Siroky, David S.; Mueller, Sean; Hechter, Michael
The study of secession generally stresses the causal influence of cultural identities, political preferences, or ecological factors. Whereas these different views are often considered to be mutually exclusive, this paper proposes a two-stage model in which they are complementary. We posit that cu...
Reuben, E.; Traxler, C.; van Winden, F.
We study the formation of advocacy groups and how they can impact policy outcomes by revealing information about voters׳ preferences to uninformed political candidates. We conduct a laboratory experiment based on a two-candidate spatial electoral competition setting where the policy preferences of
Blom-Hansen, Jens; Bækgaard, Martin; Serritzlew, Søren
shows that even in a setting where the information is not disclosed by a powerful sender, information may have a stronger impact on political preferences than other well-known determinants such as committee and party affiliation. Our findings speak to learning theories, knowledge perspectives...
Banerjee, Abhijit; Pande, Rohini
This paper examines how increased voter ethnicization, defined as a greater preference for the party representing one's ethnic group, affects politician quality. If politics is characterized by incomplete policy commitment, then ethnicization reduces average winner quality for the pro-majority party with the opposite true for the minority party. The effect increases with greater numerical dominance of the majority (and so social homogeneity). Empirical evidence from a survey on politician cor...
Research on public attitudes toward political decision-making has typically focused on politics in general. This study attends to issue-level as well as individual-level factors that can explain political process preferences. First, drawing on the classic distinction between easy and hard political
Benjamin, Daniel J.; Cesarini, David; Van Der Loos, Matthijs J.H.M.; Dawes, Christopher T.; Koellinger, Philipp D.; Magnusson, Patrik K.E.; Chabris, Christopher F.; Conley, Dalton; Laibson, David; Johannesson, Magnus; Visscher, Peter M.
Preferences are fundamental building blocks in all models of economic and political behavior. We study a new sample of comprehensively genotyped subjects with data on economic and political preferences and educational attainment. We use dense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data to estimate the
D.J. Benjamin (Daniel J.); D. Cesarini (David); M.J.H.M. van der Loos (Matthijs); C.T. Dawes (Christopher T.); Ph.D. Koellinger (Philipp); P.K. Magnusson (Patrik); C.F. Chabris (Christopher F.); D. Conley (Dalton); D. Laibson (David); M. Johannesson (Magnus); P.M. Visscher (Peter)
textabstractPreferences are fundamental building blocks in all models of economic and political behavior. We study a new sample of comprehensively genotyped subjects with data on economic and political preferences and educational attainment. We use dense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data to
Benjamin, Daniel J.; Cesarini, David; van der Loos, Matthijs J. H. M.; Dawes, Christopher T.; Koellinger, Philipp D.; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Chabris, Christopher F.; Conley, Dalton; Laibson, David; Johannesson, Magnus; Visscher, Peter M.
textabstractPreferences are fundamental building blocks in all models of economic and political behavior. We study a new sample of comprehensively genotyped subjects with data on economic and political preferences and educational attainment. We use dense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data to estimate the proportion of variation in these traits explained by common SNPs and to conduct genome-wide association study (GWAS) and prediction analyses. The pattern of results is consistent with ...
In Denmark political commentary is still a relatively new phenomenon. This paper analyzes the metadiscourse in relation to political commentary to identify the different understandings that have coalesced around political commentary as a genre. I argue that people in different positions (e.g. cit.......g. citizens, politicians, journalists, political editors, chief editors and political commentators themselves) emphasize different explanations for the rise of the genre and thereby functions of political commentary as part of an argumentative strategy favouring their own interests...
Fuchs-Schündeln, Nicola; Schündeln, Matthias
Democracies depend on the support of the general population, but little is known about the determinants of this support. We investigated whether support for democracy increases with the length of time spent under the system and whether preferences are thus affected by the political system. Relying on 380,000 individual-level observations from 104 countries over the years 1994 to 2013, and exploiting individual-level variation within a country and a given year in the length of time spent under democracy, we find evidence that political preferences are endogenous. For new democracies, our findings imply that popular support needs time to develop. For example, the effect of around 8.5 more years of democratic experience corresponds to the difference in support for democracy between primary and secondary education. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Weise, David R; Pyszczynski, Tom; Cox, Cathy R; Arndt, Jamie; Greenberg, Jeff; Solomon, Sheldon; Kosloff, Spee
Research on terror management theory (TMT) indicates that reminders of death affect political attitudes, but political orientation only sometimes moderates these effects. We propose that secure relationships are associated with values of tolerance and compassion, thus orienting people toward liberalism; insecure attachments are associated with more rigid and absolutist values that orient people toward conservatism. Given that attachment relationships become especially active when security needs are heightened, we predicted that mortality salience would be an important factor in understanding the relationship between attachment processes and political orientation. Supporting these ideas, Study 1 showed that after a mortality-salience manipulation, securely attached participants increased their support for a liberal presidential candidate, and less securely attached participants increased their support for a conservative presidential candidate. In Study 2, a secure-relationship prime following a mortality-salience manipulation engendered a less violent approach to the problem of terrorism than did a neutral-relationship prime. We discuss the interaction of TMT processes and individual differences in attachment in shaping political preferences.
Regina Carla Madalozzo
Full Text Available Abstract Analyzing the “left” and “right” political positions of individuals is challenging because personal attributes may influence political decisions without directly causing them. This issue may be even more pronounced in Latin America, where young democracies encounter the challenge of stabilizing political choices over time. This study contributes to the literature by analyzing the influence of personal attributes on political choices, focusing on the early 2000s, when the “left” turn occurred. The present study relies on the World Values Survey's fifth wave (2005-2008 to fulfil this objective. This dataset is composed of data that have been collected globally, and the questions are related to diverse subjects associated with the quality of life of individuals. From the available sample, we included all of the Latin American countries that participated in this wave: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, and Uruguay. In this study, the aim is to directly understand the impact of these individuals own attributes on their declared self-positioning about the political leaning. To this aim, an ordered logit model was used to analyse how each variable exerts influence on the political leaning of the respondents. Our results found that political cleavages depend on demographic factors, economic factors, and individual opinions in agreement with previous studies. Increased age, religious service attendance, and satisfaction with one's financial life increase the tendency of individuals for self-positioning to the right of the political spectrum. The possession of a university degree and residence in a large city increases the likelihood of individuals of self-identifying with a leftist political position. This study contributes to the literature by analysing the influence of personal attributes on political choices. Although this research represents an important step toward understanding political leanings in Latin
Full Text Available The Internet affords users a unique and low-cost way to engage with news, politics, and one another. Although young people are the most likely age cohort to go online, it is questionable whether young people take advantage of the Internet as a deliberative space. We examine the way college students perceive the online world as a venue for political discussion by analyzing responses from six focus groups conducted with college students across the United States. Using deliberative theory as a guide, we examine focus group participants’ thoughts about political discussion both online and offline. Our findings indicate that young people’s preferences for online discussions about politics and the news consistently link to the ideals of deliberation. Young people prefer engaging with others who are knowledgeable and remain flexible and calm during discussions. Goals for engaging in conversations about politics primarily revolved around sharing information and opinions. Participants preferred civil discourse that focuses on commonalities rather than differences between people. This study provides greater insight into how the rising generation currently engages with politics and the news and reasons why many people hesitate to participate in online discussions about public affairs.
Furgeson, Joshua R; Babcock, Linda; Shane, Peter M
Debate about how to best interpret the Constitution often revolves around interpretive methodologies (e.g., originalism or expansive interpretation). This article examines whether individuals' political orientation influences the methodologies they prefer to use to interpret the Constitution. We study this proposed relationship using a survey of federal law clerks and an experimental study with college students. The survey results indicate that, compared to conservatives, liberal clerks prefer the current meaning or the most plausible appealing meaning of the constitutional text, while conservatives prefer the original meaning of the text. Liberal clerks also prefer to interpret the Constitution much more expansively. The second study manipulates the policy implications of expansive interpretation and finds this manipulation differentially affects liberals' and conservatives' expansiveness preferences.
Full Text Available Twenty percent of American adults claimed no religious preference in 2012, compared to 7 percent twenty-five years earlier. Previous research identified a political backlash against the religious right and generational change as major factors in explaining the trend. That research found that religious beliefs had not changed, ruling out secularization as a cause. In this paper we employ new data and more powerful analytical tools to: (1 update the time series, (2 present further evidence of correlations between political backlash, generational succession, and religious identification, (3 show how valuing personal autonomy generally and autonomy in the sphere of sex and drugs specifically explain generational differences, and (4 use GSS panel data to show that the causal direction in the rise of the “Nones” likely runs from political identity as a liberal or conservative to religious identity, reversing a long-standing convention in social science research. Our new analysis joins the threads of earlier explanations into a general account of how political conflict over cultural issues spurred an increase in non-affiliation.
Full Text Available This is the English translation of a speech Bergson made at Lycée Henri-IV on July 30, 1892. This is an interesting text because it anticipates Bergson’s last book, his The Two Sources of Morality and Religion. Like the distinction in The Two Sources between the open and the closed, “Politeness” defines its subject matter in two ways. There is what Bergson calls “manners” and there is true politeness. For Bergson, both kinds of politeness concern equality. Manners or material politeness amount to the ritualized greetings and formalities by means of which we usually define politeness. Unfortunately and like The Two Sources, Bergson attributes this formalized relation to other human beings with primitive and “inferior races.” Nevertheless, Bergson sees in these formalities an attempt, in the name of equality, to ignore other people’s talents and merits so that one can dominate morally superior people. In contrast, true politeness or “spiritual politeness” consists in “intellectual flexibility.” When one meets a person of superior morality, one is flexible in one’s relation to him or her; one abandons the formalities in order to really live her life and think her thoughts. Here we find equality too: “what defines this very polite person is to prefer each of his friends over the others, and to succeed in this way in loving them equally.” After making a comparison to dance, Bergson defines spiritual politeness as “a grace of the mind.” Since both kinds of politeness concern equality, Bergson associates both with justice. However, beyond these two kinds of politeness and justice there is “politeness of the heart,” which concerns charity. In order to indicate politeness of the heart, Bergson describes the kind of person, a sensitive person, who anxiously awaits a word of praise in order to feel good about herself but who also, when she hears a word of reproach, is thrown into sadness. Although Bergson calls the
This study contributes to the growing literature on the domestic politics of climate change by examining the climate policy preferences of Fianna Fáil, Fine Gael and the Labour Party over 20 years. Bringing the concept of ‘policy entrepreneurship’ into the study of intra-party politics, it uses...... secondary data, party documents, publicly-available information and a series of in-depth interviews to develop an understanding of intra-party policy entrepreneurship and political parties’ climate policy preferences. It finds that office-seeking incentives have tended to trump the activities of individuals...... who have engaged in policy entrepreneurship with the aim of strengthening their parties’ climate policy preferences. In instances where office-seeking incentives for climate policy have been strong, they have often contributed to changes in policy preferences, whether or not intra-party policy...
This study contributes to the growing literature on the domestic politics of climate change by examining the climate policy preferences of Fianna Fáil, Fine Gael and the Labour Party over 20 years. Bringing the concept of ‘policy entrepreneurship’ into the study of intra-party politics, it uses...... who have engaged in policy entrepreneurship with the aim of strengthening their parties’ climate policy preferences. In instances where office-seeking incentives for climate policy have been strong, they have often contributed to changes in policy preferences, whether or not intra-party policy...... secondary data, party documents, publicly-available information and a series of in-depth interviews to develop an understanding of intra-party policy entrepreneurship and political parties’ climate policy preferences. It finds that office-seeking incentives have tended to trump the activities of individuals...
Schafer, Thomas; Sedlmeier, Peter
To date, not much is known about how the functions of music relate to music preference. This article examines the basic hypothesis that the strength of preference for a given kind of music depends on the degree to which that kind of music serves the needs of the listener; that is, how well the respective functions of music are fulfilled. Study 1,…
Barber, Brian K; Spellings, Carolyn; McNeely, Clea; Page, Paul D; Giacaman, Rita; Arafat, Cairo; Daher, Mahmoud; El Sarraj, Eyad; Mallouh, Mohammed Abu
Too little is known about human functioning amidst chronic adversity. We addressed that need by studying adult Palestinians in the occupied Palestinian territories (oPt), a population that has experienced longstanding economic and political hardships. Fourteen group interviews were conducted in February, 2010 in Arabic by local fieldworkers with 68 participants representing the main stratifications of Palestinian society: gender, region, refugee status, and political affiliation. Interview tasks included each participant: describing someone doing well and not well, free listing domains of functioning, and prioritizing domains to the three most important. Thematic analyses highlighted the dominating role of the political domain of functioning (e.g., political structures, constraints, effects, identity, and activism) and the degree to which political conditions impacted all other realms of functioning (economic, education, family, psychological, etc.). The discussion links the findings to relevant theory and empirical work that has called attention to the need to include the political in frameworks of quality of life. It also emphasized that values, such as justice, rights, dignity and self-determination, that underlie political structures and policies, are key elements of human functioning. This is the case not only in the oPt, but in any society where power imbalances marginalize segments of the population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This article presents the results of the research of preferences towards organic and functional yoghurt, conducted in Republic of Srpska, from January to May, 2014 (n=200. Generally, respondents do not consider whether yoghurt being or not being organic or functional as very important. They partially prefer functional yoghurts, but prefer yoghurts made from conventionally produced milk. For both, organic and functional food, consumers were divided into two segments - the first which considered yoghurt being organic (or functional among three the most important attributes of a product and the second segments comprising of all other respondents. Hereby, 8% of respondents belonged to the first segment for organic and 20% for functional yoghurt. Compared to second segments, consumers belonging to the first segment for organic yoghurt statistically significantly differ from others by valuating food importance for health more, while for functional yoghurt by assessing own physical health worse.
Dodd, Michael D.; Balzer, Amanda; Jacobs, Carly M.; Gruszczynski, Michael W.; Smith, Kevin B.; Hibbing, John R.
We report evidence that individual-level variation in people's physiological and attentional responses to aversive and appetitive stimuli are correlated with broad political orientations. Specifically, we find that greater orientation to aversive stimuli tends to be associated with right-of-centre and greater orientation to appetitive (pleasing) stimuli with left-of-centre political inclinations. These findings are consistent with recent evidence that political views are connected to physiological predispositions but are unique in incorporating findings on variation in directed attention that make it possible to understand additional aspects of the link between the physiological and the political. PMID:22271780
Bækgaard, Martin; Blom-Hansen, Jens; Serritzlew, Søren
in policy areas salient to the public, but not in less salient areas. This might be comforting news from a democratic perspective. However, since public budgets represent an easy case for political influence, it is food for thought that political preferences do not always prevail.......The public administration literature provides ample reasons why civil servants may be influential in public policy. However, for three decades, the ‘politics matters’ literature has found that political ideology is an important explanation of public policy, which indicates that politicians actually...... control their civil servants. But, the ‘politics matters’ literature systematically fails to include the influence of the bureaucracy. In fact, it is almost impossible to identify a single study in this literature that controls for the influence of the permanent bureaucracy. In this paper we investigate...
Full Text Available The current state of research does not tell us much about citizens’ expectations of political decision making. Most surveys allow respondents to evaluate how the current system is working, but do not inquire about alternative political decision-making procedures. The lack of established survey items can be explained by the fact that radical changes in decision-making procedures have been hard to envisage, but also by a general scepticism regarding people’s ability to form opinions on these matters. Political processes are, without doubt, complex matters that do not lend themselves very well to simplistic survey questions. Moreover, previous research has convincingly shown that most people in general have difficulties forming single, coherent and stable attitudes even towards far more straightforward political issues. In order to determine if trying to grasp attitudes towards political decision-making in future empirical studies can be considered a fruitful endeavour, this study sets out to critically assess the extent to which people express coherent preferences on these matters, and if preferences are in line with expectations in previous, rather scattered research. The study is based on the Finnish National Election Study 2011; a study which, contrary to most other election studies, includes a rich variety of survey items on the topic, and utilises a combination of strategies in order to explore patterns in the opinions held by citizens.
El estado actual de las investigaciones no nos dice mucho sobre las expectativas de los ciudadanos con respecto a la toma de decisiones políticas. La mayoría de las encuestas permiten que quienes las responden evalúen cómo funciona el sistema actual, pero no preguntan por procedimientos alternativos de decisión política. La falta de preguntas de encuesta contrastadas se puede explicar tanto por el hecho de que los cambios en los procedimientos de toma de decisiones han resultado difíciles de
Full Text Available The political border limits a state’s territory and symbolizes the extent of a state’s power and ownership. Borders give integrity to the inner state territory which they enclose (the role of establishing national integrity and at the same time form an outer boundary segregating the state territory from the surrounding politicial entities (the segregation role. European borders are old and reﬂect the political history of an old continent. The last major border changes happened after World War II. Over the centuries borders were merely lines separating one territory from another. Such borders were understood as »frontiers«. Forming an effective barrier against enemies was the overriding function of borders. Many borders were fortiﬁed and further enhanced by means of various defensive systems. In the second half of the 20th century the character of political borders changed. They became a contact area between countries, nations and cultures. Contemporary European borders reﬂect the colourful history of an old continent. They are predominantely functional markers: they represent the political and juridical delimitation of territories, they mark economic barriers and show their defensive nature and reveal the extent of cultural contact. As a result of European integration processes, the nature of political borders has changed: instead of division, their integration role is brought to the fore. A united Europe is nevertheless still not a borderless Europe! The borders within the »Schengen-area« have retained their political and administrative functions, it is just that the customs and security checks at the borders have been removed. During the period of European integration, borderlines were stabilized in accordance with the 1974 Helsinki Agreement. But despite this we can still observe ongoing changes to state borders, particularly in areas of conﬂict such as the Balkan peninsula. It seems after all that the process of demarcation
Juan F. Díaz-Morales
Full Text Available This review provides an overview of the role of circadian preference in psychological functioning of adolescents taking into account their shift to eveningness during this stage of life. After a brief explanation about morningness/eveningness and other terms related, an overview of the changes that occur on three of the most important areas in the adolescent's life is presented: school performance, personality styles, and health. Consequences of evening preference on school achievement are considered from the analysis of the relevance of sleep debt and time-of-day in cognition and mood aspects. In general, students who are able to choose activity times coinciding with their preferred times may have a greater opportunity to optimize their performance. The personality styles and health of morning and evening types are also important factors related to school and family adaptation. At last, some recommendations and conclusions in order to promote a healthy psychological functioning are described.
In a perfect representative democracy, there is a democratic chain of delegation that links voters with their elected representatives and then onwards to the executive branch and finally to civil servants in the bureaucracy (Strøm 2000). But is this an accurate picture of foreign policy making...... in European parliamentary democracies? This question is especially important as regards negotiations between EU member states on whether they should transfer national competences to the EU level; something that can be termed EU constitutional politics. The paper utilizes a strong ‘least-likely’ case...
This article analyses political debates about civic integration policies in the Netherlands, so as to identify different conceptions of the role of the state in ensuring social cohesion by governing diversity. Drawing on the literature on party systems, it presents an analysis of political party
Khrennikova, Polina; Haven, Emmanuel
We search to devise a new paradigm borrowed from concepts and mathematical tools of quantum physics, to model the decision-making process of the US electorate. The statistical data of the election outcomes in the period between 2008 and 2014 is analysed, in order to explore in more depth the emergence of the so-called divided government. There is an increasing urge in the political literature which indicates that preference reversal (strictly speaking the violation of the transitivity axiom) is a consequence of the so-called non-separability phenomenon (i.e. a strong interrelation of choices). In the political science literature, non-separable behaviour is characterized by a conditioning of decisions on the outcomes of some issues of interest. An additional source of preference reversal is ascribed to the time dynamics of the voters' cognitive states, in the context of new upcoming political information. As we discuss in this paper, the primary source of political information can be attributed to the mass media. In order to shed more light on the phenomenon of preference reversal among the US electorate, we accommodate the obtained statistical data in a classical probabilistic (Kolmogorovian) scheme. Based on the obtained results, we attribute the strong ties between the voters non-separable decisions that cannot be explained by conditioning with the Bayes scheme, to the quantum phenomenon of entanglement. Second, we compute the degree of interference of voters' belief states with the aid of the quantum analogue of the formula of total probability. Lastly, a model, based on the quantum master equation, to incorporate the impact of the mass media bath is proposed. © 2015 The Author(s).
Schloss, Karen B; Palmer, Stephen E
The present study reveals that Election Day differentially affects the color preferences of US Republicans and Democrats. Voters' preferences for Republican red and Democratic blue were assessed, along with several distractor colors, on and around the 2010 interim and 2012 presidential elections. On non-Election Days, Republicans and Democrats preferred Republican red equally, and Republicans actually preferred Democratic blue more than Democrats did. On Election Day, however, Republicans' and Democrats' color preferences changed to become more closely aligned with their own party's colors. Republicans liked Republican red more than Democrats did, and no longer preferred Democratic blue more than Democrats did. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that color preferences are determined by people's preferences for correspondingly colored objects/entities (Palmer & Schloss in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107:8877-8882, 2010). They further suggest that color preferences are calculated at a given moment, depending on which color-object associations are currently most activated or salient. Color preferences are thus far more dynamic and context-dependent than has previously been believed.
I. I. Prokopchuk
Full Text Available Based on the works of the French scientist A. de Tocqueville analyzed systematically constructive and destructive influence on political culture and the institutionalization of democracy in the society. In Tocqueville’s works may be divided into 2 patterns of political culture: a American liberal-democratic; b French authoritarian. Generalized thinker idea of values, based on which the American political culture of his time as follows: 1. Man put on an equal footing with the public. 2. Spread «spirit of the law» for all American society in general. 3. Understanding people, which is the main subject of politics and power source, as a combination of highly developed, independent, self-sufficient individuals. 4. Policy - one of the areas of self-realization and even for the average individual. In the system of value orientations policy covers the Americans first place or not. 5. Antypaternalizm in settings in which people, to the government and its agencies include disbelief, with potential worries, turning to government assistance only when absolutely can not do without it. 6. Social life is characterized by pluralism. In civil Sus-ety, there are many «power points» impact on the state by the parties, associations, media, opposition. 7. The political behavior of Americans is characterized by an open, constructive. A common policy is not the only type of collective participation (through parties and associations, but also individual. 8. The tendency of American political culture to the center, which was manifested in the unpopularity of political extremism as a type of political behavior on the part of leaders, parties, mass. 9. Legitimate functioning of the political opposition. This opposition political organizations in the United States in peace and enjoy his political activities only through legal means. 10. Formation of «money» elite and its deliberate removal of professions-term politics. Generalized Tocqueville features that define
Laustsen, Lasse; Petersen, Michael Bang; A. Klofstad, Casey
in modern elections with lower-pitched voices are generally more successful. As lower-pitched voices are perceived as stronger and more dominant, these findings have been taken to indicate a general preference for dispositional abilities in leaders to protect and prevail in conflicts. Here we extend upon...... among liberal Democrats. In a third study we show that preferences for lower-pitched candidate voices stem from individual differences in Social Dominance Orientation (SDO). Importantly, across all three studies subjects’ party affiliation, ideology, and SDO only predict references for male candidate...
Andersson, Patric; Gschwend, Thomas; Meffert, Michael F.; Schmidt, Carsten
"Five days in advance of the 2005 German national election, political experts, voters, and novices were asked to predict the outcome of the election. In an experimental manipulation, half of the non-expert sample was provided with additional poll information in the form of a figure with trend lines. The results show that (1) experts were marginally more accurate than non-experts but highly overconfident in their predictions, that (2) access to pre-election poll information improved the foreca...
Questions about the relationship between religion and politics are discussed with particular focus on the consequences for religious education. Norway is taken as an example of a country where increasing cultural diversity challenges traditional politics of religion. In the present climate of conflicting views on the role of religion in politics,…
Full Text Available 18249034 Sweet preferences of MGL: carbohydrate specificity and function. van Vliet...nces of MGL: carbohydrate specificity and function. PubmedID 18249034 Title Sweet preferences... SJ, Saeland E, van Kooyk Y. Trends Immunol. 2008 Feb;29(2):83-90. Epub 2008 Jan 14. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Sweet prefere
Sousa, Cindy A
Political violence is implicated in a range of mental health outcomes, including PTSD, depression, and anxiety. The social and political contexts of people's lives, however, offer considerable protection from the mental health effects of political violence. In spite of the importance of people's social and political environments for health, there is limited scholarship on how political violence compromises necessary social and political systems and inhibits individuals from participating in social and political life. Drawing on literature from multiple disciplines, including public health, anthropology, and psychology, this narrative review uses a multi-level, social ecological framework to enhance current knowledge about the ways that political violence affects health. Findings from over 50 studies were analysed and used to build a conceptual model demonstrating how political violence threatens three inter-related domains of functioning: individual functioning in relationship to their environment; community functioning and social fabric; and governmental functioning and delivery of services to populations. Results illustrate the need for multilevel frameworks that move beyond individual pathology towards more nuanced conceptualizations about how political violence affects health; findings contribute to the development of prevention programmes addressing political violence.
Sousa, Cindy A.
