede/follow the account of each one of the four "specimens" reported. Therefore, the present commentary seeks to re-consider the original study from an alternative perspective, one that challenges its seemingly objective (re)construction of facts by placing emphasis on how the text contains instructions for its own interpretation and validation. Ultimately, the purpose here is to describe and discuss the interpretive and validation work that is done by this discursive mechanism of self-appraisal rather than discredit the two authors' initiative.
This study investigated the disciplinary knowledge and nature of expertise among political science experts studying American political science. A comparison group of students who had completed an introductory undergraduate course in American political science also participated in the study. Numerous research studies have found that civics and…
Wankmüller, Sandra; Berger, Valentin T. Z.; Ingold, Karin; Steiner, Christiane
Research on social processes in the production of scientific output suggests that the collective research agenda of a discipline is influenced by its structural features, such as “invisible colleges” or “groups of collaborators” as well as academic “stars” that are embedded in, or connect, these research groups. Based on an encompassing dataset that takes into account multiple publication types including journals and chapters in edited volumes, we analyze the complete co-authorship network of all 1,339 researchers in German political science. Through the use of consensus graph clustering techniques and descriptive centrality measures, we identify the ten largest research clusters, their research topics, and the most central researchers who act as bridges and connect these clusters. We also aggregate the findings at the level of research organizations and consider the inter-university co-authorship network. The findings indicate that German political science is structured by multiple overlapping research clusters with a dominance of the subfields of international relations, comparative politics and political sociology. A small set of well-connected universities takes leading roles in these informal research groups. PMID:28388621
Leifeld, Philip; Wankmüller, Sandra; Berger, Valentin T Z; Ingold, Karin; Steiner, Christiane
Research on social processes in the production of scientific output suggests that the collective research agenda of a discipline is influenced by its structural features, such as "invisible colleges" or "groups of collaborators" as well as academic "stars" that are embedded in, or connect, these research groups. Based on an encompassing dataset that takes into account multiple publication types including journals and chapters in edited volumes, we analyze the complete co-authorship network of all 1,339 researchers in German political science. Through the use of consensus graph clustering techniques and descriptive centrality measures, we identify the ten largest research clusters, their research topics, and the most central researchers who act as bridges and connect these clusters. We also aggregate the findings at the level of research organizations and consider the inter-university co-authorship network. The findings indicate that German political science is structured by multiple overlapping research clusters with a dominance of the subfields of international relations, comparative politics and political sociology. A small set of well-connected universities takes leading roles in these informal research groups.
Crawford, Jarret T; Duarte, José L; Haidt, Jonathan; Jussim, Lee; Stern, Charlotta; Tetlock, Philip E
In our target article, we made four claims: (1) Social psychology is now politically homogeneous; (2) this homogeneity sometimes harms the science; (3) increasing political diversity would reduce this damage; and (4) some portion of the homogeneity is due to a hostile climate and outright discrimination against non-liberals. In this response, we review these claims in light of the arguments made by a diverse group of commentators. We were surprised to find near-universal agreement with our first two claims, and we note that few challenged our fourth claim. Most of the disagreements came in response to our claim that increasing political diversity would be beneficial. We agree with our critics that increasing political diversity may be harder than we had thought, but we explain why we still believe that it is possible and desirable to do so. We conclude with a revised list of 12 recommendations for improving political diversity in social psychology, as well as in other areas of the academy.
Asayama, Shinichiro; Ishii, Atsushi
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) plays a significant role in bridging the boundary between climate science and politics. Media coverage is crucial for understanding how climate science is communicated and embedded in society. This study analyzes the discursive construction of the IPCC in three Japanese newspapers from 1988 to 2007 in terms of the science-politics boundary. The results show media discourses engaged in boundary-work which rhetorically separated science and politics, and constructed the iconic image of the IPCC as a pure scientific authority. In the linkages between the global and national arenas of climate change, the media "domesticate" the issue, translating the global nature of climate change into a discourse that suits the national context. We argue that the Japanese media's boundary-work is part of the media domestication that reconstructed the boundary between climate science and politics reflecting the Japanese context.
Patrick Nkemdilim Ijeh
Full Text Available Popular appeals explored by political advertisers for elections include showing a clearunderstanding ofpressing societal issues and demonstrating the possession of appropriate responsesto them as well as emphasis on experience relevant to the position being sought or one’s track recordsin other spheres of human endeavour. In addition to the aforementionedappeals, this study observesthat some political advertisers for the April 2011general elections in Nigeria incorporated culturalelements such as native languages; cultural dressing; emphasis on candidates’ cultural affinities bybirth, history, marriage and chieftaincy titles; cultural music and dances; cultural norms, values andideologies; as well as visits to and endorsements of candidates by traditional rulers. Voters perceivedthis in good light and majority indicated that they were attracted by these cultural elements to thepolitical advertisements and learnt about the candidates from them. However, a minority of themindicated that these incorporated cultural elements actually influenced their voting decisions. Thesefindings, emanating from a content analysis of selected political advertisements for the elections,tally with the notion of agenda setting theory of mass communication that the media can tell peoplewhat to think about but never what to think.
Choudhuri, Arnab Rai
Although the science behind the Sun is so fascinating, there has not been sufficient worldwide effort in presenting this science to the general public. My recently published popular science book "Nature's Third Cycle: A Story of Sunspots" (Oxford University Press, 2015) is probably the first popular science book introducing the phenomenology of the solar cycle along with a non-technical account of dynamo theory. I shall discuss my perspective of the challenges involved in presenting the science of the Sun to the public. The Amazon link of my book is: http://www.amazon.co.uk/Natures-Third-Cycle-Story-Sunspots/dp/0199674752/
Popular music is ubiquitous in the lives of our students, music is used by politicians at virtually every one of their campaign events, and musicians are increasingly active in politics, but music has never been considered as a pedagogical tool in teaching political science classes. This article describes the use of music in an introduction to…
Purpose: The purpose of this article is to chronicle paradigm shifts in American political science during the twentieth century and their influence on political scientists' perspectives on pre-collegiate citizenship education curriculum. Methodology: The research questions explored in this article are concerned with the history of political…
As the world has grown more interconnected, many political science programs have added courses on international law, international organizations, the laws of war and peace, international human rights, and comparative judicial politics. While in many cases these are relatively new offerings within international studies, all of these subjects have…
de Graaf, Gjalt; van der Wal, Z.
How and why are public values studied within public administration’s cognate disciplines? This question is addressed through a qualitative analysis of 50 public values (PVs) publications in political science, economics, and law published between 1969 and 2014. The findings show that political
Straub, K. H.; Kesgin, B.
During the fall 2012 semester, students in two introductory courses at Susquehanna University - EENV:101 Environmental Science and POLI:131 World Affairs - will participate together in an online international relations simulation called Statecraft (www.statecraftsim.com). In this strategy game, students are divided into teams representing independent countries, and choose their government type (democracy, constitutional monarchy, communist totalitarian, or military dictatorship) and two country attributes (industrial, green, militaristic, pacifist, or scientific), which determine a set of rules by which that country must abide. Countries interact over issues such as resource distribution, war, pollution, immigration, and global climate change, and must also keep domestic political unrest to a minimum in order to succeed in the game. This simulation has typically been run in political science courses, as the goal is to allow students to experience the balancing act necessary to maintain control of global and domestic issues in a dynamic, diverse world. This semester, environmental science students will be integrated into the simulation, both as environmental advisers to each country and as independent actors representing groups such as Greenpeace, ExxonMobil, and UNEP. The goal in integrating the two courses in the simulation is for the students in each course to gain both 1) content knowledge of certain fundamental material in the other course, and 2) a more thorough, applied understanding of the integrated nature of the two subjects. Students will gain an appreciation for the multiple tradeoffs that decision-makers must face in the real world (economy, resources, pollution, health, defense, etc.). Environmental science students will link these concepts to the traditional course material through a "systems thinking" approach to sustainability. Political science students will face the challenges of global climate change and gain an understanding of the nature of
The object of this paper is to provide some suggestions about the technological innovation science temporal lecture in Nagoya Institute of Technology in 2005. It was a unique lecture in terms of the following 3 points : 1) The lecture was not designed for graduated students of MOT course but for bachelor students in engineering. 2) The lecture was based on the case studies from history of Japanese industrial technology. 3) The lecture was focused on studying the vested or basic technology caused the technological innovation. It was shown that the lecture was useful for the students as an introduction of MOT and it also promoted a better understanding of manufacturing basic knowledge and engineers‧ ethics.
Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás
In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.
Wallace, Maria F. G.
Over the years neoliberal ideology and discourse have become intricately connected to making science people. Science educators work within a complicated paradox where they are obligated to meet neoliberal demands that reinscribe dominant, hegemonic assumptions for producing a scientific workforce. Whether it is the discourse of school science, processes of being a scientist, or definitions of science particular subjects are made intelligible as others are made unintelligible. This paper resides within the messy entanglements of feminist poststructural and new materialist perspectives to provoke spaces where science educators might enact ethicopolitical hesitations. By turning to and living in theory, the un/making of certain kinds of science people reveals material effects and affects. Practicing ethicopolitical hesitations prompt science educators to consider beginning their work from ontological assumptions that begin with abundance rather than lack.
Kippax, Susan C; Holt, Martin; Friedman, Samuel R
This supplement to the Journal of the International AIDS Society focuses on the engagement of the social and political sciences within HIV research and, in particular, maintaining a productive relationship between social and biomedical perspectives on HIV. It responds to a number of concerns raised primarily by social scientists, but also recognized as important by biomedical and public health researchers. These concerns include how best to understand the impact of medical technologies (such as HIV treatments, HIV testing, viral load testing, male circumcision, microbicides, and pre-and post-exposure prophylaxis) on sexual cultures, drug practices, relationships and social networks in different cultural, economic and political contexts. The supplement is also concerned with how we might examine the relationship between HIV prevention and treatment, understand the social and political mobilization required to tackle HIV, and sustain the range of disciplinary approaches needed to inform and guide responses to the global pandemic. The six articles included in the supplement demonstrate the value of fostering high quality social and political research to inform, guide and challenge our collaborative responses to HIV/AIDS.
Leach, Melissa; Scoones, Ian
Zoonotic diseases currently pose both major health threats and complex scientific and policy challenges, to which modelling is increasingly called to respond. In this article we argue that the challenges are best met by combining multiple models and modelling approaches that elucidate the various epidemiological, ecological and social processes at work. These models should not be understood as neutral science informing policy in a linear manner, but as having social and political lives: social, cultural and political norms and values that shape their development and which they carry and project. We develop and illustrate this argument in relation to the cases of H5N1 avian influenza and Ebola, exploring for each the range of modelling approaches deployed and the ways they have been co-constructed with a particular politics of policy. Addressing the complex, uncertain dynamics of zoonotic disease requires such social and political lives to be made explicit in approaches that aim at triangulation rather than integration, and plural and conditional rather than singular forms of policy advice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Macdonald, Lee T
Built in 1769 as a private observatory for King George III, Kew Observatory was taken over in 1842 by the British Association for the Advancement of Science (BAAS). It was then quickly transformed into what some claimed to be a 'physical observatory' of the sort proposed by John Herschel - an observatory that gathered data in a wide range of physical sciences, including geomagnetism and meteorology, rather than just astronomy. Yet this article argues that the institution which emerged in the 1840s was different in many ways from that envisaged by Herschel. It uses a chronological framework to show how, at every stage, the geophysicist and Royal Artillery officer Edward Sabine manipulated the project towards his own agenda: an independent observatory through which he could control the geomagnetic and meteorological research, including the ongoing 'Magnetic Crusade'. The political machinations surrounding Kew Observatory, within the Royal Society and the BAAS, may help to illuminate the complex politics of science in early Victorian Britain, particularly the role of 'scientific servicemen' such as Sabine. Both the diversity of activities at Kew and the complexity of the observatory's origins make its study important in the context of the growing field of the 'observatory sciences'.
In this chapter the basic of the environmental science and preservation of the natural memories; The protection of the nature and landscape; The protection of the forest; The protection of the trees growing outside of the forests, parks and gardens; The protection of free growing of species of plants; The protection of free living species of animals; The protection of animals and game law; The protection of fishes and fishery; The water protection, their balance and water farm; The health protection of the man (Radiation protection and nuclear safety is included); The veterinary ministration and protection of animals; The air protection and protection of the ozone layer; Wastes and waste management; The protection and agricultural use of soil; The protection and use of minerals; The protection of cultural heritage in the landscape; The territorial planning, building order and environmental rationalizing; The assessment of influences on the environment; The state fund of the environment; The state administration for the environment; The access to environmental information; The law about the environment and basic meanings of the environmentalism; The environmental terminology in the environmental law; The environmental terminology in the development and documents of environmental law are reviewed
Scriven, Olivia A.
Since the close of World War II, higher education has been central to the growth of U.S. science, but the role of historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) has been under-explored within this narrative. The nation's 105 HBCUs constitute less than one percent of the U.S. higher education community, but consistently have served as a major conduit for the production of African Americans in the sciences, technology, mathematics and engineering. National Science Foundation data reflect an average 29 percent share for the period 1994-2001. The output is even more striking when examined by degrees awarded in disciplinary clusters---50 percent in the agricultural sciences, 45 percent in the physical sciences and mathematics, and 42 percent in the biological sciences. This research explores the role of HBCUs in educating African Americans in science from the boosterism period shortly following World War II, through affirmative action legislation of the 1960s and 1970s, and concluding with current federal policies. A particular analysis is undertaken of Spelman College, a private liberal arts college founded by New England missionaries in the South during the late 19th century as a seminary for former slave women and girls. Spelman presents a unique case to analyze the particularistic characteristics of race, gender and institutional setting within the context of a so-called normative structure of science. Over a 25-year period, Spelman was able to rise beyond the structural limitations of its position as a Black college, a women's college, and a southern college to become one of the single most productive undergraduate institution for African American women earning the baccalaureate degree in science. What new perspectives might the Spelman story specifically and the history of HBCUs generally offer about the history of U.S. science, the notion that careers be open to talent, and current public policy discourse regarding efforts to increase the participation of
Kurth, R; Glasmacher, S
Scientific advice to politics is a primary function of governmental research. The advisory process is, in the ideal situation, a collective duty of science and politics. The final decision rests ultimately with politicians. An understanding of the differences between science and politics is necessary for successfully providing advice to politicians. The requirements necessary to allow politics to substantially follow the advice of scientists are multifarious. The first of these is trust from the side of politics and the public and from the side of science competitive research, respect and communication skills, neutrality and integrity. From these requirements it is possible to derive criteria for quality assurance in advice to politics. The maintenance of scientific expertise at the competitive international level demands independent, qualified and adequately financed research. Governmental institutes have an antenna function: they have to recognize in good time whether risks are increasing, whether the government has to be informed and whether there is a need for action. The continuing maintenance of excellence requires measures of quality assurance at all levels. Evidence for the quality of advice to politics can, for example, be found in the good reputation of an institution and its prominent representatives. Success in research is an indirect quality criterion that can be and should be measured to a certain extent. The influence of advisory activities on political decisions is direct evidence for the quality of the advice. A classic example of highly successful policy advice is the development of the German AIDS policy.
In 1919 the Prussian Ministry of Science, Arts and Culture opened a dossier on "Einstein's Theory of Relativity." It was rediscovered by the author in 1961 and is used in conjunction with numerous other subsequently identified 'Einstein' files as the basis of this fascinating book. In particular, the author carefully scrutinizes Einstein's FBI file from 1950-55 against mostly unpublished material from European including Soviet sources and presents hitherto unknown documentation on Einstein's alleged contacts with the German Communist Party and the Comintern. Siegfried Grundmann's thorough study of Einstein's participation on a committee of the League of Nations, based on archival research in Geneva, is also new. This book outlines Einstein's image in politics and German science policy. It covers the period from his appointment as a researcher in Berlin to his fight abroad against the "boycott of German science" after World War I and his struggle at home against attacks on "Jewish physics" of which he was made...
The International Indian Ocean Expedition broke ground for a series of multi-national oceanographic expeditions starting in the late 1950s. In and of itself, it would have been historically significant—like the International Geophysical Year (1957-58)—for pulling together the international scientific community during the Cold War. However, US support for this and follow-on Indian Ocean expeditions were not just about the science; they were also about diplomacy, specifically efforts to bring non-aligned India into the US political orbit and out of the clutches of its Cold War enemy, the Soviet Union. This paper examines the behind-the-scenes efforts at the highest reaches of the US government to extract international political gain out of a large-scale scientific effort.
Beavers, Staci L.
The challenges of teaching introductory-level U.S. politics to reluctant audiences are well known and widely lamented. This article investigates the pedagogical potential of political satire, specifically "The Daily Show with Jon Stewart", in engaging students in this tough-to-teach course. Based on a review of available literature and…
Sustainable development is continuous process of change requiring painful choices resting on political will. This paper examines the developments needed to engage with sustainable development in the field of political science through the following: the reform in political science programmes to cope with the need for sustainable development in…
Rowe, Matthew P.; Gillespie, B. Marcus; Harris, Kevin R.; Koether, Steven D.; Shannon, Li-Jen Y.; Rose, Lori A.
Recent studies question the effectiveness of a traditional university curriculum in helping students improve their critical thinking and scientific literacy. We developed an introductory, general education (gen ed) science course to overcome both deficiencies. The course, titled Foundations of Science, differs from most gen ed science offerings in that it is interdisciplinary; emphasizes the nature of science along with, rather than primarily, the findings of science; incorporates case studies, such as the vaccine-autism controversy; teaches the basics of argumentation and logical fallacies; contrasts science with pseudoscience; and addresses psychological factors that might otherwise lead students to reject scientific ideas they find uncomfortable. Using a pretest versus posttest design, we show that students who completed the experimental course significantly improved their critical-thinking skills and were more willing to engage scientific theories the general public finds controversial (e.g., evolution), while students who completed a traditional gen ed science course did not. Our results demonstrate that a gen ed science course emphasizing the process and application of science rather than just scientific facts can lead to improved critical thinking and scientific literacy. PMID:26231561
Full Text Available As a result of the analysis of general strike, undertaken after 1905 byRosa Luxemburg and Georges Sorel, the boundaries between classical anarchismand orthodox Marxism were blurred. Their vision of spontaneous revolutionarymass movement became a driving force of „new left” activism in the ‚60s and, atthe same time, a starting point for debates concerning concepts of class and consciousnessand the problem of revolutionary political organisation. In the mid-80s,Chantal Mouffe and Ernesto Laclau turned to the heritage of Luxemburg and Sorelto deal with what they perceived as a serious crisis of the left. The aim of this paperis to reexamine the ideas of Luxembourg and Sorel, as well as some of its interpretations,in the context of three revolutionary strategies formulated today – thepractice of the alter-globalization and the Zapatista movement, the universalism ofAlain Badiou, and the philosophy of Giorgio Agamben.
Owen Bruce M.
Full Text Available Systemic (but lawful political corruption reduces well-being and equity in America. The original form of Madisonian democracy is no longer capable of containing such corruption. Proposals currently on the table to stem corruption are unlikely to be effective and tend to undermine basic rights. This Essay describes a new, but still Madisonian, approach—regulating the output of corrupted legislative and administrative processes, rather than the inputs. Providing for substantive ex post review of direct and delegated legislation would be far more protective of the “general welfare” of the People than other reforms, while no more or less difficult to implement. Supporting an “umpire” branch may be a dominant strategy for elites themselves.
Myers, Raymond H; Vining, G Geoffrey; Robinson, Timothy J
Praise for the First Edition "The obvious enthusiasm of Myers, Montgomery, and Vining and their reliance on their many examples as a major focus of their pedagogy make Generalized Linear Models a joy to read. Every statistician working in any area of applied science should buy it and experience the excitement of these new approaches to familiar activities."-Technometrics Generalized Linear Models: With Applications in Engineering and the Sciences, Second Edition continues to provide a clear introduction to the theoretical foundations and key applications of generalized linear models (GLMs). Ma
In recent years, the question of national styles in science has received increasing attention. The different forms of Darwinism that emerged in the nineteenth century provide an impressive example of the role of non-scientific factors in the development of scientific ideas. Although the reception of Darwinian theory has been acknowledged to differ according to distinct national traditions even in Darwin's time, there have been few systematic efforts to understand the underlying causal factors. Usually these explanations have conceived of the relationship of science to its social and political context as a distortion of science by ideology. In contrast to this picture, I attempt to demonstrate here how a scientific research program was situated in a concrete historical context. The German tradition of Darwinism in the nineteenth century will be described as a coalition of political liberalism, materialism, and morphology. Whereas the liberals used Darwinism to give their anti-religious and progressive program a naturalistic foundation, the morphologists appreciated that Darwinian theory allowed them to dispense with the idealistic origins of their research program, and the materialist were provided with a naturalistic explanation of the origin of organic form.
Lebeau, A. [Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers - CNAM, 75 - Paris (France); Societe Meteorologique de France SMF, 75 - Paris (France)
Climate change is now a familiar subject for most of the individuals living in the industrialized countries, and no doubt a subject of growing interest in the emergent countries such as China. How has this theme lodged itself in public debate? Who are the actors in that debate and how much of a part do they play? Andre Lebeau has examined these questions, attempting to determine how this initially highly scientific subject has, over time, found a foothold in economic, political and media debate. (author)
Full Text Available Until a few months to the 2015 general elections, many political parties that have conveniently hibernated for a better part of their existence, perhaps owing to lack of proper organizational structure or support base, uncoordinated programmes or were registered because of pecuniary gains or admittance of anticipated poor electoral outing, suddenly began to jostle for political space. The main opposition party and the ruling party were either perfecting a merger processes or engulfed in internal wrangling such that communication with the electorate on fundamental issues became inconsequential. In fact, the two dominant parties, the Peoples Democratic Party and All Progressive Congress only produced their presidential candidates less than five months to the election; and the electoral campaign assumed desperate contestation in a climate of prejudice and intolerance. Hate speeches and violence were the hallmarks of their electoral campaigns. The 2015 general elections therefore, offer a unique context to interrogate the place of party political communication in an emerging democracy and specifically how hate campaigns among political gladiators/contending parties could generate violence, and if not tamed, derail democratic consolidation. This essay affirms that hate speech is not only inspired by some social circumstances but also part of a general democratic process. It attests to the fact that Nigerian politicians have become more desperate and daring in taking and retaining political power; and more intolerant of opposition, criticism and efforts at replacing them. Relying extensively on secondary sources with the aid of descriptive and narrative tools, this essay concludes that the political culture of a country determines the behavior and attitude of the population towards the political system and that democratic transition from one administration to another, particularly in emerging democracies, has often been accompanied by violence
Jaspal, Rusi; Nerlich, Brigitte
Climate change has become a pressing environmental concern for scientists, social commentators and politicians. Previous social science research has explored media representations of climate change in various temporal and geographical contexts. Through the lens of Social Representations Theory, this article provides a detailed qualitative thematic analysis of media representations of climate change in the 1988 British broadsheet press, given that this year constitutes an important juncture in this transition of climate change from the domain of science to that of the socio-political sphere. The following themes are outlined: (i) "Climate change: a multi-faceted threat"; (ii) "Collectivisation of threat"; (iii) "Climate change and the attribution of blame"; and (iv) "Speculative solutions to a complex socio-environmental problem." The article provides detailed empirical insights into the "starting-point" for present-day disputes concerning climate change and lays the theoretical foundations for tracking the continuities and discontinuities characterising social representations of climate change in the future.
