WorldWideScience

Sample records for political rights reducing

  1. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Mititelu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights adopted by the United Nations, in 1966, the human being who enjoy his civil and political rights, enjoy in fact that “humanitas dignitas” (human dignity, since these rights derive from this. That is why this Covenant stipulated that the States parties are obligated to assure both the recognitions of these rights and their exercise and juridical protection.

  2. Territorial Rights, Political Association, and Immigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2013-01-01

    is therefore in need of additional justification. The paper considers Christopher Heath Wellman’s liberal proposal for justifying the right to control immigration, which understands the right as derivative of a general right to freedom of association held collectively by the people of the state. The paper...... argues that state legitimacy and freedom of political association fail to connect in the way required to justify a right to control immigration. Wellman’s argument conflates the state as an institution and the people as a political collective and elides the difference between territorial jurisdiction...... and associational freedom....

  3. The New Right and family politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, J

    1992-05-01

    Political concern for the family has historically been intermittent; the present context is that there are considerable consequences for individuals, families, and personal life. Socioeconomic and cultural changes brought the rise of the New Right; The Thatcher (UK) and Reagan (US) administrations were committed to strengthening the traditional family. The emergence of the family as a social problem and the political agenda are discussed. The costs of liberalism were felt in a recessionary economy. The US political agenda of Carter to hold a White House Conference on the American Family never materialized. Reagan used the restoration of the traditional American family as a way to get the economy back on its feet. Moral crusaders and the new evangelical Christian movement merged with the political right; the "Gang of Four" (Republican Party right) politicians involved morally conservative communities normally outside the political area into the New Right. Grass roots organizations were mobilized on the Right. The British situation is explained; differences existed in that there were no antiabortion and moral lobby groups tied to the Right although their influence was felt. Pressure group politics is relatively novel to Britain. The Moral Majority in the US and right wing pressure groups on the Tory government are but 1 part of the New Right; it is characterized as populist, proclaiming the Radical Conservatism of Adam Smith and Edmund Burke. The approach in this article is to show the complex interactions of theory, biography, and public opinion in the practical politics of the New Right. Policy outcomes are not predictable because of ideological differences in New Right attitudes toward the family. The attitudes of the moral order and the family is exemplified in the work of Roger Scruton's neoconservative stand on social order, Robert Nozick's Kantian proposition that human beings are ends with natural inviolable rights of individual freedom, Hayak and Friedman

  4. A Right that is not a Right? Right as the Political Structure of Disagreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Quintana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available By studying discursive productions in certain popular movements, I would like to examine in this text the way in which these movements vindicate, in their transformative practices, a right that cannot be reduced to the instituted rights in a legal sense, nor interpreted in accordance with a merely reformist comprehension of political action. I thus seek to define a “right that is not a right”. This right is essential in showing how these actions can be the site of processes of political subjectivation from which there can emerge both polemical instances of disidentification and other forms of being-together that could be considered simultaneously dissensual and “experimental”.

  5. Political Rights of Civil Servants in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernadi Affandi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper highlights the regulation of political rights of civil servants (PNS in Indonesia based on the 1945 Indonesian Constitution. Political rights are part of human rights that shall be guarded and protected by the State in the form of legislation ranging from constitution to its implementing regulations. The presence of regulation is substantial for safeguarding the existence and implementing political rights possessed by citizens, including civil servants. However, in practice there are restrictions by the lawmaker towards the political rights of the civil servants in Indonesia. In this regard, this paper attempts to highlight two issues: first, the position of civil servants in Indonesia in the 1945 Indonesian Constitution; second, the regulation of the political rights of civil servants in the implementing regulations of the 1945 Indonesian Constitution. Abstrak Tulisan ini menyoroti pengaturan hak Pegawai Negeri Sipil (PNS di Indonesia berdasarkan Undang-Undang Dasar Negara Republik Indonesia tahun 1945 (UUD 1945. Hak politik merupakan bagian dari hak asasi manusia (HAM yang harus dijaga dan dilindungi negara dalam bentuk pengaturan perundang-undangan mulai dari undang-undang dasar sampai dengan peraturan perundang-undangan pelaksananya. Kehadiran peraturan perundangundangan tersebut menjadi penting agar keberadaan maupun pelaksanaan hak politik yang dimiliki warga negara, termasuk PNS, dapat berjalan sebagaimana mestinya. Dalam praktiknya, terdapat pembatasan yang dilakukan oleh pembentuk undang-undang terhadap hak politik PNS di Indonesia. Berkaitan dengan hal tersebut, tulisan ini mencoba menyoroti dua persoalan: pertama, kedudukan PNS di Indonesia dalam UUD 1945; kedua, pengaturan hak politik PNS dalam peraturan perundang-undangan pelaksana UUD 1945.

  6. Human Rights, Human Security and Political Theologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Lorite Escorihuela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Human rights, particularly in the form of international human rights law, intersect with religion and peace at foundational levels, as symbolically highlighted by the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR. The Preamble to the Declaration proclaims in its very first line that respect for human dignity is the foundation of peace, and proceeds to declare that freedom of belief, alongside freedom of speech and freedom from fear, are the highest aspirations of humankind. One could similarly highlight the special relationship between the project of human rights, peace and religion, particularly religious tolerance, in the texts of the universal, as well as regional, human rights instruments adopted since 1948, as well as the text of the Charter of the United Nations of 1945. The relationship between contemporary human rights, on the one hand, and religion and peace on the other, is arguably determined by the structure of international human rights law as a political discourse, which describes the relationship between individuals, society and the State. The visible influence of social contract theory on the wording of the Universal Declaration reminds us that from its inception, the project of human rights is intimately linked to religious diversity (because of the birth of modern sovereignty in European wars of religion and evangelical imperialism and peace (because of the connection that the Declaration draws between the stability of States and respect for the human dignity of citizens. Against this known conceptual and historical backdrop, this paper starts with the displacement, at the global level, of human rights by the ambiguous discourse of "human security," since the early 1990s. A general idea is that "human security", which has rapidly evolved to become an organizing principle of policy-making for governments as well as non-governmental and inter-governmental organizations, constitutes an alternative, sometimes deliberately

  7. Human rights, State Violence and Political Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe Larsen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates Hannah Arendt’s and Giorgio Agamben’s critiques of human rights and argues that the two thinkers share a blind spot with regard to the radical potentials of human rights. The problem is that they do not break with two fixed imaginaries which still haunt liberal democracies: (1 the historical essentialist understanding of human rights and (2 nation-states and individuals as the principal loci for political rights, power, and action. Based on the work of Jacques Rancière, Costas Douzinas, and Étienne Balibar this article argues that human rights can be thought of as a constituent part of a radical political praxis and resistance movement. If human rights are thought of as a praxis of “right-ing” (Douzinas or a “dissensus” (Rancière, which both contest the current “distribution of the sensible,” a new “cosmopolitics of human rights” can be imagined where human rights are conceived as a borderline concept (Balibar.

  8. Right Face: Understanding German Political Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-16

    technology for printing an" aistr-buting informaticn and propaganda, including motion pictures , they Created a mass political awareness which broke past...1951 Lower Saxony Land.ag vote, the Party was banned by the Federal Constitutional Court in 1952,:for its direct link with the The German Rights...Westphalia NO National primarily in forbidden Offensive Bavaria & Saxony , December 1992 most members from FAP NB National Bloc neo-Nazi splinter forbidden

  9. We Do Not Enjoy Equal Political Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Antoinette Sossou

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This study explores Ghanaian women’s perception and voices about issues of gender equality in terms of exercising their political and decision-making rights in connection with political participation and governance in Ghana. The study uses demographic survey and six different focus group discussions to capture the views of a total of 68 women with different educational, socioeconomical, and occupational backgrounds, in two regions of the Ghana. The findings indicate that even though theoretically the constitution of Ghana gives women equal rights as their male counterparts to actively participate in the governance of their country, in practice, women face issues of gender-based power imbalance and discrimination in addition to other structural, institutional, cultural, and traditional barriers and roadblocks. These barriers expose women as being inferior and second-class citizens compared with their male counterparts in term of participation and inclusion in the governance of their country. The study discusses the social and policy implications of the issues of gender inequality and social exclusion of women in politics and calls for empowerment and organization of women and structural change in the system.

  10. International labor migration: between human rights and political objectives

    OpenAIRE

    Radu Musetescu

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with the relation between the human right to migrate and the objectives of immigration policies. We argue that the temporary work migration is the clearest sign of the failure of political governance in both the host and native states, even if we may argue, to a different degree. The only way to reduce the pressure of immigration in developed countries would be to allow a freer global environment, in trade, industrial and taxation policies.

  11. Political Socialization of Right-Wing Conservative Politicians in Turkey: On The Factors of Their Political Belonging and Political Background

    OpenAIRE

    Suveren, Yaşar

    2014-01-01

    The understanding of the processes which shape the political belonging and political socialization of the right-wing conservative politicians in Turkey is crucial for clarifying right wing political tradition and the series of factors influencing political views of the politicians who belonged to this specific tradition. Figuring out these factors would at least make it possible to explain and evaluate the political culture in Turkey by focusing on a single dimension constituted by the politi...

  12. The Right to Political Party Membership in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leake Mekonen Tesfay

    2017-08-30

    Aug 30, 2017 ... stated that WPE shall be guided by Marxism-Leninism, and considered it as the vanguard political party dedicated to serve the interests of the working people.4. Although the right to association was provided for in the PDRE Constitution,5 political associations and political parties other than the WPE were ...

  13. Moral and political conceptions of human rights: rethinking the distinction

    OpenAIRE

    Horn Anita

    2016-01-01

    In one important strand of the philosophical debate human rights are seen as a practical benchmark to evaluate and orient matters of national politics international relations and global governance. The article investigates the possible benefits and problems of this approach. Problematising the well established distinction between moral and political human rights in philosophical human rights debate the author follows Paolo Gilabert's attempt to alternatively discuss human rights under the per...

  14. International Human Rights: Politics & Law. A Syllabus. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkin, Louis; And Others

    Designed for first year graduate students in political science, international relations, and law, this course focuses on the contemporary concern with human rights in its international political context. The course is intended to be taught in 14 two-hour sessions; it can also be broken down into single-hour sessions. There are four major parts to…

  15. The Politics of European Human Rights Culture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Agha, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 3 (2017), s. 200-215 ISSN 1805-8396 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-30299S Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : Court of Justice of the European Union * European Court of Human Rights * religious symbols Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences OBOR OECD: Law

  16. Politics of getting the numbers right

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baral, Srijana; Meilby, Henrik; Chettri, Bir Bahadur Khanal

    2018-01-01

    Inventory based management planning is a prerequisite for handing over forest management rights to community forest user groups in Nepal. However, the quality and rationale of such planning remains largely unexplored. Using a multiple case study approach, we aimed to assess the quality of communi...... inventories contribute to recentralizing community forestry through strengthening bureaucratic authority. Thus the inventory requirement serves mainly as a tool to satisfy bureaucratic requirements, rather than being a tool for guiding forest management decisions.......Inventory based management planning is a prerequisite for handing over forest management rights to community forest user groups in Nepal. However, the quality and rationale of such planning remains largely unexplored. Using a multiple case study approach, we aimed to assess the quality of community...... forest inventories in the mid-hill region of Nepal. We therefore conducted inventory in nine community forests, reviewed forest management plans and guidelines, and interviewed forest officials and representatives of community forest user groups to understand the procedures applied. Further we compared...

  17. "The Role of the Right--a Focus on the 'Political' in 'Political Correctness'."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Michael W.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses political correctness (PC) on the college campus. Argues that what objective evidence exists suggests that PC does not pose an imminent threat to the academy or to society as a whole. Suggests that political correctness is mostly hyperbole and that both the left and the right play a significant role in regard to PC. (PA)

  18. The political constitution of the EU citizen rights regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tore Vincents

    2011-01-01

    Reactions to decisions by the European Court of Justice (ECJ) demonstrate that the political institutions in the Union should take responsibility for the development of the structure of the European Union's (EU) citizen rights regime. This article analyses different political views on the EU...... citizen rights regime. It argues that the disagreement between them is largely a disagreement between ‘reasonable views’. The disagreement is mainly based on different views about the levels (European, national) at which individuals are to be seen as equals and about the contribution of different...... communities and institutions to the good life of citizens, both individually and collectively. Taking the contestation between the different views seriously, the article argues in favour of political constitutionalism, according to which the development of the EU citizen rights regime is the responsibility...

  19. Left or right? Teachers, political options and history didactics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Pacievitch

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this text we discuss the political options of history teachers and its consequences to teaching. We ask if there are relations between political options and didactical choices of the history teacher. The data were obtained from the project “Youth and History in MERCOSUR”, that uses a questionnaire which was responded by a sample of 288 history teacher of Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Chile and Paraguay. A descriptive and inferential statics treatment was given to the answers, with special attention to political options of the teachers, and crossing general information with stances about didactical aspects.  Norberto Bobbio’s notion about left and right was used. It was noted that the teachers, regardless of political opinion, defend the history teaching importance and care about their own political participation. There are subtle differences about the  teaching objectives evaluation and about professional difficulties among teachers, that also interpret sensitive historical themes coherently to their political stances. These findings invite to think more about the role of those professors who performs history teachers training, as to reinforce the importance of connecting politics and didactics in the making of teaching responsibility.

  20. In Defense of Language Rights: Rethinking the Rights Orientation from a Political Economy Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses language rights as a legitimate political tool for language policy scholarship and activism. The article begins by engaging several critiques of language rights. It analyzes Ruiz's language-as-right orientation to language policy, and then reviews recent scholarship challenging language rights from poststructural and…

  1. Know your rights: Earth jurisprudence and environmental politics

    OpenAIRE

    Humphreys, David

    2015-01-01

    Two Andean countries – Ecuador and Bolivia – have politically recognized the rights of nature, an idea that is also gaining traction at the sub-federal in the United States. The origins of the concept can be traced to the cultures of indigenous peoples of the Americas as well as to the work of American legal scholar Christopher Stone. Recognition of nature’s rights holds out the possibility of an alternative approach to environmental management and politics, as well as to a fundamentally rede...

  2. The right of minorities to political participation under the Ethiopian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Broad representation of different ethnic groups has implications in stability and the quality of democracy. The right to political participation is largely realized through the electoral system of a country. The choice among electoral systems should thus take various factors into account including the need for securing equitable ...

  3. Out of the Mainstream. Water Rights, Politics and Identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelens, R.A.; Getches, D.; Guevara-Gil, A.

    2010-01-01

    Water is not only a source of life and culture. It is also a source of power, conflicting interests and identity battles. Rights to materially access, culturally organize and politically control water resources are poorly understood by mainstream scientific approaches and hardly addressed by current

  4. Sexual and Reproductive Rights, Social Inequality and Politics in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sexual and Reproductive Rights, Social Inequality and Politics in Latin America. Paradoxically, Latin America has some of the most stringent legal restrictions against and highest rates of abortion in the world. The co-existence of legal restrictions and unsafe abortions affects society unequally. While middle- and upper-class ...

  5. Gender bias and citizenship rights to political participation in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this paper therefore is to examine the issue of gender equity and citizenship rights to political participation and the challenges for democratic consolidation and economic development. The methodological approach used in writing this paper is content analysis. The paper observes that gender bias in any society ...

  6. Was Mackenbach right? Towards a practical political science of redistribution and health inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrecker, Ted

    2017-07-01

    In 2010, Mackenbach reflected on England's lack of success in reducing health inequalities between 1997 and 2010, asserting that "it is difficult to imagine a longer window of opportunity for tackling health inequalities"; asking "[i]f this did not work, what will?"; and concluding that reducing health inequalities was not politically feasible at least in that jurisdiction. Exploring the empirics of that observation offers a window into the politics of reducing health inequalities. For purposes of future comparative research, I outline three (not mutually exclusive) perspectives on political feasibility, identify their implications for a political science of health inequalities, and explore what they mean for advocacy in support of reducing those inequalities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The political approach of animal rights from the perspective of the rights theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Rey Pérez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, discussions about animal rights have focused on defending, in different ways, abolitionist or regulatory approaches. Recently, there has been a political change in the way of understanding these rights, which fits better a legal approach that considers that rights –in addition to having a moral dimension- are also effectiveness-oriented legal institutions. This leads to considering that the range of animal rights must be extended to rights linked to the condition of citizenship, such as social rights and particularly the right to healthcare and labour rights.

  8. Human rights and development - an international political economy perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Lucena

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This research note provides a critical review of the recent literature on the consequences of development and democratization for the protection of human rights. It identifies common lessons and grounds for further research in the field. This literature takes a series of paradoxes that challenge conventional wisdom regarding the relationship between development and democratization as its starting point, on one hand, and the protection of human rights, on the other. To that effect, several unintended adverse consequences of economic development and movements toward democracy for the protection of civil and political rights are identified. The literature focuses on rights to physical integrity, leaving important questions unanswered when it comes to civil liberties and second-generation rights. The article systematizes new knowledge produced by this literature, translates it into recommendations for research and identifies opportunities for new investigations.

  9. The Growth of Individual Rights: Ideas and Politics. International Human Rights Syllabi No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Dennis

    Designed for teachers of undergraduate students with some familiarity with political theory, moral philosophy, and social history, this course outline focuses on individual rights and their realization in the United States and the world at large. The syllabus, arranged in 3 major parts, is subdivided into 16 sections that outline major course…

  10. Gender, health, and human rights in sites of political exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie, M; Petchesky, R P

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the intersections of gender, health and human rights in sites of political exclusion. We apply the political theory of Giorgio Agamben on 'states of exception', seeking to better understand how the recent 'war on terror', that seemingly knows no limits of time or space, is driving health outcomes in refugee and Internally Displaced Persons (IDP) camps. Reproductive health, militarization, and gender-based violence in camps are explored in depth. The evidence presented reveals a number of contradictions of refugee and IDP camps, further highlighting the need for a more rights based humanitarianism. We conclude that foregrounding states of exception, as a way of understanding current gender dynamics in the social determinants of health, is both epidemiologically necessary and conceptually useful. We find that, in these sites of exclusion, the indispensability of a human rights approach to gender and health equity issues is revealed most directly. Furthermore, we are able to make new connections between the 'crisis of humanitarianism', gender, and health.

  11. Civil rights between legal provisions and political reality in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Koliqi Malaj

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the basic principles of civil rights is that all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. The life protection, liberty and property should be equally guaranteed to citizens to exclude discrimination of minorities or other parts of the population. These rights are an important part of civil liberties and are considered as an essential element for effective citizenship. Arbitrary arrest, terror, torture or other serious and unlawful interference, both by state and private actors, significantly affect the well-being of democracy as it affects the very essence of it. In liberal democracies, leaders legitimized by the people must be involved within the norms and principles of the rule of law in order to establish a healthy relationship between the state and the citizen. This relationship is considered to be damaged in non-liberal democracies as it is affected by the suspension of individual freedoms and rights. This paper aims to analyze whether these individual rights are guaranteed and protected in Albania, considering from the perspective of the legal framework as well as in the political reality. This study aims to analyze the development of human rights, judicial rights and their implementation in our country to come to the conclusion, whether our system is that of a liberal democracy or not.

  12. Right to Place: A Political Theory of Animal Rights in Harmony with Environmental and Ecological Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Panagiotarakou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is on the “right to place” as a political theory of wild animal rights. Out of the debate between terrestrial cosmopolitans inspired by Kant and Arendt and rooted cosmopolitan animal right theorists, the right to place emerges from the fold of rooted cosmopolitanism in tandem with environmental and ecological principles. Contrary to terrestrial cosmopolitans—who favour extending citizenship rights to wild animals and advocate at the same time large-scale humanitarian interventions and unrestricted geographical mobility—I argue that the well-being of wild animals is best served by the right to place theory on account of its sovereignty model. The right to place theory advocates human non-interference in wildlife communities, opposing even humanitarian interventions, which carry the risk of unintended consequences. The right to place theory, with its emphasis on territorial sovereignty, bases its opposition to unrestricted geographical mobility on two considerations: (a the non-generalist nature of many species and (b the potential for abuse via human encroachment. In a broader context, the advantage of the right to place theory lies in its implicit environmental demands: human population control and sustainable lifestyles.

  13. Politics and language rights: a case study of language politics in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Pupavac, Vanessa

    2003-01-01

    This chapter discusses language and national aspirations through a case study of language politics in Croatia. Not only is language crucially influenced by national politics, but language politics has played a significant role in national politics in which the status accorded to regional variations in language has paralleled political aspirations. Claims to a distinct Croatian language and rejection of a shared Serbo-Croatian language have been a key part in the Croatian nation-building proce...

  14. Islamist Women and Political Rights : A Case Study of Islamist Women's Increasing Political Participation in Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood.

    OpenAIRE

    Lillevik, Ragna

    2012-01-01

    Islamist women have become increasingly visible in politics in Egypt over the last decade. What can explain their increased political participation? This thesis examines women's participation in a case study of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood. I do so by the use of qualitative interviews with Islamist women in Cairo as well as an extensive review of previous research. In doing so, the relationship between Islamism and the development of women's political rights is explored. The empirical evid...

  15. The political left rolls with the good and the political right confronts the bad: connecting physiology and cognition to preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Michael D.; Balzer, Amanda; Jacobs, Carly M.; Gruszczynski, Michael W.; Smith, Kevin B.; Hibbing, John R.

    2012-01-01

    We report evidence that individual-level variation in people's physiological and attentional responses to aversive and appetitive stimuli are correlated with broad political orientations. Specifically, we find that greater orientation to aversive stimuli tends to be associated with right-of-centre and greater orientation to appetitive (pleasing) stimuli with left-of-centre political inclinations. These findings are consistent with recent evidence that political views are connected to physiological predispositions but are unique in incorporating findings on variation in directed attention that make it possible to understand additional aspects of the link between the physiological and the political. PMID:22271780

  16. the right of minorities to political participation under the ethiopian

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MLR

    culture rather than any abstract consideration into the relative merits of different voting methods.4 For example, countries with British political heritage are more inclined to plurality and majority systems, while those influenced by continental ..... ethnic makeup of the country with viable administrative divisions.63 Ethnicity in.

  17. Citizenship beyond politics: the importance of political, civil and social rights and responsibilities among women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzendahl, Catherine; Coffé, Hilde

    2009-12-01

    Previous research has suggested that men are more engaged as citizens than are women. Yet, little is known about gender cleavages across a variety of citizenship norms. To what extent do men and women define citizenship differently? To address that question, this study examines the importance men and women assign various citizenship rights and responsibilities using 2004 ISSP data from 18 Western, industrialized nations. Using a disaggregated approach to understanding definitions of citizenship, we examine political, civil, and social rights and responsibilities. After controlling for a variety of demographic and attitudinal influences, we find that men and women are not different in their views regarding the importance of political responsibilities. However, women do view political rights as significantly more important than do men. Further, in comparison to men, women view both civil and social responsibilities and rights domains as significantly more important.

  18. Politics and public health ethics in practice: right and left meet right and wrong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollust, Sarah E; Baum, Nancy M; Jacobson, Peter D

    2008-01-01

    As public health practitioners are no doubt aware, public health practice and politics are closely linked. Although theoretical discussion of the emerging field of public health ethics has been rich, scholars have paid little attention to the relationship between ethical issues and politics in public health practice. We conducted semistructured interviews with 45 public health practitioners across a range of occupations (eg, health officers, medical directors, sanitarians, nurses, educators, and commissioners) working at 12 local health departments across Michigan and the state health department. Practitioners were asked to describe the ethical issues they faced in their daily practice. Ethical issues that resulted from the political environment emerged as one major category of ethical issues our interviewees described. This article illustrates how political issues engender ethical challenges in 4 main areas: public health agenda-setting, political pressures, political conflicts with best practices, and the scope of public health practice. The findings suggest that politics and public health ethics intrinsically intersect, because political pressures and priorities often impose ethical challenges that practitioners negotiate in their daily work.

  19. Theorising the Right to Be Political in Motion: khôra as Condition of Possibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark F.N. Franke

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The most rightful aspect of being human is our movement. Yet, while the spatialised orders of modern human rights regimes frustrate recognition of this fact, we do not theorise rights with any greater universality via concepts of time. Both spatial and temporal descriptions overlook how human rights must be thought of through the specificity of human movement itself. Through a critical analysis of the concept of khôra from Plato’s Timaeus, I suggest a way of reading the politics of human rights in these terms. And I propose a rethinking of fundamental human rights through the right to be political in motion.

  20. Human Rights and the Political Economy of Universal Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Health system financing is a critical factor in securing universal health care and achieving equity in access and payment. The human rights framework offers valuable guidance for designing a financing strategy that meets these goals. This article presents a rights-based approach to health care financing developed by the human right to health care movement in the United States. Grounded in a human rights analysis of private, market-based health insurance, advocates make the case for public financing through progressive taxation. Financing mechanisms are measured against the twin goals of guaranteeing access to care and advancing economic equity. The added focus on the redistributive potential of health care financing recasts health reform as an economic policy intervention that can help fulfill broader economic and social rights obligations. Based on a review of recent universal health care reform efforts in the state of Vermont, this article reports on a rights-based public financing plan and model, which includes a new business tax directed against wage disparities. The modeling results suggest that a health system financed through equitable taxation could produce significant redistributive effects, thus increasing economic equity while generating sufficient funds to provide comprehensive health care as a universal public good. PMID:28559677

  1. the politics underpinning the non- realisation of the right to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    MIZAN LAW REVIEW. Vol. 5 No.2, December 2011. At least two messages can be discerned from the perceived concerns on resource transfer and the caveats against the reincarnation of the New International. Economic Order through the right to development. One of these messages is a fact and the other is a ...

  2. Reproductive Rights: A Political, Professional, and Personal Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Business and Professional Women's Foundation, Washington, DC.

    Reproductive rights are essential to a woman's full participation in the workplace. Procreative decisions are private ones, and once the door is open to government restrictions it will be hard to close. Prior to 1850, abortion was legal in most states. Not until the professionalization of the medical field did physicians and others seek to…

  3. Track D Social Science, Human Rights and Political Science

    OpenAIRE

    Strathdee, S.; Lozada, R.; Martinez, G.; Rangel, G.; Staines, H.; Abramovitz, D.; Vera, A.; Magis-Rodriguez, C.; Patterson, T.; Bärnighausen, T.; Bloom, D.; Humair, S.; Lichtenberg, M.; Hansen, I.; Mukhopadhyay, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background We evaluated brief combination interventions to simultaneously reduce sexual and injection risks among female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) in Tijuana (TJ) and Ciudad Juarez (CJ) Mexico during 2008-2010, when harm reduction was expanding in TJ, but not CJ. Methods FSW-IDUs≥18 years reporting recently sharing injection equipment and unprotected sex with clients participated in a randomized factorial trial comparing four brief, single-session combinations of active motivati...

  4. Human rights for more than one voice: rethinking political space beyond the global/local divide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Adami

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers political agency and space as found in Cavarero's For More Than One Voice: Toward a Philosophy of Vocal Expression in order to take a critical philosophical approach to human rights education (HRE and the political implications of its increasingly legal discourse. Like Arendt, Cavarero is concerned with a radical rethinking of political space, as not limited to place or legal borders, but bound by our human condition of plurality and relationality. Both Arendt and Cavarero want politics to be coupled with justice, nevertheless, Cavarero provides a notion of politics that lets us think beyond territorial terms of a polis, which opens for exploring an expanded conceptualization of human rights politics, as not bound by national legislative measures, but as concerning political action in-between human beings. In contrast to the dominant discourse on ‘human rights experts’ who frame the content for HRE, the notion of ‘absolute local space’ questions the dichotomy of universal/particular in raising the importance of a plurality of unique voices who create a spectrum for the universality of rights.

  5. Citizenship, rights and justice in Latin America: The citizenisation-judicialisation of politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Domingo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to study the phenomena of the judicialisation of politics and the citizenisation of the political discourse in Latin America in recent years. The article begins by presenting a definition of these phenomena, after which the author explains the phenomena through three different areas: the changes in civil society that have led to a discovery of law and the language of law; institutional reforms and specifically the reforms of judicial power in recent years, and the changes in the legitimisation discourse of the political system around the concepts of democracy and citizenship of rights.

  6. WOMEN’S RIGHTS IN THE POLITICAL SPHERE- MACEDONIAN AND INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Dana Nikolov

    2015-01-01

    Gender equality is a key issue that concernsall government entities in the world and the extent of its legal regulation depends on the inclusion of women in the political sphere of a state. Early women's rights movement dates back to the 1830s when women began speaking publicly against slavery. Since then, the performance by women on the legal and political scene is in continuous progression, but it is not sufficient. Currently the country with the largest number of...

  7. In the absence of private property rights: Political control and state corporatism during Putin's first tenure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Vanteeva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that Russia's choice of economic organization, which is based on the renewed role of the state, is a response to the existence of severe transaction costs, and subsequent mitigation of contractual incompleteness in the absence of a strong property rights system. Ill-defined property rights have historically hampered formation of business classes in Russia, reducing the necessity for appropriate market infrastructure. This also implied that if Russia's political and economic system had more than one competing hierarchy, the objective of the elites would not have entailed long-term economic growth, as gains from short-term wealth tunneling would have been much larger. As in the early 2000s Russian investment projects were generally defined by large sunk costs and long-term to maturity, under a weak legal system a new substitute governing mechanism, which took form of the state–private co-partnership system, has arisen in order to reduce hold-up costs leading to high levels of underinvestment.

  8. Rights, Free Trade, and Politics: The Strategic Use of a Rights Discourse in the Negotiation of Free Trade Agreements (FTAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Rettberg

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to describe the strategic use of a rights discourse by domestic and international actors involved in the negotiation and ratification processes of free trade agreements between Colombia, the United States, and the European Union. We suggest that some of the differences between both FTAs and the processes leading up to their approval and ratification can be attributed to the ability of relevant actors to build and disseminate rights-based arguments in order to develop like-minded political coalitions, and other institutional and contextual characteristics.

  9. Political Economy of Right to Education in Rural China: Unpacking the Black Box of State

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, Y.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation approaches the inequality of basic education between urban and rural China from a human rights perspective and positions this issue in the context of Chinese political economy. It demonstrates the slackness of the Chinese state in the 1990s and its insufficient efforts in the 2000s

  10. Media framing and political advertising in the Patients' Bill of Rights debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Aaron

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to assess the influence of interest groups over news content. In particular, I explore the possibility that political advertising campaigns affect the tenor and framing of newspaper coverage in health policy debates. To do so, I compare newspaper coverage of the Patients' Bill of Rights debate in 1999 in five states that were subject to extensive advertising campaigns with coverage in five comparison states that were not directly exposed to the advocacy campaigns. I find significant differences in coverage depending on the presence or absence of paid advertising campaigns, and conclude that readers were exposed to different perspectives and arguments about managed care regulation if the newspapers they read were published in states targeted by political advertisements. Specifically, newspaper coverage was 17 percent less likely to be supportive of managed care reform in states subject to advertising campaigns designed to foment opposition to the Patients' Bill of Rights. Understanding the ability of organized interests and political actors to successfully promote their preferred issue frames in a dynamic political environment is particularly important in light of the proliferation of interest groups, the prevalence of multimillion-dollar political advertising campaigns, and the health care reform debate under President Barack Obama.

  11. Inequalities in the Japanese Workplace : Gender, Political Creed, and the Right to Life

    OpenAIRE

    ウィリアムズ, ノエル

    2001-01-01

    Much of my recent research in the area of fundamental rights in the Japanese and comparative contexts has been concerned with the issue of equality. In this paper we look at the issue of equality in the Japanese workplace, concentrating on the company organization. Three aspects in particular are discussed. First, gender inequality ; second, the issue of workers and their political creed ; third, the inequality of the right to life of workers.

  12. Medical humanitarianism, human rights and political advocacy: the case of the Israeli Open Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Nora; Filc, Dani; Davidovitch, Nadav

    2012-03-01

    In the context of neo-liberal retrenchments humanitarian NGOs have become alternative healthcare providers that partially fill the vacuum left by the welfare state's withdrawal from the provision of services to migrants and other marginalized populations. In many cases they thus help to build legitimacy for the state's retreat from social responsibilities. Human rights organizations play an important role in advocating for migrants' rights, but in many cases they represent a legalistic and individualized conceptualization of the right to health that limits their claims for social justice. This paper analyzes the interactions and tensions between the discourses of medical humanitarianism, human rights and political advocacy using the example of an "Open Clinic" run by an Israeli human rights organization as a case-study: In 2007 dramatically increasing patient numbers provoked an intense internal debate concerning the proposal to temporarily close the "Open Clinic" in order to press the government to take action. Based on protocols from internal meetings and parliamentary hearings and in-depth interviews, we have analyzed divergent contextualizations of the Clinic's closure. These reflect conflicting notions regarding the Clinic's variegated spectrum of roles--humanitarian, political, legitimizing, symbolic, empowering and organizational--and underlying conceptualizations of migrants' "deservingness". Our case-study thus helps to illuminate NGOs' role in the realm of migrant healthcare and points out options for a possible fruitful relationship between the divergent paradigms of medical humanitarianism, human rights and political advocacy. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. A Human Right to Identity Formation? Identity, Politics, and the Universality of Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard T. Peterson

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper will build on ideas I presented at the previous conference (in 2003 on human rights at Mofid University. In that paper, I argued that it is a mistake to view human rights as the expression of a specific culture or historical identity (e.g., that of the “West”. Instead, human rights are better understood as historically emergent universals created in the conflict and interaction of various social groups with contrasting interests, cultural understandings, and identities. The aim of preserving a specific culture, religion, or historical identity against cultural imperialism or other kinds of domination can be supported by appealing to a human right to the formation of distinctive identities. Therefore this human right can contribute to a plurality of identities within the global network of societies that is emerging today. The aim of this paper is to develop this idea of a human right to identity formation دراین مقاله مخالفت خود را با تردید در جهان‌شمولی حقوق بشر اعلام کرده‌ام. این تردید، بر این باور مبتنی است که حقوق بشر، امری تحمیلی ازسوی غرب می‌باشد. من دلایلی برای انکار این نظر که حقوق بشر تماماً غربی است ارائه کرده، به وجوهی اشاره کردم که در واقع خیزش حقوق بشر، دست کم تا حدودی، ناشی از مبارزاتی است که با سلطة قدرت‌های غربی صورت می‌گیرد. این شیوه از استدلال، نیازمند انکار این مطلب نیست که زبان حقوق بشر گاه شکل سیاست‌هایی را گرفته که تمایز فرهنگ‌های دیگر را نمی‌توانند بفهمند (تشخیص دهند و از نابرابری جهانی ثروت و قدرت غفلت کرده‌اند، یا حتی از آن به نحو تلویحی حمایت

  14. The problem of defining contemporary right-wing extremism in political theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorić Marija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of research in this paper is theoretical controversy related to the definition of right-wing extremism. Given the fact that extremism is a variable, amorphous and insufficiently researched phenomenon, largely conditioned by time, space, political and cultural differences, there is a great confusion in the field of political science when defining right-wing extremism. The problem of researching right-wing extremism is additionally complicated by various terms that are being used in the contemporary literature as its synonyms, such as right-wing radicalism, neo-Fascism, ultra-radicalism, etc. In order to provide the most valid theoretical determination of right-wing extremism, the author provides a detailed analysis of all the components constituting this phenomenon and examines their causality. In the political praxis, the term extremism is extensively abused, which additionally complicates its determination. Videlicet, politicians often use term 'extremist' in order to discredit their political opponents. While during the French revolution aristocracy saw the bourgeoisie as extremists, the members of the working class later stated that the bourgeoisie were extremists. The problem lies in the fact that, in politics, extremists are not only the ones who use violence as modus operandi; indeed, it is also used by political opponents who do not belong to the extreme political option. Another aggravating factor in defining right-wing extremism is that many administrative and academic definitions do not make a clear distinction between extremism and related phenomena, such as terrorism, radicalism and populism. Extremism is most often equaled with terrorism, which gives rise to another problem in defining this phenomenon. The relation between extremism and terrorism is the relation of general and specific. Namely, every act of terrorism is concurrently considered to be an act of extremism, but not vice versa, given the fact that

  15. Reducing political risk in EU pooling and sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, D.; Faleg (ed), G.

    2014-01-01

    Can states share political accountability by allowing common defence capability development, training of troops, or procurement of military equipment? Is the defence industry ready for Pooling and Sharing (PS)?

  16. Behind the ethnic-civic distinction: Public attitudes towards immigrants' political rights in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Martinovic, Borja

    2015-09-01

    Public opinion research has sought to distinguish between ethnic and civic conceptions of citizenship and examined the differential associations of these conceptions with policy preferences in the realm of immigration. What has not been examined empirically is why exactly these conceptions are related to people's preferences. In two survey studies conducted among national samples of native Dutch we tested the proposition that the endorsement of ethnic citizenship is related to lower acceptance of Muslim immigrant rights (Study 1) and their political participation (Study 2) because of a weaker normative sense of common national belonging and higher adherence to autochthony (primo-occupancy) beliefs. In contrast, the endorsement of civic citizenship was expected to be associated with higher acceptance of Muslim immigrant rights and their political participation because of a stronger sense of common belonging and lower belief in autochthony. The findings of the two studies are similar and in support of these expectations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The right to practice medicine without repercussions: ethical issues in times of political strife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hathout Leith

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This commentary examines the incursion on the neutrality of medical personnel now taking place as part of the human rights crises in Bahrain and Syria, and the ethical dilemmas which these incursions place not only in front of physicians practicing in those nations, but in front of the international community as a whole. In Bahrain, physicians have recently received harsh prison terms, apparently for treating demonstrators who clashed with government forces. In Syria, physicians are under the same political pressure to avoid treating political demonstrators or to act as informants against their own patients, turning them in to government authorities. This pressure has been severe, to the point that some physicians have become complicit in the abuse of patients who were also political demonstrators. This paper posits that physicians in certain countries in the Middle East during the “Arab Spring,” specifically Syria and Bahrain, are being used as both political pawns and political weapons in clear violation of Geneva Convention and World Medical Association guidelines, and that this puts them into the most extreme sort of “dual loyalty” dilemma. They are being forced to choose between their own safety and well-being and that of their patients – a negative sum scenario wherein there is no optimal choice. As such, an international call for a United Nations inquiry must be made in order to protect the neutrality of medical care and personnel during times of armed conflict.

  18. The Dual Treatment of Political Offenses Within the Framework of Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Silva Fontoura de Barcellos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In general, the expression political offense means every harmful act against the domestic or international public order and against national security. However, there is a double treatment for this behavior in the Brazilian system. On one hand, the expression was used especially during the era of Brazilian authoritarian regimes to designate any activity against the public order policy and national security. In these cases, the political nature of the offense served to justify the loss of rights and guarantees, such as the prohibition of habeas corpus, the trial of civilians by military personnel and the aggravation of penalties. On the other, the characterization of a crime as a political may prevent the extradition of foreigners by granting them the possibility of obtaining asylum in the country, which hinders the criminal persecution action from the other State. Hence, this paper aims to demonstrate this duplicity of treatment of political offenses in Brazilian law, as well as the criteria used for this categorization. The methodology consists of a historical analysis of the aforementioned concept and presents the current state of the art as to its uses in Brazil. In order to achieve our purposes, we have employed as sources the national and international norms that display the category political offense and their empiric interpretation in the rulings of the Brazilian Supreme Court, since the Vargas Era until today.

  19. Political Ideology and Precautionary Reasoning: Testing the Palliative Function of Right-Wing Ideology on Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osmundsen, Mathias; Petersen, Michael Bang

    2017-01-01

    Precautionary models of political ideology suggest that people on the right are motivated by needs to neutralize threats in everyday life more than those on the left. This article examines whether this ideological difference extends to a psychological scale that directly captures the need to engage...... of threat in everyday life? Using a communication experiment, we find that exposure to real-world policy assurances from the Republican Party (i.e., the US conservative party) provides a small, most likely short-lived reduction in obsessive-compulsive symptoms among Americans. We discuss how these findings...... shed light on the key paradox about the psychology of right-wing ideology: how right-wing ideology can function to reduce insecurity while people on the right still have higher levels of insecurity....

  20. Communication as a human right: Citizenship, politics and the role of the speech-language pathologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Declan; Lyons, Rena; Carroll, Clare; Caulfield, Mari; De Paor, Gráinne

    2018-02-01

    According to Article 19 of the Universal Declaration on Human Rights "Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers." The purpose of this paper is to elucidate communication as a human right in the life of a young man called Declan who has Down syndrome. This commentary paper is co-written by Declan, his sister who is a speech-language pathologist (SLP) with an advocacy role, his SLP, and academics. Declan discusses, in his own words, what makes communication hard, what helps communication, his experiences of speech-language pathology, and what he knows about human rights. He also discusses his passion for politics, his right to be an active citizen and participate in the political process. This paper also focuses on the role of speech-language pathology in supporting and partnering with people with communication disabilities to have their voices heard and exercise their human rights.

  1. The European Interwar Far-Right: Elements of a Political-Intellectual Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Sandache

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Far-Right may be defined as a form of political behavior marked by obsessive preoccupation with community decline, humiliation, or victimhood and by compensatory cults of unity, energy and purity, in which a mass-based party of committed nationalist militants, working in uneasy but effective collaboration with traditional elites, abandons democratic liberties and pursues with redemptive violence and without ethical or legal restraints goals of internal cleansing and external expansion.

  2. Harmonization of the conditions for reversionary rights and concession periods: tax and business political aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunnevaag, Kjell J.; Rusten, Grete; Soergard, Lars

    2002-01-01

    In Norway, the right of reversion was introduced at a time of national upheaval with regained independence and increasing understanding of the importance of hydropower in the industrialization process. Reversion became an important political instrument for securing public control over a resource of great socio-economic importance. After one hundred years, this arrangement is now set under pressure. This report discusses various aspects involved in creating regulations that are neutral with respect to ownership

  3. The politics of death in Mexico: dislocating human rights and asylum law through hybrid agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadna Estévez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2006 Mexico’s then-president Felipe Calderón declared war on drug trafficking. The human toll was devastating with the loss of over 95,000 lives and the forced disappearance of more than 27,000 people. In addition, two percent of the Mexican population was displaced with families forced to flee their homes in the face of criminal violence. This article offers an explanation of how death, forced disappearances, persecution and exile are in essence the specific effects of governmentalization of the Mexican state. This govern­mentalization includes the shared use, by criminals and authorities, of techniques for dominating the population and controlling the conduct of citizens through the practices of death, that is, by employing the politics of death (necropolitics. The article goes on to discuss how the objectives, rationality and governmentalization of the State serve to dislocate human rights discourse in such a way that its truth politics excludes people suffering serious human rights violations, such as Mexican asylum seekers. This is accompanied by a new mode of subjectivity produced by Mexico's politics of death – the Endriago subject – which operates as a hybrid perpetrator of human rights violations.

  4. Human Rights Promotion through Transnational Investment Regimes: An International Political Economy Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Cutler

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available International investment agreements are foundational instruments in a transnational investment regime that governs how states regulate the foreign-owned assets and the foreign investment activities of private actors. Over 3,000 investment agreements between states govern key governmental powers and form the basis for an emerging transnational investment regime. This transnational regime significantly decentralizes, denationalizes, and privatizes decision-making and policy choices over foreign investment. Investment agreements set limits to state action in a number of areas of vital public concern, including the protection of human and labour rights, the environment, and sustainable development. They determine the distribution of power between foreign investors and host states and their societies. However, the societies in which they operate seldom have any input into the terms or operation of these agreements, raising crucial questions of their democratic legitimacy as mechanisms of governance. This paper draws on political science and law to explore the political economy of international investment agreements and asks whether these agreements are potential vehicles for promoting international human rights. The analysis provides an historical account of the investment regime, while a review of the political economy of international investment agreements identifies what appears to be a paradox at the core of their operation. It then examines contract theory for insight into this apparent paradox and considers whether investment agreements are suitable mechanisms for advancing international human rights.

  5. Ruptures, rights, and repair: the political economy of trauma in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Erica Caple

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzes the unintended consequences of humanitarian and development interventions in Haiti implemented to facilitate its postconflict transition following the period of military rule between 1991 and 1994. International and national governmental and nongovernmental initiatives to provide redress and healing to victims of human rights abuses from this period inadvertently contributed to the growth of a political economy of trauma. I argue that state-sponsored and non-state interventions aimed at truth seeking, acknowledging past ruptures, and reparations have intersected with the politics of local communities in ways that contribute to the commoditization of suffering in the political economy of trauma. The experience of a woman whose bodily integrity and personal sovereignty were violated by members of Haiti's terror apparatus demonstrates the presence of a terror economy. My witnessing of her interactions with the international and national humanitarian and development aid organizations that assisted her in the aftermath of violation revealed the contours of the compassion economy. It is the compassion economy that is the particular focus of this article. I evaluate whether rendering visible or audible the individual and collective suffering of the past truly aid processes of social reconstruction, democratization, and peace building, especially in states plagued with ongoing social, political, and economic insecurity. I argue that the forms of citizenship that these interventions engender are rarely permanent, especially in fragile or failed states, and may exacerbate the societal cleavages that gave rise to conflict.