Political violence is implicated in a range of mental health outcomes, including PTSD, depression, and anxiety. The social and political contexts of people’s lives, however, offer considerable protection from the mental health effects of political violence. In spite of the importance of people’s social and political environments for health, there is limited scholarship on how political violence compromises necessary social and political systems and inhibits individuals from participating in social and political life. Drawing on literature from multiple disciplines, including public health, anthropology, and psychology, this narrative review uses a multi-level, social ecological framework to enhance current knowledge about the ways that political violence affects health. Findings from over 50 studies were analyzed and used to build a conceptual model demonstrating how political violence threatens three inter-related domains of functioning: individual functioning in relationship to their environment; community functioning and social fabric; and governmental functioning and delivery of services to populations. Results illustrate the need for multilevel frameworks that move beyond individual pathology towards more nuanced conceptualizations about how political violence affects health; findings contribute to the development of prevention programs addressing political violence. PMID:24133929
Fahs, Christopher A; Rossow, Lindy M; Thiebaud, Robert S; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Kim, Daeyeol; Bemben, Michael G; Abe, Takashi
Unilateral physical training can enhance muscular size and function as well as vascular function in the trained limb. In non-athletes, the preferred arm for use during unilateral tasks may exhibit greater muscular strength compared to the non-preferred arm. It is unclear if lower limb preference affects lower limb vascular function or muscular endurance and power in recreationally active adults. To examine the effect of lower limb preference on quadriceps muscle size and function and on lower limb vascular function in middle-aged adults. Twenty (13 men, 7 women) recreationally-active middle-aged (55 ± 7 yrs) adults underwent measurements of quadriceps muscle thickness, strength, mean power, endurance, and arterial stiffness, calf venous compliance, and calf blood flow in the preferred and non-preferred lower limb. The preferred limb exhibited greater calf vascular conductance (31.6 ± 15.5 versus 25.8 ± 13.0 units flow/mmHg; p = 0.011) compared to the non-preferred limb. The interlimb difference in calf vascular conductance was negatively related to weekly aerobic activity (hrs/week) (r = −0.521; p = 0.019). Lower limb preference affects calf blood flow but not quadriceps muscle size or function. Studies involving unilateral lower limb testing procedures in middle-aged individuals should consider standardizing the testing to either the preferred or non-preferred limb rather than the right or left limb. (paper)
Taylor, Daniel J; Clay, Kendra C; Bramoweth, Adam D; Sethi, Kevin; Roane, Brandy M
The current study offers a comprehensive assessment of psychosocial functioning and academic performance in relation to circadian phase preference in a US sample of undergraduate college students (N = 838), aged 17-26 (M = 19.78, SD = 1.89). Women had greater morning preference than men, and seniors had greater morning preference than freshmen. Circadian phase preference, fatigue, perceived stress, depression, anxiety, and substance use were assessed cross-sectionally and grade point average (GPA) was assessed prospectively. Evening phase preference was related to higher levels of fatigue, alcohol and caffeine use, and worse academic performance than morning or intermediate phase preferences.
Full Text Available This essay critically analyses how historical institutionalists and rational choice scholars study institutional stability and change. Special attention is paid to the thorny issued of how political actors’ preferences are formed, with historical institutionalists considering preferences as endogenously formed, and rational choice analysts postulating that preferences are fixed and exogenous. An argument is made in favour of the perspective that considers preferences as being formed within the functioning of the political system over time, endogenously. The essay also proposes the incorporation of ideas and non-decisions as tools to elucidate processes of change.
Güveli, A.; Need, A.; Graaf, N.D. de
Do the social and cultural specialists differ from the technocrats and other social classes with respect to their socio-political, cultural and economic preferences and behaviour? If they do, is this attributable to their level and field of education? The social and cultural specialists are assumed
Sedaghat, Sam; Heshmati, Eleène Sahmila; Frese, Thomas; Rasche, Wilma Gertrud; Barinka, Filip; Fahr, Florian; Beige, Joachim; Schiekofer, Stephan; Rasche, Franz Maximilian
The possible confounding influence of investigator-related preferences, available histological techniques, and healthcare systems on the frequencies and incidences of primary and secondary nephropathies was evaluated in this long-term observation. The observation time from 1983 to 2010 was divided in regard to the political regimes: a) prior to and after German reunification: German Democratic Republic (GDR, period 1 from 1983 to 1990)/Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, period 2 from 1990 to 2010); and the two heads of the division of nephrology, b) conductor 1 (1983 - 2006) and conductor 2 (2006 - 2010). 467 kidney biopsies at the University Hospital of Leipzig were included in our analysis. In period 1, due to the unavailability of immunofluorescence methods, mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis (MesP) was the most dominating nephropathy. In period 2, IgA nephropathy (IgAN) was the most common nephropathy (17%). IgAN was followed by crescentic glomerulonephritis (13%), hypertensive nephropathy (10%), minimal-change disease, and membranous glomerulonephritis (each 9%). From period 1 to period 2, MesP/IgAN (62% to 16%), membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis and postinfectious glomerulonephritis decreased significantly (p < 0.05). IgAN decreased significantly (p < 0.05) from conductor 1 to conductor 2 (21% to 6%), while diabetic nephropathy significantly increased. Focal-segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) had the highest incidence rate with 1.0, followed by IgAN with 0.8 (per 100,000 per year). In a nearly ethnically identical cohort, we have demonstrated that confounding factors, e.g., healthcare systems and preferences of conductors, have a strong influence - more than 10-fold variance - on frequency and incidence on the spectrum of nephropathies. .
Full Text Available Abstract Background In most studies on human reward processing, reward intensity has been manipulated on an objective scale (e.g., varying monetary value. Everyday experience, however, teaches us that objectively equivalent rewards may differ substantially in their subjective incentive values. One factor influencing incentive value in humans is branding. The current study explores the hypothesis that individual brand preferences modulate activity in reward areas similarly to objectively measurable differences in reward intensity. Methods A wheel-of-fortune game comprising an anticipation phase and a subsequent outcome evaluation phase was implemented. Inside a 3 Tesla MRI scanner, 19 participants played for chocolate bars of three different brands that differed in subjective attractiveness. Results Parametrical analysis of the obtained fMRI data demonstrated that the level of activity in anatomically distinct neural networks was linearly associated with the subjective preference hierarchy of the brands played for. During the anticipation phases, preference-dependent neural activity has been registered in premotor areas, insular cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, and in the midbrain. During the outcome phases, neural activity in the caudate nucleus, precuneus, lingual gyrus, cerebellum, and in the pallidum was influenced by individual preference. Conclusion Our results suggest a graded effect of differently preferred brands onto the incentive value of objectively equivalent rewards. Regarding the anticipation phase, the results reflect an intensified state of wanting that facilitates action preparation when the participants play for their favorite brand. This mechanism may underlie approach behavior in real-life choice situations.
DeSarbo, Wayne S.; Fong, Duncan K. H.; Liechty, John; Coupland, Jennifer Chang
The collection of repeated measures in psychological research is one of the most common data collection formats employed in survey and experimental research. The behavioral decision theory literature documents the existence of the dynamic evolution of preferences that occur over time and experience due to learning, exposure to additional…
Y. V. Malyavin
It has been proven that the political opposition does not take into account the mentality of Russians, their aspiration not to the mild model of Western democracy but to the host leader, the defender of the Motherland from external threat. Whereas, the ruling elite and its leader successfully and effectively implement this image in practice, and despite the deterioration of economic indicators, they get the support among the population. Consequently, the political opposition of Russia is immature and primary controlled by the current government.
Sheinkopf, Kenneth G.; And Others
One previously untested benefit of political advertising before elections may be that it serves "internal" as well as "external" needs, i.e., it boosts the morale of the campaign staff and provides them with information to persuade voters. This proposition was tested during the 1970 Wisconsin gubernatorial campaign by means of a questionnaire…
Parravano, Antonio; Noguera, José A; Hermida, Paula; Tena-Sánchez, Jordi
Models of social influence have explored the dynamics of social contagion, imitation, and diffusion of different types of traits, opinions, and conducts. However, few behavioral data indicating social influence dynamics have been obtained from direct observation in "natural" social contexts. The present research provides that kind of evidence in the case of the public expression of political preferences in the city of Barcelona, where thousands of citizens supporting the secession of Catalonia from Spain have placed a Catalan flag in their balconies and windows. Here we present two different studies. 1) During July 2013 we registered the number of flags in 26% of the electoral districts in the city of Barcelona. We find that there is a large dispersion in the density of flags in districts with similar density of pro-independence voters. However, by comparing the moving average to the global mean we find that the density of flags tends to be fostered in electoral districts where there is a clear majority of pro-independence vote, while it is inhibited in the opposite cases. We also show that the distribution of flags in the observed districts deviates significantly from that of an equivalent random distribution. 2) During 17 days around Catalonia's 2013 national holiday we observed the position at balcony resolution of the flags displayed in the facades of a sub-sample of 82 blocks. We compare the 'clustering index' of flags on the facades observed each day to thousands of equivalent random distributions. Again we provide evidence that successive hangings of flags are not independent events but that a local influence mechanism is favoring their clustering. We also find that except for the national holiday day the density of flags tends to be fostered in facades located in electoral districts where there is a clear majority of pro-independence vote.
Franco de los Ríos, Camilo; Hougaard, Jens Leth; Nielsen, Kurt
This paper proposes an interval-valued multi-criteria method for learning preferences and attitudes, identifying priorities with maximal robustness for decision support. The method is based on the notion of weighted overlap dominance, formalized by means of aggregation operators and interval-valued...... for properly identifying preferences under any attitude. In order to do so, relevance functions are examined over the whole system of relations, obtaining a weak preference order together with its associated attitude and robustness index. As a result, the proposed method allows learning preferences...
Hennig, Ralf Matthias; Blankers, Thomas; Gray, David A
Multivariate female preference functions for male sexual signals have rarely been investigated, especially in a comparative context among sister species. Here we examined male signal and female preference co-variation in three closely related, but allopatric species of Gryllus crickets and quantified male song traits as well as female preferences. We show that males differ conspicuously in either one of two relatively static song traits, carrier frequency or pulse rate; female preference functions for these traits also differed, and would in combination enhance species discrimination. In contrast, the relatively dynamic song traits, chirp rate and chirp duty cycle, show minimal divergence among species and relatively greater conservation of female preference functions. Notably, among species we demonstrate similar mechanistic rules for the integration of pulse and chirp time scales, despite divergence in pulse rate preferences. As these are allopatric taxa, selection for species recognition per se is unlikely. More likely sexual selection combined with conserved properties of preference filters enabled divergent coevolution of male song and female preferences.
Wal, van der J.C.; Peña-Álvarez, B.; Arriaga-Weiss, S.L.; Hernández-Daumás, S.
We studied species, functional groups, and habitat preferences of birds in five classes of agroforestry systems: agroforests, animal agroforestry, linear agroforestry, sequential agroforestry, and crops under tree cover in Tabasco, Mexico. Sampling sites were >2 km from natural forest fragments.
Heine, Lizette; Castro, Ma?t?; Martial, Charlotte; Tillmann, Barbara; Laureys, Steven; Perrin, Fabien
Preferred music is a highly emotional and salient stimulus, which has previously been shown to increase the probability of auditory cognitive event-related responses in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC). To further investigate whether and how music modifies the functional connectivity of the brain in DOC, five patients were assessed with both a classical functional connectivity scan (control condition), and a scan while they were exposed to their preferred music (music condition)...
Kunnavatana, S Shanun; Wolfe, Katie; Aguilar, Alexandra N
Functional communication training (FCT) is a common function-based behavioral intervention used to decrease problem behavior by teaching an alternative communication response. Therapists often arbitrarily select the topography of the alternative response, which may influence long-term effectiveness of the intervention. Assessing individual mand topography preference may increase treatment effectiveness and promote self-determination in the development of interventions. This study sought to reduce arbitrary selection of FCT mand topography by determining preference during response training and acquisition for two adults with autism who had no functional communication skills. Both participants demonstrated a clear preference for one mand topography during choice probes, and the preferred topography was then reinforced during FCT to reduce problem behavior and increase independent communication. The implications of the results for future research on mand selection during FCT are discussed.
Full Text Available Internet-based voter advice applications have experienced tremendous growth across Europe in recent years but have yet to be widely adopted in the United States. By comparison, the candidate-centered U.S. electoral system, which routinely requires voters to consider dozens of candidates across a dizzying array of local, state, and federal offices each time they cast a ballot, introduces challenges of scale to the systematic provision of information. Only recently have methodological advances combined with the rapid growth in publicly available data on candidates and their supporters to bring a comprehensive data-driven voter guide within reach. This paper introduces a set of newly developed software tools for collecting, disambiguating, and merging large amounts of data on candidates and other political elites. It then demonstrates how statistical methods developed by political scientists to measure the preferences and expressed priorities of politicians can be adapted to help voters learn about candidates.
Krutulyte, Rasa; Grunert, Klaus G.; Scholderer, Joachim
Kleef, van Trijp & Luning, 2005; Patch, Tapsell & Williams, 2005). With this in mind, the present study aimed at uncovering which functional ingredients consumers accept in selected food product categories such as yoghurt, muesli bars, fish balls, tuna salad, baby meals, rye bread and liver pâté....... Furthermore, the research looks at the possible determinants of acceptance of various enrichments of these foods, mainly focusing on factors such as respondents' present and intended eating behaviour, lifestyle-related habits (i.e. smoking, exercising, drinking), and expected outcomes of consuming the food...
Wilkins, R. W.; Hodges, D. A.; Laurienti, P. J.; Steen, M.; Burdette, J. H.
Most people choose to listen to music that they prefer or ?like? such as classical, country or rock. Previous research has focused on how different characteristics of music (i.e., classical versus country) affect the brain. Yet, when listening to preferred music?regardless of the type?people report they often experience personal thoughts and memories. To date, understanding how this occurs in the brain has remained elusive. Using network science methods, we evaluated differences in functional...
Schäfer, Thomas; Tipandjan, Arun; Sedlmeier, Peter
Is the use of music in everyday life a culturally universal phenomenon? And do the functions served by music contribute to the development of music preferences regardless of the listener's cultural background? The present study explored similarities and dissimilarities in the functions of music listening and their relationship to music preferences in two countries with different cultural backgrounds: India as an example of a collectivistic society and Germany as an example of an individualistic society. Respondents were asked to what degree their favorite music serves several functions in their life. The functions were summarized in seven main groups: background entertainment, prompt for memories, diversion, emotion regulation, self-regulation, self-reflection, and social bonding. Results indicate a strong similarity of the functions of people's favorite music for Indian and German listeners. Among the Indians, all of the seven functions were rated as meaningful; among the Germans, this was the case for all functions except emotion regulation. However, a pronounced dissimilarity was found in the predictive power of the functions of music for the strength of music preference, which was much stronger for Germans than for Indians. In India, the functions of music most predictive for music preference were diversion, self-reflection, and social bonding. In Germany, the most predictive functions were emotion regulation, diversion, self-reflection, prompt for memories, and social bonding. It is concluded that potential cultural differences hardly apply to the functional use of music in everyday life, but they do so with respect to the impact of the functions on the development of music preference. The present results are consistent with the assumption that members of a collectivistic society tend to set a higher value on their social and societal integration and their connectedness to each other than do members of individualistic societies.
Burnett, Alice C; Anderson, Peter J; Joseph, Robert M; Allred, Elizabeth N; O'Shea, T Michael; Kuban, Karl C K; Leviton, Alan
The association of hand preference (left, mixed, and right) with cognitive, academic, motor, and behavioral function was evaluated in 864 extremely preterm children at 10 years of age. Left-handed and right-handed children performed similarly but mixed-handed children had greater odds of functional deficits across domains than right-handed children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Winborn-Kemmerer, Lisa; Ringdahl, Joel E.; Wacker, David P.; Kitsukawa, Kana
Preference for mand topography was evaluated for 2 individuals with developmental disabilities who exhibited problem behavior. The results of a functional analysis showed that each participant's problem behavior was maintained by social reinforcement. Participants were taught two novel mand topographies for the same functional reinforcer, and each…
Bimbo, Francesco; Bonanno, Alessandro; Nocella, Giuseppe; Viscecchia, Rosaria; Nardone, Gianluca; Devitiis, De Biagia; Carlucci, Domenico
This systematic literature review collects and summarizes research on consumer acceptance and preferences for nutrition-modified and functional dairy products, to reconcile, and expand upon, the findings of previous studies. We find that female consumers show high acceptance for some functional
Ogueta, Maite; Cibik, Osman; Eltrop, Rouven; Schneider, Andrea; Scholz, Henrike
Preference determines behavioral choices such as choosing among food sources and mates. One preference-affecting chemical is ethanol, which guides insects to fermenting fruits or leaves. Here, we show that adult Drosophila melanogaster prefer food containing up to 5% ethanol over food without ethanol and avoid food with high levels (23%) of ethanol. Although female and male flies behaved differently at ethanol-containing food sources, there was no sexual dimorphism in the preference for food containing modest ethanol levels. We also investigated whether Drosophila preference, sensitivity and tolerance to ethanol was related to the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh), the primary ethanol-metabolizing enzyme in D. melanogaster. Impaired Adh function reduced ethanol preference in both D. melanogaster and a related species, D. sechellia. Adh-impaired flies also displayed reduced aversion to high ethanol concentrations, increased sensitivity to the effects of ethanol on postural control, and negative tolerance/sensitization (i.e., a reduction of the increased resistance to ethanol's effects that normally occurs upon repeated exposure). These data strongly indicate a linkage between ethanol-induced behavior and ethanol metabolism in adult fruit flies: Adh deficiency resulted in reduced preference to low ethanol concentrations and reduced aversion to high ones, despite recovery from ethanol being strongly impaired.
This paper centres on a philosophical evaluation of democratic ethics vis- a- vis its functionality in Nigeria. It outlines the qualities of a genuine democracy having adequately conceptualises the term and its associated problems in the Nigerian context. The paper concludes with suggestions that would improve the ...
McNeely, Clea; Barber, Brian K; Spellings, Carolyn; Belli, Robert; Giacaman, Rita; Arafat, Cairo; Daher, Mahmoud; El Sarraj, Eyad; Mallouh, Mohammed Abu
Political imprisonment is a traumatic event, often accompanied by torture and deprivation. This study explores the association of political imprisonment between 1987 and 2011 with political, economic, community, psychological, physical, and family functioning in a population-based sample of Palestinian men ages 32-43 years (N = 884) derived from a dataset collected in 2011. Twenty-six percent (n = 233) had been politically imprisoned. Men imprisoned between 1987 and 2005 reported functioning as well as never-imprisoned men in most domains, suggesting that men imprisoned as youth have moved forward with their lives in ways similar to their nonimprisoned counterparts. In an exception to this pattern, men imprisoned during the Oslo Accords period (1994-1999) reported higher levels of trauma-related stress (B = 0.24, p = .027) compared to never-imprisoned men. Men imprisoned since 2006 reported lower functioning in multiple domains: human insecurity (B = 0.33, p = .023), freedom of public expression (B = -0.48, p = .017), perceived government stability (B = -0.38, p = .009), feeling broken or destroyed (B = 0.59, p = .001), physical limitations (B = 0.55, p = .002), and community belonging (B = -0.33, p = .048). Findings pointed to the value of examining the effects of imprisonment on functioning in multiple domains. © 2015 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.
Bimbo, Francesco; Bonanno, Alessandro; Nocella, Giuseppe; Viscecchia, Rosaria; Nardone, Gianluca; De Devitiis, Biagia; Carlucci, Domenico
This systematic literature review collects and summarizes research on consumer acceptance and preferences for nutrition-modified and functional dairy products, to reconcile, and expand upon, the findings of previous studies. We find that female consumers show high acceptance for some functional dairy products, such as yogurt enriched with calcium, fiber and probiotics. Acceptance for functional dairy products increases among consumers with higher diet/health related knowledge, as well as with aging. General interest in health, food-neophobia and perceived self-efficacy seem also to contribute shaping the acceptance for functional dairy products. Furthermore, products with "natural" matches between carriers and ingredients have the highest level of acceptance among consumers. Last, we find that brand familiarity drives consumers with low interest in health to increase their acceptance and preference for health-enhanced dairy products, such as probiotic yogurts, or those with a general function claim. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Webb, Laura E.; Jensen, Margit Bak; Engel, Bas
The present study aimed to quantify calves'(Bos taurus) preference for long versus chopped hay and straw, and hay versus straw, using cross point analysis of double demand functions, in a context where energy intake was not a limiting factor. Nine calves, fed milk replacer and concentrate, were...
Hanley, Gregory P.; Piazza, Cathleen C.; Fisher, Wayne W.; Maglieri, Kristen A.
The current study describes an assessment sequence that may be used to identify individualized, effective, and preferred interventions for severe problem behavior in lieu of relying on a restricted set of treatment options that are assumed to be in the best interest of consumers. The relative effectiveness of functional communication training…
Engel, Bas; Webb, Laura E.; Jensen, Margit Bak
Cross point analysis of double demand functions provides a compelling way to quantify the strength of animal preferences for two simultaneously presented resources. During daily sessions, animals have to work to gain access to (a portion of) either resource, e.g. by pressing one of two panels a r...
Schutt, R K; Goldfinger, S M
Most homeless persons who have received services for serious mental illness want to live on their own, but mental health professionals usually recommend group housing. This study examined the relationship between the types of residential arrangements preferred by homeless mentally ill persons and their demographic and clinical characteristics and perceptions of their health and functional status. The study sample consisted of 118 homeless mentally ill persons living in publicly funded shelters in Boston who were enrolled in a research demonstration project that would provide them with housing. Before random assignment to housing, study participants were interviewed about their interest in moving, in staff support, and in living with others. Their clinical status and functional strengths and impairments were assessed using a variety of objective and subjective measures. Study participants reported a marked preference for independent living but expressed substantial interest in staff support. The desire for independent living was associated with a perceived ability to manage independent living, but was also associated with current substance abuse. Most indicators of clinical status and functional ability were not associated with housing preferences. Self-perceived functional ability may not be an influence on housing preferences, except when that ability is perceived as making independent living more difficult. Symptoms of mental illness did not appear to interfere with study participants' rational decision making about where to live. However, the study finding that substance abusers expressed a desire for independent living suggests the need for caution in adhering to homeless mentally ill persons' housing preferences, given the problems posed by substance abuse for their ability to maintain stable community housing.
Barrett, Jillian G.
Optimal signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) for speech discrimination are well-known, well-documented phenomena. Discrimination preferences and functions have been studied for both normal-hearing and hard-of-hearing populations, and information from these studies has provided clearer indices on additional factors affecting speech discrimination ability and SNR preferences. This knowledge lends itself to improvements in hearing aids and amplification devices, telephones, television and radio transmissions, and a wide arena of recorded media such as movies and music. This investigation was designed to identify the preferred signal-to-background ratio (SBR) of normal-hearing listeners in a musical setting. The signal was the singer's voice, and music was considered the background. Subjects listened to an unfamiliar ballad with a female singer, and rated seven different SBR treatments. When listening to melodic motifs with linguistic content, results indicated subjects preferred SBRs similar to those in conventional speech discrimination applications. However, unlike traditional speech discrimination studies, subjects did not prefer increased levels of SBR. Additionally, subjects had a much larger acceptable range of SBR in melodic motifs where the singer's voice was not intended to communicate via linguistic means, but by the pseudo-paralinguistic means of vocal timbre and harmonic arrangements. Results indicate further studies investigating perception of singing are warranted.
Heine, Lizette; Castro, Maïté; Martial, Charlotte; Tillmann, Barbara; Laureys, Steven; Perrin, Fabien
Preferred music is a highly emotional and salient stimulus, which has previously been shown to increase the probability of auditory cognitive event-related responses in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC). To further investigate whether and how music modifies the functional connectivity of the brain in DOC, five patients were assessed with both a classical functional connectivity scan (control condition), and a scan while they were exposed to their preferred music (music condition). Seed-based functional connectivity (left or right primary auditory cortex), and mean network connectivity of three networks linked to conscious sound perception were assessed. The auditory network showed stronger functional connectivity with the left precentral gyrus and the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during music as compared to the control condition. Furthermore, functional connectivity of the external network was enhanced during the music condition in the temporo-parietal junction. Although caution should be taken due to small sample size, these results suggest that preferred music exposure might have effects on patients auditory network (implied in rhythm and music perception) and on cerebral regions linked to autobiographical memory.