Rowe, Matthew P; Gillespie, B Marcus; Harris, Kevin R; Koether, Steven D; Shannon, Li-Jen Y; Rose, Lori A
Recent studies question the effectiveness of a traditional university curriculum in helping students improve their critical thinking and scientific literacy. We developed an introductory, general education (gen ed) science course to overcome both deficiencies. The course, titled Foundations of Science, differs from most gen ed science offerings in that it is interdisciplinary; emphasizes the nature of science along with, rather than primarily, the findings of science; incorporates case studies, such as the vaccine-autism controversy; teaches the basics of argumentation and logical fallacies; contrasts science with pseudoscience; and addresses psychological factors that might otherwise lead students to reject scientific ideas they find uncomfortable. Using a pretest versus posttest design, we show that students who completed the experimental course significantly improved their critical-thinking skills and were more willing to engage scientific theories the general public finds controversial (e.g., evolution), while students who completed a traditional gen ed science course did not. Our results demonstrate that a gen ed science course emphasizing the process and application of science rather than just scientific facts can lead to improved critical thinking and scientific literacy. © 2015 M. P. Rowe, B. M. Gillespie, et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2015 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).
de Leeuw, Evelyne; Clavier, Carole; Breton, Eric
The establishment of policy is key to the implementation of actions for health. We review the nature of policy and the definition and directions of health policy. In doing so, we explicitly cast a health political science gaze on setting parameters for researching policy change for health. A brief overview of core theories of the policy process for health promotion is presented, and illustrated with empirical evidence. The key arguments are that (a) policy is not an intervention, but drives intervention development and implementation; (b) understanding policy processes and their pertinent theories is pivotal for the potential to influence policy change; (c) those theories and associated empirical work need to recognise the wicked, multi-level, and incremental nature of elements in the process; and, therefore, (d) the public health, health promotion, and education research toolbox should more explicitly embrace health political science insights. The rigorous application of insights from and theories of the policy process will enhance our understanding of not just how, but also why health policy is structured and implemented the way it is.
In 1946, the British biochemist Joseph Needham returned from a four-year stay in China. Needham scholars have considered this visit as a revelatory period that paved the way for his famous book series Science and Civilization in China (SCC). Surprisingly, however, Needham's actual time in China has remained largely unstudied over the last seventy years. As director of the Sino-British Scientific Cooperation Office, Needham travelled throughout Free China to promote cooperation between British and Chinese scientists to contain the Japanese invasion during the Second World War. By rediscovering Needham's peregrinations, this paper re-examines the origins of his fascination for China. First, it contests the widely held idea that this Chinese episode is quite separate and different from Needham's first half-life as a leftist scientist. Second, it demonstrates how the political and philosophical commitments he inherited from the social relations of science movement, and his biochemical research, shaped his interest in China's past. Finally, this paper recounts these forgotten years to reveal their implications for his later pursuits as historian of science and as director of the natural-science division of UNESCO. It highlights how, while in China, Needham co-constituted the philosophical tenets of his scientific programme at UNESCO and the conceptual foundations of his SCC.
Кирилл Сергеевич Кондрашев
Full Text Available PurposeDetection the main approaches to the definition of the political elites, their appearance and function in a democracy.Methodology of workThe comparative method, structural and functional method.ResultsMarked changes in the methods of communication elites and masses, the emergence of new types of elites that meet the transforming needs of the masses, changing the structure of the political sphere in terms of postmodernism and globalization.Application of resultsThe results can be applied in the process policy advice.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-5-27
Hilton-Brown, Bryan Anthony
This dissertation investigated how participation in the cultural practices of science classrooms creates intrapersonal conflict for ethnic minority students. Grounded in research perspectives of cultural anthropology, sociocultural studies of science education, and critical pedagogy, this study examined the cultural tensions encountered by minority students as they assimilate into the culture of the science classroom. Classroom interaction was viewed from the perspective of instructional congruence---the active incorporation of students' culture into science pedagogy. Ogbu's notion of "oppositional identity", Fordham's "fictive kinship", Bahktin's "antidialogics", and Freire's "critical consciousness" were brought together to examine how members of marginalized cultures develop non-normative behaviors as a means of cultural resistance. Choice of genre for public discourse was seen as a political act, representing students' own cultural affiliations. Conducted in a diverse Southern Californian high school with an annual population of over 3,900 students, this study merged ethnographic research, action research, and sociolinguistic discourse analysis. Post hoc analysis of videotaped classroom activities, focus group interviews, and samples of student work revealed students' discursive behavior to shift as a product of the context of their discursive exchanges. In whole class discussions students explained their understanding of complex phenomena to classmates, while in small group discussions they favored brief exchanges of group data. Four domains of discursive identities were identified: Opposition Status, Maintenance Status, Incorporation Status, and Proficiency Status. Students demonstrating Opposition Status avoided use of science discourse. Those students who demonstrated Maintenance Status were committed to maintaining their own discursive behavior. Incorporation Status students were characterized by an active attempt to incorporate science discourse into
Karl H. Müller
Full Text Available In recent years a new science frontier emerged under the umbrella term of second-order science which creates new and challenging problems through a characteristic re-entry-operation like in pattern of patterns, learning of learning, cybernetics of cybernetics or logic of logic, which works with and on building blocks or elements of traditional or first-order scientific research and which, due to this re-entry configuration, becomes inherently reflexive. In this article I will pursue the ambitious goal to develop a general methodology for second-order science which is needed for second-order analyses from their initial stages up to the final steps. This general methodology will be framed as a sequence of recombination operations which become the central task for a particular step in the design of second-order investigations.
Larson, James H.
Theses proposed in C. P. Snow's book "The Two Cultures," including uncommunicative scientific and literary groups, gap between rich and poor, overpopulation, and nuclear war remain viable topics. Discusses the scientific and literary cultural gap and what can be done in general studies science courses to ameliorate the condition.…
Renewable energy topics are integrated with the study of general science. The literature is provided in the form of a teaching manual and includes such topics as passive solar homes, siting a home for solar energy, and wind power for the home. Other energy topics are explored through library research activities. (BCS)
Glaser, J; Salovey, P
Recent U.S. history provides vivid illustrations of the importance of politicians' emotional displays in subsequent judgments of them. Yet, a review of empirical research on the role of affect (emotion, mood, and evaluation) in electoral politics reveals little work that has focused on the impact of candidates' emotional expression on voters' preferences for them. A theoretical framework is proposed to identify psychological mechanisms by which a target's displays of emotion influence judgments of that target. Findings from the emerging literature on emotions and politics challenge the traditional assumption of political science that voters make decisions based solely on the cold consideration of nonaffectively charged information. The affect and politics literature, although somewhat unfocused and broad, represents an interdisciplinary domain of study that contributes to the understanding of both electoral politics and social interaction more generally.
Gulyaev, Sergei A.; Stonyer, Heather R.
Develops an integrated approach based on the use of general systems theory (GST) and the concept of 'mapping' scientific knowledge to provide students with tools for a more holistic understanding of science. Uses GST as the core methodology for understanding science and its complexity. Discusses the role of scientific community in producing…
Rollwagen, Jack R.
Discusses the Anthropology Department at SUNY College at Brockport and the orientation of its faculty and students. Advocates a systems approach to education and suggests teaching strategies that incorporate political economic principles in the anthropology curriculum. An eight-page list of sources in political economy useful for teaching is…
Islam, S.; Susskind, L. E.
While efforts to theorize about water systems have been vast, the traditional tools and techniques available to water managers have led to science that is "smart but not wise". Integration of "scientific learning" with "the complex political reality" of real-world water problem-solving remains desirable but an elusive goal. Yet, solutions to most real-world water problems demand such integration. The professionals who attempt to solve water problems cannot easily translate solutions born out of scientific findings into the messy context of the real world, where societal and political aspects are important. The solutions to water problems lie somewhere within these realms of knowledge, and effective solutions require bridging the divide between theory and practice. To bridge this divide and address complex water problems - where natural, societal, and political elements cross multiple boundaries and interact in unbounded, uncertain and nonlinear way - a new approach is needed. This new approach - called Water Diplomacy - is rooted in emerging ideas of complexity theory and multi-party negotiation. The Water Diplomacy Framework (WDF) posits that water resources might be more effectively managed if we focus in a different way on dominant societal and natural elements. In addition, WDF challenges traditional water management paradigm by invoking three key propositions: (a) water is not a fixed but a flexible resource; (b) water networks are open and continuously changing, not bounded and predictable; and (c) disagreements over water rights and the allocation of water need not be framed as zero-sum confrontations that most game theorists presume; instead they can be viewed as problem-solving opportunities in which additional value can be created to meaningfully address interests for all stakeholders.
Versprille, Ashley N.
The purpose of this study is to investigate first-semester general chemistry students' understanding of the chemistry underlying climate change. The first part of this study involves the collection of qualitative data from twenty-four first-semester general chemistry students from a large Midwestern research institution. The semi-structured interview protocol was developed based on alternative conceptions identified in the research literature and the essential principles of climate change outlined in the U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) document which pertain to chemistry (CCSP, 2003). The analysis and findings from the interviews indicate conceptual difficulties for students, both with basic climate literacy and underlying chemistry concepts. Students seem to confuse the greenhouse effect, global warming, and the ozone layer, and in terms of chemistry concepts, they lack a particulate level understanding of greenhouse gases and their interaction with electromagnetic radiation, causing them to not fully conceptualize the greenhouse effect and climate change. Based on the findings from these interviews, a Chemistry of Climate Science Diagnostic Instrument (CCSI) was developed for use in courses that teach chemistry with a rich context such as climate science. The CCSI is designed for professors who want to teach general chemistry, while also addressing core climate literacy principles. It will help professors examine their students' prior knowledge and alternative conceptions of the chemistry concepts associated with climate science, which could then inform their teaching and instruction.
Full Text Available The European Union's new food regulatory regime can be understood as a political, rather than science-based solution to the problem of recurrent food crises that have threatened the foundations of the single market. The failure of first, mutual trust and subsequently, its remedy, comitology, led to calls for an agency solution. The question of whether to invest an agency with the three powers of risk assessment, communication, and management can be understood as a struggle to define the role of the scientist in the management of regulatory policy. Scientists base their recommendations on probabilities; politicians are accountable to a public that expects government to guarantee zero risk. The outcome, a European Food Authority (EFA, preserves the management function and the Rapid Alert System within the Commission. EFA's success will rest on the harmonization of food law in Member States and the creation of a network between the EFA and Member State food agencies. Satisfaction of these goals, in turn, depends upon transparency, open communication, and willingness to cooperate. An unintended consequence of the new regulatory regime for food may be to strengthen corporate food producers and accelerate food homogeneity within Europe. These processes carry their own set of problems regarding interest group behavior, unconventional political behavior, and voter mobilization. We close the paper with recommendations for future research.
Anatomical nomenclature is medicine's official language. Early in their medical studies, students are expected to memorize not only the bodily geography but also the names for all the structures that, by consensus, constitute the anatomical body. The making and uses of visual maps of the body have received considerable historiographical attention, yet the history of production, communication, and reception of anatomical names-a history as long as the history of anatomy itself-has been studied far less. My essay examines the reforms of anatomical naming between the first modern nomenclature, the 1895 Basel Nomina Anatomica (BNA), and the 1955 Nomina Anatomica Parisiensia (NAP, also known as PNA), which is the basis for current anatomical terminology. I focus on the controversial and ultimately failed attempt to reform anatomical nomenclature, known as Jena Nomina Anatomica (INA), of 1935. Discussions around nomenclature reveal not only how anatomical names are made and communicated, but also the relationship of anatomy with the clinic; disciplinary controversies within anatomy; national traditions in science; and the interplay between international and scientific disciplinary politics. I show how the current anatomical nomenclature, a successor to the NAP, is an outcome of both political and disciplinary tensions that reached their peak before 1945. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Oviedo-Joekes, Eugenia; Blanken, Peter; Haasen, Christian; Rehm, Jürgen; Schechter, Martin T.; Strang, John; van den Brink, Wim
Since the initial Swiss heroin-assisted treatment (HAT) study conducted in the mid-1990s, several other jurisdictions in Europe and North America have implemented HAT trials. All of these studies embrace the same goal—investigating the utility of medical heroin prescribing for problematic opioid users—yet are distinct in various key details. This paper briefly reviews (initiated or completed) studies and their main parameters, including primary research objectives, design, target populations, outcome measures, current status and—where available—key results. We conclude this overview with some final observations on a decade of intensive HAT research in the jurisdictions examined, including the suggestion that there is a mounting onus on the realm of politics to translate the—largely positive—data from completed HAT science into corresponding policy and programming in order to expand effective treatment options for the high-risk population of illicit opioid users. PMID:17562183
Smith, Robert William
Scientific, technological, economic, and political aspects of NASA efforts to orbit a large astronomical telescope are examined in a critical historical review based on extensive interviews with participants and analysis of published and unpublished sources. The scientific advantages of large space telescopes are explained; early plans for space observatories are summarized; the history of NASA and its major programs is surveyed; the redesign of the original Large Space Telescope for Shuttle deployability is discussed; the impact of the yearly funding negotiations with Congress on the development of the final Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is described; and the implications of the HST story for the future of large space science projects are explored. Drawings, photographs, a description of the HST instruments and systems, and lists of the major contractors and institutions participating in the HST program are provided.
Corning, Peter A
Holistic Darwinism is a candidate name for a major paradigm shift that is currently underway in evolutionary biology and related disciplines. Important developments include (1) a growing appreciation for the fact that evolution is a multilevel process, from genes to ecosystems, and that interdependent coevolution is a ubiquitous phenomenon in nature; (2) a revitalization of group selection theory, which was banned (prematurely) from evolutionary biology over 30 years ago (groups may in fact be important evolutionary units); (3) a growing respect for the fact that the genome is not a "bean bag" (in biologist Ernst Mayr's caricature), much less a gladiatorial arena for competing selfish genes, but a complex, interdependent, cooperating system; (4) an increased recognition that symbiosis is an important phenomenon in nature and that symbiogenesis is a major source of innovation in evolution; (5) an array of new, more advanced game theory models, which support the growing evidence that cooperation is commonplace in nature and not a rare exception; (6) new research and theoretical work that stresses the role of nurture in evolution, including developmental processes, phenotypic plasticity, social information transfer (culture), and especially the role of behavioral innovations as pacemakers of evolutionary change (e.g., niche construction theory, which is concerned with the active role of organisms in shaping the evolutionary process, and gene-culture coevolution theory, which relates especially to the dynamics of human evolution); (7) and, not least, a broad effort to account for the evolution of biological complexity--from major transition theory to the "Synergism Hypothesis." Here I will briefly review these developments and will present a case for the proposition that this paradigm shift has profound implications for the social sciences, including specifically political theory, economic theory, and political science as a discipline. Interdependent superorganisms, it
Harwood K. McClerking
Full Text Available To explore the evolution of political-science research on race, Walton et al., have done a systematic review of more than a century of publications appearing in the discipline’s oldest and most prestigious journals: Political Science Quarterly and the American Political Science Review, respectively. Walton and his colleagues uncover “dual traditions” of race scholarship: an “African American Politics” (AAP paradigm emphasizing empowerment and Blacks’ cultural distinctiveness, and a “Race Relations Politics” (RRP approach that focuses on Blacks’ socio-political status vis-à-vis Whites. Using computer-assisted text analyses, we introduce a measure of racial dialogue that is informed by theory and has suitable empirical properties. We replicate and extend Walton’s research by adding a third periodical (the Journal of Politics and demonstrating that, while race conversations are becoming more frequent over time, the dialogues taking place in mainstream journals typically fit Walton’s RRP (rather than AAP tradition. Following our analyses, we offer guidelines for researchers seeking to apply our measure to alternative contexts.
The article sketches the history of naukoznawstwo (literally meaning the science connoisseurship or the science of science or science studies) in Poland from the 1910s to the end of the Cold War (1991), and the recovery of full political independence in 1993. It outlines the changing research perspectives of this interdisciplinary field of knowledge in Poland against a background of changing political conditions caused by the reconfigurations of the political order. The first part of the article concerns the period from the 1910s, when Poland was occupied by Russia, Prussia, and Austria, through the regaining of independence by Poland in 1918, the reconstruction of the state in 1918-1939; the second part--World War II; the third part--the period from the initial period of Soviet dominance (1944-1954) in Poland and simultaneously the beginnings of the Cold War (1947-1954), the period 1955-1956 (when the Polish state was liberated from Sovietization), through the different political crises in October 1956, March 1968, December 1970, and June 1976, to the emergence of the Independent Self-governing Trade Union Solidarity in September 1980, the end of the Cold War (1991), and the recovery of full political independence in 1993. The article outlines the fundamental achievements of prominent Polish scholars (among others K. Twardowski, M. Ossowska, S. Ossowski, T. Kotarbiński, K. Ajdukiewicz, S. Michalski, F. Znaniecki, B. Suchodolski, L. Fleck, M. Choynowski, Z. Modzelewski, S. Amsterdamski), politicians (among others B. Bierut, E. Krasowska), politicians and scholars (H. Jabłoński, S. Kulczyński), as well as committees (among others the Academic Section of the Józef Mianowski Fund, The Science of Science Committee of the Polish Academy of Sciences), schools of thought (among others the Lvov-Warsaw School of Philosophy), and academic units (among others the Science of Science Seminar in Kraków, the Department for the History of Science and Technology of the Polish
Ondracek, G.; Voehringer, O.
The present report about general and special engineering materials science is the result of lectures given by the authors in two terms in 1982 at Instituto Balseiro, San Carlos de Bariloche, the graduated college of the Universidad de Cuyo and Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Republica Argentina. These lectures were organised in the frame of the project ''nuclear engineering'' (ARG/78/020) of the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Some chapters of the report are written in English, others in Spanish. The report is subdivided into three volumes: Volume I treats general engineering materials science in 4 capital chapters on the structure of materials, the properties of materials, materials technology and materials testing and investigation supplemented by a selected detailed chapter about elasticity plasticity and rupture mechanics. Volume II concerns special engineering materials science with respect to nuclear materials under normal reactor operation conditions including reactor clad and structural materials, nuclear fuels and fuel elements and nuclear waste as a materials viewpoint. Volume III - also concerning special engineering materials science - considers nuclear materials with respect to off-normal (''accident'') reactor operation conditions including nuclear materials in loss-of-coolant accidents and nuclear materials in core melt accidents. (orig.) [de
Schneider, S.; Rabinowitz, D.
At the interface of environmental anthropology, social science, education research, and Earth Sciences, this presentation will look at Earth science education in school and out-of-school settings in Germany and Israel. We will focus on divergent cultural concepts of nature and science within the four-columned societal system in Israel: the secular Israeli community, which is oriented on western standards and concepts, the orthodox community with a stronger focus on merging scientific and religious approaches to understanding the Earth system, the Arabian community in Israel, which is strongly influenced by the Arabian science tradition as well as by confined monetary resources, and the ultra-orthodox community where science education seems to be totally abandoned in favor of Thora-studies. These environments, alongside a more homogeneous Germany educational system, resample an experimental setting with differences in a manageable number of parameters. We will analyze educational material used by the different communities in terms of the presented functions and services of the Earth sciences as well as in respect to the image of Earth sciences constructed by educational material of the observed communities. The aim of this project is to look for evidence that allows to attribute significant differences in education concepts to formal socio-political settings in the observed communities. The term Socio-political environment as used in this project proposal describes the context that is predetermined by cultural, political, and religious traditions. It described the pre-conditions in which communication takes place. Within this presentation, we will discuss the concept of socio-political environments. One of our hypothesis is, that the intensity of differences in Earth science community will be associated with differences in the socio-political environment. Influences of cultural, political, and religious boundary conditions will provide an insight into alterations
Reale, Emanuela; Avramov, Dragana; Canhial, Kubra; Donovan, Claire; Flecha, Ramon; Holm, Poul; Larkin, Charles; Lepori, Benedetto; Mosoni-Fried, Judith; Oliver, Esther; Primeri, Emilia; Puigvert, Lidia; Scharnhorst, Andrea; Schubert, Andràs; Soler, Marta; Soòs, Sàndor; Sordé, Teresa; Travis, Charles; Van Horik, René
Recently, the need to contribute to the evaluation of the scientific, social, and political impact of Social Sciences and Humanities (SSH) research has become a demand of policy makers and society. The international scientific community has made significant advances that have transformed the impact
Adriaensen, Johan; Kerremans, Bart; Slootmaeckers, Koen
The contributors to this special issue all seek to address the challenge of teaching research methods to political science students. This introduction aims to provide a concise framework for the various innovations presented throughout this issue, situating them in the wider literature. Particular emphasis is placed on the factors that distinguish…
Teachers find it difficult to conduct political controversial conversations in the social science classroom and due to an increased use of social media in educational settings new challenges and possibilities are raised. The use of social media causes fundamental changes to the role of the learner who becomes a producer and consumer--a…
In an historical overview, this paper links to the paradox that the increasing scientification of politics leads to a politicisation of science. For a long time, scientists offered their capabilities as ‘speaking truth to power’. Since the beginning of the 1990s, this input has been transformed into
Zbigniew J. Grabowski
Full Text Available Dam removal in the United States has continued to increase in pace and scope, transitioning from a dam-safety engineering practice to an integral component of many large-scale river restoration programmes. At the same time, knowledge around dam removals remains fragmented by disciplinary silos and a lack of knowledge transfer between communities of practice around dam removal and academia. Here we argue that dam removal science, as a study of large restoration-oriented infrastructure interventions, requires the construction of an interdisciplinary framework to integrate knowledge relevant to decision-making on dam removal. Drawing upon infrastructure studies, relational theories of coproduction of knowledge and social life, and advances within restoration ecology and dam removal science, we present a preliminary framework of dams as systems with irreducibly interrelated political, financial, environmental, social, and technological dimensions (PFESTS. With this framework we analyse three dam removals occurring over a similar time period and within the same narrow geographic region (the Mid-Columbia Region in WA and OR, USA to demonstrate how each PFESTS dimension contributed to the decision to remove the dam, how it affected the process of removing the dam, and how those dimensions continue to operate post removal in each watershed. We conclude with a discussion of a joint research and practice agenda emerging out of the PFESTS framing.
Essex, C.; McKitrick, R.
This book explains the complex science of climate change and dispels the myth that a global warming crisis will bring chaos and destruction to the world. The authors argue that the underlying science of climate change is uncertain, yet global warming has ceased to be a subject of scientific debate for several years because prominent players have been swayed into the complex dynamics of politics which often dismiss scientific evidence for the sake of precaution. The book demonstrates how fear about global warming has become irrational and suggests that instead of pouring billions of dollars each year into global warming related projects, governments could put the money to better use by helping people in developing countries live better lives. In the chapter devoted to the Kyoto Protocol the authors argue that the time and energy used to negotiate the agreement could have been better invested in serious research on climate change. With ratification now underway, governments will likely focus on implementation rather than the difficult task of understanding climate models. The authors argue that the treaty is unstable and unenforceable in terms of commitments to reduce greenhouse gases. refs., tabs., figs
From a communication view, political lobbying for Science means targeted communication about a long established, well-tested, fact-based and logically robust system of inquiry to a highly dynamic environment in which decision-taking is influenced by many non-scientific factors and with norms that differ widely from the tenets of science. The paper discusses some of the communication issues that arise when these very different worlds meet.
New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.
This guide presents the "minimum teaching essentials" published by the New York City Board of Education, for science education in grades 9-12. Covered are: biology, physics, earth science, and chemistry. Work study skills for all subjects are given with content areas, performance objectives, and suggested classroom activities. (APM)
Ondracek, G.; Hofmann, P.
The report about general and special engineering materials science is the result of lectures given by the authors in two terms in 1982 at Instituto Balseiro, San Carlos de Bariloche, the graduated college of the Universidad de Cuyo and Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Republica Argentina. These lectures were organised in the frame of the project ''nuclear engineering'' (ARG/78/020) of the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Some chapters of the report are written in English, others in Spanish. The report is subdivided into three volumes. The present volume III concerns special engineering materials science and considers nuclear materials with respect to off-normal (''accident'') reactor operation conditions including nuclear materials in loss-of-coolant accident and nuclear materials in core melt accidents. (orig./IHOE) [de
Anderko, K.; Kummerer, K.R.; Ondracek, G.