  6. WOMEN’S RIGHTS IN THE POLITICAL SPHERE- MACEDONIAN AND INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Nikolov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Gender equality is a key issue that concernsall government entities in the world and the extent of its legal regulation depends on the inclusion of women in the political sphere of a state. Early women's rights movement dates back to the 1830s when women began speaking publicly against slavery. Since then, the performance by women on the legal and political scene is in continuous progression, but it is not sufficient. Currently the country with the largest number of women in political office is Rwanda, holding the world record with 64% representation. Other countries where women's inclusion in politics is high are the Scandinavian countries, led by Sweden. Contrary to the positive tendency in these two countries concerning this issue, there are those which are first inthe non-participationof women in the political sphere, like Ukraine with 10%, Lebanon and Iran 3% and 0.3% in Yemen. When it comes to gender equality in the Republic of Macedonia, equal opportunities for women and men are guaranteed mainly by the Constitution of the Republic of Macedonia as the highest legal act, but also by a large number of laws that prohibit discrimination based on gender. The participation of women in the parliament of Macedonia for the last parliamentary term (2011- 2014 was 34.14%. Raising concern is the women’s under-representation in the executive branch, and the Republic of Macedonia cannot claim to have any significant involvement of women in the diplomatic sphere either. Nevertheless, the efforts for a step closer towards increasing women's participation in the decision-making process will not cease.

  7. PROBLEMATIC APPLICATION OF CRIMINAL REVOCATION OF POLITICAL RIGHTS IN PERSPECTIVE OF CORRUPTION LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi As’Adi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The spirit of fighting corruption in Indonesia based on the spirit of the Declaration of the 8th International Conference against Corruption and Indonesia United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC UN 58/ 4 dated October 31, 2003, and Law No. 7 of 2006 on the Ratification of the UN Convention on Anti-Corruption of 2003 and Act No. 20 of 2001. The implementation of the Law on Corruption tends not optimal. As a new breakthrough reached the imposition of criminal sanctions in the form of revocation of political rights for the accused of corruption. Although in practice the criminal is considered unconstitutional. Given the enormous impact of corruption, namely the loss suffered by the people and the state, the current criminal disenfranchisement for perpetrators of political corruption has been duly applied.

  8. How right-wing versus cosmopolitan political actors mobilize and translate images of immigrants in transnational contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doerr, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    of an anti-immigrant poster created by the Swiss People’s Party (SVP), a right-wing political party, inspiring different extremist as well as populist right-wing parties and grassroots activists in several other European countries. She then explores how left-libertarian social movements try to break racist......This article examines visual posters and symbols constructed and circulated transnationally by various political actors to mobilize contentious politics on the issues of immigration and citizenship. Following right-wing mobilizations focusing on the Syrian refugee crisis, immigration has become one...... of the most contentious political issues in Western Europe. Right-wing populist political parties have used provocative visual posters depicting immigrants or refugees as ‘criminal foreigners’ or a ‘threat to the nation’, in some countries and contexts conflating the image of the immigrant...

  9. Disgust sensitivity and the neurophysiology of left-right political orientations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin B Smith

    Full Text Available Disgust has been described as the most primitive and central of emotions. Thus, it is not surprising that it shapes behaviors in a variety of organisms and in a variety of contexts--including homo sapien politics. People who believe they would be bothered by a range of hypothetical disgusting situations display an increased likelihood of displaying right-of-center rather than left-of-center political orientations. Given its primal nature and essential value in avoiding pathogens disgust likely has an effect even without registering in conscious beliefs. In this article, we demonstrate that individuals with marked involuntary physiological responses to disgusting images, such as of a man eating a large mouthful of writhing worms, are more likely to self-identify as conservative and, especially, to oppose gay marriage than are individuals with more muted physiological responses to the same images. This relationship holds even when controlling for the degree to which respondents believe themselves to be disgust sensitive and suggests that people's physiological predispositions help to shape their political orientations.

  10. The political economy of financing children's rights through extractive industries in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Jewellord T. Nem; Grugel, Jean B.; Hatcher, Pascale

    2016-01-01

    The surging investments in the extractive industries (EI) that began in the 1980s, as well as the commodity boom between 2002 and 2011, have increased the significance of the sector in national economic development. This paper takes the Philippines as a case study and provides a detailed analysis of two key aspects of mining governance: first, the political challenges in realizing a more positive role for EI in social development, particularly in promoting children´s rights and children´s wel...

  11. Political Depression, Cruel Optimism and Pedagogies of Reparation: Questions of Criticality and Affect in Human Rights Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2018-01-01

    This article argues that there is an urgent need to engage with a deeper analysis of the contemporary culture of "political depression" and its affective implications in human rights education (HRE). In particular, the article focuses on the following questions: How might a theorization of political depression be relevant to efforts that…

  12. Re-situating abortion: Bio-politics, global health and rights in neo-liberal times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnithan, Maya; de Zordo, Silvia

    2018-03-02

    New modes of neoliberal and rights-based reproductive governance are emerging across the world which either paradoxically foreclose access to universal health services or promote legislative reform without providing a continuum of services on the ground. These shifts present new opportunities for the expansion but also the limitation of abortion provision conceptually and 'on-the-ground', both in the Global North and South. The collection of papers in this special issue examine current abortion governance discourse and practice in historical, socio-political contexts to analyse the threat posed to women's sexual and reproductive health and rights globally. Focusing on abortion politics in the context of key intersectional themes of morality, law, religion and technology, the papers conceptually 're-situate' the analysis of abortion with reference to a changing global landscape where new modes of consumption, rapid flows of knowledge and information, increasingly routinised recourse to reproductive technologies and related forms of bio-sociality and solidarity amongst recipients and practitioners coalesce.

  13. The political economy of dignity: monitoring the advancement of socio-economic human rights in a globalized economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biermans, M.

    2005-01-01

    The dichotomy between political and socio-economic rights has been subject to criticism ever since the proclamation of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, almost sixty years ago. The declaration itself leaves little doubt regarding the interconnectedness between both types of human rights.

  14. What do human rights bring to discussions of power and politics in health policy and systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Lisa

    2017-12-13

    Scholarly interrogations of power and politics are not endemic to the disciplines primarily tasked with exploring health policy and planning in the domestic or global domains. Scholars in these domains have come late to investigating power, prompted in part by the growing focus in domestic and global health research on the intersections between governance, globalization and health inequities. Recent prominent reports in this area increasingly point to human rights as important norms capable of responding in part to power differentials that sustain and exacerbate health inequities. Yet human rights law is not traditionally incorporated into health policy scholarship or education, despite offering important normative and strategic frameworks for public and global health, with distinctive contributions in relation to identifying and challenging certain forms of power disparity. This paper overviews two of these reports and how they see power functioning to sustain health inequities. It then turns to investigate what human rights and the right to health in particular may offer in addressing and challenging power in the health policy context.

  15. How right-wing versus cosmopolitan political actors mobilize and translate images of immigrants in transnational contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doerr, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    of the most contentious political issues in Western Europe. Right-wing populist political parties have used provocative visual posters depicting immigrants or refugees as ‘criminal foreigners’ or a ‘threat to the nation’, in some countries and contexts conflating the image of the immigrant......This article examines visual posters and symbols constructed and circulated transnationally by various political actors to mobilize contentious politics on the issues of immigration and citizenship. Following right-wing mobilizations focusing on the Syrian refugee crisis, immigration has become one...... with that of the Islamist terrorist. This article explores the transnational dynamics of visual mobilization by comparing the translation of right-wing nationalist with left-wing, cosmopolitan visual campaigns on the issue of immigration in Western Europe. The author first traces the crosscultural translation and sharing...

  16. Transitional justice as social control: political transitions, human rights norms and the reclassification of the past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudai, Ron

    2017-09-12

    This article offers an interpretation of transitional justice policies - the efforts of post-conflict and post-dictatorship societies to address the legacy of past abuses - as a form of social control. While transitional justice is commonly conceptualized as responding to a core problem of impunity, this article argues that such formulation is too narrow and leads to lack of coherence in the analysis of the diverse array of transitional mechanisms, which include among others trials, truth commissions, reparations for victims and apologies. Building on the work of Stanley Cohen, the article contends that the core transitional problem is the denial of human rights violations, and consequently that the common purpose of all transitional justice mechanisms is to reclassify the past: redefining as deviant some acts and individuals which prior to the transition were considered 'normal'. The article identifies and analyses three themes in the application of a social control framework to transitional justice: (1) truth, memory and retroactive social control, pertains to the way truth-seeking transitional justice mechanisms reclassify past events by engaging in social control of and through memory; (2) censure, celebration and transitional social control refers to the reclassification of categories of individuals through expressions of both social disapproval and praise; and (3) civil society and social control from below concerns the role of social movements, organizations and groups as informal agents of social control during transitions. The concluding section recaps and briefly explores the concept of 'good moral panic' in the context of political transitions. While the concept of social control tends to have negative connotations for critical sociologists, this work suggests that efforts to categorize, punish and disapprove certain behaviours as deviant may not only be viewed as supporting a conservative status-quo, but also as promoting fledging human rights norms.

  17. The politics of social status: economic and cultural roots of the populist right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidron, Noam; Hall, Peter A

    2017-11-01

    This paper explores the factors that have recently increased support for candidates and causes of the populist right across the developed democracies, especially among a core group of working-class men. In the context of debates about whether the key causal factors are economic or cultural, we contend that an effective analysis must rest on understanding how economic and cultural developments interact to generate support for populism. We suggest that one way to do so is to see status anxiety as a proximate factor inducing support for populism, and economic and cultural developments as factors that combine to precipitate such anxiety. Using cross-national survey data from 20 developed democracies, we assess the viability of this approach. We show that lower levels of subjective social status are associated with support for right populist parties, identify a set of economic and cultural developments likely to have depressed the social status of men without a college education, and show that the relative social status of those men has declined since 1987 in many of the developed democracies. We conclude that status effects provide one pathway through which economic and cultural developments may combine to increase support for the populist right. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  18. The Maqāṣid approach and rethinking political rights in modern society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louay Safi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines political rights in Islam by focusing on freedom of religion and the extent to which the state is empowered to enforce faith and religious law on society. It starts by comparing the notion of law in both Western and Islamic traditions, and then analyzes the difference between the ethical and legal within Sharī‘ah. The paper illustrates how Islamic law grew historically by working to limit the power of the state, and points out the need to maintain the distinction between the state and civil society for the proper implementation of Sharī‘ah. The paper also contends that those who call on the state to enforce all rules of Sharī‘ah on society rely on a faulty theory of right and concludes that Islamic law fully recognizes the right of individuals to adopt and practice their faith freely. Freedom of religion, it stresses, is an intrinsic aspect of Islamic law and all efforts to limit this freedom is bound to violate its purpose and dictates.

  19. Politeness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Bergson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This is the English translation of a speech Bergson made at Lycée Henri-IV on July 30, 1892. This is an interesting text because it anticipates Bergson’s last book, his The Two Sources of Morality and Religion. Like the distinction in The Two Sources between the open and the closed, “Politeness” defines its subject matter in two ways. There is what Bergson calls “manners” and there is true politeness. For Bergson, both kinds of politeness concern equality. Manners or material politeness amount to the ritualized greetings and formalities by means of which we usually define politeness. Unfortunately and like The Two Sources, Bergson attributes this formalized relation to other human beings with primitive and “inferior races.” Nevertheless, Bergson sees in these formalities an attempt, in the name of equality, to ignore other people’s talents and merits so that one can dominate morally superior people. In contrast, true politeness or “spiritual politeness” consists in “intellectual flexibility.” When one meets a person of superior morality, one is flexible in one’s relation to him or her; one abandons the formalities in order to really live her life and think her thoughts. Here we find equality too: “what defines this very polite person is to prefer each of his friends over the others, and to succeed in this way in loving them equally.” After making a comparison to dance, Bergson defines spiritual politeness as “a grace of the mind.” Since both kinds of politeness concern equality, Bergson associates both with justice. However, beyond these two kinds of politeness and justice there is “politeness of the heart,” which concerns charity. In order to indicate politeness of the heart, Bergson describes the kind of person, a sensitive person, who anxiously awaits a word of praise in order to feel good about herself but who also, when she hears a word of reproach, is thrown into sadness. Although Bergson calls the

  20. State Democratic Rights as Current Political Power Limit and a New Culture for Social Promotion of Development and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cátia Rejane Liczbinski Sarreta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The proposed study relates to the democracy and political power considering the implementation of sustainability. Presented as theoretical basis the democratic principle itself, as well as the realization of human and fundamental rights. Exploring the possibility of re (construction of the state and own power and political and social culture of democracy through the promotion of development and sustainability. In a democratic state the appropriate political power embodies the rights of the citizen. A key element that should be considered is education for training social actors capable of promoting the transformation of dominant practices and that take important roles in politics and influence the state and society. The method used is deductive.

  1. The system of direct provision & Ireland's obligations under the UN International Covenant on Civil & Political Rights (ICCPR)

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton, Liam

    2014-01-01

    The system of direct provision for asylum seekers will be 14 years in operation on 10 April 2014. I contend that the system of direct provision violates a number of rights specifically protected under the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR): in particular, the prohibition of inhuman and degrading treatment, protection of the right to private and family life, and the right to equal treatment under law.

  2. Human rights and political crisis in Brazil: Public health impacts and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Monica

    2018-01-25

    In 31 August 2016, Brazilian president Dilma Rousseff was impeached and replaced by her vice president Michel Temer. Herein, we examine how the conservative agenda of Mr Temer and his supporters is influencing key decisions in the human rights and public health arena in Brazil. The government's austerity agenda includes severe cuts in critical areas such as health, education and science, jeopardising well-known strategies such as the Brazilian Public Health System (SUS) and nationwide cash transfer program, 'Bolsa Familia' - both benefited millions and were the largest of their kind in the world. Mr Temer's decisions show not only severe cuts in critical areas but also a political agenda that clearly demonstrates a broad shift away from the progressivism and social agenda presented and supported by its predecessors. Most vulnerable groups such as the LGBTQ community, women, people who use drugs and disenfranchised communities have been severely affected. Mr Temer's administration is putting Brazil far from its once nationwide goal to foster free and universal health care access and social equity for all its citizens. The near future for Brazil is unknown, but both national and international communities anticipate severe problems within the national human rights arena, if nothing changes. CCT: Conditional Cash Transfer; LGBTQ: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Queer (and/or Questioning); SUS: Brazilian Public Health System.

  3. Democracy in the country but not in the home? Religion, politics and women's rights in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Virginia; Seibert, Ute; Staab, Silke

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the influence of religious actors on the elaboration of two public policies that are key to the advancement of women's rights and have long formed part of the women's movement's agenda in Chile: the introduction of sexual education in secondary schools in the 1990s and the distribution of emergency contraception in the 2000s. Our analysis of how different actors-from a variety of ideological and power positions-have influenced the two policy debates suggests that their discourses and strategies are highly contingent on the political environment. While conservative religious forces retain an enormous capacity to hinder policy making and implementation in the arena of family and sexuality, the government's determination to confront such interference seems to have grown in a context of fewer authoritarian enclaves, a more pluralist society and a strong sexual and reproductive rights movement. The diversification of religious positions on issues of family and sexuality has also affected the room for manoeuvre in the policy arena.

  4. Funding for tuberculosis research-an urgent crisis of political will, human rights, and global solidarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Mike

    2017-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) killed more people in 2015 than any other single infectious agent, but funding for research to develop better prevention, diagnosis, and treatment methods for TB declined to its lowest level in 7 years. TB research and development (R&D) is woefully underfunded, a situation best viewed as a crisis of political will and a failure on the part of governments to see unmet innovation needs in the TB response as a human rights issue requiring immediate action. Over 60% of available money for TB R&D comes from public sources, and 67% of public money comes from a single country: the USA. The election of Donald Trump to the US presidency in November 2016 has introduced great uncertainty into the support that science generally, and TB research in particular, will receive in the coming years. Advocacy on the part of all actors-from civil society to TB-affected communities to scientists themselves-is urgently needed to increase US government support for TB research moving forward. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Shan women and girls and the sex industry in Southeast Asia; political causes and human rights implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyrer, C

    2001-08-01

    The human rights abuses which occur during civil conflicts pose special threats to the health and lives of women. These can include rape, sexual violence, increased vulnerability to trafficking into prostitution, and exposure to HIV infection. The long-standing civil conflict in the Shan States of Burma is investigated as a contributing cause to the trafficking of ethnic Shan women and girls into the Southeast Asian sex industry, and to the subsequent high rates of HIV infection found among these women. The context of chronic human rights abuses in the Shan states is explored, as well as the effects of recent forced population transfers on the part of the Burmese Military Regime. Rights abuses specific to trafficked women may further increase their vulnerability to HIV and other STD. The need for a political resolution to the crisis in Burma is discussed, as are approaches aimed at preventing trafficking, empowering women already in the sex industry, and reducing the risks of HIV and other STD among these women and girls.

  6. Reducing variation in health care: the rhetorical politics of a policy idea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanenbaum, Sandra J

    2013-02-01

    For decades, geographic variation in the use and cost of health care has captured the imagination of researchers and policy makers. As a policy problem, variation suggests its own solution--reducing variation--but the substantive weaknesses of this policy idea invite a second look at its success. This article considers the politics of policy ideas to analyze the potential rhetorical strengths of reducing variation. It finds that this idea appeals to multiple health care audiences, remains practically and politically ambiguous as to problem and solution, and resonates with long-held aspirations of policy elites, including being hopeful about solving the seemingly intractable problems of the US health care system.

  7. Rights of nature and the indigenous Peoples in Bolivia and Ecuador: a Straitjacket for Progressive development Politics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rickard LALANDER

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Is it possible to justify resource extractivism to provide progressive welfare politics and still respect the constitutional rights of nature? The Indigenous concept of Sumak Kawsay on human beings living in harmony with each other and the environment is the fundamental framing of the new constitutions of Ecuador and Bolivia. These constitutional reforms embrace strengthened proper rights of nature and similarly of ethnic rights. However, the same constitutions grant the State the right to exploit and commercialize natural resources and extractivism has increased. This study revises the tensions between welfare politics, extractivism and the rights of nature and the Indigenous peoples in the new constitutional settings of Bolivia and, particularly, Ecuador. The article argues that Sumak Kawsay challenges dominating understandings of the concepts of welfare, common good and development, and likewise that a pragmatic approach is applied by national governments towards the constitutional rights of nature amidst other human values.

  8. From left to right: how the personality system allows basic traits to influence politics via characteristic moral adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gary J; Bates, Timothy C

    2011-08-01

    Research on the association of personality to political orientation has suggested that direct influences are modest. Here we used a personality system model in which direct influences on political behaviour flow from moral values, with personality mostly acting on these characteristic moral adaptations, rather than directly affecting political attitudes. Study 1 in 447 subjects supported this model, with significant effects on political orientation flowing from four of the five-factor model personality domains, but largely mediated through moral values concerning the importance of group order and individual rights. This personality system model was replicated in an independent study (n= 476) using a US sample and including a different measure of politics. Both studies support predictions that personality has significant effects on political attitudes, but that these are exerted largely via moral values. These findings help to explain inconsistencies in previous studies attempting to link personality to political orientation that have not included the intermediary level of values. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Funding for tuberculosis research—an urgent crisis of political will, human rights, and global solidarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Frick

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB killed more people in 2015 than any other single infectious agent, but funding for research to develop better prevention, diagnosis, and treatment methods for TB declined to its lowest level in 7 years. TB research and development (R&D is woefully underfunded, a situation best viewed as a crisis of political will and a failure on the part of governments to see unmet innovation needs in the TB response as a human rights issue requiring immediate action. Over 60% of available money for TB R&D comes from public sources, and 67% of public money comes from a single country: the USA. The election of Donald Trump to the US presidency in November 2016 has introduced great uncertainty into the support that science generally, and TB research in particular, will receive in the coming years. Advocacy on the part of all actors—from civil society to TB-affected communities to scientists themselves—is urgently needed to increase US government support for TB research moving forward.

  10. Defending the right to say no: Traditional knowledge politics in Brazil and India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eimer, T.R.

    2017-01-01

    When accessing traditional knowledge, life scientists often violate the customary non-disclosure rules of indigenous communities. This article investigates how indigenous groups can prevent an unwanted access of their knowledge. It therefore compares biodiversity politics in Brazil and India.

  11. Realization of political and administrative leadership by the Presidential Ombudsman for children’s rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Derzhanovska

    2016-08-01

    Further researches should be focused on the development and implementation of scientifically based efficiency indicators of political and administrative leadership in the sphere of safeness and wellbeing of children.

  12. Some Citizens Are Ill Informed and Lack Basic Knowledge of Politics. Should We Limit Their Right to Vote?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria CERNAT

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article tries to examine some of the anti-democratic messages that appeared in social media during the Romanian presidential campaign of 2014. My hypothesis is that the idea of limiting the right to vote gained the sympathy of the middle class – highly trained and remunerated individuals as a result of those messages disseminated during the 2014 presidential campaign. Namely, for the first time the electoral messages did not targeted only a political candidate but also his voters who were supposedly old, poor, ill-informed, dependent of social aid and prone to sacrifice their political power for material benefits. In the first part of my article I shall focus on the way the new media are shaping the political competition trying to find out whether these media are indeed alternative media fostering rational political debate and encouraging political engagement. In the second part of my article I shall focus on some of the onlineanti-democratic messages that were distributed during the first and the second round of the presidential elections. In the third part of the article I shall present the result of an empirical research composed of the semi-structured interviews I conducted having as subjects people working in the IT field. The theme of my interviews was the possibility of limitation of the right to vote.

  13. Basic personal values and the meaning of left-right political orientations in 20 countries

    OpenAIRE

    Piurko, Yuval; Schwartz, Shalom H; Davidov, Eldad

    2011-01-01

    This study used basic personal values to elucidate the motivational meanings of ‘left’ and ‘right’ political orientations in 20 representative national samples from the European Social Survey (2002-3). It also compared the importance of personal values and socio-demographic variables as determinants of political orientation. Hypotheses drew on the different histories, prevailing culture, and socio-economic level of 3 sets of countries—liberal, traditional and post-communist. As hy...

  14. The Role of Secularism of State on the Relationship Between Catholic Identity, Political Orientation, and Gay Rights Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hichy, Zira; Gerges, Mina Halim Helmy; Platania, Silvia; Santisi, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    In discussions of regulations governing same-sex marriage and adoption by gays and lesbians, the issue of state secularism is often called into question. This study aims to test the mediating effects of state secularism on the relationship between Catholic identity, political orientation, and gay civil rights. Participants were Catholic Italians who completed a questionnaire measuring the constructs under investigation. Results showed that state secularism mediates the effects of Catholic identity and political orientation on attitudes toward same-sex marriage and adoption by gays and lesbians.

  15. Property, legal pluralism, and water rights: the critical analysis of water governance and the politics of recognizing "local" rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roth, D.; Boelens, R.; Zwarteveen, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we assess the impact of Franz von Benda-Beckmann's work in the field of water rights. We argue that his contributions to understanding water, a field dominated by engineers and economists, cannot be overestimated. Over the years, Franz's nuanced and empathic anthropological attitude,

  16. "Clowns to the left of me, jokers to the right": Politics and psychotherapy, 2018.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Barry A

    2018-05-01

    The election and postelection policies of Donald Trump have seeped into the psychotherapy sessions of many clients, in ways that are somewhat unique but also somewhat reminiscent of the ways that other dramatic social-political events, including 9/11 and the social divisions that were characteristic of the 1960s, were brought into the treatment room. The nine articles within this issue-seven papers from practicing psychotherapists, one from an executive coach, and one empirical paper-suggest strongly that the political events surrounding the election of 2016 have become a significant part of psychotherapeutic discourse for many clients, that many therapists have been willing participants in such discussions, and that a focus on political issues (broadly speaking) can have important clinical benefits, facilitating the therapeutic alliance and leading to greater understanding of long-standing client problems and interpersonal functioning. Taken together, these papers lead to the conclusion that, at a minimum, clinicians need to be sensitive to the very real possibility that their clients are acutely aware of and affected by the political events surrounding the 2016 presidential election and may welcome open discussion of these events and their consequences. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The Cultural Politics of Language in Sudan: Against the Racialising Logic of Language Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhay, Ashraf; Eljak, Nada; Mugaddam, AbdelRahim; Makoni, Sinfree

    2017-01-01

    The sociolinguistic repertoires of individuals in Sudan are products of institutionalised orders of normalisation. The visibility of language in popular and official discourses in Sudan is always linked with wider cultural and political projects. This paper intends to engage with and explicate this observation by, first, examining how the dominant…

  18. The politics of anti-environmentalism: positional issue framing by the European radical right

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemenis, Konstantinos; Katsanidou, Alexia; Vasilopoulou, Sofia

    2012-01-01

    The environment is traditionally considered as a valence issue where all political parties endorse the same position and differ only on the degree to which they emphasize it. Our paper challenges this view by arguing that the environment is increasingly perceived as a positional issue. We examine

  19. Sexual violence during political transition and upheaval: what happened to women’s rights in Egypt after the 2011 uprising?

    OpenAIRE

    Helenius, Heidi-Maria

    2016-01-01

    The paper examines the relationship between violence against women, and in particular sexual violence against women, and the use of political power in Egypt after the 2011 uprising. The paper aims to explore and understand the prevailing power dynamics in the post-uprising Egypt and how these have affected women’s rights and position in the Egyptian society. The objective is to understand how the situation has changed from a peaceful and liberal uprising calling for social justice for all in ...

  20. Human rights and political transition in South Africa: the case of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Buarque de Hollanda

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to recounting the main initiative of Nelson Mandela’s government to manage the social resentment inherited from the segregationist regime. I conducted interviews with South African intellectuals committed to the theme of transitional justice and with key personalities who played a critical role in this process. The Truth and Reconciliation Commission is presented as the primary institutional mechanism envisioned for the delicate exercise of redefining social relations inherited from the apartheid regime in South Africa. Its founders declared grandiose political intentions to the detriment of localized more palpable objectives. Thus, there was a marked disparity between the ambitious mandate and the political discourse about the commission, and its actual achievements.

  1. Processes of Political Influence In the Field of Heath and Sexual and Reproductive Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina González Velez

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores a particular farm of understanding the political influence exercised by women's groups. Especially in the field of sexual and reproductive health, based on their advocacy experiences aimed at impacting the national and international agendas. If presents different definitions of advocacy and relates them to political concept, proposing a definition that covers several forms of influence in the public world. The author argues that advocacy leads to the exercise of citizenship and empowerment and suggests it must be based on a long-term strategic focus with concrete objectives and targets. Four types of elements are said to be essential to advocacy: tools; abilities; circumstances and maps. The latter is considered a core issue for advocacy, and therefore the text outlines a map of the various players and resources in the health sector in Colombia. Lastly, strategies for carrying out advocacy are presented with warnings about its risks and dangers.

  2. Militarized humanitarianism meets carceral feminism: the politics of sex, rights, and freedom in contemporary antitrafficking campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, abolitionist feminist and evangelical Christian activists have directed increasing attention toward the “traffic in women” as a dangerous manifestation of global gender inequalities. Despite renowned disagreements around the politics of sex and gender, these groups have come together to advocate for harsher penalties against traffickers, prostitutes’ customers, and nations deemed to be taking insufficient steps to stem the flow of trafficked women. In this essay, I argue that what has served to unite this coalition of "strange bedfellows" is not simply an underlying commitment to conservative ideals of sexuality, as previous commentators have offered, but an equally significant commitment to carceral paradigms of justice and to militarized humanitarianism as the preeminent mode of engagement by the state. I draw upon my ongoing ethnographic research with feminist and evangelical antitrafficking movement leaders to argue that the alliance that has been so efficacious in framing contemporary antitrafficking politics is the product of two historically unique and intersecting trends: a rightward shift on the part of many mainstream feminists and other secular liberals away from a redistributive model of justice and toward a politics of incarceration, coincident with a leftward sweep on the part of many younger evangelicals toward a globally oriented social justice theology. In the final section of this essay, I consider the resilience of these trends given a newly installed and more progressive Obama administration, positing that they are likely to continue even as the terrain of militarized humanitarian action shifts in accordance with new sets of geopolitical interests.

  3. Tweeting From Left to Right: Is Online Political Communication More Than an Echo Chamber?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberá, Pablo; Jost, John T; Nagler, Jonathan; Tucker, Joshua A; Bonneau, Richard

    2015-10-01

    We estimated ideological preferences of 3.8 million Twitter users and, using a data set of nearly 150 million tweets concerning 12 political and nonpolitical issues, explored whether online communication resembles an "echo chamber" (as a result of selective exposure and ideological segregation) or a "national conversation." We observed that information was exchanged primarily among individuals with similar ideological preferences in the case of political issues (e.g., 2012 presidential election, 2013 government shutdown) but not many other current events (e.g., 2013 Boston Marathon bombing, 2014 Super Bowl). Discussion of the Newtown shootings in 2012 reflected a dynamic process, beginning as a national conversation before transforming into a polarized exchange. With respect to both political and nonpolitical issues, liberals were more likely than conservatives to engage in cross-ideological dissemination; this is an important asymmetry with respect to the structure of communication that is consistent with psychological theory and research bearing on ideological differences in epistemic, existential, and relational motivation. Overall, we conclude that previous work may have overestimated the degree of ideological segregation in social-media usage. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Civic and political rights of the Batwa ethnic minority in local governance at village level: The case of Kanungu District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Kibukamusoke

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1970s, the Batwa ethnic minority group has been considered as a less superior group of human beings. They were forcefully evicted from the forest around Echuya Forest Reserve in Kisoro and Kabale districts of South-Western Uganda. The Batwa in Uganda are one of the most defenceless (vulnerable, marginalised, voiceless (powerless and endangered ethnic minority group in the districts they live in. In turn, their civic and political rights (the right to vote and the right to be voted in local council (LC elections have been ignored partly because of poor sensitisation to and awareness of the Batwa people by all stakeholders. The purpose of this study was to investigate the civic and political rights of the Batwa people in Uganda. The key questions to be addressed include:   1. Is the Batwa ethnic minority group aware of the right to vote in Local Council 1 elections in the communities? 2. Is the Batwa ethnic minority group aware of the right to be voted for in Local Council 1 elections in their communities?

  5. Bringing Human Rights Back Home: Learning from "Superman" and Addressing Political Issues at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osler, Audrey

    2013-01-01

    Human rights are commonly conceived as more relevant to foreign policy than day-to-day living. Drawing on Eleanor Roosevelt's conception of human rights as beginning close to home, this article illustrates how human rights principles might inform everyday processes of schooling and learning to live together. It considers rights to, in and…

  6. Sound and Fury--engaging with the politics and the law of sexual rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alice M; Gruskin, Sofia; Cottingham, Jane; Kismödi, Eszter

    2015-11-01

    Although past resistance to sexual rights in global debates has often been grounded in claims to culture, nation and religion, opposition voices are now using, rather than rejecting, the frame of international human rights. This Commentary argues that, despite opponents' attempts to defeat sexual rights with other rights claims, a careful understanding of the principles of international human rights and its legal development exposes how the use of rights to oppose sexual rights should, and will ultimately, fail. The Commentary briefly takes up three kinds of "rights" claims made by opponents of sexual rights: limiting rights to protect rights, textual basis, and universality, and explores the rationales and impact of their application to countering sexual rights. Because sexuality and reproduction intersect as well as diverge in the opposition they face, this struggle matters intensely and plays out across advocacy, programmatic and policy worlds. Underpinning this Commentary is the understanding that opposition to sexual and reproductive health rights uses common arguments about rights principles that must be understood in order to be countered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Rights of Minors and Constitutional Politics in the German Länder. Legal Framework, Party Strategies, and Constitutional Amendments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenz Astrid

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses constitutional politics in the German Länder in the field of minors’ rights. Since this issue seems a purely legal matter dealt with at the federal, European and international level, we should expect similar, almost identically shaped policies at the Länder level. However, the analysis brings considerable variations of constitutional activities in this field to the fore: time, frequency, and contents of respective initiatives vary significantly in the period from 1999 to 2014. These variations were due to different party strategies, diverging party platforms and majority constellations in the Länder. The analysis also shows that the public arguments brought forward in favour of constitutional amendments refer only weakly and randomly to legal provisions and processes at other levels. The political debate supporting extended children's rights rather refers to general observations, to the specific regional context, and constitutional provisions in other Länder. At least with regard to this issue, the multi-level system did not systematically impact on constitutional politics in the Länder. It rather can be understood as an opportunity structure providing parties with multiple realms in which they can pursue their goals. Thus the study shows that federal and regional party strategies are key factors in explaining policy diffusion in multilevel systems.

  8. The Current Attack on Women's Rights: A Political-Economic Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, June

    The right-wing attack on women's rights in the United States manifests itself in the regulation of reproductive rights, the family, and the workplace and corresponds to the changing needs of capital in an era of social and economic crises. Against this background, anti-abortion legislation, the Family Protection Act, and discrimination in the…

  9. The Politics Underpinning the Non-realisation of the Right to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The right to development stands out as one of the controversial rights ever since its articulation in the 1970s. The adoption of the 1986 United Nations Declaration on the Right to Development underlines the importance of international cooperation for it to be realised. I argue that the emphasis on 'development aid' rather ...

  10. Maintaining the "truth": performativity, human rights, and the limitations on politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zigon, J.

    2014-01-01

    The so-called inherence view of human rights (e.g., "inherent dignity" and "inalienable") is said to provide human rights with universality and "truth." These inherence words have been much referenced, cited, and repeated in and by other human rights and related documents and advocates in the

  11. A right to health care? Participatory politics, progressive policy, and the price of loose language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, David A

    2016-08-01

    This article begins by clarifying and noting various limitations on the universal reach of the human right to health care under positive international law. It then argues that irrespective of the human right to health care established by positive international law, any system of positive international law capable of generating legal duties with prima facie moral force necessarily presupposes a universal moral human right to health care. But the language used in contemporary human rights documents or human rights advocacy is not a good guide to the content of this rather more modest universal moral human right to health care. The conclusion reached is that when addressing issues of justice as they inevitably arise with respect to health policy and health care, both within and between states, there is typically little to gain and much to risk by framing deliberation in terms of the human right to health care.

  12. Framing Political Change: Can a Left Populism Disrupt the Rise of the Reactionary Right?; Comment on “Politics, Power, Poverty and Global Health: Systems and Frames”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Labonté

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Solomon Benatar offers an important critique of the limited frame that sets the boundaries of much of what is referred to as ‘global health.’ In placing his comments within a criticism of increasing poverty (or certainly income and wealth inequalities and the decline in our environmental commons, he locates our health inequities within the pathology of our present global economy. In that respect it is a companion piece to an editorial I published around the same time. Both Benatar’s and my paralleling arguments take on a new urgency in the wake of the US presidential election. Although not a uniquely American event (the xenophobic right has been making inroads in many parts of the world, the degree of vitriol expressed by the President-elect of the world’s (still most powerful and militarized country is being used to further legitimate the policies of right-extremist parties in Europe while providing additional justification for the increasingly autocratic politics of leaders (elected or otherwise in many other of the world’s nations. To challenge right-populism’s rejection of the predatory inequalities that 4 years of (neo-liberal globalization have created demands strong and sustained left populism built, in part, on the ecocentric frame advocated by Benatar.

  13. Re-Thinking Relations in Human Rights Education: The Politics of Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adami, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Human Rights Education (HRE) has traditionally been articulated in terms of cultivating better citizens or world citizens. The main preoccupation in this strand of HRE has been that of bridging a gap between universal notions of a human rights subject and the actual locality and particular narratives in which students are enmeshed. This…

  14. Homeschooling in Brazil: A Matter of Rights or a Political Debate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Luciane Muniz Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the right to education in Brazil in light of the growing number of Brazilian families practicing homeschooling. The debate is recent in Brazil. Here we present an analysis of international literature on homeschooling, Brazilian literature on the right to education, and an appraisal of lawsuits against Brazilian…

  15. By Addressing Life Trajectories and Political Violence, Human Rights Education Can Overcome Radicalizing Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubachs, Frank

    2016-01-01

    As the needs and interests of young people are shifting under the influence of demographics and other social developments, "new stories" have started to attract many that undermine the human rights narrative and nurture radical attitudes. This has consequences for human rights education (HRE). As competing narratives have gained a…

  16. Political Programs and Common Fields and Rights in Lorraine during the French Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ríos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available British historiography has focused in the study of common right and fields with the purpose of understanding the role it played in the transition from feudalism to capitalism. Nevertheless, its French counterpart has tended to relegate this kind of studies, mainly those concerning common right. In fact, in the last twenty years it has been argued the necessity of studying common right and common fields separately, compartmentalizing historical analysis. The present paper concentrates in a case study of the Lorraine region, and pretends to analyze the role played by the struggles concerning the common right and fields during the French Revolution in the transition from feudalism to capitalism. We suggest that in Lorraine the conflict regarding the common right stimulated, through the transformation of the material base of production, a wider conflict related to rural practices which redefined the appropriation of agrarian production, benefiting the sectors that produced with waged laborers

  17. The Public Protector as a Mechanism of Political Accountability: The Extent of its Contribution to the Realisation of the Right to Access Adequate Housing in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Joel Tchawouo Mbiada

    2017-01-01

    This paper is premised on the concept of political accountability which aims to hold accountable government for its action and or omission. Political accountability encompasses a number of mechanisms such as the judiciary and the ombudsman. Courts have been instrumental in enforcing the realisation of the right to access to adequate housing in South Africa. This paper argues, however, that the judiciary is not the only enforcing avenue because other mechanisms of political accountability may ...

  18. Implication Of Protection And Fulfillment Of Women's Political Rights Through Affirmative Action Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Asikin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available One group of citizens who because of the conditions require special treatment is women. Without special treatment or affirmative action, women will not be able to access the protection and fulfillment of their constitutional rights because of the differences and distinctions generated and perpetuated by the structure of patriarchal society. The protection and fulfillment of constitutional rights without special treatment will tend to maintain discrimination against women and unable to achieve justice

  19. Human Rights and the Political Economy of Universal Health Care: Designing Equitable Financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudiger, Anja

    2016-12-01

    Health system financing is a critical factor in securing universal health care and achieving equity in access and payment. The human rights framework offers valuable guidance for designing a financing strategy that meets these goals. This article presents a rights-based approach to health care financing developed by the human right to health care movement in the United States. Grounded in a human rights analysis of private, market-based health insurance, advocates make the case for public financing through progressive taxation. Financing mechanisms are measured against the twin goals of guaranteeing access to care and advancing economic equity. The added focus on the redistributive potential of health care financing recasts health reform as an economic policy intervention that can help fulfill broader economic and social rights obligations. Based on a review of recent universal health care reform efforts in the state of Vermont, this article reports on a rights-based public financing plan and model, which includes a new business tax directed against wage disparities. The modeling results suggest that a health system financed through equitable taxation could produce significant redistributive effects, thus increasing economic equity while generating sufficient funds to provide comprehensive health care as a universal public good.

  20. 'Adventurous' judgments
    A comparative exploration into human rights as a moral-political force in judicial law development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bas de Gaay Fortman

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at the development of law by the judiciary in the sense of judgments taking the law beyond the point of what was hitherto regarded as ius positivum. Its main perspective, however, is not the creation of law by the courts as such, but rather the ways and means in which the human rights idea has encouraged judges to deliver decisions that imply an overturning of 'settled' law. In the comparative exploration of 'adventurous' judgments that we shall embark on, our focus will be on the political morality of human rights as a driving force in judicial activism. It is assumed, in other words, that where the judiciary is 'active', human rights may play a part as general principles of law as distinct from rules already incorporated in positive law. Notably then, human rights in this way affect positive law in a manner other than through processes of international, regional and national standard setting connected with the establishment of new supervisory institutions and mechanisms. For this reason, the article does not so much consider typical human rights cases; instead the focus is on major decisions by national courts that were not in the first place regarded as human rights cases at all. In this endeavour, the article aims to be no more than an initial comparative exploration, intended to illustrate a function of human rights that is not normally highlighted, namely its function as an inspirational force towards 'adventurous' judgments. Yet, the judicial potential illustrated here is of great significance, as it may lead to law development inspired by the two principal pillars underpinning the international quest for the realization of human rights: universality and human dignity. After reviewing a variety of characteristic cases from such diverse legal backgrounds as the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, the United States of America, India, South Africa and Nigeria, some conclusions are drawn as to the ways in which human rights

  1. Human rights and reproductive health: political realities and pragmatic choices for married adolescent women living in urban slums, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Sabina Faiz

    2011-12-16

    In Bangladesh, particularly in urban slums, married adolescent women's human rights to life, health, and reproductive and sexual health remain adversely affected because of the structural inequalities and political economic, social and cultural conditions which shape how rights are understood, negotiated and lived. The focus of the research and methods was anthropological. An initial survey of 153 married adolescent women was carried out and from this group, 50 in-depth interviews were conducted with selected participants and, from the in-depth interviews, a further eight case studies of women and their families were selected for in-depth repeated interviews and case histories. This paper speaks of the unanticipated complexities when writing on reproductive rights for poor adolescent women living in the slums, where the discourses on 'universal human rights' are often removed from the reality of adolescent women's everyday lives. Married adolescent women and their families remain extremely vulnerable in the unpredictable, crime-prone and insecure urban slum landscape because of their age, gender and poverty. Adolescent women's understanding of their rights such as the decision to marry early, have children, terminate pregnancies and engage in risky sexual behaviour, are different from the widely accepted discourse on rights globally, which assumes a particular kind of individual thinking and discourse on rights and a certain autonomy women have over their bodies and their lives. This does not necessarily exist in urban slum populations. The lived experiences and decisions made pertaining to sexual and reproductive health and 'rights' exercised by married adolescent women, their families and slum communities, allow us to reflect on the disconnect between the international legal human rights frameworks as applied to sexual and reproductive health rights, and how these are played out on the ground. These notions are far more complex in environments where married

  2. Forest rights : the micro-politics of decentralisation and forest tenure reform in tribal India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bose, P.

    2012-01-01

    Forest rights are of utmost importance for the future of forest initiatives, be it for resource use, management, and conservation, or for climate change adaptation and mitigation. The growing trend towards acknowledging the relevance of the sustainable use and conservation of

  3. Bringing political context back into international business studies of human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kourula, A.; Mäkinen, J.

    In this article, we respond to Giuliani, Santangelo, and Wettstein’s (2016) call formore international business (IB) research on the theme of human rights (HR).While we surely agree with the need for increasing research on the topic, we arguethat future research should emphasize and elaborate on the

  4. Paradise lost : Sovereign State Interest, Global Resource Exploitation and the Politics of Human Rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augenstein, Daniel

    Taking its cue from the US Supreme Court judgment in Kiobel that restricted the extraterritorial reach of the Alien Tort Claims Act, this article explores how sovereignty structures the relationship between global resource exploitation and the localization of human rights in the international order

  5. Forest rights : the micro-politics of decentralisation and forest tenure reform in tribal India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bose, P.

    2012-01-01

    Forest rights are of utmost importance for the future of forest initiatives, be it for resource use, management, and conservation, or for climate change adaptation and mitigation. The growing trend towards acknowledging the relevance of the sustainable use and conservation of

  6. Framing Political Change: Can a Left Populism Disrupt the Rise of the Reactionary Right? Comment on "Politics, Power, Poverty and Global Health: Systems and Frames".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labonté, Ronald

    2017-01-17

    Solomon Benatar offers an important critique of the limited frame that sets the boundaries of much of what is referred to as 'global health.' In placing his comments within a criticism of increasing poverty (or certainly income and wealth inequalities) and the decline in our environmental commons, he locates our health inequities within the pathology of our present global economy. In that respect it is a companion piece to an editorial I published around the same time. Both Benatar's and my paralleling arguments take on a new urgency in the wake of the US presidential election. Although not a uniquely American event (the xenophobic right has been making inroads in many parts of the world), the degree of vitriol expressed by the President-elect of the world's (still) most powerful and militarized country is being used to further legitimate the policies of right-extremist parties in Europe while providing additional justification for the increasingly autocratic politics of leaders (elected or otherwise) in many other of the world's nations. To challenge right-populism's rejection of the predatory inequalities that 4 years of (neo)-liberal globalization have created demands strong and sustained left populism built, in part, on the ecocentric frame advocated by Benatar. © 2017 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  7. Economic sanctions as human rights violations: reconciling political and public health imperatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, S P

    1999-10-01

    The impact of economic sanctions on civilians has frequently been studied by public health specialists and specialized agencies of the United Nations (UN). This commentary explores some of the difficulties of the claim that sanctions constitute violations of human rights. The deprivation suffered by civilian populations under sanctions regimes often are violations of economic, social, and cultural human rights; however, the attribution of responsibility for those violations to the "senders" of sanctions (the UN Security Council or the US government, for example) is difficult to sustain, particularly in light of the efforts made by these entities to provide for humanitarian exemptions and humanitarian aid. A more productive approach to avoiding civilian harm is to prefer, as a matter of policy, arms embargoes, severing of communications, and international criminal prosecutions over trade embargoes. Promising recommendations have been formulated regarding "smart sanctions," which target regimes rather than people, and "positive sanctions" in the form of incentives. Health and human rights professionals have specific and important tasks in implementing such a restructured approach to sanctions.