Full Text Available Preferred music is a highly emotional and salient stimulus, which has previously been shown to increase the probability of auditory cognitive event-related responses in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC. To further investigate whether and how music modifies the functional connectivity of the brain in DOC, five patients were assessed with both a classical functional connectivity scan (control condition, and a scan while they were exposed to their preferred music (music condition. Seed-based functional connectivity (left or right primary auditory cortex, and mean network connectivity of three networks linked to conscious sound perception were assessed. The auditory network showed stronger functional connectivity with the left precentral gyrus and the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during music as compared to the control condition. Furthermore, functional connectivity of the external network was enhanced during the music condition in the temporo-parietal junction. Although caution should be taken due to small sample size, these results suggest that preferred music exposure might have effects on patients auditory network (implied in rhythm and music perception and on cerebral regions linked to autobiographical memory.
van der Zanden, Lotte D T; van Kleef, Ellen; de Wijk, René A; van Trijp, Hans C M
Promoting protein consumption in the elderly population may contribute to improving the quality of their later years in life. Our study aimed to explore knowledge, perceptions and preferences of elderly consumers regarding protein-enriched food. We conducted three focus groups with independently living (ID) elderly (N = 24, Mage = 67 years) and three with elderly living in a residential home (RH) (N = 18, Mage = 83 years). Both the ID and RH elderly were predominantly sceptical about functional food in general. Confusion, distrust and a perceived lack of personal relevance were main perceived barriers to purchasing and consuming these products, although a majority of the participants did report occasionally consuming at least one type of functional food. For the ID elderly, medical advice was an important facilitator that could overcome barriers to purchasing and consuming protein-enriched food, indicating the importance of personal relevance for this group. For the RH elderly, in contrast, sensory appeal of protein-enriched foods was a facilitator. Carrier preferences were similar for the two groups; the elderly preferred protein-enriched foods based on healthy products that they consumed frequently. Future studies should explore ways to deal with the confusion and distrust regarding functional food within the heterogeneous population of elderly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wilkins, R W; Hodges, D A; Laurienti, P J; Steen, M; Burdette, J H
Most people choose to listen to music that they prefer or 'like' such as classical, country or rock. Previous research has focused on how different characteristics of music (i.e., classical versus country) affect the brain. Yet, when listening to preferred music--regardless of the type--people report they often experience personal thoughts and memories. To date, understanding how this occurs in the brain has remained elusive. Using network science methods, we evaluated differences in functional brain connectivity when individuals listened to complete songs. We show that a circuit important for internally-focused thoughts, known as the default mode network, was most connected when listening to preferred music. We also show that listening to a favorite song alters the connectivity between auditory brain areas and the hippocampus, a region responsible for memory and social emotion consolidation. Given that musical preferences are uniquely individualized phenomena and that music can vary in acoustic complexity and the presence or absence of lyrics, the consistency of our results was unexpected. These findings may explain why comparable emotional and mental states can be experienced by people listening to music that differs as widely as Beethoven and Eminem. The neurobiological and neurorehabilitation implications of these results are discussed.
Full Text Available Since 2000 the Indian state of Gujarat has been working to construct a state-wide water grid to connect 75% of its approximately 60 million urban and rural residents to drinking water sourced from the controversial Sardar Sarovar Dam on the Narmada River. This project represents a massive undertaking – it is billed as the largest drinking water project in the world – and is part of a broader predilection toward large, concrete-heavy supply-side solutions to water insecurity across present-day India. This paper tracks the claims and narratives used to promote the project, the political context in which it has emerged, the purposes it serves and, following Ferguson (1990, the functioning of the discursive-bureaucratic 'machine' of which it is a product. The dam’s reinvention as the solution to Gujarat’s drinking water shortfall – increasingly for cities and Special Industrial Regions – reflects a concern with attracting and retaining foreign investment through the creation of socalled 'world-class' infrastructure. At the same time, this reinvention has contributed to a project of nationbuilding, while remaining cloaked in a discourse of technological neutrality. The heavy infrastructure renders visible Gujarat’s commitment to 'development' even when that promise has yet to be realised for many, while the promise of Narmada water gives Gujarat’s leaders political capital with favoured investors and political supporters. In conclusion, I suggest that the success of infrastructure mega-projects as a political tool is not intrinsically tied to their ability to achieve their technical and social objectives. Instead, the 'spectacle' of ambitious infrastructural development projects may well yield political gains that outweigh, for a time, the realworld costs of their inequity and unsustainability.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Variation in mate choice behaviour among females within a population may influence the strength and form of sexual selection, yet the basis for any such variation is still poorly understood. Condition-dependence may be an important source of variation in female sexual responsiveness and in the preference functions for male display traits that she expresses when choosing. We manipulated food intake of female guppies (Poecilia reticulata, and examined the effect on several measures of condition and various components of mate choice behaviour. Results Diet significantly influenced four measures of female condition: standard length, weight, reproductive status and somatic fat reserves. Diet also significantly affected female sexual responsiveness, but not preference functions: females in good and poor condition prefer the same males. Conclusions Variation in female condition within populations is therefore unlikely to influence the direction of sexual selection imposed by female choice. It may, however, influence the strength of sexual selection due to its effects on female responsiveness. The relative importance of female choice as a sexually selective force may also covary with female condition, however, because low responsiveness may result in sneak copulations being relatively more important as a determinant of the paternity of offspring. Differences among populations in mean condition may also influence geographic differences in the strength of sexual selection.
Patra, Piya; Ghosh, Mahua; Banerjee, Raja; Chakrabarti, Jaydeb
Among different ligand binding motifs, anion binding C α NN motif consisting of peptide backbone atoms of three consecutive residues are observed to be important for recognition of free anions, like sulphate or biphosphate and participate in different key functions. Here we study the interaction of sulphate and biphosphate with C α NN motif present in different proteins. Instead of total protein, a peptide fragment has been studied keeping C α NN motif flanked in between other residues. We use classical force field based molecular dynamics simulations to understand the stability of this motif. Our data indicate fluctuations in conformational preferences of the motif residues in absence of the anion. The anion gives stability to one of these conformations. However, the anion induced conformational preferences are highly sequence dependent and specific to the type of anion. In particular, the polar residues are more favourable compared to the other residues for recognising the anion. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Pedersen, David Budtz
This dissertation is intended to establish a framework for a revised picture of the loci of epistemic preferences in our complex knowledge-based society. In what ways do institutions, policies and regulations determine the conditions under which knowledge is produced and justified? This dissertat......This dissertation is intended to establish a framework for a revised picture of the loci of epistemic preferences in our complex knowledge-based society. In what ways do institutions, policies and regulations determine the conditions under which knowledge is produced and justified......? This dissertation argues that we can identify multiple epistemic preferences in the institutional and political settings that govern the production and distribution of knowledge....
Dixit, Avinash K.; Weibull, Jörgen W.
Failures of government policies often provoke opposite reactions from citizens; some call for a reversal of the policy, whereas others favor its continuation in stronger form. We offer an explanation of such polarization, based on a natural bimodality of preferences in political and economic contexts and consistent with Bayesian rationality.
Dixit, Avinash K; Weibull, Jörgen W
Failures of government policies often provoke opposite reactions from citizens; some call for a reversal of the policy, whereas others favor its continuation in stronger form. We offer an explanation of such polarization, based on a natural bimodality of preferences in political and economic contexts and consistent with Bayesian rationality.
Full Text Available Physician-patient communication in patients suffering from common chronic respiratory disease should encompass discussion about pulmonary function test (PFT results, diagnosis, disease education, smoking cessation and optimising inhaler technique. Previous studies have identified that patients with chronic respiratory disease/s often express dissatisfaction about physician communication. Currently there is a paucity of data regarding patient awareness of their PFT results (among those who have undergone PFTs previously or patient preferences about PFT result communication.We undertook a three-month prospective study on outpatients referred to two Pulmonary Function Laboratories. If subjects had undergone PFTs previously, the awareness of their previous test results was evaluated. All subjects were asked about their preferences for PFT result communication. Subjects were determined to have chronic respiratory disease based on their past medical history.300 subjects (50% male with a median age (± SD of 65 (± 14 years participated in the study. 99% of the study participants stated that they were at least moderately interested in knowing their PFT results. 72% (217/300 of the subjects had undergone at least one PFT in the past, 48% of whom stated they had not been made aware of their results. Fewer subjects with chronic respiratory disease preferred that only a doctor discuss their PFT results with them (28% vs. 41%, p = 0.021.Our study demonstrates that while almost all subjects want to be informed of their PFT results, this does not occur in a large number of patients. Many subjects are agreeable for their PFT results to be communicated to them by clinicians other than doctors. Further research is required to develop an efficient method of conveying PFT results that will improve patient satisfaction and health outcomes.
Full Text Available Multi-party political system led to competition between political parties which caused the need for marketing in politics that improves political reputation. Politics, based on rich experience of political practice, used existing, developed methods and techniques of commercial marketing. Political marketing openly admits that politics and politicians are simply goods that are being sold on a political market. Political marketing is a whole way of operation by political parties which ask these questions: how do the voters choose; what affects their preference and how that preference can be influenced. Usage of political marketing in Bosnia and Herzegovina is still not on a satisfactory level but the knowledge about the importance of political marketing is increasing.
Full Text Available Transcription factor binding site (TFBS identification plays an important role in deciphering gene regulatory codes. With comprehensive knowledge of TFBSs, one can understand molecular mechanisms of gene regulation. In the recent decades, various computational approaches have been proposed to predict TFBSs in the genome. The TFBS dataset of a TF generated by each algorithm is a ranked list of predicted TFBSs of that TF, where top ranked TFBSs are statistically significant ones. However, whether these statistically significant TFBSs are functional (i.e. biologically relevant is still unknown. Here we develop a post-processor, called the functional propensity calculator (FPC, to assign a functional propensity to each TFBS in the existing computationally predicted TFBS datasets. It is known that functional TFBSs reveal strong positional preference towards the transcriptional start site (TSS. This motivates us to take TFBS position relative to the TSS as the key idea in building our FPC. Based on our calculated functional propensities, the TFBSs of a TF in the original TFBS dataset could be reordered, where top ranked TFBSs are now the ones with high functional propensities. To validate the biological significance of our results, we perform three published statistical tests to assess the enrichment of Gene Ontology (GO terms, the enrichment of physical protein-protein interactions, and the tendency of being co-expressed. The top ranked TFBSs in our reordered TFBS dataset outperform the top ranked TFBSs in the original TFBS dataset, justifying the effectiveness of our post-processor in extracting functional TFBSs from the original TFBS dataset. More importantly, assigning functional propensities to putative TFBSs enables biologists to easily identify which TFBSs in the promoter of interest are likely to be biologically relevant and are good candidates to do further detailed experimental investigation. The FPC is implemented as a web tool at http://santiago.ee.ncku.edu.tw/FPC/.
Verger, J; Ruiz, S; Tillmann, B; Ben Romdhane, M; De Quelen, M; Castro, M; Tell, L; Luauté, J; Perrin, F
Several studies have shown that music can boost cognitive functions in normal and brain-damaged subjects. A few studies have suggested a beneficial effect of music in patients with a disorder of consciousness but it is difficult to conclude since they did not use quantified measures and a control condition/group. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of music to that of a continuous sound on the relational behavior of patients in a minimally conscious state (MCS). Behavioral responses of six MCS patients were evaluated using items from the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised. Weekly evaluation sessions were carried out, over four weeks, under two conditions: following the presentation of either the patient's preferred music, or following a continuous sound (control condition). Qualitative and quantitative analyses showed that twelve of the eighteen sessions (66.6%) showed a better result for the music condition than for the control condition. This new protocol suggests that preferred music has a beneficial effect on the cognitive abilities of MCS patients. The results further suggest that cerebral plasticity may be enhanced in autobiographical (emotional and familiar) contexts. These findings should now be further extended with an increased number of patients to further validate the hypothesis of the beneficial effect of music on cognitive recovery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Tol, W.A.; Komproe, I.H.; Jordans, M.J.D.; Susanty, D.; de Jong, J.T.V.M.
Objective: Practitioners in political violence-affected settings would benefit from rating scales that assess child function impairment in a reliable and valid manner when designing and evaluating interventions. We developed a procedure to construct child function impairment rating scales using
Chester, Julia A; Weera, Marcus M
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol-use disorders have a high rate of co-occurrence, possibly because they are regulated by common genes. In support of this idea, mice selectively bred for high (HAP) alcohol preference show greater fear potentiated startle (FPS), a model for fear-related disorders such as PTSD, compared to mice selectively bred for low (LAP) alcohol preference. This positive genetic correlation between alcohol preference and FPS behavior suggests that the two traits may be functionally related. This study examined the effects of fear conditioning on alcohol consumption and the effects of alcohol consumption on the expression of FPS in male and female HAP2 and LAP2 mice. In experiment 1, alcohol consumption (g/kg) under continuous-access conditions was monitored daily for 4 weeks following a single fear-conditioning or control treatment (foot shock and no shock). FPS was assessed three times (once at the end of the 4-week alcohol access period, once at 24 h after removal of alcohol, and once at 6-8 days after removal of alcohol), followed by two more weeks of alcohol access. Results showed no change in alcohol consumption, but alcohol-consuming, fear-conditioned, HAP2 males showed increased FPS at 24 h during the alcohol abstinence period compared to control groups. In experiment 2, alcohol consumption under limited-access conditions was monitored daily for 4 weeks. Fear-conditioning or control treatments occurred four times during the first 12 days and FPS testing occurred four times during the second 12 days of the 4-week alcohol consumption period. Results showed that fear conditioning increased alcohol intake in both HAP2 and LAP2 mice immediately following the first conditioning session. Fear-conditioned HAP2 but not LAP2 mice showed greater alcohol intake compared to control groups on drinking days that occurred between fear conditioning and FPS test sessions. FPS did not change as a function of alcohol consumption in either
Yu, Yonglin; Zhi, Lingtong; Guan, Xiangmin; Wang, Daoyong; Wang, Dayong
Preference choice on food is an important response strategy for animals living in the environment. Using assay system of preference choice on bacterial foods, OP50 and PA14, we identified the involvement of ADL sensory neurons in the control of preference choice in Caenorhabditis elegans. Both genetically silencing and ChR2-mediated activation of ADL sensory neurons significantly affected preference choice. ADL regulated preference choice by inhibiting function of G protein-coupled receptor (...
Verhulst, Brad; Eaves, Lindon J.; Hatemi, Peter K.
The assumption in the personality and politics literature is that a person's personality motivates them to develop certain political attitudes later in life. This assumption is founded on the simple correlation between the two constructs and the observation that personality traits are genetically influenced and develop in infancy, whereas political preferences develop later in life. Work in psychology, behavioral genetics, and recently political science, however, has demonstrated that political preferences also develop in childhood and are equally influenced by genetic factors. These findings cast doubt on the assumed causal relationship between personality and politics. Here we test the causal relationship between personality traits and political attitudes using a direction of causation structural model on a genetically informative sample. The results suggest that personality traits do not cause people to develop political attitudes; rather, the correlation between the two is a function of an innate common underlying genetic factor. PMID:22400142
Lammers, J.; Koch, Alex; Conway, Paul; Brandt, M.J.
How does political preference affect categorization in the political domain? Eight studies demonstrate that people on both ends of the political spectrum—strong Republicans and strong Democrats—form simpler and more clustered categories of political stimuli than do moderates and neutrals. This
Xu, Hai-Yun; Yang, Nian-Wan; Duan, Min; Wan, Fang-Hao
The functional responses of two parasitoids, Eretmocerus hayati Zolnerowich & Rose and Encarsia sophia Girault & Dodd, of whitefly Bemisia tabaci Gennadius Middle East-Asia Minor 1 were studied under laboratory conditions. In addition, the influence of host density and host stage on the competitive interactions between the two parasitoids, and biological control effect on whitefly were evaluated. In the functional response study, adult parasitoids were tested individually, with a conspecific or heterospecific competitor. Both Er. hayati and En. sophia exhibited a type II response to increasing host density, whether a conspecific or heterospecific competitor was present or not. Difference of searching rates and handling times between treatments suggested interference interactions existed between two parasitoid species. In the host stage preference study, two parasitoid species were jointly tested. Er. hayati had a competitive advantage over En. sophia when provided young host instars (first and second instar), whereas no advantage was found on old host instars (third and fourth instar). The biological control effect of Er. hayati and En. sophia in different introductions varied with host density. However, the effect of host instar on host mortality was not significant. These findings provide information for the practice of biological control and give better insight into how parasitoid species may coexist in diverse environments. © 2014 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Наронская, Анна Гегамовна
This article is devoted to corruption’s impact on the functioning of political institutions. In the author’s opinion, political corruption leads to informal institutionalization and degradation of political institutions. The author concludes that public control can prevent political corruption.Key words: the political corruption, conflict of interests, formal and informal institutions, political process.
Segura, Diego F.; Nussenbaum, Ana L.; Viscarret, Mariana M.; Devescovi, Francisco; Bachmann, Guillermo E.; Corley, Juan C.; Ovruski, Sergio M.; Cladera, Jorge L.
Parasitoids searching for polyphagous herbivores can find their hosts in a variety of habitats. Under this scenario, chemical cues from the host habitat (not related to the host) represent poor indicators of host location. Hence, it is unlikely that naïve females show a strong response to host habitat cues, which would become important only if the parasitoids learn to associate such cues to the host presence. This concept does not consider that habitats can vary in profitability or host nutritional quality, which according to the optimal foraging theory and the preference-performance hypothesis (respectively) could shape the way in which parasitoids make use of chemical cues from the host habitat. We assessed innate preference in the fruit fly parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata among chemical cues from four host habitats (apple, fig, orange and peach) using a Y-tube olfactometer. Contrary to what was predicted, we found a hierarchic pattern of preference. The parasitism rate realized on these fruit species and the weight of the host correlates positively, to some extent, with the preference pattern, whereas preference did not correlate with survival and fecundity of the progeny. As expected for a parasitoid foraging for generalist hosts, habitat preference changed markedly depending on their previous experience and the abundance of hosts. These findings suggest that the pattern of preference for host habitats is attributable to differences in encounter rate and host quality. Host habitat preference seems to be, however, quite plastic and easily modified according to the information obtained during foraging. PMID:27007298
Diego F Segura
Full Text Available Parasitoids searching for polyphagous herbivores can find their hosts in a variety of habitats. Under this scenario, chemical cues from the host habitat (not related to the host represent poor indicators of host location. Hence, it is unlikely that naïve females show a strong response to host habitat cues, which would become important only if the parasitoids learn to associate such cues to the host presence. This concept does not consider that habitats can vary in profitability or host nutritional quality, which according to the optimal foraging theory and the preference-performance hypothesis (respectively could shape the way in which parasitoids make use of chemical cues from the host habitat. We assessed innate preference in the fruit fly parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata among chemical cues from four host habitats (apple, fig, orange and peach using a Y-tube olfactometer. Contrary to what was predicted, we found a hierarchic pattern of preference. The parasitism rate realized on these fruit species and the weight of the host correlates positively, to some extent, with the preference pattern, whereas preference did not correlate with survival and fecundity of the progeny. As expected for a parasitoid foraging for generalist hosts, habitat preference changed markedly depending on their previous experience and the abundance of hosts. These findings suggest that the pattern of preference for host habitats is attributable to differences in encounter rate and host quality. Host habitat preference seems to be, however, quite plastic and easily modified according to the information obtained during foraging.
Full Text Available The standard gamble (SG and rating scale (RS are two approaches that can be employed to elicit health state preferences from patients in order to inform decision making. The objectives of this study were: (i to contribute evidence towards the similarities and differences in the SG and the RS to reflect patient preferences, and (ii to develop a multi-attribute utility function (MAUF (i.e., scoring algorithm for the PBMSI.Two samples were recruited for the study. The first sample provided cross-sectional data to generate the preference weights which were then used to develop (D the MAUFD. The distribution of SG and RS were compared across levels of perceived difficulty. The second sample provided additional data to validate (V the MAUF, termed MAUFV.The mean RS values ranged from 0.39 to 0.65, whereas the mean SG values were much higher ranging from 0.80 to 0.91. Correlations between the two methods were very low ranging from -0.29 to 0.15. Bland-Altman plots revealed the extent of differences in values produced by the two methods.In contemplating trade-offs in the selection of a preference-based elicitation approach for a MAUF that could guide clinical decision making, results suggest the RS is preferable in terms of feasibility and validity for MS patients. The PBMSI with patient preferences shows promise as a measure of health-related quality of life for MS.
Ozdemir, Pinar G; Milanlioglu, Aysel; Boysan, Murat; Cilingir, Vedat; Aydin, Nuri; Atli, Abdullah
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a progressive disorder that results in demyelinization of the nerve fibers of the central nervous system. We aimed to determine chronobiological and mood features in patients with MS. The sample comprised 75 patients with MS (54 women and 21 men) and 50 healthy individuals (38 women and 12 men). Sixty-three patients were relapsing-remitting MS and twelve patients had secondary progressive-type MS. Mood characteristics were assessed using subscales of the Profile of Mood States (POMS). Chronotypical characteristics were determined by the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ). Univariate and structural equation modeling was applied to untangle the possible connections between variables. Both relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive patients scored higher on the depression-dejection and fatigue-inertia scales of the POMS than healthy individuals. Circadian preferences did not differ significantly between these groups. Patients using glatiramer acetate and other types of drugs had greater severity of functional impairment measured relative to interferon-beta treatment group. Glatiramer acetate had more negative effects on mood than interferon-beta therapy. This finding may be the result of significantly higher duration of disease and higher symptom severity scores in glatiramer acetate group. In the structural equation model, gender was found to be predictive for characteristics of mood.
The focus of this article is social divisions among preschool children in daycare centers. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in three daycare centers in Denmark, the analysis concerns young children’s social preferences. The ethnographic material shows that despite an explicit political ambition...... indicates that children’s choices of playmates run along lines of ethnic and class divisions. The article will address this pattern and analyze its causes in order to understand why such lines of divisions are to be found in an institutional context designed to overcome social inequality and prevent social...
Padilla Dalmau, Yaniz C.; Wacker, David P.; Harding, Jay W.; Berg, Wendy K.; Schieltz, Kelly M.; Lee, John F.; Breznican, Gregory P.; Kramer, Abigail R.
We evaluated whether differences in treatment effectiveness or preference between languages emerged across Spanish and English during functional communication training (FCT) for young children with developmental disabilities exposed to Spanish and English in the home environment. Participants were 2 young children with developmental disabilities…
Gillespie-Lynch, Kristen; Kapp, Steven K.; Shane-Simpson, Christina; Smith, David Shane; Hutman, Ted
An online survey compared the perceived benefits and preferred functions of computer-mediated communication of participants with (N = 291) and without ASD (N = 311). Participants with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) perceived benefits of computer-mediated communication in terms of increased comprehension and control over communication, access to…
Tina Lengar Verovnik
Full Text Available The article discusses several aspects of speech used by established political elites in the context of a developing digital tool Parlameter. This is done without understanding the internet and digital spaces as always already stylistically marked. Instead, they are understood as a platform that also provides a possibility for critical analysis of language as a social phenomenon. Parlameter allows for analysis of »live« language, which always has an important context, as it is spoken by MPs – legislative decision makers, who shape the culture of public expression. Analysis is done using diverse algorithms and structural mechanisms – from examining the use of language to calculating MP’s presence and decisions in the parliament. The article discusses the automated and other analyzes offered by Parlameter. Units analyzed are individual MPs and parliamentary groups in the current parliamentary session. Since Parlameter, as an emerging analytical tool, also has a supervisory function in addition to the linguistic-stylistic dimensions, the former are also described and placed in a wider context of digitization of institutional policy.
S. V. Rybalka
Regional political elite in Ukraine is constantly under pressure of the allukrainian political processlevel. This complicates the transformation of regional and local elites to real decision makers for the organization of the relevant areas development. A significant problem for domestic regional elites, in the author’s opinion, is the leaching of personnel recruiting local and regional leaders to fill positions at the capital level.
Ibanez, Sébastien; Manneville, Olivier; Miquel, Christian; Taberlet, Pierre; Valentini, Alice; Aubert, Serge; Coissac, Eric; Colace, Marie-Pascale; Duparc, Quentin; Lavorel, Sandra; Moretti, Marco
Food preferences and food availability are two major determinants of the diet of generalist herbivores and of their spatial distribution. How do these factors interact and eventually lead to diet differentiation in co-occurring herbivores? We quantified the diet of four grasshopper species co-occurring in subalpine grasslands using DNA barcoding of the plants contained in the faeces of individuals sampled in the field. The food preferences of each grasshopper species were assessed by a choice (cafeteria) experiment from among 24 plant species common in five grassland plots, in which the four grasshoppers were collected, while the habitat was described by the relative abundance of plant species in the grassland plots. Plant species were characterised by their leaf economics spectrum (LES), quantifying their nutrient vs. structural tissue content. The grasshoppers' diet, described by the mean LES of the plants eaten, could be explained by their plant preferences but not by the available plants in their habitat. The diet differed significantly across four grasshopper species pairs out of six, which validates food preferences assessed in standardised conditions as indicators for diet partitioning in nature. In contrast, variation of the functional diversity (FD) for LES in the diet was mostly correlated to the FD of the available plants in the habitat, suggesting that diet mixing depends on the environment and is not an intrinsic property of the grasshopper species. This study sheds light on the mechanisms determining the feeding niche of herbivores, showing that food preferences influence niche position whereas habitat diversity affects niche breadth.