The present report about general and special engineering materials science is the result of lectures given by the authors in two terms in 1982 at Instituto Balseiro, San Carlos de Bariloche, the graduated college of the Universidad de Cuyo and Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Republica Argentina. These lectures were organised in the frame of the project ''nuclear engineering'' (ARG/78/020) of the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Some chapters of the report are written in English, others in Spanish. The report is subdivided into three volumes. The present volume II concerns special engineering materials science with respect to nuclear materials under normal reactor operation conditions including 1. reactor clad and structural materials, 2. nuclear fuels and fuel elements, 3. nuclear waste as a materials viewpoint. (orig./IHOE) [de
Jehlička, P.; Kostelecký, Tomáš; Kunštát, Daniel
Roč. 20, č. 3 (2011), s. 418-425 ISSN 0964-4016 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP404/10/0521 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : Czech Green Party * politics of the Czech Republic * environmental policy Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 1.398, year: 2011
Pahre, Robert; Steele, Carie
Other than trips to government offices, political science has generally not used field experiences as part of the undergraduate curriculum. To illustrate the possibilities of such experiences, we discuss field-based courses and curricular units at three sites. Each uses a national park to teach students about environmental politics and policy…
Risk management has become increasingly politicized and contentious. Polarized views, controversy, and conflict have become pervasive. Research has begun to provide a new perspective on this problem by demonstrating the complexity of the concept 'risk' and the inadequacies of the traditional view of risk assessment as a purely scientific enterprise. This paper argues that danger is real, but risk is socially constructed. Risk assessment is inherently subjective and represents a blending of science and judgment with important psychological, social, cultural, and political factors. In addition, our social and democratic institutions, remarkable as they are in many respects, breed distrust in the risk arena. Whoever controls the definition of risk controls the rational solution to the problem at hand. If risk is defined one way, then one option will rise to the top as the most cost-effective or the safest or the best. If it is defined another way, perhaps incorporating qualitative characteristics and other contextual factors, one will likely get a different ordering of action solutions. Defining risk is thus an exercise in power. Scientific literacy and public education are important, but they are not central to risk controversies. The public is not irrational. Their judgments about risk are influenced by emotion and affect in a way that is both simple and sophisticated. The same holds true for scientists. Public views are also influenced by world views, ideologies, and values; so are scientists' views, particularly when they are working at the limits of their expertise. The limitations of risk science, the importance and difficulty of maintaining trust, and the complex, sociopolitical nature of risk point to the need for a new approach-one that focuses upon introducing more public participation into both risk assessment and risk decision making in order to make the decision process more democratic, improve the relevance and quality of technical analysis, and increase
Slovic, Paul [Decision Research, Eugene, OR (United States)
Risk management has become increasingly politicized and contentious. Polarized views, controversy, and conflict have become pervasive. Research has begun to provide a new perspective on this problem by demonstrating the complexity of the concept 'risk' and the inadequacies of the traditional view of risk assessment as a purely scientific enterprise. This paper argues that danger is real, but risk is socially constructed. Risk assessment is inherently subjective and represents a blending of science and judgment with important psychological, social, cultural, and political factors. In addition, our social and democratic institutions, remarkable as they are in many respects, breed distrust in the risk arena. Whoever controls the definition of risk controls the rational solution to the problem at hand. If risk is defined one way, then one option will rise to the top as the most cost-effective or the safest or the best. If it is defined another way, perhaps incorporating qualitative characteristics and other contextual factors, one will likely get a different ordering of action solutions. Defining risk is thus an exercise in power. Scientific literacy and public education are important, but they are not central to risk controversies. The public is not irrational. Their judgments about risk are influenced by emotion and affect in a way that is both simple and sophisticated. The same holds true for scientists. Public views are also influenced by world views, ideologies, and values; so are scientists' views, particularly when they are working at the limits of their expertise. The limitations of risk science, the importance and difficulty of maintaining trust, and the complex, sociopolitical nature of risk point to the need for a new approach-one that focuses upon introducing more public participation into both risk assessment and risk decision making in order to make the decision process more democratic, improve the relevance and quality of technical
Pullman, Daryl; Zarzeczny, Amy; Picard, André
In 2009, Dr. Paolo Zamboni proposed chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) as a possible cause of multiple sclerosis (MS). Although his theory and the associated treatment ("liberation therapy") received little more than passing interest in the international scientific and medical communities, his ideas became the source of tremendous public and political tension in Canada. The story moved rapidly from mainstream media to social networking sites. CCSVI and liberation therapy swiftly garnered support among patients and triggered remarkable and relentless advocacy efforts. Policy makers have responded in a variety of ways to the public's call for action. We present three different perspectives on this evolving story, that of a health journalist who played a key role in the media coverage of this issue, that of a health law and policy scholar who has closely observed the unfolding public policy developments across the country, and that of a medical ethicist who sits on an expert panel convened by the MS Society of Canada and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research to assess the evidence as it emerges. This story raises important questions about resource allocation and priority setting in scientific research and science policy. The growing power of social media represents a new level of citizen engagement and advocacy, and emphasizes the importance of open debate about the basis on which such policy choices are made. It also highlights the different ways evidence may be understood, valued and utilized by various stakeholders and further emphasizes calls to improve science communication so as to support balanced and informed decision-making.
Abdullah, Kemal Bin; Lowell, Walter E.
The study investigated the ability of primary and elementary school subjects to generalize two science concepts, Insect and Animal with and without instruction in the form of a mental set. It also examined the effects of age, IQ, and sex on the ability of the children to generalize these concepts. Two instruments measuring the ability to generalize the concepts Insect and Animal were developed. The results indicate that of the independent variables investigated, age and mental set significantly affected the ability to generalize the concepts Insect and Animal. It was found that the younger children's concepts were least developed and with age these concepts became more developed and more conceptual in nature. The ability to use information given in a mental set was found to be a function of age. The children in this study were more able to generalize the concept Insect than the concept Animal. The results suggest that children with age and instruction axe better able to master less general concepts than more geaeral ones. In addition, the study demonstrated that children are able to improve their learning of general concepts provided a great number and variety of instances and noninstances of the concept are used in the instruction.It was also found that the younger children were more perceptually bound than the older children. The younger children were unable to overcome the pull of perceptual attractiveness that the noninstances held for them despite instruction. The results suggest that teachers of such children should be aware of the conceptual level of the content being taught to such children to ensure appropriate and meaningful learning takes place.
V G Ivanov
Full Text Available The authors analyze some actual socio-political implications of the contemporary process of the broad recognition and expansion of global academic and scientometric ratings, as well as their impact on the state policy in the scientific and educational fields in the Russian Federation. The authors introduce the concept “charts power” as an important component of “soft power” of nation-states and international institutions for the most popular global academic and scientometric ratings can be used as an economic and foreign policy weapon. The article considers the leading academic ratings (Shanghai Academic Ranking of World Universities, Higher Education Index and QS World University Ranking and the key scietometric ratings (Web of Science and Scopus. The authors believe that the charts power of other countries represents a real and potential threat for the national security of the Russian Federation, and provide some recommendations to mitigate the challenges, for instance, to create and promote (in due course internationally a comparative index of trust to the international ratings including academic ones.
As the Panama Canal approached its fiftieth anniversary in the mid-1960s, U.S. officials concerned about the costs of modernization welcomed the technology of peaceful nuclear excavation to create a new waterway at sea level. Biologists seeking a share of the funds slated for radiological-safety studies called attention to another potential effect which they deemed of far greater ecological and evolutionary magnitude - marine species exchange, an obscure environmental issue that required the expertise of underresourced life scientists. An enterprising endeavor to support Smithsonian naturalists, especially marine biologists at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in Panama, wound up sparking heated debates - between biologists and engineers about the oceans' biological integrity and among scientists about whether the megaproject represented a research opportunity or environmental threat. A National Academy of Sciences panel chaired by Ernst Mayr failed to attract congressional funding for its 10-year baseline research program, but did create a stir in the scientific and mainstream press about the ecological threats that the sea-level canal might unleash upon the Atlantic and Pacific. This paper examines how the proposed megaproject sparked a scientific and political conversation about the risks of mixing the oceans at a time when many members of the scientific and engineering communities still viewed the seas as impervious to human-facilitated change.
Lisa M Campbell
Full Text Available The Red List of Threatened Species™ (hereafter Red List is the International Union for the Conservation of Nature′s most recognisable product. The Red List categorises the conservation status of species on a global scale using ′the most objective, scientifically-based information′. Completing Red List assessments is the job of the Species Survival Commission (SSC, and assessments are most often conducted by species specialist groups within the SSC. In the SSC′s Marine Turtle Specialist Group (MTSG, assessments have been contested. Debate is often couched in scientific terms, focused on data availability and the relevance of Red List criteria for marine turtles. However, given the potential conservation impacts of such listings, much more is at stake. In this paper, I analyse an exchange among MTSG members that resulted when the draft Red List assessment for the hawksbill sea turtle was circulated to the group in June 2007. The suggested listing of hawksbill turtles as ′critically endangered′ sparked an email exchange that highlighted not only the scientific, but also the political, economic, and value-based dimensions of the debate. I draw on ideas of co-production and boundary work to analyse both the debate and the MTSG′s response to an associated crisis of legitimacy, and to provide insights into the science-policy interface in conservation.
Hélder Ferreira Do Vale
Full Text Available The article closely examines the comparative methodology proposed under the “Comparative Historical Analysis” (CHA approach. The purpose of the article is to highlight the advantages gained with the application of this comparative methodological approach in the interpretation of current complex events. In doing so, the article provides concrete guidelines on how to apply this approach to enhance historical comparisons. In attempting to accomplish these goals, the article pursues three tasks. First, it shows how historical comparisons are useful for the identification of the patterns, mechanisms and dynamics behind complex process in social and political sciences. Second, the article explains the methodological advantages of using CHA in complex historical processes and exploring some methodological innovations. And lastly, the article applies the CHA approach to two current events: the emergence of the armed group “Islamic State” and the Ukrainian-Russian territorial dispute. The article concludes that CHA provides an innovative comparative framework to understand complex historical process across countries.
Jiménez de la Jara, J
The combination of inspiration, science, and politics is a cornerstone precept for the common good of humanity, towards the fulfillment of social objectives. Based on this precept, this paper reviews core experiences of the Chilean Health Sector. Health sector key events taking place during the first half of the 20th century were the creation of the National Health Service and the development of mother and child healthcare policies. After the earthquake of 1939, the future President of Chile, Doctor Salvador Allende, set up the Special Sanitation Council, to balance policies. Also, he launched the Social Security reform process, which endured financing restrictions and the animosity of physicians opposing the socialization of medical care. In 1951 the reform was approved, to extend coverage to blue collar workers and their families; separate health provision from healthcare security; emphasize preventive pediatric care in mother's health, and reproductive health. The basic tenets of healthcare reform were the right to health, solidarity, and equity, as the pillars of policy-making and healthcare programming. The question of whether the evolution of social security in Chile has been consistent with the original healthcare reform tenets is raised by the author.
Anastasiya Y. Kravets
Full Text Available The origins of biopolitics as a new scientific discipline is the main aim of the article. There is no clear vision of biopolitics origins among scientific community: some biopolitics see them in the evolution of biological knowledge, others – in the political concepts. The article represents comprehensive approach to this scientific problem and includes philosophical, biological, political and psychological origins of biopolitics, which helps clarify the scientific knowledge about the subject and scientific interest of this discipline. Biopolitics isinterdisciplinary branch of knowledge, which combines multitude of researching trends. In case we’re going to use biopolitical researching for political analysis: background and evolution of human political behaviour, psycho-physiological aspects of such behaviour, function of upbringing and social norms in transformation of social behaviour and later on the political one, influence of the political behaviour to political process and so on. Thus biopolitics could be defined in context of political discourse as related discipline researching «homo politicus» as biological species with emphasis to psycho-physiological mechanisms of political behaviour and theirs influence to political process.
Salter, Brian; Salter, Charlotte
Scientific progress in the life sciences is dependent on the governance of tensions between the economic potential of the innovation and the cultural response from society. Ownership of the scientific innovation through patenting is a necessary part of the realization of its economic value yet, in the case of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) science, ownership of the human body and human life may offend fundamental cultural values. In the case of transnational patenting governance by the European Patent Office (EPO) and the European Union (EU), cross-national cultural conflict in the field of hESC science has produced a political demand for a form of governance that can incorporate ethical as well as economic judgements in its decision making. This paper explores how bioethics has responded to this opportunity to establish itself as a form of expert authority for the negotiation and resolution of the cultural conflict. In so doing, it shows how the political struggle that has accompanied this bid for new governance territory has been influenced both by the political tensions between the EPO and EU systems of patenting governance and the resistance of competing experts in law and science to a bioethical presence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hibbing, John R; Smith, Kevin B; Peterson, Johnathan C; Feher, Balazs
Political disputes ruin family reunions, scuttle policy initiatives, and spur violence and even terrorism. We summarize recent research indicating that the source of political differences can be found in biologically instantiated and often subthreshold predispositions as reflected in physiological, cognitive, and neural patterns that incline some people toward innovation and others toward conservatism. These findings suggest the need to revise traditional views that maintain that political opinions are the product of rational, conscious, socialized thought. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ni Made Ras Amanda Gelgel
Full Text Available In the era of after reformation, Indonesia has developed rapidly enough in political sector and mass media freedom. In the local level such as in Bangli Regency, Bali Province, the fight among political actors on the printed mass media took place when the general election to vote for the regent was held. The general election which was held to vote for the regent was full of dynamism in which the candidates fought against one another on the longer mass media. The problems of the present study are as follows: (1 what was the fight among political actors on the printed media when the general election was held to vote the regent of Bangli Regency in 2010 like?; (2 the factors leading to it?; and (3 what was the impact and meaning of the fight among the political actors on the printed media? The theories used in the present study were the theory of discourse of relation of knowledge and power, the theory of the impact of media such as the agenda setting, the theory of framing, the theory of media text analysis, the theory of hegemony, and the theory of capital. The research method used was the qualitative approach with critical paradigm. The forms of the fight among political actors took place in the arenas of news articles, advertorials, advertisements, and paid articles. The fight taking place in these arenas started from the fight for the self-image of the actors to the political issue. The factors leading to it was political factor, economic factor, and mass media. The fight among the political actors affected political sector, economic sector, and cultural sector. The fight among the political actors on the printed media contained pragmatic meaning of the media and political actors, the image, popular life style, and change of political culture in Bangli.
... Alison Davis NIH's National Institute of General Medical Sciences celebrates 45 years of Discovery for Health The National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) is the NIH institute that primarily supports ...
Åkerstrøm Andersen, Niels
One of the major discussions of the 1990s has been about the relation between politics and administration. The themes of the discussions have been many and varied. It has been suggested that the level of politics should concentrate on the general political outlining and entrust the remaining to the administration. It has been criticised that politicians make their decisions on the basis of single cases, which ought to be an administrative matter entirely. It has been a theme that efficient op...
Full Text Available O artigo analisa os anos de formação da Political Science nos Estados Unidos. A bibliografia tem destacado três características que constituíram o cerne de uma tradição estadunidense nesse campo de estudos: 1 o compromisso com os princípios do liberalismo, 2 o enfoque institucionalista e 3 a afirmação do caráter científico de seu empreendimento. De modo ainda pouco elaborado essas características estão presentes em uma "citizen literature" no final do século XVIII, mas é no processo de institucionalização da ciência política, na segunda metade do século XIX, elas são definidos de modo mais preciso tornando-se marcas distintivas dessa ciência nos Estados Unidos. A presente investigação apresenta como essas características se manifestaram no surgimento da Political Science e argumenta que para melhor compreendê-la é preciso destacar uma quarta característica: a desconfiança para com a democracia e o povo.The article analyzes the formation years of Political Science in the United States. The bibliography has highlighted three characteristics that would be the core of an American tradition in this study field: 1 the commitment to the principle of liberalism, 2 the institutionalist approach, and 3 the affirmation of the scientific character of its entrepreneurship. In a still little elaborated way, these haracteristics are present in a "citizen literature" in the end of the 18th century, but they were defined in a more precise way in the process of institutionalization of political science in the second half of the 19th century, and has become the hallmarks of this science in the United States. This research shows how these characteristics have been displayed in the emergence of Political Science and argues that for its better understanding it is necessary to highlight a forth characteristic: its mistrust democracy and the people.
This paper considers the adoption of general science courses in two Canadian provinces, Ontario and Quebec, during the 1930s. In Ontario, a few science teachers had followed the early general science movements in the United States and Britain with interest. During the 1930s, several developments made the cross-disciplinary, applied thrust of general science particularly appealing to Ontario educationists. These developments included a new demand for vocational education, renewed reservations about pedagogical rationales based on transfer of training, and a growing professional divide between high school science teachers and university scientists. Around the same time, scientists in the Quebec's French-language universities were engaged in a concerted campaign to expand the place of science in the province's francophone secondary schools. The province's prestigious classical colleges, which were the scientists' principal target for reform, privileged an inductive view of science that had little in common with the applied, cross-disciplinary emphasis of the general science courses gaining support in English-speaking school systems. In 1934, however, a popular American general science textbook was adopted in a workers' cooperative devoted to adult education. Comparing the fate of general science within these two education systems draws attention to the fact that general science made inroads in francophone Quebec but had little influence in public and private schools. In light of the growing support general science enjoyed elsewhere, we are led to explore why general science met with little overt interest by Quebec scientists pushing for school science reform during the 1930s.
Cullerton, Katherine; Donnet, Timothy; Lee, Amanda; Gallegos, Danielle
Poor dietary intake is the most important behavioural risk factor affecting health globally. Despite this, there has been little investment in public health nutrition policy actions. Policy process theories from the field of political science can aid understanding why policy decisions have occurred and identify how to influence ongoing or future initiatives. The present review aims to examine public health nutrition policy literature and identify whether a policy process theory has been used to analyse the process. Electronic databases were searched systematically for studies examining policy making in public health nutrition in high-income, democratic countries. International, national, state and local government jurisdictions within high-income, democratic countries. Individuals and organisations involved in the nutrition policy-making process. Sixty-three studies met the eligibility criteria, most were conducted in the USA and a majority focused on obesity. The analysis demonstrates an accelerating trend in the number of nutrition policy papers published annually and an increase in the diversity of nutrition topics examined. The use of policy process theory was observed from 2003; however, it was utilised by only 14 % of the reviewed papers. There is limited research into the nutrition policy process in high-income countries. While there has been a small increase in the use of policy process theory from 2003, an opportunity to expand its use is evident. We suggest that nutrition policy making would benefit from a pragmatic approach that ensures those trying to influence or understand the policy-making process are equipped with basic knowledge around these theories.
Schwartz-Shea, Peregrine; Yanow, Dvora
We have been invited by Politics & Gender's editors to review the origins and current standing of the Data Access and Research Transparency (DA-RT) policy, an effort initiated by the eponymous American Political Science Association (APSA) Ad Hoc Committee and led primarily by Colin Elman,
Items 51 - 86 of 86 ... JTMB covers a broad range of topics, such as disease diagnostics and detection, nodulation in trees, and the use of Agrobacterium in gene transfer. .... The scope of the journal is in the core areas of: Pure and Applied Sciences; Engineering Sciences; Environmental Sciences; Agricultural Sciences; ...
A description is given of a class project concerned with examining a population problem and making some political decisions to solve it. A list of topics for the students to research as a basis for their decisions is provided. (DT)
Masten, Ann S
Articles in this timely Special Section represent an important milestone in the developmental science on children and youth involved in political violence and armed conflict. With millions of children worldwide affected by past and present wars and conflicts, there is an urgent and growing need for research to inform efforts to understand, prevent, and mitigate the possible harm of such violence to individual children, families, communities, and societies, for present as well as future generations. The four programs of research highlighted in this Special Section illustrate key advances and challenges in contemporary development research on young people growing up in the midst or aftermath of political violence. These studies are longitudinal, methodologically sophisticated, and grounded in socioecological systems models that align well with current models of risk and resilience in developmental psychopathology. These studies collectively mark a critically important shift to process-focused research that holds great promise for translational applications. Nonetheless, given the scope of the international crisis of children and youth affected by political violence and its sequelae, there is an urgent global need for greater mobilization of resources to support translational science and effective evidence-based action.
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to explain the historical significance of J.H. de la Rey’s death by analyzing the general's political involvement at the beginning of the First World War. The author also examines the outbreak of the Boer Rebellion and De la Rey's attitude towards it. The controversies surrounding the night of September 15, 1914 are discussed after providing a detailed illustration of the events leading up to the shooting the criminal activities of the Foster gang. It also analyzes the influence the general and Niklaas van Rensburg had on the Afrikaner society, which was faced with the option of revolting against the British. International media coverage of the accident is used in order to portray the world's reaction to the incident.
Janaina Xavier do Nascimento
Full Text Available The present text focuses on issues of gender inequality and public policy in Brazil today. My major goals are as follows: 1 to provide an analysis of gender inequality in Brazilian society through an examination of the three key arenas of labor, political representation and science and 2 to examine both the advances and the challenges that persist in confronting inequality through public policies on gender. To these ends, I employ secondary data, obtained from three different official sources (IBGE, TSE and CNPq. Lastly, I argue that while the policies that have been implemented can be linked to significant progress in the three above-mentioned arenas, we are still quite far from a real reversal of the current situation of deep inequality, persisting, above all, in the field of political representation.
Pictured with Robert Eisenstein, former assistant director for mathematical and physical sciences (MPS) at the US National Science Foundation (NSF), who is spending a year at CERN as a member of the ATLAS collaboration.
This article explores recent developments in the field of science and technology, and the work of Bruno Latour in particular, to problematize the nature of Nature in science education. Although science and technology studies, and the scholarship on science education alike, have become increasingly attentive to the antidemocratic habits of science…
Mazé, Camille; Dahou, Tarik; Ragueneau, Olivier; Danto, Anatole; Mariat-Roy, Emilie; Raimonet, Mélanie; Weisbein, Julien
This article presents an innovative collaborative approach, which aims to reinforce and institutionalize the field of the political anthropology of the sea combined with the natural sciences. It begins by relating the evolution in coastal areas, from integrated coastal zone management to the notion of adaptive co-management. It then sets out what contribution the social sciences of politics may bring to our understanding of the government/governance of the sea in terms of sustainable development, starting with political science and then highlighting the importance of a deep anthropological and socio-historical approach. Finally, it gives us a glimpse of the benefits of combining the human and social sciences with the natural sciences to produce a critical analysis of the categories of thought and action associated with the systemic management of the environment, especially the coastal areas.
Orlović Slobodan P.
Full Text Available In this work the author refers to some legal and political questions in connection with green political parties. Those questions cover: the ideology of green political parties, their number and influence, both in general and in Serbia. The first part of work is generally speaking about political parties - their definition, ideology, role and action. Main thesis in this work is that green political parties, by their appearance, were something new on the political scene. But quickly, because of objective and subjective reasons, they were changing original ideas and were beginning to resemble to all other political parties. In this way, they lost their vanguard and political alternativeness.
Baum, Fran; Graycar, Adam; Delany-Crowe, Toni; de Leeuw, Evelyne; Bacchi, Carol; Popay, Jennie; Orchard, Lionel; Colebatch, Hal; Friel, Sharon; MacDougall, Colin; Harris, Elizabeth; Lawless, Angela; McDermott, Dennis; Fisher, Matthew; Harris, Patrick; Phillips, Clare; Fitzgerald, Jane
There is strong, and growing, evidence documenting health inequities across the world. However, most governments do not prioritize policies to encourage action on the social determinants of health and health equity. Furthermore, despite evidence concerning the benefits of joined-up, intersectoral policy to promote health and health equity, it is rare for such policy approaches to be applied systematically. To examine the usefulness of political and social science theory in understanding the reasons for this disjuncture between evidence and practice, researchers and public servants gathered in Adelaide for an Academy of the Social Sciences in Australia (ASSA) Workshop. This paper draws together the learnings that emerged from the Workshop, including key messages about the usefulness of various theories as well as insights drawn from policy practice. Discussions during the Workshop highlighted that applying multiple theories is particularly helpful in directing attention to, and understanding, the influence of all stages of the policy process; from the construction and framing of policy problems, to the implementation of policy and evaluation of outcomes, including those outcomes that may be unintended. In addition, the Workshop emphasized the value of collaborations among public health researchers, political and social scientists and public servants to open up critical discussion about the intersections between theory, research evidence and practice. Such critique is vital to render visible the processes through which particular sources of knowledge may be privileged over others and to examine how political and bureaucratic environments shape policy proposals and implementation action.