  8. Getting beyond the context of French revolution in post-modern age: Striking off the partitioning of the political field on the left and right

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetićanin Neven

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The essay is dealing with the new post-modern political context that will softly get beyond, nowadays old context set by the French Revolution with all its opposites (revolution/restauration, the left/the right, republic/monarchy, red/black etc.. This new post-modern context will, instead of opposites of revolution and restoration i.e. opposites of classic left and classic right, mark opposites of extreme margin and central synthesis i.e. opposites of margin and centre, becoming the point of rotation of the political field nowadays. These new developments in political philosophy and political sociology will come on scene with series of philosophers, sociologists, politiciologies and lawthinkers who will resist to any alignment on the left, the right or the centre in its classical meaning, and the most distinctive among them will be Georges Sorel and Robert Michels, as well as, lately god deal mentioned Carl Schmitt, wherefore in this essay the attention is applied to their contribution in getting beyond the old context of French Revolution. Their opus is witnessing on how much has the era got 'beyond Left and Right' in its classical meaning, as for beyond revolution and restauration. That is also visible from some segments of the political practice after The World War II, wherefore the essay suggests model from French modern politics which got beyond the opposite of classic Left and classic Right. At the very end of the essay, controversy with tendencies of Norberto Bobbio is taken over, trying to stand up the point of view that is considering the Left and the Right essential invariables of the political life and political speech generally, that way, the final conclusion of getting beyond this classical partition of political field, is made.

  9. Ordem política e sujeito de direito no debate sobre direitos humanos Political order and subject of right in the debate about human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Koerner

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O debate teórico sobre os direitos humanos durante os anos noventa é analisado a partir de dois eixos: a ordem política que garante esses direitos e a relação do sujeito à regra de direito. Estes eixos têm como pontos extremos: o primeiro, a ordem estatal e a ordem global e o segundo, uma concepção institucional e uma concepção sociológica da relação do sujeito à regra de direito. Isso permite identificar quatro posições polares, juntamente com os problemas teóricos e práticos que enfrentam.The theoretical debate about human rights during the nineties is analyzed according to two axis: the political order that grants those rights and the relation between the subject and the rule of law. The ultimate questions those axis point out are: first, the state order and the global order and, second, an institutional conception and a sociological conception about how the subject is related to the rule of law. Four polar positions are, then, identified, along with the theoretical and practical problems they face.

  10. Mind the gap: access to ARV medication, rights and the politics of scale in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Peris Sean

    2012-01-01

    Global access to anti-retroviral medication (ARVs) has increased exponentially in recent years. As a relatively recent phenomenon for the global South, much knowledge is being added, but analysis of 'access' to ARVs remains partial. The main research objective of this article is to gain a fuller picture of the range of forces constituting 'access' to ARVs by providing a local community case study from Hammanskraal, South Africa. A qualitative and relational approach situates specific points of 'local' access to ARVs within relations stretched over space. Spatial awareness enables us to consider the reinforcing effects of local geographies upon access to health care but also simultaneously sees this in relation to non-local geographies. The concept of scale is pivotal to creating linkages across space and reveals a number of 'gaps' in access that otherwise might not be shown. Elaborating on the meaning of "access" to treatment produces a more rounded picture of the context that people-living-with-AIDS encounter. A multi-scale and multi-disciplinary analysis of 'access' is therefore also highly informative in a related sense, namely, for closing the gap between human rights standards and actual implementation. A geographical imagination is useful not only to 'mind' but also to close the 'gap' in both senses. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Politics of LGBT Rights in Latin America and the Caribbean: Research Agendas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Corrales

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available LGBT rights have expanded unevenly across Latin America and the Caribbean. Recent scholarship has been able to explain some of the reasons for this unevenness. But new and old questions remain unaddressed. This article suggests areas for further research. Resumen: Los derechos LGBT en la política de América Latina y el Caribe: Agendas para la investigación Los derechos LGBT han proliferado en América Latina y el Caribe de modo disparejo. Varios estudios académicos recientes han logrado explicar las razones de dicho crecimiento disparejo. Sin embargo, existen todavía preguntas sin responder al igual que nuevas preguntas por contestar. Este artículo sugiere algunas áreas que ameritan más investigación.

  12. The politics of protection: aid, human rights discourse, and power relations in Kyaka II settlement, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark-Kazak, Christina R

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the conceptualisation and application of 'protection' by the United Nations High Commissioner (UNHCR), Ugandan government, and Congolese refugees in Kyaka II refugee settlement, Uganda. Analysing the origins and consequences of a demonstration against school fees, and drawing on other ethnographic data, it explores how different interpretations of this incident reflect different conceptions of, and approaches to, protection. Ugandan government officials viewed the demonstration as a security incident; Congolese and Ugandan adults responded with increased monitoring and 'sheltering' of children and young people; students justified the demonstration as a legitimate manifestation of their rights; while UNHCR promoted assistance and resettlement. The paper argues that prevailing protection responses, including 'sensitisation', sheltering, and resettlement, are de-contextualised from daily realities and fail to address the underlying power relations that undermine protection. It concludes with recommendations on how international refugee agencies can reorient assistance to address protection concerns in refugee contexts.

  13. O lugar dos direitos na moralidade política The place of rights in political morality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    �lvaro de Vita

    1993-08-01

    Full Text Available O que queremos dizer quando dizemos que um indivíduo A tem direito a X? O artigo discute esta questão esclarecendo os fundamentos dos direitos (em particular, mas não só, dos direitos humanos e a importância e o papel das pretensões de direito na avaliação normativa da ação política. O argumento é o de que esse esforço de esclarecimento é necessário à utilização eficaz da linguagem dos direitos. E oferece recursos suficientes para rejeitar três tipos de objeção muitas vezes feitas à noção de direitos humanos: a de que não é universalizável; a de individualismo moral; e a que sustenta que a avaliação da ação política, de teor conseqüencial, não comporta o recurso a princípios, tais como esses direitos acima de tudo são.What do we mean when we say that a person A has a right to X? The article discusses this question by outlining an account of the foundations of rights and of the significance and role of right claims in the normative evaluation of political action. The effectiveness of the language of rights, it is argued, depends on the availability of such an account. Moreover, it also allows to meet three major objections to the concept of Human Rights: its non universality; its moral individualism; and that of the act-consequencialist view according to which in evaluating political action no room is left to moral rules such as Human Rights.

  14. Is the market always right? Criticism of the ethical, political, and social ideas of neo-liberalism in hayek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Mª Urrutia León

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is a critical approach to the ideas of Friedrich Hayek, the most important thinker of neoliberalism. In his work, he develops a coherent social theory to base epistemological, ethical, and politically, the basic principles of classical liberalism. All his thinking revolves around the idea of self-regulated market as a spontaneous order that, rather than a scientific proposition, is an ideal to achieve and depends on an option value. In his defense, the economist develops a thought strongly dogmatic, insensitive to the nuances of reality and ideas. A thought that leads to a «market-centric» perspective for which everything revolves around the market. The market is always right, so there are no morals, justice, or law... that may put it in question. However, to allow the market to regulate itself without any control would lead us to the destruction of society and ecosystem.

  15. What Political Framework Is Necessary to Reduce Malnutrition? A Civil Society Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Around 800 million people worldwide are still starving. Around 2 billion are somehow able to allay their hunger yet remain malnourished because their food does not contain sufficient nutrients. There are many reasons for this: for people living in poverty and precarious conditions, the priority is to fill their stomach, and the quality of food seems less important. Since the 1960s, global food production has been focused on increasing yield, not food quality. Mass-produced convenience food with high fat and carbohydrate contents but containing few nutrients is on the rise and - as a result of price wars - often replaces healthier locally grown products. To overcome global hunger and malnutrition, civil society organizations urge governments to turn towards sustainable and human rights-based development, including sustainable agricultural and fishing policies, to contribute to the eradication of poverty. This development is first and foremost guided by the right to food. In a policy that enables farmers to produce enough food that is healthy and rich in nutrients, the following principles should be fulfilled. Governments should assume responsibility for the international impacts of their agricultural policy decisions. The food sovereignty of other countries should be respected. Policies should enable self-supply of the population with healthy food and should promote the protection of resources, the climate, biodiversity and animal welfare. Strengthening rural structures, local economies, labor rights and small-scale food producers, establishing public programs that provide locally produced food, applying stringent standards for food labeling and the regulation of unhealthy products and paying special attention to the first 1,000 days of life as the starting point of a good and healthy well-being are core elements of such a political framework. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Right ventricular dysfunction in heart failure with reduced vs. preserved ejection fraction : non-identical twins?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, Thomas M; Rienstra, Michiel; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J

    This article refers to 'Different correlates but similar prognostic implications for right ventricular dysfunction in heart failure patients with reduced or preserved ejection fraction' by S. Ghio et al., published in this issue on pages 873-879.

  17. Denouncing Divinity: Blasphemy, Human Rights, and the Struggle of Political Leaders to defend Freedom of Speech in the Case of Innocence of Muslims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Herrenberg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is about freedom of speech and the political responses to the blasphemous Innocence of Muslims video, which sparked international controversy in the fall of 2012. Politicians from multiple corners of the world spoke out on freedom of speech and its relation to blasphemy. Whereas one might expect that those politicians would abide by international human rights law, many of them issued Statements that unequivocally undermined the principle of free speech enshrined in those human rights instruments. This article discusses a number of these political statements against the background of human rights standards.

  18. Perceived discrimination predicts increased support for political rights and life satisfaction mediated by ethnic identity: A longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronge, Samantha; Sengupta, Nikhil K; Barlow, Fiona Kate; Osborne, Danny; Houkamau, Carla A; Sibley, Chris G

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the current research is to test predictions derived from the rejection-identification model and research on collective action using cross-sectional (Study 1) and longitudinal (Study 2) methods. Specifically, an integration of these 2 literatures suggests that recognition of discrimination can have simultaneous positive relationships with well-being and engagement in collective action via the formation of a strong ingroup identity. We test these predictions in 2 studies using data from a large national probability sample of Māori (the indigenous peoples of New Zealand), collected as part of the New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study (Ns for Study 1 and 2 were 1,981 and 1,373, respectively). Consistent with the extant research, Study 1 showed that perceived discrimination was directly linked with decreased life satisfaction, but indirectly linked with increased life satisfaction through higher levels of ethnic identification. Perceived discrimination was also directly linked with increased support for Māori rights and indirectly linked with increased support for Māori rights through higher levels of ethnic identification. Study 2 replicated these findings using longitudinal data and identified multiple bidirectional paths between perceived discrimination, ethnic identity, well-being, and support for collective action. These findings replicate and extend the rejection-identification model in a novel cultural context by demonstrating via cross-sectional (Study 1) and longitudinal (Study 2) analyses that the recognition of discrimination can both motivate support for political rights and increase well-being by strengthening ingroup identity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Fundamental rights and the EU internal market: just how fundamental are the EU treaty freedoms? A normative enquiry based on John Rawls' political philosophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, N.J.

    2013-01-01

    This article assesses whether the EU Treaty freedoms - the free movement of goods, persons, services and capital - should be considered as fundamental rights which are hierarchically equal to other fundamental rights. It uses the political philosophy of John Rawls to assess why we should attach

  20. The family as the foundation of political rule in western philosophy: a comparative analysis of Aristotle's politics and Hegel's philosophy of right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Douglas E

    2011-01-01

    For both Aristotle and Hegel, the family is the foundation in which the universalized rule of law is validated according to the political structure of the 'Polis' or 'State' itself. This composite whole or structure of society (Ancient Polis/Modern State) is the political end of humanity for both philosophers, which in turn finds its primordial beginning in the family. For Aristotle, it is in the kingly rule of the household that the property-based distinction of citizenship is set for the rule of his ideal Polis. For Hegel, it is in the love affirmed through caring affection within the nuclear family that the dialectical framework for the freedom of civil society, and the rational unity of a congregational 'spirit' in the State, finds its foundation. For both thinkers, the family sets the base for a political theory that defines citizenship in a manner that transcends the particularities of kin bonds.

  1. Rights

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    About 20 percent of Malawians are Moslems (CIA 2001). 5 . 'Property grabbing” occurs when the relatives of a deceased man take all matrimo- nial property, leaving the widow and children with hardly anything (WLSA 2000). References. Armstrong, Alice. 1993. 'lnternalising International Women's Rights Norms', in.

  2. "Right tool," wrong "job": Manual vacuum aspiration, post-abortion care and transnational population politics in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Siri

    2015-06-01

    The "rightness" of a technology for completing a particular task is negotiated by medical professionals, patients, state institutions, manufacturing companies, and non-governmental organizations. This paper shows how certain technologies may challenge the meaning of the "job" they are designed to accomplish. Manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) is a syringe device for uterine evacuation that can be used to treat complications of incomplete abortion, known as post-abortion care (PAC), or to terminate pregnancy. I explore how negotiations over the rightness of MVA as well as PAC unfold at the intersection of national and global reproductive politics during the daily treatment of abortion complications at three hospitals in Senegal, where PAC is permitted but induced abortion is legally prohibited. Although state health authorities have championed MVA as the "preferred" PAC technology, the primary donor for PAC, the United States Agency for International Development, does not support the purchase of abortifacient technologies. I conducted an ethnography of Senegal's PAC program between 2010 and 2011. Data collection methods included interviews with 49 health professionals, observation of PAC treatment and review of abortion records at three hospitals, and a review of transnational literature on MVA and PAC. While MVA was the most frequently employed form of uterine evacuation in hospitals, concerns about off-label MVA practices contributed to the persistence of less effective methods such as dilation and curettage (D&C) and digital curettage. Anxieties about MVA's capacity to induce abortion have constrained its integration into routine obstetric care. This capacity also raises questions about what the "job," PAC, represents in Senegalese hospitals. The prioritization of MVA's security over women's access to the preferred technology reinforces gendered inequalities in health care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Forks in the Road of Men’s Gender Politics: Men’s Rights vs Feminist Allies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Messner

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available How do men respond to feminist movements and to shifts in the gender order?  In this paper, I introduce the concept of historical gender formation to show how shifting social conditions over the past forty years shaped a range of men’s organized responses to feminism. Focusing on the US, I show how progressive men reacted to feminism in the 1970s by forming an internally contradictory ‘men’s liberation’ movement that soon split into opposing anti-feminist and pro-feminist factions. Three large transformations of the 1980s and 1990s – the professional institutionalization of feminism, the rise of a postfeminist sensibility, and shifts in the political economy (especially deindustrialization and the rise of the neoliberal state – generated new possibilities. I end by pointing to an emergent moderate men’s rights discourse that appeals to a postfeminist sensibility, and to an increasingly diverse base for men’s work to prevent violence against women.

  4. "What's Positive about Positive Rights?" Students' Everyday Understandings and the Challenges of Teaching Political Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekström, Linda; Lundholm, Cecilia

    2018-01-01

    A review of research into teaching and learning in political science education concludes that this literature emphasizes student outcomes and "show and tell" descriptions of pedagogical interventions (Craig 2014). The present study instead aims to open the "black box" of conceptual learning in political science, illustrating…

  5. The Lack of Public Politics for Social Rights of Persons with Disabilities: The Reflections no way of New York Convention in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Cesar de Carvalho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article shows that there are still public policy in the defense and integration of persons with disabilities in brazilian society, which prevents them from having their social rights, so fundamental, fully serviced. Despite the undeniable political and social developments in Brazil, as only social rights of forecast not sufficient unto itself, requiring further the effective implementation of these, which are fundamental rights require public politics in order to safeguard and optimize the results and scope of such important rights, especially for social minorities such as persons with disabilities. Finally, a proposed legislative amendment is presented to achieve these social rights by encouraging the employment of persons with disabilities by companies, because the public service is already determining a social quota in their favor, in filling job and public offices. Therefore, this study is underpinned by statistical data and references indicated to an end.

  6. The Erosion of Rights to Abortion Care in the United States: A Call for a Renewed Anthropological Engagement with the Politics of Abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andaya, Elise; Mishtal, Joanna

    2017-03-01

    Women's rights to legal abortion in the United States are now facing their greatest social and legislative challenges since its 1973 legalization. Legislation restricting rights and access to abortion care has been passed at state and federal levels at an unprecedented rate. Given the renewed vigor of anti-abortion movements, we call on anthropologists to engage with this shifting landscape of reproductive politics. This article examines recent legislation that has severely limited abortion access and maps possible directions for future anthropological analysis. We argue that anthropology can provide unique contributions to broader abortion research. The study of abortion politics in the United States today is not only a rich opportunity for applied and policy-oriented ethnographic research. It also provides a sharply focused lens onto broader theoretical concerns in anthropology and new social formations across moral, medical, political, and scientific fields in 21st-century America. © 2016 by the American Anthropological Association.

  7. The selective avoidance of threat appeals in right-wing populist political ads: An implicit cognition approach using eye-tracking methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthes, J.; Marquart, F.; Arendt, F.; Wonneberger, A.; Verlegh, P.; Voorveld, H.; Eisend, M.

    2016-01-01

    Right-wing populist parties increasingly use political poster advertisements depicting negative and threatening images of foreigners, especially framing Muslims as a threat to Western European countries and culture (e.g. Betz, 2013; Marquart, 2013). For instance, parties such as the SVP in

  8. The Left- and Right-Wing Political Power Design: The Dilemma of Welfare Policy with Low-Income Relief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph E. Mullat

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Findings from this experiment contributed novel insights into the theoretical field of welfare policy, addressing fundamental questions about wealth redistribution rules and norms. The expenses of the redistribution pertaining to basic goods, as well as those associated with public (non-basic but vital goods, are separately estimated by transforming the expenses into functions of the poverty line. The findings reveal that, along the poverty line that treats all citizens equally, the politicians representing opposing ideologies decide how the redistribution of basic and vital goods should be financed. Politicians should come to an agreement, subject to an approval of their decisions by voters-citizens. However, in the absence of such approval, politicians have no alternative but to continue the negotiations. Based on this premise, we concluded that political decisions with an elevated poverty line as a parameter would give rise to inverse working incentives of benefits claimants. This may result in unbalanced books, due to the expenditure on the delivery of basic and non-basic goods to their respective destinations. By keeping the books in balance, we postulate that one half of median income μ, in accord with Fuchs point, may be used in the form of poverty line ½μ for just and fair wealth redistribution in resolving the ideological controversies between left- and right-wing politicians. Through the income exception rule equal to ½μ, as a result of a relief payments simulation, the wealth redistribution system, known since 1962 from as Friedman’s Negative Income Tax (NIT, diminished the Gini coefficient.

  9. Implementing the 1989 United Nations' Convention on the Rights of the Child in sub-Saharan Africa: the overlooked socioeconomic and political dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulinge, Munyae M

    2002-11-01

    The aim of this article is to identify and profile some often overlooked socioeconomic and political factors that render the protection of the rights of the child, as guaranteed through the 1989 United Nations' Convention on the Rights of the Child, a distant dream in most African countries. It is argued that, in most African countries, there are other major impediments to the protection of the child's rights in addition to the frequently cited lack of adequate legislation and of political will. The paper is a review essay and utilizes existing literature from varied sources to advance its main arguments. It draws from such documents to profile the socioeconomic and political barriers to the protection of children's rights in Africa both at the family and at the national levels. CORE ARGUMENT: The ratification of the United Nation's 1989 Convention and the passing of supportive legislation by most state governments, has not resulted in major improvements in the well-being of children. This is as a result of prevailing socioeconomic and political conditions such as social transformations within the family unit, poverty, and rampant corruption. The emergence of HIV/AIDS, civil wars and armed conflicts is a major impediment to the protection of children's rights across most of Africa. The effective implementation of the 1989 United Nations' Convention by African governments requires more than the ratification of the Convention. Governments require the political will to implement its prescriptions by passing supportive legislation. To create the necessary enabling environments, equal emphasis should be placed on the eradication of poverty, corruption and disease; and to ending armed conflicts where they exist.

  10. Say our name (and say it right! Extending Walton et al. on the evolution of race in political science scholarship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harwood K. McClerking

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To explore the evolution of political-science research on race, Walton et al., have done a systematic review of more than a century of publications appearing in the discipline’s oldest and most prestigious journals: Political Science Quarterly and the American Political Science Review, respectively. Walton and his colleagues uncover “dual traditions” of race scholarship: an “African American Politics” (AAP paradigm emphasizing empowerment and Blacks’ cultural distinctiveness, and a “Race Relations Politics” (RRP approach that focuses on Blacks’ socio-political status vis-à-vis Whites. Using computer-assisted text analyses, we introduce a measure of racial dialogue that is informed by theory and has suitable empirical properties. We replicate and extend Walton’s research by adding a third periodical (the Journal of Politics and demonstrating that, while race conversations are becoming more frequent over time, the dialogues taking place in mainstream journals typically fit Walton’s RRP (rather than AAP tradition. Following our analyses, we offer guidelines for researchers seeking to apply our measure to alternative contexts.

  11. It Could Have Been True: How Counterfactual Thoughts Reduce Condemnation of Falsehoods and Increase Political Polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effron, Daniel A

    2018-01-01

    This research demonstrates how counterfactual thoughts can lead people to excuse others for telling falsehoods. When a falsehood aligned with participants' political preferences, reflecting on how it could have been true led them to judge it as less unethical to tell, which in turn led them to judge a politician who told it as having a more moral character and deserving less punishment. When a falsehood did not align with political preferences, this effect was significantly smaller and less reliable, in part because people doubted the plausibility of the relevant counterfactual thoughts. These results emerged independently in three studies (two preregistered; total N = 2,783) and in meta- and Bayesian analyses, regardless of whether participants considered the same counterfactuals or generated their own. The results reveal how counterfactual thoughts can amplify partisan differences in judgments of alleged dishonesty. I discuss implications for theories of counterfactual thinking and motivated moral reasoning.

  12. The Public Protector as a Mechanism of Political Accountability: The Extent of its Contribution to the Realisation of the Right to Access Adequate Housing in South Africa

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    Carlos Joel Tchawouo Mbiada

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is premised on the concept of political accountability which aims to hold accountable government for its action and or omission. Political accountability encompasses a number of mechanisms such as the judiciary and the ombudsman. Courts have been instrumental in enforcing the realisation of the right to access to adequate housing in South Africa. This paper argues, however, that the judiciary is not the only enforcing avenue because other mechanisms of political accountability may also contribute to the realisation of the right to housing. The paper, therefore, explores the extent of the Public Protector's contribution to the realisation of the right to access to adequate housing. The paper then argues that it is through its functions that the Public Protector exercises its accounting role in the realisation of the right to access to adequate housing. The paper, however, cautions that the Public Protector is not an alternative dispute resolution institution parallel to courts. But that the Public Protector complements the role played by courts by offering another medium through which such right may be realised.

  13. How Have Political Incentives for Local Officials Reduced Environmental Pollution in Resource-Depleted Cities?

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    Huiming Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Chinese resource-exhausted cities face more severe environmental pollution problems than other cities. In addressing these problems, the way local officials (usually senior party and government leaders operate is very important, as their focus on political achievements may complicate how they manage environmental pollution in these cities. On the one hand, the traditional Gross Domestic Product-based quest for political achievement may lead top leaders to de-emphasize environmental pollution. On the other hand, changes made in 2003 to the way the performance of Chinese officials is evaluated have encouraged some local senior party and government leaders to pay more attention to environmental problems. Based on this, we analyze the relationship between political incentives and environmental pollution by applying the 2004–2014 panel data from 37 resource-exhausted cities. The findings reveal that firstly, among the factors which impact the environmental pollution of resource-exhausted cities, investment in fixed assets, foreign direct investment, industrial structure, per-capita education expenditure, and population density do not have a significant impact, thus indicating that local openness levels, the degree of industrial upgrading, and local investment in fixed assets are not the key variables in environmental pollution control. Secondly, the extent to which officials vie for political achievement affects environmental pollution in resource-exhausted cities. This depends upon whether the officials are municipal party secretaries or mayors; the former play a greater dynamic role in environmental pollution and have stronger robustness than the latter. The conclusion verifies both the existing authority structure of China and its effectiveness in the control of environmental pollution of resource-exhausted cities. That is to say, in contrast to the principles of the party committees, the mayors are in a subordinate position and often fail to

  14. Politics, religion and gender equality in contemporary Mexico: women's sexuality and reproductive rights in a contested secular state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amuchástegui, Ana; Cruz, Guadalupe; Aldaz, Evelyn; Mejía, María Consuelo

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the complexities of the interaction between politics, religion and gender equality in contemporary Mexico, by analysing recent developments in public debate, legal changes and implementation of government policies in two areas: 1) the inclusion of emergency contraception in public health services in 2004; and 2) the decriminalisation of abortion in Mexico City in 2008, which was followed by a massive campaign to re-criminalise abortion in the federal states. Three main findings emerge from our analysis: first, that women's sexual and reproductive autonomy has become an issue of intense public debate that is being addressed by both state-public policy and society; second, that the gradual democratisation of the Mexican political system and society is forcing the Catholic Church to play by the rules of democracy; and third, that the character and nature of the Mexican (secular) state has become an arena of intense struggle within which traditional political boundaries and ideologies are being reconfigured.

  15. Japan's Ministry of Education "Becoming the Right": Neo-Liberal Restructuring and the Ministry's Struggles for Political Legitimacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Keita

    2008-01-01

    This article first examines the controversial revision of the Fundamental Law of Education (FLE) by situating it in the larger global context of neo-liberal and neo-conservative state-restructuring and education reform. It then focuses on the domestic politics behind what seems to be the global convergence of education policy along neo-liberal and…

  16. Pulmonary arterial hypertension reduces energy efficiency of right, but not left, rat ventricular trabeculae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Toan; Nisbet, Linley; Taberner, Andrew; Loiselle, Denis; Han, June-Chiew

    2018-01-24

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) triggers right ventricle (RV) hypertrophy and left ventricle (LV) atrophy, which progressively leads to heart failure. We designed experiments under conditions mimicking those encountered by the heart in vivo that allowed us to investigate whether consequent structural and functional remodelling of the ventricles affects their respective energy efficiencies. We found that peak work output was lower in RV trabeculae from PAH rats due to reduced extent and velocity of shortening. However, their suprabasal enthalpy was unaffected due to increased activation heat, resulting in reduced suprabasal efficiency. There was no effect of PAH on LV suprabasal efficiency. We conclude that the mechanism underlying the reduced energy efficiency of hypertrophied RV tissues is attributable to the increased energy cost of Ca 2+ cycling, whereas atrophied LV tissues still maintain normal mechano-energetic performance. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) greatly increases the afterload on the right ventricle (RV), triggering RV hypertrophy, which progressively leads to RV failure. In contrast, the disease reduces the passive filling pressure of the left ventricle (LV), resulting in LV atrophy. We investigated whether these distinct structural and functional consequences to the ventricles affect their respective energy efficiencies. We studied trabeculae isolated from both ventricles of Wistar rats with monocrotaline-induced PAH and their respective Control groups. Trabeculae were mounted in a calorimeter at 37°C. While contracting at 5 Hz, they were subjected to stress-length work-loops over a wide range of afterloads. They were subsequently required to undergo a series of isometric contractions at various muscle lengths. In both protocols, stress production, length change and suprabasal heat output were simultaneously measured. We found that RV trabeculae from PAH rats generated higher activation heat, but developed normal active stress. Their

  17. Harmonization of the conditions for reversionary rights and concession periods: tax and business political aspects; Harmonisering av hjemfallsvilkaar og konsesjonslengde : skattemessige og naeringspolitiske aspekter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunnevaag, Kjell J.; Rusten, Grete; Soergard, Lars

    2002-07-01

    In Norway, the right of reversion was introduced at a time of national upheaval with regained independence and increasing understanding of the importance of hydropower in the industrialization process. Reversion became an important political instrument for securing public control over a resource of great socio-economic importance. After one hundred years, this arrangement is now set under pressure. This report discusses various aspects involved in creating regulations that are neutral with respect to ownership.

  18. Lead reduces tension development and the myosin ATPase activity of the rat right ventricular myocardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Vassallo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Lead (Pb2+ poisoning causes hypertension, but little is known regarding its acute effects on cardiac contractility. To evaluate these effects, force was measured in right ventricular strips that were contracting isometrically in 45 male Wistar rats (250-300 g before and after the addition of increasing concentrations of lead acetate (3, 7, 10, 30, 70, 100, and 300 µM to the bath. Changes in rate of stimulation (0.1-1.5 Hz, relative potentiation after pauses of 15, 30, and 60 s, effect of Ca2+ concentration (0.62, 1.25, and 2.5 mM, and the effect of isoproterenol (20 ng/mL were determined before and after the addition of 100 µM Pb2+. Effects on contractile proteins were evaluated after caffeine treatment using tetanic stimulation (10 Hz and measuring the activity of the myosin ATPase. Pb2+ produced concentration-dependent force reduction, significant at concentrations greater than 30 µM. The force developed in response to increasing rates of stimulation became smaller at 0.5 and 0.8 Hz. Relative potentiation increased after 100 µM Pb2+ treatment. Extracellular Ca2+ increment and isoproterenol administration increased force development but after 100 µM Pb2+ treatment the force was significantly reduced suggesting an effect of the metal on the sarcolemmal Ca2+ influx. Concentration of 100 µM Pb2+ also reduced the peak and plateau force of tetanic contractions and reduced the activity of the myosin ATPase. Results showed that acute Pb2+ administration, although not affecting the sarcoplasmic reticulum activity, produces a concentration-dependent negative inotropic effect and reduces myosin ATPase activity. Results suggest that acute lead administration reduced myocardial contractility by reducing sarcolemmal calcium influx and the myosin ATPase activity. These results also suggest that lead exposure is hazardous and has toxicological consequences affecting cardiac muscle.

  19. Reduced Right Ventricular Function Predicts Long-Term Cardiac Re-Hospitalization after Cardiac Surgery.

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    Leela K Lella

    Full Text Available The significance of right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF, independent of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF, following isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG and valve procedures remains unknown. The aim of this study is to examine the significance of abnormal RVEF by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR, independent of LVEF in predicting outcomes of patients undergoing isolated CABG and valve surgery.From 2007 to 2009, 109 consecutive patients (mean age, 66 years; 38% female were referred for pre-operative CMR. Abnormal RVEF and LVEF were considered 30 days outcomes included, cardiac re-hospitalization, worsening congestive heart failure and mortality. Mean clinical follow up was 14 months.Forty-eight patients had reduced RVEF (mean 25% and 61 patients had normal RVEF (mean 50% (p<0.001. Fifty-four patients had reduced LVEF (mean 30% and 55 patients had normal LVEF (mean 59% (p<0.001. Patients with reduced RVEF had a higher incidence of long-term cardiac re-hospitalization vs. patients with normal RVEF (31% vs.13%, p<0.05. Abnormal RVEF was a predictor for long-term cardiac re-hospitalization (HR 3.01 [CI 1.5-7.9], p<0.03. Reduced LVEF did not influence long-term cardiac re-hospitalization.Abnormal RVEF is a stronger predictor for long-term cardiac re-hospitalization than abnormal LVEF in patients undergoing isolated CABG and valve procedures.

  20. How to reduce the superior mesenteric vein bleeding risk during laparoscopic right hemicolectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Granero, Alvaro; Sánchez-Guillén, Luis; Frasson, Matteo; Sancho Muriel, Jorge; Alvarez Sarrado, Eduardo; Fletcher-Sanfeliu, Delfina; Flor Lorente, Blas; Pamies, Jose; Corral Rubio, Javier; Valverde Navarro, Alfonso A; Martinez Soriano, Francisco; Garcia-Granero, Eduardo

    2018-02-01

    The superior right colic vein (SRCV) has been proposed as the main cause of superior mesenteric vein bleeding by avulsion during laparoscopic right hemicolectomy. Our objective is to identify the main vessel causing transverse mesocolic tension during the extraction of the surgical specimen or extracorporeal anastomosis and to perform an anatomical description of the SRCV. In this cadaveric study, we performed a simulation of right hemicolectomy and anatomical description of the surgical area of the gastrocolic trunk of Henle (SAGCTH), the gastrocolic trunk of Henle (GCTH), and SRCV. The length of the exteriorization of the anastomotic transverse colon (ATC) was measured before and after sectioning the vascular vessel causing the exteriorization tension. Five fresh cadavers and 12 formalin were dissected. In 100% of the specimens, the SRCV was present and drained in 95% into the GCTH and in 5% directly into the superior mesenteric vein (SMV). In 100% of the specimens, the SRCV caused the tension when extracting the ATC. The mean length of exteriorization of the ATC before and after SRCV section was 7.2 and 10.4 cm in formalin cadavers, meaning a 44% of increment in the length of exteriorization. In fresh cadavers, the mean length of exteriorization increased to 2.7 cm, meaning a 28% of the initial length of exteriorization. The SRCV is the main cause of tension in the extraction of the surgical specimen after right hemicolectomy. Its high tie increases the length of the ATC exteriorization, in about 3 cm, and could reduce the risk of SMV bleeding during laparoscopic right hemicolectomy and facilitate an extracorporeal anastomosis free of tension.

  1. Reduced right posterior hippocampal volume in women with recurrent familial pure depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nifosì, Francesco; Toffanin, Tommaso; Follador, Halima; Zonta, Filippo; Padovan, Giordano; Pigato, Giorgio; Carollo, Carla; Ermani, Mario; Amistà, Pietro; Perini, Giulia Ida

    2010-10-30

    Volumetric changes in mood-relevant distributed limbic/paralimbic structures have been reported in the recent literature on the course of mood disorders. Patients with unipolar and bipolar disorders have been found to have smaller hippocampal and anterior cingulate volumes. We examined hippocampal, amygdalar and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) volumes in female patients with recurrent familial pure depressive disorder (rFPDD). We used semi-automated software for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure the volumes of the hippocampus, amygdala, ACC and subgenual prefrontal cortex (SGPFC) in 15 female patients with familial recurrent major depression (MD) and 15 healthy female subjects. Analysis of covariance, with whole brain volume as covariate, was used to compare volumetric measurements in the two groups. Volumes of the right hippocampal body and tail were significantly smaller in female patients with familial depressive disorder than in healthy subjects. Our data provide evidence of structural lateralized hippocampal body and tail abnormalities in women with familial history and recurrent episodes of depression. Although global reduction of hippocampal volume has been widely reported, data on lateralized regional reductions in familial recurrent depression had not been previously reported. Reduced volume of the right posterior hippocampus could be a structural endophenotype for recurrent depressive disorders in women. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A modified Glenn shunt reduces right ventricular stroke work during left ventricular assist device therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Petter; Vikholm, Per; Hellgren, Laila

    2016-03-01

    Right ventricular (RV) failure is a major cause of morbidity and mortality after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) placement and remains hard to predict. We hypothesized that partial surgical exclusion of the RV with a modified Glenn shunt during LVAD treatment would reduce RV stroke work. An LVAD was implanted in eight pigs and a modified Glenn shunt was constructed. A conductance pressure-volume catheter was placed in the right ventricle through the apex. Haemodynamic data and pressure-volume loops were obtained at the following time periods: (i) baseline, (ii) open shunt, (iii) LVAD with closed shunt and (iii) LVAD and open shunt. During LVAD therapy, the right atrial (RA) pressure increased from 9 mmHg (9-9) to 15 mmHg (12-15), P = 0.01. RV stroke volume increased from 30 ml (29-40) to 51 ml (42-53), P < 0.01. Also, RV stroke work increased to 708 mmHg ml (654-1193) from 535 mmHg ml (424-717), P = 0.04, compared with baseline. During LVAD therapy in combination with a Glenn shunt, the RA pressure decreased from 15 mmHg (12-15) to 10 mmHg (7-11) when compared with LVAD therapy only, P = 0.01. A decrease in RV stroke work from 708 mmHg ml (654-1193) to 465 mmHg ml (366-711), P = 0.04, was seen when the LVAD was combined with a shunt, not significantly different from the baseline value (535 mmHg ml). The developed pressure in the right ventricle decreased from 29 mmHg (26-32) to 21 mmHg (20-24), P < 0.01. The pressure-volume loops of the RV show a significant reduction of RV stroke work during the use of the shunt with LVAD treatment. A modified Glenn shunt reduced RV volumes, RV stroke work and RA pressure during LVAD therapy in an experimental model of heart failure in pigs. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  3. Politics in evaluation: Politically responsive evaluation in high stakes environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, Tarek; Levine, Bret

    2015-12-01

    The role of politics has often been discussed in evaluation theory and practice. The political influence of the situation can have major effects on the evaluation design, approach and methods. Politics also has the potential to influence the decisions made from the evaluation findings. The current study focuses on the influence of the political context on stakeholder decision making. Utilizing a simulation scenario, this study compares stakeholder decision making in high and low stakes evaluation contexts. Findings suggest that high stakes political environments are more likely than low stakes environments to lead to reduced reliance on technically appropriate measures and increased dependence on measures better reflect the broader political environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Fundamental Rights and the EU Internal Market: Just how Fundamental are the EU Treaty Freedoms?
    A Normative Enquiry Based on John Rawls’ Political Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik J. de Boer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article assesses whether the EU Treaty freedoms - the free movement of goods, persons, services and capital - should be considered as fundamental rights which are hierarchically equal to other fundamental rights. It uses the political philosophy of John Rawls to assess why we should attach priority to certain rights and which rights should therefore be considered fundamental rights. On this basis it is argued that we should recognise two main types of fundamental rights, namely basic rights and liberties associated with Rawls' first principle of justice and the rights associated with the principle of fair equality of opportunity. This is followed by an analysis of the interpretation that the European Court of Justice (CJEU gives to the Treaty freedoms. On the basis of the normative framework, it is argued that the Treaty freedoms can be seen as fundamental rights insofar as they embody the value of equality of opportunity. Nonetheless, the CJEU increasingly seems to rely on a broader market access approach rather than an equal treatment approach in interpreting the Treaty freedoms. It is argued that where equal treatment is not at stake, the Treaty freedoms should not be seen as fundamental rights. Therefore, in cases where there is a conflict between a fundamental right and a Treaty freedom the CJEU should carefully distinguish between these two different interpretations of the Treaty freedoms. In cases where it is merely market access that is at stake, the CJEU should regard the protection of fundamental rights as more important, and be very careful in allowing a restriction of fundamental rights in order to protect the exercise of the Treaty freedom. On the other hand, in cases where the Treaty freedoms can be seen as protecting equality of opportunity and where they conflict with other fundamental rights, the Court is justified in construing the conflict as a right-right conflict in which a fair balance has to be sought.

  5. Differential Effects of Right-Wing Authoritarianism and Social Dominance Orientation on Political Candidate Support: The Moderating Role of Message Framing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarret T. Crawford

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Employing a dual process motivational (DPM model perspective, we found that how political messages are framed influences the differential effects of right-wing authoritarianism (RWA and social dominance orientation (SDO on political candidate support in the United States. Study 1 (N = 85 found that RWA and SDO differentially predicted support for right-wing candidates who used cohesion and group status threats to frame same-sex marriage, respectively. Study 2 (N = 89 largely replicated those findings on immigration policy. In Study 3 (N = 128, the hypothesis that RWA and SDO negatively predicted support for left-wing candidates who framed same-sex marriage in terms of individual liberty and social equality, respectively, received partial support. Additional analyses indicated that the effects of RWA on candidate support in these studies were driven by specific theoretically-relevant dimensions of RWA. Together, these results indicate that candidates can enhance their appeal by strategically employing value-based political messages targeting different subsets of their constituency.

  6. Property, legal pluralism, and water rights: the critical analysis of water governance and the politics of recognizing “local” rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roth, D.; Boelens, R.A.; Zwarteveen, M.Z.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we assess the impact of Franz von Benda-Beckmann's work in the field of water rights. We argue that his contributions to understanding water, a field dominated by engineers and economists, cannot be overestimated. Over the years, Franz's nuanced and empathic anthropological attitude,

  7. Reducing chronic visuo-spatial neglect following right hemisphere stroke through instrument playing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeka eBodak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Unilateral visuo-spatial neglect is a neuropsychological syndrome commonly resulting from right hemisphere strokes at the temporo-parietal junction of the infero-posterior parietal cortex. Neglect is characterised by reduced awareness of stimuli presented on patients’ contralesional side of space and has previously been shown to be improved by a number of motivational influences, including listening to preferred music and numerical sequence completion. Here we examined whether playing musical sequences on chime bars – an instrument with a horizontal alignment – would bring about clinically significant improvement in chronic neglect.Two left neglect patients completed an intervention comprising four weekly 30-minute music sessions involving playing scales and familiar melodies on chime bars from right to left. Two cancellation tests (Mesulam shape, BIT star, the line bisection test, and the neglect subtest from the computerised TAP (Test for Attentional Performance battery were administered three times during a preliminary baseline phase, before and after each music session during the rehabilitation phase to investigate short-term effects, as well as one week after the last intervention session to investigate whether any effects would persist.Both patients demonstrated significant short-term and longer-lasting improvements on the Mesulam shape cancellation test. One patient also showed longer-lasting effects on the BIT star cancellation test and scored in the normal range one week after the intervention. These findings provide preliminary evidence that active music-making may help neglect patients attend more to their affected side.

  8. Right Sided Colon Cancer as a Distinct Histopathological Subtype with Reduced Prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsche, Ulrich; Stögbauer, Fabian; Späth, Christoph; Haller, Bernhard; Wilhelm, Dirk; Friess, Helmut; Bader, Franz G

    2016-01-01

    Recent data suggest that tumors of the right and left colon should be distinguished as they differ in clinical and molecular characteristics. A total of 1,319 patients who underwent surgical resection for colon cancer (CC) were investigated. Tumors between the ileocecal valve and the hepatic flexure were classified as right CC (RCC), tumors between the splenic flexure and the rectum as left CC (LCC). RCC revealed a higher cause-specific mortality risk (hazard ratio 1.36, 95% CI 1.10-1.68, p = 0.005) and lower 5-year cause-specific (RCC 64.9%, 95% CI 60.4-69.4, LCC 70.7%, 95% CI 67.2-74.2, p = 0.032) and disease-free (RCC 56.0%, 95% CI 51.5-60.5, LCC 59.9%, 95% CI 56.2-63.6, p = 0.025) survival rates. RCCs were more often microsatellite instable (RCC 37.2%, LCC 13.0%, p clinical, histopathological and molecular genetic features and can be considered as distinct entities. The reduced prognosis of RCC may be caused by higher rates of microsatellite instability, KRAS and BRAF mutations. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Assessing the political feasibility of global options to reduce biodiversity loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dellas, E.; Pattberg, P.H.

    2013-01-01

    This article systematically assesses the likelihood of effective implementation of several key options to reduce global biodiversity loss, including conventional biodiversity policies, such as expanding protected areas, and policies primarily developed for other purposes but with potential positive

  10. The impact of conservative discourses in family policies, population politics, and gender rights in Poland and Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkut, Umut; Eslen-Ziya, Hande

    2011-01-01

    This article uses childcare as a case study to test the impact of ideas that embody a traditional understanding of gender relations in relation to childcare. Conservative ideas regard increasing female labor market participation as a cause of decreasing fertility on the functioning of a set of general policies to increase fertility rates. It looks into the Polish and Turkish contexts for empirical evidence. The Polish context shows a highly institutionalized system of family policies in contrast to almost unessential institutions in Turkey. Formally, the labor market participation of women is much lower in Turkey than in Poland. Yet, given the size of the informal market in Turkey, women's labor participation is obviously higher than what appears in the statistics. Bearing in mind this divergence, the article suggests Poland and Turkey as two typologies for studying population politics in contexts where socially conservative ideas regarding gender remain paramount. We qualify ideas as conservative if they enforce a traditional understanding of gender relations in care-giving and underline women's role in the labor market as an element of declining fertility. In order to delineate ideational impact, this article looks into how ideas (a) supplant and (b) substitute formal institutions. Therefore, we argue that there are two mechanisms pertaining to the dominance of conservative conventions: conservative ideas may either supplant the institutional impact on family policies, or substitute them thanks to a superior reasoning which societies assign to them. Furthermore, conservative conventions prevail alongside women's customary unpaid work as care-givers regardless of the level of their formal workforce participation. We propose as our major findings for the literature of population politics that ideas, as ubiquitous belief systems, are more powerful than institutions since they provide what is perceived as legitimate, acceptable, and good for the societies under study

  11. Writings, politics and human rights of the children of the Argentinian desaparecidos: new identities in Los topos and Las chanchas by Félix Bruzzone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Cattarulla

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available After tracing the main points shaping the debate on human rights, history, memory, testimony and politics which took place in Argentina starting from the end of the last military dictatorship (1976-1983, this article will deal with the writings of the children of the desaparecidos, focussing in particular on Félix Bruzzone’s novels Los topos (2008 and Las chanchas (2014. I will propose a reading of these texts which highlights the tension between a fate seemingly decided by the actual collective memory and the capacity to modify it, thus taking distance from the canonical literature of testimony and pointing towards new kinds of identities.

  12. Social participation within a context of political violence: implications for the promotion and exercise of the right to health in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Walter; Ruano, Ana Lorena; Funchal, Denise Phe

    2009-01-01

    Social participation has been understood in many different ways, and there are even typologies classifying participation by the degree of a population's control in decision making. Participation can vary from a symbolic act, which does not involve decision making, to processes in which it constitutes the principal tool for redistributing power within a population. This article argues that analyzing social participation from a perspective of power relations requires knowledge of the historical, social, and economic processes that have characterized the social relations in a specific context. Applying such an analysis to Guatemala reveals asymmetrical power relations characterized by a long history of repression and political violence. The armed conflict during the second half of the 20th century had devastating consequences for a large portion of the population as well as the country's social leadership. The ongoing violence resulted in negative psychosocial effects among the population, including mistrust toward institutions and low levels of social and political participation. Although Guatemala made progress in creating spaces for social participation in public policy after signing the Peace Accords in 1996, the country still faces after-effects of the conflict. One important task for the organizations that work in the field of health and the right to health is to help regenerate the social fabric and to rebuild trust between the state and its citizens. Such regeneration involves helping the population gain the skills, knowledge, and information needed in order to participate in and affect formal political processes that are decided and promoted by various public entities, such as the legislative and executive branches, municipal governments, and political parties. This process also applies to other groups that build citizenship through participation, such as neighborhood organizations and school and health committees.