Werneke, Mark W; Edmond, Susan; Young, Michelle; Grigsby, David; McClenahan, Brian; McGill, Troy
Physiotherapy has an important role in managing patients with non-specific low back pain who experience elevated psychosocial distress or risk for chronic disability. In terms of evidence-based physiotherapy practice, cognitive-behavioural approaches for patients at high psychosocial risk are the recommended management to improve patient treatment outcomes. Evidence also suggests that directional preference (DP) is an important treatment effect modifier for prescribing specific exercises for patients to improve outcomes. Little is known about the influence of treatment techniques based on DP on outcomes for patients classified as high psychosocial risk using the Subgroups for Targeted Treatment (STarT) Back Screening Tool. This study aimed to examine the association between functional status (FS) at rehabilitation discharge for patients experiencing low back pain classified at high STarT psychosocial risk and whose symptoms showed a DP versus No-DP. High STarT risk patients (n = 138) completed intake surveys, that is, the lumbar FS of Focus On Therapeutic Outcomes, Inc., and STarT, and were evaluated for DP by physiotherapists credentialed in McKenzie methods. The FS measure of Focus On Therapeutic Outcomes, Inc., was repeated at discharge. DP and No-DP prevalence rates were calculated. Associations between first-visit DP and No-DP and change in FS were assessed using univariate and multivariate regression models controlling for 11 risk-adjusted variables. One hundred nine patients classified as high STarT risk had complete intake and discharge FS and DP data. Prevalence rate for DP was 65.1%. A significant and clinically important difference (7.98 FS points; p = .03) in change in function at discharge between DP and No-DP was observed after controlling for all confounding variables in the final model. Findings suggest that interventions matched to DP are effective for managing high psychological risk patients and may provide physiotherapists with an
Herrero de Miñón, Miguel
Full Text Available Politics, Law and Psychology are fields that come together in the symbolic. This text takes evidence from those three areas to develop an analysis of political symbols and political transitions. The development of the analysis goes through three stages. The first succinctly describes the concept of transition and its meaning. The second closely examines the notion of the symbol, in terms of its definition, to explain aspects that allow us to understand it, characterise it and make its functions clear. Finally, from the author's experience as a witness and as an actor, I suggest three ways of understanding symbols in the processes of political transition: as symbols of change, as symbols of acknowledgment, and as symbols of support.
Yu, Yonglin; Zhi, Lingtong; Guan, Xiangmin; Wang, Daoyong; Wang, Dayong
Preference choice on food is an important response strategy for animals living in the environment. Using assay system of preference choice on bacterial foods, OP50 and PA14, we identified the involvement of ADL sensory neurons in the control of preference choice in Caenorhabditis elegans. Both genetically silencing and ChR2-mediated activation of ADL sensory neurons significantly affected preference choice. ADL regulated preference choice by inhibiting function of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)/SRH-220. ADL sensory neurons might regulate preference choice through peptidergic signals of FLP-4 and NLP-10, and function of FLP-4 or NLP-10 in regulating preference choice was regulated by SRH-220. FLP-4 released from ADL sensory neurons further regulated preference choice through its receptor of NPR-4 in AIB interneurons. In AIB interneurons, NPR-4 was involved in the control of preference choice by activating the functions of ASH-2 trithorax complex consisting of SET-2, ASH-2, and WDR-5, implying the crucial role of molecular machinery of trimethylation of histone H3K4 in the preference choice control. The identified novel neuronal circuit and the underlying molecular mechanisms will strengthen our understanding neuronal basis of preference choice in animals.
Barrett, Jillian Gallant
The purpose of this study was to identify listeners' signal-to-background-ratio (SBR) preference levels for vocal music and to investigate whether or not SBR differences existed for different music genres. The ``signal'' was the singer's voice, and the ``background'' was the accompanying music. Three songs were each produced in two different genres (total of 6 genres represented). Each song was performed by three male and three female singers. Analyses addressed influences of musical genre, singing style, and singer timbre on listener's SBR choices. Fifty-three normal-hearing California State University of Northridge students ranging in age from 20-52 years participated as subjects. Subjects adjusted the overall music loudness to a comfortable listening level, and manipulated a second gain control which affected only the singer's voice. Subjects listened to 72 stimuli and adjusted the singer's voice to the level they felt sounded appropriate in comparison to the background music. Singer and Genre were the two primary contributors to significant differences in subject's SBR preferences, although the results clearly indicate Genre, Style and Singer interact in different combinations under different conditions. SBR differences for each song, each singer, and each subject did not occur in a predictable manner, and support the hypothesis that SBR preferences are neither fixed nor dependent merely upon music application or setting. Further investigations regarding psychoacoustical bases responsible for differences in SBR preferences are warranted.
Mæstad, Ottar; Norheim, Ole Frithjof
The literature on how to combine efficiency and equity considerations in the social valuation of health allocations has borrowed extensively from applied welfare economics, including the literature on inequality measurement. By so doing, it has adopted normative assumptions that have been applied for evaluating the allocation of welfare (or income) rather than the allocation of health, including the assumption of a monotonically declining social marginal value of welfare/income/health. At the same time, empirical studies that have elicited social preferences for allocation of health have reported results that are seemingly incompatible with this assumption. There are two ways of addressing this inconsistency; we may censor the stated preferences by arguing that they cannot be supported by normative arguments, or we may reject or modify the analytical framework in order to accommodate the stated preferences. We argue that the stated preferences can be supported by normative reasoning and therefore conclude that one should be cautious in applying the standard welfare economic framework to the allocation of health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Gerhard Klausmann,1 Irene Hramiak,2 Marianne Qvist,3 Kristian Handberg Mikkelsen,3 Xiaohui Guo4 1Internal Medicine Diabetology Practice, Aschaffenburg, Germany; 2Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, St Joseph's Healthcare, London, Ontario, Canada; 3Novo Nordisk A/S, Soeborg, Denmark; 4Department of Endocrinology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of China Background: Improving adherence to insulin treatment for better glycemic control remains a challenge in the management of diabetes. New technological aids are required to help support adherence. This study evaluated preference for the NovoPen® 5 (NP5, a durable insulin pen with memory function, compared with the HumaPen Luxura® (HPL among patients with diabetes and health care professionals. Methods: This crossover, multicenter usability study included insulin pen-experienced patients with diabetes and health care professionals treating patients with diabetes in Canada, China, and Germany. Participants evaluated NP5 and HPL in a randomized order by performing handling tasks in a usability test related to everyday use during a face-to-face interview. Tasks, pens, and preferences were assessed by completing a questionnaire comprised of rating and open-ended questions relating to confidence in everyday diabetes management. Results: Overall, 300 patients with diabetes and 150 health care professionals participated in the study. Significantly more participants preferred NP5 (81% to HPL (18% (P < 0.001. Also, 82% of patients with diabetes had more confidence in NP5 for managing their daily injections versus 11% with HPL (P < 0.001, and 7% had no preference. Memory function was most helpful in giving patients with diabetes confidence about when they last injected (63%, how much insulin they last injected (62% and improving diabetes management (55%. Participants gave higher ratings to NP5 than to HPL on all parameters relating to performing an injection (ease of
Dinis, A M; Pereira, J A; Benhadi-Marín, J; Santos, S A P
Carabid beetles are important predators in agricultural landscapes feeding on a range of prey items. However, their role as predators of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae), one of the most serious pests of olives, is unknown. In this context, the feeding preferences and the functional responses of two carabid beetle species, Calathus granatensis (Vuillefroy) and Pterostichus globosus (Fabricius), were studied under laboratory conditions. Feeding preference assays involved exposing carabid beetles to different ratios of B. oleae pupae and an alternative prey, the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Both species fed on B. oleae pupae however, C. granatensis always showed a significant preference for that prey whereas P. globosus switched to C. capitata pupae when the offered ratio was below 0.5. The total prey biomass consumed was significantly higher for P. globosus than for C. granatensis. Functional response curves were estimated based on different densities of B. oleae pupae and both carabid beetle species exhibited a type II functional response using Rogers' random-predator equation. P. globosus showed shorter handling time (1.223 ± 0.118 h) on B. oleae pupae than C. granatensis (3.230 ± 0.627 h). Our results suggest that both species can be important in reducing the densities of B. oleae in olive groves, although P. globosus was more efficient than C. granatensis.
Full Text Available Recent rapid technological advances have enabled robots to fulfill a variety of human-like functions, leading researchers to propose the use of such technology for the development and subsequent validation of interventions for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Although a variety of robots have been proposed as possible therapeutic tools, the physical appearances of humanoid robots currently used in therapy with these patients are highly varied. Very little is known about how these varied designs are experienced by individuals with ASD. In this study, we systematically evaluated preferences regarding robot appearance in a group of 16 individuals with ASD (ages 10-17. Our data suggest that there may be important differences in preference for different types of robots that vary according to interaction type for individuals with ASD. Specifically, within our pilot sample, children with higher-levels of reported ASD symptomatology reported a preference for specific humanoid robots to those perceived as more mechanical or mascot-like. The findings of this pilot study suggest that preferences and reactions to robotic interactions may vary tremendously across individuals with ASD. Future work should evaluate how such differences may be systematically measured and potentially harnessed to facilitate meaningful interactive and intervention paradigms.
Full Text Available Knowledge of how executive functions relate to preferred hearing aid (HA processing is sparse and seemingly inconsistent with related knowledge for speech recognition outcomes. This study thus aimed to find out if (1 performance on a measure of reading span (RS is related to preferred binaural noise reduction (NR strength, (2 similar relations exist for two different, nonverbal measures of executive function, (3 pure-tone average hearing loss (PTA, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR, and microphone directionality (DIR also influence preferred NR strength, and (4 preference and speech recognition outcomes are similar. Sixty elderly HA users took part. Six HA conditions consisting of omnidirectional or cardioid microphones followed by inactive, moderate, or strong binaural NR as well as linear amplification were tested. Outcome was assessed at fixed SNRs using headphone simulations of a frontal target talker in a busy cafeteria. Analyses showed positive effects of active NR and DIR on preference, and negative and positive effects of, respectively, strong NR and DIR on speech recognition. Also, while moderate NR was the most preferred NR setting overall, preference for strong NR increased with SNR. No relation between RS and preference was found. However, larger PTA was related to weaker preference for inactive NR and stronger preference for strong NR for both microphone modes. Equivalent (but weaker relations between worse performance on one nonverbal measure of executive function and the HA conditions without DIR were found. For speech recognition, there were relations between HA condition, PTA, and RS, but their pattern differed from that for preference. Altogether, these results indicate that, while moderate NR works well in general, a notable proportion of HA users prefer stronger NR. Furthermore, PTA and executive functions can account for some of the variability in preference for, and speech recognition with, different binaural NR and DIR settings.
Abdalla, Charles W.; Shaffer, James D.
Industrialization of the food and agricultural sectors changes the pattern of external effects. Participants helped or harmed in the process attempt to influence outcomes through markets and politics. Decisions about property rights and boundaries determine benefits and burdens and the relative cost of animal agriculture in different jurisdictions. Prescriptions to redefine property rights are influenced by selective perception of rights to share in the benefits and be protected from costs. P...
Hafner, Brian J; Willingham, Laura L; Buell, Noelle C; Allyn, Katheryn J; Smith, Douglas G
To evaluate differences in function, performance, and preference between mechanical and microprocessor prosthetic knee control technologies. A-B-A-B reversal design. Home, community, and laboratory environments. Twenty-one unilateral, transfemoral amputees. Mechanical control prosthetic knee versus microprocessor control prosthetic knee (Otto Bock C-Leg). Stair rating, hill rating and time, obstacle course time, divided attention task accuracy and time, Amputee Mobility Predictor score, step activity, Prosthesis Evaluation Questionnaire score, Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey score, self-reported frequency of stumbles and falls, and self-reported concentration required for ambulation. Stair descent score, hill descent time, and hill sound-side step length showed significant (Pmicroprocessor knee. Subject satisfaction with the C-Leg was significantly (Pprosthesis. The study population showed improved performance when negotiating stairs and hills, reduced frequency of stumbling and falling, and a preference for the microprocessor control C-Leg as compared with the mechanical control prosthetic knee.
Full Text Available Due to the changes in the approaches and methods in English language teaching throughout history, the use of mother tongue (L1 has been one of the most important topics discussed in the foreign language teaching field. Although most of the approaches used nowadays do not support the use of mother tongue, there is a change in the perception towards teachers’ code-switching in foreign language (L2 learning classrooms. There are various recent studies suggesting that using mother tongue facilitates foreign language learning. In this respect, the purpose of this study was to examine the teachers’ and students’ perceptions towards L1 use in L2 classrooms and under which circumstances they preferred using mother tongue. In addition, learners’ preferences of teachers’ code switching were also analyzed. Both teachers’ and students’ perceptions and beliefs on code switching were investigated using the questionnaires, classroom observations and interviews as data collection tools. There were 2 hour-observation periods (90 minutes in the classrooms of 2nd grade, 4th grade and 7th grade in which the circumstances of L1 use were analyzed to determine if there were any common characteristics of the L1 use. Findings of the revealed that there were some common circumstances where teachers code-switched to facilitate learning in the classroom and that students had some clear preferences for their teachers to switch to L1.
Barrett, Jillian G.
The primary purpose of speech is to convey a message. Many factors affect the listener's overall reception, several of which have little to do with the linguistic content itself, but rather with the delivery (e.g., prosody, intonation patterns, pragmatics, paralinguistic cues). Music, however, may convey a message either with or without linguistic content. In instances in which music has lyrics, one cannot assume verbal content will take precedence over sonic properties. Lyric emphasis over other aspects of music cannot be assumed. Singing introduces distortion of the vowel-consonant temporal ratio of speech, emphasizing vowels and de-emphasizing consonants. The phonemic production alterations of singing make it difficult for even those with normal hearing to understand the singer. This investigation was designed to identify singer-to-background-ratio (SBR) prefer- ences for normal hearing adult listeners (as opposed to SBR levels maxi-mizing speech discrimination ability). Stimuli were derived from three different original songs, each produced in two different genres and sung by six different singers. Singer and genre were the two primary contributors to significant differences in SBR preferences, though results clearly indicate genre, style and singer interact in different combinations for each song, each singer, and for each subject in an unpredictable manner.
Discourses evoking an antibiotic apocalypse and a war on superbugs are emerging just at a time when so-called "catastrophe discourses" are undergoing critical and reflexive scrutiny in the context of global warming and climate change. This article combines insights from social science research into climate change discourses with applied metaphor research based on recent advances in cognitive linguistics, especially with relation to "discourse metaphors." It traces the emergence of a new apocalyptic discourse in microbiology and health care, examines its rhetorical and political function and discusses its advantages and disadvantages. It contains a reply by the author of the central discourse metaphor, "the post-antibiotic apocalypse," examined in the article.
Michael J. Shapiro
Full Text Available I write from Prague, where, unlike in most urban formations, the main city street plays an iconic role; it references a history of political protest. However, before elaborating on the protest iconography of the Prague street, Vaclavske nam, I want to locate the ways in which the design of urban space is actualized in everyday life in the cities of the world. Three functions stand out; the first involves dwelling, the second seeing, and the third moving. With respect to the first function – dwelling – the design partitions and coordinates residential, commercial and leisure functions. At times these are organized to segregate different classes (Robert Moses’ redesign of much of New York stands out with respect to the segregation function. With respect to the second function – seeing – the design of urban space is allegiance-inspiring; it involves sight lines that afford urban dwellers and visitors views of iconic buildings and statues, which reference key founding moments in the past and/or authoritative political functions in the present (Here, L’Enfants design for Washington DC stands out as exemplary. Its manifest intention was to make the buildings housing executive, legislative and judicial functions visible from many vantage points. Rarely are the streets themselves iconic. Their dominant role is involved with the effectuation of movement. As for this third function: As Lewis Mumford famously points out, streets were once part of an asterisk design, radiating out from an exemplary, often spiritual center...
textabstractProf.dr. Jodi Dean, hoogleraar politieke filosofie aan Hobart and William Smith Colleges (Geneva, New York), sprak donderdag 19 februari 2009 haar inaugurele rede uit, getiteld "Politics without politics". Dean is dit jaar Erasmus Professor op de Erasmus Chair of Humanities in de Faculteit der Wijsbegeerte. De Erasmus Wisselleerstoel is ingesteld door de G. Ph. Verhagen Stichting. V In haar oratie gaat Dean in op het thema democratie in relatie tot linkse politiek. Enkele politiek...
Gilmar Antonio Bedin
Full Text Available This text aims to rescue the contributions of Political Semiology proposed by Luis Alberto Warat. This text was structured in six parts. The text begins with the presentation of the linguistic turn of philosophy. Then it analyzes the main concepts of this philosophical perspective and verifies their incorporation into legal theory. In a fourth part it presents the Political Semiology, as a result, it highlights the concept of theoretical common sense of lawyers . The method used in the preparation of this text was the hypothetical-deductive one and the applied technique was bibliography research.
Theelen-van den Hoek, Femke L; Boymans, Monique; van Dijk, Bas; Dreschler, Wouter A
In sound processors of cochlear implant (CI) users, input sound signals are analysed in multiple frequency channels. The amplitude mapping function (AMF) is the output compression function dictating the conversion from (acoustical) channel output levels to (electrical) current levels used for electrode stimulation. This study focused on the detectability of AMF adjustments by CI users and the effects of detectable AMF adjustments on subjective preference and performance. Just noticeable differences (JNDs) for AMF settings were measured for pre-processed sentences at 60 dB SPL in quiet and noise. Three AMF settings, ranging twice the JND, were used during a take-home trial period of 12 days. Subjective ratings were collected and speech recognition in quiet and noise was measured. JND measurements: 17 CI users. Field experiment: 15 CI users. JNDs for AMF settings varied among subjects and were similar in quiet and noise. A steeper AMF in the lower part was advantageous for speech recognition in quiet at soft levels. Subjective ratings showed limited agreement with speech recognition, both in quiet and noise. CI users may benefit from different AMF settings in different listening situations regarding subjective preference and speech perception, especially for speech in quiet.
Glaser, J; Salovey, P
Recent U.S. history provides vivid illustrations of the importance of politicians' emotional displays in subsequent judgments of them. Yet, a review of empirical research on the role of affect (emotion, mood, and evaluation) in electoral politics reveals little work that has focused on the impact of candidates' emotional expression on voters' preferences for them. A theoretical framework is proposed to identify psychological mechanisms by which a target's displays of emotion influence judgments of that target. Findings from the emerging literature on emotions and politics challenge the traditional assumption of political science that voters make decisions based solely on the cold consideration of nonaffectively charged information. The affect and politics literature, although somewhat unfocused and broad, represents an interdisciplinary domain of study that contributes to the understanding of both electoral politics and social interaction more generally.
Verhulst, Brad; Hatemi, Peter K; Eaves, Lindon J
Ideological preferences within the American electorate are contingent on both the environmental conditions that provide the content of the contemporary political debate and internal predispositions that motivate people to hold liberal or conservative policy preferences. In this article we apply Jost, Federico, and Napier's (2009) top-down/bottom-up theory of political attitude formation to a genetically informative population sample. In doing so, we further develop the theory by operationalizing the top-down pathway to be a function of the social environment and the bottom-up pathway as a latent set of genetic factors. By merging insights from psychology, behavioral genetics, and political science, we find strong support for the top-down/bottom-up framework that segregates the two independent pathways in the formation of political attitudes and identifies a different pattern of relationships between political attitudes at each level of analysis.
Krishnan, Jaya; Athar, Fathima; Rani, Tirupaati Swaroopa; Mishra, Rakesh Kumar
Simple sequence repeats (SSRs), simple tandem repeats (STRs) or microsatellites are short tandem repeats of 1-6 nucleotide motifs. They are twice as abundant as the protein coding DNA in the human genome and yet little is known about their functional relevance. Analysis of genomes across various taxa show that despite the instability associated with longer stretches of repeats, few SSRs with specific longer repeat lengths are enriched in the genomes indicating a positive selection. This conserved feature of length dependent enrichment hints at not only sequence but also length dependent functionality for SSRs. In the present study, we selected 23 SSRs of the human genome that show specific repeat length dependent enrichment and analysed their cis-regulatory potential using promoter modulation, boundary and barrier assays. We find that the 23 SSR sequences, which are mostly intergenic and intronic, possess distinct cis-regulatory potential. They modulate minimal promoter activity in transient luciferase assays and are capable of functioning as enhancer-blockers and barrier elements. The results of our functional assays propose cis-gene regulatory roles for these specific length enriched SSRs and opens avenues for further investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
SLOB, AK; TENBOSCH, JJ; VANHALL, EV; DEJONG, FH; SCHULTZ, WCMW; EIKELBOOM, FA
Effects of oral testosterone undecanoate (Andriol) on blood hormone levels, moods, sociosexual functioning and self-image of the body were studied in four gonadectomized patients with complete testicular feminization. In a double-blind cross-over experiment, patients were treated with oral
Muhammad Afzal Awan
Full Text Available In the present study, the authors deliberate that there are no separate boxes in human brain to restrict two different languages to interact with each other. The practice on ground is strongly in favour of allowing L1 to support target language (TL. The paper contests the status quo of maximal input hypothesis and documents enough research in the field of human psychology, code-switching, bilingualism and Socio-Cultural Theory (SCT. The Canadian French Immersion Programme has also been referred to, in the article. The real life teaching and learning experiences have been shared and are connected to the latest theory and research, and it is concluded that this issue has serious socio-political and academic dimensions. The study postulates that the extent of L1 to be used is highly context-dependent. A ‘judicious’ use of L1 should, however, be practiced in target language (TL class without malign. Keywords: Judicious use, L1, code-switching, socio-political, psychological, functional dimensions
sensory feedback in patient perception of voluntary movement and assessment of the performance of sound-handed individuals and amputees with real and...Project’s Goals: To develop treatment strategies for improving executive function and memory following TBI. List of The Specific Aims: 1. Develop...acceptability of the DEKA Arm in a home environment. Data from this study will help inform future VA Prosthetics and Sensory Aids clinical guidelines for
Lindqvist, Erik; Östling, Robert
We study the effect of political polarization on government spending and redistribution using the dispersion of self-reported political preferences as our measure of polarization. Politically polarized countries have lower levels of redistribution and government consumption. The relationship between political polarization and the size of government is stronger in democratic countries, indicating that the effect goes through the political system. The results are robust to a large set of contro...
Osmundsen, Mathias; Petersen, Michael Bang
Precautionary models of political ideology suggest that people on the right are motivated by needs to neutralize threats in everyday life more than those on the left. This article examines whether this ideological difference extends to a psychological scale that directly captures the need to engage...... of threat in everyday life? Using a communication experiment, we find that exposure to real-world policy assurances from the Republican Party (i.e., the US conservative party) provides a small, most likely short-lived reduction in obsessive-compulsive symptoms among Americans. We discuss how these findings...... shed light on the key paradox about the psychology of right-wing ideology: how right-wing ideology can function to reduce insecurity while people on the right still have higher levels of insecurity....
Religion and politics provide an interesting juxtaposition. On the one hand, both may initially come across as rather self-evident categories, with religion dealing with human perceptions and what people hold as sacred, and politics addressing the control and governance of fellow human beings....... Nonetheless, such a simple opposition should only work as a starting point for an interrogation of both terms and how they have come to look and function as empirical and analytical categories. Focusing on the ways that religion is played out in relation to politics reveals different historical and cultural...... constellations and positions, which can be highlighted as variations of religion as politics, religion in politics, religion out of politics, and religion not politics....
Full Text Available HIV-1 integrates more frequently into transcribed genes, however the biological significance of HIV-1 integration targeting has remained elusive. Using a selective high-throughput chemical screen, we discovered that the cardiac glycoside digoxin inhibits wild-type HIV-1 infection more potently than HIV-1 bearing a single point mutation (N74D in the capsid protein. We confirmed that digoxin repressed viral gene expression by targeting the cellular Na+/K+ ATPase, but this did not explain its selectivity. Parallel RNAseq and integration mapping in infected cells demonstrated that digoxin inhibited expression of genes involved in T-cell activation and cell metabolism. Analysis of >400,000 unique integration sites showed that WT virus integrated more frequently than N74D mutant within or near genes susceptible to repression by digoxin and involved in T-cell activation and cell metabolism. Two main gene networks down-regulated by the drug were CD40L and CD38. Blocking CD40L by neutralizing antibodies selectively inhibited WT virus infection, phenocopying digoxin. Thus the selectivity of digoxin depends on a combination of integration targeting and repression of specific gene networks. The drug unmasked a functional connection between HIV-1 integration and T-cell activation. Our results suggest that HIV-1 evolved integration site selection to couple its early gene expression with the status of target CD4+ T-cells, which may affect latency and viral reactivation.
Castilla-Ortega, Estela; Blanco, Eduardo; Serrano, Antonia; Ladrón de Guevara-Miranda, David; Pedraz, María; Estivill-Torrús, Guillermo; Pavón, Francisco Javier; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Santín, Luis J
We investigated the role of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) behaviour and the functional brain circuitry involved. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis was pharmacologically reduced with temozolomide (TMZ), and mice were tested for cocaine-induced CPP to study c-Fos expression in the hippocampus and in extrahippocampal addiction-related areas. Correlational and multivariate analysis revealed that, under normal conditions, the hippocampus showed widespread functional connectivity with other brain areas and strongly contributed to the functional brain module associated with CPP expression. However, the neurogenesis-reduced mice showed normal CPP acquisition but engaged an alternate brain circuit where the functional connectivity of the dentate gyrus was notably reduced and other areas (the medial prefrontal cortex, accumbens and paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus) were recruited instead of the hippocampus. A second experiment unveiled that mice acquiring the cocaine-induced CPP under neurogenesis-reduced conditions were delayed in extinguishing their drug-seeking behaviour. But if the inhibited neurons were generated after CPP acquisition, extinction was not affected but an enhanced long-term CPP retention was found, suggesting that some roles of the adult-born neurons may differ depending on whether they are generated before or after drug-contextual associations are established. Importantly, cocaine-induced reinstatement of CPP behaviour was increased in the TMZ mice, regardless of the time of neurogenesis inhibition. The results show that adult hippocampal neurogenesis sculpts the addiction-related functional brain circuits, and reduction of the adult-born hippocampal neurons increases cocaine seeking in the CPP model. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.