José Miguel Busquets
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the reception of Machiavelli and the neo machiavellian (Pareto, Mosca, Michels, in the main Political Science paradigms, as well as in the teaching of this discipline at the University of the Republic, from 1957, when the first Political Science chair was created at the Law School, till 1985, when Uruguay returned to democracy, after a twelve-year period of civil-military dictatorship. For this purpose, first, this article will review the itinerary of international Political Science, presenting the different stages that this discipline has gone through. Then, it will make an approach to the reception of Machiavelli and the neo-machiavellian in three political scientists of great significance: Harold Laswell, Robert Dahl and Giovanni Sartori. Second, the paper will examine the reception of the works of the Florentine author and the elitist theorists in three Political Science chairs that were conducted during the indicated period by Alberto Ramón Real, Carlos Real de Azúa and Jacques Ginesta. Finally, there will be a reflection on the different emphases that were made in the teaching of Political Science at that time, particularly following the intervention of the University after the 1973 coup d’État.
Oliveira, Alandeom Wanderlei
This study explores elementary teachers' social understandings and employment of directives and politeness while facilitating inquiry science lessons prior and subsequent to their participation in a summer institute in which they were introduced to the scholarly literature on regulative discourse (directives used by teachers to regulate student behavior). A grounded theory analysis of the institute professional development activities revealed that teachers developed an increased awareness of the authoritative functions served by impolite or direct directives (i.e., pragmatic awareness). Furthermore, a comparative microethnographic analysis of participants' inquiry-based classroom practices revealed that after the institute teachers demonstrated an increased ability to share authority with students by strategically making directive choices that were more polite, indirect, inclusive, involvement-focused and creative. Such ability led to a reduced emphasis on teacher regulation of student compliance with classroom behavioral norms and an increased focus on the discursive organization of the inquiry-based science learning/teaching process. Despite teachers' increased pragmatic awareness, teacher-student linguistic relationships did not become entirely symmetrical subsequent to their participation in the summer institute (i.e., teacher authority was not completely relinquished or lost). Based on such findings, it is argued that teachers need to develop higher levels of pragmatic awareness to become effectively prepared to engage in language-mediated teacher-student interaction in the context of inquiry-based science classroom discourse.
Jacob, Klaus [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany)
The necessity and possibilities of, limits to and the specific instruments employed for green industrial policy are a topic of both scientific and political debate. Economists and politicians can draw on rich resources in dealing with these issues. The contributions contained in this volume are the outcome of a workshop held by the German Federal Environment Agency and the Federal Environment Ministry on the topic of ''Green industrial policy'' on 18 April 2008 in Berlin. Economists and politicians were invited to participate in an expert dialog to locate the topic of green industrial policy within the larger discourses of political economics, deliberate on theoretical motives and practical limits to the concept from an economic viewpoint and discuss possible instruments and fields of action. The workshop focussed on questions relating to the necessity of green industrial policy, the framing of political programmes and the implementation of adopted goals into specific measures.
Burtonwood, Ann M.; Hocking, Paul J.; Elwyn, Glyn
Examined the experiences of a team of facilitators from the National Health Service Staff College, Wales, who participated in an effort to help general practices identify, prioritize, and implement systemic developments interlinked with individuals' professional development and become effective, interprofessional, interagency organizations.…
Smith, Robert W.
Attention is given to the politics of initiating the Space Telescope program and to the manner in which the coalition, or working consensus, for the Telescope was assembled, in particular, the role played by astronomers. It is contended that what ensued was a case study in the influence of government patronage on a large-scale scientific and technological program. It is concluded that while a politically feasible Space Telescope did result, in the selling process the Telescope had been both oversold and underfunded.
Horodyskyj, L.; Lennon, T.; Mead, C.; Anbar, A. D.
Climate change is a problem that involves science, economics, and politics. Particularly in the United States, political resistance to addressing climate change has been exacerbated by a concerted misinformation campaign against the basic science, a negative response to how the proposed solutions to climate change intersect with values. Scientists often propose more climate science education as a solution to the problem, but preliminary studies indicate that more science education does not necessarily reduce polarization on the topic (Kahan et al. 2012). Is there a way that we can better engage non-science students in topics related to climate change that improve their comprehension of the problem and its implications, overcoming polarization? In an existing political science course, "Do You Want to Build a Nation?", we are testing a new digital world-building model based on resource development and consequent environmental and societal impacts. Students spend half the class building their nations based on their assigned ideology (i.e., socialist, absolute monarchy, libertarian) and the second half of the class negotiating with other nations to resolve global issues while remaining true to their ideologies. The course instructor, co-author Lennon, and ASU's Center for Education Through eXploration have collaborated to design a digital world model based on resources linked to an adaptive decision-making environment that translates student policies into modifications to the digital world. The model tracks students' exploration and justification of their nation's policy choices. In the Fall 2017 offering of the course, we will investigate how this digital world model and scenarios built around it affect student learning outcomes. Specifically, we anticipate improved understanding of the policy trade-offs related to energy development, better understanding of the ways that different ideologies approach solutions to climate change, and that both will result in more
This presentation introduces a project, currently in development, of a new online platform for the interaction between climate scientists and citizen. It consists of an open-access, multi-lingual, and peer-reviewed journal publishing climate articles in non-scientific language. It follows three main long-term objectives. The first objective is to establish an ever-growing, multi-lingual library of climate articles providing a knowledge base on climate sciences accessible for free to everyone. The targeted public includes journalists, teachers, students, local actors (e.g. in politics, economy, agriculture), and any other citizen from around the world with an interest in climate sciences. The second goal is to offer a simple and direct channel for scientists wishing to disseminate their research to the general public. A high standard of climate articles is enforced through: a) requiring that the main author is an active climate scientist, and b) an innovative peer-review process involving scientific and non-scientific referees with distinct roles. The third objective is to engage citizen into the climate science. To this aim, the journal proposes three channels. Firstly, citizens are invited to contribute to the dissemination of climate knowledge to the general public by co-authoring, peer-reviewing or translating articles. Secondly, they are offered the capacity to stimulate scientific enquiry by posting invitations for manuscripts to be written on a citizen-inspired topic. Thirdly, a match-up tool is being developed for scientists to gather non-scientists teams for conducting citizen-involving research projects. This platform is scientist-initiated and is meant to be ruled and managed by the participating individuals themselves (scientists and non-scientists) as an international association. It will be financed through country-varying flat memberships. The project is now starting. The basic ideas are drawn; a prototype internet platform has been developed and is
Homoeconomico-politicus, Scientific Consciousness, and the Defense of Fundamental Values in the Context of the Climate Change Crisis: The Challenge of Scientific Responsibility for the Future of Economic and Political Science
Winston P Nagan
Full Text Available The general framework of this paper is to focus on the evolution of scientific consciousness and the dramatic technological developments it has generated, which have vital and highly consequential consequences for social organization on a global basis. The central fact about the current technological revolution is the enormous challenges it provides for political and economic decision-making. The political and economic choices are often merged in a symbiotic wave of challenges. In politics, we have understood the background and challenges that confront homopoliticus. These challenges are even more pronounced as challenges for homoeconomicus. In short, homoeconomico-politicus is both an observer and a participator in the challenges of dramatic technological change. What ties these two concepts together is that they are fed by a form of scientific consciousness. Dramatic forces of change, now unleashed, literally require new paradigms of political and economic thinking to inform wise policy makers about sensible political and economic choices. Both economics and politics are dramatically interrelated and shaped by the philosophy of science known as Logical Positivism. The problem with this approach is that it demands a form of scientific objectivity that rigorously excludes the study of values in the science of politics and economics. But the broader level of scientific consciousness would virtually require that these disciplines adequately account for the value implications of their work. These generalized comments may be an appropriate introduction to a deeper understanding of the impact of technological changes on the organization of political economy at all levels of social organization from the local to the global. One of the issues that we seek to underscore in this paper is a better understanding of the idea of economic consciousness. It would seem to be obvious that economic consciousness influences economic theory and practice. In this
Peters, Michael A.
This article charts the rise of global science and a global science infrastructure as part of the emerging international knowledge system exemplifying a geography of knowledge and the importance of new info-communications networks. The article theorises the rise of global science, which still strongly reflects a Western bias and is highly…
The current conception of political participation in governmental institutions is deeply marked by the notions of deliberation and precaution. This normative conception of participatory politics neglects, backgrounds or disqualifies other participatory practices, in so far as they are not connected to deliberation and precaution. However, participation has not always been defined in such a restricted way: the current conception of participation is a product of the 1980s and 1990s. In this paper, the meaning ascribed to the notion of participation in the 1970s in France is explored through the study of discourses produced in three fields: the Science Policy Division of the OECD, the French radical science movement, and the emerging STS academic field. As is shown, some of the bases of the current notion of participation originate in the 1970s. Nevertheless, it is argued that in these years, the notion of participation has more to do with experimentation than with deliberation and precaution. Therefore, the conception of participation in the 1970s differs greatly from the current one. Methodologically, this paper combines tools offered by the social history of science and the French school of discourse analysis.
Yinger, J. Milton, Ed.; Simpson, George Eaton, Ed.
Aspects of social change among American Indians and in the relationships of Indians to government and the larger society are examined in the collection of articles by 12 political and social scientists. Focusing on recent developments, this look at American Indians today encompasses rapid population growth, urbanization of the Indian population,…
By focusing on the question of whether it was right or wrong to drop the atomic bomb on Hiroshima, this social studies unit seeks to illuminate the political, military, scientific, and moral complexities involved in making far-reaching decisions today. Sections of the unit use primary materials from American, Japanese, and English sources to…
Konefal, Jason; Hatanaka, Maki
As third-party certification has become a prominent governance mechanism, conflicting understandings of it have emerged. Proponents advance third-party certification as a technical and objective governance mechanism, while critics argue that politics and relations of power characterize it. We reject this dichotomization both in terms of how TPC is…
Social- and virtue-epistemologies connect intellectual and moral concerns in ways significant for education and its theory. For most educationists, epistemic and ethical virtues are no longer dissociated. However, many political framings or operations of epistemic virtues and vices remain neglected in educational discourses. This article…
Neoliberalism is one of the most pervasive and contested concepts of our contemporary era. Thus, it is essential for students to gain an understanding of its history, meaning, assumptions, and policy prescriptions. In addition to recognizing the importance of neoliberalism in the current political discourse, I argue that the polarized responses to…
Antony S. Cheng; Linda E. Kruger; Steven E. Daniels
This article lays out six propositions centering on a relationship between peopleplace connections and strategic behavior in natural resource politics. The first two propositions suggest a strong and direct connection between self-identity, place, and how individuals perceive and value the environment. The third, fourth, and fifth propositions tie together social group...
Despeaux, J. Michael; Knotts, H. Gibbs; Schiff, Jennifer S.
Given the growing emphasis on career preparation in higher education, career centers play important roles on today's college campuses. The literature has focused on the reasons students use career services, but it has not addressed the vital linkage between career centers and academic departments. Using a survey of 279 political science…
Moynihan, Daniel Patrick
This article traces the progress of U.S. political thought and economic development over the last two centuries. Although the psychological realism of the Founders predicted much, and has served the nation well, modern needs surpass those of a small and distant national government. (PS)
This paper briefly examines the epistemic orientation of the Politics discipline in South Africa, and specifically in "formerly white universities". The focus is to expose the disparity between this epistemic orientation and the South African locale that it finds itself in; that is, a locale whose history is different from its…
LaCour, Michael J; Green, Donald P
Can a single conversation change minds on divisive social issues, such as same-sex marriage? A randomized placebo-controlled trial assessed whether gay (n = 22) or straight (n = 19) messengers were effective at encouraging voters (n = 972) to support same-sex marriage and whether attitude change persisted and spread to others in voters' social networks. The results, measured by an unrelated panel survey, show that both gay and straight canvassers produced large effects initially, but only gay canvassers' effects persisted in 3-week, 6-week, and 9-month follow-ups. We also find strong evidence of within-household transmission of opinion change, but only in the wake of conversations with gay canvassers. Contact with gay canvassers further caused substantial change in the ratings of gay men and lesbians more generally. These large, persistent, and contagious effects were confirmed by a follow-up experiment. Contact with minorities coupled with discussion of issues pertinent to them is capable of producing a cascade of opinion change. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Specifics of horizontal and vertical relations in Ukrainian political communication on the background of the party building’s process, political science theory and requirements to Ukrainian political context
K. Y. Odarchenko
Full Text Available The specifics of horizontal and vertical relations in Ukrainian political communication on the background of the party building’s process has been analysed. Aims of this article are: 1 determination of the subjectivity of political communication; 2 disclosure of the main features of internal politics and communications; 3 setting the essential features of the political parties’ status after peaceful protests in Ukraine 2013-2014 year; 4 explanation of the actual gap that has horizontal and party political communication in Ukraine. Political modernization, capacity of Ukrainian political parties has been characterized. It has been shown that Maidan didn’t influenced tools of creating political parties and their typology greatly. Maidan as a political component was weak and did not respond to the challenges, which Ukrainian political system faced to. The weakness was in the fact that leaders of the oppositional political camp would rather keep old then implement real political change of the political system , which was adapted by the old oliharcial clan. Public sector was not able to identify their environment with new political leaders, nor with a mass movement, based on the creation of new organized political force. It has been found that in a democratic society communication is effective only if it is not only technically modern, interactive, two-way, but if it is consistent to other democratic demands, such as legal and moral control of society over the media, maintenance of basic pluralism, direct contact between senders and recipients of information, feeds decentralization, respect of freedom of expression and privat opinion. Summary of the political communication in Ukraine has to move away from thinking of policy and bureaucratic political consciousness. Otherwise, the simulation is effective and efficient for countries and regions where political communication can become a daily political farce communication in public space.
McQuigg, R. Bruce
Author says that science courses that develop contempt for and hostility toward science are doing more harm than good to many students, and calls on curriculum makers to see that respect for the scientific method is engendered by translating it from the lab to life itself. (Editor)
Science education becomes even more important in the-context of the present efforts of the country towards globalisation and a market economy. Perhaps too ... Clearly, we need to gear up our science education to meet these challenges if we are to fully reap the benefits, of the new economic policies. At the same time, ...
The importance of science education of high quality, especially at the high school and undergraduate levels, cannot be over-emphasized in a country like ours. Science education becomes even more important in the-context of the present efforts of the country towards globalisation and a market economy. Perhaps too ...
Wesselink, A.; Hoppe, Robertus
Post-normal science (PNS) is presented by its proponents as a new way of doing science that deals with uncertainties, value diversity or antagonism, and high decision stakes and urgency, with the ultimate goal of remedying the pathologies of the global industrial system for which, according to
Blaine G Robbins
Full Text Available Despite decades of research on social capital, studies that explore the relationship between political institutions and generalized trust-a key element of social capital-across time are sparse. To address this issue, we use various cross-national public-opinion data sets including the World Values Survey and employ pooled time-series OLS regression and fixed- and random-effects estimation techniques on an unbalanced panel of 74 countries and 248 observations spread over a 29-year time period. With these data and methods, we investigate the impact of five political-institutional factors-legal property rights, market regulations, labor market regulations, universality of socioeconomic provisions, and power-sharing capacity-on generalized trust. We find that generalized trust increases monotonically with the quality of property rights institutions, that labor market regulations increase generalized trust, and that power-sharing capacity of the state decreases generalized trust. While generalized trust increases as the government regulation of credit, business, and economic markets decreases and as the universality of socioeconomic provisions increases, both effects appear to be more sensitive to the countries included and the modeling techniques employed than the other political-institutional factors. In short, we find that political institutions simultaneously promote and undermine generalized trust.
Tupper, Kenneth W; Labate, Beatriz C
This article offers critical sociological and philosophical reflections on ayahuasca and other psychedelics as objects of research in medicine, health and human sciences. It situates 21st century scientific inquiry on ayahuasca in the broader context of how early modern European social trends and intellectual pursuits translated into new forms of empiricism and experimental philosophy, but later evolved into a form of dogmatism that convenienced the political suppression of academic inquiry into psychedelics. Applying ideas from the field of science and technology studies, we consider how ayahuasca's myriad ontological representations in the 21st century--for example, plant teacher, traditional medicine, religious sacrament, material commodity, cognitive tool, illicit drug--influence our understanding of it as an object of inquiry. We then explore epistemological issues related to ayahuasca studies, including how the indigenous and mestizo concept of "plant teacher" or the more instrumental notion of psychedelics as "cognitive tools" may impact understanding of knowledge. This leads to questions about whether scientists engaged in ayahuasca research should be expected to have personal experiences with the brew, and how these may be perceived to help or hinder the objectivity of their pursuits. We conclude with some brief reflections on the politics of psychedelic research and impediments to academic knowledge production in the field of psychedelic studies.
Konopásek, Z.; Stöckelová, Tereza; Zamykalová, L.
Roč. 33, č. 4 (2008), s. 529-553 ISSN 0162-2439 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P05OK459 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505; CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : expertise * politics * highway bypass Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 1.926, year: 2008 http:// sth .sagepub.com/cgi/content/refs/33/4/529
Crop genetic diversity - which is crucial for feeding humanity, for the environment and for sustainable development - is being lost at an alarming rate. Given the enormous interdependence of countries and generations on this genetic diversity, this loss raises critical socio-economic, ethical and political questions. The recent ratification of a binding international treaty, and the development of powerful new technologies to conserve and use resources more effectively, have raised expectations that must now be fulfilled.
The constituency orientation of Irish politicians is a recurring topic in Irish political science. Its analysis has predominantly focused on TDs. This article uses a content analysis of candidate video statements in the general election 2016 in order to assess the strength of constituency...... this pattern, indicated by the weak constituency orientation in Dublin and Cork constituencies. Results also indicate differences between parties and some political statuses, while the gender of the candidates is of no relevance. Although the material does not permit a clear distinction between effects...... of political culture and short-term considerations, taken together the results indicate that localism in Irish politics matters, but in more complicated ways than usually depicted....
Brown, Bryan A.
This review examines twenty years of research (1985-2005) on African-American students in science education. This analysis identified three types of research studies on African-Americans. First, a series of studies provided status reports of African-American students' performance in science. Second, a series of studies highlighted cultural…
Comptroller General of the U.S., Washington, DC.
In this report the Comptroller General of the General Accounting Office (GAO) examines National Science Foundation (NSF) policies, procedures, and practices for developing, evaluating, and implementing precollege science education projects and their specific applications to "Man: A Course of Study" (MACOS). The topics investigated…
Skells, Kristin Marie
Extant data was used to consider the association between science anxiety, social cognitive factors and STEM career aspirations of high school freshmen in general science classes. An adapted model based on social cognitive career theory (SCCT) was used to consider these relationships, with science anxiety functioning as a barrier in the model. The study assessed the following research questions: (1) Do social cognitive variables relate in the expected way to STEM career aspirations based on SCCT for ninth graders taking general science classes? (2) Is there an association between science anxiety and outcomes and processes identified in the SCCT model for ninth graders taking general science classes? (3) Does gender moderate these relationships? Results indicated that support was found for many of the central tenants of the SCCT model. Science anxiety was associated with prior achievement, self-efficacy, and science interest, although it did not relate directly to STEM career goals. Gender was found to moderate only the relationship between prior achievement and science self-efficacy.
... General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel; 2011 NIH Director's Pioneer Awards. Date: May 2-4, 2011. Time: 7:45 a.m...
Parveen, Qaisara; Batool, Sadia
The aim of the study was to explore the effects of cooperative learning on General Science achievement among 9th class students. Based upon previous research literature it was hypothesized that significant difference existed between the mean posttest scores of General Science achievement of experimental group and control group. The pretest…
Sávio, Marco Antônio Cornacioni
This article discusses the role of the journal, Revista Politécnica in the creation of an idea of science in São Paulo during the first republican period in Brazil. Published by the students of the Escola Politécnica de São Paulo (São Paulo Polytechnic), which went through upheavals in its formative years, the periodical became a vehicle for the promotion and communication of an idea of science amongst the São Paulo elites at the time. It not only assured the institution a prominent position in the state, but also helped its consolidation as a national center of science, as opposed, for instance, to its main competitor, the Escola Politécnica do Rio de Janeiro (Rio de Janeiro Polytechnic).
Lawler, Peter Augustine
Advocates inclusion of political philosophy in the education of public administrators. States that U.S. public officials need knowledge gained through a general education rather than through a specialization in administrative science. Emphasizes that administrators must study philosophy if they are to make political decisions in line with the U.S.…
Slavkin, H C
Scientific Discovery often reflects the art, science, and advocacy for biomedical research. Here the author reflects on selected highlights of discovery that contributed to several aspects of our understanding of craniofacial biology and craniofacial diseases and disorders.
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 10. How Many Functional Molecules. Milind G Watve. Think It Over Volume 2 Issue 10 October 1997 pp 71-71. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/10/0071-0071. Author Affiliations.
Items 1 - 50 of 86 ... STECH: An International Journal of Science and Technology is a peer-reviewed journal of interdisciplinary scientific research, theories, and observations. STECH is a semi-annual publication of International Association of African Researchers and Reviewers (IAARR). The mission of this journal is to ...
Full Text Available Political crowdfunding is analyzed as a new concept of political science. The justification of use of crowdfunding technologies not only in business but also in the political sphere is argued. The efficiency, availability, low cost of the new forms of political investment through the development of information and communication technologies are noted. The typology of political crowdfunding is proposed. Political projects promoting domestic crowdfunding platforms are analyzed. Attention is drawn to the problem of legal gaps in the regulation of crowdfunding is studied. The foreign experience of organizing public support (mikroinvestment political projects. It is emphasized that in terms of political theory crowdfunding is based on solidarity. The crowdfunding properties of transforming social capital accumulated by social networks into financial capital are mentioned.
Marcos Jungmann Bhering
Full Text Available The article analyses the performance of the positivist scientist Paulo Estevão Berredo Carneiro (1901-1982 in the Secretary of Agriculture, Industry and Commerce of Pernambuco (SAICP in 1935. His career was built in the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Industry and Commerce (MAIC during the 1920s and early 1930s, holding positions in scientific institutions and governmental agencies. Around 1930s Carneiro was invited by Lima Cavalcanti, Governor of Pernambuco State, to lead the SAICP. During his administration, he sought to implement policies for the rural areas based on a scientistic perspective. The analysis of Carneiro's performance in Pernambuco State distance ourselves of part of the literature about the history of positivism in Brazil, that conceives it as an ideology in decline since decade of 1910. The positivism creed, which credited to science and technique an important role for social progress was at once in several scientific and political spaces in 1920s and 1930s and gave the keynote to the policies implemented by Carneiro in the SAICP. Identifying himself as a technician who would have the task of leading reformists projects, his performance aroused criticism of local elites in a context of political radicalization and advance of authoritarianism of Getúlio Vargas government. Positivism and its premises persisted in 1930s as a key to understand the social reformism of the period.
Design Cost Data, 2003
Describes this school building, including the educational context and design goals. Includes information on the architects and construction team, a general building description, and a case study of construction costs and specifications. Also includes the floor plan and photographs. (EV)
This article, by exploring the individual and collective trajectories that led to the "nuclear winter" debate, examines what originally drew scientists on both sides of the controversy to this research. Stepping back from the day-to-day action and looking at the larger cultural and political context of nuclear winter reveals sometimes surprising commonalities among actors who found themselves on opposing sides, as well as differences within the apparently coherent TTAPS group (the theory's originators: Richard P. Turco, Owen Brian Toon, Thomas P. Ackerman, James B. Pollack, and Carl Sagan). This story foreshadows that of recent research on anthropogenic climate change, which was substantially shaped during this--apparently tangential--cold war debate of the 1980s about research on the global effects of nuclear weapons.
Scarlett, Lynn; Vargas-Moreno, Juan; Flaxman, Michael
Environmental issues, vast and varied in their details, unfold at the confluence of people and place. They present complexities in their biophysical details, their scope and scale, and the dynamic character of human action and natural systems. Addressing environmental issues often invokes tensions among battling interests and competing priorities. Air and water pollution, the effects of climate change, ecosystem transformations—these and other environmental issues involve scientific, social, economic, and institutional challenges. This book analyzes why tackling many of these problems is so difficult and why sustainability involves more than adoption of greener, cleaner technologies. Sustainability, as discussed in this book, involves knowledge flows and collaborative decision processes that integrate scientific and technological methods and tools, political and governance structures and regimes, and social and community values. The authors synthesize a holistic and adaptive approach to rethinking the frame...