  13. Reduced Right Ventricular Function Predicts Long-Term Cardiac Re-Hospitalization after Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lella, Leela K; Sales, Virna L; Goldsmith, Yulia; Chan, Jacqueline; Iskandir, Marina; Gulkarov, Iosif; Tortolani, Anthony; Brener, Sorin J; Sacchi, Terrence J; Heitner, John F

    2015-01-01

    The significance of right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF), independent of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), following isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and valve procedures remains unknown. The aim of this study is to examine the significance of abnormal RVEF by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), independent of LVEF in predicting outcomes of patients undergoing isolated CABG and valve surgery. From 2007 to 2009, 109 consecutive patients (mean age, 66 years; 38% female) were referred for pre-operative CMR. Abnormal RVEF and LVEF were considered hospitalizations and early mortaility; long-term (> 30 days) outcomes included, cardiac re-hospitalization, worsening congestive heart failure and mortality. Mean clinical follow up was 14 months. Forty-eight patients had reduced RVEF (mean 25%) and 61 patients had normal RVEF (mean 50%) (plong-term cardiac re-hospitalization vs. patients with normal RVEF (31% vs.13%, plong-term cardiac re-hospitalization (HR 3.01 [CI 1.5-7.9], plong-term cardiac re-hospitalization. Abnormal RVEF is a stronger predictor for long-term cardiac re-hospitalization than abnormal LVEF in patients undergoing isolated CABG and valve procedures.

  14. Right to know: reducing risks of fecal pathogen exposure for ED patients and staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Molly Bridget

    2014-07-01

    of human waste to drainage areas, transfer of waste, pre-cleaning, and equipment disinfection. Therefore it is imperative that ED staff have a full understanding of hazardous materials involved, know safer bedside toileting practices, and have safer equipment available to protect all involved. Upgrading our knowledge, equipment, and practices must become a higher priority for ED leadership. The East Bank Emergency Department of the University of Minnesota Medical Center, Fairview, will be moving toward 100% disposable bedside commode pails in addition to disposable bedpans, currently in use. On the basis of a literature review to understand best-practice ED bedside toileting, the following article was created. As a result of our learning, the University of Minnesota Medical Center emergency staff has designed, patented, and developed a landfill-compliant disposable commode pail that absorbs waste while reducing splashes and spills. Disposable commode pails (bags) are conveniently wall mounted for quick availability, and "at-risk behavior" is reduced. Advantages are all point-of-care. Both setup and waste treatment and disposal start and end at the bedside. The advantages are faster response times, reduction of soiled linens and bed changes, prevention of incontinence and skin breakdown events, and reduced splash injuries or pathogen transmission. Patient satisfaction improves with shorter bedside toileting delays. Employee satisfaction increases with reduced human waste handling. The cost of each unit is comparable to an adult overnight diaper. Bariatric commode pails or bags are in the planning phase, and a "green" disposable commode pail, made from biodegradable corn byproducts, will be made available at a higher cost. Copyright © 2014 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A NATUREZA COMO FATO POLITICAMENTE DECISÓRIO: POLÊMICAS SOBRE OS DIREITOS HUMANOS THE NATURE AS POLITICALLY DECISIVE FACT: POLEMICS ON HUMAN RIGHTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sertório de Amorim e Silva Neto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the context of origin and some controversy about human rights. Its intent is to present the paradox of these rights, the fact that they nevertheless serve to modern political emancipation and the defence of equality and freedom, involving also the bourgeois selfishness and totalitarian political regimes of the century XX assuming both the metaphysical and sublime form as of thing, nature crude and corruptible, gross and corruptible nature. What we want to discuss in this article are the reflections of the political assimilation of an abstract concept such human nature.O artigo investiga o contexto de origem e algumas polêmicas acerca dos direitos humanos. Seu intento é apresentar o paradoxo destes direitos, o fato de que eles, não obstante sirvam à emancipação política moderna e à defesa da igualdade e da liberdade, impliquem ainda o egoísmo burguês e os regimes totalitários.Objeto da especulação dos filósofos e mais atualmente das ciências positivistas, o conceito de natureza é bastante ambíguo, assumindo tanto a forma metafísica e sublime, quanto a forma de coisa, natureza bruta e corruptível. O que se deseja discutir neste artigo são os reflexos pol��ticos da assimilação de um conceito tão abstrato e indeterminado como o de natureza humana.

  16. Identity Politics, Justice and the Schooling of Muslim Girls: Navigating the Tensions between Multiculturalism, Group Rights and Feminism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keddie, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the concerns expressed by three female Muslim educators who are support staff at an English comprehensive school. Consistent with the debates associated with multiculturalism, group rights and feminism, the article illuminates spaces of gender constraint and possibility within the discourses shaping these women's lives and…

  17. Rights, politics and power: the struggle over the 2006 abortion reform and the women’s movement in Nicaragua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Kruk (Katherine)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe domestic and international response to the 2006 abortion law reform in Nicaragua has gone largely unnoticed. This paper considers the 2006 Nicaraguan abortion law reform by looking at the situation in the country, with special attention to women’s rights, in particular,

  18. Human Rights between Political Identity and Historical Category. Czechoslovakia and East Central Europe in a Global Context

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopeček, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 1 (2016), s. 5-18 ISSN 2336-3142 Institutional support: RVO:68378114 Keywords : human rights * history * socialism Subject RIV: AB - History OBOR OECD: History (history of science and technology to be 6.3, history of specific sciences to be under the respective headings) http://www.usd.cas.cz/casopis/czech-journal-of-contemporary-history-4-2016/

  19. Balancing Rites and Rights: The Social and Cultural Politics of New-Style Weddings in Republican Shanghai, 1898-1953

    OpenAIRE

    Cowden, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    During the Republican Era both ceremonial rites and legal rights were redefined simultaneously, but not necessarily in concert. This work traces the evolution and implications of the "new-style" wedding ceremony, which at its most basic was defined by the choice of one's own spouse and the elimination of a dowry. Focusing on Shanghai, I examine the tension, negotiation and collaboration between Republican policies, market forces, and the practices of urban residents to illustrate the relative...

  20. The Reflexes of the Economic Crisis on the Right to Education and the Public Politics of Superior Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordana Viana Payão

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the challenges in the implementation and maintenance of public policies developed in the education sector towards the country's crisis scenario. The comparison between the constitutional order and state action is necessary along the theme of the exhibition. Among the fundamental rights the education figure as the protagonist, so it is important to develop initiatives that increases the many levels of education. The analysis of the impacts of the crisis on Student Financing Fund –FIES is the particularity of the theme developed. The methods used in the approach of the thematic were dialectical - legal and historical, together with literature.

  1. Estricted Access to The Internet and the Offense to the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights : An Analysis From Consideration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Navarro Vince

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The UN considers Internet access a human right and understand that restrict in any way the population's connection to the World Wide Web hurts freedom of expression and information. Some countries, however, edited laws that limit the use of the virtual space on the grounds of public policy issues , such as national security and the individual's own protection. In this feeling , it will be sought through the deductive method of scientific research, assess whether the foreign legislation is not legitimate , that is, it is compatible with the precepts of international treaties

  2. EU and US External Policies on Human Rights and Democracy Promotion: Assessing Political Conditionality in Transatlantic Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Pérez de las Heras

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This contribution aims at advancing existing research about the role that the Transatlantic Partnership may play within the specific field of human rights and democracy promotion in the current changing global order. It examines recent changes to the foreign policies of the European Union and the United States on this area and assesses the impact of these changes on the transatlantic partnership over the last five years. The paper argues that these modifications entail a greater convergence between the policies of the two regions, though some ideological divergences, lack of coordination and differences in implementation are still observable. However, the increasing mutual realignment could foster a truly transatlantic partnership in the field if both partners attain to define a joint strategy and establish common institutions to ensure permanent dialogue and policy coherence. At the same time, this enhanced co-operation could enable them to remain the principal supporters of human rights and democracy in the current multi-polar order.

  3. Novel Therapeutic Strategies for Reducing Right Heart Failure Associated Mortality in Fibrotic Lung Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Matthew; Oyenuga, Olusegun

    2015-01-01

    Fibrotic lung diseases carry a significant mortality burden worldwide. A large proportion of these deaths are due to right heart failure and pulmonary hypertension. Underlying contributory factors which appear to play a role in the mechanism of progression of right heart dysfunction include chronic hypoxia, defective calcium handling, hyperaldosteronism, pulmonary vascular alterations, cyclic strain of pressure and volume changes, elevation of circulating TGF-β, and elevated systemic NO levels. Specific therapies targeting pulmonary hypertension include calcium channel blockers, endothelin (ET-1) receptor antagonists, prostacyclin analogs, phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors, and rho-kinase (ROCK) inhibitors. Newer antifibrotic and anti-inflammatory agents may exert beneficial effects on heart failure in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Furthermore, right ventricle-targeted therapies, aimed at mitigating the effects of functional right ventricular failure, include β-adrenoceptor (β-AR) blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, antioxidants, modulators of metabolism, and 5-hydroxytryptamine-2B (5-HT2B) receptor antagonists. Newer nonpharmacologic modalities for right ventricular support are increasingly being implemented. Early, effective, and individualized therapy may prevent overt right heart failure in fibrotic lung disease leading to improved outcomes and quality of life. PMID:26583148

  4. Depression and Political Participation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I propose that depression is a political phenomenon insofar as it has political sources and consequences. I then investigate one aspect of this argument—whether depression reduces participation. I hypothesize that individuals with depression lack the motivation and physical capacity to vote and engage in other forms of political participation due to somatic problems and feelings of hopelessness and apathy. Moreover, I examine how depression in adolescence can have downstream consequences for participation in young adulthood. The analyses, using both cross-sectional and longitudinal data, show that voter turnout and other forms of participation decrease as the severity of depressed mood increases. These findings are discussed in light of disability rights and potential efforts to boost participation among this group. PMID:26924857

  5. Researching about us without us: exploring research participation and the politics of disability rights in the context of the Mental Capacity Act 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomes, Gillian

    2018-03-03

    The right to active participation by disabled people in academic research has been discussed at length in recent years, along with the potential for such research to function as a tool in challenging oppression and pursuing disability rights. Significant ethical, legal and methodological dilemmas arise, however, in circumstances where a disabled person loses the capacity to provide informed consent to such participation. In this article, I consider disability politics and academic research in the context of the Mental Capacity Act (MCA) 2005, which sets out in Anglo-Welsh law the circumstances and requirements for research participation by individuals lacking the capacity to provide informed consent. Drawing on my own perspective on research participation in relation to physical and psychosocial disability, I consider the implications of my potential future loss of capacity (eg, if I were to be in a vegetative or minimally conscious state following an accident) for my right to participate in disability-related research. I examine the barriers to such participation and suggest that partial solutions may be found in the advance decision-making and advance care-planning frameworks of the MCA 2005 and related policy, but that current legislative and policy frameworks nevertheless still curtail my rights with regard to research participation on loss of capacity to consent. In so doing, I seek to provoke debate concerning what this legislative provision means for the disability rights movement, and the possibilities and challenges it presents to the movement's commitment to 'nothing about us without us'. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Reduced right frontal fractional anisotropy correlated with early elevated plasma LDL levels in obese young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baohui Lou

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the underlying physiological mechanisms of the structural differences in gray matter (GM and white matter (WM associated with obesity in young Chinese adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 49 right-handed obese or overweight (n = 22, mean age 31.72±8.04 years and normal weight (n = 27, mean age 29.04±7.32 years Han Chinese individuals were recruited. All participants underwent voxel-based morphometry analysis of T1-weighted MRI and tract-based spatial statistics analysis of diffusion tensor imaging. Partial correlation analysis was performed between the physiological data obtained and the abnormal structural alterations. RESULTS: In the OO group, GM atrophy occurred in the left prefrontal cortex, bilateral cingulate gyrus, and the right temporal lobe, while enlargement was observed in the bilateral putamen. WM atrophy was observed predominantly in the regions that regulate food intake, such as the bilateral basal ganglia, the right amygdala, and the left insula. The OO group exhibited lower fractional anisotropy (FA in bilateral frontal corticospinal tracts and the right brainstem. Significant negative correlations were observed between FA values of those three clusters and BMI, and waist circumference, while the volume of bilateral putamen positively correlated with both BMI and waist circumference. High plasma LDL levels were correlated with low FA values in the right frontal corticospinal tract. Interestingly, the negative correlation was limited to male participants. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity-related alterations of GM and WM volumes were observed predominantly in food reward circuit, which may motivate abnormal dietary intake. Further, early elevated plasma LDL might contribute to low right frontal FA values of male adults, which requires further demonstration by larger-scale and longitudinal studies.

  7. “A Thorough Study of the Spanish Influenza”: How Japanese Party Politics and Ministerial Conflicts Reduced the Pandemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhee Kang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available When the Spanish Influenza hit Japan from 1918 to 1920, it revealed deep cleavages within the governmental ministries as well as in the scientific community. It posed an incomprehensible problem while causing massive demographic damage that the existing system of emergency protocols could contain. To redress the situation, in 1920, Matsushita Teiji, a former physician and a non-partisan member at the 43rd House of Representatives, proposed to establish a research institute dedicated to the study of the flu. The proposal resulted in the formation of a special committee with most of its discussants prominent members of the scientific community. Yet, over the five meetings the committee held, the committee reduced its mission from building an institute to conducting “a thorough study.” The catastrophe, comparable to a natural disaster worsened by the lack of a preventive system, was rendered into a social problem that merely required a “study” to find solutions. By reconstructing the skirmishes at the committee meetings and the relationships among the discussants, this paper shows how the reduction took place within the context of 1920s’ party politics and the bureaucratic system managing medical science. Contrary to the façade of structural stability that some historians and itself promoted, the Japanese state in the story of the Spanish Influenza exhibits a wobbly amalgam of fragmentary party interests and incoherent ministerial authorities.

  8. Reduced asymmetry in motor skill learning in left-handed compared to right-handed individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Robert L; Kantak, Shailesh S

    2016-02-01

    Hemispheric specialization for motor control influences how individuals perform and adapt to goal-directed movements. In contrast to adaptation, motor skill learning involves a process wherein one learns to synthesize novel movement capabilities in absence of perturbation such that they are performed with greater accuracy, consistency and efficiency. Here, we investigated manual asymmetry in acquisition and retention of a complex motor skill that requires speed and accuracy for optimal performance in right-handed and left-handed individuals. We further determined if degree of handedness influences motor skill learning. Ten right-handed (RH) and 10 left-handed (LH) adults practiced two distinct motor skills with their dominant or nondominant arms during separate sessions two-four weeks apart. Learning was quantified by changes in the speed-accuracy tradeoff function measured at baseline and one-day retention. Manual asymmetry was evident in the RH group but not the LH group. RH group demonstrated significantly greater skill improvement for their dominant-right hand than their nondominant-left hand. In contrast, for the LH group, both dominant and nondominant hands demonstrated comparable learning. Less strongly-LH individuals (lower EHI scores) exhibited more learning of their dominant hand. These results suggest that while hemispheric specialization influences motor skill learning, these effects may be influenced by handedness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Reducing Teacher Burnout by Increasing Student Engagement: A Children's Rights Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covell, Katherine; McNeil, Justin K.; Howe, R. Brian

    2009-01-01

    Teacher burnout has long been understood to have significant negative effects on teaching efficacy. Research has indicated that student misbehaviour, often a result of disengagement, is a major predictor of teacher burnout. In part to address student disengagement, Hampshire County in England has undertaken a whole-school rights-based reform…

  10. TMS over the right precuneus reduces the bilateral field advantage in visual short term memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Antje; Dyrholm, Mads; Kehrer, Stefanie; Kaufmann, Christian; Bruening, Jovita; Kathmann, Norbert; Bundesen, Claus; Irlbacher, Kerstin; Brandt, Stephan A

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated a bilateral field advantage (BFA) in early visual attentional processing, that is, enhanced visual processing when stimuli are spread across both visual hemifields. The results are reminiscent of a hemispheric resource model of parallel visual attentional processing, suggesting more attentional resources on an early level of visual processing for bilateral displays [e.g. Sereno AB, Kosslyn SM. Discrimination within and between hemifields: a new constraint on theories of attention. Neuropsychologia 1991;29(7):659-75.]. Several studies have shown that the BFA extends beyond early stages of visual attentional processing, demonstrating that visual short term memory (VSTM) capacity is higher when stimuli are distributed bilaterally rather than unilaterally. Here we examine whether hemisphere-specific resources are also evident on later stages of visual attentional processing. Based on the Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) [Bundesen C. A theory of visual attention. Psychol Rev 1990;97(4):523-47.] we used a whole report paradigm that allows investigating visual attention capacity variability in unilateral and bilateral displays during navigated repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the precuneus region. A robust BFA in VSTM storage capacity was apparent after rTMS over the left precuneus and in the control condition without rTMS. In contrast, the BFA diminished with rTMS over the right precuneus. This finding indicates that the right precuneus plays a causal role in VSTM capacity, particularly in bilateral visual displays. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of Political Knowledge on Political Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, John Powell

    2018-01-01

    Sexual orientation continues to be an explosive issue in American classrooms. Increasing the political knowledge of students can reduce the volatility of this explosive issue by increasing tolerance toward the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender community. This relationship between political knowledge and political tolerance has been…

  12. Generalization of the Right Acute Stroke Prevention Strategies in Reducing in-Hospital Delays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Huang

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to reduce the door-to-needle (DTN time of intravenous thrombolysis (IVT in acute ischemic stroke (AIS through a comprehensive, hospital-based implementation strategy. The intervention involved a systemic literature review, identifying barriers to rapid IVT treatment at our hospital, setting target DTN time intervals, and building an evolving model for IVT candidate selection. The rate of non-in-hospital delay (DTN time ≤ 60 min was set as the primary endpoint. A total of 348 IVT cases were enrolled in the study (202 and 146 in the pre- and post-intervention group, respectively. The median age was 61 years in both groups; 25.2% and 26.7% of patients in the pre- and post-intervention groups, respectively, were female. The post-intervention group had higher rates of dyslipidemia and minor stroke [defined as National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS ≤ 3]; less frequent atrial fibrillation; higher numbers of current smokers, heavy drinkers, referrals, and multi-model head imaging cases; and lower NIHSS scores and blood sugar level (all P 0.05. These findings indicate that it is possible to achieve a DTN time ≤ 60 min for up to 60% of hospitals in the current Chinese system, and that this logistical change can yield a notable improvement in the outcome of IVT patients.

  13. Japan's 2014 General Election: Political Bots, Right-Wing Internet Activism, and Prime Minister Shinzō Abe's Hidden Nationalist Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Fabian; Evert, Stefan; Heinrich, Philipp

    2017-12-01

    In this article, we present results on the identification and behavioral analysis of social bots in a sample of 542,584 Tweets, collected before and after Japan's 2014 general election. Typical forms of bot activity include massive Retweeting and repeated posting of (nearly) the same message, sometimes used in combination. We focus on the second method and present (1) a case study on several patterns of bot activity, (2) methodological considerations on the automatic identification of such patterns and the prerequisite near-duplicate detection, and (3) we give qualitative insights into the purposes behind the usage of social/political bots. We argue that it was in the latency of the semi-public sphere of social media-and not in the visible or manifest public sphere (official campaign platform, mass media)-where Shinzō Abe's hidden nationalist agenda interlocked and overlapped with the one propagated by organizations such as Nippon Kaigi and Internet right-wingers (netto uyo) during the election campaign, the latter potentially forming an enormous online support army of Abe's agenda.

  14. Japan's 2014 General Election: Political Bots, Right-Wing Internet Activism, and Prime Minister Shinzō Abe's Hidden Nationalist Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Fabian; Evert, Stefan; Heinrich, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In this article, we present results on the identification and behavioral analysis of social bots in a sample of 542,584 Tweets, collected before and after Japan's 2014 general election. Typical forms of bot activity include massive Retweeting and repeated posting of (nearly) the same message, sometimes used in combination. We focus on the second method and present (1) a case study on several patterns of bot activity, (2) methodological considerations on the automatic identification of such patterns and the prerequisite near-duplicate detection, and (3) we give qualitative insights into the purposes behind the usage of social/political bots. We argue that it was in the latency of the semi-public sphere of social media—and not in the visible or manifest public sphere (official campaign platform, mass media)—where Shinzō Abe's hidden nationalist agenda interlocked and overlapped with the one propagated by organizations such as Nippon Kaigi and Internet right-wingers (netto uyo) during the election campaign, the latter potentially forming an enormous online support army of Abe's agenda. PMID:29182493

  15. Right arm injection of contrast medium reduces venous artifacts in head and neck multislice spiral computed tomography angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, H; Song, Y-L; Li, X-S; Bi, Y-M; Wang, P; Fan, H-X; Meng, L M; Hu, H-X

    2015-12-01

    We tested whether injection of contrast medium via right or left arm would affect venous artifacts on head and neck multislice spiral computed tomography (CT) angiography. 326 patients were enrolled. Each patient was injected with 10 ml of contrast medium at 5 ml/sec. Time of peak contrast value plus an additional 1 sec was defined as delay time. Another 40 ml of contrast medium were injected with the same injection speed. The scanning area ranged from the aortic arch to the top of the head. Left and right forearms were used for intravenous injections of contrast medium in, respectively, 151 and 175 patients. Comparative analyses of image quality included determining contrast medium residues remaining in the superior vena cava, brachiocephalic vein, or subclavian vein, and comparisons of quality of three-dimensional CT angiography. In 75% of head and neck angiographies, the delay time of the common carotid artery ranged from 16 to 22 sec. In 60% of the images, the quality was graded as excellent, with the left arm injection resulting in delay time of > 23 sec and the right arm delay time of > 18 sec. The CT imaging quality after contrast injections via left or right arms was statistically significant (p arm injection was better than after left arm injection. Intravenous injection of contrast medium via right arm reduces artifacts from contrast medium residues and improves the image quality of head and neck CT angiography.

  16. Right tool,” wrong “job”: Manual vacuum aspiration, post-abortion care and transnational population politics in Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Siri

    2015-01-01

    The “rightness” of a technology for completing a particular task is negotiated by medical professionals, patients, state institutions, manufacturing companies, and non-governmental organizations. This paper shows how certain technologies may challenge the meaning of the “job” they are designed to accomplish. Manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) is a syringe device for uterine evacuation that can be used to treat complications of incomplete abortion, known as post-abortion care (PAC), or to terminate pregnancy. I explore how negotiations over the rightness of MVA as well as PAC unfold at the intersection of national and global reproductive politics during the daily treatment of abortion complications at three hospitals in Senegal, where PAC is permitted but induced abortion is legally prohibited. Although state health authorities have championed MVA as the “preferred” PAC technology, the primary donor for PAC, the United States Agency for International Development, does not support the purchase of abortifacient technologies. I conducted an ethnography of Senegal's PAC program between 2010 and 2011. Data collection methods included interviews with 49 health professionals, observation of PAC treatment and review of abortion records at three hospitals, and a review of transnational literature on MVA and PAC. While MVA was the most frequently employed form of uterine evacuation in hospitals, concerns about off-label MVA practices contributed to the persistence of less effective methods such as dilation and curettage (D&C) and digital curettage. Anxieties about MVA's capacity to induce abortion have constrained its integration into routine obstetric care. This capacity also raises questions about what the “job,” PAC, represents in Senegalese hospitals. The prioritization of MVA's security over women's access to the preferred technology reinforces gendered inequalities in health care. PMID:25948127

  17. Exploring Women's Understanding of Politics, Political Contestation ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Exploring Women's Understanding of Politics, Political Contestation and Gender Transformation in the Caribbean. IDRC's Democratic Governance, Women's Rights and Gender Equality initiative is supporting a body of comparative research on whether and how democratic processes and institutions are responding to ...

  18. The Right to a Fair Trial in Times of Terrorism: A Method to Identify the Non-Derogable Aspects of Article 14 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyne Schmid

    2009-02-01

    rights which have to be provided to every accused, irrespective of his or her status in international law and irrespective of whether the situation amounts to an armed conflict or not. This essay proceeds from the assertion that human rights law applies in peacetime as well as in times of emergency, including in armed conflict. Because the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights prohibits any derogation measures inconsistent with the State’s other obligations under international law, the so-called principle of consistency lends itself as the tool to identify which aspects of Article 14 of the Covenant must be considered non-derogable. The article concludes that those aspects of fair trial which are common to the legal regimes dealing with both types of armed conflict – international and non-international – are also part of customary international law and provide the minimum yardstick from which no reduction is permissible.

  19. Politics without Politics

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, Jodi

    2009-01-01

    textabstractProf.dr. Jodi Dean, hoogleraar politieke filosofie aan Hobart and William Smith Colleges (Geneva, New York), sprak donderdag 19 februari 2009 haar inaugurele rede uit, getiteld "Politics without politics". Dean is dit jaar Erasmus Professor op de Erasmus Chair of Humanities in de Faculteit der Wijsbegeerte. De Erasmus Wisselleerstoel is ingesteld door de G. Ph. Verhagen Stichting. V In haar oratie gaat Dean in op het thema democratie in relatie tot linkse politiek. Enkele politiek...

  20. A righteous protector of the right people: Understanding moral rhetoric and its persuasive effects on garnering political support from a social intuitionism perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blikmans, Martijn; van Zomeren, Martijn

    2017-01-01

    In two experimental studies in the context of the debate on the privatization of the UK’s National Health Service, we examined the art and science of moral persuasion in politics. Specifically, this research examines the applicability of the social intuitionist perspective on morality for

  1. Gendering transnational party politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantola, Johanna; Rolandsen-Agustín, Lise

    2016-01-01

    research traditions, we build toward an analytical framework to study gender and transnational party politics. Our empirical analysis focuses on two policy issues, the economic crisis and the sexual and reproductive health and rights, analyzing European Parliament reports, debates and voting on the issues......In this article, we analyze transnational party politics in the European Union from a gender perspective. This is a subject that has been neglected both by mainstream European studies on party politics and by gender scholars who work on political parties. Drawing on the insights of these two...... right axis and, at the same time, internal divisions within party groups affect policy output....

  2. Righting wrongs and reforming rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Laurie C

    2014-03-01

    Discusses issues faced by LGBT people, such as a lack of equal civil rights and the need for extra legal and financial protection for families because partners cannot be married. The author notes that, in our society, it is no longer acceptable to be racist, but it is still okay to be homophobic. The many campaigns against gay marriage and efforts in the legislature to prevent change toward equal civil rights and protections are prime examples. In our current political climate, two things are very clear: (a) homophobia is freely tolerated and (b) the times are changing as we inch closer to equal rights every day. We are "righting wrongs and reforming rights."

  3. The Impact of a Rights-Based Counselling Intervention to Reduce Stigma in People Affected by Leprosy in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusli, Mimi; Peters, Ruth; van Brakel, Wim; Zweekhorst, Marjolein; Iancu, Sorana; Bunders, Joske; Irwanto; Regeer, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Background This paper assesses the impact of a counselling intervention on reducing leprosy-related stigma in Cirebon District, Indonesia. The unique features of this intervention are its rights-based approach, the underlying Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) model, the three types of counselling and the lay and peer counsellors who were involved. Methodology/principal findings Mixed methods (e.g. three scales, interviews, focus group discussions and reflection notes) were used to assess the impact of the intervention, which ran over a two-year period. There was a control area with no interventions. The study participants were people affected by leprosy and other key persons (e.g. family members). The sample size differs per method, for example, data regarding 67 counselling clients and 57 controls from a cohort, and notes from 207 counselling clients were examined. The notes showed that most clients faced stigma on a daily basis, whether internalized, anticipated and/or enacted. A significant reduction was found between the before and after total scores of the SARI Stigma Scale (p-value stigma, promoting the rights of people with leprosy and facilitating their social participation. More research is needed on how to create a more sustainable intervention, preferably structurally embedded in the health or social services. PMID:27959932

  4. Mandatory desexing of dogs: one step in the right direction to reduce the risk of dog bite? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Onise, Katina; Hazel, Susan; Caraguel, Charles

    2017-06-01

    Preventing dog bites is an intractable problem given the complex dog bite injury environment. Desexing of dogs has the opportunity of creating a safer injury environment, given the potential links between desexing and behaviour change in dogs. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to examine the evidence for desexing of dogs to reduce dog bite risk within a population health paradigm. Medline and CAB Abstracts were searched for studies that reported data on the association of dog neuter status with the risk of dog bite. All definitions of dog bite were included and all empirical studies were included in the review, limited to those published in English. Quality appraisal and data extraction were based on the 2013 evidence-based practice and critical appraisal tool from the University of Auckland. Five out of six observational studies, from four study populations found evidence that intact dogs were associated with an increased risk of dog bite compared with desexed dogs. The effect sizes ranged across the studies and given the heterogeneity of the studies no single effect size on the association between desexing and dog bite risk could be estimated. There is consistent evidence that desexing dogs is associated with a reduced risk of dog bite, although the studies reflect association and may not be causal. Although recent publications have suggested desexing is associated with health and behavioural costs in some breeds, population level evidence supports desexed dogs having a longer lifespan, and being less likely to wander with the added benefit of reducing unwanted litters. Thus, mandatory desexing presents a possible opportunity for prevention of dog bites expanding dog bite prevention beyond an education-only approach. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Political party affiliation, political ideology and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabayo, Roman; Kawachi, Ichiro; Muennig, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Ecological and cross-sectional studies have indicated that conservative political ideology is associated with better health. Longitudinal analyses of mortality are needed because subjective assessments of ideology may confound subjective assessments of health, particularly in cross-sectional analyses. Data were derived from the 2008 General Social Survey-National Death Index data set. Cox proportional analysis models were used to determine whether political party affiliation or political ideology was associated with time to death. Also, we attempted to identify whether self-reported happiness and self-rated health acted as mediators between political beliefs and time to death. In this analysis of 32,830 participants and a total follow-up time of 498,845 person-years, we find that political party affiliation and political ideology are associated with mortality. However, with the exception of independents (adjusted HR (AHR)=0.93, 95% CI 0.90 to 0.97), political party differences are explained by the participants' underlying sociodemographic characteristics. With respect to ideology, conservatives (AHR=1.06, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.12) and moderates (AHR=1.06, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.11) are at greater risk for mortality during follow-up than liberals. Political party affiliation and political ideology appear to be different predictors of mortality. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Stories and maps, images and archives: multimethod approach to the political ecology of native property rights and natural resource management in Sabah, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, Amity A

    2010-01-01

    The study of human-environmental relations is complex and by nature draws on theories and practices from multiple disciplines. There is no single research strategy or universal set of methods to which researchers must adhere. Particularly for scholars interested in a political ecology approach to understanding human-environmental relationships, very little has been written examining the details of "how to" design a project, develop appropriate methods, produce data, and, finally, integrate multiple forms of data into an analysis. A great deal of attention has been paid, appropriately, to the theoretical foundations of political ecology, and numerous scholarly articles and books have been published recently. But beyond Andrew Vayda's "progressive contextualization" and Piers Blaikie and Harold Brookfield's "chains of explanation," remarkably little is written that provides a research model to follow, modify, and expand. Perhaps one of the reasons for this gap in scholarship is that, as expected in interdisciplinary research, researchers use a variety of methods that are suitable (and perhaps unique) to the questions they are asking. To start a conversation on the methods available for researchers interested in adopting a political ecology perspective to human-environmental interactions, I use my own research project as a case study. This research is by no means flawless or inclusive of all possible methods, but by using the details of this particular research process as a case study I hope to provide insights into field research that will be valuable for future scholarship.

  7. Stories and Maps, Images and Archives: Multimethod Approach to the Political Ecology of Native Property Rights and Natural Resource Management in Sabah, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, Amity A.

    2010-01-01

    The study of human-environmental relations is complex and by nature draws on theories and practices from multiple disciplines. There is no single research strategy or universal set of methods to which researchers must adhere. Particularly for scholars interested in a political ecology approach to understanding human-environmental relationships, very little has been written examining the details of “how to” design a project, develop appropriate methods, produce data, and, finally, integrate multiple forms of data into an analysis. A great deal of attention has been paid, appropriately, to the theoretical foundations of political ecology, and numerous scholarly articles and books have been published recently. But beyond Andrew Vayda’s “progressive contextualization” and Piers Blaikie and Harold Brookfield’s “chains of explanation,” remarkably little is written that provides a research model to follow, modify, and expand. Perhaps one of the reasons for this gap in scholarship is that, as expected in interdisciplinary research, researchers use a variety of methods that are suitable (and perhaps unique) to the questions they are asking. To start a conversation on the methods available for researchers interested in adopting a political ecology perspective to human-environmental interactions, I use my own research project as a case study. This research is by no means flawless or inclusive of all possible methods, but by using the details of this particular research process as a case study I hope to provide insights into field research that will be valuable for future scholarship.

  8. The Politics of Universalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Karen-Margrethe

    2013-01-01

    ’ of globalization. Historically speaking, human rights are closely connected with globalization, but at the same time, they raise a question about the foundation of globalization: is there a universal community or only economic and political power-relations? The article argues that the political use of human rights...... discourses is split down the middle: it serves both as a critique of power and as an extension of power, and the disclosure of this split helps us understand the inner politics of human rights. The article discusses the trial in Valladolid in 1550 when the rights of the barbarian Indians of America were put......This article investigates the political function of human rights in the 16th Century in Spain just after the conquest of America. It claims that the study of this period of early globalization is relevant for the understanding of the function of human rights discourses to day, at the ‘end...

  9. Reduced Right Ventricular Native Myocardial T1 in Anderson-Fabry Disease: Comparison to Pulmonary Hypertension and Healthy Controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph J Pagano

    Full Text Available Anderson-Fabry disease (AFD is characterized by progressive multiorgan accumulation of intracellular sphingolipids due to α-galactosidase A enzyme deficiency, resulting in progressive ventricular hypertrophy, heart failure, arrhythmias, and death. Decreased native (non-contrast left ventricular (LV T1 (longitudinal relaxation time with MRI discriminates AFD from healthy controls or other presentations of concentric hypertrophy, but the right ventricle (RV has not been studied. The aims of the current study were to evaluate native RV T1 values in AFD, with a goal of better understanding the pathophysiology of RV involvement.Native T1 values were measured in the inferior RV wall (RVI, interventricular septum (IVS, and inferior LV (LVI in patients with AFD, patients with pulmonary hypertension, who provided an alternative RV pathological process for comparison, and healthy controls. A minimum wall thickness of 4 mm was selected to minimize partial volume errors in tissue T1 analysis. T1 analysis was performed in 6 subjects with AFD, 6 subjects with PH, and 21 controls. Native T1 values were shorter (adjusted p<0.05 for all comparisons, independent of location, in subjects with AFD (RVI-T1 = 1096±49 ms, IVS-T1 = 1053±41 ms, LVI-T1 = 1072±44 ms compared to both PH (RVI-T1 = 1239±41 ms, IVS-T1 = 1280±123 ms, LVI-T1 = 1274±57 ms and HC (IVS-T1 = 1180±60 ms, LVI-T1 = 1183±45 ms. RVI measurements were not possible in controls due to insufficient wall thickness.Native T1 values appear similarly reduced in the left and right ventricles of individuals with AFD and RV wall thickening, suggesting a common pathology. In contrast, individuals with PH and thickened RVs showed increased native T1 values in both ventricles, suggestive of fibrosis.

  10. Right atrial volume by cardiovascular magnetic resonance predicts mortality in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Alexander; Mohamed, Ambreen; Asfour, Ahmed; Ho, Jean; Khan, Saadat A.; Chen, Onn; Klem, Igor; Ramasubbu, Kumudha; Brener, Sorin J.; Heitner, John F.

    2017-01-01

    Background Right Atrial Volume Index (RAVI) measured by echocardiography is an independent predictor of morbidity in patients with heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). The aim of this study is to evaluate the predictive value of RAVI assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) for all-cause mortality in patients with HFrEF and to assess its additive contribution to the validated Meta-Analysis Global Group in Chronic heart failure (MAGGIC) score. Methods and results We identified 243 patients (mean age 60 ± 15; 33% women) with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤ 35% measured by CMR. Right atrial volume was calculated based on area in two- and four -chamber views using validated equation, followed by indexing to body surface area. MAGGIC score was calculated using online calculator. During mean period of 2.4 years 33 patients (14%) died. The mean RAVI was 53 ± 26 ml/m2; significantly larger in patients with than without an event (78.7±29 ml/m2 vs. 48±22 ml/m2, pright ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) (C-statistic 0.8±0.08 vs 0.55±0.1, 0.62±0.11, 0.68±0.11, respectively, all p<0.02). The addition of RAVI to the MAGGIC score significantly improves risk stratification (integrated discrimination improvement 13%, and category-free net reclassification improvement 73%, both p<0.001). Conclusion RAVI by CMR is an independent predictor of mortality in patients with HFrEF. The addition of RAVI to MAGGIC score improves mortality risk stratification. PMID:28369148

  11. Between Civil Rights and Property Rights: Debating the Selective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    What is framed as political contestation today is a culmination of abuses of human rights, including political, civil, social and economic rights. Using a historical analysis, this article points out that there has been selective amnesia in Zimbabwe's human rights discourse, and argues for the equal treatment of civil and political ...

  12. Apnea-hypopnea and desaturations in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction: Are we aiming at the right target?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellen, Barnabas; Canouï-Poitrine, Florence; Boyer, Laurent; Drouot, Xavier; Le Thuaut, Aurélie; Bodez, Diane; Covali-Noroc, Ala; D'ortho, Marie Pia; Guendouz, Soulef; Rappeneau, Stéphane; Kharoubi, Mounira; Dubois-Rande, Jean-Luc; Hittinger, Luc; Adnot, Serge; Bastuji-Garin, Sylvie; Damy, Thibaud

    2016-01-15

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is common in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). An increased apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) is associated with poor outcomes. We examined whether an analysis of nocturnal desaturations (NDs) can improve the risk stratification. Three-hundred seventy-six consecutive patients with stable chronic HFrEF and LVEF ≤ 45% were prospectively screened using polygraphy. Sleep apnea (SA) was defined as an AHI ≥ 15. The mean age was 59 ± 13 years, the mean LVEF was 30 ± 6%, and the median AHI was 18 [IQR: 9.33). The composite end-point of death, heart transplantation or LV assistance occurred in 98 patients (26%) within 3 years. Minimal oxygen saturation (MOS) during sleep, the number of desaturations 88% (15.6%; p<0.01). The risk assessment using an MOS of ≤ 88% in addition to established prognostic markers yielded a net reclassification index (NRI) of nearly 6% and was particularly useful in the subgroup of patients with events (NRI: 8.4%). In HFrEF patients, ND ≤ 88% appears to be predictive of adverse events, independent of the presence of SA. This suggests that the risk assessment in HFrEF should also include ND in top of AHI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Restricted reproductive rights and risky sexual behaviour: How political disenfranchisement relates to women's sense of control, well-being and sexual health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msetfi, Rachel; Jay, Sarah; O'Donnell, Aisling T; Kearns, Michelle; Kinsella, Elaine L; McMahon, Jennifer; Muldoon, Orla T; Naughton, Catherine; Creaven, Ann-Marie

    2018-02-01

    Few studies have investigated the role of disenfranchisement and denial of agency in women's sexual health. To address this, a cross-sectional study of disenfranchisement, control (general and reproductive control) and health was conducted in Ireland, where abortion is severely restricted. Multiple mediation models ( N = 513 women) indicated that general but not reproductive control mediates the association between disenfranchisement and psychological well-being. Additionally, serial mediation shows disenfranchisement is associated with lower sense of control, which is linked to poorer well-being and risky sexual behaviour. Disenfranchisement arising from socio-political contexts may have important implications for women's sexual health.

  14. India in search of right Universal Health Coverage (UHC) model: The risks of implementing UHC in the absence of political demand by the citizen

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Raman; Roy, Pritam

    2016-01-01

    Amid the global push for Universal Health Coverage (UHC), the agenda is being set for India′s health care. In the absence of a constitutional mandate, a national policy and citizen-led political demand for UHC, there exist specific risks in rushing toward its implementation in India. As the debate of UHC continues, the health-care delivery system in India is at cross roads. UHC in India could take two different trajectories. The first one takes India toward becoming "Global Bazaar" of morbidi...

  15. Piketty’s Capital. The Revival of Political Philosophy, Political Economy and Social Sciences in the Light of the Declaration of Human and Citizens’ Rights in the French Revolution of 1789

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øjvind Larsen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Piketty’s Capital in Twenty-First Century has posed a totally new platform for the discussion of the economy and capitalism. Piketty has reinvented the classical political economy founded by Adam Smith in his 1776 Wealth of Nations. Piketty has shown via massive historical research how growth and inequality have developed since 1793. Piketty’s conclusion is that the French Revolution did not change the existing inequality either in the medium or in the long term. Piketty’s prediction is that a new form of global capitalism will arise, patrimonial capitalism, in which inequality will develop further and the 1% of the World population will control 95% of all wealth in the World.

  16. Political Communication with Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.

    2013-01-01

    In this article I sketch the outlines of a theory of political human-animal conversations, based on ideas about language that I borrow from Ludwig Wittgenstein’s later work, in particular his notion of language-games. I present this theory as a supplement to the political theory of animal rights Sue

  17. Reforming Copyright in the Context of Exercise of the Human Right to Free Expression on the Internet: An Actual Problems of the Modern International Legal Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V. Shugurova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors discuss major trends in the area of reforming of copyright in the light of full exercise of internationally recognized human right to expression regarding the digital environment, especially the Internet, and demonstrate the significant situation when intellectual property rights, mainly author’s exclusive rights, build a lot of troubles for the information human rights. The article also looks at the changes in the understanding the relation between copyright and the human right to freedom of expression and information on the Internet. Much attention is paid to new moments in the modern doctrine of intellectual property that is inspired by process of digitization of author’s rights. There is conducted the approach to addressing copyright as one of the digital human rights resulted from property rights and right of creators to protection of their moral and economic interests. However, authors of the article departure from postulate that copyright is the human rights to a certain degree only. Moreover, this article examines the international legal approach to seeking the balance between the human right to freedom of expression, opinion and information, on the one hand, and copyright, especially as regards the Internet, on the other hand. There has been argued that key role in elaborating and adopting the principled standards in this sphere belongs to international law, including international law of human rights. In addition, the latter, as authors have ascertained, must correspond to international law of intellectual property rights, international information law, and international competition law. The study focus on various aspects of solving the problem of adapting copyright to the digital environment.

  18. Pterostilbene reduces oxidative stress, prevents hypertrophy and preserves systolic function of right ventricle in cor pulmonale model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos Lacerda, Denise; Türck, Patrick; Gazzi de Lima-Seolin, Bruna; Colombo, Rafael; Duarte Ortiz, Vanessa; Poletto Bonetto, Jéssica Hellen; Campos-Carraro, Cristina; Bianchi, Sara Elis; Belló-Klein, Adriane; Linck Bassani, Valquiria; Sander da Rosa Araujo, Alex

    2017-10-01

    In cor pulmonale, the increased afterload imposed on the right ventricle (RV) generates a maladaptive response, impairing the contractile cardiac function. Oxidative mechanisms play an important role in the pathophysiology and progression of this disease. The administration of pterostilbene (PTS), a phytophenol with antioxidant potential, may represent a therapeutic option. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of PTS complexed with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) on hypertrophy, contractile function and oxidative parameters in the RV of rats with pulmonary hypertension, induced by the administration of monocrotaline (MCT). The rats received daily doses of the PTS : HPβCD complex at 25, 50 or 100 mg·kg -1 , p.o., for 14 days. The diastolic function, E/A ratio, and systolic function, shortening fraction, fractional area change (FAC) and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) of the RV were determined by echocardiography. The PTS : HPβCD complex reduced the production of NADPH oxidase-dependent superoxide anions and oxidative stress in the RV of MCT-treated rats in a dose-dependent manner. At higher doses it prevented the reduction in FAC and TAPSE in MCT-treated animals. The PTS : HPβCD complex prevented the maladaptative remodelling and protected systolic function in the RV of rats with pulmonary hypertension. These cardioprotective mechanisms may be related, in part, to the antioxidant potential of PTS, favoured by the increased p.o. bioavailability promoted by the presence of HPβCD in the complex. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  19. “NIQUE LA FRANCE”. French rappers' artistic and/or political expressions and the limits of the right to freedom of expression

    OpenAIRE

    Schiffmann, Matthieu

    2013-01-01

    The right to freedom of expression is defined and protected by several national and international instruments. However, it does not exist any definition universally accepted, which implies that the limits of this right are not clear. Therefore, many States adopt different laws fixing limits to freedom of expression when the existence of hate speech is proved. In France, the debate on the right to freedom of expression and the potential negative consequences of it has been raised several ti...

  20. Politics and health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Vicente; Muntaner, Carles; Borrell, Carme; Benach, Joan; Quiroga, Agueda; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Vergés, Núria; Pasarín, M Isabel

    2006-09-16

    The aim of this study was to examine the complex interactions between political traditions, policies, and public health outcomes, and to find out whether different political traditions have been associated with systematic patterns in population health over time. We analysed a number of political, economic, social, and health variables over a 50-year period, in a set of wealthy countries belonging to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Our findings support the hypothesis that the political ideologies of governing parties affect some indicators of population health. Our analysis makes an empirical link between politics and policy, by showing that political parties with egalitarian ideologies tend to implement redistributive policies. An important finding of our research is that policies aimed at reducing social inequalities, such as welfare state and labour market policies, do seem to have a salutary effect on the selected health indicators, infant mortality and life expectancy at birth.