I. V. Ishchenko
Full Text Available Political leaders solve a number of nontrivial task in conditions of instability. Moreover, they are responsible for making decisions. This explains why this topic is important. The purpose of the work is to study the essence of the impact of the subject of the policy on adaptation to the functioning of political institutions in the conditions of an unstable environment. Political actors act in a certain functional algorithm.This algorithm means the choice, formation and absorption of certain absorption of certain behaviors. Moreover, this algorithm would be dysfunctional if not found invariatyvnist involvement of transparency to the public attractive complex ideas and symbols designed to motivate specific behavior. Adaptation of the political institutions to changing conditions is successful, when politicians contribute to the promoting of interiorization society of certain values. Values are relatively stable mental formation. Values are generated in the system. This system includes the needs, interests and emotional distress. Therefore, during the instability subjects authorities should refocus the value orientations of the conflicting parties, affecting their constituents. Responsibility of a leader in high destructive entropy society is implemented in different ways. It depends on the constellation of potential resources, the type of political regime and dynamics of the situation. The article is devoted to the problem of the influence of subjective factor on the adaptation to the conditions of full democracy, unconsolidated democracy and authoritarian rule. The leader may direct the process of adaptation through the conflict, or performing a function remove excess conflict entropy.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Genes in bacteria may be organised into operons, leading to strict co-expression of the genes that participate in the same operon. However, comparisons between different bacterial genomes have shown that much of the operon structure is dynamic on an evolutionary time scale. This indicates that there are opposing effects influencing the tendency for operon formation, and these effects may be reflected in properties like evolutionary rate, complex formation, metabolic pathways and gene fusion. Results We have used multi-species protein-protein comparisons to generate a high-quality set of genes that are persistent in bacterial genomes (i.e. they have close to universal distribution. We have analysed these genes with respect to operon participation and important functional properties, including evolutionary rate and protein-protein interactions. Conclusions Genes for ribosomal proteins show a very slow rate of evolution. This is consistent with a strong tendency for the genes to participate in operons and for their proteins to be involved in essential and well defined complexes. Persistent genes for non-ribosomal proteins can be separated into two classes according to tendency to participate in operons. Those with a strong tendency for operon participation make proteins with fewer interaction partners that seem to participate in relatively static complexes and possibly linear pathways. Genes with a weak tendency for operon participation tend to produce proteins with more interaction partners, but possibly in more dynamic complexes and convergent pathways. Genes that are not regulated through operons are therefore more evolutionary constrained than the corresponding operon-associated genes and will on average evolve more slowly.
Full Text Available It is commonly assumed that how individuals identify on the political spectrum-whether liberal, conservative, or moderate-has a universal meaning when it comes to policy stances and voting behavior. But, does political identity mean the same thing from place to place? Using data collected from across the U.S. we find that even when people share the same political identity, those in "bluer" locations are more likely to support left-leaning policies and vote for Democratic candidates than those in "redder" locations. Because the meaning of political identity is inconsistent across locations, individuals who share the same political identity sometimes espouse opposing policy stances. Meanwhile, those with opposing identities sometimes endorse identical policy stances. Such findings suggest that researchers, campaigners, and pollsters must use caution when extrapolating policy preferences and voting behavior from political identity, and that animosity toward the other end of the political spectrum is sometimes misplaced.
Full Text Available Political violence plays a huge role in public affairs and people's behavior, requiring both knowledge and rigorous research in many of its occurrences and its consequences for the proper management, organization and functioning of a society as a whole. Although political violence is a problem of a particular importance in our social life it is not analyzed and investigated in the scientific literature. Political violence it is a subject that usually passes into oblivion. This study presents some ideas and themes about the role and functions of political power, displaying the types of political violence and their consequences for the management and functioning of a society, which can be subject to wider debates and researchs.
The value of political science in information culture of society reveals; the main indicators of the public status of political science are investigated; the main functions of political science in the activity of actors of society are characterised.
Paul – Iulian Nedelcu
The political regime is the concrete form of organization and functioning of political system andtherefore, the regime means the concrete way of organize, institutionalize and function a political systemand of the exercise of political power by a social-political force in a social community or global socialistem. The political regime is not limited to institutions and state bodies, but it covers the entire politicalsystem. Form of expression in social practice plan is the result of balance of...
are mainly interested in assessing and promoting innovations in public service delivery, but have paid little or no attention to the need for innovations in polity, politics and policy. This article develops a research agenda for studying innovations in political institutions, in the political process...... and in policy outputs. It proposes a number of research themes related to political innovations that call for scholarly attention, and identifies push and pull factors influencing the likelihood that these themes will be addressed in future research....
Ijpma, Irene; Renken, Remco J.; Gietema, Jourik A.; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.; Mensink, Manon G. J.; Lefrandt, Joop D.; Ter Horst, Gert J.; Reyners, Anna K. L.
Background & aims: Taste and smell changes due to chemotherapy May contribute to the high prevalence of overweight in testicular cancer patients (TCPs). This study investigates the taste and smell function, dietary intake, food preference, and body composition in TCPs before, during, and up to 1
This paper considers political competition and the consequences of political polarization when parties are better informed about how the economy functions than voters are. Specifically, parties know the cost producing a public good, voters do not. An incumbent's choice of policy acts like a signa...... for costs before an upcoming election. It is shown that the more polarized the political parties the more distorted the incumbent's policy choice.......This paper considers political competition and the consequences of political polarization when parties are better informed about how the economy functions than voters are. Specifically, parties know the cost producing a public good, voters do not. An incumbent's choice of policy acts like a signal...
Storm, Paula; Kelly, Robert; deVries, Susann
People and organizations are inherently political. Library workplace environments have zones of tension and dynamics just like any corporation, often leading to the formation of political camps. These different cliques influence productivity and work-related issues and, at worst, give meetings the feel of the Camp David negotiations. Politics are…
Rapp, Carolin; Traunmüller, Richard; Freitag, Markus
This article combines the research strands of moral politics and political behavior by focusing on the effect of individual and contextual religiosity on individual vote decisions in popular initiatives and public referenda concerning morally charged issues. We rely on a total of 13 surveys with 1...... American research on moral politics, direct democracies, and the public role of religion....
Pinkleton, Bruce E.
Examines intended and unintended effects of print comparative political advertising on political decision making, voting preferences, and situational election involvement among a sample of communication and business undergraduate students. Suggests that comparative advertising reduces targeted-candidate voting preferences while avoiding most forms…
Kentikelenis, Alexander E.; Seabrooke, Leonard
-writing is a function of both world-cultural frames and material interests, held by different intra-organizational actors: scientific IGO staff and state representatives in governing bodies, respectively. The interplay between these frames and interests determines whether scripts will institutionalize....... In this theoretical model, world-cultural and power-political explanations are pertinent to different, mutually informing, and coexisting aspects of the script-writing process. As a corollary of our approach, we present a conceptual framework for the study of intra-IGO script-writing, which is contingent on three......Sociologists have long examined how states, intergovernmental organizations (IGOs), international nongovernmental organizations (INGOs), and professional groups interact in order to institutionalize their preferred norms at the transnational level. Yet, explanations of global norm...
International audience; Introduction Geography and politics'', Gottmann wrote in 1980, ``have long been in search of each other'' (page 11). Debates in the literature suggest not only that they have found each other, but also that the encounter has instigated, notably in the last decade or so, a body of literature seeking to think space politically, and to think politics spatially. This is not to suggest that previous work on space was apolitical, nor to suggest that previous work on politics...
Troy R. E. Paddock
Full Text Available Walter Benjamin’s observation that fascism turns politics into aesthetics is, by now, a well-worn idea. This article argues that Benjamin’s critique of politics can apply just as much to the modern democratic politics of the United States. Borrowing from Benjamin, Jürgen Habermas, and Carl Schmitt, this article suggests that modern political discourse in the United States does not follow the classical liberal ideal of rational discourse in the marketplace of ideas within the public sphere. Instead, contemporary politics has become spectacle where images and slogans replace thought and debate in a 24/7 news cycle and political infotainment programs. The result is that progressives and conservatives have their own political “ecospheres” which enable them to have their own perspective reinforced, and debate is replaced by straw man arguments and personal attacks.
Discusses how to bring political issues into the classroom, highlighting the influence of local context and noting conservative and liberal criticisms of political correctness. Suggests the need for a different idea of how to teach politically from the advocacy pedagogy advanced by recent critical educators, explaining that bringing students into…
Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás
In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.
Perea, Claudia S; Niño, Carmen L; López-León, Sandra; Gutiérrez, Rafael; Ojeda, Diego; Arboleda, Humberto; Camargo, Andrés; Adan, Ana; Forero, Diego A
Polymorphisms in human clock genes have been evaluated as potential factors influencing circadian phenotypes in several populations. There are conflicting results for the association of a VNTR in the PER3 gene and diurnal preference in different studies. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between diurnal preference and daytime somnolence with the PER3 VNTR polymorphism (rs57875989) in healthy subjects from Colombia, a Latin American population.A total of 294 undergraduate university students from Bogotá, Colombia participated in this study. Two validated self-report questionnaires, the Composite Scale of Morningness (CSM) and the Epworth Sleep Scale (ESS) were used to assess diurnal preference and daytime somnolence, respectively. Individuals were genotyped for the PER3 VNTR using conventional PCR. Statistical comparisons were carried out with PLINK and SNPStats programs. The PER3 VNTR polymorphism was not associated with either diurnal preference or daytime somnolence in this population. No significant differences in mean scores for those scales were found between PER3 VNTR genotypes. In addition, there were no differences in allelic or genotypic frequencies between chronotype categories. This is consistent with several negative findings in other populations, indicating that the proposed influence of this polymorphism in diurnal preference, and related endophenotypes of neuropsychiatric importance, needs further clarification. This is the first report of molecular genetics of human circadian phenotypes in a Spanish-speaking population. PMID:24860629
Casero-Ripolles, Andreu; Sintes-Olivella, Marçal; Franch, Pere
Populism is a phenomenon that has been acquiring great relevance over recent years in the US and Europe. Literature on the subject has identified the existence of a populist style that also affects political communication. The aim of this article is to analyze the structure of issues and the functions of messages circulated by a populist party in order to determine the presence and incidence of this style's main components. The methodology is based on a quantitative analysis of the content of...
Jeppesen, Søren; Morsing, Mette
We engage a discussion of political CSR in SMEs in an African context. Based on critical observations on Western MNC CSR action in emerging economies that holds counterproductive implications for social development, political economists have argued that business profit far more than society...... development in local African communities. Our findings extend political CSR research by directing attention to how the corporate influence in developing economies does not only emerge from MNCs but is also established and retained by SMEs CSR work....
Casey B. Mulligan; Kevin K. Tsui
Political competitiveness - which many interpret as the degree of democracy - can be modeled as a monopolistic competition. All regimes are constrained by the threat of "entry," and thereby seek some combination of popular support and political entry barriers. This simple model predicts that many public policies are unrelated to political competitiveness, and that even unchallenged nondemocratic regimes should tax far short of their Laffer curve maximum. Economic sanctions, odious debt repudi...
DeFriez, Joshua; Larsen, Justine; Hilton, Nicholas
Environmental legislation is commonly accepted as an altruistic approach to land management. A closer examination however, reveals that political incentives and flawed arguments consistently shape U.S. environmental policy at high public costs. As student fellows at the Institute of Political Economy at Utah State University, we have had the opportunity to research this subject under the direction of Professor Randy Simmons. Political Ecology is his upcoming book that explores a variety of en...
Political campaigns are orchestrated attempts by political organizations to garner public support through persuasive communication in order to influence public policy in their favor. This broad definition encapsulates all forms of campaigns from those of neighborhood organizations seeking to influence local politicians to the campaigns of political parties and candidates who seek election to office in order to shape policy themselves. In pluralist democracies, campaigns are crucial for repres...
Åkerstrøm Andersen, Niels
One of the major discussions of the 1990s has been about the relation between politics and administration. The themes of the discussions have been many and varied. It has been suggested that the level of politics should concentrate on the general political outlining and entrust the remaining to the administration. It has been criticised that politicians make their decisions on the basis of single cases, which ought to be an administrative matter entirely. It has been a theme that efficient op...
’ of globalization. Historically speaking, human rights are closely connected with globalization, but at the same time, they raise a question about the foundation of globalization: is there a universal community or only economic and political power-relations? The article argues that the political use of human rights...... discourses is split down the middle: it serves both as a critique of power and as an extension of power, and the disclosure of this split helps us understand the inner politics of human rights. The article discusses the trial in Valladolid in 1550 when the rights of the barbarian Indians of America were put......This article investigates the political function of human rights in the 16th Century in Spain just after the conquest of America. It claims that the study of this period of early globalization is relevant for the understanding of the function of human rights discourses to day, at the ‘end...
Pedersen, Rasmus Tue
Numbers permeate modern political communication. While current scholarship on framing effects has focused on the persuasive effects of words and arguments, this article shows that framing of numbers can also substantially affect policy preferences. Such effects are caused by ratio bias, which...
Wietse van den Berge
Full Text Available Syrian Kurdish politics is complex. While the political parties appear rather similar in terms of their goals, fierce inter-party rivalry exists, nonetheless. Shedding some light on Syrian Kurdish politics using Social Movement Theory as a theoretical framework, this article deals with how and why Syrian Kurds choose a specific political party. Interviews with Syrian Kurdish political activists in Iraqi Kurdistan provide the data. The interviews point out that a striking cleavage exists: Respondents sympathizing with the dominant political party preferred social equality, while interviewees belonging to other parties have a preference for non-violence.
IJpma, Irene; Renken, Remco J; Gietema, Jourik A; Slart, Riemer H J A; Mensink, Manon G J; Lefrandt, Joop D; Ter Horst, Gert J; Reyners, Anna K L
Chemotherapy can affect taste and smell function. This may contribute to the high prevalence of overweight and metabolic syndrome in testicular cancer survivors (TCS). Aims of the study were to evaluate taste and smell function and possible consequences for dietary intake, food preference, and body composition in TCS treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Fifty TCS, 1-7 years post-chemotherapy, and 50 age-matched healthy men participated. Taste and smell function were measured using taste strips and 'Sniffin' Sticks', respectively. Dietary intake was investigated using a food frequency questionnaire. Food preference was assessed using food pictures varying in taste (sweet/savoury) and fat or protein content. Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry was performed to measure body composition. Presence of metabolic syndrome and hypogonadism were assessed. TCS had a lower total taste function, a higher bitter taste threshold, higher Body Mass Index (BMI), and more (abdominal) fat than controls (p smell function and dietary intake were found. Testosterone level was an important determinant of body composition in TCS (p = 0.016). Although taste function was impaired in TCS, this was not related to a different dietary intake compared to controls. Lower testosterone levels were associated with a higher BMI, fat mass, and abdominal fat distribution in TCS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sørensen, Mads P.
Political conversations are according to theories on deliberative democracy essential to well-functioning democracies. Traditionally these conversations have taken place in face-to-face settings, in e.g. party meetings and town meetings. However, social media such as Facebook and Twitter offers new...... possibilities for online political conversations between citizens and politicians. This paper examines the presence on Facebook and Twitter of Members of the Danish national Parliament, the Folketing, and focusses on a quantitative mapping of the political conversation activities taking place in the threads...... following Facebook posts from Danish Members of Parliament (MPs). The paper shows that, in comparison with previous findings from other countries, Danish MPs have a relatively high degree of engagement in political conversations with citizens on Facebook – and that a large number of citizens follow MPs...
Bubier, Jason A; Jay, Jeremy J; Baker, Christopher L; Bergeson, Susan E; Ohno, Hiroshi; Metten, Pamela; Crabbe, John C; Chesler, Elissa J
Extensive genetic and genomic studies of the relationship between alcohol drinking preference and withdrawal severity have been performed using animal models. Data from multiple such publications and public data resources have been incorporated in the GeneWeaver database with >60,000 gene sets including 285 alcohol withdrawal and preference-related gene sets. Among these are evidence for positional candidates regulating these behaviors in overlapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapped in distinct mouse populations. Combinatorial integration of functional genomics experimental results revealed a single QTL positional candidate gene in one of the loci common to both preference and withdrawal. Functional validation studies in Ap3m2 knockout mice confirmed these relationships. Genetic validation involves confirming the existence of segregating polymorphisms that could account for the phenotypic effect. By exploiting recent advances in mouse genotyping, sequence, epigenetics, and phylogeny resources, we confirmed that Ap3m2 resides in an appropriately segregating genomic region. We have demonstrated genetic and alcohol-induced regulation of Ap3m2 expression. Although sequence analysis revealed no polymorphisms in the Ap3m2-coding region that could account for all phenotypic differences, there are several upstream SNPs that could. We have identified one of these to be an H3K4me3 site that exhibits strain differences in methylation. Thus, by making cross-species functional genomics readily computable we identified a common QTL candidate for two related bio-behavioral processes via functional evidence and demonstrate sufficiency of the genetic locus as a source of variation underlying two traits. Copyright © 2014 by the Genetics Society of America.
Full Text Available According to Foucault, the uprising of the Iranian people in the seventies reveals how much the political force of Islam is due precisely to the fact that it is not principally located in the field of politics, but in that of ethics. Religion (Shiite Islam appears as the guarantee of real change in the very mode of existence. This spiritual politics is marginalized by Marxism, where it is understood as a discontinuity in relation to proper politics, given that the latter is necessarily linked to a strategic rationalization. By indicating, at this juncture of what is intolerable, the living source and the critical impulse of the Foucauldian ethics, this spiritual politics also leads to recognize in the concept of “subjectivation” a dimension that might escape the circle of freedom as determined by a total immanence to power. This conceptual possibility is highly present in the aporias of the Foucauldian concept of the “relation to oneself”, both as a first condition of governmentality and the ultimate point of resistance against any governmentality. It thus reveals the difficulties in relating political to ethical subjectivation.
Full Text Available The functional typology of human settlements is shaped, among others, by their political-administrative function. Its distinctive place is determined by subjective factors, such as the political-administrative decisions, which have changed the course of some settlements to the benefit of others, or reverted them from their normal, natural evolution. That means outside involvement in space organization to the detriment of self-organization, the latter being the outcome of the permanent tendency of territorial systems to rebalance from exogenous factors-induced dysfunctions. Lately, the country’s territorial-administrative organization has been steadily challenged years over the past few based either on the 1925 administrative map, or on the disparities in the structure of the present counties and the economic and social fluxes going on at the local level of the settlements system. In view of the above, we have attempted to work out an optimal model for the administrative organization of Romania’s territory by proceeding from the distance between communal seats and the town towards which they gravitate. The latter’s capacity for discharging an administrative function, and the relations of subordination or competition amongst these towns in also discussed.
I. P. Shchetilina
Full Text Available The last decade, the negative trend related to the health status of the population. In the structure of power a significant part of the population are violations. According to scientific research Institute of nutrition in our country commonplace latent forms of vitamin deficiency combined with lack of calcium, iron, iodine. With the aim of increasing the production of food products of mass consumption enriched with minerals and vitamins, the use of vegetable raw materials of the Voronezh region is a priority. The human body for normal functioning requires regular consumption of micronutrients. An important role in biological processes in which food is converted into energy, play a micro- and macroelements and vitamins. They provide the protective functions of the body are involved in tissue renewal. However, micronutrients are not synthesized in the body, and water-soluble vitamins, unlike fat-soluble are easily excreted from the body, so they should regularly come directly from food. In the works of foreign and domestic scientists the development of product functionality has received considerable attention. Special contribution study of academicians V. M. Bosnakovski, V. A. Tutelyan, professor B. P. Sukhanov and others In the development of new types of foods must take into account the views of consumers about new products. The paper presents marketing research of the market of Voronezh the survey. The aim of the study was to identify preferences of consumers of functional products. Analyzed socio-demographic profile of respondents the distribution of respondents by education, age of the interviewee, the frequency of consumption by respondents functional products, the preferences of respondents by frequency of consumption depending on the sex of the respondents. The analysis of preferences for specific groups of products, places to purchase products functional purpose, the reasons that motivate respondents to purchase products of functional
Full Text Available O movimento dadá em Berlim distingue-se por um projeto de intervenção política, em sintonia com a orientação ideológica de vários de seus integrantes. Entre estes pode ser destacado John Heartfield, interessado, desde 1915, em desenvolver uma linguagem ao mesmo tempo moderna e acessível a um público de massa. Para tanto, lança mão da fotografia nas capas executadas para a editora Malik e é responsável pelo desenvolvimento da fotomontagem política, que divulga sobretudo numa revista do Partido Comunista Alemão, o Arbeiter Illustrierte Zeitung.The main feature of Berlin Dada is a project of political intervention, attuned to the ideological orientation of many of its members. Among them we can distinguish John Heartfield, who since 1915 looks for a language both modern and accessible to a mass audience. Therefore Heartfield makes use of photography in the bookcovers for Malik Verlag and is responsible for the development of political photomontage, published mainly in a magazine of the German Communist Party, Arbeiter Illustrierte Zeitung.
Political parties can be vehicles for economic and social development in poor countries. They can also serve as rent seeking instruments. Uncovering how parties function is therefore key to establishing the preconditions for good governance. The paper discusses when and why clientelism on the ba......Political parties can be vehicles for economic and social development in poor countries. They can also serve as rent seeking instruments. Uncovering how parties function is therefore key to establishing the preconditions for good governance. The paper discusses when and why clientelism...... on the basis of party affiliation may arise. Operationally, party-based clientelism is defined as a bias of public policy in favour of members of the governing political party. In a sample of local governments in India, party-based clientelism is shown to exist in two out of four states and to be strongly...
Using facts and examples, this didactically structures textbook gives an insight into the extent and consequences of the damage to the environment, with the subjects - fundamentals of ecology; - population and food problems; - the energy problem; - economic growth; scarcity of resources, recycling; - ground, water, and air pollution, - city and traffic problems; - work protection and medical care; - political alternatives and 'soft technologies'. The analysis of the political and economic reasons is combined with social and technical alternatives from which demands to be made and measures to be taken can be derived for individuals, citizens' interest groups, political groups and trade unions. Teaching models intend to help teachers to work on specific problems of ecology. (orig.) [de
…THE POLITICAL LEADERS of the local government of Chongqing, China, vigorously promote a low-carbon economy and sustainable development to mitigate environmental pollution. Accordingly, research grants focused on this issue were supported by the government, and our group obtained a grant for a pr...... for a project about industrial park planning and design.…In my view, political priorities based on correct decision-making and market requirements are beneficial for researchers.......…THE POLITICAL LEADERS of the local government of Chongqing, China, vigorously promote a low-carbon economy and sustainable development to mitigate environmental pollution. Accordingly, research grants focused on this issue were supported by the government, and our group obtained a grant...
Jeppesen, Søren; Morsing, Mette
We engage a discussion of political CSR in SMEs in an African context. Based on critical observations on Western MNC CSR action in emerging economies that holds counterproductive implications for social development, political economists have argued that business profit far more than society...... development in local African communities. Our findings extend political CSR research by directing attention to how the corporate influence in developing economies does not only emerge from MNCs but is also established and retained by SMEs CSR work....... in developing economies from CSR. In this paper we argue that local SMEs CSR work have strong influence in developing economies, that also includes counterproductive influence for social development. Based on empirical findings from African countries, we conceptualize how CSR in African SMEs differ from...
Full Text Available This study presents evidence for the mediation effect of political knowledge through political self-efficacy (i.e. internal political efficacy in the prediction of political participation. It employs an action theoretic approach—by and large grounded on the Theory of Planned Behaviour—and uses data from the German Longitudinal Election Study to examine whether political knowledge has distinct direct effects on voting, conventional, and/or unconventional political participation. It argues that political knowledge raises internal political efficacy and thereby indirectly increases the chance that a citizen will participate in politics. The results of mediated multiple regression analyses yield evidence that political knowledge indeed translates into internal political efficacy, thus it affects political participation of various kinds indirectly. However, internal political efficacy and intentions to participate politically yield simultaneous direct effects only on conventional political participation. Sequentially mediated effects appear for voting and conventional political participation, with political knowledge being mediated by internal political efficacy and subsequently also by behavioural intentions. The mediation patterns for unconventional political participation are less clear though. The discussion accounts for restrictions of this study and points to questions for answer by future research.
This study presents evidence for the mediation effect of political knowledge through political self-efficacy (i.e. internal political efficacy) in the prediction of political participation. It employs an action theoretic approach—by and large grounded on the Theory of Planned Behaviour—and uses data from the German Longitudinal Election Study to examine whether political knowledge has distinct direct effects on voting, conventional, and/or unconventional political participation. It argues that political knowledge raises internal political efficacy and thereby indirectly increases the chance that a citizen will participate in politics. The results of mediated multiple regression analyses yield evidence that political knowledge indeed translates into internal political efficacy, thus it affects political participation of various kinds indirectly. However, internal political efficacy and intentions to participate politically yield simultaneous direct effects only on conventional political participation. Sequentially mediated effects appear for voting and conventional political participation, with political knowledge being mediated by internal political efficacy and subsequently also by behavioural intentions. The mediation patterns for unconventional political participation are less clear though. The discussion accounts for restrictions of this study and points to questions for answer by future research. PMID:27298633
Bigo, Didier; Isin, Engin; Ruppert, Evelyn
The commentary raises political questions about the ways in which data has been constituted as an object vested withcertain powers, influence, and rationalities.We place the emergence and transformation of professional practices such as‘data science’, ‘data journalism’, ‘data brokerage’, ‘data mining’, ‘data storage’, and ‘data analysis’ as part of the reconfigurationof a series of fields of power and knowledge in the public and private accumulation of data. Data politics asksquestions about ...