Coccia, Emanuele; Piron, Sylvain
Nothing is more false than the image of Dante as an isolated genius standing out against his epoch. On the contrary he belongs to a very characteristic generation of italian intellectuals: laymen, often active in more than one domain, practicing abundantly poetic expression, engaged in political action, these scholar-citizens share equally a strong historical conscience. Their inventivity is manifested in philosophy, in medecine and in law, as well as in literary expression. Aside from these endogenous factors, a key to this phenomenon is linked to the active reception of the naturalistic knowledge elaborated in Paris, which is read in Italy outside of the control of theologians. The parallel journeys of a dozen uncommon personalities show the necessity of enlarging the habitual frames of medieval intellectual history.
Makgoba, Malegapuru W
The microchip, the computer and the DNA revolution have brought the questions of ethics, counselling and equitable research to the fore. The new world order is a world of: equity; human rights; human dignity; the alleviation of poverty; closing the gap between the "haves and have nots". The social and economic impact and implications of these have opened a new dialogue between the professions and the laypersons in order to address matters of rights, ethics and power relationships in health research that is unprecedented in history. The yearning need for science to be understood by the public; the need for scientists to communicate better; the need for the public to make choices about what science has to offer in their daily life; the need for the public to participate and shape the scientific process; the need for science to integrate the wealth of information that is already existent has never been greater than today. Perhaps no examples illustrate these challenges better than the revolution in biology (the Human Genome Project and embryo stem cell research/therapy) and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS epidemic that is sweeping sub-Saharan Africa (1). The way we teach, learn and practice science will no longer be the same. It will no longer be business as usual. It is unfortunately also within this context that pseudoscience is likely flourish (2).
Allukian, Myron; Carter-Pokras, Olivia D; Gooch, Barbara F; Horowitz, Alice M; Iida, Hiroko; Jacob, Matt; Kleinman, Dushanka V; Kumar, Jayanth; Maas, William R; Pollick, Howard; Rozier, R Gary
Community water fluoridation (CWF) and its effect in reducing the burden of dental caries (tooth decay) is considered one of the 10 public health achievements in the 20th century. In the U.S., three-quarters (74.4%) of people on community water supplies have optimally fluoridated water, and each year approximately 90 communities actively consider starting or discontinuing CWF. CWF exists within the policy environment and includes actions taken by local community councils, health and water boards, and groups; state legislatures and health departments; national regulatory and science agencies; independent science entities; and professional and nonprofit organizations. Epidemiologists have been in the forefront of CWF. Experience with the past 70 years reveals that the coming decades will bring additional questions, recommendations, and challenges for CWF. The continued involvement of epidemiologists as part of multidisciplinary teams is needed in research, surveillance, peer review of studies, assessment of systematic review findings, and in the translation and communication of science findings to audiences with limited science/health literacy. This chapter's purpose is to 1) examine how epidemiologic evidence regarding CWF has been translated into practice and policy, 2) examine how recommendations for and challenges to CWF have affected epidemiologic research and community decision-making, and 3) identify lessons learned for epidemiologists. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
In the last two decades, history of science and science studies have been quite reluctant to adopt the notion of ideology when analyzing the dynamics of science. This may be an effect of the decreasing popularity of neo-marxist approaches within this disciplinary field; but it is also due to the fact that alternative approaches have been developed, for example Michel Foucault's notion of problematization, Roland Barthes' semiotic mythology, Bruno Latour's re-interpretation of the ontological difference between fact and fetish in science, or Donna Haraway's semi-fictional re-narrations of the techno-scientific world. This contribution undertakes to sketch the impact of two strands of 19th century immanentism on the authors named above, and on their use of concepts related to the notion of ideology, namely fetish, fetishism, myth and mythology respectively. It is argued that in some respect, Marx' concept of commodity fetishism is worth being re-examined, since it articulates a dialectical relation of 'reality' and 'seeming', and its impact on Barthes' mythology is deeper than it might appear at first glance.
This paper explores the situated nature of the epistemological values of a social science discipline as it finds expression in a particular department. Although it explores Becher and Trowler's anthropological conception of disciplinary "territories" and tribes (/2001) it finds deeper resonances in Trowler's more recent notion of "teaching…
Arsenault, Paul M.; Stevenson, Linda S.
One of the greatest challenges facing social science and marketing programs in the start of the 21st century is how to "globalize" our curriculums, so that our tech-savvy, but often internationally and cross-culturally inexperienced students have, understand, and are prepared to embrace the diverse opportunities that will be an…
Mügge, L.; Evans, E.; Engeli, I.
Major changes have occurred in the teaching of gender since the shift from women’s studies to gender studies. In some institutions gender studies became a separate and interdisciplinary track within social sciences and humanities, while in others it either lacked integration or disappeared
Full Text Available Poor gender ratio in science and engineering has been a global concern, despite growing number of female scientists in the world. Women’s empowerment in science is key to achieve human progress and dignity and directly related to accomplishing SDG 16: "Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels". What are the challenges that hinder women and girls’ progress in science? Added to several challenges discussed below, wars and displaced population create obstacles for female education and women’s advancement in science and technology. There are some challenges that have prevailed for the last two decades (e.g. economic insecurity and new challenges that are the results of the new forms wars, civil wars and extremism (e.g., large scale armed conflicts that involves state and non-state actors which have produced large numbers of displaced women in the Middle East who lost their jobs and isolated elsewhere, many young displaced females and refugees and who have no access to formal education and who face health risks in conflict and displacement settings, and new forms of gender discrimination produced by religious extremism.......
Cassani, Mary Kay Kuhr
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of two pedagogical models used in general education science on non-majors' science teaching self-efficacy. Science teaching self-efficacy can be influenced by inquiry and cooperative learning, through cognitive mechanisms described by Bandura (1997). The Student Centered Activities for Large Enrollment Undergraduate Programs (SCALE-UP) model of inquiry and cooperative learning incorporates cooperative learning and inquiry-guided learning in large enrollment combined lecture-laboratory classes (Oliver-Hoyo & Beichner, 2004). SCALE-UP was adopted by a small but rapidly growing public university in the southeastern United States in three undergraduate, general education science courses for non-science majors in the Fall 2006 and Spring 2007 semesters. Students in these courses were compared with students in three other general education science courses for non-science majors taught with the standard teaching model at the host university. The standard model combines lecture and laboratory in the same course, with smaller enrollments and utilizes cooperative learning. Science teaching self-efficacy was measured using the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument - B (STEBI-B; Bleicher, 2004). A science teaching self-efficacy score was computed from the Personal Science Teaching Efficacy (PTSE) factor of the instrument. Using non-parametric statistics, no significant difference was found between teaching models, between genders, within models, among instructors, or among courses. The number of previous science courses was significantly correlated with PTSE score. Student responses to open-ended questions indicated that students felt the larger enrollment in the SCALE-UP room reduced individual teacher attention but that the large round SCALE-UP tables promoted group interaction. Students responded positively to cooperative and hands-on activities, and would encourage inclusion of more such activities in all of the
The range of the implicit meanings of badnam (bad name) stop short of unpacking the complexity underscoring the implied soiling and spoiling of ‘name’: the crucible of reputation, honour, and dignity. What happens when diverse stakeholders working in the burgeoning and high-stakes field of stem cell science in India fear badnami, ignominy (to invoke one possible meaning), in the context of a regulatory flux and fears of rapidly deepening reputation of the field as a maverick site for stem cel...
In 2012 the SG38 international committee was formed to develop a modern structure to replace the ENDF-6 format for storing evaluated nuclear reaction data on a computer system. This committee divided the project into seven tasks. One of these tasks, the design of General-Purpose Data Containers (GPDCs), is described in this article. What type of data does SG38 need to store and why is the task called General-Purpose Data Containers? The most common types of data in an evaluated nuclear reaction database are representations of physical functions in tabulated forms. There is also a need to store 1-dimensional functions using truncated Legendre or polynomial (or others) expansions. The phrase General-Purpose implies that the containers are to be designed to store generic forms of tabulated data rather than one for each physical function. Also, where possible, it would be beneficial to design containers that can store data forms not currently used in evaluated nuclear database or at least be easily extended. In addition to containers for storing physical functions as tabulated data, other types of containers are needed. There exists a desire within SG38 to support the storage of documentation at various levels within an evaluated file. Containers for storing non-functional data (e.g., a list of numbers) as well as units and labels for axes are also needed. Herein, containers for storing physical functions are called functional containers. One of the goals for the general-purpose data containers task is to design containers that will be useful to other scientific and engineering applications. To meet this goal, task members should think outside of the immediate needs of evaluated nuclear data to ensure that the containers are general- purpose rather than simply repackaged versions of existing containers. While the examples in this article may be specific to nuclear reaction data, it is hoped that the end product will be useful for other applications. To this end, some
Lau, Joseph T F; Kim, Yoona; Wu, Anise M S; Wang, Zixin; Huang, Bishan; Mo, Phoenix K H
Political tension, as expressed by mass movements such as the Occupy Central movement (2014) in Hong Kong, is a potential but understudied structural factor of population mental health. A random population-based telephone survey anonymously interviewed 344 Hong Kong Chinese adults aged 18-65 years during the 2 weeks since the termination date of the 2-month-long Occupy Central movement (15/12/2014). Linear regression models were fit using mental distress (depression, anxiety and negative mood) and self-perceived changes in mood/sleeping quality as dependent variables. Prevalence of participation in the movement was 10.5% (self), 17.7% (family members/relatives), and 34.0% (peers); 8.5% had participated for ≥2 days. Young age, but not participation, was associated with mental distress. In adjusted analysis, three types of responses to the movement (worry about safety, negative emotional responses to media reports, and conflicts with peers about the movement) and emotional responses to local political situations were significantly associated with all/some of the dependent variables related to mental distress. The variable on emotions toward local political situations was correlated with the three responses to the movement; it fully mediated the associations between such responses and mental distress. Many citizens participated in the movement, which was led by youths and might have increased the general public's mental distress. Negative personal responses to the movement and emotions toward political situations were potential risk factors. As the political tension would last and political pessimism is globally found, politics may have become a regular and persistent structural risk factor negatively affecting population mental health.
Pleschova, Gabriela; Simon, Eszter
In this paper we examine the state of teacher training for political science PhD candidates in the European Union and make a comparison with the situation in the United States. We investigate the determinants of supply and demand of teacher training. On the supply side, we suggest that research orientation and quality assurance are factors that…
This article focuses on the nature of the writing in 73 articles published in six U.S. and U.K. political science and international relations journals that focus on teaching and learning. A comparative analysis is made of the articles through a review of the characteristics of the authors, the themes researched, the analytical focus, the research…
Paga, Mark Leo Huit
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the medium term effect of service-learning program or "Grassroots on Work" extension program to civic responsibility of AB Political Science students. Methodology: This study employed an impact evaluation research design and both qualitative and quantitative. The data on goals and…
This article sets to explore the attitudes of higher education students enrolled in a political science programme at Master level towards e-learning facilitated by the introduction of a Moodle platform. The students have been surveyed at the end of public management course in the first semester of the programme asking them to evaluate both the…
Charlton, Bruce G
In 2007 James D. Watson, perhaps the most famous living scientist, was forced to retire from his position and retreat from public life in the face of international mass media condemnation following remarks concerning genetically-caused racial differences in intelligence. Watson was punished for stating forthright views on topics that elite opinion has determined should be discussed only with elaborate caution, frequent disclaimers, and solemn deference to the currently-prevailing pieties. James Watson has always struck many people as brash; however this blunt, truth-telling quality was intrinsic to his role in one of the greatest scientific discoveries. Much more importantly than 'good manners', Watson has consistently exemplified the cardinal scientific virtue: he speaks what he understands to be the truth without regard for the opinion of others. The most chilling aspect of the Watson Affair was the way in which so many influential members of the scientific research community joined the media condemnation directed against Watson. Perhaps the most egregious betrayal of science was an article by editorialists of the premier UK scientific journal Nature. Instead of defending the freedom of discourse in pursuit of scientific truth, Nature instead blamed Watson for being 'crass' and lacking 'sensitivity' in discussing human genetic differences. But if asked to choose between the 'sensitive' editors of Nature or the 'crass' genius of James D. Watson, all serious scientists must take the side of Watson. Because when a premier researcher such as Watson is hounded from office by a vicious, arbitrary and untruthful mob; all lesser scientists are made vulnerable to analogous treatment at the whim of the media. A zealous and coercive brand of 'political correctness' is now making the biological truth of human genetic differences intolerably difficult to discover and discuss in US and UK. This needs to change. My hope is that truth will prevail over political correctness and
Taking the examples of the Council of Economic Advisors, the Education Council and the Federal Parliament's Commission of Inquiry on Future Nuclear Energy Policy, this paper analyses political situations in the Federal Republic of Germany in which social science expertise entered public debate and decision-making in certain social problem areas in a very pronounced way. By considering the social context in which these advisory bodies were created, an attempt is made to link an analysis of different social actors' interests to a review of existing knowledge and patterns of interpretation in the social sciences. It is shown that by using social science findings some actors achieved advantages in justifying and legitimating their political positions and that subsequently the relations of actors in some arenas of conflict changed-without, however, allowing to relate this causally only to the use of scientific knowledge. If, however, the use of scientific arguments is rapidly generalized, the confrontation of expertise and counter-expertise by opposing actors becomes usual practice. This, in turn, provides for questions concerning their 'scientificity', which the social sciences are asked to take up in reflections of their relation to social practice. (orig./HSCH) [de
This book, which goes far beyond a traditional collection of technical articles, is dedicated to Enric Trillas, a fuzzy systems pioneer but also an internationally renowned researcher in other areas of science, such as mathematics and aerospace, and an outstanding manager of scientific affairs in Spain. Some of the contributions in this book develop technical, state-of-the-art themes obviously related to fuzzy logic, while others resemble popular-science articles that shed light on complex mathematical concepts. There are also chapters that highlight the authors’ personal relationships and experiences working with Enric Trillas. While planning this book project, the editors decided to give contributors absolute freedom of thought and expression in preparing their chapters. The result is a colorful and inspiring mixture of styles and topics, which perfectly reflects Enric Trillas’s multifaceted contributions to research and his outstanding role in promoting education and technological transfer in the field...
Elshakry, Marwa S
This essay looks at the problem of the global circulation of modem scientific knowledge by looking at science translations in modern Arabic. In the commercial centers of the late Ottoman Empire, emerging transnational networks lay behind the development of new communities of knowledge, many of which sought to break with old linguistic and literary norms to redefine the basis of their authority. Far from acting as neutral purveyors of "universal truths," scientific translations thus served as key instruments in this ongoing process of sociopolitical and epistemological transformation and mediation. Fierce debates over translators' linguistic strategies and choices involved deliberations over the character of language and the nature of "science" itself. They were also crucially shaped by such geopolitical factors as the rise of European imperialism and anticolonial nationalism in the region. The essay concludes by arguing for the need for greater attention to the local factors involved in the translation of scientific concepts across borders.
Jaspal, Rusi; Nerlich, Brigitte
Climate change has become a pressing environmental concern for scientists, social commentators and politicians. Previous social science research has explored media representations of climate change in various temporal and geographical contexts. Through the lens of Social Representations Theory, this article provides a detailed qualitative thematic analysis of media representations of climate change in the 1988 British broadsheet press, given that this year constitutes an important juncture in...
Regulating late-night alcohol sales to prevent violence continues to be hotly debated in Australia. From July this year, Queensland required premises to stop serving alcohol (last drinks) by 3 am in entertainment precincts and by 2 am in the rest of the state. The Government made legislative provision for 1 am lockouts in entertainment precincts but at the time of writing has not committed to introducing them. Lockouts, also known as one-way-doors, permit patrons to remain drinking in premises until last drinks but deny entry to new patrons. In Newcastle, New South Wales, lockouts and earlier closing of licensed premises were introduced in 2008. Evidence that these produced large reductions in assault informed the 2014 Sydney restrictions that are currently under review. The global research evidence for last drinks regulations is compelling: trading extensions of as little as one h increase harm, and similarly modest restrictions reduce harm. In contrast, the effectiveness of lockouts, a phenomenon unique to Australasia, is uncertain. The Newcastle, Sydney and Queensland reforms are a stepwise progression in alcohol harm countermeasures, a welcome example of evidence-based public policy. However, the aetiologies of these policy changes were complex. I present accounts of each and offer commentary on the interplay between scientific evidence, public health advocacy, politics, and chance occurrences that preceded these significant changes. © 2016 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Bennett, Sophia Elizabeth
27 January 2016 - UNESCO Assistant Director-General for Natural Sciences UNESCO F. Schlegel visiting the ATLAS experimental cavern with Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson B. Heinemann. M. Bona, Relations with International Organisations, accompanies the delegation throughout.
The meaning of the term energy varies widely in scientific and colloquial discourse. Teasing apart the different connotations of the term can be especially challenging for non-science majors. In this study, undergraduate students taking an interdisciplinary, general science course (n?=?49) were asked to explain the role of energy in five contexts:…
Students should have aesthetic experiences to be fully engaged in science learning at any level. A general education science instructor can foster opportunities for aesthetic educative learning experiences enabling student growth. Drawing on the work of John Dewey and expanding on others in the field, Uhrmacher identifies the characteristics of…
Full Text Available Climate variations in Mesoamerica have influenced the development and decay of populations from the earliest human settlements. The present time is no exception; there is no evidence that global warming will impact rainfall in the region, but rather there are important studies showing a response of rainfall to climate variability in the American tropics. Since our tropical region is vulnerable to climate variability, public policies must be congruent to avoid the mistakes of previous generations and achieve, with the help of science, a real progress in the fight against global warming.
This essay outlines the emergence of a contemporary synthesis regarding racial thinking in genetic science and in society more broadly. A departure from what Julian Huxley in 1942 termed the "modern synthesis," the contemporary version does not purport to leave race thinking behind in favor of evolution, population genetics, and population-based accounts of natural selection and human diversity. Specifically, the contemporary synthesis blends old concepts (such as that of pure human "types," located within continental land masses) with new attitudes (democratic inclusion, multicultural diversity, and anti-racism). Through various examples, the essay shows how this new synthesis combines ideas about human biological difference that draw on measures of physical characteristics and human genetic material that are both race and population based, yet conflated. This specific amalgam allows old notions of racial types to thrive through conceptual framings that comprise ideas that were once imagined to have the potential to liberate society from racial thinking--and that today remain attached to ideas of progress. As an emergent dynamic, the contemporary synthesis holds the possibility of reinvigorating racism, while simultaneously possessing the potential to promote antiracist science education, disease awareness, and social justice efforts.
In 2007, University of Oklahoma political science professor Cindy Simon Rosenthal was elected mayor of Norman, Oklahoma, after having served as a member of its city council. Was her activity unique within the political science profession among female political scientists? Her election stimulated the curiosity of some of us in the…
Aaskoven, Lasse; Lassen, David Dreyer
The political budget cycle—how elections affect government fiscal policy—is one of the most studied subjects in political economy and political science. The key theoretical question is whether incumbent governments can time or structure public finances in ways that improve their chances of reelec......The political budget cycle—how elections affect government fiscal policy—is one of the most studied subjects in political economy and political science. The key theoretical question is whether incumbent governments can time or structure public finances in ways that improve their chances...... on political budget cycles have recently focused on conditions under which such cycles are likely to obtain. Much recent research focuses on subnational settings, allowing comparisons of governments in similar institutional environments, and a consensus on the presences of cycles in public finances...
Full Text Available Designing and adopting a global response to address the rise of chronic diseases in both the industrial and developing world requires policymakers to engage in global health diplomacy. In the context of the recent United Nations’ High-Level Summit on Non-Communicable Diseases, the paper first reviews the rationale for collective action at the global level to address the rise of non-communicable diseases (NCDs, given the perceived limited cross-border dimensions of NCDs. Secondly, based on the social sciences literature studying policymaking at the domestic and international level, this article highlights recommendations on how to engage during the main phases of the policy process: agenda-setting, policy development and adoption.
Bakshy, Eytan; Messing, Solomon; Adamic, Lada A
Exposure to news, opinion, and civic information increasingly occurs through social media. How do these online networks influence exposure to perspectives that cut across ideological lines? Using deidentified data, we examined how 10.1 million U.S. Facebook users interact with socially shared news. We directly measured ideological homophily in friend networks and examined the extent to which heterogeneous friends could potentially expose individuals to cross-cutting content. We then quantified the extent to which individuals encounter comparatively more or less diverse content while interacting via Facebook's algorithmically ranked News Feed and further studied users' choices to click through to ideologically discordant content. Compared with algorithmic ranking, individuals' choices played a stronger role in limiting exposure to cross-cutting content. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
King, Gary; Pan, Jennifer; Roberts, Margaret E
Existing research on the extensive Chinese censorship organization uses observational methods with well-known limitations. We conducted the first large-scale experimental study of censorship by creating accounts on numerous social media sites, randomly submitting different texts, and observing from a worldwide network of computers which texts were censored and which were not. We also supplemented interviews with confidential sources by creating our own social media site, contracting with Chinese firms to install the same censoring technologies as existing sites, and--with their software, documentation, and even customer support--reverse-engineering how it all works. Our results offer rigorous support for the recent hypothesis that criticisms of the state, its leaders, and their policies are published, whereas posts about real-world events with collective action potential are censored. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Tao, Shen; Sun, Binchao
The necessity of offering photoelectric experiment general elective courses, such as the experiments of modern optical and innovational photoelectric design for non optic-electric's science and engineering students were discussed based on the analysis of the status quo and problems in experimental general elective course in science and engineering colleges of our country. And the characters of photoelectric disciplines, the goal of science and engineering quality-oriented education and the reform of science education at home and abroad were also considered. The instructional objectives, contents and characteristics of the courses were investigated. The specific methods, the CDIO (conceive, design, implement and operate) mode in the general courses has been proposed; the experiences and practical effects of offering these courses were concluded.
Recent advances in theoretical physics such as the discovery of the Higgs boson or the BICEP2 data supporting inflation can be part of the general science curriculum of non-science majors in a cosmology course designed as part of the General Education component. Yet to be a truly interdisciplinary experience one must deal with the religious background and faith of most of our students. Religious faith seems to be important in their lives, but the philosophical outlook of sciences like cosmology or evolutionary biology is one in which God is an unnecessary component in explaining the nature and origin of the universe. We will review recent advances in cosmology and suggestions on how to establish a respectful and intelligent science vs. religion debate in a transdisciplinary general education setting.
This paper finds that the Croatian public's and the social elites' perceptions of science are a mixture of scientific and technological optimism, of the tendency to absolve science of social responsibility, of skepticism about the social effects of science, and of cognitive optimism and skepticism. However, perceptions differ significantly according to the different social roles and the wider value system of the observed groups. The survey data show some key similarities, as well as certain specificities in the configuration of the types of views of the four groups--the public, scientists, politicians and managers. The results suggest that the well-known typology of the four cultures reveals some of the ideologies of the key actors of scientific and technological policy. The greatest social, primarily educational and socio-spatial, differentiation of the perceptions of science was found in the general public.