  1. Linked color imaging reduces the miss rate of neoplastic lesions in the right colon: a randomized tandem colonoscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paggi, Silvia; Mogavero, Giuseppe; Amato, Arnaldo; Rondonotti, Emanuele; Andrealli, Alida; Imperiali, Gianni; Lenoci, Nicoletta; Mandelli, Giovanna; Terreni, Natalia; Conforti, Francesco Simone; Conte, Dario; Spinzi, Giancarlo; Radaelli, Franco

    2018-04-01

     Linked color imaging (LCI) is a newly developed image-enhancing endoscopy technology that provides bright endoscopic images and increases color contrast. We investigated whether LCI improves the detection of neoplastic lesions in the right colon when compared with high definition white-light imaging (WLI).  Consecutive patients undergoing colonoscopy were randomized (1:1) after cecal intubation into right colon inspection at first pass by LCI or by WLI. At the hepatic flexure, the scope was reintroduced to the cecum under LCI and a second right colon inspection was performed under WLI in previously LCI-scoped patients (LCI-WLI group) and vice versa (WLI-LCI group). Lesions detected on first- and second-pass examinations were used to calculate detection and miss rates, respectively. The primary outcome was the right colon adenoma miss rate.  Of the 600 patients enrolled, 142 had at least one adenoma in the right colon, with similar right colon adenoma detection rates (r-ADR) in the two groups (22.7 % in LCI-WLI and 24.7 % in WLI-LCI). At per-polyp analysis, double inspection of the right colon in the LCI-WLI and WLI-LCI groups resulted in an 11.8 % and 30.6 % adenoma miss rate, respectively ( P  right colon. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Peace, Justice, and Human Rights : A Political Analysis of American Unilateralism at the United Nations in the Post-Cold War Era

    OpenAIRE

    Thoresen, Elen Sanness

    2002-01-01

    In the immediate aftermath of the Cold War the United States seemed to move toward a more multilateral foreign policy, yet throughout the 1990s the United States has repeatedly failed to support and promote important United Nations initiatives designed to promote peace, to ensure a more stable system of international justice and to protect human rights everywhere. My hope for this thesis has been to test the American rhetorical commitment to peace, justice and human rights as proclaimed by bo...

  3. Reproductive Rights are Human Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Jacqueline Pitanguy

    1999-01-01

    Jacqueline Pitanguy outlines the political context of the ICPD +5 process on the basis of her work in Brazil and internationally on reproductive rights. She argues that the women's movement has to continue to lobby hard to decrease the gap between what has been promised and the reality of most women's lives, particularly in the context of the cuts in state funding towards social and health services. Development (1999) 42, 11–14. doi:10.1057/palgrave.development.1110002

  4. India in search of right Universal Health Coverage (UHC) model: The risks of implementing UHC in the absence of political demand by the citizen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Raman; Roy, Pritam

    2016-01-01

    Amid the global push for Universal Health Coverage (UHC), the agenda is being set for India's health care. In the absence of a constitutional mandate, a national policy and citizen-led political demand for UHC, there exist specific risks in rushing toward its implementation in India. As the debate of UHC continues, the health-care delivery system in India is at cross roads. UHC in India could take two different trajectories. The first one takes India toward becoming "Global Bazaar" of morbidity and ill health, founded on the pillars of a vibrant rapidly multiplying healthcare industry. The other path takes India on a course of preventing wasteful, expensive health-care expenditure by maintaining healthy populations. A poor professional blood donor cannot become rich by selling his or her own blood beyond medically permissible levels; similarly, India cannot become a developed economy by merely allowing exploitation of disease, illness, and morbidity of her citizen. It is the duty of the state and governments to protect individual citizen, population under consideration, as well as country's economy from wasteful and potentially harmful expenditure incurred to address ill health. In the economic sense, any sensible UHC implementation mechanism would seek to regulate wasteful preventable health-care expenditure for the purpose of future economic stability and growth of the country. Due diligence toward safeguarding "public health in public interest," during the process of UHC implementation, is the need of the hour.

  5. India in search of right Universal Health Coverage (UHC model: The risks of implementing UHC in the absence of political demand by the citizen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amid the global push for Universal Health Coverage (UHC, the agenda is being set for India′s health care. In the absence of a constitutional mandate, a national policy and citizen-led political demand for UHC, there exist specific risks in rushing toward its implementation in India. As the debate of UHC continues, the health-care delivery system in India is at cross roads. UHC in India could take two different trajectories. The first one takes India toward becoming "Global Bazaar" of morbidity and ill health, founded on the pillars of a vibrant rapidly multiplying healthcare industry. The other path takes India on a course of preventing wasteful, expensive health-care expenditure by maintaining healthy populations. A poor professional blood donor cannot become rich by selling his or her own blood beyond medically permissible levels; similarly, India cannot become a developed economy by  merely allowing exploitation of disease, illness, and morbidity of her citizen. It is the duty of the state and governments to protect individual citizen, population under consideration, as well as country′s economy from wasteful and potentially harmful expenditure incurred to address ill health. In the economic sense, any sensible UHC implementation mechanism would seek to regulate wasteful preventable health-care expenditure for the purpose of future economic stability and growth of the country. Due diligence toward safeguarding "public health in public interest," during the process of UHC implementation, is the need of the hour.

  6. Political innovations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva

    2017-01-01

    are mainly interested in assessing and promoting innovations in public service delivery, but have paid little or no attention to the need for innovations in polity, politics and policy. This article develops a research agenda for studying innovations in political institutions, in the political process...... and in policy outputs. It proposes a number of research themes related to political innovations that call for scholarly attention, and identifies push and pull factors influencing the likelihood that these themes will be addressed in future research....

  7. Office Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Paula; Kelly, Robert; deVries, Susann

    2008-01-01

    People and organizations are inherently political. Library workplace environments have zones of tension and dynamics just like any corporation, often leading to the formation of political camps. These different cliques influence productivity and work-related issues and, at worst, give meetings the feel of the Camp David negotiations. Politics are…

  8. Moral politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapp, Carolin; Traunmüller, Richard; Freitag, Markus

    2014-01-01

    This article combines the research strands of moral politics and political behavior by focusing on the effect of individual and contextual religiosity on individual vote decisions in popular initiatives and public referenda concerning morally charged issues. We rely on a total of 13 surveys with 1...... American research on moral politics, direct democracies, and the public role of religion....

  9. Tackling inequalities in political socialisation: A systematic analysis of access to and mitigation effects of learning citizenship at school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Bryony; Janmaat, Jan Germen; Melis, Gabriella

    2017-11-01

    This article tackles the issue of social inequalities in voting and identifies how and when differences in learning political engagement are influenced by social background in the school environment between the ages of 11-16 in England. Using Latent Growth Curve Modelling and Regression Analysis on the Citizenship Education Longitudinal (CELS) data this research identifies two elements that influence the political socialisation process: access to political learning and effectiveness in the form of learning in reducing inequalities in political engagement. The results show that there is unequal access by social background to learning political engagement through political activities in school and through an open classroom climate for discussion. However, there is equal access by social background to Citizenship Education in schools and this method of learning political engagement is effective at the age of 15-16 in reducing inequalities in political engagement. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The politics of population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, M

    1986-03-01

    This article suggests some of the principal factors behind the decisions by an increasing number of countries deciding that the achievement of their national objectives required a policy for population, and the way that they are likely to work out. By 1983, 35 developing countries had an official policy to reduce their population growth rate, and in 34 others, the government supported family planning activities--usually for reasons of health or as a human right. The number is remarkable given the many compelling reasons that governments have for not attempting anything so difficult as to modify demographic trends. The future results of population programs, in social and economic terms, are very difficult to quantify, thus defying cost-benefit analysis of the desirability of investing resources in this area, rather than in something else. There are also powerful political reasons why a government might well hesitate before embarking on a policy to reduce the nation's fertility. At the very least, it implies government interference in the most private and personal of human relations, an invasion of human rights, and a disturbance of the traditional patterns of society and behavior. For many countries that are pursuing a policy to limit population growth, the decision has been taken only after the grievous consequences of not having such a policy have already become manifest. The critical question is how soon a government will make the connection among political disobedience, economic and social distress, and the population explosion, and adopt a population policy. Although the number of developing countries that have officially proclaimed a strongly pro-natalist population policy is relatively small, many have Marxist governments. Overall, governments have several strategies at their disposal: 1) improving the accessability and the quality of the service; 2) promoting population education and family planning motivation (with the assistance of the media, folk art, and

  11. Space, politics, and the political

    OpenAIRE

    dikec, mustafa

    1987-01-01

    International audience; Introduction Geography and politics'', Gottmann wrote in 1980, ``have long been in search of each other'' (page 11). Debates in the literature suggest not only that they have found each other, but also that the encounter has instigated, notably in the last decade or so, a body of literature seeking to think space politically, and to think politics spatially. This is not to suggest that previous work on space was apolitical, nor to suggest that previous work on politics...

  12. Human rights and citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojić-Mitrović Marta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of universal human rights, as described in the Universal declaration of human rights in 1948 doesn’t seem to be able to exert itself as truly universal. For this, there are two reasons: one is politico-legal in nature, and the other is conceptual. From a politico-legal point of view, human rights are a practice which is perceived as law, a precedent which is still taking place, the illusion of law, a custom practice by a few which aims to become the law of all, practice/”law” which came into being as the consequence of specific historical and political circumstances but strives to impose itself as a kind of universal logos, independent from the geopolitical relations of power. From the conceptual point of view, human rights as they have been determined, are inextricably bound up with the concept of citizenship, but the nation-state is not the universally optimal polis/social order, through which a universal human whose rights are to be protected can be defined. Human rights, as they are defined, are too culturally and historically specific in order to become universal. As an example, I will give the different treatment received by persons of different citizenship in situations in which their lives are in peril. It turns out that human rights are less (or not at all protected if the persons in need aren’t perceived as fullfledged members of the group, and hence, cannot fully participate in political life. That is to say, people who are perceived as non-citizens or whose citizenship is perceived as less valuable, and especially those whose existence has been reduced to survival are being politically dehumanized. Human rights remain reserved for so-called active citizens, those who have influence over matters of public importance, which points us to the conclusion that the practice of protecting human rights is completely politicized. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177027: Multietnicitet, multikulturalnost

  13. A Political Decision Disguised as Legal Argument? Opinion 2/13 and European Union Accession to the European Convention on Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Butler

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available David Thór Björgvinsson was a judge of the European Court of Human Rights between 2004 and 2013. During this period, he was involved in many important judgments, including 'Scoppola v Italy (No. 3',[1] Eweida and others v United Kingdom,[2] and 'Al-Jedda v the United Kingdom';a title="" href="#_ftn3">[3] amongst others, and went on to serve as Vice-President of the Fourth Section. He has degrees from the University of Iceland, Duke University School of Law, and the University of Strasbourg, and is currently a Professor of Law at the Centre of Excellence for International Courts (iCourts at the Faculty of Law, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. In this interview, carried out in June 2015 for the Utrecht Journal of International and European Law, David Thór Björgvinsson outlined his views to Graham Butler on Opinion 2/13 from the Court of Justice of the European Union on the Union’s accession to the European Convention on Human Rights,[4] the workings of the European Court of Human Rights, and what the future may have in store for this Court.[1] Scoppola v Italy (No. 3 (2013 56 EHRR 19.[2] Eweida and others v United Kingdom (2013 57 EHRR 8.[3] Al-Jedda v the United Kingdom (2011 53 EHRR 23.[4] Opinion 2/13 (2014 Accession of the European Union to the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, (not yet reported.

  14. A Political Decision Disguised as Legal Argument? Opinion 2/13 and European Union Accession to the European Convention on Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Butler

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available David Thór Björgvinsson was a judge of the European Court of Human Rights between 2004 and 2013. During this period, he was involved in many important judgments, including 'Scoppola v Italy (No. 3',[1] 'Eweida and others v United Kingdom',[2] and 'Al-Jedda v the United Kingdom',[3] amongst others, and went on to serve as Vice-President of the Fourth Section. He has degrees from the University of Iceland, Duke University School of Law, and the University of Strasbourg, and is currently a Professor of Law at the Centre of Excellence for International Courts (iCourts at the Faculty of Law, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. In this interview, carried out in June 2015 for the Utrecht Journal of International and European Law, David Thór Björgvinsson outlined his views to Graham Butler on Opinion 2/13 from the Court of Justice of the European Union on the Union’s accession to the European Convention on Human Rights,[4] the workings of the European Court of Human Rights, and what the future may have in store for this Court. [1] 'Scoppola v Italy (No. 3' (2013 56 EHRR 19. [2] 'Eweida and others v United Kingdom' (2013 57 EHRR 8. [3] 'Al-Jedda v the United Kingdom' (2011 53 EHRR 23. [4] Opinion 2/13 (2014 Accession of the European Union to the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, (not yet reported.

  15. Performing Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy R. E. Paddock

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Walter Benjamin’s observation that fascism turns politics into aesthetics is, by now, a well-worn idea. This article argues that Benjamin’s critique of politics can apply just as much to the modern democratic politics of the United States. Borrowing from Benjamin, Jürgen Habermas, and Carl Schmitt, this article suggests that modern political discourse in the United States does not follow the classical liberal ideal of rational discourse in the marketplace of ideas within the public sphere. Instead, contemporary politics has become spectacle where images and slogans replace thought and debate in a 24/7 news cycle and political infotainment programs. The result is that progressives and conservatives have their own political “ecospheres” which enable them to have their own perspective reinforced, and debate is replaced by straw man arguments and personal attacks.

  16. Teaching Politically without Political Correctness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Gerald

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how to bring political issues into the classroom, highlighting the influence of local context and noting conservative and liberal criticisms of political correctness. Suggests the need for a different idea of how to teach politically from the advocacy pedagogy advanced by recent critical educators, explaining that bringing students into…

  17. Poverty, Socio-Political Factors and Degradation of the Environment in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Need For a Holistic Approach to the Protection of the Environment and Realisation of the Right to Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emeka Polycarp Amechi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The right to environment is a recognised human right in Africa. However, despite the legal and institutional frameworks designed to respect, promote, protect and fulfil the right, its enjoyment is still a mirage to majority of African citizens as a result of environmental degradation. This article aims to proffer a holistic or integrated approach to tackling the problem of environmental degradation in sub-Saharan Africa in order to enhance the protection of the environment and the realisation of this right in the region. It recognises that the problem of environmental degradation in the region is not due to lack of regulatory frameworks, but rather due to other factors that are mainly socio-economic and political in nature. It argues that to enhance the protection of the environment and realisation of this right in sub-Saharan Africa, African governments must adopt a holistic approach towards the protection of the environment, and proposes the promotion of good governance and socio-economic reform in the region as an integral core of such approach.

  18. [Political psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.

  19. On being the right size: increased body size is associated with reduced telomere length under natural conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Ringsby, Thor Harald; Jensen, Henrik; Pärn, Henrik; Kvalnes, Thomas; Boner, Winnie; Gillespie, Robert; Holand, Håkon; Hagen, Ingerid Julie; Rønning, Bernt; Sæther, Bernt-Erik; Monaghan, Pat

    2015-01-01

    Evolution of body size is likely to involve trade-offs between body size, growth rate and longevity. Within species, larger body size is associated with faster growth and ageing, and reduced longevity, but the cellular processes driving these relationships are poorly understood. One mechanism that might play a key role in determining optimal body size is the relationship between body size and telomere dynamics. However, we know little about how telomere length is affected when selection for l...

  20. Los derechos (noreproductivos en Argentina: encrucijadas teóricas y políticas (Noreproductive rights in Argentina: theoretic and political struggle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefina Leonor Brown

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available El derecho al aborto será la expresión y, en muchos casos, la conquista de una de las demandas feministas centrales en los países del norte durante los años setenta. En los del sur, aquellos fueron los años del sueño de la revolución social y su pulverización bajo una brutal dictadura. Los ecos de aquellas demandas radicales recién pudieron ser escuchadas en Argentina, con el retorno democrático y, con el amparo de los consensos conseguidos en el marco de Naciones Unidas bajo el paraguas de "derechos reproductivos". ¿Por qué esa denominación? De dónde viene y cuáles fueron y son sus posibilidades pero también sus límites en orden a la consideración de las mujeres y otros/otras diferentes como ciudadanas plenas son las preguntas sobre las que pivotearemos.The right to the abortion will be the expression of one of the most important feminist figth in north countries during the seventies. In those of the south, those were years of the dream of social revolution and of her pulverization under a brutal dictatorship. The echoes of those demands of radical feminists will arrived in the Argentina with the democratic comeback and under protection of the consensuses reached in the frame of United Nations under the umbrella of reproductive rights. What we asked is: why this name, wherefrom does it come and which have been and are his possibilities and his limits in order to the consideration of the women and different others as full citizen?

  1. Political CSR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Søren; Morsing, Mette

    We engage a discussion of political CSR in SMEs in an African context. Based on critical observations on Western MNC CSR action in emerging economies that holds counterproductive implications for social development, political economists have argued that business profit far more than society...... development in local African communities. Our findings extend political CSR research by directing attention to how the corporate influence in developing economies does not only emerge from MNCs but is also established and retained by SMEs CSR work....

  2. Political Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Casey B. Mulligan; Kevin K. Tsui

    2006-01-01

    Political competitiveness - which many interpret as the degree of democracy - can be modeled as a monopolistic competition. All regimes are constrained by the threat of "entry," and thereby seek some combination of popular support and political entry barriers. This simple model predicts that many public policies are unrelated to political competitiveness, and that even unchallenged nondemocratic regimes should tax far short of their Laffer curve maximum. Economic sanctions, odious debt repudi...

  3. Political Ecology

    OpenAIRE

    DeFriez, Joshua; Larsen, Justine; Hilton, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Environmental legislation is commonly accepted as an altruistic approach to land management. A closer examination however, reveals that political incentives and flawed arguments consistently shape U.S. environmental policy at high public costs. As student fellows at the Institute of Political Economy at Utah State University, we have had the opportunity to research this subject under the direction of Professor Randy Simmons. Political Ecology is his upcoming book that explores a variety of en...

  4. Political Campaigns

    OpenAIRE

    Lilleker, Darren

    2017-01-01

    Political campaigns are orchestrated attempts by political organizations to garner public support through persuasive communication in order to influence public policy in their favor. This broad definition encapsulates all forms of campaigns from those of neighborhood organizations seeking to influence local politicians to the campaigns of political parties and candidates who seek election to office in order to shape policy themselves. In pluralist democracies, campaigns are crucial for repres...

  5. Political administration

    OpenAIRE

    Åkerstrøm Andersen, Niels

    2000-01-01

    One of the major discussions of the 1990s has been about the relation between politics and administration. The themes of the discussions have been many and varied. It has been suggested that the level of politics should concentrate on the general political outlining and entrust the remaining to the administration. It has been criticised that politicians make their decisions on the basis of single cases, which ought to be an administrative matter entirely. It has been a theme that efficient op...

  6. CSR as Corporate Political Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morsing, Mette; Roepstorff, Anne

    2015-01-01

    –image dynamics of political CSR’. Concretely, we describe in two vignettes how IKEA’s declared ‘apolitical and neutral’ CSR identity becomes entangled with national and international socio-political events that critically challenge the corporate engagement prior national understandings of citizenship rights....... In this process, IKEA’s CSR identity becomes defined as a political and non-neutral activity. Our article contributes by bringing attention to the organizational level dynamics of political CSR by offering a conceptualization of how global and local socio-political events may disturb the alignment between CSR...

  7. História social dos direitos humanos e políticas de igualdade de gênero (Social history of human rights and gender equality politics Doi: 10.5212/Emancipacao.v.14i2.0003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Mirales

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O presente artigo busca demonstrar a relação entre os direitos das mulheres e a história social dos direitos humanos. Apresenta-se a leitura sobre a dinâmica estabelecida na luta pelos direitos humanos, do ponto de vista das concepções que os embasam e da realidade concreta que os materializam nas sociedades nacionais, demonstrando as forças que conduzem os seus debates e a incipiente materialização de justiça. Em seguida, analisa-se a trajetória dos direitos das mulheres, buscando situar os empenhos por sua objetivação na sociedade brasileira, diante das dificuldades de seus cumprimentos. Os direitos expressam contradições, visões e entendimentos do mundo e, por isso, constituem-se em possibilidades de agregação de esforços nas lutas sociais, culturais, políticas e econômicas das classes dos trabalhadores nas buscas pela emancipação.Palavras-chave: Direitos Humanos; Gênero; Mulheres.Abstract: This paper seeks to demonstrate the relationship between women’s rights and the social history of human rights. It presents the reading on the dynamics established in the fight for human rights, from the point of view of the concepts that base them and the concrete reality that materializes them in national societies, pointing out the forces that drive their discussions and the incipient materialization of justice. Then, it analyses the trajectory of women’s rights, seeking to place the commitments to their implementation in the Brazilian society, given the difficulties of their implementation. Such rights express contradictions, views and understandings of the world and, therefore, constitute themselves in possibilities of aggregation of efforts in social, cultural, political and economic struggles of working classes in their searches for emancipation.Keywords: Human Rights; Gender; Women. 

  8. Liberdade, lei natural e direito natural em Hobbes: limiar do direito e da política na modernidade Freedom, natural law and natural right in Hobbes: threshold of law and politics in modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Maruyama

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Liberdade e poder são dois temas que se correlacionam ao longo da história da filosofia política moderna. Nos textos de Hobbes, a ideia da liberdade como ausência de impedimentos às ações ajuda-nos a pensar o dever de obediência ao poder soberano e as relações entre política e direito. Uma situação de vácuo jurídico, em que tudo é permitido, faz-se, contudo, impossível, de modo que a solução de Hobbes consiste em sustentar a ideia do direito natural como direito originário individual vinculado à preservação da vida. Suas ideias do direito natural e da lei natural, que servem de fundamento ao dever de obediência ao soberano, amparam-se em princípios jurídicos, teológicos e biológicos. Tais princípios, entretanto, não dão conta da questão da extensão do poder soberano. Hobbes recorre à análise da linguagem. Sua teoria contratual afirma o princípio de preservação da vida na base da política e sustenta a ideia da criação e da manutenção do poder soberano no ato de linguagem implicado na estrutura representativa do pacto político.Liberty and power are two subjects correlated along the history of the political modern philosophy. In the texts of Hobbes, the idea of liberty as absence of impediments to the actions helps us to think the duty of obedience to the sovereign power and the relations between politics and right. A situation of legal vacuum, in which everything is allowed, is, nevertheless, impossible, so that the solution of Hobbes consists in supporting the idea of the natural right like original individual right linked to the preservation of the life. His ideas of the natural right and of the natural law, which serve of basis to the duty of obedience to a sovereign, lean on legal, theological and biological principles. In spite of that, such principles do not surround the question of the extension of the sovereign power. Hobbes resorts to the analysis of the language. His contractual theory affirms

  9. Developing an acoustic method for reducing North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) ship strike mortality along the United States eastern seaboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Kaitlyn Allen

    North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis ) are among the world's most endangered cetaceans. Although protected from commercial whaling since 1949, North Atlantic right whales exhibit little to no population growth. Ship strike mortality is the leading known cause of North Atlantic right whale mortality. North Atlantic right whales exhibit developed auditory systems, and vocalize in the frequency range that dominates ship acoustic signatures. With no behavioral audiogram published, current literature assumes these whales should be able to acoustically detect signals in the same frequencies they vocalize. Recorded ship acoustic signatures occur at intensities that are similar or higher to those recorded by vocalizing North Atlantic right whales. If North Atlantic right whales are capable of acoustically detecting oncoming ship, why are they susceptible to ship strike mortality? This thesis models potential acoustic impediments to North Atlantic right whale detection of oncoming ships, and concludes the presence of modeled and observed bow null effect acoustic shadow zones, located directly ahead of oncoming ships, are likely to impair the ability of North Atlantic right whales to detect and/or localize oncoming shipping traffic. This lack of detection and/or localization likely leads to a lack of ship strike avoidance, and thus contributes to the observed high rates of North Atlantic right whale ship strike mortality. I propose that North Atlantic right whale ship strike mortality reduction is possible via reducing and/or eliminating the presence of bow null effect acoustic shadow zones. This thesis develops and tests one method for bow null effect acoustic shadow zone reduction on five ships. Finally, I review current United States policy towards North Atlantic right whale ship strike mortality in an effort to determine if the bow null effect acoustic shadow zone reduction method developed is a viable method for reducing North Atlantic right whale ship

  10. [Medical politics. Graffiti].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugelli, P

    1991-03-20

    If doctors want to play a role in future health promotion, they have to leave their citadel, and come closer to life and society. Modern preventive medicine cannot be dissociated from basic political, cultural and religious values and processes. Genetic counseling and engineering, influencing lifestyle, community intervention and changing the health culture among patients and doctors all require ethical and political competence rather than traditional medical skills. The author advocates the development of a new discipline, medical politics, with two major commitments: -To define basic health rights -To study the public health consequences of political systems and decisions. In a polemic and provocative style the article enlightens the potentials and dangers associated with an expanded concept of preventive medicine.

  11. Incapacidad jurídica, patria potestad y derechos humanos: El desafío político de los derechos igualitarios y el derecho a la diferencia Legal disability, parental rights and human rights: The political challenge of iqual rights and the right to the difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Solitario

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo, que es un recorte de la tesis doctoral de la autora, aborda los derechos de las personas con problemáticas en salud mental, analizando un aspecto particular que consiste en las transformaciones que operan en los vínculos con los hijos a partir de la declaración de incapacidad jurídica por motivos de enfermedad mental. Estas transformaciones, que encuentran su punto de apoyo en categorías del derecho, se manifiestan a nivel de las prácticas adquiriendo diversas expresiones. El objetivo es analizar críticamente el marco jurídico vigente en salud mental considerando la esfera de lo jurídico como un aspecto de la realidad social, como un aspecto cultural entre otros (Krotz, 2002. No se busca construir modelos de aplicación general, abstraídos de los contextos sociales, como una visión meramente jurídica pudiera pretender, sino que, por el contrario, la intención es dar cuenta de la manera en que los sistemas jurídicos se encuentran inmersos y a la vez moldean las prácticas sociales.This work, that is part of the author´s PhD thesis, deals with the rights of people with mental health problems, analysing a particular aspect that consists of the transformations on the relationship with their children after the declaration of legal incapacity by mental illness. These changes that ind their support point in law categories, are implemented in practices acquiring various expressions. The aim is to critically analyze the current legal framework in mental health considering legal sphere as an aspect of social reality, as a cultural aspect among others (Krotz, 2002. The intention is not to construct models with general application, abstracted from social contexts, as a legal perspective could claim, but on the contrary, the intention is to explain how legal systems are not only involved but also shape social practices.

  12. European Union: Gender and politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žunić Natalija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Political representation is the central issue in contemporary debates on the level of democracy in political institutions and processes in the European Union. Underrepresentation of particular groups in political institutions, decision-making and policy-making processes is perceived as the problem of justice, legitimacy and effectiveness in democratic societies. In this paper, the author analyzes the gender aspects of democratic decision-making processes and political representation of women in the EU member states. The social, historical and political dimension of women's efforts to obtain and promote their civil status and political rights have been the framework for developing the principle of gender equality as one of the founding EU principles. In the past hundred years, one of the most significant trends in politics has been the expansion of formal political representation of women. Yet, even though it has been more than a hundered years since women won their political rights in the 19th and the 20th century (the right to vote and the right to be voted, gender differences in political rights are still a substantial part of debate. Today, women's political representation is still inadequate and their political capacity and power have not been exercised to a sufficient extent (or proportionally through their actual representation in parliament. In March 2012, the European Commisision published a report on gender equality in different areas of social life; the Eurobarometer survey shows that women are generally underrepresented in politics. In national parliaments, only one out of four MPs is a woman. In the European Parliament, three out of ten parliamentarians are women. The statistics shows a huge discrepancy among the EU Member States in terms of women's representation in parliament (44.7% in Sweden as contrasted to 13.3% in Romania. The prevailing view in many studies is that post-industrial democracies are deficient as they have failed

  13. Brazilian Political Issues: Informed Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    interest groups? 6. The Ministry of Labor estimates that nearly 11,000 labor unions operate in Brazil. Although unions are independent of political...parties, a number of labor leaders are 4 prominent members of political parties. Additionally, labor unions have been known to form alliances with...social movements and political parties when advocating individual issues. (Department of State, Humans Rights Report.) How influential are labor

  14. Transnational Political Rights and Electoral Systems Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Jørgen

    Voting from abroad is possible in slightly more than half of all countries, even though it may not be an option for all a country’s citizens permanently or temporarily out-of-country. This paper looks at the special electoral systems created for this purpose as it focuses on changes and innovations...... in electoral system design in order to cater for the special interests of diaspora voters. Most countries allowing voting from abroad simply includes the votes coming from out-of-country among the votes cast in-country, so no special electoral system has been invented or implemented. But at least 14 countries...... have created exterritorial constituencies, where they in most cases basically use the same electoral system as they do for the ordinary in-country voting. The conclusion is that the creation of new electoral systems for voting from abroad has not – at least not so far – attracted a lot of interest from...

  15. Iraq: Politics, Governance, and Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    fields to be tendered later in 2012. On March 17, 2012, Baghdad claimed that Exxon-Mobil had frozen the KRG contract, but the KRG denies the company has...promoting brands of its products, such as yogurt and jams, in Iraqi shops primarily in southern Iraq. Some Iraqi businessmen are said to resent what they

  16. Iraq: Politics, Governance, and Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    it reconvened on September 6, 2011, after the Eid al- Fitr celebration marking the end of Ramadan . However, it was unclear which version would form...will assist Iraq’s fast -attack and patrol boats that secure its offshore oil platforms and other coastal and offshore locations. The United States also

  17. Iraq: Politics, Governance, and Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-20

    factions. The Sadrists got eight ministries, including Housing, Labor and Social Affairs, Ministry of Planning, and Tourism and Antiquities, as well as one...ships to Iraq, which will assist Iraq’s fast-attack and patrol boats that secure its offshore oil platforms and other coastal and offshore locations...mid-October 2012, Iraq agreed to buy 28 Czech-made military aircraft, a deal valued at about $1 billion.52 On December 12, 2013, South Korea signed

  18. Rwanda - Strengthening Justice and Promoting Political Rights

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Our mixed-methods study—combining experimental, quasi-experimental, descriptive, and qualitative methods—assesses four of the five RTP components. Specifically, the...

  19. Iraq: Politics, Governance, and Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-05

    bombings, and the empowerment of Shiite militia factions to counter the Sunni acts. The sectarian violence was so serious that many experts, by the end of...a “shared commitment” to increase than number and to increase cultural, artistic , and scientific exchanges. State Department-run aid programs are

  20. Iraq: Politics, Governance, and Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Adel Abd al-Mahdi (incumbent) of ISCI and Tariq al-Hashimi, leader of the Sunni Iraqi Islamic Party (IIP). Another Sunni figure, Mahmoud Mashhadani...A senior leader of ISCI, Adel Abdul Mahdi, becomes Minister of Oil. 28 Adam Taylor. “Meet...the United States does not bear the only burden for implementing the programs above, in light of the fact that Iraq is now a major oil exporter. For

  1. Private political archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Chorążyczewski

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available "Private political archives" are understood by me as all acts collected intently by a private person. These acts are connected with the person's participation in political life and gathered in order to be used in public activity as the source of argumentation and information about factors and mechanisms of political processes. Private political archives of the first half of the XVI century were mainly created by royal servants, often with reference to their job duties. These duties could inspire to collect political acts for private purposes. During the reign of Sigismund Augustus, archives of gentry activists were developed to small extent and they mainly focused on parliamentary life. Private political archives were created outside the executionist movement, namely in the community gathered around the royal court. After 1572, Crown and Lithuanian magnates greatly influenced the creation of political archives. Archives of lesser gentry, scarce and poor, did not disappear completely. However, they became difficult for identification. Therefore, developmental process concerned exclusively documentary "treasure troves" created by magnates. They had the financial means and possibilities to create truly valuable political archives. The same as in the previous period the dynamisms of executionist movement was reflected in political archival documentation, now the creation of patronage system and clientele, or traditionally understood magnate oligarchy, (depending on the point of view corresponded best to archives development. The heritage of previous generations was the treasure trove of patterns and solutions. However, this trove was used selectively, on one hand giving up patterns and rights that were uncomfortable, and, on the other, giving the value of precedence to unexpected acts that gained more importance or even new content in changed political conditions. The application of interpretation principle raised interest in old acts and patterns

  2. Politics for cities, cities for the political. About possibility (and necessity of radical urban politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiktor Marzec

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Essay faces the problem of determinacy of global capitalism processes for the reality of urban political life. The city is naturally communitarian form of human life and seems to be the place where radical pro-community politics could be undertaken. Already existing and operating forms of power could fruitfully influence the city social relations. Values and norms of conduct are broadly delegated on the urban space and materiality, thus conscious shaping of city space has severe consequences for community life. If a crisis of the political partly has its roots in metamorphoses of the cities, then also remedies, rising from the urban materiality and reestablishing political subjects, could be thought. City, as most real place of political life could be either reduced to the aggregate of consumers or reestablished as a political community. Due to this is the place where undesired course of action could be stopped, hence precisely here the radical democratic politics can emerge.

  3. Spiritual Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Rambeau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available According to Foucault, the uprising of the Iranian people in the seventies reveals how much the political force of Islam is due precisely to the fact that it is not principally located in the field of politics, but in that of ethics. Religion (Shiite Islam appears as the guarantee of real change in the very mode of existence. This spiritual politics is marginalized by Marxism, where it is understood as a discontinuity in relation to proper politics, given that the latter is necessarily linked to a strategic rationalization. By indicating, at this juncture of what is intolerable, the living source and the critical impulse of the Foucauldian ethics, this spiritual politics also leads to recognize in the concept of “subjectivation” a dimension that might escape the circle of freedom as determined by a total immanence to power. This conceptual possibility is highly present in the aporias of the Foucauldian concept of the “relation to oneself”, both as a first condition of governmentality and the ultimate point of resistance against any governmentality. It thus reveals the difficulties in relating political to ethical subjectivation.

  4. Political symbols and political transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrero de Miñón, Miguel

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Politics, Law and Psychology are fields that come together in the symbolic. This text takes evidence from those three areas to develop an analysis of political symbols and political transitions. The development of the analysis goes through three stages. The first succinctly describes the concept of transition and its meaning. The second closely examines the notion of the symbol, in terms of its definition, to explain aspects that allow us to understand it, characterise it and make its functions clear. Finally, from the author's experience as a witness and as an actor, I suggest three ways of understanding symbols in the processes of political transition: as symbols of change, as symbols of acknowledgment, and as symbols of support.

  5. 1 hz rTMS over the right prefrontal cortex reduces vigilant attention to unmasked but not to masked fearful faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Honk, Jack; Schutter, Dennis J L G; d'Alfonso, Alfredo A L; Kessels, Roy P C; de Haan, Edward H F

    2002-08-15

    Recent repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) research in healthy subjects suggests that the emotions anger and anxiety are lateralized in the prefrontal cortex. Low-frequency rTMS over the right prefrontal cortex (PFC) shifts the anterior asymmetry in brain activation to the left hemisphere and reduces anxiety. The same rTMS technique results in enhanced anger-related emotional processing, observed as elevations in attention for angry faces. The current study used low-frequency rTMS over the right PFC and indexed selective attention to fearful faces, hypothesizing a reduction in attention for fearful faces, i.e., a reversal of the latter effect. In a placebo-controlled design, 1 Hz rTMS at 130% of the individual motor threshold (MT) was applied continuously over the right PFC of eight healthy subjects for 20 minutes. Effects on motivated attention were investigated by means of an emotional Stroop task, indexing selective attention to masked and unmasked fearful faces. Vigilant attention for masked and unmasked fearful faces was observed after placebo stimulation. As hypothesized, rTMS reduced the vigilant emotional response to the fearful face, but only in the unmasked task. These data provide further support for the lateralization of the emotions anger and anxiety in the prefrontal cortex. In addition, the absence of an effect for masked fearful faces suggests that changes in emotional processing after a single session of rTMS predominantly involve the cortical affective pathways.

  6. Right Where, Right When?

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Beryl

    2015-01-01

    This exhibition catalogue essay was invited by the curator of The Lowry, Salford, for her Right Here, Right Now exhibition. The international artists included Thomson and Craighead, Timo Arnall, Mishka Henner and Daniel Rozin.

  7. The Right to Mothertongue Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horst, Christian

    2005-01-01

    The article examines how the right to mothertongue education is situated between political pluralism and cultural monism related to different value systems within the construction of the nation state......The article examines how the right to mothertongue education is situated between political pluralism and cultural monism related to different value systems within the construction of the nation state...

  8. Making and Breaking Property Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Mogens Kamp

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes why some governments protect property rights while others do not. Although institutional constraints may affect government incentives to protect property rights, the paper emphasizes that different political institutions have dissimilar effects. Coalition institutions that make...

  9. Political ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohm, H.

    1979-01-01

    Using facts and examples, this didactically structures textbook gives an insight into the extent and consequences of the damage to the environment, with the subjects - fundamentals of ecology; - population and food problems; - the energy problem; - economic growth; scarcity of resources, recycling; - ground, water, and air pollution, - city and traffic problems; - work protection and medical care; - political alternatives and 'soft technologies'. The analysis of the political and economic reasons is combined with social and technical alternatives from which demands to be made and measures to be taken can be derived for individuals, citizens' interest groups, political groups and trade unions. Teaching models intend to help teachers to work on specific problems of ecology. (orig.) [de

  10. Political priorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng

    2016-01-01

    …THE POLITICAL LEADERS of the local government of Chongqing, China, vigorously promote a low-carbon economy and sustainable development to mitigate environmental pollution. Accordingly, research grants focused on this issue were supported by the government, and our group obtained a grant for a pr...... for a project about industrial park planning and design.…In my view, political priorities based on correct decision-making and market requirements are beneficial for researchers.......…THE POLITICAL LEADERS of the local government of Chongqing, China, vigorously promote a low-carbon economy and sustainable development to mitigate environmental pollution. Accordingly, research grants focused on this issue were supported by the government, and our group obtained a grant...

  11. Political CSR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Søren; Morsing, Mette

    We engage a discussion of political CSR in SMEs in an African context. Based on critical observations on Western MNC CSR action in emerging economies that holds counterproductive implications for social development, political economists have argued that business profit far more than society...... development in local African communities. Our findings extend political CSR research by directing attention to how the corporate influence in developing economies does not only emerge from MNCs but is also established and retained by SMEs CSR work....... in developing economies from CSR. In this paper we argue that local SMEs CSR work have strong influence in developing economies, that also includes counterproductive influence for social development. Based on empirical findings from African countries, we conceptualize how CSR in African SMEs differ from...

  12. How Internal Political Efficacy Translates Political Knowledge Into Political Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Reichert

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents evidence for the mediation effect of political knowledge through political self-efficacy (i.e. internal political efficacy in the prediction of political participation. It employs an action theoretic approach—by and large grounded on the Theory of Planned Behaviour—and uses data from the German Longitudinal Election Study to examine whether political knowledge has distinct direct effects on voting, conventional, and/or unconventional political participation. It argues that political knowledge raises internal political efficacy and thereby indirectly increases the chance that a citizen will participate in politics. The results of mediated multiple regression analyses yield evidence that political knowledge indeed translates into internal political efficacy, thus it affects political participation of various kinds indirectly. However, internal political efficacy and intentions to participate politically yield simultaneous direct effects only on conventional political participation. Sequentially mediated effects appear for voting and conventional political participation, with political knowledge being mediated by internal political efficacy and subsequently also by behavioural intentions. The mediation patterns for unconventional political participation are less clear though. The discussion accounts for restrictions of this study and points to questions for answer by future research.

  13. How Internal Political Efficacy Translates Political Knowledge Into Political Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This study presents evidence for the mediation effect of political knowledge through political self-efficacy (i.e. internal political efficacy) in the prediction of political participation. It employs an action theoretic approach—by and large grounded on the Theory of Planned Behaviour—and uses data from the German Longitudinal Election Study to examine whether political knowledge has distinct direct effects on voting, conventional, and/or unconventional political participation. It argues that political knowledge raises internal political efficacy and thereby indirectly increases the chance that a citizen will participate in politics. The results of mediated multiple regression analyses yield evidence that political knowledge indeed translates into internal political efficacy, thus it affects political participation of various kinds indirectly. However, internal political efficacy and intentions to participate politically yield simultaneous direct effects only on conventional political participation. Sequentially mediated effects appear for voting and conventional political participation, with political knowledge being mediated by internal political efficacy and subsequently also by behavioural intentions. The mediation patterns for unconventional political participation are less clear though. The discussion accounts for restrictions of this study and points to questions for answer by future research. PMID:27298633

  14. Approach to migration rights and the transnational citizenship. The case of the Mexican migrants and theirs political rights Acercamiento al derecho de la migración y la ciudadanía transnacional. El caso de los emigrantes mexicanos y sus derechos políticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco PARRA

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The traditional concept of citizenship (linked to the nation-State expressed in the theoretical works of T. H. Marshall and defined as an array of rights (civil, political and social is not enough to help us understand the migration and political rights phenomenon. Several works have surpassed the theoretical understandings of Marshall, as a result, concepts such as «cosmopolitan citizenship», «differentied citizenship», «democratic citizenship», multicultural citizenship » and «postnational citizenship», have emerged to help us understand in liberal perspectivs citizenship in a context of globalization (migration being an important part of it. At the same time, the latter concepts have been translated into public policies of inclusion, however, both the concepts and the policies were built in terms of only the migration-receiving countries. In an effort to fill this theoretical vacuum, the concept of «transnational citizenship» has recently emerged in the works of some authors. This new approach to citizenship, which stresses cultural and economic links to justify why emigrants living in a country different to their own still retain their right to be a citizen in their countries of origin, can help us understand cases as Mexico and its 8,5 million nationals who currently live outside its boundaries: Mexico has denied political citizenship to these people for they have no Mexican political rights, for example, they can not vote abroad. The purpose of this paper is to try to explain how the transnationalism help us to understand why the Mexican State (partisan and political elites, promotes or limits the rights of mexican migrants depending either on restrictic notion of citizenship or on particular political calculations. El concepto tradicional de ciudadanía (ligado al Estado-nación y expresado teóricamente en los trabajos de T. H. Marshall y definidos como una serie de derechos agregados –civiles, políticos y sociales– es

  15. Urbanization and human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihr, A.

    Urban governance on the basis of human rights can help to set up problem solving mechanisms to guarantee social peace, economic growth and political participation.If states both integrate more in international or regional human rights regime and give more autonomy to urban governments and local

  16. Data politics

    OpenAIRE

    Bigo, Didier; Isin, Engin; Ruppert, Evelyn

    2017-01-01

    The commentary raises political questions about the ways in which data has been constituted as an object vested withcertain powers, influence, and rationalities.We place the emergence and transformation of professional practices such as‘data science’, ‘data journalism’, ‘data brokerage’, ‘data mining’, ‘data storage’, and ‘data analysis’ as part of the reconfigurationof a series of fields of power and knowledge in the public and private accumulation of data. Data politics asksquestions about ...

  17. 'Grounded' Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Garbi

    2012-01-01

    A prominent strand within current migration research argues that, to understand the participation of immigrants in their host societies, we must focus on their incorporation into the cities in which they settle. This article narrows the perspective further by focusing on the role that immigrants...... play within one particular neighbourhood: Nørrebro in the Danish capital, Copenhagen. The article introduces the concept of grounded politics to analyse how groups of Muslim immigrants in Nørrebro use the space, relationships and history of the neighbourhood for identity political statements...

  18. Mixing politics and crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munksgaard, Rasmus; Demant, Jakob Johan

    2016-01-01

    is specifically libertarian. The aim of the paper is to investigate the prevalence of political discourses within discussions of cryptomarket drug dealing, and further to research the potential changes of these over the timespan of the study. Methods We develop a novel operationalization of discourse analytic...... still observe political matter. We identified one topic which expresses a libertarian discourse that emphasizes the individual's right to non-interference. Over time we observe an increasing prevalence of the libertarian discourse from 2011 to the end of 2013. In the end of 2013 - when Silk Road...... was seized - we observe an abrupt change in the prevalence of the libertarian discourse. Conclusions The libertarian political discourse has historically been prevalent on cryptomarket forums. The closure of Silk Road has affected the prevalence of libertarian discourse suggesting that while the closure did...

  19. The politics of paranoia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkin, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    For almost 20 years, gay rights advocates and defenders of military anti-gay discrimination engaged in a phony debate about whether allowing open service would undermine unit cohesion. To be sure, a preponderance of evidence showed that open service would not undermine cohesion, and the repeal of don't ask, don't tell (DADT) required advocates to prevail on that point in the court of public opinion. But concerns about cohesion were never the basis of opposition to open service. Rather, opposition was a modern incarnation of the politics of paranoia, a dangerous tradition in American history. Acknowledging that DADT had nothing to do with cohesion and that military leaders allowed the armed forces to be implicated in the politics of paranoia could facilitate disabling paranoia as the basis for other political projects such as anti-immigrant xenophobia. For a video on DADT and paranoia, search for "Donnelly Belkin DADT" on YoutTube.