A prominent strand within current migration research argues that, to understand the participation of immigrants in their host societies, we must focus on their incorporation into the cities in which they settle. This article narrows the perspective further by focusing on the role that immigrants...... play within one particular neighbourhood: Nørrebro in the Danish capital, Copenhagen. The article introduces the concept of grounded politics to analyse how groups of Muslim immigrants in Nørrebro use the space, relationships and history of the neighbourhood for identity political statements...
Will, George F., Ed.
A panel discussion on politics and the press was held at the convention of the American Political Science Association in September 1971. This volume contains an essay delivered at that panel on the various functions or activities of the press--adversary, surrogate, sovereign--and remarks of the three discussants. In addition, an essay especially…
Brown-Iannuzzi, Jazmin L; Lundberg, Kristjen B; McKee, Stephanie
Socioeconomic status is hypothesized to be one factor informing political attitudes and actions. Presumably, this relationship is rooted in economic self-interest, with individuals preferring policies that would benefit them financially. In addition, these economic policy preferences are assumed to translate into political action. However, the relationships between socioeconomic status and political attitudes and behavior, as well as the psychological mechanisms associated with those relationships, are not straightforward. Here, we briefly review the current state of knowledge on the relationships between socioeconomic status and political attitudes and behavior. Overall, the research suggests that while socioeconomic status informs political attitudes toward economic policies, these attitudes may not correlate with complementary political behavior. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
This article expresses some last thoughts from Abraham Maslow on his vision of humanistic psychology. He suggests that the two main problems of creating the good person and the good society are interwoven inextricably. He gives some social and political mechanisms which would enhance desirable personal growth and considers the main tasks of…
Lucas, W. R.
Certain decisions, problems, and successes are selected to recall the great impact of the 1950s on the history of rocketry, and particularly the inauguration of the space age. In reviewing the history of the Redstone, Juno, and Jupiter, some of the largest stepping stones to space, problems stand out in three areas: technical or engineering, management, and political.
This dissertation supplies a number of research findings that add to a theory of news framing effects, and also to the understanding of the role media effects play in political communication. We show that researchers must think more about what actually constitutes a framing effect, and that a
Solhaug, Trond; Kristensen, Niels Nørgaard
The very idea about democracies is public participation in elections, decision-making and/or public engagement. The democratic participation distributes power among ordinary people and serve to legitimize decisions in public affairs and is a vital characteristic of a political culture.”The term ’...
Full Text Available An important factor affecting preference formation is the context in which that preference decision takes place. The current research examined whether one's preference formed for a previously presented stimulus influences the processing of a subsequent preference decision, henceforth referred to as the preference sequence effect. Using a novel sequential rating/judgment paradigm, the present study demonstrated the presence of a preference sequence effect using artistic photographs and face stimuli: A neutral stimulus was preferred more following a preferable stimulus than a less preferable stimulus. Furthermore, a similar trend was found even when the potential influence of response bias was controlled. These results suggest that an assimilative sequential effect exists even when sequential judgments are made solely based on one's subjective feeling; preference formed for a preceding stimulus modulates preference for a subsequent stimulus. This implies the need for a consideration of trial sequence as a factor creating a psychological context affecting the subsequent preference decisions.
Rojas-Guyler, Liliana; Britigan, Denise H.; King, Keith A.; Zulig, Judy; Vaughn, Lisa M.
Purpose: To determine sources of health information of Latinos and assess associations with acculturation level, functional health literacy and demographics. Methods: Focus groups (n = 40) and Semi-structured survey interviews were conducted with adults (n = 212). Results: Over 60% of respondents had lived in the country for less than 10 years,…
“Music corrupts the minds of our young”. This allegation has generated numerous studies investigating the ‘music taste’ and psychosocial functioning of popular music audiences. Youth are considered to be susceptible to messages promoting sexual promiscuity, substance use, violence and sometimes
This article reacts to President Bush's entry into the dispute over "political correctness" on college campuses. The paper summarizes discussions of students, faculty, and others in the Washington, D.C. area which concluded that this seeming defense of free speech is actually an attack on affirmative action and multiculturalism stemming…
Bech-Larsen, Tino; Poulsen, Jacob; Grunert, Klaus G.
Functional foods is a relatively new concept, which covers food products that are enriched with various kinds of (naturally occur-ring) components/substances (eg vitamins, minerals or probiotic cultures) or modified in a way so that the product provides an additional physio-lo-gical benefit......, to study consumer acceptance of functional foods in Denmark, Finland and the United States and to investi-gate to which extent acceptance can be explained by consumer values. The three countries are selected due to differences in the importance attached to the value dimensions 'harmony' and 'mastery......' (Schwartz, 1994), because these values are assumed to be especially important for the acceptance of technological manipulation of food products. People who score high on the 'mastery' dimension emphasize active mastery of the social and natural environment through self-assertion. This is comparable...
Bogue, Joe; Troy, Amy-jane
New product development (NPD) has a significant role to play in the rapidly evolving food supply chain where firms wish to utilise innovative novel ingredients to meet consumers’ increased needs for healthier foods. It is a knowledge intensive process where the generation of new ideas and concepts requires detailed knowledge of both products and consumers. Beta-glucan, a novel soluble fibre, is of major interest to global food firms for its ability to increase the functionality of food and be...
Political incorporation resulting from voter participation is often a relevant feature of the migration experience. When the legislation of the receiving nations enables the newcomers to get naturalized and grants citizenship to their children born in the adoptive country by means of the jus soli, as is the case of the United States, casting ballots in the elections of the land of their destination usually becomes part of the first and second-generation immigrants’ accommodation into the host...
“Music corrupts the minds of our young”. This allegation has generated numerous studies investigating the ‘music taste’ and psychosocial functioning of popular music audiences. Youth are considered to be susceptible to messages promoting sexual promiscuity, substance use, violence and sometimes suicide. The most notorious music genres in this regard are rap/hip hop, and harder forms of rock such as heavy metal and punk. This thesis focused on the role of ‘music taste’ by; analyzing the consis...
Full Text Available On-stage sound field analysis of a traditional performance of the Javanese gamelan at Pendopo ISI Surakarta, Indonesia was conducted by analyzing the effective decay time of a normalized autocorrelation function called tau-e, , during a performance of the Gambyong Pare Anom dance. The parameter tau-e is used to describe the richness of the frequency content, tempo, and types of gamelan instruments being played at a certain time and position on stage. The tau-e parameter is important for musicians in order to maintain communication between each other such that they can keep the performance in harmony. In order to determine the acoustic parameters heard by gamelan musicians on stage, sound measurements were conducted at 4 points on stage during a performance. Each position represents a specific group of gamelan instruments, which have different characteristics of loudness and frequency, different functions and different ways the instruments are played. The analysis showed that each of the four positions had a different value of , which fluctuated throughout the performance. Overall, the dominant at position 1 was 20 ms; at position 2 it was 50 ms; at position 3 it was 20 ms; and at position 4 it was 40 ms. The distribution of on the stage shows that positions 1 and 3 had more frequency richness compared to positions 2 and 4.
Ahmed, Selena; Stepp, John Richard; Orians, Colin; Griffin, Timothy; Matyas, Corene; Robbat, Albert; Cash, Sean; Xue, Dayuan; Long, Chunlin; Unachukwu, Uchenna; Buckley, Sarabeth; Small, David; Kennelly, Edward
Climate change is impacting agro-ecosystems, crops, and farmer livelihoods in communities worldwide. While it is well understood that more frequent and intense climate events in many areas are resulting in a decline in crop yields, the impact on crop quality is less acknowledged, yet it is critical for food systems that benefit both farmers and consumers through high-quality products. This study examines tea (Camellia sinensis; Theaceae), the world's most widely consumed beverage after water, as a study system to measure effects of seasonal precipitation variability on crop functional quality and associated farmer knowledge, preferences, and livelihoods. Sampling was conducted in a major tea producing area of China during an extreme drought through the onset of the East Asian Monsoon in order to capture effects of extreme climate events that are likely to become more frequent with climate change. Compared to the spring drought, tea growth during the monsoon period was up to 50% higher. Concurrently, concentrations of catechin and methylxanthine secondary metabolites, major compounds that determine tea functional quality, were up to 50% lower during the monsoon while total phenolic concentrations and antioxidant activity increased. The inverse relationship between tea growth and concentrations of individual secondary metabolites suggests a dilution effect of precipitation on tea quality. The decrease in concentrations of tea secondary metabolites was accompanied by reduced farmer preference on the basis of sensory characteristics as well as a decline of up to 50% in household income from tea sales. Farmer surveys indicate a high degree of agreement regarding climate patterns and the effects of precipitation on tea yields and quality. Extrapolating findings from this seasonal study to long-term climate scenario projections suggests that farmers and consumers face variable implications with forecasted precipitation scenarios and calls for research on management
Full Text Available Climate change is impacting agro-ecosystems, crops, and farmer livelihoods in communities worldwide. While it is well understood that more frequent and intense climate events in many areas are resulting in a decline in crop yields, the impact on crop quality is less acknowledged, yet it is critical for food systems that benefit both farmers and consumers through high-quality products. This study examines tea (Camellia sinensis; Theaceae, the world's most widely consumed beverage after water, as a study system to measure effects of seasonal precipitation variability on crop functional quality and associated farmer knowledge, preferences, and livelihoods. Sampling was conducted in a major tea producing area of China during an extreme drought through the onset of the East Asian Monsoon in order to capture effects of extreme climate events that are likely to become more frequent with climate change. Compared to the spring drought, tea growth during the monsoon period was up to 50% higher. Concurrently, concentrations of catechin and methylxanthine secondary metabolites, major compounds that determine tea functional quality, were up to 50% lower during the monsoon while total phenolic concentrations and antioxidant activity increased. The inverse relationship between tea growth and concentrations of individual secondary metabolites suggests a dilution effect of precipitation on tea quality. The decrease in concentrations of tea secondary metabolites was accompanied by reduced farmer preference on the basis of sensory characteristics as well as a decline of up to 50% in household income from tea sales. Farmer surveys indicate a high degree of agreement regarding climate patterns and the effects of precipitation on tea yields and quality. Extrapolating findings from this seasonal study to long-term climate scenario projections suggests that farmers and consumers face variable implications with forecasted precipitation scenarios and calls for research
Full Text Available Recent imaging studies have shown that brain morphology and neural activity during sexual arousal differ between homosexual and heterosexual men. However, functional differences in neural networks at the resting state is unknown. The study is to characterize the association of homosexual preference with measures of regional homogeneity and functional connectivity in the resting state. Participants were 26 healthy homosexual men and 26 age-matched healthy heterosexual men in whom we collected echo planar magnetic resonance imaging data in the resting state. The sexual orientation was evaluated using the Kinsey Scale. We first assessed group differences in regional homogeneity and then, taking the identified differences as seed regions, we compared groups in measures of functional connectivity from those seeds. The behavioral significances of the differences in regional homogeneity and functional connectivity were assessed by examining their associations with Kinsey Scores. Homosexual participants showed significantly reduced regional homogeneity in the left inferior occipital gyrus, right middle occipital gyrus, right superior occipital gyrus, left cuneus, right precuneus, and increased regional homogeneity in rectal gyrus, bilateral midbrain, and left temporal lobe. Regional homogeneity correlated positively with Kinsey scores in the left inferior occipital gyrus. The homosexual group also showed reduced functional connectivity between left middle temporal gyrus, left supra-marginal gyrus, right cuneus and the seed region, i.e. left inferior occipital gyrus. Additionly, the connection between the left inferior occipital gyrus and right thalamus correlated positively with Kinsey scores. These differences in regional homogeneity and functional connectivity may contribute to a better understanding of the neural basis of male sexual orientation.
Яна Александровна Волкова
Full Text Available Destructiveness is among the fundamental discourse categories that play a significant role in the organization of communicative interaction and define the pragmatics of discourse; its study helps to understand some mechanisms and principles of communication, identify strategies and tactics used by a destructive communicative personality. The relevance of this study is determined by the increasing aggressiveness in various types of discourse, and, accordingly, by the need to extend the knowledge of destructive behavior of a communicative personality. The study is based on the theory of discourse-analysis and theory of destructiveness (Z. Harris, T. van Dijk, A. Buss, E. Fromm, D. Ponton, K. Hacker, R. Wodak. N. Arutyunova, V. Karasik, M. Makarov, E. Sheigal et al. Developing the theory of destructiveness and relying on Erich Fromm’s research (1973, we specify the concept of “destructiveness” in relation to the political discourse and compare it with the related concept of aggressiveness. The paper analyses the category of destructiveness in modern US political discourse, using excerpts from the speeches of the candidates for presidency of 2016. Particular attention is paid to the dominant destructive intention - to harm the reputation of the opponent and reduce his political chances, as well as to the functions of verbal aggression: on the one hand - to discredit the opponent, bring accusations, on the other hand - to poison the audience mind against him/her and arouse the feeling of danger posed by a political opponent. The analysis of verbal and nonverbal means of destructiveness in the US political discourse is carried out. The article concludes that abusive remarks of politicians do not result from spontaneous emotional outburst, but from an elaborated destructive strategy where the agonistic nature of political discourse stipulates the use of instrumental aggression (Buss, 1971 for the sake of the conquest of power, lowering the
Despite generations of research, political scientists have trouble pinpointing the influence of political parties on public opinion. Recently, scholars have made headway in exploring whether parties in fact shape policy preferences by relying on experimental designs. Yet, the evidence from...
Citi, Manuele; Justesen, Mogens Kamp
One of the main functions of centralized budgets in federal and political unions is to act as an equalizing mechanism to support economic cohesion. This is also the case with the European Union’s budget, which operates as a redistributive mechanism that counteracts the cross-national and cross...... redistributive dynamics. We find that the relative wealth of a country vis-à-vis the other EU countries is a powerful factor in explaining its net fiscal position, but the change in the relative wealth of a country over time has little effect on its position as net contributor or net beneficiary. In addition, we...
Hopmann, David Nicolas; Van Aelst, Peter; Salgado, Susana
Before every election campaign, the French Conseil supérieur de l’audiovisuel (CSA) publishes detailed rules on how much news coverage candidates are allowed to have vis-à-vis one another in the electronic media to ensure what it calls pluralisme politique (e.g., CSA 2011). Also outside election...... and control news coverage (mainly public broadcasters) or have informal rules that determine news coverage of politics (Hopmann, Van Aelst, and Legnante 2012; Kaid and Strömbäck 2008)....
Bullenkamp, Jens; Voges, Burkhard
Outpatients with chronic mental illness living in therapeutic residential facilities in Mannheim, Germany (N=110) responded to an opinion poll to determine their voting preferences for the 2002 federal election to the Bundestag. The poll found that the outpatients were significantly more likely than the general population in Mannheim to prefer left-wing parties (78 percent compared with 56 percent). This finding is in contrast to earlier reports; however, it seems to better reflect common beliefs about the political preferences of this population. In conclusion, persons with chronic mental illness seem to prefer political parties that they believe will best serve their perceived specific interests.
This book is a non-technical exploration of the political and policy issues that have influenced the development of nuclear power. Part One describes the successes, failures, horse-trading, and infighting that make up nuclear power's history, taking nine counties as examples. Part Two reviews the main problems that now confront us, as seen in mid-June 1990; like all contemporary accounts, the book is unavoidably incomplete. However, by then it was possible to make provisional judgements about two very important recent influences: the political consequences of Chernobyl, and concerns about the greenhouse effect. The story that emerges is of a nuclear industry that has rarely been guilty of dereliction of duty, though it was undeniably complacent in not addressing sooner the causes of the public's entirely reasonable anxieties. The anti-nuclear lobby has been skilled in debate, and sometimes extraordinarily percipient; but less than fair in failing to acknowledge the industry's achievements and its willingness to learn from past mistakes. As for the politicians, the book contains many examples that show how the flames of controversy can be deliberately fanned when there are votes to be gained. The story has few heroes, but within the industry fewer villains than the public has been led to believe. (author)
Galis, Vasilis; Summerton, Jane
of various kinds, as well as for identifying and displacing undesired individuals/groups/bodies. A case in point is a recently-established police project (REVA) in Sweden for strengthening the so-called internal border control. Specifically, several underground stations in Stockholm now have checkpoints......Public spaces are often contested sites involving the political use of sociomaterial arrangements to check, control and filter the flow of people (see Virilio 1977, 1996). Such arrangements can include configurations of state-of-the-art policing technologies for delineating and demarcating borders...... status updates on identity checks at the metro stations in Stockholm and reports on locations and time of ticket controls for warning travelers. Thus the attempts by authorities to exert control over the (spatial) arena of the underground is circumvented by the effective developing of an alternative...
Kalinkat, Gregor; Rall, Björn Christian; Vucic-Pestic, Olivera; Brose, Ulrich
The distribution of weak and strong non-linear feeding interactions (i.e., functional responses) across the links of complex food webs is critically important for their stability. While empirical advances have unravelled constraints on single-prey functional responses, their validity in the context of complex food webs where most predators have multiple prey remain uncertain. In this study, we present conceptual evidence for the invalidity of strictly density-dependent consumption as the null model in multi-prey experiments. Instead, we employ two-prey functional responses parameterised with allometric scaling relationships of the functional response parameters that were derived from a previous single-prey functional response study as novel null models. Our experiments included predators of different sizes from two taxonomical groups (wolf spiders and ground beetles) simultaneously preying on one small and one large prey species. We define compliance with the null model predictions (based on two independent single-prey functional responses) as passive preferences or passive switching, and deviations from the null model as active preferences or active switching. Our results indicate active and passive preferences for the larger prey by predators that are at least twice the size of the larger prey. Moreover, our approach revealed that active preferences increased significantly with the predator-prey body-mass ratio. Together with prior allometric scaling relationships of functional response parameters, this preference allometry may allow estimating the distribution of functional response parameters across the myriads of interactions in natural ecosystems. PMID:21998724
Full Text Available The distribution of weak and strong non-linear feeding interactions (i.e., functional responses across the links of complex food webs is critically important for their stability. While empirical advances have unravelled constraints on single-prey functional responses, their validity in the context of complex food webs where most predators have multiple prey remain uncertain. In this study, we present conceptual evidence for the invalidity of strictly density-dependent consumption as the null model in multi-prey experiments. Instead, we employ two-prey functional responses parameterised with allometric scaling relationships of the functional response parameters that were derived from a previous single-prey functional response study as novel null models. Our experiments included predators of different sizes from two taxonomical groups (wolf spiders and ground beetles simultaneously preying on one small and one large prey species. We define compliance with the null model predictions (based on two independent single-prey functional responses as passive preferences or passive switching, and deviations from the null model as active preferences or active switching. Our results indicate active and passive preferences for the larger prey by predators that are at least twice the size of the larger prey. Moreover, our approach revealed that active preferences increased significantly with the predator-prey body-mass ratio. Together with prior allometric scaling relationships of functional response parameters, this preference allometry may allow estimating the distribution of functional response parameters across the myriads of interactions in natural ecosystems.
William R. DiPietro
Full Text Available Political trust is important for the effective functioning of government. This paper uses cross country regression analysis to see whether three different measures of economic performance matter for political trust. The results lend support to the hypothesis that political trust is influenced by economic growth, the standard of living, and the appropriate use of government spending. In addition, the paper considers two institutional variables, perceived independence of the judiciary and the degree of democracy to assess their effect on political trust. It finds that perceived judicial independence has a positive effect on political trust, but democracy has a negative effect.
Full Text Available Political crowdfunding is analyzed as a new concept of political science. The justification of use of crowdfunding technologies not only in business but also in the political sphere is argued. The efficiency, availability, low cost of the new forms of political investment through the development of information and communication technologies are noted. The typology of political crowdfunding is proposed. Political projects promoting domestic crowdfunding platforms are analyzed. Attention is drawn to the problem of legal gaps in the regulation of crowdfunding is studied. The foreign experience of organizing public support (mikroinvestment political projects. It is emphasized that in terms of political theory crowdfunding is based on solidarity. The crowdfunding properties of transforming social capital accumulated by social networks into financial capital are mentioned.
Lee, Yu-Ching; Hsiao, Nai-Wan; Tseng, Tien-Sheng; Chen, Wang-Chuan; Lin, Hui-Hsiung; Leu, Sy-Jye; Yang, Ei-Wen; Tsai, Keng-Chang
Tyrosinase, a key copper-containing enzyme involved in melanin biosynthesis, is closely associated with hyperpigmentation disorders, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases, and as such, it is an essential target in medicine and cosmetics. Known tyrosinase inhibitors possess adverse side effects, and there are no safety regulations; therefore, it is necessary to develop new inhibitors with fewer side effects and less toxicity. Peptides are exquisitely specific to their in vivo targets, with high potencies and relatively few off-target side effects. Thus, we systematically and comprehensively investigated the tyrosinase-inhibitory abilities of N- and C-terminal cysteine/tyrosine-containing tetrapeptides by constructing a phage-display random tetrapeptide library and conducting computational molecular docking studies on novel tyrosinase tetrapeptide inhibitors. We found that N-terminal cysteine-containing tetrapeptides exhibited the most potent tyrosinase-inhibitory abilities. The positional preference of cysteine residues at the N terminus in the tetrapeptides significantly contributed to their tyrosinase-inhibitory function. The sulfur atom in cysteine moieties of N- and C-terminal cysteine-containing tetrapeptides coordinated with copper ions, which then tightly blocked substrate-binding sites. N- and C-terminal tyrosine-containing tetrapeptides functioned as competitive inhibitors against mushroom tyrosinase by using the phenol ring of tyrosine to stack with the imidazole ring of His263, thus competing for the substrate-binding site. The N-terminal cysteine-containing tetrapeptide CRVI exhibited the strongest tyrosinase-inhibitory potency (with an IC50 of 2.7 ± 0.5 μM), which was superior to those of the known tyrosinase inhibitors (arbutin and kojic acid) and outperformed kojic acid-tripeptides, mimosine-FFY, and short-sequence oligopeptides at inhibiting mushroom tyrosinase. Copyright © 2014 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental
Claudia Franziska Brühwiler
Full Text Available Le Complot contre l’Amérique de Philip Roth décrit l’initiation politique de ses deux protagonistes, le narrateur Philip et son frère aîné, Sanford. Tandis que ce dernier passe par un processus initiatique quasi classique — il se déroule conformément au schéma tripartite de van Gennep — l’apogée de l’initiation de Philip est marquée par douleur et blessure. Toutefois, tous les deux connaissent seulement une initiation partielle, car le premier doit d’abord admettre ses erreurs tandis que le second va devoir apprendre, non seulement à remettre en cause l’autorité, mais également à développer ses idées de façon indépendante.Philip Roth’s The Plot Against America traces the political awakening of its two child protagonists, the narrator Philip and his elder brother Sanford. While the latter undergoes an initiation process nearly in accordance with the classical tripartite scheme as coined by van Gennep, the height of Philip’s initiation process is marked by physical pain and injury. However, both experience only a partial initiation, since the elder brother will have to recognize his errors and the younger one will first have to learn how to go beyond the mere questioning of authority.
Hall, John Powell
Sexual orientation continues to be an explosive issue in American classrooms. Increasing the political knowledge of students can reduce the volatility of this explosive issue by increasing tolerance toward the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender community. This relationship between political knowledge and political tolerance has been…
Orlović Slobodan P.
Full Text Available In this work the author refers to some legal and political questions in connection with green political parties. Those questions cover: the ideology of green political parties, their number and influence, both in general and in Serbia. The first part of work is generally speaking about political parties - their definition, ideology, role and action. Main thesis in this work is that green political parties, by their appearance, were something new on the political scene. But quickly, because of objective and subjective reasons, they were changing original ideas and were beginning to resemble to all other political parties. In this way, they lost their vanguard and political alternativeness.
Election is a process to recruit political leadership, gauge popular preference, and demand responsible and responsive leadership. Participatory democracy refers to the nature of political system that allows for healthy disputations, debate and dissenting views on issues in the public domain. The governance process is a ...
Full Text Available Pension systems are a major part of the political economy of current societies – much beyond providing old-age income security. The well-known demographics of population aging as well as globalization today challenge their financial viability. Later retirement seems to be a good way to meet these challenges. However, it is not only unpopular but also inequitable in terms of differential longevity. The paper first discusses these problems, with a particular focus on the social stratification of mortality. It then analyzes the preferences towards retirement age at several levels: in terms of attitudes towards public spending on pensions or towards the state’s responsibility in this matter, of support for pension policy alternatives, and of preferred individual age of retirement. Results show that large majorities across all age groups are in favour of more government spending on pensions. There is a substantial amount of ‘involuntary retirement’, meaning that people would have preferred to work longer than they actually did, as well as a somewhat lower amount of ‘involuntary work’, but the preferred ages are everywhere below 65, and in some countries still below 60. Finally, the paper examines the policies of raising the retirement age adopted during the last two decades. What has especially been lacking in these policies is a consideration of socially differentiated longevity.