Widome, Rachel; Samet, Jonathan M; Hiatt, Robert A; Luke, Douglas A; Orleans, C Tracy; Ponkshe, Prabhu; Hyland, Andrew
We examine the process of how epidemiologic evidence regarding the harms of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure has been translated into policy and distill lessons that could be applied to other public health areas. We detail the history of the growth of evidence and the development of prudent policies in this area and the parallel, organized efforts led by the tobacco industry to oppose them. We also describe how opposition to these policies helped shape the emerging research agenda. Seven lessons emerged from our study. (i) Even after a policy goal has been achieved, the need for epidemiological evidence and inquiry remains. (ii) Dissemination and implementation research is necessary. (iii) The best and most necessary research questions do not always come from epidemiologists. (iv) There is a need for epidemiologists to work with other researchers across disciplines. (v) Epidemiologists must anticipate the opposition. (vi) Focused, well-organized advocacy is needed to translate even the strongest epidemiological evidence into policy change. (vii) Epidemiologists should be trained to engage and interact with public health advocates, practitioners, and policy makers. Although this case study shows that policy can be driven by science, it also demonstrates that clear scientific evidence does not automatically lead to optimal policy. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Prussing, Erica; Newbury, Elizabeth
In 2012-13 the Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment (MBIE) in New Zealand rapidly implemented a major restructuring of national scientific research funding. The "National Science Challenges" (NSC) initiative aims to promote greater commercial applications of scientific knowledge, reflecting ongoing neoliberal reforms in New Zealand. Using the example of health research, we examine the NSC as a key moment in ongoing indigenous Māori advocacy against neoliberalization. NSC rhetoric and practice through 2013 moved to marginalize participation by Māori researchers, in part through constructing "Māori" and "science" as essentially separate arenas-yet at the same time appeared to recognize and value culturally distinctive forms of Māori knowledge. To contest this "neoliberal multiculturalism," Māori health researchers reasserted the validity of culturally distinctive knowledge, strategically appropriated NSC rhetoric, and marshalled political resources to protect Māori research infrastructure. By foregrounding scientific knowledge production as an arena of contestation over neoliberal values and priorities, and attending closely to how neoliberalizing tactics can include moves to acknowledge cultural diversity, this analysis poses new questions for social scientific study of global trends toward reconfiguring the production of knowledge about health. Study findings are drawn from textual analysis of MBIE documents about the NSC from 2012 to 2014, materials circulated by Māori researchers in the blogosphere in 2014, and ethnographic interviews conducted in 2013 with 17 Māori health researchers working at 7 sites that included university-based research centers, government agencies, and independent consultancies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Malamud, E. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)]|[Science and Technology Interactive Center, Aurora, IL (United States)
Despite the remarkable progress in the past decades in understanding our Universe, we particle physicists have failed to communicate the wonder, excitement, and beauty of these discoveries to the general public. I am sure all agree there is a need, if our support from public funds is to continue at anywhere approximating the present level, for us collectively to educate and inform the general public of what we are doing and why. Informal science education and especially science and technology centers can play an important role in efforts to raise public awareness of particle physics in particular and of basic research in general. Science Centers are a natural avenue for particle physicists to use to communicate with and gain support from the general public.
Despite the remarkable progress in the past decades in understanding our Universe, we particle physicists have failed to communicate the wonder, excitement, and beauty of these discoveries to the general public. I am sure all agree there is a need, if our support from public funds is to continue at anywhere approximating the present level, for us collectively to educate and inform the general public of what we are doing and why. Informal science education and especially science and technology centers can play an important role in efforts to raise public awareness of particle physics in particular and of basic research in general. Science Centers are a natural avenue for particle physicists to use to communicate with and gain support from the general public
Silley, P; Stephan, B
Regulatory guidelines are in place across the world to ensure that approval of antibiotics is consistent with current scientific understanding of quality, efficacy and safety including minimizing the risk of the development of antibiotic resistance. We suggest the regulatory process is fit for purpose and does indeed approve products that are safe for use with regard to development of antibiotic resistance. However, we maintain that in order to preserve the longevity of antibiotics, treatment should be based on an established diagnosis and normally only antibiotics authorized for the diagnosed indication and indicated bacteria are used. Furthermore, susceptibility testing should be carried out whenever possible. Despite a general acceptance that antibiotic resistance is a significant issue, antibiotics can still receive a marketing authorization without a sponsor having to generate a clinical breakpoint. The consequence of this is that for many antibiotics we have no measure of what is resistant and what is susceptible at the approved dose. We argue that the time is right for all approvals of new or existing antibiotics to have independently agreed clinical breakpoints, as part of the regulatory process, without which talk of resistance is somewhat meaningless. This is relevant not only for novel antibiotics but also for generic compounds. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
World environmental policy. Conceptual approaches of German political science in response to the challenges of Global Change; Weltumweltpolitik - Global Change als Herausforderung fuer die deutsche Politikwissenschaft
Biermann, F. [Potsdam-Institut fuer Klimafolgenforschung (PIK), Potsdam (Germany); Dingwerth, K. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Fachbereich Politik- und Sozialwissenschaften
This paper describes, first, the international community of social scientists working on global change, and elaborates on possible contributions to this community by German political scientists. Second, the paper examines three new conceptual approaches to analysing global change, namely the Syndromes of Global Change approach, Earth System Analysis, and Sustainability Science. The paper then elaborates on a number of ways in which German political science could respond to the academic and political challenges posed by global change. It concludes by emphasizing the need for a new approach, focusing on 'world environmental policy analysis' that would bridge traditional (environmental) policy analysis, international relations research, and comparative politics. (orig.) [German] Der Aufsatz beschreibt die Wissenschaftslandschaft der internationalen sozialwissenschaftlichen Global-Change-Forschung mit besonderem Augenmerk auf moegliche Beitraege der deutschen Politologie. Mit den 'Syndromen des Globalen Wandels', der 'Erdsystemanalyse' und der 'Nachhaltigkeitswissenschaft' werden drei neuere konzeptionelle Innovationen vorgestellt, mit denen der Herausforderung des Globalen Wandels begegnet werden soll. Anschliessend werden Wege skizziert, wie die Politikwissenschaft auf die neuen gesellschaftlichen und wissenschaftlichen Probleme des Globalen Wandels reagieren koennte. Eine Schlussfolgerung ist ein Plaedoyer fuer die Entwicklung einer eigenstaendigen Weltumweltpolitik-Analyse an der Schnittstelle von traditioneller Policy-Analyse, Internationalen Beziehungen/Aussenpolitik sowie Komparatistik. (orig./CB)
Dal Ben, Rodrigo; Calixto, Fernanda Castanho; Ferreira, André Luiz
Recent studies have stressed the importance of disseminating behavior analysis to a more diverse audience and have provided ways to do so effectively. General science publications offer an attractive venue for communicating with a scientifically educated public. The present study examines behavior analysis research published in Science Today and Research Fapesp , monthly general science publications published by the Brazilian Society for the Advancement of Science and São Paulo Research Foundation, respectively. Behavior analytic terms were searched in issues published from 2003 to 2014, along with psychoanalytic terms as a comparative measure. Only 13 behavior analysis articles were found, while psychoanalytic articles totaled 150. Six of the behavior analysis articles misconstrue fundamental concepts of behavior analysis. The study recommends that behavior analysis researchers extend the dissemination of their findings outside the box.
Erçetin, Şefika; Tekin, Ali
The present work investigates global politics and political implications of social science and management with the aid of the latest complexity and chaos theories. Until now, deterministic chaos and nonlinear analysis have not been a focal point in this area of research. This book remedies this deficiency by utilizing these methods in the analysis of the subject matter. The authors provide the reader a detailed analysis on politics and its associated applications with the help of chaos theory, in a single edited volume.
Hunter, David J
Health systems have entered a third era embracing whole systems thinking and posing complex policy and management challenges. Understanding how such systems work and agreeing what needs to be put in place to enable them to undergo effective and sustainable change are more pressing issues than ever for policy-makers. The theory-policy-practice-gap and its four dimensions, as articulated by Chinitz and Rodwin, is acknowledged. It is suggested that insights derived from political science can both enrich our understanding of the gap and suggest what changes are needed to tackle the complex challenges facing health systems. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.
It is more than 10 years since Kehl (2002) identified the increasing number of scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL) papers being produced by political scientists. As noted by Hamann et al. (2009) and Whitman and Richlin (2007), this trend has developed further with increasing levels of research and publishing activity in political science…
The Political Parties and Political Participation in Rivers State, Nigeria: A Case Study of 2015 General Elections. Goddey Wilson. Abstract. The study reviewed the activities of the political parties and its impact on voters' participation in the political activities in Rivers State. In pursuit of this objective, the study generated ...
The session "Engaging K-12 Educators, Students, and the General Public in Space Science Exploration" included the following reports:Training Informal Educators Provides Leverage for Space Science Education and Public Outreach; Teacher Leaders in Research Based Science Education: K-12 Teacher Retention, Renewal, and Involvement in Professional Science; Telling the Tale of Two Deserts: Teacher Training and Utilization of a New Standards-based, Bilingual E/PO Product; Lindstrom M. M. Tobola K. W. Stocco K. Henry M. Allen J. S. McReynolds J. Porter T. T. Veile J. Space Rocks Tell Their Secrets: Space Science Applications of Physics and Chemistry for High School and College Classes -- Update; Utilizing Mars Data in Education: Delivering Standards-based Content by Exposing Educators and Students to Authentic Scientific Opportunities and Curriculum; K. E. Little Elementary School and the Young Astronaut Robotics Program; Integrated Solar System Exploration Education and Public Outreach: Theme, Products and Activities; and Online Access to the NEAR Image Collection: A Resource for Educators and Scientists.
Skaates, Maria Anne; Basajjabaka, Abubaker
A comparative analysis of the role of political parties in Denmark, the USA, and Uganda on the basis of political science theories about parties, political participation and political systems.......A comparative analysis of the role of political parties in Denmark, the USA, and Uganda on the basis of political science theories about parties, political participation and political systems....
Full Text Available This study used bibliometric methods to analyze subject disciplines of knowledge originality and knowledge generality for Library and Information Science (LIS by using citing and cited documents from 1997 to 2006. We found that the major subject disciplines of knowledge originality and generality are still LIS, and computer science and LIS interact and influence each other closely. It is evident that number of subject disciplines of knowledge originality is higher than that of knowledge generality. The interdisciplinary characteristics of LIS are illustrated by variety areas of knowledge originality and knowledge generality. Because the number of received subject disciplines is higher than that of given subject disciplines, it suggests that LIS is an application-oriented research area. [Article content in Chinese
textabstractProf.dr. Jodi Dean, hoogleraar politieke filosofie aan Hobart and William Smith Colleges (Geneva, New York), sprak donderdag 19 februari 2009 haar inaugurele rede uit, getiteld "Politics without politics". Dean is dit jaar Erasmus Professor op de Erasmus Chair of Humanities in de Faculteit der Wijsbegeerte. De Erasmus Wisselleerstoel is ingesteld door de G. Ph. Verhagen Stichting. V In haar oratie gaat Dean in op het thema democratie in relatie tot linkse politiek. Enkele politiek...
Full Text Available The author in this work speaks about general problems of political corruption in the world and in Serbia. The author tries to define the phenomenon of political corruption and pays special attention to financing political parties. Ćirić gives the overview of international documents about financing political parties and gives us the overview of MP's salaries in some western countries. At the end it is analyzed the question of trading MP's mandate, as a matter of fact who is the owner of the mandate of one representative - that representative, or his/her political party. That also could be the origin of different manipulations and corruption.
..., Cell Biology and Biophysics Research; 93.859, Pharmacology, Physiology, and Biological Chemistry Research; 93.862, Genetics and Developmental Biology Research; 93.88, Minority Access to Research Careers... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences Notice of...
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... Assistance Program Nos. 93.375, Minority Biomedical Research Support; 93.821, Cell Biology and Biophysics Research; 93.859, Pharmacology, Physiology, and Biological Chemistry Research; 93.862, Genetics and... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel; Clinical Trials...
... Program Nos. 93.375, Minority Biomedical Research Support; 93.821, Cell Biology and Biophysics Research; 93.859, Pharmacology, Physiology, and Biological Chemistry Research; 93.862, Genetics and... . Name of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel; Clinical...
Cengiz, Canan; Karatas, Faik Özgür
The general chemistry laboratory is an appropriate place for learning chemistry well. It is also effective for stimulating higher-order thinking skills, including reflective thinking, a skill that is crucial for science teaching as well as learning. This study aims to examine the effects of feedback-supported reflective journal-keeping activities…
Miller, Diane M.; Chengelis Czegan, Demetra A.
This paper describes assignments that have been implemented in a General Chemistry I course to promote science literacy. This course was chosen in particular because it reaches a broad audience, which includes nonscience majors. The assignment series begins with several discussions and tasks to develop information literacy, in which students find…
Mooney, Paul; Lastrapes, Renée E.
The amount of research evaluating the technical merits of general outcome measures of science and social studies achievement is growing. This study targeted criterion validity for critical content monitoring. Questions addressed the concurrent criterion validity of alternate presentation formats of critical content monitoring and the measure's…
Photo 01,02: Professor A.N. Skrinsky, presenting the diploma to the Director General of CERN, L. Maiani, during the Council Session Photo 03: Professor Telegdi, pictured with Luciano Maiani and Alexander Skrinsky, receiving the medal of foreign member of the Russian Academy of Sciences in June 2000.
Chen, David; Stroup, Walter
Suggests using general system theory as a unifying theoretical framework for science and technology education for all. Five reasons are articulated: the multidisciplinary nature of systems theory, the ability to engage complexity, the capacity to describe system dynamics, the ability to represent the relationship between microlevel and…
Dejonckheere, Peter J. N.; Van de Keere, Kristof; Tallir, Isabel; Vervaet, Stephanie
In the present study we present a didactic method to help children aged 11 and 12 learn science in such a way as to enable a dynamic interaction between domain general strategies and the development of conceptual knowledge, whilst each type of scientific process has been considered (forming of hypotheses, experimenting and evaluating). We have…
Pabayo, Roman; Kawachi, Ichiro; Muennig, Peter
Ecological and cross-sectional studies have indicated that conservative political ideology is associated with better health. Longitudinal analyses of mortality are needed because subjective assessments of ideology may confound subjective assessments of health, particularly in cross-sectional analyses. Data were derived from the 2008 General Social Survey-National Death Index data set. Cox proportional analysis models were used to determine whether political party affiliation or political ideology was associated with time to death. Also, we attempted to identify whether self-reported happiness and self-rated health acted as mediators between political beliefs and time to death. In this analysis of 32,830 participants and a total follow-up time of 498,845 person-years, we find that political party affiliation and political ideology are associated with mortality. However, with the exception of independents (adjusted HR (AHR)=0.93, 95% CI 0.90 to 0.97), political party differences are explained by the participants' underlying sociodemographic characteristics. With respect to ideology, conservatives (AHR=1.06, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.12) and moderates (AHR=1.06, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.11) are at greater risk for mortality during follow-up than liberals. Political party affiliation and political ideology appear to be different predictors of mortality. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
A scientific session of the General meeting of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) was held in the conference hall of the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS on 7 December 2015. The papers collected in this issue were written based on talks given at the session (the program of the session is available on the RAS Physical Sciences Division website http://www.gpad.ac.ru). (1) Loshchenov V B (Prokhorov General Physics Institute, RAS, Moscow) "Pharmacodynamics of a nanophotosensitizer under irradiation by an electromagnetic field: from THz to Cherenkov radiation"; (2) Zhuikov B L (Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, Moscow) "Successes and problems in the development of medical radioisotope production in Russia"; (3) Tikhonov Yu A (Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, SB RAS, Novosibirsk) "Applying nuclear physics methods in healthcare"; (4) Turchin I V (Institute of Applied Physics, RAS, Nizhny Novgorod) "Methods of biomedical optical imaging: from subcellular structures to tissues and organs"; (5) Breus T K, Petrukovich A A (Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow), Binhi V N (Prokhorov General Physics Institute, RAS, Moscow; Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow) "Magnetic factor in solar-terrestrial relations and its impact on the human body: physical problems and prospects for research"; (6) Makarov D I (Special Astrophysical Observatory, RAS, Nizhnii Arkhyz, Zelenchukskii region, Karachai-Cherkessian Republic) "Studying the Local University". Papers based on oral reports 2, 4, and 5 are presented below. • Successes and problems in the development of medical radioisotope production in Russia, B L Zhuikov Physics-Uspekhi, 2016, Volume 59, Number 5, Pages 481-486 • Methods of biomedical optical imaging: from subcellular structures to tissues and organs, I V Turchin Physics-Uspekhi, 2016, Volume 59, Number 5, Pages 487-501 • Magnetic factor in solar-terrestrial relations and its impact on the human body: physical problems and
Haupt, R. J.; Padilla, A. J.; Wheatley, P.; Barnhart, C. J.
A podcast is an audio program distributed online typically freely available through an RSS feed (essentially an on-demand internet radio show). This medium has grown steadily in listenership and popularity since its inception in the early 2000s, especially thanks to popular distribution platforms such as iTunes, and web-enabled listening devices (i.e. smart phones). In terms of science reporting, many high impact journals now produce podcasts to supplement their publications (e.g. Nature, Science, etc.). However, smaller and/or more specialized journals often can't afford to promote their content via podcasts, thus limiting their authors to rely on traditional media and press releases supplied by their colleges and universities. This is where independent or unaffiliated podcasts can fill an open niche: providing a platform for scientists to discuss their research in their own words aimed at a general audience. Traditional press releases often follow a similar pattern, and many science news outlets essentially report the press releases verbatim with little additional content or reporting from primary sources. Podcasts suffer from no such restrictions, and they can be as long and in-depth as the subject matter necessitates. Furthermore, many news outlets no longer employ dedicated science reporters. Science is covered, if at all, by reporters without specialized scientific knowledge or training. This deficit leads to a much higher potential for science news stories to be incorrectly reported, or misinterpreted by the general public. A podcast allows a lab group or department the opportunity to edit the content for brevity and clarity, affording scientists a better chance of getting their research presented to the public in an accurate and representative way. Finally, podcasts allow the public to hear the voice of the scientist, humanizing the hard work they do, and potentially positively influencing the way the public reacts to science as a discipline.
James White was a Northern Irish science fiction author working in the subgenre of medical science fiction from the mid-1950s to the end of the twentieth century. The aim of this article is to introduce White to scholars working in the medical humanities, pointing to features of interest and critiquing the more excessive utopian impulses of the author. The article covers White's Sector General series, set on a vast intergalactic hospital, as well as the author's standalone fictions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Messac, Luke; Ciccarone, Dan; Draine, Jeffrey; Bourgois, Philippe
The apolitical legitimacy of "evidence-based medicine" offers a practical means for ethnography and critical social-science-and-humanities-of-health theory to transfer survival resources to structurally vulnerable populations and to engage policy and services audiences with urgent political problems imposed on the urban poor in the United States that harm health: most notably, homelessness, hyperincarceration, social service cut-backs and the War on Drugs. We present four examples of collaborations between ethnography and clinical research projects that demonstrate the potentials and limits of promoting institutional reform, political debate and action through distinct strategies of cross-methodological dialog with epidemiological and clinical services research. Ethnographic methods alone, however, are simply a technocratic add-on. They must be informed by critical theory to contribute effectively and transformatively to applied health initiatives. Ironically, technocratic, neoliberal logics of cost-effectiveness can sometimes render radical service and policy reform initiatives institutionally credible, fundable and capable of generating wider political support, even though the rhetoric of economic efficacy is a double-edged sword. To extend the impact of ethnography and interdisciplinary theories of political-economic, cultural and disciplinary power relations into applied clinical and public health research, anthropologists - and their fellow travelers - have to be able to strategically, but respectfully learn to see through the positivist logics of clinical services research as well as epidemiological epistemology in order to help clinicians achieve - and extend - their applied priorities. In retrospect, these four very differently-structured collaborations suggest the potential for "good-enough" humble scientific and political strategies to work for, and with, structurally vulnerable populations in a punitive neoliberal era of rising social inequality
Perissinotto, Renato Monseff; Universidade Federal do Paraná
The purpose of this essay is to make some considerations on the limits and advantages of institutionalism’s rational choice in regard to the understanding of political phenomena. The text critically examines some of the representative studies that Brazilian political science has attached to this theoretical approach. This criticism develops around three themes: state, political elites and democracy. It suggests that a prudent return to the approach of political sociology wou...
Наталья Владимировна Кадурина
Full Text Available The author of the paper makes an attempt to synthesize the effect of conspirological approaches on ideas of particular social groups of community about the existing political events around the world. Conspirological concepts are proving very popular in postmodern society as most modern political technologists try to treat unexplainable events of political reality through different conspiracy theories. Media actively uses conspirological concepts to attract readers and audiences, and political technologists use them as one of the means to influence the electoral processes.A growing interest to conspiracy theory determines its connection with political science. The general disadvantage of conspirological approach is poor evidences which show, according to some researches, its parascientific basis. A wide spread of conspirological concepts among political technologists and mass-media distorts the representation of political processes. To form a scientific vision of political processes the transparency of political situation is required which enables to decrease the role of conspirological approaches to political process.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-6-26
Pfister, Hans-Rüdiger; Böhm, Gisela
Duarte et al. propose that divergent political biases cancel each other out such that increasing political diversity will improve scientific validity. We argue that this idea is misguided. Their recommendations for improving political diversity in academia bear the danger of imposing political interests on science. Scientific scrutiny and criticism are the only viable remedies for bad science.
Li, Xiaotong; Wang, Kaiwei; Yang, Qing; Si, Ke
Starting from 2015, a general education course named "Light-based science and technologies and human civilization" has been offered in Zhejiang University. We try to give a humanism view angle to observe optics and optical engineering, and combine them with the relationship of human and the nature, the development of human society and human health. In this course we introduce different historical periods of light-based science and technologies, the great optical researchers, the typical research methods, advantages, academic discussions and the relationship with human civilization. The relevant cross-fields of learning and Nobel Prize winners are also included. This course provides the students with the typical examples about how academic revolution influences the world development, and also with humanism sight which exceeds the range of science and technologies themselves.
Andrés M. Cisneros-Montemayor
Full Text Available Socio-political issues are important in environmental policy outcomes but are often overlooked in conservation planning. We analyze the effects of historical social, political, and ecological contexts on conservation policy outcomes as applied to the Upper Gulf of California and Colorado River Delta Biosphere Reserve. A rushed implementation, perhaps necessary for the protection of endangered totoaba (Totoaba macdonaldi and vaquita (Phocoena sinus, occurred with little community consultation, resulting in enduring disgruntlement among stakeholders that undermined its effectiveness. Overfishing and habitat degradation continue both inside and outside the reserve, and totoaba and vaquita remain Critically Endangered, with the latter's population estimated at approximately 90 individuals. Marine reserves can be useful, but when top-down enforcement is unfeasible, effective environmental policy requires full recognition and integration of political history and social structures and needs, and open discussion on trade-offs when win-win situations are not possible.
The 'Dichotomy Principle' and the classical 'Golden Section Principle' are two of the most important principles of Nature, Science and also Art. The Generalized Principle of the Golden Section that follows from studying the diagonal sums of the Pascal triangle is a sweeping generalization of these important principles. This underlies the foundation of 'Harmony Mathematics', a new proposed mathematical direction. Harmony Mathematics includes a number of new mathematical theories: an algorithmic measurement theory, a new number theory, a new theory of hyperbolic functions based on Fibonacci and Lucas numbers, and a theory of the Fibonacci and 'Golden' matrices. These mathematical theories are the source of many new ideas in mathematics, philosophy, botanic and biology, electrical and computer science and engineering, communication systems, mathematical education as well as theoretical physics and physics of high energy particles
David J Hunter
Full Text Available Health systems have entered a third era embracing whole systems thinking and posing complex policy and management challenges. Understanding how such systems work and agreeing what needs to be put in place to enable them to undergo effective and sustainable change are more pressing issues than ever for policy-makers. The theory-policy-practice-gap and its four dimensions, as articulated by Chinitz and Rodwin, is acknowledged. It is suggested that insights derived from political science can both enrich our understanding of the gap and suggest what changes are needed to tackle the complex challenges facing health systems.
Krok-Schoen, Jessica L; Bernardo, Brittany M; Weier, Rory C; Peng, Juan; Katz, Mira L; Reiter, Paul L; Richardson, Morgan S; Pennell, Michael L; Tatum, Cathy M; Paskett, Electra D
To examine how demographic, general health, religious, and political characteristics influenced beliefs about mandatory school vaccinations and history of vaccination refusal for children among Ohio Appalachian parents. In 2013 and 2014, baseline data were obtained from parents (n = 337) of girls aged 9-17 from 12 counties in rural Ohio Appalachia enrolled in the Community Awareness, Resources and Education (CARE II) Project. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify correlates of parental beliefs about mandatory school vaccinations and history of refusing a doctor-recommended vaccine for their child(ren). About 47% of parents agreed that parents should have the right to refuse mandatory school vaccinations for their child(ren). Participants who reported their political affiliation as Republican (OR = 2.45, 95% CI: 1.28-4.66) or Independent (OR = 3.31, 95% CI: 1.70-6.44) were more likely to agree that parents should have the right to refuse school-mandated vaccinations than parents who reported their political affiliation as Democrat. Approximately 39% of parents reported ever refusing a vaccine for their child(ren). Participants who were female (OR = 3.90, 95% CI: 1.04-14.58) and believed that parents should have the right to refuse mandatory school vaccinations (OR = 3.27, 95% CI: 1.90-5.62) were more likely to report ever refusing a vaccine for their child(ren). The study findings provide information to better understand factors related to vaccination refusal among parents in Appalachia Ohio that can be used to design interventions to improve vaccination uptake. © 2017 National Rural Health Association.