  20. Astronomy and political theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campion, Nicholas

    2011-06-01

    This paper will argue that astronomical models have long been applied to political theory, from the use of the Sun as a symbol of the emperor in Rome to the application of Copernican theory to the needs of absolute monarchy. We will begin with consideration of astral divination (the use of astronomy to ascertain divine intentions) in the ancient Near East. Particular attention will be paid to the use of Newton's discovery that the universe operates according to a single set of laws in order to support concepts of political quality and eighteenth century Natural Rights theory. We will conclude with consideration of arguments that the discovery of the expanding, multi-galaxy universe, stimulated political uncertainty in the 1930s, and that photographs of the Earth from Apollo spacecraft encouraged concepts of the `global village'.

  1. Relative deprivation and political protest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Kliuchnyk

    2017-03-01

    Examples of anti-system political parties and movements have been given. Many of them have changed the political disposition in Europe. Lega Nord (Italy, PEGIDA (Germany, Movimento 5 Stelle (Italy, Front National (France, Ataka (Bulgaria, etc are between them. These parties and movements influence increasingly on the European political process. Nativism and populism are marked as main peculiarities of such right parties. According to the author, Anti-Trump protests in the USA are the examples of the relative deprivation of numerous groups of people that feel their rights and freedoms being threatened.

  2. 28 CFR 51.7 - Political parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of political campaigns, and the drafting of party platforms are not subject to the preclearance... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Political parties. 51.7 Section 51.7... THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965, AS AMENDED General Provisions § 51.7 Political parties. Certain...

  3. 28 CFR 51.6 - Political subunits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Political subunits. 51.6 Section 51.6 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR THE ADMINISTRATION OF SECTION 5 OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965, AS AMENDED General Provisions § 51.6 Political subunits. All political...

  4. Political Ideology and Psychological Symptoms Following Terror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Avital; Solomon, Zahava

    2010-01-01

    The article examines the associations between political ideology and level of psychological symptoms in youth exposed to terror attacks. The study included 2,999 7th to 10th graders from various parts of Israel. Political ideology was examined in two ways: (a) as a content dimension: "political stand"--holding right, centrist, or left…

  5. Politics 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Abraham

    1977-01-01

    This article expresses some last thoughts from Abraham Maslow on his vision of humanistic psychology. He suggests that the two main problems of creating the good person and the good society are interwoven inextricably. He gives some social and political mechanisms which would enhance desirable personal growth and considers the main tasks of…

  6. Political bugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    Certain decisions, problems, and successes are selected to recall the great impact of the 1950s on the history of rocketry, and particularly the inauguration of the space age. In reviewing the history of the Redstone, Juno, and Jupiter, some of the largest stepping stones to space, problems stand out in three areas: technical or engineering, management, and political.

  7. Political polarization

    OpenAIRE

    Dixit, Avinash K.; Weibull, Jörgen W.

    2007-01-01

    Failures of government policies often provoke opposite reactions from citizens; some call for a reversal of the policy, whereas others favor its continuation in stronger form. We offer an explanation of such polarization, based on a natural bimodality of preferences in political and economic contexts and consistent with Bayesian rationality.

  8. Political polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Avinash K; Weibull, Jörgen W

    2007-05-01

    Failures of government policies often provoke opposite reactions from citizens; some call for a reversal of the policy, whereas others favor its continuation in stronger form. We offer an explanation of such polarization, based on a natural bimodality of preferences in political and economic contexts and consistent with Bayesian rationality.

  9. Framing politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lecheler, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation supplies a number of research findings that add to a theory of news framing effects, and also to the understanding of the role media effects play in political communication. We show that researchers must think more about what actually constitutes a framing effect, and that a

  10. Political Rationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solhaug, Trond; Kristensen, Niels Nørgaard

    The very idea about democracies is public participation in elections, decision-making and/or public engagement. The democratic participation distributes power among ordinary people and serve to legitimize decisions in public affairs and is a vital characteristic of a political culture.”The term ’...

  11. Effectiveness of screening colonoscopy in reducing the risk of death from right and left colon cancer: a large community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubeni, Chyke A; Corley, Douglas A; Quinn, Virginia P; Jensen, Christopher D; Zauber, Ann G; Goodman, Michael; Johnson, Jill R; Mehta, Shivan J; Becerra, Tracy A; Zhao, Wei K; Schottinger, Joanne; Doria-Rose, V Paul; Levin, Theodore R; Weiss, Noel S; Fletcher, Robert H

    2018-02-01

    Screening colonoscopy's effectiveness in reducing colorectal cancer mortality risk in community populations is unclear, particularly for right-colon cancers, leading to recommendations against its use for screening in some countries. This study aimed to determine whether, among average-risk people, receipt of screening colonoscopy reduces the risk of dying from both right-colon and left-colon/rectal cancers. We conducted a nested case-control study with incidence-density matching in screening-eligible Kaiser Permanente members. Patients who were 55-90 years old on their colorectal cancer death date during 2006-2012 were matched on diagnosis (reference) date to controls on age, sex, health plan enrolment duration and geographical region. We excluded patients at increased colorectal cancer risk, or with prior colorectal cancer diagnosis or colectomy. The association between screening colonoscopy receipt in the 10-year period before the reference date and colorectal cancer death risk was evaluated while accounting for other screening exposures. We analysed 1747 patients who died from colorectal cancer and 3460 colorectal cancer-free controls. Compared with no endoscopic screening, receipt of a screening colonoscopy was associated with a 67% reduction in the risk of death from any colorectal cancer (adjusted OR (aOR)=0.33, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.52). By cancer location, screening colonoscopy was associated with a 65% reduction in risk of death for right-colon cancers (aOR=0.35, CI 0.18 to 0.65) and a 75% reduction for left-colon/rectal cancers (aOR=0.25, CI 0.12 to 0.53). Screening colonoscopy was associated with a substantial and comparably decreased mortality risk for both right-sided and left-sided cancers within a large community-based population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. The Politics of Political Correctness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minsky, Leonard

    1992-01-01

    This article reacts to President Bush's entry into the dispute over "political correctness" on college campuses. The paper summarizes discussions of students, faculty, and others in the Washington, D.C. area which concluded that this seeming defense of free speech is actually an attack on affirmative action and multiculturalism stemming…

  13. Aesthetics and Political Culture in Modern Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Kaare

    Do aesthetic appeals to senses and emotions in political debate necessarily marginalise political reason and reduce citizens to consumers – thus dangerously undermining democracy? Or is sensuous-emotional engagement, on the contrary, a basic fact of the political process and a crucial preconditio...

  14. Using transthoracic Doppler echocardiography to diagnose reduced coronary flow velocity reserve in the posterior descending coronary artery in children with elevated right ventricular pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Shunsuke; Harada, Kenji; Toyono, Manatomo; Tamura, Masamichi; Takada, Goro

    2007-12-01

    Advances in transthoracic Doppler echocardiography enable noninvasive measurements of coronary flow velocity and coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR) in the posterior descending coronary artery (PD). To evaluate CFVR in the PD of children with elevated right ventricular (RV) pressure, 19 children with RV pressure overload and 13 age-matched controls with normal RV pressure were studied using transthoracic Doppler echocardiography. Average peak flow velocity (APV) was measured at rest and in hyperemic conditions (intravenous administration of adenosine of 0.16 mg.kg(-1).min(-1)). Compared with controls, the PD CFVR was significantly reduced in the patients with elevated RV pressure (1.87+/-0.42 vs 2.49+/-0.55, pvelocity.

  15. Positive rights, negative rights and health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Andrew

    2010-12-01

    In the current debate about healthcare reform in the USA, advocates for government-ensured universal coverage assume that health care is a right. Although this position is politically popular, it is sometimes challenged by a restricted view of rights popular with libertarians and individualists. The restricted view of rights only accepts 'negative' rights as legitimate rights. Negative rights, the argument goes, place no obligations on you to provide goods to other people and thus respect your right to keep the fruits of your labour. A classic enumeration of negative rights includes life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. Positive rights, by contrast, obligate you either to provide goods to others, or pay taxes that are used for redistributive purposes. Health care falls into the category of positive rights since its provision by the government requires taxation and therefore redistribution. Therefore, the libertarian or individualist might argue that health care cannot be a true right. This paper rejects the distinction between positive and negative rights. In fact, the protection of both positive and negative rights can place obligations on others. Furthermore, because of its role in helping protect equality of opportunity, health care can be tied to the rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. There is, therefore, good reason to believe that health care is a human right and that universal access should be guaranteed. The practical application, by governments and non-governmental organisations, of several of the arguments presented in this paper is also discussed.

  16. Gendered Politics

    OpenAIRE

    Luconi, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Political incorporation resulting from voter participation is often a relevant feature of the migration experience. When the legislation of the receiving nations enables the newcomers to get naturalized and grants citizenship to their children born in the adoptive country by means of the jus soli, as is the case of the United States, casting ballots in the elections of the land of their destination usually becomes part of the first and second-generation immigrants’ accommodation into the host...

  17. Policy, politics and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Scott L; Bekker, Marleen; de Leeuw, Evelyne; Wismar, Matthias; Helderman, Jan-Kees; Ribeiro, Sofia; Stuckler, David

    2017-10-01

    If public health is the field that diagnoses and strives to cure social ills, then understanding political causes and cures for health problems should be an intrinsic part of the field. In this article, we argue that there is no support for the simple and common, implicit model of politics in which scientific evidence plus political will produces healthy policies. Efforts to improve the translation of evidence into policy such as knowledge transfer work only under certain circumstances. These circumstances are frequently political, and to be understood through systematic inquiry into basic features of the political economy such as institutions, partisanship and the organization of labour markets. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  18. Elite Cohesion in Political Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayerhöffer, Eva

    there is no shortage of research on the changing nature of politics due to the increasing influence of the media, the relations between the key elites in the age of ‘mediated politics’ have yet to be analyzed thoroughly. Theoretically, the dissertation provides a new bridge between elite theory and political......The dissertation presents the first comprehensive analysis of the political communication elite– high-ranking journalists, editors, politicians and their communication advisors – that shapes the content and form of political messages, news, debate and decisions in modern democracies. Although...... communication studies that allows us to view high-ranking journalists and editors as elites in their own right, entering into enduring relations with political elites. Based on the combination of these two otherwise separated disciplines, the dissertation develops an integrated and comprehensive model of elite...

  19. Destructiveness in Political Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Яна Александровна Волкова

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Destructiveness is among the fundamental discourse categories that play a significant role in the organization of communicative interaction and define the pragmatics of discourse; its study helps to understand some mechanisms and principles of communication, identify strategies and tactics used by a destructive communicative personality. The relevance of this study is determined by the increasing aggressiveness in various types of discourse, and, accordingly, by the need to extend the knowledge of destructive behavior of a communicative personality. The study is based on the theory of discourse-analysis and theory of destructiveness (Z. Harris, T. van Dijk, A. Buss, E. Fromm, D. Ponton, K. Hacker, R. Wodak. N. Arutyunova, V. Karasik, M. Makarov, E. Sheigal et al. Developing the theory of destructiveness and relying on Erich Fromm’s research (1973, we specify the concept of “destructiveness” in relation to the political discourse and compare it with the related concept of aggressiveness. The paper analyses the category of destructiveness in modern US political discourse, using excerpts from the speeches of the candidates for presidency of 2016. Particular attention is paid to the dominant destructive intention - to harm the reputation of the opponent and reduce his political chances, as well as to the functions of verbal aggression: on the one hand - to discredit the opponent, bring accusations, on the other hand - to poison the audience mind against him/her and arouse the feeling of danger posed by a political opponent. The analysis of verbal and nonverbal means of destructiveness in the US political discourse is carried out. The article concludes that abusive remarks of politicians do not result from spontaneous emotional outburst, but from an elaborated destructive strategy where the agonistic nature of political discourse stipulates the use of instrumental aggression (Buss, 1971 for the sake of the conquest of power, lowering the

  20. Autonomy and minority rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barten, Ulrike

    2008-01-01

    in the cultural, educational, religious and social sectors which have of course are exercised in a limited territory; however, do not threaten the state's sovereignty in the same way as independent political decisions could do. How far minority rights have the same dimensions, will be another issue. Minorities......'? I will look at this in connection with minority rights, as minority rights accord special rights and procedures to a specific group. For example, minorities have sometimes far reaching competences in the educational field: setting up and running their own schools and to a certain degree also decide......, are they at odds with each other or do they possibly overlap? This last possibility would be that minority rights are so extensive that they actually amount to autonomy. Autonomy has a range of dimensions and one must distinguish between political autonomy which is largely territorial in nature and autonomy...

  1. Customary Rights: Holding the Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Ellison

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the nature, history and significance of Maori customary rights in the New Zealand context, and argues there is a need for a New Zealand constitution which embodies human rights which recognise and uphold the customary rights of the indigenous peoples of this land and protects those rights from oppressive and discriminatory political acts of expediency by government.

  2. Contemporary Political Paranoia, a Case of Political Gnosticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Rivera García

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article puts forward the concept of political paranoia as a useful category to understand some contemporary manifestations of the pathologies of power. For this aim an interdisciplinary approach has been used, namely, the knowledge provided by psychoanalysis, political philosophy, theology and literary or aesthetic studies. Freud’s and Lacan’s psychoanalysis allows us to understand why the paranoid subject is a megalomaniac and hyperrational subject who wants to be in control of everything. It is a sovereign subject, who has adapted not only to the Society of Control initially defined by Deleuze, but also to a conception of philosophy that aims for totality. After dealing with the close relationship between paranoia and conspiratorial political theory, the article explains the reason why contemporary political paranoia represents a case of the most radical political theology: political Gnosticism. This term stands for a conception of politics that reduces the Other to the condition of an absolute enemy that needs to be eliminated. Lastly, the article establishes a close link between the cure for political paranoia and the assumption of an ontology of incompleteness

  3. Populist parties of the Right

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennema, M.

    2004-01-01

    Many people consider the contemporary extreme right as if it were political pornography: it is difficult to define but you immediately recognize it when you see it and then it should be prohibited. Yet, the political scientist cannot accept such simplistic view. He has the painful task of

  4. Right patient, Right blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selberg, Hanne; Madsen, Trine Stougaard

    2014-01-01

    : The objective of the current study was to test workshops focusing on procedures of safe blood transfusion by combining theory and practice, integrating current guidelines on safe blood transfusion and hereby help students to better recognize and handle errors and adverse reactions. Methods: 372 third year......Right patient, Right Blood Simulation based training in blood transfusion practice in nursing education Background: In spite of strict checking procedures to handling transfusion of blood severe adverse reactions are likely to happen and the major cause of morbidity occurs to be liable to human...... errors. Nursing students have limited possibility to practice safe blood transfusion during clinical placements. We introduced simulation-based workshops to reinforce safe transfusion practice and thus increase patient safety but equally important to bridge the gap between theory and practice. Objectives...

  5. Political balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hopmann, David Nicolas; Van Aelst, Peter; Salgado, Susana

    2017-01-01

    Before every election campaign, the French Conseil supérieur de l’audiovisuel (CSA) publishes detailed rules on how much news coverage candidates are allowed to have vis-à-vis one another in the electronic media to ensure what it calls pluralisme politique (e.g., CSA 2011). Also outside election...... and control news coverage (mainly public broadcasters) or have informal rules that determine news coverage of politics (Hopmann, Van Aelst, and Legnante 2012; Kaid and Strömbäck 2008)....

  6. Political Epistemology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, David Budtz

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation is intended to establish a framework for a revised picture of the loci of epistemic preferences in our complex knowledge-based society. In what ways do institutions, policies and regulations determine the conditions under which knowledge is produced and justified? This dissertat......This dissertation is intended to establish a framework for a revised picture of the loci of epistemic preferences in our complex knowledge-based society. In what ways do institutions, policies and regulations determine the conditions under which knowledge is produced and justified......? This dissertation argues that we can identify multiple epistemic preferences in the institutional and political settings that govern the production and distribution of knowledge....

  7. Green politics: dictatorship or democracy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radcliffe, J.

    2000-03-01

    At the heart of the green debate are a set of basic contradictions concerning beliefs and actions. This book reveals the problems associated with these contradictions, including adherence to decentralized political forms while accepting authoritarian intervention on behalf of the environment; a belief that this is the politics of the new age but in practice split between left and right; a rejection of the rationalist scientific project and a reliance on the lessons of the science of ecology. (author)

  8. Placing perceptions of politics in the context of the feedback environment, employee attitudes, and job performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Christopher C; Levy, Paul E; Hall, Rosalie J

    2006-01-01

    The authors proposed a model suggesting that organizational environments supporting high levels of informal supervisor and coworker feedback are associated with lower employee perceptions of organizational politics. Furthermore, these lowered perceptions of politics were proposed to result in higher employee morale (as reflected in job satisfaction and affective commitment) and, through morale, to higher levels of task performance and organizational citizenship. The proposed mediational model was supported with empirical results from 150 subordinate-supervisor dyads sampled across a variety of organizations. Higher quality feedback environments were associated with lower perceptions of organizational politics, and morale mediated the relationships between organizational politics and various aspects of work performance. These findings suggest that when employees have greater access to information regarding behaviors that are acceptable and desired at work, perceptions of politics are reduced and work outcomes are enhanced. (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Classical Political Philosophy and the Crisis of Modernity – An alternative to the competition State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Dahl Rendtorff

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The conservative Jewish, German and American philosopher Leo Strauss (1899-1973 proposes an interpretation of the causes of the crisis of modernity and argues that the only way in which we can reestablish social stability is to go back to classical political philosophy by Plato and Aristotle. In the following, I will introduce thought of Leo Strauss in order to show how we here can find a well-qualified concept of political conservativism. It is however clear, that this intellectual aristocratism is different from dominant conservative at the political right that also can be accused of having reduced politics to economics and utility maximization where focus is on promotion of personal privileges and interests rather than a concern for the common good in a strong political community.

  10. Civil Rights, Human Rights and Terrorism in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Kathryn

    1979-01-01

    Reviews political events of the past decade in Northern Ireland, focusing particularly on national and international legal actions relating to civil and human rights. The roles of England and, more briefly, the United States are discussed. (GC)

  11. Adjudicating socioeconomic rights

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Christo Heunis

    It is trite to say that the adjudication of socio-economic rights is a new enterprise in South African jurisprudence, as it is to the jurisprudence of many other jurisdictions. Professor van Rensburg's paper seeks to analyse the influence of political, socio-economic and cultural considerations on the interpretation and application ...

  12. Street Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Shapiro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available I write from Prague, where, unlike in most urban formations, the main city street plays an iconic role; it references a history of political protest. However, before elaborating on the protest iconography of the Prague street, Vaclavske nam, I want to locate the ways in which the design of urban space is actualized in everyday life in the cities of the world. Three functions stand out; the first involves dwelling, the second seeing, and the third moving. With respect to the first function – dwelling – the design partitions and coordinates residential, commercial and leisure functions. At times these are organized to segregate different classes (Robert Moses’ redesign of much of New York stands out with respect to the segregation function. With respect to the second function – seeing – the design of urban space is allegiance-inspiring; it involves sight lines that afford urban dwellers and visitors views of iconic buildings and statues, which reference key founding moments in the past and/or authoritative political functions in the present (Here, L’Enfants design for Washington DC stands out as exemplary. Its manifest intention was to make the buildings housing executive, legislative and judicial functions visible from many vantage points. Rarely are the streets themselves iconic. Their dominant role is involved with the effectuation of movement. As for this third function: As Lewis Mumford famously points out, streets were once part of an asterisk design, radiating out from an exemplary, often spiritual center...

  13. Political electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Terence.

    1990-01-01

    This book is a non-technical exploration of the political and policy issues that have influenced the development of nuclear power. Part One describes the successes, failures, horse-trading, and infighting that make up nuclear power's history, taking nine counties as examples. Part Two reviews the main problems that now confront us, as seen in mid-June 1990; like all contemporary accounts, the book is unavoidably incomplete. However, by then it was possible to make provisional judgements about two very important recent influences: the political consequences of Chernobyl, and concerns about the greenhouse effect. The story that emerges is of a nuclear industry that has rarely been guilty of dereliction of duty, though it was undeniably complacent in not addressing sooner the causes of the public's entirely reasonable anxieties. The anti-nuclear lobby has been skilled in debate, and sometimes extraordinarily percipient; but less than fair in failing to acknowledge the industry's achievements and its willingness to learn from past mistakes. As for the politicians, the book contains many examples that show how the flames of controversy can be deliberately fanned when there are votes to be gained. The story has few heroes, but within the industry fewer villains than the public has been led to believe. (author)

  14. Prices and Politics in Andean Water Reforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelens, R.A.; Zwarteveen, M.Z.

    2005-01-01

    Water rights are best understood as politically contested and culturally embedded relationships among different social actors. In the Andean region, existing rights of irrigators¿ collectives often embody historical struggles over resources, rules, authorities and identities. This article argues,

  15. The human factor: enhancing women's rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinzor, N

    1995-01-01

    The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted by the UN in 1948, declares that all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights, and that everyone has the right to life, liberty, and security of person. In practice, however, far from everyone has these rights, especially women. Many women worldwide have neither the awareness of nor access to family planning methods with which they could regulate their fertility and childbearing. Thus deprived of their reproductive freedom, these women cannot pursue education, employment, and other life options which would otherwise be readily available to them were they not saddled with poor reproductive health and too many children. Expanded choices enhance the status of women, which in turn helps them to reduce fertility rates and stabilize population growth. The author discusses how the wide range of cultural and social norms, and economic and political systems worldwide make it very difficult and complex to actually implement universal human rights.

  16. Urbanization and human rights

    OpenAIRE

    Mihr, A.

    2010-01-01

    Urban governance on the basis of human rights can help to set up problem solving mechanisms to guarantee social peace, economic growth and political participation.If states both integrate more in international or regional human rights regime and give more autonomy to urban governments and local authorities, many of these issues of urbanization can be solved. Where people organize themselves on local levels and in neighborhood initiatives, new forms of governance mechanisms evolve. These mecha...

  17. Democracy, Political Competition and Public Debt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian CROITORU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There are two major preferences shaping political choices: one, regarding who should play the leading role in running the economy (mar-kets or politicians and the other, concerning social spending. According to reputation, leftist parties assign the leading role to politicians (i.e. the state, whereas rightist parties entrust mar-kets with the central role in running the econo-my. Right-wing parties’ reputation of not favoring social spending is not backed by facts. Since both the left and the right display similar behav-iors vis-à-vis social spending, it is preferable that markets play the central role in running the econ-omy. Flexible markets help economic growth and employment, reducing the need for high social spending. The freedom of property and freedom from corruption indexes show that, in Romania, the market has never played the central role in running the economy. People’s prevailing con-cern over their wellbeing ‘now’ rather than ‘to-morrow’ generates competition among political right and left for higher social spending, leading to high public debt. Neither left, nor right can guarantee sustainable limits for social benef ts and public debt. Capping the share of public debt in GDP by means of the Constitution provides no guarantee for public debt sustainability, but is worth a try.

  18. URBAN POLITICS: KEY APPROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ledyaeva Ol'ga Mikhaylovna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Several approaches that underlie urban politics are discussed in the paper. They include neo-liberalism, political economy discourse, elitist/pluralist debates, and postmodernism. The neoliberal approach focuses on the limited role of the state and individual responsibility. The legal framework protects both the rights and responsibilities of individuals and regulates the operation of the market. It is the market that fosters individual choices and provides goods and services by virtue of the processes which are flexible, efficient and transparent. The political economy approaches (regulation theory, public choice theory, neo-Marxism explain urban politics via the analysis of national and international economic processes and changes in contemporary capitalism. Changes in national and international economies determine what solutions are possible. The discourse has been influenced by the debate on globalization of capital and labour markets. Modern elitism and neopluralism are represented by theories of "growth machines" and "urban regimes". The former focuses on bargaining alliances between political and business leaders in order to manage the urban system and to promote its growth. The latter develops neopluralist explanations of power within local communities with an emphasis on the fragmented nature of the government where local authorities lack comprehensive governing powers. Postmodernism views the city as the site of the crisis of late capitalism which leads to segregation of neighbourhoods onto prosperous areas and ghettoes. In contrast to the modern city, the postmodern city is not defined by its industrial base; rather, it is determined by its consumerist environment of malls and museums, characterized by revivalist architecture. At the same time, the suburban shopping mall and a motorway network make nonsense of the idea of the city as a unique and well-defined space. These and other approaches encompass a wide spectrum of possibilities

  19. Political exile and democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis RONIGER

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Political exile is a mechanism of institutional exclusion geared at revoking citizenship rights and removing individuals from full participation in the political and public arenas of a country. Due to its exclusionary character, the literature tends to assume a correlation between authoritarianism and exile, on the one hand, and democracy and asylum, on the other. This work challenges this view and discusses the more complex interactions between exile and democracy. Relying on qualitative case analysis of individual and massive exile and on a quantitative database of presidential exile in the nineteenth and twentieth century, it shows that also democracies generate exile and that also authoritarian countries have provided sites of exile and asylum for those fleeing from their home countries.

  20. Underground Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galis, Vasilis; Summerton, Jane

    of various kinds, as well as for identifying and displacing undesired individuals/groups/bodies. A case in point is a recently-established police project (REVA) in Sweden for strengthening the so-called internal border control. Specifically, several underground stations in Stockholm now have checkpoints......Public spaces are often contested sites involving the political use of sociomaterial arrangements to check, control and filter the flow of people (see Virilio 1977, 1996). Such arrangements can include configurations of state-of-the-art policing technologies for delineating and demarcating borders...... status updates on identity checks at the metro stations in Stockholm and reports on locations and time of ticket controls for warning travelers. Thus the attempts by authorities to exert control over the (spatial) arena of the underground is circumvented by the effective developing of an alternative...

  1. Human Rights in Sino-American Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Day, Jana

    2002-01-01

    .... Key among these has been human rights, which both countries view differently. Whereas the United States emphasizes individual civil and political liberties, the People's Republic of China (PRC...

  2. ALEXANDER DUGIN AND MOSCOW’S NEW RIGHT RADICAL INTELLECTUAL CIRCLES AT THE START OF PUTIN’S THIRD PRESIDENTIAL TERM 2012-2013: THE ANTI-ORANGE COMMITTEE, THE IZBORSK CLUB AND THE FLORIAN GEYER CLUB IN THEIR POLITICAL CONTEXT

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas UMLAND

    2016-01-01

    The relatively large attention that Alexander Dugin and his “neo-Eurasian” followers have received in international post-Sovietology and Russian right-wing extremism studies, over the last two decades, is unusual, but justified. Dugin represents for both, analytical and political reasons, a more interesting case than his various ultra-nationalist competitors on the book market, in mass media, and within the public discourse of post-Soviet Russia. Not only has he distinguished himself by his b...

  3. Elite Cohesion in Political Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayerhöffer, Eva

    cohesion in political communication, focusing on the extent and patterns of attitudinal cohesion among elites. Empirically the dissertation builds on unique survey data from more than 1,500 high-ranking politicians and journalists in six European countries (Sweden, Denmark, Germany, Austria, France......The dissertation presents the first comprehensive analysis of the political communication elite– high-ranking journalists, editors, politicians and their communication advisors – that shapes the content and form of political messages, news, debate and decisions in modern democracies. Although...... communication studies that allows us to view high-ranking journalists and editors as elites in their own right, entering into enduring relations with political elites. Based on the combination of these two otherwise separated disciplines, the dissertation develops an integrated and comprehensive model of elite...

  4. Ideology: Its Resurgence in Social, Personality, and Political Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, John T; Nosek, Brian A; Gosling, Samuel D

    2008-03-01

    We trace the rise, fall, and resurgence of political ideology as a topic of research in social, personality, and political psychology. For over 200 years, political belief systems have been classified usefully according to a single left-right (or liberal-conservative) dimension that, we believe, possesses two core aspects: (a) advocating versus resisting social change and (b) rejecting versus accepting inequality. There have been many skeptics of the notion that most people are ideologically inclined, but recent psychological evidence suggests that left-right differences are pronounced in many life domains. Implicit as well as explicit preferences for tradition, conformity, order, stability, traditional values, and hierarchy-versus those for progress, rebelliousness, chaos, flexibility, feminism, and equality-are associated with conservatism and liberalism, respectively. Conservatives score consistently higher than liberals on measures of system justification. Furthermore, there are personality and lifestyle differences between liberals and conservatives as well as situational variables that induce either liberal or conservative shifts in political opinions. Our thesis is that ideological belief systems may be structured according to a left-right dimension for largely psychological reasons linked to variability in the needs to reduce uncertainty and threat. © 2008 Association for Psychological Science.

  5. Earnings Management before Rights Issues and the Subsequent Cash Transfer in Chinese Firms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Bi-Huei

    2009-08-01

    Unlike private enterprises in developed markets, political influence is profound upon Chinese state-dominated firms. Under this consideration, this paper demonstrates how political impact interferes in Chinese managers' decisions. State-assigned managers were found to deliberately transfer cash raised via rights issues from the public shareholders to the state by cash dividends in order to please Chinese politicians. Especially, to meet the regulatory requirement of rights issues, managers from firms which distributed more cash dividends in the same year of rights issues were more likely to inflate earnings before rights issues. The earnings inflation which managers use to boost firm's incomes is defined as "earnings management." Furthermore, the empirical results also exhibit that firm's close relationship with the state enables managers to obtain approvals of rights issues easily, which reduces the firm's earnings management tendency. The manager's incentives of earnings management is closely attributed to the political intervention.

  6. Political Crowdfunding as concept of political technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria GOLKA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Political crowdfunding is analyzed as a new concept of political science. The justification of use of crowdfunding technologies not only in business but also in the political sphere is argued. The efficiency, availability, low cost of the new forms of political investment through the development of information and communication technologies are noted. The typology of political crowdfunding is proposed. Political projects promoting domestic crowdfunding platforms are analyzed. Attention is drawn to the problem of legal gaps in the regulation of crowdfunding is studied. The foreign experience of organizing public support (mikroinvestment political projects. It is emphasized that in terms of political theory crowdfunding is based on solidarity. The crowdfunding properties of transforming social capital accumulated by social networks into financial capital are mentioned.

  7. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Rights: A Human Rights Perspective. Human Rights Education Series, Topic Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, David M.

    This curriculum is intended to further thoughtful examination and responsible action among high school students about lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) issues. Unlike other curricula this discussion is not in the context of civil or political rights but in the broader context of human rights. These rights, as defined in the Universal…

  8. Political Awakenings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Franziska Brühwiler

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Le Complot contre l’Amérique de Philip Roth décrit l’initiation politique de ses deux protagonistes, le narrateur Philip et son frère aîné, Sanford. Tandis que ce dernier passe par un processus initiatique quasi classique — il se déroule conformément au schéma tripartite de van Gennep — l’apogée de l’initiation de Philip est marquée par douleur et blessure. Toutefois, tous les deux connaissent seulement une initiation partielle, car le premier doit d’abord admettre ses erreurs tandis que le second va devoir apprendre, non seulement à remettre en cause l’autorité, mais également à développer ses idées de façon indépendante.Philip Roth’s The Plot Against America traces the political awakening of its two child protagonists, the narrator Philip and his elder brother Sanford. While the latter undergoes an initiation process nearly in accordance with the classical tripartite scheme as coined by van Gennep, the height of Philip’s initiation process is marked by physical pain and injury. However, both experience only a partial initiation, since the elder brother will have to recognize his errors and the younger one will first have to learn how to go beyond the mere questioning of authority.

  9. Brazilian women in politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, T G

    1987-01-01

    Women are gradually gaining influence in Brazilian politics, especially since recent advances in the women's movement, but they still play a limited role. There have been journals devoted to feminism and some notable feminists since 1850. In 1932 suffragettes in Brazil gained women the right to vote. Women's associations burgeoned in the 1940s and 1950s, culminating in a peak in number of women in national elected positions in 1965. A repressive military regime reversed the process, which resumed in 1975. 1975 was also significant for the Brazilian women's movement because of the U.N. Women's Year. Several large, influential feminist political action groups were formed, typically by upper class women with leftist views, although some church and union groups from lower classes also appeared. In 1979-1981, the coherence of these groups fell into schism and fragmentation, because of disagreements over the feminist political doctrines and roles, views on legality of abortion, and special interest groups such as lesbians. Another bitter dispute is opposition by leftist women to BEMFAM, the Brazilian Society of Family Welfare, which provides family planning for the poor: leftists oppose BEMFAM because it is supported by funds from "imperialist" countries such as the U.S. There are several types of feminists groups: those that emphasize health, sexuality and violence; those composed of lesbians; those originating from lower classes and unions; publicly instituted organizations. Brazilian law forbids discrimination against women holding public office, but in reality very few women actually do hold office, except for mayors of small towns and a few administrators of the Education and Social Security ministries. Political office in Brazil is gained by clientism, and since women rarely hold powerful positions in business, they are outsiders of the system. Brazilian women have achieved much, considering the low female literacy rate and traditional power system, but their

  10. About green political parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlović Slobodan P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the author refers to some legal and political questions in connection with green political parties. Those questions cover: the ideology of green political parties, their number and influence, both in general and in Serbia. The first part of work is generally speaking about political parties - their definition, ideology, role and action. Main thesis in this work is that green political parties, by their appearance, were something new on the political scene. But quickly, because of objective and subjective reasons, they were changing original ideas and were beginning to resemble to all other political parties. In this way, they lost their vanguard and political alternativeness.

  11. Social rights constitutionalism: an antagonistic endorsement

    OpenAIRE

    Christodoulidis, Emilios

    2017-01-01

    The article discusses how we might understand solidarity as the organizing concept behind the institutionalization of social rights. I argue that writing solidarity into social rights constitutionalism carries productive tension into constitutional thinking because it disturbs the smooth passage from civil to political and finally to social rights. Marshall's influential argument that social rights are continuous to civil and political rights has become both the grounding assumption in consti...

  12. Gentrification and Occupancy Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Jakob; Wolkenstein, Gregor Fabio

    2018-01-01

    What, if anything, is wrong with gentrification? This paper addresses this question from the perspective of normative political theory. We argue that gentrification is a wrong insofar as it involves a violation of city-dwellers occupancy rights. We distinguish these rights from other forms...... of territorial rights, and discuss the different implications of the argument for urban governance. If we agree on the ultimate importance of being able to pursue one’s located life-plans, the argument goes, we must also agree on limiting the impact on gentrification on people’s lives. Limiting gentrification...

  13. Hidden consequences of political efficacy: Testing an efficacy-apathy model of political mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Danny; Yogeeswaran, Kumar; Sibley, Chris G

    2015-10-01

    Political efficacy-the belief that one can influence politics-is a key predictor of people's involvement in social movements. Political institutions that are open to change should, however, be seen as just. Thus, political efficacy may ironically undermine minority group members' support for collective action by simultaneously increasing their belief in the fairness of the system. The current study aims to examine this possibility in a national sample of Māori-New Zealand's indigenous minority population. Participants (N = 399) were Māori (Mage = 44.22; SD = 13.30) women (n = 272) and men (n = 115; unreported = 12) who completed a survey assessing their levels of (a) political efficacy, (b) system justification, and (c) support for the political mobilization of their group, as well as relevant demographic covariates. Consistent with past research, political efficacy had a positive direct effect on participants' support for the political mobilization of Māori. Nevertheless, political efficacy also had a negative indirect effect on political mobilization support via increases in system justification. These results held after controlling for participants' ethnic identification, self-efficacy, and conservatism. Our findings uncover a hidden consequence of political efficacy and show that, while believing that the political system is receptive to change predicts political mobilization, it can also undermine minorities' support for the mobilization of their group. Thus, our results uncover a previously unknown process that maintains inequality between ethnic minority and majority group members. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Strategic political postures and political market orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan C.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the areas of strategic political marketing and political market orientation have been the subject of several conceptual articles which have provided the theoretical foundations for further empirical work. However, despite the close conceptual relatedness of the proposed concepts...... by developing an integrated concept of political marketing strategy using two complementary frameworks, namely Strategic Political Postures (SPP) and Political Market Orientation (PMO). We introduce the two main concepts and derive for each of the strategic posture-specific PMO profiles as well as inter...

  15. The absolute political independence, the condition of the action

    OpenAIRE

    Marton, Ruchama

    2011-01-01

    A radical worldview A human rights organization is inherently a radical political organization. Physicians for Human Rights-Israel (PHRI) is a political organization, allied with no political party. We are political in striving for social change, to undermine the social structure that oppresses Palestinians (in the occupied Palestinian territory and in Israel), immigrant workers, women, old people, gays and lesbians, refugees, and the poor. A radical group, by definition, is outside the conse...

  16. Defining Political Marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.

    ’ and ‘narrow’ interpretations of political marketing, the nature of the political marketing exchange, political relationship marketing and how one can integrate the stakeholder concept into an understanding of political marketing. Finally, we propose a definition of political marketing that differs from......The aim of this working paper is to develop a definition of political marketing that builds on the political rather than commercial marketing literature. This aim is motivated by the need to make explicit our understanding of what political marketing is, a necessary exercise when discussing theory......, concepts and empirical methods in political marketing. We first present five existing definitions of political marketing that have been selected to represent advances in research from the origins of academic research into political marketing in the mid-1970’s to the present day. After this we discuss ‘wide...

  17. The advocacy for pedestrian safety study: cluster randomised trial evaluating a political advocacy approach to reduce pedestrian injuries in deprived communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronan A Lyons

    Full Text Available To determine whether advocacy targeted at local politicians leads to action to reduce the risk of pedestrian injury in deprived areas.Cluster randomised controlled trial.239 electoral wards in 57 local authorities in England and Wales.617 elected local politicians.Intervention group politicians were provided with tailored information packs, including maps of casualty sites, numbers injured and a synopsis of effective interventions.25-30 months post intervention, primary outcomes included: electoral ward level: percentage of road traffic calmed; proportion with new interventions; school level: percentage with 20 mph zones, Safe Routes to School, pedestrian training or road safety education; politician level: percentage lobbying for safety measures. Secondary outcomes included politicians' interest and involvement in injury prevention, and facilitators and barriers to implementation.PRIMARY OUTCOMES DID NOT SIGNIFICANTLY DIFFER: % difference in traffic calming (0.07, 95%CI: -0.07 to 0.20; proportion of schools with 20 mph zones (RR 1.47, 95%CI: 0.93 to 2.32, Safe Routes to School (RR 1.34, 95%CI: 0.83 to 2.17, pedestrian training (RR 1.23, 95%CI: 0.95 to 1.61 or other safety education (RR 1.16, 95%CI: 0.97 to 1.39. Intervention group politicians reported greater interest in child injury prevention (RR 1.09, 95%CI 1.03 to 1.16, belief in potential to help prevent injuries (RR 1.36, 95%CI 1.16 to 1.61, particularly pedestrian safety (RR 1.55, 95%CI 1.19 to 2.03. 63% of intervention politicians reported supporting new pedestrian safety schemes. The majority found the advocacy information surprising, interesting, effectively presented, and could identify suitable local interventions.This study demonstrates the feasibility of an innovative approach to translational public health by targeting local politicians in a randomised controlled trial. The intervention package was positively viewed and raised interest but changes in interventions were not

  18. Deconstructing Rights

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Karen Kershaw

    “The refugee is perhaps the only thinkable figure in which one may see today the forms and limits of a coming political community”. Giorgio Agamben ... the poor in their constituency. • None have taken up gender, labor, or caste issues ... glocal, which implies global and local inhabit same playing field. Instead, women's ...

  19. Rights of Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kofman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A person’s identity is their sense of who and what they are, of who stands in significant relations to them, and of what is valuable to them. This is inevitably very broad, an immediate implication of which is that the concept of identity taken alone cannot do significant normative work. In some cases a person’s identity is bound up with the evil that they do or wish to do, and cannot thereby give them any right to do it. In other cases very powerful elements of a person’s identity – such as their attachment to loved ones – is certainly related to important rights, but it is not entirely clear that one needs the concept of identity to explicate or justify these rights; the deep involvement of their identity is arguably a byproduct of other important values in these cases (such as love, and those values can do the grounding work of the rights by themselves and more simply and clearly. Nevertheless, when suitably qualified, a person’s identity is central to accounting for important political rights. These ranges from rights to participate in cultural practices of one’s group, which sometimes implies duties on governments to support minorities threatened with extinction, to – at the outer limit – rights to arrange political administration. These rights are connected to both autonomy and fairness. Cultural rights are often taken either to be opposed to autonomy, or at best instrumental to personal autonomy (by providing ‘options’, but in fact, the ideal of autonomy, expressed by Mill as being the author of one’s life, requires that one be in control of significant aspects of one’s identity. Significant aspects of one’s identity are collectively determined within a culture. Cultures are not static, and their development is particularly affected by political boundaries. A fundamental right of autonomy implies, therefore, that groups be allowed, within reasonable constraints of general feasibility and stability, to arrange

  20. Language and Politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimombo, Moira

    1999-01-01

    Surveys the interrelationship between language and politics. Touches on the context of political discourse, or political culture and ideology in new and old democracies and the reemerging manifestations of totalitarianism, censorship, and linguistic imperialism; then examines selected linguistic features of political discourse and their…

  1. An Introduction to the Teaching of Hegel's Political Philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widulski, Peter

    1985-01-01

    Hegel's teaching is often omitted or considered summarily in political philosophy courses. In order to reduce these difficulties, an introductory discussion of Hegel's political thought in the context of a dialogue is presented. (RM)

  2. What Inverted U Can Do for Your Country: A Curvilinear Relationship Between Confidence in the Social System and Political Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichocka, Aleksandra; Górska, Paulina; Jost, John T; Sutton, Robbie M; Bilewicz, Michał

    2017-08-24

    We examined the link between political engagement and the tendency to justify the sociopolitical system. On one hand, confidence in the system should be negatively related to political engagement, insofar as it entails reduced desire for social change; on the other hand, system confidence should also be positively related to political engagement to the extent that it carries an assumption that the system is responsive to citizens' political efforts. Because of the combination of these 2 opposing forces, the motivation for political engagement should be highest at intermediate levels of system confidence. Five studies revealed a negative quadratic relationship between system confidence and normative political engagement. In 2 representative surveys, Polish participants with moderate levels of system confidence were more likely to vote in political elections (Study 1) and to participate in solidarity-based collective action (Study 2). Two field studies demonstrated a negative quadratic relationship between system confidence and actual participation in political demonstrations (gender equality and teachers' protests in Poland; Studies 3 and 4). This pattern of results was further corroborated by analyses of data from 50 countries drawn from the World Value Survey: we observed negative quadratic relationships between system confidence and collective action as well as voting. These relationships were stronger in democratic (vs. nondemocratic) regimes (Study 5). Our results suggest that some degree of system confidence might be useful to stimulate political engagement within the norms of the system. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. The Pros and Cons of Using Joint Ventures as a Tool to Mitigate Political Risks in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Iftinchi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As part of their political risk management strategy, multinational corporations (MNCs can use joint ventures as a tool to reduce their exposure to political risks in international activities. The aim of this article is to present the main benefits for MNCs in using joint ventures with a local partner to mitigate political risks in developing countries and to put forward three risks that MNCs have to consider when choosing the local partner (the risk of opportunistic expropriation, the risk associated with transferring of intellectual property rights and reputational risk.

  4. Human Rights and the Rights of Aliens. Working Paper NB-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, James W.

    This paper examines the issue of human rights and the rights of aliens. Contemporary ideas of human rights and contractarian alternatives to universal rights are reviewed. The obligations of governments to admit refugees and to honor the rights of aliens within their borders are discussed. The right to political participation and right to welfare…

  5. Loss of job-related right to healthcare is associated with reduced quality and clinical outcomes of diabetic patients in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubova, Svetlana V; Borja-Aburto, Víctor Hugo; Guerra-Y-Guerra, Germán; Salgado-de-Snyder, V Nelly; González-Block, Miguel Ángel

    2018-02-08

    The Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) provides a package of health, economic and social benefits to workers employed in private firms within the formal labour market and to their economic dependants. Affiliates have a right to these benefits only while they remain contracted, thus posing a risk for the continuity of healthcare. This study evaluates the association between the time (in days) without the right to healthcare due to job loss in the formal labour market and the quality of healthcare and clinical outcomes among IMSS affiliates with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Retrospective cohort study 2013-2015. Six IMSS family medicine clinics (FMC) in Mexico City. T2DM patients (n = 27 217) affiliated with job-related health insurance and at least one consultation with a family doctor during 2013. IMSS affiliation department database and electronic health records and clinical laboratory databases. Quality of the processes (eight indicators) and outcomes (three indicators) of healthcare. The results indicated that losing IMSS right to healthcare is frequent, occurring to one-third of T2DM patients during the follow-up period. The time without the right to healthcare in the observed period was of 120 days on average and was associated with a 43.2% loss of quality of care and a 19.2% reduction in clinical outcomes of T2DM. Policies aimed at ensuring access and continuity of care, regardless of job status, are critical for improving the quality of processes and outcomes of healthcare for diabetic patients. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  6. Defining Political Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Ormrod, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this working paper is to develop a definition of political marketing that builds on the political rather than commercial marketing literature. This aim is motivated by the need to make explicit our understanding of what political marketing is, a necessary exercise when discussing theory, concepts and empirical methods in political marketing. We first present five existing definitions of political marketing that have been selected to represent advances in research from the origins o...