Amoros, Pablo; Puy, Socorro
We incorporate the media priming effects to explain how politicians can affect voters preferences on issues during the political campaign. We adapt well-known terms of international trade, such as absolute advantage and comparative advantage, to the context of parties' competition in political issues. We show that when either each party has an absolute advantage on a different issue or when parties have high comparative advantage on a different issue, the political campaign will consist of is...
Alexander, Nicole M.
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Contemporary Russia has shown an increasing preference for using Cold War–era political warfare techniques, which are deeply rooted in its doctrine and foreign policies. To date, the U.S. response comprises the conventional military aspects of the Cold War–era deterrence and containment rather than political warfare strategies. Exploring previous U.S. experience in political warfare activities—under the broad categories of strategic in...
Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan C.
Recently, the areas of strategic political marketing and political market orientation have been the subject of several conceptual articles which have provided the theoretical foundations for further empirical work. However, despite the close conceptual relatedness of the proposed concepts...... by developing an integrated concept of political marketing strategy using two complementary frameworks, namely Strategic Political Postures (SPP) and Political Market Orientation (PMO). We introduce the two main concepts and derive for each of the strategic posture-specific PMO profiles as well as inter...
Department of Veterans Affairs — The Preferences service provides a means to store, retrieve, and manage user preferences. The service supports definition of enterprise wide preferences, as well as...
Le Blanc, Albert
A model of music preference theory suggests ways that teachers can broaden their students' musical preferences. Teachers can change preferences by changing something in the listener, the social environment, the music, or the ways that the listener processes information. (AM)
Ormrod, Robert P.
’ and ‘narrow’ interpretations of political marketing, the nature of the political marketing exchange, political relationship marketing and how one can integrate the stakeholder concept into an understanding of political marketing. Finally, we propose a definition of political marketing that differs from......The aim of this working paper is to develop a definition of political marketing that builds on the political rather than commercial marketing literature. This aim is motivated by the need to make explicit our understanding of what political marketing is, a necessary exercise when discussing theory......, concepts and empirical methods in political marketing. We first present five existing definitions of political marketing that have been selected to represent advances in research from the origins of academic research into political marketing in the mid-1970’s to the present day. After this we discuss ‘wide...
Full Text Available According to recent conceptual proposals, institutional corruption should be understood within the boundaries of the institution and its purpose. Political corruption in democracies, prominent scholars suggest, is characterized by the violation of institutional ideals or behaviors that tend to harm democratic processes and institutions. This paper rejects the idea that compromises, preferences, political agreements, or consent can be the baseline of conceptualization of political corruption. In order to improve the identification of abuse of power, the concept of political corruption should not be related directly to democratic institutions and processes; rather, it should be related to ideals whose content is independent of citizens’ preferences, institutions and processes. More specifically, I articulate the relations between political corruption and the notion of subjection, and include powerful citizens in the category of political corruption. Yet, I also suggest redefining under what conditions agents are culpable for their motivations in promoting private gain. By doing this, we better realize how democratic institutions can be the source of corruption and not just its victims. Such a redefinition, I propose finally, is the basis for the distinction between individual and institutional corruption.
Kim, Hannah; Kim, Tae-Kyung; Kim, Ji-Eun; Park, Jin-Young; Lee, Yunjin; Kang, Minkyung; Kim, Kyoung-Shim; Han, Pyung-Lim
Behavioral choices in habits and innate behaviors occur automatically in the absence of conscious selection. These behaviors are not easily modified by learning. Similar types of behaviors also occur in various mental illnesses including drug addiction, obsessive-compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, and autism. However, underlying mechanisms are not clearly understood. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms regulating unconditioned preferred behaviors in food-choices. Mice lacking adenylyl cyclase-5 (AC5 KO mice), which is preferentially expressed in the dorsal striatum, consumed food pellets nearly one after another in cages. AC5 KO mice showed aversive behaviors to bitter tasting quinine, but they compulsively chose quinine-containing AC5 KO-pellets over fresh pellets. The unusual food-choice behaviors in AC5 KO mice were due to the gain of behavioral preferences for food pellets containing an olfactory cue, which wild-type mice normally ignored. Such food-choice behaviors in AC5 KO mice disappeared when whiskers were trimmed. Conversely, whisker trimming in wildtype mice induced behavioral preferences for AC5 KO food pellets, indicating that preferred food-choices were not learned through prior experience. Both AC5 KO mice and wildtype mice with trimmed whiskers had increased glutamatergic input from the barrel cortex into the dorsal striatum, resulting in an increase in the mGluR1-dependent signaling cascade. The siRNA-mediated inhibition of mGluR1 in the dorsal striatum in AC5 KO mice and wildtype mice with trimmed whiskers abolished preferred choices for AC5 KO food pellets, whereas siRNA-mediated inhibition of mGluR3 glutamate receptors in the dorsal striatum in wildtype mice induced behavioral preferences for AC5 KO food pellets, thus mimicking AC5 KO phenotypes. Our results show that the gain and loss of behavioral preferences for a specific cue-directed option were regulated by specific cellular factors in the dorsal striatum, such
Surveys the interrelationship between language and politics. Touches on the context of political discourse, or political culture and ideology in new and old democracies and the reemerging manifestations of totalitarianism, censorship, and linguistic imperialism; then examines selected linguistic features of political discourse and their…
Ormrod, Robert P.
The aim of this working paper is to develop a definition of political marketing that builds on the political rather than commercial marketing literature. This aim is motivated by the need to make explicit our understanding of what political marketing is, a necessary exercise when discussing theory, concepts and empirical methods in political marketing. We first present five existing definitions of political marketing that have been selected to represent advances in research from the origins o...
Palmer, Stephen E.; Schloss, Karen B.
Color preference is an important aspect of human behavior, but little is known about why people like some colors more than others. Recent results from the Berkeley Color Project (BCP) provide detailed measurements of preferences among 32 chromatic colors as well as other relevant aspects of color perception. We describe the fit of several color preference models, including ones based on cone outputs, color-emotion associations, and Palmer and Schloss's ecological valence theory. The ecological valence theory postulates that color serves an adaptive "steering' function, analogous to taste preferences, biasing organisms to approach advantageous objects and avoid disadvantageous ones. It predicts that people will tend to like colors to the extent that they like the objects that are characteristically that color, averaged over all such objects. The ecological valence theory predicts 80% of the variance in average color preference ratings from the Weighted Affective Valence Estimates (WAVEs) of correspondingly colored objects, much more variance than any of the other models. We also describe how hue preferences for single colors differ as a function of gender, expertise, culture, social institutions, and perceptual experience.
, the article demonstrates how the politics of brain drain travel from the domestic level to the European through frames that connect the issue to problems and solutions at the Union-level. After presenting a statistical overview of intra-EU mobility flows, I conclude that the politics of brain drain......-European phenomenon lends itself well to multiple framings by actors in pursuit of preconceived political ends. This creates a space of opportunities within the Commission between laissez-faire and interventionist responses that vary in terms of the economic assumptions and political preferences brought to bear...... on the issue. Although the current balance is weighted in favor of a supply-side, employability logic towards brain drain, there is evidence of a schism within the Commission that presents an opportunity to productively engage with other understandings of the issue in pursuit of best practices....
Lewis, Orion; Steinmo, Sven
In this essay, we explore the epistemological and ontological assumptions that have been made to make political science "scientific." We show how political science has generally adopted an ontologically reductionist philosophy of science derived from Newtonian physics and mechanics. This mechanical framework has encountered problems and constraints on its explanatory power, because an emphasis on equilibrium analysis is ill-suited for the study of political change. We outline the primary differences between an evolutionary ontology of social science and the physics-based philosophy commonly employed. Finally, we show how evolutionary thinking adds insight into the study of political phenomena and research questions that are of central importance to the field, such as preference formation.
Full Text Available The article focuses on multiple cases of the politicization of history by the Baltic political elites. Three states of development of politics of memory in the Baltic States are identified. Problems of political exploitation of the past are scrutinized in the context of political life and international relations. It is concluded that the narratives of the past where nazi and Soviet legacies are equated are actively promoted on the pan-European level. Elites of the Baltic States play a salient role in this process and enhance ties with the elites of the Eastern Europe, expert and political communities of the Western Europe and USA. The dominant trends in the development of the historical politics in the Baltic countries are the administrative and legislative instruments for approval of the preferred narratives of the past, as well as an active political work at the international level aimed at the inclusion of the Baltic narratives of the past into the European politics of memory. Historical politics of the Baltic States shows the Baltic countries as the victims of "two totalitarianisms" ("Nazi and Soviet occupation", and this point of view is widely used as a foreign policy tool. The politicization of the "anti-totalitarianism" issue is now a popular foreign policy tool that not only serves the interests of the Baltic and Eastern European politicians, but also finds ideological supporters in Western Europe and the United States.
Regenwetter, Michel; Dana, Jason; Davis-Stober, Clintin P.
Transitivity of preferences is a fundamental principle shared by most major contemporary rational, prescriptive, and descriptive models of decision making. To have transitive preferences, a person, group, or society that prefers choice option "x" to "y" and "y" to "z" must prefer "x" to…
Vicars, Sara M; Miguel, Caio F; Sobie, Jennifer L
The paired-stimulus (PS) preference assessment has been shown to be effective in assessing preference with animal subjects, including dogs; however, evaluations on whether preferred stimuli would also function as reinforcers are lacking. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the use of the PS preference assessment as a predictor of reinforcer effectiveness in eight dogs. The assessment was followed by concurrent and progressive ratio schedules to evaluate the reinforcer efficacy of food items. Results showed that the preference assessment predicted reinforcer efficacy for all subjects. Benefits of using this assessment with dogs are discussed. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Plescia, Carolina; Aichholzer, Julian
ABSTRACT An expanding literature indicates that in multiparty systems with coalition governments, citizens consider the post-electoral bargaining process among parties when casting their vote. Yet, we know surprisingly little about the nature of voters’ coalition preferences. This paper uses data from the Austrian National Election Study to examine the determinants as well as the independence of preferences for coalitions as political object. We find that coalition preferences are strongly informed by spatial considerations; but additional non-ideological factors, such as party and leader preferences, also play a fundamental role. We also find that coalitions enjoy a certain degree of independence from other objects of vote choice and they do not always represent a simple average score on the feeling thermometer of the constituent parties. There are, however, substantial differences among voters, with party identifiers and those with extreme ideology being less likely to consider coalitions as separate entities from their component parties. PMID:28824702
Plescia, Carolina; Aichholzer, Julian
An expanding literature indicates that in multiparty systems with coalition governments, citizens consider the post-electoral bargaining process among parties when casting their vote. Yet, we know surprisingly little about the nature of voters' coalition preferences. This paper uses data from the Austrian National Election Study to examine the determinants as well as the independence of preferences for coalitions as political object. We find that coalition preferences are strongly informed by spatial considerations; but additional non-ideological factors, such as party and leader preferences, also play a fundamental role. We also find that coalitions enjoy a certain degree of independence from other objects of vote choice and they do not always represent a simple average score on the feeling thermometer of the constituent parties. There are, however, substantial differences among voters, with party identifiers and those with extreme ideology being less likely to consider coalitions as separate entities from their component parties.
Hatemi, Peter K; McDermott, Rose
For the greater part of human history, political behaviors, values, preferences, and institutions have been viewed as socially determined. Discoveries during the 1970s that identified genetic influences on political orientations remained unaddressed. However, over the past decade, an unprecedented amount of scholarship utilizing genetic models to expand the understanding of political traits has emerged. Here, we review the 'genetics of politics', focusing on the topics that have received the most attention: attitudes, ideologies, and pro-social political traits, including voting behavior and participation. The emergence of this research has sparked a broad paradigm shift in the study of political behaviors toward the inclusion of biological influences and recognition of the mutual co-dependence between genes and environment in forming political behaviors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Galkina Elena Vyacheslavovna
Full Text Available The article is devoted to ideological issues in the Turkish party system in the context of the electoral process. The authors analyze the internal content and principles of ideological platforms of the leading parties in Turkey. The formal analysis of party programs allowed to determine the value of the ideology for the functioning of the parties. Besides, analysis of the results of opinion polls conducted by the Turkish public opinion research centers revealed the functionality of ideology in the context of election campaigns. The object of the study was the ideologies of 4 major political parties of Turkey, which entered National Parliament after elections in November 2015. These are conservative Justice and Development Party, the center-left Republican People’s Party, the National Movement Party, the Democratic Party of peoples. Analysis of party programs and other official documents showed that all four parties clearly define their ideological identity and political position. However, despite the clarity of such ideological identification, analysis of the last two election campaigns in Turkey revealed a trend among major parties to refuse from the traditional ideological rhetoric and to practice populist methods of voters attracting. The paper discloses the contents of the political stratification of Turkish society, depending on the ideological preferences of representatives of various social groups. Causative factors of ideological discourse rise are considered in the context of inter-party competition of leading political forces of the Turkish Republic. A comparative analysis shows that the Republican People’s Party and the Nationalist Movement Party are both doctrinal with distinct ideological postulates that have a national base. In contrast, the Justice and Development Party, as well as the People’s Democratic Party are more pragmatic and charismatic at the same time.
An analytical framework for dealing with political entrepreneurship and reform is proposed which is based on some new combinations of Schumpeterian political economy, an extended version of Tullock's model of democracy as franchise-bidding for natural monopoly and some basic elements of New Institutional Economics. It is shown that problems of insufficient award criteria and incomplete contracts which may arise in economic bidding schemes, also - and even more so - characterise political comp...
Full Text Available Ethics and politics are normally considered domains that do not mix, in fact, domains that have little to do with one another. In this article, I provide four factual fictions that show how at the university, research ethics and politics are intertwined. Politics appears to be used for the sole purpose of constructing and maintaining control over the research process and its products. Ultimately, even ethics reviews of proposed research studies are caught up in the politics of power. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0403357
Pabayo, Roman; Kawachi, Ichiro; Muennig, Peter
Ecological and cross-sectional studies have indicated that conservative political ideology is associated with better health. Longitudinal analyses of mortality are needed because subjective assessments of ideology may confound subjective assessments of health, particularly in cross-sectional analyses. Data were derived from the 2008 General Social Survey-National Death Index data set. Cox proportional analysis models were used to determine whether political party affiliation or political ideology was associated with time to death. Also, we attempted to identify whether self-reported happiness and self-rated health acted as mediators between political beliefs and time to death. In this analysis of 32,830 participants and a total follow-up time of 498,845 person-years, we find that political party affiliation and political ideology are associated with mortality. However, with the exception of independents (adjusted HR (AHR)=0.93, 95% CI 0.90 to 0.97), political party differences are explained by the participants' underlying sociodemographic characteristics. With respect to ideology, conservatives (AHR=1.06, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.12) and moderates (AHR=1.06, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.11) are at greater risk for mortality during follow-up than liberals. Political party affiliation and political ideology appear to be different predictors of mortality. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Chou, Chung-I.; Li, Sai-Ping
The Political Districting Problem is to partition a zone into several electoral districts subject to some constraints such as contiguity, population equality, etc. In this paper, we apply statistical physics methods to Political Districting Problem. This political problem is mapped to a q-state Potts model system, and the political constraints are written in the form of an energy function with the interactions between sites or external fields acting on the system. Districting into q voter districts is equivalent to finding the ground state of this q-state Potts model. We illustrate this problem by districting Taipei city and compare it to a computer-generated artificial system.
Blum, Kenneth; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Bowirrat, Abdalla; Giordano, John; Madigan, Margaret; Braverman, Eric R.; Barh, Debmayla; Hauser, Mary; Borsten, Joan; Simpatico, Thomas
Mindful of the new evolutionary ideas related to an emerging scientific focus known as omics, we propose that spiritual, social, and political behaviors may be tied in part to inheritable reward gene polymorphisms, as has been demonstrated for the addictions. If so, analyses of gene polymorphisms may assist in predicting liberalism or conservatism in partisan attachments. For example, both drinking (alcohol) and obesity seem to cluster in large social networks and are influenced by friends having the same genotype, in particular the DRD2 A1 allele. Likewise, voting, voting turnout and attachment to a particular political ideology is differentially related to various reward genes (e.g., 5HTT, MOA, DRD2, and DRD4), possibly predicting liberalism or conservatism. Moreover, voters’ genetic information may predict presidential outcomes more than the actual issues at hand or the presidential candidates themselves. Thus, political discussions on TV, radio, or other media may be morphed by one’s reward gene polymorphisms and as such, may explain the prevalence of generations of die-hard republicans and equally entrenched democratic legacies. Indeed, even in politics, birds of a feather (homophily) flock together. We caution that our proposal should be viewed mindfully awaiting additional research before definitive statements or conclusions can be derived from the studies to date, and we encourage large scale studies to confirm these earlier reports. PMID:23336089
Blum, Kenneth; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Bowirrat, Abdalla; Giordano, John; Madigan, Margaret; Braverman, Eric R; Barh, Debmayla; Hauser, Mary; Borsten, Joan; Simpatico, Thomas
Mindful of the new evolutionary ideas related to an emerging scientific focus known as omics, we propose that spiritual, social, and political behaviors may be tied in part to inheritable reward gene polymorphisms, as has been demonstrated for the addictions. If so, analyses of gene polymorphisms may assist in predicting liberalism or conservatism in partisan attachments. For example, both drinking (alcohol) and obesity seem to cluster in large social networks and are influenced by friends having the same genotype, in particular the DRD2 A1 allele. Likewise, voting, voting turnout and attachment to a particular political ideology is differentially related to various reward genes (e.g., 5HTT, MOA, DRD2, and DRD4), possibly predicting liberalism or conservatism. Moreover, voters' genetic information may predict presidential outcomes more than the actual issues at hand or the presidential candidates themselves. Thus, political discussions on TV, radio, or other media may be morphed by one's reward gene polymorphisms and as such, may explain the prevalence of generations of die-hard republicans and equally entrenched democratic legacies. Indeed, even in politics, birds of a feather (homophily) flock together. We caution that our proposal should be viewed mindfully awaiting additional research before definitive statements or conclusions can be derived from the studies to date, and we encourage large scale studies to confirm these earlier reports.
Exploring Women's Understanding of Politics, Political Contestation and Gender Transformation in the Caribbean. IDRC's Democratic Governance, Women's Rights and Gender Equality initiative is supporting a body of comparative research on whether and how democratic processes and institutions are responding to ...
This study x-rayed the significance of civic political culture on participatory governance and its potentialities on political development. It adopted theoretical postulations in analyzing the subject matter. The analytical model showed a diagrammatic presentation of the relationship among participant culture features, elements ...
Indexed African Journals Online: www.ajol.info as its potential contribution to political development in Nigeria-as it will be applicable to other developing countries of the world. This study provided theoretical postulations in analysing the notion of participatory governance, and linking the research problem (civic political ...
Stirling, Wynn C; Felin, Teppo
Neoclassical noncooperative game theory is based on a simple, yet powerful synthesis of mathematical and logical concepts: unconditional and immutable preference orderings and individual rationality. Although this structure has proven useful for characterizing competitive multi-player behavior, its applicability to scenarios involving complex social relationships is problematic. In this paper we directly address this limitation by the introduction of a conditional preference structure that permits players to modulate their preference orderings as functions of the preferences of other players. Embedding this expanded preference structure in a formal and graphical framework provides a systematic approach for characterizing a complex society. The result is an influence network that allows conditional preferences to propagate through the community, resulting in an emergent social model which characterizes all of the social relationships that exist and which leads to solution concepts that account for both group and individual interests. The Ultimatum game is presented as an example of how social influence can be modeled with conditional preferences.
Full Text Available This essay was motivated by the gap between proclaimed democratic principles and the perceptions of politics which are exhibited by the citizens in transitional countries -more specifically in the Republic of Macedonia. It is based on research data collected in the past few decades, which illustrate that, in their political actions, the citizens are highly motivated by personal benefits and profits, rather than by their internalized values and ideologies. Non-democratic, authoritarian values prevail, while politics is perceived as a value itself, in the most materialistic meaning of the word. It creates a suitable milieu for growth of corruption, nepotism and clientelism. The authors conclude that such a circulus vitsiosus is a corner stone of the Macedonian political regime, and an enormous obstacle for the advancement of the participative, democratic political culture in reality, in spite of its formal acceptance.
Dave, Dhaval; Saffer, Henry
Both economists and psychologists have studied the concept of risk preference. Economists categorize individuals as more or less risk-tolerant based on the marginal utility of income. Psychologists categorize individuals' propensity towards risk based on harm avoidance, novelty seeking and reward dependence traits. The two concepts of risk are related, although the instruments used for empirical measurement are quite different. Psychologists have found risk preference to be an important determinant of alcohol consumption; however economists have not included risk preference in studies of alcohol demand. This is the first study to examine the effect of risk preference on alcohol consumption in the context of a demand function. The specifications employ multiple waves from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) and the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), which permit the estimation of age-specific models based on nationally representative samples. Both of these data sets include a unique and consistent survey instrument designed to directly measure risk preference in accordance with the economist's definition. This study estimates the direct impact of risk preference on alcohol demand and also explores how risk preference affects the price elasticity of demand. The empirical results indicate that risk preference has a significant negative effect on alcohol consumption, with the prevalence and consumption among risk-tolerant individuals being 6-8% higher. Furthermore, the tax elasticity is similar across both risk-averse and risk-tolerant individuals. This suggests that tax policies are as equally effective in deterring alcohol consumption among those who have a higher versus a lower propensity for alcohol use.
А А Горностаева
Full Text Available The article is aimed at revealing the current trends in the usage of ironic metaphors in Russian, British and American political discourse. Given the diversity of political genres, which makes it difficult to classify them, the article draws on the division into primary, secondary and folklore genres (Bazylev 2005, Sheigal 2000. The study focuses on secondary and folklore genres, as, being informal, they presuppose the use of irony. The data was taken from the speeches of Russian, American and British political leaders (V. Putin, S. Lavrov, D. Trump, B. Obama, N. Farage, B. Johnson and others. Drawing on the works on po-litical discourse (Beard 2001, Budaev 2010, Charteris-Black 2005, Chudinov 2001, Lakoff 2003, Ponton 2016, Van Dijk 2009 and developing a discursive approach to the study of irony which is often conveyed through metaphor (Shilikhina 2008, Alba-Juez 2014, Attardo 2007, Giora 2003, Hutcheon 2005, we have identified the conceptual spheres that are the most active sources of modern metaphors. We have traced the link between the new political trends and new metaphors, as well as existing metaphors which acquire a new ironic meaning. The results of the conducted analysis show the frequency of ironic metaphors, includ-ing aggressive ones, and the diversity of their functions in modern political discourse. The comparative analysis made it possible to reveal some peculiarities of the usage of ironic metaphors in Russian, English and American political discourse, which are presupposed by the speakers’ individual characteristics as well as culture specific discursive features.
Political interest fundamentally influences political behavior, knowledge, and persuasion (Brady, Verba, & Schlozman, 1995; Delli Carpini & Keeter, 1996; Luskin, 1990; Zukin, Andolina, Keeter, Jenkins, & Delli Carpini, 2006). Since the early 1960s, the American National Election Studies (ANES) ha...
Heinrichs, Harald; Biermann, Frank
he article gives an overview of global sustainability policy and politics. It is shown how international policy making on sustainable development has progressed from environmental policy toward recent approaches of Earth system governance. Key challenges of international sustainability politics are
Pfetsch, Barbara; Esser, Frank
This chapter describes the maturation of comparative political communications as a sub-discipline and defines its conceptual core. It then lays out the concept of “political communication system”. At the macro-level, this model captures the patterns of interaction between media and politics as social systems; at the micro-level it captures the interactions between media and political actors as individuals or organizations. Comparative research in this tradition focuses on the structure of pol...
Western Political Consulting Techniques and Post-Soviet Political Technology in Political Campaigns in Latvia Ieva Dmitričenko Keywords: political campaignsm political consulting, political technology, parties, marketing, media Political campaigning is an international phenomenon, because there is a free flow of information, knowledge and human resource among practitioners of political campaigning in various countries. As a result political campaigning techniques that have proven to ...
Kjær, Anne Mette; Muwanga, Nansozi
Uganda has been successful in broadening access to education. However, this achievement has been undermined by low literacy and numeracy levels and high drop-out rates. A political settlement perspective sheds light on the politics of education reforms. We find that there are weak political drive...
Graber, Doris A.
This book illustrates how and why knowledge of verbal behavior is important to an understanding of politics by analyzing and describing verbal behavior studies pertaining to politics. Chapters in the first part of the book discuss the various characteristics of verbal behavior: the importance of verbal behavior in politics, construction of…
Explores what it means to do research intended to be relevant for public policy. Argues against perception of policy research as politically neutral technical exercise. Discusses political implications of methodology. Discusses research examples to illustrate point. Discusses implications for how research might be used in political process.…
This article argues that teaching politically correct language to English learners provides them with important information and opportunities to be exposed to cultural issues. The author offers a brief review of how political correctness became an issue and how being politically correct influences the use of language. The article then presents…
Moreira, Silvio; Batista, David S.; Carvalho, Paula; Couto, Francisco M.; Silva, Mario J.