Sumter, Takita Felder; Owens, Patrick M.
The need for a revised curriculum within the life sciences has been well-established. One strategy to improve student preparation in the life sciences is to redesign introductory courses like biology, chemistry, and physics so that they better reflect their disciplinary interdependence. We describe a medically relevant, context-based approach to teaching second semester general chemistry that demonstrates the interdisciplinary nature of biology and chemistry. Our innovative method provides a model in which disciplinary barriers are diminished early in the undergraduate science curriculum. The course is divided into three principle educational modules: 1) Fundamentals of General Chemistry, 2) Medical Approaches to Inflammation, and 3) Neuroscience as a connector of chemistry, biology, and psychology. We accurately anticipated that this modified approach to teaching general chemistry would enhance student interest in chemistry and bridge the perceived gaps between biology and chemistry. The course serves as a template for context-based, interdisciplinary teaching that lays the foundation needed to train 21st century scientists. PMID:21445902
Sumter, Takita Felder; Owens, Patrick M
The need for a revised curriculum within the life sciences has been well-established. One strategy to improve student preparation in the life sciences is to redesign introductory courses like biology, chemistry, and physics so that they better reflect their disciplinary interdependence. We describe a medically relevant, context-based approach to teaching second semester general chemistry that demonstrates the interdisciplinary nature of biology and chemistry. Our innovative method provides a model in which disciplinary barriers are diminished early in the undergraduate science curriculum. The course is divided into three principle educational modules: 1) Fundamentals of General Chemistry, 2) Medical Approaches to Inflammation, and 3) Neuroscience as a connector of chemistry, biology, and psychology. We accurately anticipated that this modified approach to teaching general chemistry would enhance student interest in chemistry and bridge the perceived gaps between biology and chemistry. The course serves as a template for context-based, interdisciplinary teaching that lays the foundation needed to train 21st century scientists. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Jonge, de J.M.
This thesis examines the typical nature of design thinking, which is compared and contrasted with scientific and political thinking. A theretical framework is formulated and applied to landscape planning and design. During the 20th century the established operational orientation in landscape
Harris, Christine R.; Henniger, Nicole E.
In the last 5 years, the phrase “politics of envy” has appeared more than 621 times in English-language newspapers, generally in opinion essays contending that political liberalism reflects and exploits feelings of envy. Oddly, this assertion has not been tested empirically. We did so with a large adult sample (n = 357). Participants completed a Dispositional Envy Scale and questions about political ideology, socioeconomic status, and age. Envy and age were moderately correlated; younger people reported greater envy. Political ideology and envy were weakly correlated; however, this relationship was not significant when controlling for age. PMID:23471177
Full Text Available New institutional politics is an interdisciplinary movement that tries to reinstate the institutional politics to the center of the political science. After the limits of formal-legal analyze, used by old institutional politics, have been criticized by behaviorists, rational choice and neo-Marxist movements, since 1950, the state was alienated from the center of the political studies as an independent variable. Since 1980, neo institutional politics, raised as a reaction to this development, has been developing a new description and understanding of the institution which goes beyond the limitations of the old one. The rise and change of the political institutions and the interactions between political institutions and the actors, are being retheorized, by depending on informal rules and conventions as much as formal rules, and pointing out cultural factors as much as legal factors. So, in this study, rational choice, sociological and historical new institutional politics, as the three different school of new institutionalism, will be examined separately and there will be a debate on colliding and overlapping points of these schools
The number of co-authors has in the social sciences has been rising over the last decades, but a deeper understanding of why this rise is occurring is lacking. Previous studies of co-authorship in the social sciences often refer to the physical or life sciences or anecdotal evidence to explain th...
Dietrich, Heike; Zhang, Ying; Klopp, Eric; Brünken, Roland; Krause, Ulrike-Marie; Spinath, Frank M.; Stark, Robin; Spinath, Birgit
The aim of the present study was to introduce a general theoretical model of scientific competencies in higher education and to adapt it to three social sciences, namely psychology, sociology, and political science, by providing evidence from expert interviews and program regulations. Within our general model, we distinguished and specified four…
Scowen, Paul; Clarke, John; Gaudi, B. Scott; Kiessling, Alina; Martin, Stefan; Somerville, Rachel; Stern, Daniel; HabEx Science and Technology Definition Team
The Habitable Exoplanet Imaging Mission (HabEx) is one of the four large mission concepts being studied by NASA as input to the upcoming 2020 Decadal Survey. The mission implements two world-class General Astrophysics instruments as part of its complement of instrumentation to enable compelling science using the 4m aperture. The Ultraviolet Spectrograph has been designed to address cutting edge far ultraviolet (FUV) science that has not been possible with the Hubble Space Telescope, and to open up a wide range of capabilities that will advance astrophysics as we look into the 2030s. Our poster discusses some of those science drivers and possible applications, which range from Solar System science, to nearby and more distant studies of star formation, to studies of the circumgalactic and intergalactic mediums where the ecology of mass and energy transfer are vital to understanding stellar and galactic evolution. We discuss the performance features of the instrument that include a large 3’x3’ field of view for multi-object spectroscopy, and some 20 grating modes for a variety of spectral resolution and coverage.
Stump, David J.
This paper considers several models of politically engaged philosophy with the aim of provoking discussion of George Reisch’s How the Cold War Transformed Philosophy of Science. At issue is the Unity of Science movement’s conception of the philosophy of science in particular and what politically engaged philosophy of science might look like in general. The paper discusses the role that the pragmatist Sidney Hook plays in the book and considers some of the questions raised by the role that he plays: What does it mean to be a politically engaged philosopher of science? Do we want philosophy of science to be politically engaged?
Pavlov, A. K.; Granskog, M. A.; Gerland, S.; Meyer, A.; Hudson, S. R.; Rösel, A.; King, J.; Itkin, P.; Cohen, L.; Dodd, P. A.; de Steur, L.
As researchers we are constantly being encouraged by funding agencies, policy-makers and journalists to conduct effective outreach and to communicate our latest research findings. As environmental scientists we also understand the necessity of communicating our research to the general public. Many of us wish to become better science communicators but have little time and limited funding available to do so. How can we expend our science communication past project-based efforts that have a limited lifetime? Most critically, how can a small research groups do it without additional resources such as funds and communication officers? Social media is one answer, and has become a powerful and inexpensive tool for communicating science to different target audiences. Many research institutions and researchers are exploring the full breadth of possibilities brought by social media for reaching out to the general public, journalists, policy-makers, stake-holders, and research community. However, smaller research groups and labs are still underrepresented in social media. When it comes to practice, some essential difficulties can be encountered: identifying key target groups, defining the framework for sharing responsibilities and interaction within the research group, and finally, choosing a currently up-to-date social medium as a technical solution for communicating your research. Here, a group of oceanography and sea ice researchers (@OceanSeaIceNPI) share the positive experience of developing and maintaining for more than one year a researcher-driven outreach effort currently implemented through Instagram, Twitter and Facebook. We will present potential pitfalls and challenges that small research groups could face, and how to better overcome them. This will hopefully inspire and help other research groups and labs to conduct their own effective ocean science communication.
LaDue, D. S.
The University of Oklahoma's general education lecture course Severe & Unusual Weather, taught in two sections each fall and spring, covers about nine topics. The sections are taught by different instructors, each of whom has flexibility to employ a variety of instructional strategies and choose specific topics to cover while meeting the requirement that general education courses in the natural sciences help students understand the importance of the science for appreciating the world around them. Students enrolled have been approximately 6-10% returning adult students, some of whom were veterans or active duty military, and about 10% members of racial or ethnic groups. Their majors are mostly in the humanities (theater, photography) and social sciences (education, English, journalism, sociology), with some natural science majors (psychology, aviation). For the past two years, Section 001 has been designed with adult and active learning concepts in mind, using deliberate connections between course content and students' lives and careers to motivate meaningful learning. Students were grouped in teams according to similar majors and assigned group presentations connecting course content to topics that should interest them, such as economic impacts of weather, societal and personal impacts of severe weather, risks to aviation, media coverage of weather, and psychological and sociological responses to weather risks. Students learn about the peer review process for scientific papers while also exploring a connection of course content to their future career or life interests through papers that are run through a mock peer review process. Public policy is discussed in several sections of the course, such as hurricane building codes, wind-resistant construction in tornado alley, and the disproportionate impacts of weather and climate on certain socioeconomic groups. Most students deeply appreciate the opportunity to explore how course content intersects with their lives
McCurdy, K. M.
The Constitution of the United States is a document for economic development written by people wary of government failure at the extremes, whether too heavy handed a central government or too loose a confederation. The strong central government favored by Hamilton, Industrialists and later by forward thinking men of the 19th century created a discontinuity wherein government institutions designed to facilitate agriculture were incapable of regulating corporations operating on a national scale, which made mineral and other natural resource exploitation needed to support industrialization enormously profitable. At the same time, Agriculturalists and other conservative citizens sought to control the economy by protecting their rural interests and power. The political institutional power remained with states as agriculturalists and industrialists struggled for economic superiority in the 19th century. As Agriculture moved west, Science warned of the dangers of extending Homesteading regulations into arid regions to no avail. The west was settled in townships without concern for watersheds, carrying capacity, or climatic variability. Gold seekers ignored the consequences of massive hydraulic mining techniques. The tension resident in the Constitution between strong local control of government (states' rights) and a strong central government (nationalism) provided no institutional context to resolve mining problems or other 19th century policy problems linked to rapid population expansion and industrialization. Environmental protection in the late 20th century has been the last wave of nationalized policy solutions following the institution-building blueprint provided by electoral successes in the Progressive, New Deal, and Great Society eras. Suddenly in the 21st century, scientific warnings of dangers again go unheeded, this time as evidence of global warming mounts. Again, tension in policy making exists in all political arenas (executive, legislative and judicial at
are mainly interested in assessing and promoting innovations in public service delivery, but have paid little or no attention to the need for innovations in polity, politics and policy. This article develops a research agenda for studying innovations in political institutions, in the political process...... and in policy outputs. It proposes a number of research themes related to political innovations that call for scholarly attention, and identifies push and pull factors influencing the likelihood that these themes will be addressed in future research....
Since the early 50s of last century the Teaching of Science has undergone a process of continuous development, (Gutiérrez, 1987; Aliberas, Gutierrez and Izquierdo, 1989) to become a scientific discipline largely accepted as such by many different universities worldwide. Besides, the proliferation of publications, magazines, conferences, symposia, meetings, and so on, proves this assertion. In these publications and meetings the Teaching of Science (or Science Education in more general terms) is addressed as a new field of research, teaching and educational innovation focused on the processes of teaching and learning of the experimental sciences (all of them: Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Geology). The study of this discipline is undertaken from different pedagogical, epistemological, psychological and sociological approaches. From this general perspective we can say that over the last two decades each of the sciences has developed specific characteristics so that, today, we could speak about specific didactics for each one of them. In the case of Geology (or Geoscience) Teaching there have been significant contributions from the following fields of research: the students' prior ideas (constructivist approach), the history of geology (as a subject-specific field) and from epistemology (Pedrinaci, E. 2000). The body of geoscience knowledge has an internal logic (as happens with the other science subjects) that allows us to organize the contents to teach, selecting, arranging and establishing proper relations between them. Still geology has a central, transverse, inter-and transdisciplinary character for its relationship with the other sciences. This character makes it appear as one of the disciplines with a huge potential to combine different methodologies of teaching and learning and different learning models already tested in the research field of Physics, Chemistry or Biology Education. Moreover, the most recent term coined for it "geosciences or earth and
Gardenier, John S
This paper recommends how authors of statistical studies can communicate to general audiences fully, clearly, and comfortably. The studies may use statistical methods to explore issues in science, engineering, and society or they may address issues in statistics specifically. In either case, readers without explicit statistical training should have no problem understanding the issues, the methods, or the results at a non-technical level. The arguments for those results should be clear, logical, and persuasive. This paper also provides advice for editors of general journals on selecting high quality statistical articles without the need for exceptional work or expense. Finally, readers are also advised to watch out for some common errors or misuses of statistics that can be detected without a technical statistical background.
Brunetti, F.; Gasperini, A.
How can an observatory library support the communication of science to the general public? We will describe how a highly specialised astronomical library can also play a key role in disseminating astronomical knowledge, making scientific results available across a wide range of levels, from professional to public to educational. This outreach activity requires several steps, ranging from the preliminary identification and scrutiny of sources to the production of new information material (e.g. maps, brochures, and DVDs). In particular, we will describe some recent experiences in the dissemination of astronomical information to the general public, especially teachers and children, analysing some results of this activity, such as a bibliography of Italian Astronomical Books for Children, a review of scientific books and other multimedia products.
Vlach, Haley A; Sandhofer, Catherine M
The spacing effect describes the robust finding that long-term learning is promoted when learning events are spaced out in time rather than presented in immediate succession. Studies of the spacing effect have focused on memory processes rather than for other types of learning, such as the acquisition and generalization of new concepts. In this study, early elementary school children (5- to 7-year-olds; N = 36) were presented with science lessons on 1 of 3 schedules: massed, clumped, and spaced. The results revealed that spacing lessons out in time resulted in higher generalization performance for both simple and complex concepts. Spaced learning schedules promote several types of learning, strengthening the implications of the spacing effect for educational practices and curriculum. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Storm, Paula; Kelly, Robert; deVries, Susann
People and organizations are inherently political. Library workplace environments have zones of tension and dynamics just like any corporation, often leading to the formation of political camps. These different cliques influence productivity and work-related issues and, at worst, give meetings the feel of the Camp David negotiations. Politics are…
Rapp, Carolin; Traunmüller, Richard; Freitag, Markus
This article combines the research strands of moral politics and political behavior by focusing on the effect of individual and contextual religiosity on individual vote decisions in popular initiatives and public referenda concerning morally charged issues. We rely on a total of 13 surveys with 1...... American research on moral politics, direct democracies, and the public role of religion....
Ormanci, Ummuhan; Cepni, Salih; Deveci, Isa; Aydin, Ozhan
In Turkey and many other countries, the importance of the interactive whiteboard (IWB) is increasing, and as a result, projects and studies are being conducted regarding the use of the IWB in classrooms. Accordingly, in these countries, many issues are being researched, such as the IWB's contribution to the education process, its use in classroom settings and problems that occur when using the IWB. In this context, the research and analysis of studies regarding the use of the IWB have important implications for educators, researchers and teachers. This study aims to review and analyze studies conducted regarding the use of the IWB in the field of science. Accordingly, as a thematic review of the research was deemed appropriate, extant articles available in the literature were analyzed using a matrix that consisted of general features (type of journal, year and demographic properties) and content features (rationales, aims, research methods, samples, data collections, results and suggestions). According to the findings, it was concluded that the studies regarding the use of IWBs were conducted due to deficiencies in the current literature. However, there are rare studies in which the reasons for the research were associated with the nature of science education. There were also studies that focused on the effects of the IWB on student academic success and learning outcomes. Within this context, it is evident that there is a need for further research concerning the use of IWBs in science education and for studies regarding the effect of IWBs on students' skills.
Pilachowski, Catherine A.; van Zee, Liese
The Art of Astronomy is a new general education course developed at Indiana University. The topic appeals to a broad range of undergraduates and the course gives students the tools to understand and appreciate astronomical images in a new way. The course explores the science of imaging the universe and the technology that makes the images possible. Topics include the night sky, telescopes and cameras, light and color, and the science behind the images. Coloring the Universe: An Insider's Look at Making Spectacular Images of Space" by T. A. Rector, K. Arcand, and M. Watzke serves as the basic text for the course, supplemented by readings from the web. Through the course, students participate in exploration activities designed to help them first to understand astronomy images, and then to create them. Learning goals include an understanding of scientific inquiry, an understanding of the basics of imaging science as applied in astronomy, a knowledge of the electromagnetic spectrum and how observations at different wavelengths inform us about different environments in the universe, and an ability to interpret astronomical images to learn about the universe and to model and understand the physical world.
Bensaude Vincent, Bernadette
Emerging technologies such as genomics, nanotechnology, and converging technologies are surrounded by a constellation of fashionable stereotyped phrases such as 'public engagement in science', 'responsible innovation', 'green technology', or 'personalised medicine'. Buzzwords are ubiquitous and used ad libitum by science policy makers, industrial companies in their advertisements, scientists in their research proposals, and journalists. Despite their proliferation in the language of scientific and technological innovation, these buzzwords have attracted little attention among science studies scholars. The purpose of this paper is to try to understand if, and how buzzwords shape the technoscientific landscape. What do they perform? What do they reveal? What do they conceal? Based on a case study of the phrase 'public engagement in science', this paper describes buzzwords as linguistic technologies, capable of three major performances: buzzwords generate matters of concern and play an important role in trying to build consensus; they set attractive goals and agendas; they create unstable collectives through noise.
Rowat, Amy C.; Rosenberg, Daniel; Hollar, Kathryn A.; Stone, Howard A.
We describe a presentation on the science of pizza, which is designed for the general public including children ages 6 and older. The presentation focuses on the science of making and digesting cheese and bread. We highlight 4 major scientific themes: (1) how macromolecules such as carbohydrates and proteins are composed of atoms and small…
Karabulut, Ebru Olcay; Dogan, Pinar Karacan
The aim of this study is to determine the general competency beliefs and entrepreneurial levels of undergraduate students studying at faculty of sports sciences by different demographic variables. The sample group consists of total 1230 students, 541 women and 689 men, who have been educated in the sport sciences of five different universities and…
Some observations are made on the interdependence of scientists and politicians in the early atomic decision making in the United States and Britain. The motivation of scientists is also considered. In the pre-war period of discovery in atomic physics some scientists, individually or as groups showed their concern for the commercial possibilities of atomic power, while others did not; and some foresaw more quickly than others the military and political potential of their work. The paper deals particularly with three political-cum-moral questions: whether an atomic bomb should be made at all; whether the bomb when made should be used against Japan, and whether some attempt should be made, while the war was still on, to forestall a post-war nuclear arms race. The post-war work on the hydrogen bomb is also discussed. On all these topics the paper reports the historical development of events and the reactions of particular individuals and groups - scientists, politicians and others who were most involved in decision making. (U.K.)
International audience; Introduction Geography and politics'', Gottmann wrote in 1980, ``have long been in search of each other'' (page 11). Debates in the literature suggest not only that they have found each other, but also that the encounter has instigated, notably in the last decade or so, a body of literature seeking to think space politically, and to think politics spatially. This is not to suggest that previous work on space was apolitical, nor to suggest that previous work on politics...
Troy R. E. Paddock
Full Text Available Walter Benjamin’s observation that fascism turns politics into aesthetics is, by now, a well-worn idea. This article argues that Benjamin’s critique of politics can apply just as much to the modern democratic politics of the United States. Borrowing from Benjamin, Jürgen Habermas, and Carl Schmitt, this article suggests that modern political discourse in the United States does not follow the classical liberal ideal of rational discourse in the marketplace of ideas within the public sphere. Instead, contemporary politics has become spectacle where images and slogans replace thought and debate in a 24/7 news cycle and political infotainment programs. The result is that progressives and conservatives have their own political “ecospheres” which enable them to have their own perspective reinforced, and debate is replaced by straw man arguments and personal attacks.
Discusses how to bring political issues into the classroom, highlighting the influence of local context and noting conservative and liberal criticisms of political correctness. Suggests the need for a different idea of how to teach politically from the advocacy pedagogy advanced by recent critical educators, explaining that bringing students into…
Lilienfeld, Scott O
A 1998 meta-analysis by B. Rind, P. Tromovitch, and R. Bauserman in Psychological Bulletin indicated that the relations between child sexual abuse and later psychopathology were weak in magnitude. Shortly thereafter, this article was condemned by media personality Dr. Laura Schlessinger and numerous conservative organizations and was denounced by the United States Congress. In addition, the American Psychological Association (APA) distanced itself from the authors' conclusions. This incident raises questions regarding (a) authors' responsibilities concerning the reporting of politically controversial findings, (b) academic and scientific freedom, (c) the role of the APA in disabusing the public and media of logical errors and fallacies, and (d) the substantial gap between popular and academic psychology and the responsibility of the APA to narrow that gap.
Monogan III, James E
Political Analysis Using R can serve as a textbook for undergraduate or graduate students as well as a manual for independent researchers. It is unique among competitor books in its usage of 21 example datasets that are all drawn from political research. All of the data and example code is available from the Springer website, as well as from Dataverse (http://dx.doi.org/10.7910/DVN/ARKOTI). The book provides a narrative of how R can be useful for addressing problems common to the analysis of public administration, public policy, and political science data specifically, in addition to the social sciences more broadly. While the book uses data drawn from political science, public administration, and policy analyses, it is written so that students and researchers in other fields should find it accessible and useful as well. Political Analysis Using R is perfect for the first-time R user who has no prior knowledge about the program. By working through the first seven chapters of this book, an entry-level user sho...
Williams, Andy; Clifford, Sadie
There has been much debate about the quality of UK science news in recent years. But too many\\ud discussions have failed to take into account the fact that news is produced by reporters working\\ud under significant economic and institutional constraints. Science news is not formed in a social,\\ud economic, or cultural vacuum. It is written by people at news organisations which are cutting\\ud staff, investing fewer resources into news production than ever before, and in most cases\\ud publishin...
This article explores the effects of female enfranchisement on the nature of political identity formation in Dutch election campaigns between 1922 and the early 1980s. It argues that women voters played a key role in the imagination of the Netherlands as a ‘pillarised society’ in which political
The Teaching of Political Ideological Work as a main theoretical foundation for understanding the management process of ideological political work at the University of Pedagogical Sciences of Pinar del Rio
Taimy Breijo Worosz
Full Text Available Th is article establishes a didactic conception of the ideol ogical and political task, based on a didactic as an indispensable theoretical and practical tool to guide the teachers, and the staff as doers of the ideological and political task. The theoretical references from the didactic conception of the ideologica l and political task in the conditions of the pedagogical university, the scientific and critical didactic and the historical and cultural approach were taken as main references.
Schäfer, Fabian; Evert, Stefan; Heinrich, Philipp
In this article, we present results on the identification and behavioral analysis of social bots in a sample of 542,584 Tweets, collected before and after Japan's 2014 general election. Typical forms of bot activity include massive Retweeting and repeated posting of (nearly) the same message, sometimes used in combination. We focus on the second method and present (1) a case study on several patterns of bot activity, (2) methodological considerations on the automatic identification of such patterns and the prerequisite near-duplicate detection, and (3) we give qualitative insights into the purposes behind the usage of social/political bots. We argue that it was in the latency of the semi-public sphere of social media-and not in the visible or manifest public sphere (official campaign platform, mass media)-where Shinzō Abe's hidden nationalist agenda interlocked and overlapped with the one propagated by organizations such as Nippon Kaigi and Internet right-wingers (netto uyo) during the election campaign, the latter potentially forming an enormous online support army of Abe's agenda.
Schäfer, Fabian; Evert, Stefan; Heinrich, Philipp
Abstract In this article, we present results on the identification and behavioral analysis of social bots in a sample of 542,584 Tweets, collected before and after Japan's 2014 general election. Typical forms of bot activity include massive Retweeting and repeated posting of (nearly) the same message, sometimes used in combination. We focus on the second method and present (1) a case study on several patterns of bot activity, (2) methodological considerations on the automatic identification of such patterns and the prerequisite near-duplicate detection, and (3) we give qualitative insights into the purposes behind the usage of social/political bots. We argue that it was in the latency of the semi-public sphere of social media—and not in the visible or manifest public sphere (official campaign platform, mass media)—where Shinzō Abe's hidden nationalist agenda interlocked and overlapped with the one propagated by organizations such as Nippon Kaigi and Internet right-wingers (netto uyo) during the election campaign, the latter potentially forming an enormous online support army of Abe's agenda. PMID:29182493
Bastos, Wilma S. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
In this work, the evolution of Science and Technology policy in USA is analyzed in its three phases, after the Second World War. The financial policy for Research and Development during the governments Reagan, Bush and Clinton is also delineated and, finally, Latin America situation is exposed in this scenery (author) 3 refs., 4 tabs.