  7. Hybrid carbon incentive mechanisms and political acceptability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollebergh, H.R.J.; De Vries, J.L.; Koutstaal, P.R.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper it is analyzed how hybrid systems of carbon taxes and tradeable permits optimize some conflicting dimensions of political acceptability related to the design of these instruments. Pure systems like taxes without exemptions or auctioned tradeable permits cause problems for political acceptability in open economies due to high overall costs (abatement cost plus payments on the tax or auctions) for current polluters. Unfortunately, pure systems based on grandfathering of emission rights across the board do not provide a feasible alternative because of monitoring and enforcement problems. In contrast, consciously designed hybrid systems employ grandfathering of emission rights together with either carbon taxes or auctioned carbon permits in order to overcome acceptability problems of pure systems, while leaving incentives to reduce emissions at the margin untouched. Moreover, monitoring and enforcement costs of the hybrid systems are less due to the lower number of participating agents compared with the pure systems, while opportunities for cost- or burden-sharing exist as well. 3 figs., 4 tabs., 23 refs

  8. Education at the Margins of the Political

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojesen, Emile

    2017-01-01

    This paper argues that the political can respond to that which exceeds it without reducing it to the same, and that public education is one of the most important places where this can happen. I present a rationale for public education to assist that which exceeds the political: singularity, solitude and difference. What I maintain is that the…

  9. Discursive Framings of Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    What does it mean to be a subject of human rights? The status of the subject is closely connected with the form and rhetoric of the framing discourse, and this book investigates the relationship between the status of the subject and the form of human rights discourse, in differing aesthetic...... and social contexts. Historical as well as contemporary declarations of rights have stressed both the protective and political aspects of human rights. But in concrete situations and conflictual moments, the high moral legitimacy of human rights rhetoric has often clouded the actual character of specific...... interventions, and so made it difficult to differentiate between the objects of humanitarian intervention and the subjects of politics. Critically re-examining this opposition – between victims and agents of human rights – through a focus on the ways in which discourses of rights are formed and circulated...

  10. Political entrepreneurship and bidding for political monopoly

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Wohlgemuth

    2000-01-01

    An analytical framework for dealing with political entrepreneurship and reform is proposed which is based on some new combinations of Schumpeterian political economy, an extended version of Tullock's model of democracy as franchise-bidding for natural monopoly and some basic elements of New Institutional Economics. It is shown that problems of insufficient award criteria and incomplete contracts which may arise in economic bidding schemes, also - and even more so - characterise political comp...

  11. Reflexiones ético-políticas sobre los derechos colectivos de los pueblos indígenas; Reflexões ético-políticas sobre os direitos coletivos dos povos indígenas; Ethical-political reflections on the collective rights of indigenous peoples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luisa Guerrero Guerrero

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: En esta ocasión abordaré algunas cuestiones sobre las implicaciones ético-políticas del reconocimiento internacional de los derechos de los pueblos indígenas, ya que en ellos se encuentran concepciones que enriquecen la defensa de la integridad humana y que vienen a ser un eje de sustento que se incorpora al ya existente de la tradición occidental moderna de los derechos humanos, acontecimiento que motiva reflexiones sobre las relaciones entre el poder político y estos pueblos en nuestra región. Palabras clave: Derechos Humanos, pueblos indígenas, política   Resumo: Nesta ocasião, abordarei algumas questões sobre as implicações ético-políticas do reconhecimento internacional dos direitos dos povos indígenas, uma vez que contêm conceitos que enriquecem a defesa da integridade humana e que se tornam um eixo de subsistência incorporado para a atual tradição ocidental moderna dos direitos humanos, evento que motiva as reflexões sobre as relações entre o poder político e essas pessoas em nossa região. Palavras-chave: Direitos humanos, povos indígenas, política   Abstrac: On this occasion I will address some questions about the ethical-political implications of the international recognition of the rights of indigenous peoples, since they contain concepts that enrich the defense of human integrity and that become an axis of livelihood that is incorporated to the existing one of the modern western tradition of the human rights, event that motivates reflections on the relations between the political power and these people in our region. Keywords: Human rights, indigenous peoples, politics

  12. The Community of Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgård, Jonas Ross

    2012-01-01

    The article presents the argument that in order to have human rights in the years of the French Revolution it was necessary to be and act in accordance with an ambiguous concept of the natural. While the idea of the natural or of human nature could be an inclusive and universal one, it could also...... be used in a particularistic and excluding way which was the case in the legislation of Maximilien de Robespierre’s Terror Regime. Situated somewhere between inclusion in and exclusion from the community of rights, the playwright and political activist Olympe de Gouges sought to propagate an understanding...

  13. (Un- Political Ethics, (un- Ethical Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolff-Michael Roth

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Ethics and politics are normally con­sidered domains that do not mix, in fact, domains that have little to do with one another. In this article, I provide four factual fictions that show how at the university, research ethics and politics are intertwined. Politics appears to be used for the sole purpose of constructing and maintaining con­trol over the research process and its products. Ultimately, even ethics reviews of proposed research studies are caught up in the politics of power. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0403357

  14. Right to life, right to end of life: some considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitello, Lucia; Sansoni, Julita

    2012-01-01

    Human rights have undergone constant evolution. Recently, however, new generations of rights are developing: from political and civil rights to social and economic rights, so much so that this period may be defined as the age of human rights. Many differences exist between moral rules and judicial law. While moral rights are not necessarily recorded in statutory law, some judicial laws, which are capable of being imposed and/or appealed within a true territorial government, originate from moral rules. Common sense has reservations about whether human rights can be labelled as laws in a rudimentary way; instead, society places human rights in the category of moral rights. These moral rights, in fact, are not the fruit of compromise, but are absolute and essential to the inner self. Throughout this article, the evolution of end of life rights is discussed, with particular regard to how those rights are directly correlated to organ transplantation.

  15. Whose Rights?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aktor, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    The debate over ritual infant male circumcision has increasingly been thematized as a Human Rights issue. But the claims on such rights seem highly conflicting. In particular, the rights of the child seems to conflict with the freedom of religion of parents, the rights of religious and ethnic...

  16. A new era for French far right politics?: Comparing the FN under two Le Pens Uma nova era para a extrema-direita francesa?: Uma comparação entre a Frente Nacional dos dois Le Pen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Hale Williams

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available With 2012 elections looming on the horizon in France, much political attention has focused on the new leader of the National Front, Marine Le Pen. She is polling quite well outpacing many of her mainstream party candidate rivals for the 2012 French presidency and the public appears to have embraced her with open arms. Hailed as a promising new face of French politics, a wide swath of the French electorate indicates confidence in her ability to bring needed changes to France. Yet does she really represent a dramatic departure from former FN policies and positions? This article examines the model of the FN during the leadership of Jean-Marie Le Pen in comparison with that seen in the first eight months of Marine Le Pen’s leadership in order to address this question.Com a iminência das eleições francesas de 2012, muita da atenção política se tem centrado na nova líder da Frente Nacional, Marine Le Pen, que tem tido um desempenho notável nas sondagens, ultrapassando muitos dos seus rivais dos partidos tradicionais na corrida para a presidência francesa, e sendo aparentemente acolhida de braços abertos por grande parte do eleitorado. Considerada uma nova e promissora figura no panorama político francês, uma larga fatia do eleitorado demonstra confiança na sua capacidade para trazer ao país a mudança necessária. Mas será que ela representa, de facto, uma ruptura com as antigas posições políticas da FN? O presente artigo examina o modelo da FN sob a liderança de Jean-Marie Le Pen comparando-o com o dos primeiros oito meses da liderança de Marine Le Pen por forma a analisar esta questão.

  17. Biventricular non-compaction with predominant right ventricular involvement, reduced left ventricular systolic and diastolic function, and pulmonary hypertension in a Hispanic male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Sarmad; Cooper, Chad J; Quevedo, Karla; Rodriguez, Emmanuel; Hernandez, German T

    2013-01-01

    Male, 22 FINAL DIAGNOSIS: Cardiomyopathy Symptoms: Shortness of breath • dispnoea • chest discomfort - Clinical Procedure: Echocardiogram • cardiac MRI Specialty: Cardiology. Challenging differential diagnosis. Non-compaction cardiomyopathy (NCM) is a rare congenital cardiomyopathy characterized by increased trabeculation in one or more segments of the ventricle. The left ventricle is most commonly affected. However, biventricular involvement or right ventricle predominance has also been described. Clinical features of NCM are non-specific and can range from being asymptomatic to symptoms of congestive heart failure, arrhythmia, and systemic thromboembolism. 22-year-old Hispanic male presented with two month history of chest discomfort. Laboratory workup revealed an elevated brain-natriuretic-peptide of 1768 pg/ml. ECG and chest x-ray was nonspecific. Transthoracic echocardiogram revealed prominent trabeculae and spongiform appearance of the left ventricle (LV) with an ejection-fraction of 15-20%; 5 of 9 segments of the LV were trabeculated with deep intertrabecular recesses also involving the right ventricle (RV) with demonstrated blood flow in these recesses on color-doppler. The biventricular spongiform appearance was morphologically suggestive for NCM with involvement of the RV. Confirmatory cardiac MRI was performed, demonstrating excessive trabeculation of the left-ventricular apex and mid-ventricular segments. Hypertrabecularion was exhibited at the apical and lateral wall of the RV. Cardiac catheterization showed an intact cardiac vessel system. The patient was discharged on heart failure treatment and was placed on the heart transplantation list. NCM is a unique disorder resulting in serious and severe complications. The majority of the reported cases describe the involvement of the left ventricle. However, the right ventricle should be taken into careful consideration. The early diagnosis may help to increase the event-free survival.

  18. What is Beyond Right/Left?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrberg, Torben Bech

    2009-01-01

    The article looks at New Labour's move beyond right/left in the mid/late 1990s, which is an occasion to spell out the nature of right/left and what it means for democracy. In contrast to both defenders and critics of this move I argue in the first part that right/left is not an empty label bound up...... right/left. I argue that the new hegemonic orientation is that of front/back, which designs political renewal as a response to the social changes cutting across the outdated lines of contestation of partisan politics. The democratic problem of this move lies in squeezing politics between technocratic...

  19. Advancing safe motherhood through human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, R

    1998-01-01

    In order to reduce preventable maternal mortality, it is necessary to go beyond ensuring the development and availability of effective health interventions. What is needed is a recognition that maternal mortality is caused by women's inferior social status and that women's disempowerment from birth represents a cumulative social injustice that governments are obliged to remedy through application of their political, health, and legal systems. The challenge of effectively applying such a human rights perspective to safe motherhood is similar to that required in efforts to eliminate slavery or racial discrimination: the necessary reforms threaten conventional practices and value systems. The claim that safe motherhood is a human right will gather legitimacy when it is understood that denying this claim creates an injustice within the standards of fairness that societies hold dear. In addition, countries must recognize that this human rights claim arises from their own cultural values. Then, governments must be held accountable. Advancing safe motherhood through human rights will require a diagnosis of laws, policies, and social norms. The task must include inquiries into the nearly 600,000 annual maternal deaths, and it must meet the challenge of translating human rights into the rights of each person to be human. As 1998 celebrates the first 50 years since the 1948 UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the next phase in human rights development must focus on the previously neglected interests of women.

  20. Gender, religion and democratic politics in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Zoya

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the impact of identity politics on gender equality. More specifically it explores the paradoxical and complex relationship of religion and politics in a multi-religious society and the complicated ways in which women's activism has both reinforced and challenged their gender identities. Contrary to the argument that religious politics does not always negate gender equality, the article argues that the Hindu religious politics and women's activism associated with it provides a compelling example of the instrumentalisation of women to accomplish the political goals of the Hindu right. It also examines the approach and strategies of influential political parties, women's organisations and Muslim women's groups towards legal reform and the contested issue of a uniform civil code. Against those who argue that, in the current communal conjuncture, reform within Muslim personal laws or Islamic feminism is the best strategy for enhancing the scope of Muslim women's rights, the article argues that such an approach tends to freeze identities within religious boundaries. It shows how women's and minority rights are used within the politics of religion to sideline the agenda of women's rights.

  1. Philosophical foundations of human rights

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Matthew S

    2015-01-01

    What makes something a human right? What is the relationship between the moral foundations of human rights and human rights law? What are the difficulties of appealing to human rights? This book offers the first comprehensive survey of current thinking on the philosophical foundations of human rights. Divided into four parts, this book focusses firstly on the moral grounds of human rights, for example in our dignity, agency, interests or needs. 'Secondly, it looks at the implications that different moral perspectives on human rights bear for human rights law and politics. Thirdly, it discusses specific and topical human rights including freedom of expression and religion, security, health and more controversial rights such as a human right to subsistence. The final part discusses nuanced critical and reformative views on human rights from feminist, Kantian and relativist perspectives among others. The essays represent new and canonical research by leading scholars in the field. Each part is comprised of a set...

  2. Mining Web Query Logs to Analyze Political Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, I.; Garimella, V.R.K.; Borra, E.; Contractor, N.; Uzzi, B.

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel approach to using anonymized web search query logs to analyze and visualize political issues. Our starting point is a list of politically annotated blogs (left vs. right). We use this list to assign a numerical political leaning to queries leading to clicks on these blogs.

  3. Multiple political identities: revisiting the 'maximum standard'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, L.F.M.; Silveira, A.; Canotilho, M.; Madeira Froufe, P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the meaning of Art. 53 of the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights - which would seem to give priority to those fundamental rights which provide higher protection - from the perspective of fundamental rights as the expression of political and constitutional identity. In doing so, it

  4. Civic political culture, participatory governance and political ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study x-rayed the significance of civic political culture on participatory governance and its potentialities on political development. It adopted theoretical postulations in analyzing the subject matter. The analytical model showed a diagrammatic presentation of the relationship among participant culture features, elements ...

  5. Civic Political Culture, Participatory Governance and Political ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    Indexed African Journals Online: www.ajol.info as its potential contribution to political development in Nigeria-as it will be applicable to other developing countries of the world. This study provided theoretical postulations in analysing the notion of participatory governance, and linking the research problem (civic political ...

  6. Political Values or the Value of Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simoska, Emilija

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay was motivated by the gap between proclaimed democratic principles and the perceptions of politics which are exhibited by the citizens in transitional countries -more specifically in the Republic of Macedonia. It is based on research data collected in the past few decades, which illustrate that, in their political actions, the citizens are highly motivated by personal benefits and profits, rather than by their internalized values and ideologies. Non-democratic, authoritarian values prevail, while politics is perceived as a value itself, in the most materialistic meaning of the word. It creates a suitable milieu for growth of corruption, nepotism and clientelism. The authors conclude that such a circulus vitsiosus is a corner stone of the Macedonian political regime, and an enormous obstacle for the advancement of the participative, democratic political culture in reality, in spite of its formal acceptance.

  7. Children's Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlene, Vickie J.

    1992-01-01

    Provides a sampling of citations in the ERIC database on children's rights. Includes human rights education, United Nations' conventions, state takeovers of local school districts, and federal law as it affects student rights. Covers child abuse, corporal punishment, child welfare, and child advocacy. (DK)

  8. Right, Ethicity and State in Hegel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierpaolo Cesaroni

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to give an account of Hegel’s conception of right as a mutual implication of ethical and political life against the backdrop of the modern theories of right, based on the construction of a sovereign will authorized by the procedure of representation and on the notion of a threefold division of the powers of the State. After having clarified Hegel’s definition of State as the actuality of the ethical Idea, I will provide a stepwise reconstruction of the inner logic of the constitution (Verfassung, as it is articulated in its three main moments: the power of the monarch (singularity, the civil society (particularity, and the legislative power (universality. Specifically, I will argue that, from the Outlines of the Philosophy of Right (1820 to the Enciclopedia of 1827 and 1830, passing through the course of 1824/25, Hegel’s texts show the discontinuous development of a broad and original notion of government (Regierung, which, in the §541 of the Enciclopedia of 1830, culminates in the identification of government with the political State. Thus, the traditional distinction of powers ends up being transformed into the articulation of three ruling agencies, which are actively present in every sphere of the constitution, without, however, pretending to reduce or eliminate any of them.

  9. Gaps in Political Interest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robison, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Political interest fundamentally influences political behavior, knowledge, and persuasion (Brady, Verba, & Schlozman, 1995; Delli Carpini & Keeter, 1996; Luskin, 1990; Zukin, Andolina, Keeter, Jenkins, & Delli Carpini, 2006). Since the early 1960s, the American National Election Studies (ANES) ha...

  10. Sustainability : Politics and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinrichs, Harald; Biermann, Frank

    2016-01-01

    he article gives an overview of global sustainability policy and politics. It is shown how international policy making on sustainable development has progressed from environmental policy toward recent approaches of Earth system governance. Key challenges of international sustainability politics are

  11. Comparing Political Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Pfetsch, Barbara; Esser, Frank

    2012-01-01

    This chapter describes the maturation of comparative political communications as a sub-discipline and defines its conceptual core. It then lays out the concept of “political communication system”. At the macro-level, this model captures the patterns of interaction between media and politics as social systems; at the micro-level it captures the interactions between media and political actors as individuals or organizations. Comparative research in this tradition focuses on the structure of pol...

  12. Western Political Consulting Techniques and Post-Soviet Political Technology in Political Campaigns in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Bērziņa, Ieva

    2012-01-01

    Western Political Consulting Techniques and Post-Soviet Political Technology in Political Campaigns in Latvia Ieva Dmitričenko Keywords: political campaignsm political consulting, political technology, parties, marketing, media Political campaigning is an international phenomenon, because there is a free flow of information, knowledge and human resource among practitioners of political campaigning in various countries. As a result political campaigning techniques that have proven to ...

  13. Inclusion as political mobilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anne Mette; Muwanga, Nansozi

    2016-01-01

    Uganda has been successful in broadening access to education. However, this achievement has been undermined by low literacy and numeracy levels and high drop-out rates. A political settlement perspective sheds light on the politics of education reforms. We find that there are weak political drive...

  14. Verbal Behavior and Politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graber, Doris A.

    This book illustrates how and why knowledge of verbal behavior is important to an understanding of politics by analyzing and describing verbal behavior studies pertaining to politics. Chapters in the first part of the book discuss the various characteristics of verbal behavior: the importance of verbal behavior in politics, construction of…

  15. Policy Research and Politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskell, Jane

    1988-01-01

    Explores what it means to do research intended to be relevant for public policy. Argues against perception of policy research as politically neutral technical exercise. Discusses political implications of methodology. Discusses research examples to illustrate point. Discusses implications for how research might be used in political process.…

  16. Teaching Politically Correct Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsehelska, Maryna

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that teaching politically correct language to English learners provides them with important information and opportunities to be exposed to cultural issues. The author offers a brief review of how political correctness became an issue and how being politically correct influences the use of language. The article then presents…

  17. Tracking Politics with POWER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Silvio; Batista, David S.; Carvalho, Paula; Couto, Francisco M.; Silva, Mario J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: POWER is an ontology of political processes and entities. It is designed for tracking politicians, political organizations and elections, both in mainstream and social media. The aim of this paper is to propose a data model to describe political agents and their relations over time. Design/methodology/approach: The authors propose a data…

  18. Political Education in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dag, Nilgun; Sozer, Mehmet Akif; Sel, Burcu

    2015-01-01

    Political education is a term with negative associations and triggering prejudiced approaches and discourses--maybe some paranoid thoughts--like "keep politics away from education!" in the minds of several people. This article deals with "political education" phenomenon almost never discussed and made subject to scientific…

  19. Lobbying and political polarization

    OpenAIRE

    Ursprung, Heinrich W.

    2002-01-01

    Standard spatial models of political competition give rise to equilibria in which the competing political parties or candidates converge to a common position. In this paper I show how political polarization can be generated in models that focus on the nexus between pre-election interest group lobbying and electoral competition.

  20. Natural Rights and Human Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Nasser Qorban Nia

    2013-01-01

    Any human rights bereft of philosophical and anthropological foundations are susceptible to weakness and vulnerability. The question as to how from a logical point of view we arrive at the conclusion that the fact of being a human accords us with rights is one that has been provided with several answers. Belief in the natural rights is justification for some prominent proponents. However, in spite of serious challenges facing the proponents of natural rights, it is possible to consider the...

  1. Web Resources for Teaching about Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merryfield, Merry M.; Badang, Germain; Bragg, Christina; Kvasov, Aleksandr; Taylor, Nathan; Waliaula, Anne; Yamaguchi, Misato

    2012-01-01

    The study of human rights is inseparable from social studies. Beyond the basic political, economic, and social freedoms and rights spelled out in The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, hundreds of specialized topics have developed that demonstrate the complex nature of human rights in the twenty-first-century world--environmental exploitation…

  2. Defensive Enforcement: Human Rights in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadiprayitno, I.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the article is to examine the human rights enforcement in Indonesian legal and political system. This is done by studying the legal basis of human rights, the process of proliferation of human rights discourse, and the actual controversies of human rights enforcement. The study has

  3. Problems of political corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirić Jovan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The author in this work speaks about general problems of political corruption in the world and in Serbia. The author tries to define the phenomenon of political corruption and pays special attention to financing political parties. Ćirić gives the overview of international documents about financing political parties and gives us the overview of MP's salaries in some western countries. At the end it is analyzed the question of trading MP's mandate, as a matter of fact who is the owner of the mandate of one representative - that representative, or his/her political party. That also could be the origin of different manipulations and corruption.

  4. 75 FR 50791 - Bureau of Political-Military Affairs: Directorate of Defense Trade Controls; Notifications to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... of Political-Military Affairs: Directorate of Defense Trade Controls; Notifications to the Congress... Controls, Bureau of Political- Military Affairs, Department of State (202) 663-2861. SUPPLEMENTARY... account political, military, economic, human rights, and arms control considerations. More detailed...

  5. Decentralization, local power and women's rights

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Decentralization has changed the political and institutional context for promoting the full and equal rights of citizens in .... to local political, social, economic, and cultural needs and conditions. 13. Research and experience .... Communication, dissemination, and support networks. 52. Disseminate information on quotas, and ...

  6. Religion and Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandak, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Religion and politics provide an interesting juxtaposition. On the one hand, both may initially come across as rather self-evident categories, with religion dealing with human perceptions and what people hold as sacred, and politics addressing the control and governance of fellow human beings....... Nonetheless, such a simple opposition should only work as a starting point for an interrogation of both terms and how they have come to look and function as empirical and analytical categories. Focusing on the ways that religion is played out in relation to politics reveals different historical and cultural...... constellations and positions, which can be highlighted as variations of religion as politics, religion in politics, religion out of politics, and religion not politics....

  7. Political Budget Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaskoven, Lasse; Lassen, David Dreyer

    2017-01-01

    The political budget cycle—how elections affect government fiscal policy—is one of the most studied subjects in political economy and political science. The key theoretical question is whether incumbent governments can time or structure public finances in ways that improve their chances of reelec......The political budget cycle—how elections affect government fiscal policy—is one of the most studied subjects in political economy and political science. The key theoretical question is whether incumbent governments can time or structure public finances in ways that improve their chances...... on political budget cycles have recently focused on conditions under which such cycles are likely to obtain. Much recent research focuses on subnational settings, allowing comparisons of governments in similar institutional environments, and a consensus on the presences of cycles in public finances...

  8. Putting politics first.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Jacob S

    2008-01-01

    The greatest lesson of the failure of comprehensive health reform in the early 1990s is that politics comes first. Even the best-laid policy plans are worthless if they lack the political support to pass. Putting politics first means avoiding the overarching mistake of the Clinton reformers: envisioning a grand policy compromise rather than hammering out a real political compromise. It also means addressing the inevitable fears of those who believe that they are well protected by our eroding employment-based system. And it means formulating political strategies that are premised on the contemporary realities of the hyperpolarized U.S. political environment, rather than wistfully recalled images of the bipartisan politics of old.

  9. The politics of researching global health politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Simon

    2015-01-01

    In this comment, I build on Shiffman’s call for the global health community to more deeply investigate structural and productive power. I highlight two challenges we must grapple with as social scientists carrying out the types of investigation that Shiffman proposes: the politics of challenging the powerful; and the need to investigate types of expertise that have traditionally been thought of as ‘outside’ global health. In doing so, I argue that moving forward with the agenda Shiffman sets out requires social scientists interested in the global politics of health to be reflexive about our own exercise of structural and productive power and the fact that researching global health politics is itself a political undertaking. PMID:25905482

  10. Recourse right

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, M.R.M.

    1979-01-01

    The recourse right concerning nuclear power plants is analysed. It is emphasized that in the Brazilian civil liability legislation, the operator has this right against who admitted it through a written contract or against the individual who has acted or omitted to act whith the intent to provoke nuclear incidents. (A.L.S.L.) [pt

  11. The Effects of Print Comparative Political Advertising on Political Decision-Making and Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkleton, Bruce E.

    1998-01-01

    Examines intended and unintended effects of print comparative political advertising on political decision making, voting preferences, and situational election involvement among a sample of communication and business undergraduate students. Suggests that comparative advertising reduces targeted-candidate voting preferences while avoiding most forms…

  12. The impact of dark tetrad traits on political orientation and extremism: an analysis in the course of a presidential election.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duspara, Boris; Greitemeyer, Tobias

    2017-10-01

    Previous research on personality and political attitudes has been conducted in countries where political parties from the center dominate the political system. In the present research ( N = 675), we focus on the relationship between the dark side of human personality and political orientation and extremism, respectively, in the course of a presidential election where the two candidates represent either left-wing or right-wing political policies. Narcissism, Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and everyday sadism were associated with right-wing political orientation, whereas narcissism and psychopathy were associated with political extremism. Moreover, the relationships between personality and right-wing political orientation and extremism, respectively, were relatively independent from each other.

  13. Political Corruption: An Institutional Aspect

    OpenAIRE

    Наронская, Анна Гегамовна

    2017-01-01

    This article is devoted to corruption’s impact on the functioning of political institutions. In the author’s opinion, political corruption leads to informal institutionalization and degradation of political institutions. The author concludes that public control can prevent political corruption.Key words: the political corruption, conflict of interests, formal and informal institutions, political process.

  14. The politics of reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, F; Rapp, R

    1991-01-01

    The topic of human reproduction encompasses events throughout the human and especially female life-cycle as well as ideas and practices surrounding fertility, birth, and child care. Most of the scholarship on the subject, up through the 1960s, was based on cross-cultural surveys focused on the beliefs, norms, and values surrounding reproductive behaviors. Multiple methodologies and subspecialties, and fields like social history, human biology, and demography were utilized for the analysis. The concept of the politics of reproduction synthesizes local and global perspectives. The themes investigated include: the concept of reproduction, population control, and the internationalization of state and market interests (new reproductive technologies); social movements and contested domains; medicalization and its discontents; fertility and its control; adolescence and teen pregnancy; birth; birth attendants; the construction of infancy and the politics of child survival; rethinking the demographic transition; networks of nurturance; and meanings of menopause. The medicalization of reproduction is a central issue of studies of birth, midwifery, infertility, and reproductive technologies. Scholars have also analyzed different parts of the female life-cycle as medical problems. Other issues worth analysis include the internationalization of adoption and child care workers; the crisis of infertility of low-income and minority women who are not candidates for expensive reproductive technologies; the concerns of women at high risk for HIV whose cultural status depends on their fertility; questions of reproduction concerning, lesbians and gay men (artificial insemination and discrimination in child rearing); the study of menopause; and fatherhood. New discourse analysis is used to analyze state eugenic policies; conflicts over Western neocolonial influences in which women's status as childbearers represent nationalist interests; fundamentalist attacks on abortion rights; and

  15. The international politics of geoengineering:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf

    2017-01-01

    the politics of climate change dramatically, yet in evaluating whether they might ultimately reduce climate risks, their political and security implications have so far not been given adequate prominence. This article puts forward what it calls the ‘security hazard’ and argues that this could be a crucial......Geoengineering technologies aim to make large-scale and deliberate interventions in the climate system possible. A typical framing is that researchers are exploring a ‘Plan B’ in case mitigation fails to avert dangerous climate change. Some options are thought to have the potential to alter...... factor in determining whether a technology is able, ultimately, to reduce climate risks. Ideas about global governance of geoengineering rely on heroic assumptions about state rationality and a generally pacific international system. Moreover, if in a climate engineered world weather events become...

  16. The diffusion of constitutional rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goderis, B.V.G.; Versteeg, M.

    Constitutions are commonly regarded as uniquely national products, shaped by domestic ideals and politics. This paper develops and empirically investigates a novel hypothesis, which is that constitutions are also shaped by transnational influence, or “diffusion.” Constitutional rights can diffuse

  17. Constituents of political cognition: Race, party politics, and the alliance detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietraszewski, David; Curry, Oliver Scott; Petersen, Michael Bang; Cosmides, Leda; Tooby, John

    2015-07-01

    information and (2) that political contexts can reduce the degree to which individuals are represented in terms of their race. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Sexual Politics and Religious Actors in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Pecheny

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the role of religious actors in sexual politics in Argentina. Sexual politics has become a critical battlefield when it comes to the role of religion in the Argentinean liberal-democratic regime, while gender and sexuality have been the main political targets of religious institutions since the 1980s and 1990s. In this context, progressive legislation on gender, sexual, and reproductive rights was passed, including same-sex marriage and the recognition of transgender identities, despite the opposition of the Catholic Church. Paradoxically, abortion remains largely illegal, allowed only in exceptional circumstances.

  19. Comparing Political Journalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comparing Political Journalism is a systematic, in-depth study of the factors that shape and influence political news coverage today. Using techniques drawn from the growing field of comparative political communication, an international group of contributors analyse political news content drawn f...... Comparing Political Journalism offers an unparalleled scope in assessing the implications for the ongoing transformation of Western media systems, and addresses core concepts of central importance to students and scholars of political communication world-wide.......Comparing Political Journalism is a systematic, in-depth study of the factors that shape and influence political news coverage today. Using techniques drawn from the growing field of comparative political communication, an international group of contributors analyse political news content drawn...... from newspapers, television news, and news websites from 16 countries, to assess what kinds of media systems are most conducive to producing quality journalism. Underpinned by key conceptual themes, such as the role that the media are expected to play in democracies and quality of coverage...

  20. School of Political Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Voskresensky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Out of all the departments of political sciences in Russia - the Department at MGIMO-University is probably the oldest one. In fact it is very young. While MGIMO-University is celebrating its 70th anniversary the Department of Political Sciences turns 15. Despite the fact that political analyst is a relatively new profession in Russia, it acquired a legal standing only in the 1990s, the political science school at MGIMO-University is almost as old as the university itself. Unlike many other universities, focused on the training teachers of political science or campaign managers MGIMO-University has developed its own unique political science school of "full cycle", where students grow into political sciences from a zero level up to the highest qualifications as teachers and researchers, and campaign managers, consultants and practitioners. The uniqueness of the school of political science at MGIMO-University allows its institutional incarnation -the Department of Political Science - to offer prospective studentsa training in a wide range of popular specialties and specializations, while ensuring a deep theoretical and practical basis of the training. Studying at MGIMO-University traditionally includes enhanced linguistic component (at least two foreign languages. For students of international relations and political science learning foreign languages is particularly important.It allows not only to communicate, but also to produce expertise and knowledge in foreign languages.

  1. Working rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Jovan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The first part of the article focuses on 'Employment at will', a scheme in which all obligations and rights of employers and employees are subject to negotiation and explicit agreement of the parties in the working process. Free consent and almost absolute freedom to terminate the relations are features of this scheme. The second part of the article deals with the issue of the right to work and rights in the working place. As restrictions of the freedom contained in the original Employment at Will scheme, all these rights have to be justified from the moral point of view. The third part deals with due process in the workplace, especially regarding the issue of layoffs.

  2. Doing the right things right

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Pernille Hammar; Hussmann, Peter Munkebo; Jensen, Helge Elbrønd

    2009-01-01

    Are we doing the right things and are we doing them right? These questions should be subject to constant attention within Higher Education Institutions in pursuit of high quality educations and attracting students nationally as well as internationally. And due to the international development...

  3. Imagining the Political : Young Women, Participation and the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Imagining the Political : Young Women, Participation and the Crafting of the Political in Egypt. IDRC's Women's Rights and Citizenship (WRC) program initiative is supporting a body of comparative research on whether and how democracy and governance institutions are responding to women's rights and gender equality.

  4. Young Women's Political Participation in Kenya | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Young Women's Political Participation in Kenya. IDRC's Democratic Governance, Women's Rights and Gender Equality initiative is supporting a body of comparative research on whether and how democratic processes and institutions are responding to women's rights and gender equality. The projects under this initiative ...

  5. Political action committee for scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Spurred by budget proposals that could severely reduce science funding (Eos, March 24, March 3, February 10), seven scientists currently serving as Congressional Science or State Department Fellows recently founded a political action committee (PAC) for scientists. The Science and Technology Political Action Committee (SCITEC-PAC) aims to make scientists more politically aware and better informed about potential legislative actions that affect research. It will also serve to ‘establish a political presence’ with respect to science, said Donald Stein, SCITEC-PAC's chairman.The organization is not a lobbying group, explained Stein, professor of neurology and psychology at Clark University and the University of Massachusetts Medical Center. ‘Lobbyists seek to influence officials by presenting information to them,’ he said, ‘while a PAC tries to influence the outcome of elections through campaign contributions of money, time, and effort in behalf of candidates that share similar goals and aspirations.’ In other words, the PAC will be a vehicle for promoting candidates for federal office who advocate strong support for scientific research and training. In addition, the PAC will develop and study science policy and budget issues and will attempt to stimulate government and private sector interest in these issues.

  6. Chapter Five. Chinese Farmers’ Right of Access to Judicial Relief

    OpenAIRE

    Xinan, Wang

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Having played an important role in the founding of New China, farmers are crowned with a noble and impressive political designation and hailed as the pivot of the current regime and a pillar of strength. In reality, however, the political rights accorded to farmers do not correspond with their nobility as portrayed in official ideology. To examine in detail the current state of the various rights of farmers would be an elaborate task, as political rights are broadly defined and t...

  7. Human Rights, Fundamental Freedoms and Universal Values in International Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Lev S. Voronkov

    2016-01-01

    The author analyzes the evolution of human rights and fundamental freedoms in domestic political life of individual states and in international relations as well over the latest two centuries. The article traces the role of struggle for liberal political human rights and civilian freedoms in the dismantling of the feudal-absolutist regimes as well as the challenges of radical left-wing (communist) and far right-wing (national-socialistic) threats to be met by the supporters of liberal politic...

  8. Negar la política, negar sus sujetos y derechos (Las políticas migratorias y de asilo como emblemas de la necropolitica | Deny the Politics, their Subjects and Rights (Migration and Asylum Policies as Emblems of Necropolitics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier De Lucas Martín

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Las políticas europeas de inmigración y refugio han sido criticadas por quienes las consideran emblemas de una concepción que pone en grave riesgo elementos básicos del Estado de Derecho y aun de la democracia. El epítome es la aparición de mercados de esclavos en Libia, a las puertas de la UE, un Estado fallido que la UE y sus Estados miembros se empeñan en elevar a la condición de partner privilegiado de sus políticas de externalización. Tomando como base los análisis de Lochak, Agambem y Bauman y la concepción de la propuesta por el filósofo camerunés Mbembé, desarrollando tesis de Foucault (biopolítica, se proponen algunas alternativas que vienen presididas por la exigencia de reconocimiento y garantía de derechos básicos de inmigrantes y refugiados. Abstract: European immigration and refuge policies have been criticized by those who see them as emblems of a conception that puts in serious risk basic elements of the Rule of Law and even of democracy. The epitome is the emergence of slave markets in Libya (at the gates of the EU, a failed state that, nevertheless, the EU and its Member States are determined to raise to the status of privileged partner of their outsourcing policies. Based on the analysis of Lochak, Agambem and Bauman and the conception of the proposed by the Cameroonian philosopher Mbembé who develops Foucault's thesis about biopolitics, this text will propose some alternatives that are leaded by the requirement of recognition and guarantee of rights of immigrants and refugees.

  9. Political learning among youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solhaug, Trond; Kristensen, Niels Nørgaard

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on students’ first political learning and explores the research question, what dynamic patterns of political learning can be explored among a selection of young, diverse Danish students’ first political interests? The authors use theories of learning in their analytical...... approach to students´ stories. A group of 10 young students who claim a certain political interest and attend a social studies course in Danish upper secondary school were selected to interview. A “life story approach” is used in the interviews and in the analytical approach. Findings: contrary to many...... “single agent studies in the tradition” of political socialization, the authors find that all students display a complex pattern of political influence. The influence from various agents like school, family, media and peers is also rather complex. Students are not passive recipients of influence...

  10. Establishing Political Deliberation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; Sæbø, Øystein

    2008-01-01

    The extension and transformation of political participation is dependent on widespread deliberation supported by information and communication technologies.  The most commonly found examples of these eParticipation systems are political discussion forums.  Though much of the discussion...... of these technologies is conducted in the eGovernment and (particularly) the eDemocracy literature, political discussion forums present a distinct set of design and management challenges which relate directly to IS concerns. In this article we analyze problems in establishing political deliberation systems under five...... headings: stakeholder engagement, web platform design, web platform management, political process re-shaping and evaluation and improvement. We review the existing literature and present a longitudinal case study of a political discussion forum: the Norwegian DemokratiTorget (Democracy Square).  We define...

  11. [Human rights and informed consent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Reynoso, Francisco P; Argüelles-Mier, Miguel; Cicero-Sabido, Raúl

    2004-01-01

    The right to information is a right that all human beings have; it is unrenounceable and confers to the human being the Rights to the Political Constitution of the United States of Mexico, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Declaration of Geneva, and the Code of Behavior for Health Personnel. Information given to a sick person should suffice so that he/she can make a decision on management and treatment. Information is related directly with medical ethics and is obligatory not only for health workers but for all professionals in general.

  12. Atmosphere: Power, Critique, Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Niels

    2016-01-01

    This paper hans three interrelated parts. First, atmosphere is approached through the concept of power. Atmospheres 'grip' us directly or mediate power indirectly by manipulating moods and evoking emotions. How does atmosphere relate to different conceptions of power? Second, atmospheric powers may...... be critiqued. Which conception of critique can be involved? Third, critiquing atmospheric powers can generate political conflict. How does atmospheric disputes relate to conceptions of politics and the political?...

  13. Chaos theory in politics

    CERN Document Server

    Erçetin, Şefika; Tekin, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The present work investigates global politics and political implications of social science and management with the aid of the latest complexity and chaos theories. Until now, deterministic chaos and nonlinear analysis have not been a focal point in this area of research. This book remedies this deficiency by utilizing these methods in the analysis of the subject matter. The authors provide the reader a detailed analysis on politics and its associated applications with the help of chaos theory, in a single edited volume.

  14. Business and Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the United Nations (UN) Guidelines on Business and Human Rights adopted in 2011 by the UN Human Rights Council from the perspective of transnational business governance interactions (TBGI) analytical framework.1 The article identifies and discusses dimensions of interaction...... and components of regulatory governance which characterize the Guiding Principles, focusing in particular on rule formation and implementation. The article notes that the Guiding Principles actively enrolled other actors for the rule-making process, ensuring support in a politically and legally volatile field...... in several areas of relevance to transnational business governance interaction and indicates the relevance of the TBGI approach to public regulatory transnational business governance initiatives. The analysis of the Guiding Principles as interactional transnational business governance suggests that this form...

  15. [Patients' rights].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bert, Giorgio; Morello, Enrico; Quadrino, Silvana

    2018-02-01

    Forty years have passed since the publication of the "Patients' Rights Charter" (included in a separate section at the end of the work: "Patients' rights: a critical guide to understanding and usage of civil hospital facilities"), but it still remains remarkably topical. We here provide an analysis of the original Charter (1975) taking into consideration the changes that have occurred in sensitivity to gender, cultural as well as socioeconomic differences, the right to body privacy and to continuity of care, the key role of general practitioners, the reciprocal relations in the information and decision-making processes with shared diagnostic and therapeutic pathways and active patient participation, which mandates that adequate education in communication and care strategies be provided to all caregivers.

  16. Defining political community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sladeček Michal M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the concept of political community, its constitution and value. The starting point is that the concept of community is not sufficiently recognized in modern political theories, as well as in contemporary liberal theory. In the last two decades communitarian and republican political theory attempted to revitalize this notion. The first part of the paper elaborates on the polemics between these three theoretical orientations. The concluding part examines the possibilities and prospect for stable political community in conditions of pluralism of particular social communities and ethnocultural heterogeneity.

  17. Politics, Security, Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæver, Ole

    2011-01-01

    ’ is distinct from both the study of political practices of securitization and explorations of competing concepts of politics among security theories. It means tracking what kinds of analysis the theory can produce and whether such analysis systematically impacts real-life political struggles. Securitization...... theory is found to ‘act politically’ through three structural features that systematically shape the political effects of using the theory. The article further discusses – on the basis of the preceding articles in the special issue – three emerging debates around securitization theory: ethics...

  18. Envy, Politics, and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Christine R.; Henniger, Nicole E.

    2013-01-01

    In the last 5 years, the phrase “politics of envy” has appeared more than 621 times in English-language newspapers, generally in opinion essays contending that political liberalism reflects and exploits feelings of envy. Oddly, this assertion has not been tested empirically. We did so with a large adult sample (n = 357). Participants completed a Dispositional Envy Scale and questions about political ideology, socioeconomic status, and age. Envy and age were moderately correlated; younger people reported greater envy. Political ideology and envy were weakly correlated; however, this relationship was not significant when controlling for age. PMID:23471177

  19. New Institutional Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buğra KALKAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available New institutional politics is an interdisciplinary movement that tries to reinstate the institutional politics to the center of the political science. After the limits of formal-legal analyze, used by old institutional politics, have been criticized by behaviorists, rational choice and neo-Marxist movements, since 1950, the state was alienated from the center of the political studies as an independent variable. Since 1980, neo institutional politics, raised as a reaction to this development, has been developing a new description and understanding of the institution which goes beyond the limitations of the old one. The rise and change of the political institutions and the interactions between political institutions and the actors, are being retheorized, by depending on informal rules and conventions as much as formal rules, and pointing out cultural factors as much as legal factors. So, in this study, rational choice, sociological and historical new institutional politics, as the three different school of new institutionalism, will be examined separately and there will be a debate on colliding and overlapping points of these schools

  20. Astronomy and Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, John M.

    The relationship between astronomy and politics is a complex but important part of understanding the practice of astronomy throughout history. This chapter explores some of the ways that astronomy, astrology, and politics have interacted, placing particular focus on the way that astronomy and astrology have been used for political purposes by both people in power and people who wish to influence a ruler's policy. Also discussed are the effects that politics has had on the development of astronomy and, in particular, upon the recording and preservation of astronomical knowledge.

  1. Gender Equality, Citizenship and Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This comparative volume examines the ways in which current controversies and political, legal, and social struggles for gender equality raise conceptual questions and challenge our thinking on political theories of equality, citizenship and human rights. Bringing together scholars and activists who...... reflect upon challenges to gender equality, citizenship, and human rights in their respective societies; it combines theoretical insights with empirically grounded studies. The volume contextualises feminist political theory in China and the Nordic countries and subsequently puts it into a global...... perspective. It tackles a complex set of tensions across a dense and shifting landscape and addresses issues including labour, health, democracy, homosexuality, migration and racism....

  2. Contextualizing Intergroup Contact: Do Political Party Cues Enhance Contact Effects?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar; Thomsen, Jens Peter Frølund

    2015-01-01

    This article examines intergroup contact effects in different political contexts. We expand on previous efforts of social psychologists by incorporating the messages of political parties as a contextual trigger of group membership awareness in contact situations. We argue that the focus among......,000 individuals confirms that the ability of intergroup contact to reduce antiforeigner sentiment increases when political parties focus intensively on immigration issues and cultural differences. Specifically, both workplace contact and interethnic friendship become more effective in reducing antiforeigner...

  3. Employee Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Steen

    2016-01-01

    , on the one hand, and what is considered as equitable (in accordance with employment rights) by employees, on the other. Since equality in reward counts for more among a considerable fraction of employees, while equity in contribution counts more for most employers, this is an inherent dilemma, constantly...

  4. Human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de

    2006-01-01

    Human rights reflect a determined effort to protect the dignity of each and every human being against abuse of power. This endeavour is as old as human history. What is relatively new is the international venture for the protection of human dignity through internationally accepted legal standards

  5. Rethinking Some Cultural Practices that Affect the Rights of Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human Rights have been identified as encompassing and embracing the rights of all humans which are entitled to. These rights, amongst others, include civil and political rights such as the right to life and liberty, dignity, equality before the law and freedom of expression. Others are those of the right to work, the right to ...

  6. Right to Basic Education and State Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kishore

    2010-01-01

    The right to education is an internationally recognized right. As part of the global movement for Education for All in the past two decades, the right to basic education has emerged in international law, and it carries international obligations--political and legal--on account of collective commitments by the international community for its…

  7. The Prediction of Political Competencies by Political Action and Political Media Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Frank Reichert

    2014-01-01

    Political competencies are often considered a precondition for political action; however, they are not independent of previous political participation, which may also include the frequency and the kind of political media consumption. My research aims at finding out the importance of participation in political activities in the past, as well as taking over civic responsibility in positions at school or university for cognitive political competencies. The focus is on structural political knowle...

  8. Usage of marketing in politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-party political system led to competition between political parties which caused the need for marketing in politics that improves political reputation. Politics, based on rich experience of political practice, used existing, developed methods and techniques of commercial marketing. Political marketing openly admits that politics and politicians are simply goods that are being sold on a political market. Political marketing is a whole way of operation by political parties which ask these questions: how do the voters choose; what affects their preference and how that preference can be influenced. Usage of political marketing in Bosnia and Herzegovina is still not on a satisfactory level but the knowledge about the importance of political marketing is increasing.

  9. Past-Focused Temporal Communication Overcomes Conservatives' Resistance to Liberal Political Ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, Joris; Baldwin, Matt

    2018-01-11

    Nine studies and a meta-analysis test the role of past-focused temporal communication in reducing conservatives' disagreement with liberal political ideas. We propose that conservatives are more prone to warm, affectionate, and nostalgic feelings for past society. Therefore, they are more likely to support political ideas-including those expressing liberal values-that can be linked to a desirable past state (past focus), rather than a desirable future state (future focus) of society. Study 1 supports our prediction that political conservatives are more nostalgic for the past than liberals. Building on this association, we demonstrate that communicating liberal ideas with a past focus increases conservatives' support for leniency in criminal justice (Studies 2a and 2b), gun control (Study 3), immigration (Study 4), social diversity (Study 5), and social justice (Study 6). Communicating messages with a past focus reduced political disagreement (compared with a future focus) between liberals and conservatives by between 30 and 100% across studies. Studies 5 and 6 identify the mediating role of state and trait nostalgia, respectively. Study 7 shows that the temporal communication effect only occurs under peripheral (and not central) information processing. Study 8 shows that the effect is asymmetric; a future focus did not increase liberals' support for conservative ideas. A mixed-effects meta-analysis across all studies confirms that appealing to conservatives' nostalgia with a past-focused temporal focus increases support for liberal political messages (Study 9). A large portion of the political disagreement between conservatives and liberals appears to be disagreement over style, and not content of political issues. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Political Ecology: a Latin American Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Leff

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Political ecology is the field where power strategies are deployed to deconstruct the unsustainable modern rationality and to mobilize social actions in the globalised world for the construction of a sustainable future founded on the potentialities of nature and cultural creativity; in emancipatory thinking and political ethics to renew the meaning and sustainability of life. Political ecology roots theoretical deconstruction in the political arena; beyond recognizing cultural diversity, traditional knowledge and indigenous peoples’ rights, radical environmentalism contests the hegemonic unification power of the market as the ineluctable fate of humanity. Political ecology in Latin America is operating a similar procedure as the one achieved by Marx with Hegelian idealism, turning the philosophy of post-modernity (Heidegger, Levinas, Derrida on the grounds of a political ontology: territorializing thinking on being, difference and otherness in an environmental rationality, rooted in an ontology of cultural diversity, a politics of difference and an ethics of otherness. Decolonizing knowledge and legitimizing other knowledges-savoirs-wisdoms liberate alternative ways of understanding reality, nature, human life and social relations opening up different paths to reconstruct human life in the planet.

  11. Human Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Schlundt, Marie Gertz

    2011-01-01

    The project intends to investigate to what extent and under what conditions, United Nations human rights conventions have been internalized in the minimally democratic and isolated state of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK). The ‘spiral model’ of Risse et al (1999) will be used as the theoretical framework for the project. This framework sets out to understand the process of socialization by which principled ideas held by individuals become norms in the sense of collective unde...

  12. Happiness and Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Over the last thirty years, happiness research in psychology, economics and philosophy has been discussing the proper meaning of happiness and its main determinants. Moreover, the idea has spread within academic and political circles that it may be legitimate for institutions to engage in “politics...... of happiness”. This article presents a critique of the project of promoting happiness through public policies....

  13. Polite Interactions with Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benotti, Luciana; Blackburn, Patrick Rowan

    2016-01-01

    We sketch an inference architecture that permits linguistic aspects of politeness to be interpreted; we do so by applying the ideas of politeness theory to the SCARE corpus of task-oriented dialogues, a type of dialogue of particular relevance to robotics. The fragment of the SCARE corpus we...

  14. Seizing Political Opportunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele; Justesen, Mogens Kamp

    2016-01-01

    Political actors need to be nimble and respond to the opportunity to reform old policies and initiate new ones. The article looks at how the European Commission takes advantage of politically opportune moments (the ‘gridlock interval’) in the European Parliament to put forward new legislation...

  15. Principals' Perceptions of Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooms, Autumn K.; Kretovics, Mark A.; Smialek, Charles A.

    2007-01-01

    This study is an effort to examine principals' perceptions of workplace politics and its influence on their productivity and efficacy. A survey was used to explore the perceptions of current school administrators with regard to workplace politics. The instrument was disseminated to principals serving public schools in one Midwestern state in the…

  16. The Politics of Encyclopaedias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fozooni, Babak

    2012-01-01

    The paper assesses the political credibility of three encyclopaedias (Encyclopaedia Britannica, Encyclopedia of Marxism and Wikipedia) in relation to three chosen topics (Friedrich Engels's biography; the political philosophy of fascism; and, the discipline of social psychology). I was interested in discerning how entries are represented and…

  17. Political Corruption in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Steven R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Provides an overview of political corruption and its place in Japanese culture and society. Discusses recent scandals and efforts at political reform. These efforts are moving Japan from a "boss-patronage" system to a "civic-culture." Includes a table of post-war Japanese prime ministers and corruption scandals. (MJP)

  18. Northern Security and Global Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    -unipolar", indicating a period of flux and of declining US unipolar hegemony. Drawing together contributions from key thinkers in the field, Northern Security and Global Politics explores how this situation has affected the Nordic-Baltic area by addressing two broad sets of questions. First, it examines what impact...... declining unipolarity - with a geopolitical shift to Asia, a reduced role for Europe in United States policy, and a more assertive Russia - will have on regional Nordic-Baltic security. Second, it takes a closer look at how the regional actors respond to these changes in their strategic environment....... This book will be of much interest to students of Nordic and Baltic politics, international security, foreign policy and IR....

  19. Impact of Political Environment on Business Performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR Nneka

    Nigerian Stock Exchange Fact Book of 2012 and the World Development Indicators of World Bank Group. Political environment was measured as the degree of .... may reduce the desirability of that investment by reducing its anticipated returns. More so, there are political risks or events arising from nongovernmental actions ...

  20. Exploring Women's Understanding of Politics, Political Contestation ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    First, researchers will explore women's political leadership and the extent to which it promotes the will to transform gender relations both within and outside the state. Second, they will assess quota systems for their impact on women's participation and leadership in representative government. Third, they will evaluate the ...

  1. Feminization of Romanian Politics – A Desideratum?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Gilia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Women’s battle for political rights was fierce and it has taken place for the past two centuries. Despite the efforts made by the feminist movements and even by politicians, the battle towards an effective exercise of these rights continues. Although the representation of women in politics is a complex topic, delicate and comprehensive, in our research we only focused on an analysis of European and national parliamentary elections that took place over the 25 years of post-revolutionary elections. The evolution of women’s representation in the two legislative bodies (the national one and the European one showed us that the steps that have been made are still very few, manifesting themselves more as intentions rather than as a political and legal reality. The causes are multiple, solutions exist, nevertheless political will is what is required. And how to transform political will into an increased representation of women in politics, since still men are those who express themselves (as they form a majority in decision-making forums?

  2. Affect in electoral politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, J; Salovey, P

    1998-01-01

    Recent U.S. history provides vivid illustrations of the importance of politicians' emotional displays in subsequent judgments of them. Yet, a review of empirical research on the role of affect (emotion, mood, and evaluation) in electoral politics reveals little work that has focused on the impact of candidates' emotional expression on voters' preferences for them. A theoretical framework is proposed to identify psychological mechanisms by which a target's displays of emotion influence judgments of that target. Findings from the emerging literature on emotions and politics challenge the traditional assumption of political science that voters make decisions based solely on the cold consideration of nonaffectively charged information. The affect and politics literature, although somewhat unfocused and broad, represents an interdisciplinary domain of study that contributes to the understanding of both electoral politics and social interaction more generally.

  3. Political Competition and Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    This paper considers political competition and the consequences of political polarization when parties are better informed about how the economy functions than voters are. Specifically, parties know the cost producing a public good, voters do not. An incumbent's choice of policy acts like a signa...... for costs before an upcoming election. It is shown that the more polarized the political parties the more distorted the incumbent's policy choice.......This paper considers political competition and the consequences of political polarization when parties are better informed about how the economy functions than voters are. Specifically, parties know the cost producing a public good, voters do not. An incumbent's choice of policy acts like a signal...

  4. The Politics of Dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cockburn, Patrick Joseph

    The central claim of this book is that thinking about ‘dependence’ should be at the core of political theory principally because it helps us to think about issues of economic justice. Unlike political theories that either condemn or celebrate dependence, the book argues that dependence...... is an inescapable fact of social life, neither good nor bad in itself. The real political issues are about how we as a society organise and judge various forms of dependence. And this is, in fact, what much political debate is about if we dig beneath the surface. On the one hand, we disagree about how we should...... organise vulnerability; on the other hand, we disagree about who we should condemn as parasitical. Vulnerability and parasitism are thus key concepts for understanding political debate about forms of dependence. Showing the tension between these two sides to the problem of economic dependence...

  5. Socrates: Platonic Political Ideal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher P. Long

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay articulates the differences and suggests the similarities between the practices of Socratic political speaking and those of Platonic political writing. The essay delineates Socratic speaking and Platonic writing as both erotically oriented toward ideals capable of transforming the lives of individuals and their relationships with one another. Besides it shows that in the Protagoras the practices of Socratic political speaking are concerned less with Protagoras than with the individual young man, Hippocrates. In the Phaedo, this ideal of a Socrates is amplified in such a way that Platonic writing itself emerges as capable of doing with readers what Socratic speaking did with those he encountered. Socrates is the Platonic political ideal. The result is a picture of the transformative political power of Socratic speaking and Platonic writing both.

  6. Political Power and Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Mitu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Political violence plays a huge role in public affairs and people's behavior, requiring both knowledge and rigorous research in many of its occurrences and its consequences for the proper management, organization and functioning of a society as a whole. Although political violence is a problem of a particular importance in our social life it is not analyzed and investigated in the scientific literature. Political violence it is a subject that usually passes into oblivion. This study presents some ideas and themes about the role and functions of political power, displaying the types of political violence and their consequences for the management and functioning of a society, which can be subject to wider debates and researchs.

  7. The multidimensional politics of inequality: taking stock of identity politics in the U.S. Presidential election of 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Leslie; Orloff, Ann Shola

    2017-11-01

    Many Democrats hoped that a particular kind of identity politics - women's - would help Hillary Clinton win the White House. In the aftermath of the election, some commentators bemoaned the fact that a majority of white women had voted for Trump, and called it a kind of betrayal, underlining their expectation that women would naturally, on the basis of their gender identity, support a woman with women-friendly politics. Indeed, this kind of thinking about identity politics has been widespread with reference to a number of demographic groups. Meanwhile, identity politics is lamented from the right and left by those who favour a greater emphasis on class-based inequalities, or a greater national identity, some of whom blame identity politics for spawning or justifying a backlash of right-leaning populism in the US. We argue for a turn to a more robust definition of identity as multidimensional and politically mediated for understanding political alignments over the past several decades. The multidimensionality of inequality - intersectionality or complex inequality - is widely accepted in the study of gender and race across the social science disciplines but has yet to be as successfully integrated into studies of electoral politics. Thinking about women's positioning in systems of complex inequality, and how the political parties have or have not articulated the concerns of different groups of women, helps us to understand the 2016 election, as well as past and potentially future political developments. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  8. The human rights approach to climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Kristian Høyer

    2013-01-01

    It is often argued that concerns about the equity of a global climate agreement might appropriately be addressed in the language of human rights. The human rights approach has been promoted by a number of international political actors, including the UN Human Rights Council. As such, human rights....... Finally, there is the question of whether the cosmopolitan conception of human rights is at odds with the goal of ensuring that individuals assume responsibility for their own carbon-dependent lifestyle....

  9. Can human rights law bend mass surveillance?

    OpenAIRE

    Joergensen (Rikke Frank)

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing gap between the right to privacy and contemporary surveillance schemes. As a concrete example, the US surveillance operation PRISM and its impact on European citizens’ right to privacy is discussed. This paper provides a brief introduction to PRISM, continues with an outline of the right to privacy as stipulated in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), the European Convention on Human Rights and the EU Directive on Data Protection, and moves ...

  10. The Political Theology of Consumer Sovereignty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarzkopf, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    to understanding the ontology of consumer society. But rather than simply placing sovereignty into the hands of the independent, self-determined consumer, the earliest ontologists of the consumer society took recourse to medieval political theology and presented the consumer market as a new corpus mysticum. Thus......The article analyses the common notion that the consumer society is a reflection of those principles in the market that also provide the ideas of democracy and liberal constitutionalism with legitimacy in the political realm. The inalienable right to self-development and self-determination makes...... for the same reason and in the same manner as legal and political philosophy dissects the legitimacy and validity of the parliamentary institutions of modern democracy. Just as in the political philosophy of the constitutional structure of the democratic state, the question of who is sovereign is key...

  11. [Family planning and diverse declarations of human rights].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gakwaya, D

    1990-08-01

    Human beings have always desired to claim their rights, even in times when only a small proportion of the population was considered fully human and the rest were slaves, servants, uncivilized, colonized, underdeveloped, or, in the recent euphemism, "developing". The French Declaration of the Rights of Man of 1789 marked the 1st time in history that rights for all people were publicly affirmed. The rights in question were essentially constitutional and political, but the idea of claiming rights had been born. In 1948, the international community approved the Universal Declaration of Human Rights which encompassed all types of rights. Other international acts on civil and political rights and the rights of women and children have complemented and interpreted the 1948 document. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights affirmed that all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights and that all persons have a right to satisfaction of economic, social, and cultural needs. The convention on elimination of all forms of discrimination against women referred in its preamble to the particular disadvantages of women living in poverty and affirmed the right of all women to education in health and family welfare, including family planning, as well as to medical and family planning services. Women were affirmed to have the same rights as men to decide freely and in an informed manner on the number and spacing of their children and to have access to the information, education, and means to exercise these rights. The United Nations has demonstrated its interest in Population Commission in 1946 and of the UN Fund for Population Activities in 1969, and through decennial worldwide population conferences in 1954, 1965, 1974, and 1984. UN demographic goals include reduced fertility on a worldwide basis, a reduced proportion of women not using reliable contraception, a substantial reduction of early marriage and adolescent pregnancy, reduction in infant and maternal

  12. Forest rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balooni, Kulbhushan; Lund, Jens Friis

    2014-01-01

    One of the proposed strategies for implementation of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation plus (REDD+) is to incentivize conservation of forests managed by communities under decentralized forest management. Yet, we argue that this is a challenging road to REDD+ because......+ transactions costs. Third, beyond the “conservation islands” represented by forests under decentralized management, processes of deforestation and forest degradation continue. Given these challenges, we argue that REDD+ efforts through decentralized forestry should be redirected from incentivizing further...

  13. European welfare regimes: Political orientations versus poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josifidis Kosta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This inquiry analyzes how political orientations shape welfare states and labour market institutions when seeking to reduce poverty. In order to identify effects of these two key variables, we conduct a panel regression analysis that includes two poverty measures: poverty rates before and after social spending. This inquiry considers 14 EU countries, and in the period from 1995 to 2008, which are grouped according to welfare state regimes. We consider Social Democratic, Corporatist, Mediterranean and Liberal welfare state regimes. Panel regression results indicate that political orientation engenders no significant statistically measurable effects on poverty rates before social spending. Effects register, however, as significant when considering poverty rates after social spending. With respect to the first set of results, we advance two key explanations. First, we note a longer period of time is necessary in order to observe actual effects of political orientation on market generated poverty. Second, political parties with their respective programs do not register as influential enough to solve social problems related to income distribution when taken alone. Influences register as indirect and are expressed through changes in employment rates and social spending. The second set of results support the hypothesis that a selected political regime does indeed contribute to poverty reduction. In sum, political orientation and political regime does indeed affect poverty through welfare state institutions, as well as through labour market institutions.

  14. The genetics of politics: discovery, challenges, and progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatemi, Peter K; McDermott, Rose

    2012-10-01

    For the greater part of human history, political behaviors, values, preferences, and institutions have been viewed as socially determined. Discoveries during the 1970s that identified genetic influences on political orientations remained unaddressed. However, over the past decade, an unprecedented amount of scholarship utilizing genetic models to expand the understanding of political traits has emerged. Here, we review the 'genetics of politics', focusing on the topics that have received the most attention: attitudes, ideologies, and pro-social political traits, including voting behavior and participation. The emergence of this research has sparked a broad paradigm shift in the study of political behaviors toward the inclusion of biological influences and recognition of the mutual co-dependence between genes and environment in forming political behaviors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Political demography: Powerful trends under-attended by demographic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelbaum, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    The interconnections between politics and the dramatic demographic changes under way around the world have been neglected by the two research disciplines that could contribute most to their understanding: demography and political science. Instead, this area of 'political demography' has largely been ceded to political activists, pundits, and journalists, leading often to exaggerated or garbled interpretation. The terrain includes some of the most politically sensitive and contested issues: alleged demographically determined shifts in the international balance of power; low fertility, population decline, and demographic ageing; international migration; change in national identity; and compositional shifts in politically sensitive social categories and human rights. Meanwhile many governments and non-governmental actors have actively pursued varieties of 'strategic demography', deploying fertility, mortality, or migration as instruments of domestic or international policy. Political scientists and demographers could and should use their knowledge and analytic techniques to improve understanding and to moderate excessive claims and fears on these topics.

  16. The Prediction of Political Competencies by Political Action and Political Media Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Political competencies are often considered a precondition for political action; however, they are not independent of previous political participation, which may also include the frequency and the kind of political media consumption. My research aims at finding out the importance of participation in political activities in the past, as well as…

  17. EDITORIAL: Politically correct physics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pople Deputy Editor, Stephen

    1997-03-01

    If you were a caring, thinking, liberally minded person in the 1960s, you marched against the bomb, against the Vietnam war, and for civil rights. By the 1980s, your voice was raised about the destruction of the rainforests and the threat to our whole planetary environment. At the same time, you opposed discrimination against any group because of race, sex or sexual orientation. You reasoned that people who spoke or acted in a discriminatory manner should be discriminated against. In other words, you became politically correct. Despite its oft-quoted excesses, the political correctness movement sprang from well-founded concerns about injustices in our society. So, on balance, I am all for it. Or, at least, I was until it started to invade science. Biologists were the first to feel the impact. No longer could they refer to 'higher' and 'lower' orders, or 'primitive' forms of life. To the list of undesirable 'isms' - sexism, racism, ageism - had been added a new one: speciesism. Chemists remained immune to the PC invasion, but what else could you expect from a group of people so steeped in tradition that their principal unit, the mole, requires the use of the thoroughly unreconstructed gram? Now it is the turn of the physicists. This time, the offenders are not those who talk disparagingly about other people or animals, but those who refer to 'forms of energy' and 'heat'. Political correctness has evolved into physical correctness. I was always rather fond of the various forms of energy: potential, kinetic, chemical, electrical, sound and so on. My students might merge heat and internal energy into a single, fuzzy concept loosely associated with moving molecules. They might be a little confused at a whole new crop of energies - hydroelectric, solar, wind, geothermal and tidal - but they could tell me what devices turned chemical energy into electrical energy, even if they couldn't quite appreciate that turning tidal energy into geothermal energy wasn't part of the

  18. Iran: Politics, Human Rights, and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-25

    constitutional requirements that each candidate demonstrate knowledge of Islam, loyalty to the Islamic system of government, and other criteria that are largely...local woman was killed in unclear circumstances in a hotel room there, reportedly while with a member of Iran’s intelligence services. Abuses of Kurds...2013-2016. (About1.3 mbd with condensates) Major Oil/Gas Customers Remaining customers : primarily China, India, South Korea, Japan, and Turkey

  19. Political Turmoil and Lack of Rights in Nigerian Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Turi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available La letteratura nigeriana del Novecento è stata fortemente condizionata dagli eventi collettivi che hanno scandito la storia recente del paese – dalla colonizzazione inglese alla guerra del Biafra, fino agli scontri armati tra il governo centrale e le forze del Mosop sul Delta del Niger – e che hanno di volta in volta a che fare con la sostituzione e/o la sospensione dell’ordinamento giuridico vigente, con la controversa applicazione del diritto internazionale, con la repressione legalizzata del dissenso. Coprendo il cinquantennio che va da Things fall apart (1958 di Chinua Achebe (nel quale si racconta l’avvento dei primi missionari inglesi alle testimonianze (narrative e non di Wole Soyinka (1972, Ken Saro-Wiwa (1985 e Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie (2006 intorno alla guerra civile del 1967-1970, il presente studio intende offrire, mettendo tra loro in dialogo i testi citati, le declinazioni esemplari della dialettica tra letteratura e diritto all’interno di un panorama letterario pressoché condannato a figurare la legge come chimera, abuso, scontro tra codici (morali e poi legislativi tra loro incompatibili.

  20. Women's Rights? : The Politics of Eugenic Abortion in Modern Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kato, Masae

    2009-01-01

    Dit boek verkent het concept 'recht'. Hoe dit concept een rol heeft gespeeld in het veroorzaken van onenigheid en misvatting tussen bewegingen van gehandicapte mensen en vrouwen met betrekking tot de kwestie van selectieve abortus in Japan. Tegelijkertijd, probeert de schrijfster om het concept van

  1. Governing food security. Law, politics and the right to food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hospes, O.; Hadiprayitno, I.

    2010-01-01

    With only five years left until the 2015 deadline to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, food security still is a dream rather than reality: 'a situation that exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary

  2. Iran: Politics, Human Rights, and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-17

    would conflict with U.S. commitments under the JCPOA. Domestically, Rouhani and the JCPOA appear to have broad support, but many Iranians say they...when the Shah and his allies fled Iran in 1979. The bonyads are loosely regulated and largely exempt from taxation . See: CRS Insight IN10597, Iran’s...years, and the regime continues to execute captured members of the organization. Sources : Various press accounts and author conversations with Iran

  3. Political transition of Albania 1985-1991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunilda Duriçi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Political transition of Albania is a phenomenon that started since the death of Enver Hoxha, the dictator of communist regime in Albania. After the death of Enver Hoxha on 11 April 1985, Ramiz Alia was appointed as his successor, who for 40 years had been at Enver Hoxha’s side as his most trusted man. He succeeded Hoxha for nearly 6 years believing that he would maintain the communist system. Ramiz Alia came on duty as the head of the Albanian state when the economic situation was very precarious. Political and economic legacy led by Hoxha was almost miserable. The country had the severest political system throughout the communist bloc. In a political point of view, the country’s new leader was elected precisely to continue the political legacy of former leader Hoxha. Ramiz Alia was forced to take immediate measures to change the degraded situation. He undertook several reforms to improve the situation in the country. Among other things, Alia expressed the equality of Albanian citizens, freedoms and human rights. Events were passing each other, marking a great historical importance. Among other things, Alia approved the political pluralism giving way to significant social changes. Echoes of these events and the positive developments in the country do not remain outside the attention of internationals. The arrival of political pluralism and the establishment of Democratic Party, the first opposition party in the country and other political entities exposed the European dream of Albanians. Massive movements in the form of protests and rallies, aimed at overturning the communist regime in the country Main objective of this paper is the analysis of the Political transition of Albania 1985-1991.

  4. Student life - Making politics matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Siobhan

    2014-12-02

    'What has politics got to do with nursing?' This is a question I hear often as a lecturer in nursing with a specialist interest in politics, as is the comment: 'I did not come into nursing to learn about politics.'

  5. Political determinants of Health: Lessons for Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jooma, Rashid; Sabatinelli, Guido

    2014-05-01

    There is much concern about the capacity of the health system of Pakistan to meet its goals and obligations. Historically, the political thrust has been absent from the health policy formulation and this is reflected in the low and stagnant public allocations to health. Successive political leaderships have averred from considering healthcare is a common good rather than a market commodity and health has not been recognized as a constitutional right. Over 120 of world's nation states have accepted health as a constitutional right but the 1973 Constitution of Pakistan does not mandate health or education as a fundamental right and the recently adopted 18th constitutional amendment missed the opportunity to extend access to primary health care as an obligation of the State. It is argued in this communication that missing from the calculations of policy formulation and agenda setting is the political benefits of providing health and other social services to underserved populations. Across the developing world, many examples are presented of governments undertaking progressive health reforms that bring services where none existed and subsequently reaping electoral benefit. The political determinant of healthcare will be realized when the political leaders of poorly performing countries can be convinced that embracing distributive policies and successfully bringing healthcare to the poor can be major factors in their re-elections.

  6. Indian politics encourages durgas, snubs women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishwar, M

    1999-01-01

    This article talks about four Indian women--Sonia Gandhi, Jayalitha, Mayawati, and Mamta Banerjee--in contrast with India's stereotypes in the political realm. India is a land of mind-boggling diversity. Yet stereotypes about India, which reduce the Indian reality to a unidimensional monolith, hold powerful sway. One such powerful stereotype is that Indian women are brutally oppressed, denied a voice in their family and community, and marginalized in politics as in other power structures. Without doubt, there is much truth in this stereotype; but how can the current political scene be explained? A few women are holding the entire political establishment of India at ransom. The machinations of Sonia Gandhi, Jayalalitha, Mayawati, and Mamta Banerjee have caused enormous upheavals in the polity and recently brought about the fall of the BJP government. Powerful politicians dance to the erratic tunes of these women and are shamefully submissive to them.

  7. The world trade organisation, human rights and development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    enjoyment of other rights. While it is generally considered to be part of the group of economic, social and cultural rights (as opposed to civil and political rights) the right to health is closely related to and dependent upon the realisation of other human rights, including the rights to food, housing, work, education, human dignity ...

  8. Hospitality, Tourism, and Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen W. Litvin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Government policy has a significant impact on the hospitality and tourism industry, but it is unclear if political leaders fully understand this economic sector when crafting policies. This article offers new research about the direct involvement of industry practitioners in the political process, by analyzing the backgrounds of legislators in the six New England states. The data indicate that only 3% of these legislators have current or former careers related to hospitality and tourism. The author suggests that practitioners should seek election to political office, to better influence government policy.

  9. A Political Innovator?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yi; Lin, Yu; Andersen, Torben Juul

    2016-01-01

    Political networking is frequently used in transition economies to gain superior performance. This study draws on upper echelons theory (UET) and the resource-based view (RBV) to analyze the relationship between political networking and firm innovation moderated by the core self-evaluation (CSE......) of the CEO. Based on a sample of 381 manufacturing firms extracted from the Entrepreneurs Survey System of Chinese CEOs with 2014 data from the Jiangsu province, the study finds that political networking is positively related to explorative and exploitative innovation but negatively moderated by the CSE...

  10. Essays in political economy

    OpenAIRE

    Mavridis, Christos

    2016-01-01

    This thesis consists of five essays in the field of political economy. The first part of the thesis includes three essays covering various aspects of the political economy of globalization and economic reforms, which are linked in several ways. The second part of the thesis includes two essays on the political economy of development in India. The aim of this introductory section is to give a brief and non-technical overview of the essays, as well as to explain the links between them. The disc...

  11. Economic Growth and the Rise of Political Extremism

    OpenAIRE

    Markus Bruckner; Hans Peter Gruner

    2011-01-01

    In many western democracies, political parties with extreme platforms challenge more moderate incumbents. This paper analyses the impact of economic growth on the support for extreme political platforms. We provide a theoretical argument in favor of growth effects (as opposed to level effects) on the support for extreme political parties and we empirically investigate the relationship between growth and extremist votes. Lower growth rates benefit right-wing and nationalist parties, but do not...

  12. [Everyday practice in psychiatry and the politics of civilisation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touzet, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Daily clinical practice confronts us not only with the clinical aspect but also with the political. Political orientation has a direct impact on the way in which we carry out this clinical practice, as well as on the place of those who are outside the system. The politics of civilisation are therefore an option in the face of neoliberalism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Globalization, human rights, and the social determinants of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Audrey R

    2009-02-01

    Globalization, a process characterized by the growing interdependence of the world's people, impacts health systems and the social determinants of health in ways that are detrimental to health equity. In a world in which there are few countervailing normative and policy approaches to the dominant neoliberal regime underpinning globalization, the human rights paradigm constitutes a widely shared foundation for challenging globalization's effects. The substantive rights enumerated in human rights instruments include the right to the highest attainable level of physical and mental health and others that are relevant to the determinants of health. The rights stipulated in these documents impose extensive legal obligations on states that have ratified these documents and confer health entitlements on their residents. Human rights norms have also inspired civil society efforts to improve access to essential medicines and medical services, particularly for HIV/AIDS. Nevertheless, many factors reduce the potential counterweight human rights might exert, including and specifically the nature of the human rights approach, weak political commitments to promoting and protecting health rights on the part of some states and their lack of institutional and economic resources to do so. Global economic markets and the relative power of global economic institutions are also shrinking national policy space. This article reviews the potential contributions and limitations of human rights to achieving greater equity in shaping the social determinants of health.

  14. The Prediction of Political Competencies by Political Action and Political Media Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Reichert

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Political competencies are often considered a precondition for political action; however, they are not independent of previous political participation, which may also include the frequency and the kind of political media consumption. My research aims at finding out the importance of participation in political activities in the past, as well as taking over civic responsibility in positions at school or university for cognitive political competencies. The focus is on structural political knowledge of the polity, symbolic political knowledge about political figures and actors, and political reasoning. The main hypothesis reads that the media primarily influence symbolic political knowledge, while structural political knowledge is mainly achieved by active political participation. The ability of political reasoning is assumed to be equally influenced by both, media consumption and political participation. By using a small, homogeneous sample of university students, these hypotheses are examined by taking into consideration socio-demographic control variables and political interest in statistical analyses and by considering differential effects of various political activities and different forms of political media consumption. The results are primarily discussed with respect to potential future research and by considering political education in modern societies.

  15. ALEXANDER DUGIN AND MOSCOW’S NEW RIGHT RADICAL INTELLECTUAL CIRCLES AT THE START OF PUTIN’S THIRD PRESIDENTIAL TERM 2012-2013: THE ANTI-ORANGE COMMITTEE, THE IZBORSK CLUB AND THE FLORIAN GEYER CLUB IN THEIR POLITICAL CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas UMLAND

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The relatively large attention that Alexander Dugin and his “neo-Eurasian” followers have received in international post-Sovietology and Russian right-wing extremism studies, over the last two decades, is unusual, but justified. Dugin represents for both, analytical and political reasons, a more interesting case than his various ultra-nationalist competitors on the book market, in mass media, and within the public discourse of post-Soviet Russia. Not only has he distinguished himself by his bold incorporation of West European inter- and post-war right-wing extremist ideas – including classical German Nazism – into his post-Soviet Russian fascist ideology. By today, he is one of the few still active veterans of the Soviet Union’s occult underground, entering the Iuzhinskii circle in the early 1980s (Menzel 2013, 195-228, Laruelle 2015b, 563-580. Later on, Dugin was, for a short period in 1988, a member of late Soviet Russia’s first openly ultra-nationalist grouping, the infamous so-called Pamiat’ (Memory Society. Already in the early nineties, Dugin became a prolific post-Soviet publicist whose first articles, in particular his columns for Russia’s leading ultra-nationalist weekly Den’/Zavtra (The Day/Tomorrow, helped to shape the overall world-view of the then emerging new Russian extreme right. This paper will, first, outline the overall background, determinants, and context of the type of non-party activities that, among others, Dugin is engaged in. The argument focuses on both Dugin’s specific strategy, on the side, and the general meaning of right-wing extremist activism outside the electoral realm, i.e. within so-called “uncivil society,” on the other. The paper, secondly, illustrates these general observations by way of continuing Marlene Laruelle’s (2009 and others’ (including my own, Umland 2007 research on post-Soviet Russian right-wing extremist clubs and think-tanks. The focus here will be on three new such

  16. Political Integration of Hezbollah into Lebanese Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    southern interior. 14 Once displaced, the new Shi’a areas of concentration were, “in the infertile zones of the Jebel Amil in the south and the Bekaa...valley.”22 The fact that they were pushed to rugged, infertile and arid lands denote a pattern of economic dislocation that continued over the...political and social subjugation of the Lebanese Shi’a culminated to form a powerfully resonant psychological “frame” upon which Hezbollah could build a

  17. O direito à prevenção e os desafios da redução da vulnerabilidade ao HIV no Brasil The right to prevention and the challenges of reducing vulnerability to HIV in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Paiva

    2006-04-01

    initiatives for sex workers and homosexuals and prevention in the workplace. These have resulted in increases in testing and condom use. Various challenges are discussed, including: overcoming discontinuity in action plans (particularly with more vulnerable groups, training prevention teams, increasing monitoring of quantity and quality of preventative actions and overcoming regional, racial and gender inequalities. It is concluded that the right to prevention is not a priority for entities of social control, nor is it on the social movement agendas. This contrasts with the right to better HIV treatment. In order to increase the efficacy of these programs, it is suggested that they be understood and incorporated based on the promotion and guarantee of human rights, thereby advancing the ethical/political debate at local and national levels.

  18. Understanding political market orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan C.

    influences of such behavior. The study includes structural equation modeling to investigate several propositions. While the results show that political parties need to focus on several different aspects of market-oriented behavior, especially using an internal and external orientation as cultural antecedents......This article develops a conceptual framework and measurement model of political market orientation that consists of attitudinal and behavioural constructs. The article reports on perceived relationships among different behavioral aspects of political market orientation and the attitudinal......, a more surprising result is the inconclusive effect of a voter orientation on market-oriented behaviours. The article discusses the findings in the context of the existing literature in political marketing and commercial market orientation....

  19. Terrorism and Political Parties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourne, Angela

    against established authorities. I adopt a ‘discursive institutionalist’ approach and argue that decisions to ban the political parties linked to the IRA and ETA can be explained at least in part by the dominance of a ‘discourse of intolerance’ in which proscription is seen predominantly as a problem......In the paper I address the empirical puzzle arising from different responses by political authorities in Spain and the UK to the existence of political parties integrated in the terrorist groups Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA, Basque Homeland and Freedom) and the Irish Republican Army (IRA). More...... specifically I address the question of why the radical Basque nationalist political party Herri Batasuna and its successors, and the republican parties Sinn Féin and the Republican Clubs, enjoyed periods of legality and illegality during periods in which they all were involved in (separate) violent campaigns...

  20. IDEOLOGY BEHIND POLITENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IGAG Sosiowati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Politicians are considered to be the ones whose honesty is doubtful. This is proven by the fact that there are a lot of negative perception about them. Most of the people know that their ideology is power. In public discussion they often violate or apply politeness with the purpose to get as much power as possible. How polite they are in using the language will be measured by the combination of Grice’s maxims of cooperative principles (1975 and Leech’s mxims of politeness principle. Through analysing the language used by politicians in the talk show Today;s Dialogue, it was found that there were violation and application of politeness in their effort to realize their ideology, which is power.

  1. The Politics of Weeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Hope N.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews the literature that deals with the political ramifications of weeding material from academic library collections and the need to involve users and other libraries within the institution in the decision process. (14 references) (CLB)

  2. Political State Boundary (National)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — State boundaries with political limit - boundaries extending into the ocean (NTAD). The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an...

  3. Political communication research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    2014-01-01

    The rise of new media and the broader set of social changes they are part of present political communication research with new challenges and new opportunities at a time when many think the field is at an intellectual impasse (e.g., Bennett & Iyengar, 2008). In this article, I argue that parts...... of the field’s problems are rooted in the way in which political communication research has developed since the 1960s. In this period, the field has moved from being interdisciplinary and mixed-methods to being more homogenous and narrowly focused, based primarily on ideas developed in social psychology...... of political communication processes and questions concerning the symbolic, institutional, and technological nature of these processes—especially during a time of often rapid change. To overcome this problem, I argue that the field of political communication research should re-engage with the rest of media...

  4. Political conversations on Facebook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads P.

    2016-01-01

    Political conversations are according to theories on deliberative democracy essential to well-functioning democracies. Traditionally these conversations have taken place in face-to-face settings, in e.g. party meetings and town meetings. However, social media such as Facebook and Twitter offers new...... possibilities for online political conversations between citizens and politicians. This paper examines the presence on Facebook and Twitter of Members of the Danish national Parliament, the Folketing, and focusses on a quantitative mapping of the political conversation activities taking place in the threads...... following Facebook posts from Danish Members of Parliament (MPs). The paper shows that, in comparison with previous findings from other countries, Danish MPs have a relatively high degree of engagement in political conversations with citizens on Facebook – and that a large number of citizens follow MPs...

  5. The politics of breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Contemporary social movements along with rapid economic development throughout the world have pushed women into the mainstream of cultural change, i.e., urbanization and westernization. These new circumstances have altered the feeding patterns of these women. What is happening to breastfeeding should be viewed as part of a larger, ongoing acculturation process. Childrearing practices have been forced to accommodate to the dramatic realities in women's lives, including migration to the cities, the loss of caring kin, and work outside the home. These are all difficult transitions which many poor women have had to deal with on their own. Consequently, they are forced to redefine their roles and to change their childrearing practices so that they can maximize their changes to survive. According to anthropological evidence, women act sensibly and rationally in their decision regarding breastfeeding despite rapid acculturation and severe economic constraints. "Lactation Review" has observed how women have invented new systems of help and support when they want to breastfeed, and it has reported how they have become adept at dealing with overcrowded health services. The Review has also described the lives of women living in poor urban areas who are often forced to give up breastfeeding much too soon. Little trust in these women exists among international health agencies, many western legislators, and an elite group of health professionals worldwide. Legislators, with antiformula as their cause, have built new constituencies. A new politics of breastfeeding has emerged. It thrives on scientific naivete, authoritarian legislation as well as single minded and simplistic solutions to the problems of poor mothers. As indicated by the conference participants at Copenhagen, women need to take back their right to decide what and when to feed their children.

  6. "We hustle for our rights"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordt Jørgensen, Nanna

    2016-01-01

    management, rights and justice, and community, while at the same trying to enhance their own livelihood opportunities and social position. In their own words, these young people “hustle for their rights” to benefit (individually or communally) from the sand. Inspired by other scholars who have recently...... people's political engagements with the environment form part of a more general quest for survival and mobility, which is to a large degree shaped by their educational experiences....

  7. Size and Political Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, David Dreyer; Serritzlew, Søren

    This paper uses a novel research design to re-examine the causal effect of jurisdiction size on political participation. Two waves of municipal consolidation in Denmark, in 1970 and in 2005, provide exogenous variation in jurisdiction size.......This paper uses a novel research design to re-examine the causal effect of jurisdiction size on political participation. Two waves of municipal consolidation in Denmark, in 1970 and in 2005, provide exogenous variation in jurisdiction size....

  8. Persuasion in Politics

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin M. Murphy; Andrei Shleifer

    2004-01-01

    We present a model of the creation of social networks, such as political parties, trade unions, religious coalitions, or political action committees, through discussion and mutual persuasion among their members. The key idea is that people are influenced by those inside their network, but not by those outside. Once created, networks can be “rented out” to politicians who seek votes and support for their initiatives and ideas, which may have little to do with network members' core beliefs. In ...

  9. Building the Body Politic

    OpenAIRE

    Steffen Hertog

    2004-01-01

    Steffen Hertog’s article argues that Saudi Arabian regime has embarked upon the modernization of its authoritarian rule by attempting to institutionalize important aspects of the political debate. The way this is being done, he proposes, is best captured with the time-honoured concept of corporatism. It helps to bring the kingdom back into the framework of comparative politics, testing and giving new nuances to familiar concepts.

  10. Hospitality, Tourism, and Politics

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen W. Litvin

    2012-01-01

    Government policy has a significant impact on the hospitality and tourism industry, but it is unclear if political leaders fully understand this economic sector when crafting policies. This article offers new research about the direct involvement of industry practitioners in the political process, by analyzing the backgrounds of legislators in the six New England states. The data indicate that only 3% of these legislators have current or former careers related to hospitality and tourism. The ...

  11. Globalization and political structure

    OpenAIRE

    Gancia, Gino A.; Ponzetto, Giacomo A. M.; Ventura, Jaume

    2017-01-01

    The first wave of globalization (1830-1914) witnessed a decline in the number of countries from 125 to 54. Political consolidation was often achieved through war and conquest. The second wave of globalization (1950-present) has led instead to an increase in the number of countries to a record high of more than 190. Political fragmentation has been accompanied by the creation of peaceful structures of supranational governance. This paper develops a theoretical model of the interaction between ...

  12. The Political Parties and Political Participation in Rivers State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Political Parties and Political Participation in Rivers State, Nigeria: A Case Study of 2015 General Elections. Goddey Wilson. Abstract. The study reviewed the activities of the political parties and its impact on voters' participation in the political activities in Rivers State. In pursuit of this objective, the study generated ...

  13. The Effects of Majoring in Political Science on Political Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Casey B. K.; Smith, Keith W.; Williams, J. Michael

    2017-01-01

    This study tests, and finds support, for the hypotheses that a student who majors in political science will have stronger feelings of political competence and will be more willing to engage in hypothetical political actions than two peer groups: (a) those who major in other fields and (b) those who show an interest in politics but have not studied…

  14. Morality and politics: Comparing alternate theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Andrew; Vaisey, Stephen

    2015-09-01

    Debates about the American "culture wars" have led scholars to develop several theories relating morality to political attitudes and behaviors. However, researchers have not adequately compared these theories, nor have they examined the overall contribution of morality to explaining political variation. This study uses nationally representative data to compare the utility of 19 moral constructs from four research traditions - associated with the work of Hunter, Lakoff, Haidt, and Schwartz - for predicting political orientation (liberalism/conservatism). Results indicate that morality explains a third of the variation in political orientation - more than basic demographic and religious predictors - but that no one theory provides a fully adequate explanation of this phenomenon. Instead, political orientation is best predicted by selected moral constructs that are unique to each of the four traditions, and by two moral constructs that crosscut them. Future work should investigate how these moral constructs can be synthesized to create a more comprehensive theory of morality and politics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Gender, risk assessment, and political ambition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet-Cushman, Jennie

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, women have long held the right to vote and can participate fully in the political process, and yet they are underrepresented at all levels of elected office. Worldwide, men's dominance in the realm of politics has also been the norm. To date, scholars have focused on supply-side and demand-side explanations of women's underrepresentation but differences in how men and women assess electoral risk (the risk involved in seeking political office) are not fully explained. To fill this gap, I explore how evolutionary theory offers insights into gendered differences in political ambition and the evaluation of electoral risk. Using the framework of life-history theory, I hypothesize that both cognitive and environmental factors in human evolution, particularly as they relate to sexual selection and social roles, have shaped the psychology of ambition in gendered ways affecting contemporary politics. Cognitive risk-assessment mechanisms evolving in the hominid line came to be expressed differently in females and males, in women and men. These gendered expressions plausibly reflect differentiable environmental pressures in the past and may help explain behaviors in and barriers to women's electoral political activity in the present. If so, then the success of efforts to increase such activity - or, regressively, to suppress it - may be better understood.

  16. 75 FR 18937 - Bureau of Political-Military Affairs: Directorate of Defense Trade Controls; Notifications to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... having taken into account political, military, economic, human rights and arms control considerations... the transfer of these items having taken into account political, military, economic, human rights and... political, military, economic, human rights and arms control considerations. More detailed information is...

  17. Development of Democratic Processes in the People’s Republic of China: Prospects of Transformation of the Political Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Alexandrovich Semenov

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid economic growth of the PRC has brought new challenges and promoted social transformation in Chinese society. China suffers profound changes involving fundamental principles of public relations. The political regime in China is in a changeable condition, and continues to transform. Some decisions of the Chinese government affect not only the economy and public administration, but also in some ways human rights and political changes. Chinese political regime takes on the pending social problems and begins to gently lift old political bans. There is development of processes which at least by the formal features can be attributed to be democratic or quasi-democratic. However, despite a number of political changes and improving of human rights situation in last decades, China is still an illiberal state. Moreover, the level of repression in China has increased in the last few years. All of these actions raise questions about the political future of China. The scale of the socio-economic changes that have occurred in the PRC is so significant, that the maintaining of the existing governance structure is not possible. Rapid economic growth reduced public discontent at the disregard to fundamental human rights. Yet the “economic miracle” is coming to an end, and the country desperately needs economic and political reforms. Lack of reforms or its incorrect implementation can put the existing system out of balance, which will lead to adverse effects not only in China but also in the world. Depending on the reforms we can assume several scenarios for further development of the PRC.

  18. The Political Economy of Recent Economic Growth in India

    OpenAIRE

    Raghbendra Jha

    2004-01-01

    The political economy of India’s economic growth is an issue of abiding interest. Higher and sustained economic growth has, all over the world, been the surest and most time tested means of raising living standards and reducing poverty. Further, given that it is a functioning democracy, economic policy in India can often be dictated by political expediency as political parties indulge in competitive populism in the face of improvements in social indicators such as literacy, infant mortality a...

  19. Politics, Health and Military Diplomacy : A Critical Review | Joshua ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health is a fundamental Human Right and it involves the individual, the community and the State to protect and promote it. There is relationship between Politics and Health; and Political factor plays significant role in the provision of basic necessities of life and determining the health status of a Nation either directly or ...

  20. Citizenship Education as a Panacea for Political Stability in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    inevitably generate conflicts that engender political instability in the political system of the country. In order to restore ... voting and paying taxes and also the benefits or entitlements that they have right to demand from the government ... public affairs, human conflict and its resolution and the sources and exercise of power”.