Florez-Morris, Mauricio; Tafur, Irene
Video production has come into widespread use in various fields of social science. Visual anthropologists (Pink 2006), psychologists (Webster and Sell 2007), historians (Ferro 2000), and visual sociologists (Newman 2006) have used films and videos to document, to preserve, and to analyze social data. There is no reason to think that the use of…
O'Connor, Brendan Harold
This dissertation is a linguistic ethnography of a high school Astronomy/Oceanography classroom in southern Arizona, where an exceptionally promising, novice, white science teacher and mostly Mexican-American students confronted issues of identity and difference through interactions both related and unrelated to science learning. Through close analysis of video-recorded, naturally-occurring interaction and rich ethnographic description, the study documents how a teacher and students accomplished everyday classroom life, built caring relationships, and pursued scientific inquiry at a time and in a place where nationally- and locally-circulating discourses about immigration and race infused even routine interactions with tension and uncertainty. In their talk, students appropriated elements of racializing discourses, but also used language creatively to "speak back" to commonsense notions about Mexicanness. Careful examination of science-related interactions reveals the participants' negotiation of multiple, intersecting forms of citizenship (i.e., cultural and scientific citizenship) in the classroom, through multidirectional processes of language socialization in which students and the teacher regularly exchanged expert and novice roles. This study offers insight into the continuing relevance of racial, cultural, and linguistic identity to students' experiences of schooling, and sheds new light on classroom discourse, teacher-student relationships, and dimensions of citizenship in science learning, with important implications for teacher preparation and practice.
Page S20: NMR compound 4i. Page S22: NMR compound 4j. General: Chemicals were purchased from Fluka, Merck and Aldrich Chemical Companies. All the products were characterized by comparison of their IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopic data and their melting points with reported values. General procedure ...
Parsons, Eileen R. C.; Bulls, Domonique L.; Freeman, Tonjua B.; Butler, Malcolm B.; Atwater, Mary M.
Existent research indicates that postsecondary Black faculty members, who are sorely underrepresented in the academy especially in STEM fields, assume essential roles; chief among these roles is diversifying higher education. Their recruitment and retention become more challenging in light of research findings on work life for postsecondary faculty. Research has shown that postsecondary faculty members in general have become increasingly stressed and job satisfaction has declined with dissatisfaction with endeavors and work overload cited as major stressors. In addition to the stresses managed by higher education faculty at large, Black faculty must navigate diversity-related challenges. Illuminating and understanding their experiences can be instrumental in lessening stress and job dissatisfaction, outcomes that facilitate recruitment and retention. This study featured the experiences and perceptions of Black faculty in science education. This study, framed by critical race theory, examines two questions: What characterizes the work life of some Black faculty members who teach, research, and serve in science education? How are race and racism present in the experiences of these postsecondary Black faculty members? A phenomenological approach to the study situates the experiences of the Black participants as valid phenomena worthy of investigation, illuminates their experiences, and seeks to retain the authenticity of their voices.
O. V. Dashevs’ka
Full Text Available The intensity and diversity of political and geopolitical processes in Ukraine give greater empirical basis for Geopolitical Studies. However, the popularity of this research is purely populist currents, leaving only a quarter of all science research. The aim of the study is to examine the specific dynamics and geopolitical studies in modern Ukrainian political thought. This paper reviews the dissertation research of local scientists. It was noted that most of the work falls on political sciences, specialty 23.00.04 - political problems of international systems and global development. The main trends in domestic geopolitical studies: 1. Identification of Ukraine’s place on the geopolitical map of the world by analyzing the geopolitical position and historical and political research; 2. Study regional issues, bilateral relations between countries; 3. Research general issues of international security, terrorism and the role of Ukraine in the system of international security; 4. Analysis of ethnic and political problems in Ukraine and their impact on international relations; 5. Investigation euro integration aspirations of Ukraine as the only right in terms of the geopolitical position; 6. General geopolitical studies that examined the practice of various geopolitical theories and concepts in different times and different countries. The analysis presented dissertations and other scientific literature suggests domestic authors only the first stage of mastering such important political science as geopolitics.
Will, George F., Ed.
A panel discussion on politics and the press was held at the convention of the American Political Science Association in September 1971. This volume contains an essay delivered at that panel on the various functions or activities of the press--adversary, surrogate, sovereign--and remarks of the three discussants. In addition, an essay especially…
Jeppesen, Søren; Morsing, Mette
We engage a discussion of political CSR in SMEs in an African context. Based on critical observations on Western MNC CSR action in emerging economies that holds counterproductive implications for social development, political economists have argued that business profit far more than society...... development in local African communities. Our findings extend political CSR research by directing attention to how the corporate influence in developing economies does not only emerge from MNCs but is also established and retained by SMEs CSR work....
Casey B. Mulligan; Kevin K. Tsui
Political competitiveness - which many interpret as the degree of democracy - can be modeled as a monopolistic competition. All regimes are constrained by the threat of "entry," and thereby seek some combination of popular support and political entry barriers. This simple model predicts that many public policies are unrelated to political competitiveness, and that even unchallenged nondemocratic regimes should tax far short of their Laffer curve maximum. Economic sanctions, odious debt repudi...
DeFriez, Joshua; Larsen, Justine; Hilton, Nicholas
Environmental legislation is commonly accepted as an altruistic approach to land management. A closer examination however, reveals that political incentives and flawed arguments consistently shape U.S. environmental policy at high public costs. As student fellows at the Institute of Political Economy at Utah State University, we have had the opportunity to research this subject under the direction of Professor Randy Simmons. Political Ecology is his upcoming book that explores a variety of en...
Political campaigns are orchestrated attempts by political organizations to garner public support through persuasive communication in order to influence public policy in their favor. This broad definition encapsulates all forms of campaigns from those of neighborhood organizations seeking to influence local politicians to the campaigns of political parties and candidates who seek election to office in order to shape policy themselves. In pluralist democracies, campaigns are crucial for repres...
Petersen, Michael Bang; Aarøe, Lene
As evidenced by research in evolutionary psychology, humans have evolved sophisticated psychological mechanisms tailored to solve enduring adaptive problems of social life. Many of these social problems are political in nature and relate to the distribution of costs and benefits within and between groups. In that sense, evolutionary psychology suggests that humans are, by nature, political animals. By implication, a straightforward application of evolutionary psychology to the study of public opinion seems to entail that modern individuals find politics intrinsically interesting. Yet, as documented by more than fifty years of research in political science, people lack knowledge of basic features of the political process and the ability to form consistent political attitudes. By reviewing and integrating research in evolutionary psychology and public opinion, we describe (1) why modern mass politics often fail to activate evolved mechanisms and (2) the conditions in which these mechanisms are in fact triggered.
Ward, J.; de Vreese, C.
Evidence suggests that purchasing products for ethical or political reasons−also known as political consumerism−may be gaining in importance. With (young) people’s declining voting rates and a general disinterest in political institutions, scholars and political elites alike are speculating on the
Marcela Monica Stoica
Full Text Available This paper is innovating the theory of elités in the way it was configured by the Central and Eastern European thinking (researches and studies because it is focused on the way the changing of the electoral system influences the structure of political parliamentary elités. This study aims at revealing the connection between the electoral system and the structure of political élites, and it is based on two sociological researches that took place in the Romanian Parliament (Chamber of Deputies in two different chronological and political moments. The first chronological moment was in October 2008 and the second was in November 2009. The political moments are given by the presence of two different types of electoral systems. In the first research, the political élites analyzed belonged to a parliament elected by a proportional representation system (PR on closed lists, and in the second, the elections took place by „uninominal” system. It is shown that the change of electoral system from a period to another does determines the strategy of behavior of the political parliamentary élites and, implicitly, the functioning of parliamentary democracy through the political decisions that shape a certain behavior of élites.
Hall, S. S.
Scientists and science administrators often stress the importance of communication to the general public, but rarely develop educational infrastructures to achieve this goal. Since 2009, the Arthur L. Carter Journalism Institute at New York University has offered a series of basic and advanced writing workshops for graduate students and post-docs in NYU's eight scientific divisions (neuroscience, psychology, physics, biology, chemistry, mathematics, anthropology, and computer science). The basic methodology of the NYU approach will be described, along with successful examples of both written and radio work by students that have been either published or broadcast by general interest journalism outlets.
This is the third in a series of reports prepared by the-National Advisory Committee on Radiation for the Surgeon General of the Public Health Service. The first two were directed to the broad responsibilities of the Service in the field of radiation control and to problems concerned with the protection of the public against undue radiation exposure from contamination of the environment with radioactive materials. In this report the Committee traces the remarkable growth that has taken place in the uses of ionizing radiation in the health professions, in industry, and in other walks of life. It also notes a number of emerging problems which not only are of importance from the point of view of radiation protection, but also, if not alleviated, threaten the quality of medical care in the United States and the translation of the advances of atomic research into needed benefits for the people. These problems include (a) serious weaknesses in academic departments of radiology which have restricted efforts to provide adequate instruction of medical and post-doctoral students in the clinical applications of ionizing radiation, including radiation protection; and (b) an increasingly severe shortage of manpower in all branches of the radiological sciences. The magnitude and complexity of these problems are sufficiently great that a concerted effort is needed by the Public Health Service to correct them. The alleviation of the problems just cited is but a part of a more comprehensive series of responsibilities faced by the Service in the radiological sciences. The Service must play an important role in the prevention of undue exposure of the population from medical, occupational, and environmental sources of ionizing radiation; at the same time, it must actively support the development and application of radiological methods in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. In order that the Service may effectively meet its enlarging responsibilities in the radiological sciences
Fraser, David; Duncan, Ian J H; Edwards, Sandra A; Grandin, Temple; Gregory, Neville G; Guyonnet, Vincent; Hemsworth, Paul H; Huertas, Stella M; Huzzey, Juliana M; Mellor, David J; Mench, Joy A; Spinka, Marek; Whay, H Rebecca
In 2012, the World Organisation for Animal Health adopted 10 'General Principles for the Welfare of Animals in Livestock Production Systems' to guide the development of animal welfare standards. The General Principles draw on half a century of scientific research relevant to animal welfare: (1) how genetic selection affects animal health, behaviour and temperament; (2) how the environment influences injuries and the transmission of diseases and parasites; (3) how the environment affects resting, movement and the performance of natural behaviour; (4) the management of groups to minimize conflict and allow positive social contact; (5) the effects of air quality, temperature and humidity on animal health and comfort; (6) ensuring access to feed and water suited to the animals' needs and adaptations; (7) prevention and control of diseases and parasites, with humane euthanasia if treatment is not feasible or recovery is unlikely; (8) prevention and management of pain; (9) creation of positive human-animal relationships; and (10) ensuring adequate skill and knowledge among animal handlers. Research directed at animal welfare, drawing on animal behaviour, stress physiology, veterinary epidemiology and other fields, complements more established fields of animal and veterinary science and helps to create a more comprehensive scientific basis for animal care and management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Teten, Ryan Lee
This article draws from different experiences in teaching Introduction to American Politics classes over a six-year period. It examines the value of using nontraditional texts in introductory political science classes that may also fulfill general education requirements, in order to engage as many students as possible in the subject matter. It…
Bondarenko Tetiana M.
Full Text Available The issue of collaboration between science, industry and state is of relevance in domestic and international practice. In leading countries of the world and in Ukraine compatible production and scientific complexes are created; collaboration between research institutions and state is established, in particular the theory and practice of collaboration between science, industry and state on the basis of Triple Helix Model is widespread in the world; in scientific papers objects of research of economic processes, subjects of research of the economic theory are considered. However, there are no works where the objects and tasks of economic researches are studied on the basis of macroeconomic environment, and a distinct principle to distinguish research objects relating to different economies and types of production is laid out; scientific and practical problems of economy in the field of collaboration between state, science and industry are clearly defined. According to the purpose of the article (to specify scientific and practical tasks to rationalize scientific research, the experience gained is systematized and a scheme-matrix of scientific and practical problems is proposed. In scientific practice there are works highlighting principles of scientific research work, research tasks in the field of economy, scientific problems of economy but there are no works considering both principles and tasks of collaboration of academic economists with state and industry in order to provide scientists with recommendations on optimization of economic processes to improve the economic efficiency. Taking into account the experience gained, principles of collaboration of academic economists with the state and industry are identified. On the basis of the developed matrix of scientific and practical tasks, the principle of impact of political factors on managerial levers, the level of Gross Domestic Product and Gross Social Product is demonstrated.
Johnston, Ron; Harris, Richard J; Jones, Kelvyn
are those commonly categorised by such terms as ?spatial science? and ?quantitative analysis?. Critics of these areas often write as if the type of work undertaken in the 1960s?1970s still characterises them today, with little appreciation of contemporary activities. This article responds to such claims...... by presenting the current nature of work in those areas ? very different from that of several decades ago ? and makes the case for their inclusion in curricula so that students (most of whom will not proceed to research in the areas) can appreciate the underlying principles of quantitative analyses...
This article describes how biology textbooks can work to discursively constitute a particular kind of "ethical subjectivity." Not only do textbooks constrain the possibilities for thought and action regarding ethical issues, they also require a certain kind of "subject" to partake in ethical exercises and questions. This study looks at how ethical questions/exercises found in four Ontario textbooks require students and teachers to think and act along specific lines. These include making ethical decisions within a legal-juridical frame; deciding what kinds of research should be publically funded; optimizing personal and population health; and regulation through policy and legislation. While engaging ethical issues in these ways is useful, educators should also question the kinds of (ethical) subjectivities that are partially constituted by discourses of science education. If science education is going to address twenty-first century problems such as climate change and social inequality, educators need to address how the possibilities for ethical engagement afforded to students work to constitute specific kinds of "ethical actors."
Courtier, A. M.; Liu, J. C.; St John, K. K.
Blended learning, a combination of classroom- and computer-mediated teaching and learning, is becoming prominent in higher education, and structured assessment is necessary to determine pedagogical costs and benefits. Assessment of a blended general education science class at James Madison University used a mixed-method causal-comparative design: in Spring 2014, two classes with identical content and similar groups of non-science majors were taught by the same instructor in either blended or full face-to-face formats. The learning experience of 160 students in the two classes was compared based on course and exam grades, classroom observation, and student survey results. Student acquisition of content in both classes was measured with pre-post tests using published concept inventories, and surveys, quizzes, and grade reports in the Blackboard learning management system were additionally used for data collection. Exams were identical between the two sections, and exam questions were validated in advance by a faculty member who teaches other sections of the same course. A course experience questionnaire was administered to measure students' personal experiences in both classes, addressing dimensions of good teaching, clear goals and standards, generic skills, appropriate assessment and workload, and emphasis on independence. Using a STEM classroom observation checklist, two researchers conducted in-class observations for four 75-minute face-to-face meetings with similar content focus in both classes, which allowed assessment of student engagement and participation. We will present details of the course design and research plan, as well as assessment results from both quantitative and qualitative analysis. The preliminary findings include slightly higher average grade distribution and more ready responses to in-class activities in the blended class.
Tatiana Evgenievna Telyatnik
Practical implications: results of the conducted research can be used in the applied directions of political science, in studying and the analysis of political image; in the course of designing of image of the political leader or the candidate in election campaign.
de Haan, J.; Eijffinger, Sylvester
This paper reviews recent research on the political economy of monetary policy-making, both by economists and political scientists. The traditional argument for central bank independence (CBI) is based on the desire to counter inflationary biases. However, studies in political science on the
Werlin, Herbert H.
Describes the political elasticity (PE) theory that permits equal consideration of political science and public administration, discussing the five major propositions of the theory. Utilizes the principles of political elasticity by focusing on six countries (Netherlands, Egypt, Japan, Sierre Leone, Singapore, and Jamaica) that underscore the…
Emilce Noemi Sena Correa
Full Text Available The study aims to determine the factors affecting scientific productivity and the relationship with the academic training of professors in the career of Information Sciences at the Facultad Politécnica de la Universidad Nacional de Asunción, between the years 2009-2013. The same part of the implementation of a system of questionnaires aimed at obtaining information and indicators on the potential of each country in research and teaching. The system consists of three types of questionnaires: institutional questionnaire, human resources questionnaire and questionnaire research projects. The variables studied were: researchers, professors, research projects, scientific production, functions, research, bibliometric indicators of scientific production and scientific communication. The results revealed that: that most of the teaching staff are Paraguayans grade professors (81%, and low productivity, is directly related to this segment of the population. This situation generally agrees with the university model that prevails in Paraguay, which is the "transmitter of knowledge" instead of "generating the same". Thus teaching and administrative activities take precedence over the investigative work; the lack of an adequate policy incentives, discourages research.
Full Text Available The relativity experiment is part of the Mercury Orbiter Radio science Experiment (MORE on-board the ESA/JAXA BepiColombo mission to Mercury. Thanks to very precise radio tracking from the Earth and accelerometer, it will be possible to perform an accurate test of General Relativity, by constraining a number of post-Newtonian and related parameters with an unprecedented level of accuracy. The Celestial Mechanics Group of the University of Pisa developed a new dedicated software, ORBIT14, to perform the simulations and to determine simultaneously all the parameters of interest within a global least squares fit. After highlighting some critical issues, we report on the results of a full set of simulations, carried out in the most up-to-date mission scenario. For each parameter we discuss the achievable accuracy, in terms of a formal analysis through the covariance matrix and, furthermore, by the introduction of an alternative, more representative, estimation of the errors. We show that, for example, an accuracy of some parts in 10 − 6 for the Eddington parameter β and of 10 − 5 for the Nordtvedt parameter η can be attained, while accuracies at the level of 5 × 10 − 7 and 1 × 10 − 7 can be achieved for the preferred frames parameters α 1 and α 2 , respectively.
Allison, L.J.; Pfuderer, H.A.; Collier, B.N.
The purpose of this document is to provide guidance for the preparation of computer input for the information programs being developed by the Ecological Sciences Information Center (ESIC)/Information Center Complex (ICC) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Through the use of a generalized system, the data of all the centers of ICC are compatible. Literature included in an information data base has a number of identifying characteristics. Each of these characteristics or data fields can be recognized and searched by the computer. The information for each field must have an alphanumeric label or field descriptor. All of the labels presently used are sets of upper-case letters approximating the name of the field they represent. Presently, there are 69 identified fields; additional fields may be included in the future. The format defined here is designed to facilitate the input of information to the ADSEP program. This program processes data for the ORNL on-line (ORLOOK) search system and is a special case of the ADSEP text input option
Allison, L.J.; Pfuderer, H.A.; Collier, B.N.
The purpose of this document is to provide guidance for the preparation of computer input for the information programs being developed by the Ecological Sciences Information Center (ESIC)/Information Center Complex (ICC) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Through the use of a generalized system, the data of all the centers of ICC are compatible. Literature included in an information data base has a number of identifying characteristics. Each of these characteristics or data fields can be recognized and searched by the computer. The information for each field must have an alphanumeric label or field descriptor. All of the labels presently used are sets of upper-case letters approximating the name of the field they represent. Presently, there are 69 identified fields; additional fields may be included in the future. The format defined here is designed to facilitate the input of information to the ADSEP program. This program processes data for the ORNL on-line (ORLOOK) search system and is a special case of the ADSEP text input option.
Incumbent incentive for competence-signaling and lack of voter information are generally thought to be factors that increase the prevalence of political budget cycles. These mechanisms should be more prevalent in new political units. Since the creation of new political units is rarely exogenous......-experimental to study whether political budget cycles are larger in new political units. Contrary to theoretical predictions, political budget cycles seem to be of a smaller scale in the new municipalities, but only regarding budget cycles in budgetary overruns. The findings are of wider interest for discussions about...... the mechanisms behind context-conditional political budget cycles....
Abraham, John; Ballinger, Rachel
The carcinogenicity (cancer-inducing potential) of pharmaceuticals is an important risk factor for health when considering whether thousands of patients on drug trials or millions/billions of consumers in the marketplace should be exposed to a new drug. Drawing on fieldwork involving over 50 interviews and documentary research spanning 2002-2010 in Europe and the US, and on regulatory capture theory, this article investigates how the techno-regulatory standards for carcinogenicity testing of pharmaceuticals have altered since 1998. It focuses on the replacement of long-term carcinogenicity tests in rodents (especially mice) with shorter-term tests involving genetically-engineered mice (GEM). Based on evidence regarding financial/organizational control, methodological design, and interpretation of the validation and application of these new GEM tests, it is argued that regulatory agencies permitted the drug industry to shape such validation and application in ways that prioritized commercial interests over the need to protect public health. Boundary-work enabling industry scientists to define some standards of public-health policy facilitated such capture. However, as the scientific credibility of GEM tests as tools to protect public health by screening out carcinogens became inescapably problematic, a regulatory resurgence, impelled by reputational concerns, exercised more control over industry's construction and use of the tests, The extensive problems with GEM tests as public-health protective regulatory science raises the spectre that alterations to pharmaceutical carcinogenicity-testing standards since the 1990s may have been boundary-work in which the political project of decreasing the chance that companies' products are defined as carcinogenic has masqueraded as techno-science. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
some democratic principles. Keywords: Democracy, Elections, Political Participation and Evaluation. Introduction .... participation in Nigerian politics. See appendixx for data Presentation. QUESTION .... especially in the 2007 general elections witnessed poor participation of the citizens because they were not adequately ...
Full Text Available According to Foucault, the uprising of the Iranian people in the seventies reveals how much the political force of Islam is due precisely to the fact that it is not principally located in the field of politics, but in that of ethics. Religion (Shiite Islam appears as the guarantee of real change in the very mode of existence. This spiritual politics is marginalized by Marxism, where it is understood as a discontinuity in relation to proper politics, given that the latter is necessarily linked to a strategic rationalization. By indicating, at this juncture of what is intolerable, the living source and the critical impulse of the Foucauldian ethics, this spiritual politics also leads to recognize in the concept of “subjectivation” a dimension that might escape the circle of freedom as determined by a total immanence to power. This conceptual possibility is highly present in the aporias of the Foucauldian concept of the “relation to oneself”, both as a first condition of governmentality and the ultimate point of resistance against any governmentality. It thus reveals the difficulties in relating political to ethical subjectivation.
Alexey I. Podberyozkin
Full Text Available Military-political issues is an important area of research work at MGIMO. The difference in this direction from the classical international specialization is that it is at the intersection of several disciplines: military science, military-technical and military-industrial as well as International Relations. A specialist in military and political issues should not only be an expert in the field of international relations and diplomacy, but also have a deep knowledge of military-technical issues to understand the basic trends in the development of scientific and technological progress and its impact on the balance of forces in the world. Global changes in the balance of power and the nature of the conflict, the emergence of new types of weapons are changing the basic methods and approaches to the art of war, which requires a science-based perspective on problem solving and multi-disciplinary approach in achieving the goals. Military and political studies allow us to understand how the development of military technology and military organization of the state affected by the political situation in the world, the national security of the country and its place in the system of international relations. Military-political research has been developing at MGIMO for a few decades. It laid down the basis for a scientific school of political-military studies. Its founding fathers were such prominent scholars of international affairs, as I.G. Usachyov, A.D. Nikonov, A.G. Arbatov, V.G. Baranovsky, V.M. Kulagin, A.N. Nikitin and other well-known experts. Their work covers a wide range of military and political issues, including the topics of arms control and disarmament, international, and especially European security, military policy, NATO, the Western military-political doctrines and their practical application. Now the lead in the development of this research at MGIMO has taken Center for Military-Political Studies, which became a concentration of relevant
the arising political issues before, during and after the 2015 general elections in the state. The social ... Wapmuk (2014, p. 87) corroborated the above view and identified the Lagos Auxiliary of the Anti-slavery and ... Government is also facing severe opposition from other political parties in the state, including APC with ...
A general point of consensus among many Nigerians is that the nation's development as a political entity has been hampered by the way and manner politics is practised in the country. There have, therefore, been calls, often clamorous and confused, even tongue-in-cheek, by and for Nigerians to be socialized in an ...
Stieha, Vicki; Shadle, Susan E.; Paterson, Sharon
Evidence-based instructional practices (ebips) have been associated with positive student outcomes; however, institutions struggle to catalyze widespread adoption of these practices in general education science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (stem) courses. Further, linking ebips with integrated learning assessment is rarely discussed…