Purpose: POWER is an ontology of political processes and entities. It is designed for tracking politicians, political organizations and elections, both in mainstream and social media. The aim of this paper is to propose a data model to describe political agents and their relations over time. Design/methodology/approach: The authors propose a data…
Dag, Nilgun; Sozer, Mehmet Akif; Sel, Burcu
Political education is a term with negative associations and triggering prejudiced approaches and discourses--maybe some paranoid thoughts--like "keep politics away from education!" in the minds of several people. This article deals with "political education" phenomenon almost never discussed and made subject to scientific…
Ursprung, Heinrich W.
Standard spatial models of political competition give rise to equilibria in which the competing political parties or candidates converge to a common position. In this paper I show how political polarization can be generated in models that focus on the nexus between pre-election interest group lobbying and electoral competition.
Full Text Available The mutual interacüon and relation which have long past between the political systems communication tools and communication has started to have a different quality parellel nal changing especially in the second half of the 20 th century. The period of new ralisation and globalization have carried the new explanation and interpretation of political and its companents together. Media systems which is of the basic companets of racies and aiso the auality and extent of communication freedom have been considerably fedfrom the study of market system. The changing which have occured in the construction of capital has increased the tendencies of becoming capitalist in this sector. However the monopolization of media means the restriction of men's freedom of getting news.
At least to some extent migration behavior is the outcome of a preference for migration. The pattern of migration as an outcome of a preference for migration depends on two key factors: imitation technology and migration feasibility. We show that these factors jointly determine the outcome of a preference for migration and we provide examples that illustrate how the prevalence and transmission of a migration-forming preference yield distinct migration patterns. In particular, the imitation of...
Full Text Available The author in this work speaks about general problems of political corruption in the world and in Serbia. The author tries to define the phenomenon of political corruption and pays special attention to financing political parties. Ćirić gives the overview of international documents about financing political parties and gives us the overview of MP's salaries in some western countries. At the end it is analyzed the question of trading MP's mandate, as a matter of fact who is the owner of the mandate of one representative - that representative, or his/her political party. That also could be the origin of different manipulations and corruption.
Al-Duleimi, Hutheifa Y.; Rashid, Sabariah Md.; Abdullah, Ain Nadzimah
Politeness plays a crucial role in all cultures and societies for maintaining relationships and for face saving. Although politeness is common to all cultures and languages, how it functions and is realised varies from one culture to another. Different theories have been proposed to examine the strategies with which politeness is expressed. Each…
Aaskoven, Lasse; Lassen, David Dreyer
The political budget cycle—how elections affect government fiscal policy—is one of the most studied subjects in political economy and political science. The key theoretical question is whether incumbent governments can time or structure public finances in ways that improve their chances of reelec......The political budget cycle—how elections affect government fiscal policy—is one of the most studied subjects in political economy and political science. The key theoretical question is whether incumbent governments can time or structure public finances in ways that improve their chances...... on political budget cycles have recently focused on conditions under which such cycles are likely to obtain. Much recent research focuses on subnational settings, allowing comparisons of governments in similar institutional environments, and a consensus on the presences of cycles in public finances...
Hacker, Jacob S
The greatest lesson of the failure of comprehensive health reform in the early 1990s is that politics comes first. Even the best-laid policy plans are worthless if they lack the political support to pass. Putting politics first means avoiding the overarching mistake of the Clinton reformers: envisioning a grand policy compromise rather than hammering out a real political compromise. It also means addressing the inevitable fears of those who believe that they are well protected by our eroding employment-based system. And it means formulating political strategies that are premised on the contemporary realities of the hyperpolarized U.S. political environment, rather than wistfully recalled images of the bipartisan politics of old.
In this comment, I build on Shiffman’s call for the global health community to more deeply investigate structural and productive power. I highlight two challenges we must grapple with as social scientists carrying out the types of investigation that Shiffman proposes: the politics of challenging the powerful; and the need to investigate types of expertise that have traditionally been thought of as ‘outside’ global health. In doing so, I argue that moving forward with the agenda Shiffman sets out requires social scientists interested in the global politics of health to be reflexive about our own exercise of structural and productive power and the fact that researching global health politics is itself a political undertaking. PMID:25905482
Edenbrandt, Anna Kristina; Gamborg, Christian; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark
Consumers are apprehensive about transgenic technologies, so cisgenics, which limit gene transfers to sexually compatible organisms, have been suggested to address consumer concerns. We study consumer preferences for rye bread alternatives based on transgenic or cisgenic rye, grown conventionally...... or without the use of pesticides, relative to traditionally bred rye, grown with conventional or organic farming methods. Stated preference (SP) data from a choice experiment are combined with revealed preference (RP) data from market purchases from the same respondents. Results show that respondents prefer...... pesticide-free production methods, and that while cisgenics is preferred over transgenics, the majority of respondents favour traditional breeding methods. The distribution in preferences suggests that some respondents prefer bread from cisgenic crops produced without pesticides over traditional crops...
Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten; Rutström, E. Elisabet
We elicit individual preferences over social risk. We identify the extent to which these preferences are correlated with preferences over individual risk and the well-being of others. We examine these preferences in the context of laboratory experiments over small, anonymous groups, although...... the methodological issues extend to larger groups that form endogenously (e.g., families, committees, communities). Preferences over social risk can be closely approximated by individual risk attitudes when subjects have no information about the risk preferences of other group members. We find no evidence...... that subjects systematically reveal different risk attitudes in a social setting with no prior knowledge about the risk preferences of others compared to when they solely bear the consequences of the decision. However, we also find that subjects are significantly more risk averse when they know the risk...
The aim of the present research was to analyze the effects of postnatal exposure of the cerebellum to x-irradiation on the use of proprioceptive feedback in spatial learning. A total of 337 naive male Long-Evans hooded rats were assigned at birth to one of four treatments: 12-15x, 4-5x, 4-15x and control. Subjects assigned to the 12-15x treatment were exposed to 200R at 12 and 13 days of age, and to 150R at 15 days of age. The subjects exposed to the 4-5x schedule received 200R on days 4 and 5. The 4-15x subjects are exposed to 200R on days 4 and 5, and to 150R on days 7, 9, 11, 13, 15. Subjects from each treatment started spatial discrimination testing in a T-shaped water maze at 30 to 31, 60 to 63, or 180 to 185 days of age. A preference effect was evident in the control, 12-15x and 4-5x subjects, but not in the 4-15x subjects during acquisition testing. Those control, 12-15x and 4-5x subjects trained against their preference made more errors and required more trials to attain acquisition criterion than did those subjects trained toward their preference. The absence of a position preference in the 4-15x subjects is attributed to the absence of the mossy fiber channel of input to the Purkinje cells in this preparation. Deficits in spatial learning were evident in both the 12-15x and 4-15x subjects, the former differing significantly from control subjects and the latter from the 4-5x subjects in the number of trials needed to complete reversal testing and/or the number of errors made during this phase of the testing. It is the upper portion of the molecular layer, absent in the 12-15x and 4-15x preparations, which receives afferent input from the spinal cord
Stojanovska-Stefanova, Aneta; Atanasoski, Drasko; Chacorovski, Zoran
In this article the authors provide theoretical overview of terms media, politics, international politics, of the state as a subject of international law, the freedom of information, as well as the impact of the politics over the state. The state is the supreme organization of humanity today. In every country, the creation of a public opinion occupies a significant place. Function-bearers, depending on the degree of democracy, also depending on the political system and constitutional order, i...
Hatemi, Peter K.; Verhulst, Brad
The primary assumption within the recent personality and political orientations literature is that personality traits cause people to develop political attitudes. In contrast, research relying on traditional psychological and developmental theories suggests the relationship between most personality dimensions and political orientations are either not significant or weak. Research from behavioral genetics suggests the covariance between personality and political preferences is not causal, but due to a common, latent genetic factor that mutually influences both. The contradictory assumptions and findings from these research streams have yet to be resolved. This is in part due to the reliance on cross-sectional data and the lack of longitudinal genetically informative data. Here, using two independent longitudinal genetically informative samples, we examine the joint development of personality traits and attitude dimensions to explore the underlying causal mechanisms that drive the relationship between these features and provide a first step in resolving the causal question. We find change in personality over a ten-year period does not predict change in political attitudes, which does not support a causal relationship between personality traits and political attitudes as is frequently assumed. Rather, political attitudes are often more stable than the key personality traits assumed to be predicting them. Finally, the results from our genetic models find that no additional variance is accounted for by the causal pathway from personality traits to political attitudes. Our findings remain consistent with the original construction of the five-factor model of personality and developmental theories on attitude formation, but challenge recent work in this area. PMID:25734580
Hatemi, Peter K; Verhulst, Brad
The primary assumption within the recent personality and political orientations literature is that personality traits cause people to develop political attitudes. In contrast, research relying on traditional psychological and developmental theories suggests the relationship between most personality dimensions and political orientations are either not significant or weak. Research from behavioral genetics suggests the covariance between personality and political preferences is not causal, but due to a common, latent genetic factor that mutually influences both. The contradictory assumptions and findings from these research streams have yet to be resolved. This is in part due to the reliance on cross-sectional data and the lack of longitudinal genetically informative data. Here, using two independent longitudinal genetically informative samples, we examine the joint development of personality traits and attitude dimensions to explore the underlying causal mechanisms that drive the relationship between these features and provide a first step in resolving the causal question. We find change in personality over a ten-year period does not predict change in political attitudes, which does not support a causal relationship between personality traits and political attitudes as is frequently assumed. Rather, political attitudes are often more stable than the key personality traits assumed to be predicting them. Finally, the results from our genetic models find that no additional variance is accounted for by the causal pathway from personality traits to political attitudes. Our findings remain consistent with the original construction of the five-factor model of personality and developmental theories on attitude formation, but challenge recent work in this area.
Comparing Political Journalism is a systematic, in-depth study of the factors that shape and influence political news coverage today. Using techniques drawn from the growing field of comparative political communication, an international group of contributors analyse political news content drawn f...... Comparing Political Journalism offers an unparalleled scope in assessing the implications for the ongoing transformation of Western media systems, and addresses core concepts of central importance to students and scholars of political communication world-wide.......Comparing Political Journalism is a systematic, in-depth study of the factors that shape and influence political news coverage today. Using techniques drawn from the growing field of comparative political communication, an international group of contributors analyse political news content drawn...... from newspapers, television news, and news websites from 16 countries, to assess what kinds of media systems are most conducive to producing quality journalism. Underpinned by key conceptual themes, such as the role that the media are expected to play in democracies and quality of coverage...
A. D. Voskresensky
Full Text Available Out of all the departments of political sciences in Russia - the Department at MGIMO-University is probably the oldest one. In fact it is very young. While MGIMO-University is celebrating its 70th anniversary the Department of Political Sciences turns 15. Despite the fact that political analyst is a relatively new profession in Russia, it acquired a legal standing only in the 1990s, the political science school at MGIMO-University is almost as old as the university itself. Unlike many other universities, focused on the training teachers of political science or campaign managers MGIMO-University has developed its own unique political science school of "full cycle", where students grow into political sciences from a zero level up to the highest qualifications as teachers and researchers, and campaign managers, consultants and practitioners. The uniqueness of the school of political science at MGIMO-University allows its institutional incarnation -the Department of Political Science - to offer prospective studentsa training in a wide range of popular specialties and specializations, while ensuring a deep theoretical and practical basis of the training. Studying at MGIMO-University traditionally includes enhanced linguistic component (at least two foreign languages. For students of international relations and political science learning foreign languages is particularly important.It allows not only to communicate, but also to produce expertise and knowledge in foreign languages.
Navarro, Vicente; Muntaner, Carles; Borrell, Carme; Benach, Joan; Quiroga, Agueda; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Vergés, Núria; Pasarín, M Isabel
The aim of this study was to examine the complex interactions between political traditions, policies, and public health outcomes, and to find out whether different political traditions have been associated with systematic patterns in population health over time. We analysed a number of political, economic, social, and health variables over a 50-year period, in a set of wealthy countries belonging to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Our findings support the hypothesis that the political ideologies of governing parties affect some indicators of population health. Our analysis makes an empirical link between politics and policy, by showing that political parties with egalitarian ideologies tend to implement redistributive policies. An important finding of our research is that policies aimed at reducing social inequalities, such as welfare state and labour market policies, do seem to have a salutary effect on the selected health indicators, infant mortality and life expectancy at birth.
Solhaug, Trond; Kristensen, Niels Nørgaard
This article focuses on students’ first political learning and explores the research question, what dynamic patterns of political learning can be explored among a selection of young, diverse Danish students’ first political interests? The authors use theories of learning in their analytical...... approach to students´ stories. A group of 10 young students who claim a certain political interest and attend a social studies course in Danish upper secondary school were selected to interview. A “life story approach” is used in the interviews and in the analytical approach. Findings: contrary to many...... “single agent studies in the tradition” of political socialization, the authors find that all students display a complex pattern of political influence. The influence from various agents like school, family, media and peers is also rather complex. Students are not passive recipients of influence...
Rose, Jeremy; Sæbø, Øystein
The extension and transformation of political participation is dependent on widespread deliberation supported by information and communication technologies. The most commonly found examples of these eParticipation systems are political discussion forums. Though much of the discussion...... of these technologies is conducted in the eGovernment and (particularly) the eDemocracy literature, political discussion forums present a distinct set of design and management challenges which relate directly to IS concerns. In this article we analyze problems in establishing political deliberation systems under five...... headings: stakeholder engagement, web platform design, web platform management, political process re-shaping and evaluation and improvement. We review the existing literature and present a longitudinal case study of a political discussion forum: the Norwegian DemokratiTorget (Democracy Square). We define...
This paper hans three interrelated parts. First, atmosphere is approached through the concept of power. Atmospheres 'grip' us directly or mediate power indirectly by manipulating moods and evoking emotions. How does atmosphere relate to different conceptions of power? Second, atmospheric powers may...... be critiqued. Which conception of critique can be involved? Third, critiquing atmospheric powers can generate political conflict. How does atmospheric disputes relate to conceptions of politics and the political?...
Erçetin, Şefika; Tekin, Ali
The present work investigates global politics and political implications of social science and management with the aid of the latest complexity and chaos theories. Until now, deterministic chaos and nonlinear analysis have not been a focal point in this area of research. This book remedies this deficiency by utilizing these methods in the analysis of the subject matter. The authors provide the reader a detailed analysis on politics and its associated applications with the help of chaos theory, in a single edited volume.
Sladeček Michal M.
Full Text Available This paper considers the concept of political community, its constitution and value. The starting point is that the concept of community is not sufficiently recognized in modern political theories, as well as in contemporary liberal theory. In the last two decades communitarian and republican political theory attempted to revitalize this notion. The first part of the paper elaborates on the polemics between these three theoretical orientations. The concluding part examines the possibilities and prospect for stable political community in conditions of pluralism of particular social communities and ethnocultural heterogeneity.
’ is distinct from both the study of political practices of securitization and explorations of competing concepts of politics among security theories. It means tracking what kinds of analysis the theory can produce and whether such analysis systematically impacts real-life political struggles. Securitization...... theory is found to ‘act politically’ through three structural features that systematically shape the political effects of using the theory. The article further discusses – on the basis of the preceding articles in the special issue – three emerging debates around securitization theory: ethics...
Harris, Christine R.; Henniger, Nicole E.
In the last 5 years, the phrase “politics of envy” has appeared more than 621 times in English-language newspapers, generally in opinion essays contending that political liberalism reflects and exploits feelings of envy. Oddly, this assertion has not been tested empirically. We did so with a large adult sample (n = 357). Participants completed a Dispositional Envy Scale and questions about political ideology, socioeconomic status, and age. Envy and age were moderately correlated; younger people reported greater envy. Political ideology and envy were weakly correlated; however, this relationship was not significant when controlling for age. PMID:23471177
Kantola, Johanna; Rolandsen-Agustín, Lise
research traditions, we build toward an analytical framework to study gender and transnational party politics. Our empirical analysis focuses on two policy issues, the economic crisis and the sexual and reproductive health and rights, analyzing European Parliament reports, debates and voting on the issues......In this article, we analyze transnational party politics in the European Union from a gender perspective. This is a subject that has been neglected both by mainstream European studies on party politics and by gender scholars who work on political parties. Drawing on the insights of these two...... right axis and, at the same time, internal divisions within party groups affect policy output....
Full Text Available New institutional politics is an interdisciplinary movement that tries to reinstate the institutional politics to the center of the political science. After the limits of formal-legal analyze, used by old institutional politics, have been criticized by behaviorists, rational choice and neo-Marxist movements, since 1950, the state was alienated from the center of the political studies as an independent variable. Since 1980, neo institutional politics, raised as a reaction to this development, has been developing a new description and understanding of the institution which goes beyond the limitations of the old one. The rise and change of the political institutions and the interactions between political institutions and the actors, are being retheorized, by depending on informal rules and conventions as much as formal rules, and pointing out cultural factors as much as legal factors. So, in this study, rational choice, sociological and historical new institutional politics, as the three different school of new institutionalism, will be examined separately and there will be a debate on colliding and overlapping points of these schools
Steele, John M.
The relationship between astronomy and politics is a complex but important part of understanding the practice of astronomy throughout history. This chapter explores some of the ways that astronomy, astrology, and politics have interacted, placing particular focus on the way that astronomy and astrology have been used for political purposes by both people in power and people who wish to influence a ruler's policy. Also discussed are the effects that politics has had on the development of astronomy and, in particular, upon the recording and preservation of astronomical knowledge.
This paper is about a preference within contemporary left-wing culture for defining opponents as not belonging rather than seeking to win them over. Opponents are constructed as being outside of the community of the good or the progressive. This licenses their treatment as ‘other’, impermeable to political argument, reason and evidence.\\ud \\ud The Corbyn faction in the Labour Party employs an ethic of disdain for ad hominem politics but is keenly concerned with the construction and policing o...
This draft paper addresses the issue of building the bridges between VET politics, practice and research and contributes to the ambition of making evidence based policy making possible. The examples derive from the Danish context but the principle of understanding and analyzing VET politics...... countries functions in practice most attempts political intervention has little or no effect. In other words the basic principles on which VET is founded are more or less resistant to outside interventions (Koudahl 2006). One example is the discussion on how to provide a sufficient number of company based...
IJpma, Irene; Renken, Remco J.; Gietema, Jourik A.; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.; Mensink, Manon G. J.; Lefrandt, Joop D.; Ter Horst, Gert J.; Reyners, Anna K. L.
Background: Chemotherapy can affect taste and smell function. This may contribute to the high prevalence of overweight and metabolic syndrome in testicular cancer survivors (TCS). Aims of the study were to evaluate taste and smell function and possible consequences for dietary intake, food
IJpma, Irene; Renken, Remco J.; Gietema, Jourik A.; Slart, Riemer H.J.A.; Mensink, Manon G.J.; Lefrandt, Joop D.; Horst, ter Gert J.; Reyners, Anna K.L.
Chemotherapy can affect taste and smell function. This may contribute to the high prevalence of overweight and metabolic syndrome in testicular cancer survivors (TCS). Aims of the study were to evaluate taste and smell function and possible consequences for dietary intake, food
Olsen, Birthe S; Lilleøre, Søren Kruse; Korsholm, Conny Nøhr
Despite advances in insulin pen design and functionality, the selection of pens available for children with diabetes is limited. This study assessed the usability, functionality and attitudes towards NovoPen Echo®, a new durable insulin pen designed for pediatric patients that combines a simple...
Morozova Galina Viktorovna
Full Text Available The article presents the main results of the research of interests and political orientations of student youth which was carried out in 2014 at the Kazan federal university and its branches in the territory of the Republic of Tatarstan. The choice of student youth as a reference group is caused by a number of factors, among which we should name the status of intellectual elite, social and political mobility that allows to consider students as the potential actors of socio-political transformations in the country. The data obtained during poll compared with the results of last research allow defining the dynamics of development of student youth’s political sentiment in the region. The study of political attitudes, preferences of students was based on the identification of a number of indicators (degree of interest in politics, the level of personal involvement in political life and on the study of factors that determine the motivation of political behavior of students. Empirical studies make it possible to rank the problems that dominate the political consciousness of students in the region. These include a high level of corruption in the government, inflation, rising prices, the state of health and education systems and the growing income inequality. Particular attention is accented on the problems associated with the foreign policy aspects, threats, aggression from abroad. The study showed that most young people’s interest in politics is limited primarily by informational level, rarely they have desire to express their own position or judgments in political situations. The level of real political participation, socio-political activity of students is low. Obtained results let us notice the increasing trend of demonstration of protest behavior among certain part of the students.
Political competencies are often considered a precondition for political action; however, they are not independent of previous political participation, which may also include the frequency and the kind of political media consumption. My research aims at finding out the importance of participation in political activities in the past, as well as taking over civic responsibility in positions at school or university for cognitive political competencies. The focus is on structural political knowle...
von Neumann Morgenstern utility is generalized to von Neumann Morgenstern preferences. The proof is an application of simple hyperplane theorems......von Neumann Morgenstern utility is generalized to von Neumann Morgenstern preferences. The proof is an application of simple hyperplane theorems...
von Neumann Morgenstern utility is generalized to von Neumann Morgenstern preferences. The proof is an application of simple hyperplane theorems......von Neumann Morgenstern utility is generalized to von Neumann Morgenstern preferences. The proof is an application of simple hyperplane theorems...
Jiang, Ting; Potters, Jan; Funaki, Yukihiko
We hypothesize that if people are motivated by a particular social preference, then choosing in accordance with this preference will lead to an identifiable pattern of eye movements. We track eye movements while subjects make choices in simple three-person distribution experiments. We characterize
Kandasamy, Narayanan; Hardy, Ben; Page, Lionel; Schaffner, Markus; Graggaber, Johann; Powlson, Andrew S; Fletcher, Paul C; Gurnell, Mark; Coates, John
Risk taking is central to human activity. Consequently, it lies at the focal point of behavioral sciences such as neuroscience, economics, and finance. Many influential models from these sciences assume that financial risk preferences form a stable trait. Is this assumption justified and, if not, what causes the appetite for risk to fluctuate? We have previously found that traders experience a sustained increase in the stress hormone cortisol when the amount of uncertainty, in the form of market volatility, increases. Here we ask whether these elevated cortisol levels shift risk preferences. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over protocol we raised cortisol levels in volunteers over 8 d to the same extent previously observed in traders. We then tested for the utility and probability weighting functions underlying their risk taking and found that participants became more risk-averse. We also observed that the weighting of probabilities became more distorted among men relative to women. These results suggest that risk preferences are highly dynamic. Specifically, the stress response calibrates risk taking to our circumstances, reducing it in times of prolonged uncertainty, such as a financial crisis. Physiology-induced shifts in risk preferences may thus be an underappreciated cause of market instability.
Over the last thirty years, happiness research in psychology, economics and philosophy has been discussing the proper meaning of happiness and its main determinants. Moreover, the idea has spread within academic and political circles that it may be legitimate for institutions to engage in “politics...... of happiness”. This article presents a critique of the project of promoting happiness through public policies....
Benotti, Luciana; Blackburn, Patrick Rowan
We sketch an inference architecture that permits linguistic aspects of politeness to be interpreted; we do so by applying the ideas of politeness theory to the SCARE corpus of task-oriented dialogues, a type of dialogue of particular relevance to robotics. The fragment of the SCARE corpus we...
In this article I sketch the outlines of a theory of political human-animal conversations, based on ideas about language that I borrow from Ludwig Wittgenstein’s later work, in particular his notion of language-games. I present this theory as a supplement to the political theory of animal rights Sue
Citi, Manuele; Justesen, Mogens Kamp
Political actors need to be nimble and respond to the opportunity to reform old policies and initiate new ones. The article looks at how the European Commission takes advantage of politically opportune moments (the ‘gridlock interval’) in the European Parliament to put forward new legislation...
Tooms, Autumn K.; Kretovics, Mark A.; Smialek, Charles A.
This study is an effort to examine principals' perceptions of workplace politics and its influence on their productivity and efficacy. A survey was used to explore the perceptions of current school administrators with regard to workplace politics. The instrument was disseminated to principals serving public schools in one Midwestern state in the…
The paper assesses the political credibility of three encyclopaedias (Encyclopaedia Britannica, Encyclopedia of Marxism and Wikipedia) in relation to three chosen topics (Friedrich Engels's biography; the political philosophy of fascism; and, the discipline of social psychology). I was interested in discerning how entries are represented and…
Reed, Steven R.; And Others
Provides an overview of political corruption and its place in Japanese culture and society. Discusses recent scandals and efforts at political reform. These efforts are moving Japan from a "boss-patronage" system to a "civic-culture." Includes a table of post-war Japanese prime ministers and corruption scandals. (MJP)
Browne, A J
Previous notions of science as impartial and value-neutral have been refuted by contemporary views of science as influenced by social, political and ideological values. By locating nursing science in the dominant political ideology of liberalism, the author examines how nursing knowledge is influenced by liberal philosophical assumptions. The central tenets of liberal political philosophy - individualism, egalitarianism, freedom, tolerance, neutrality, and a free-market economy - are primarily manifested in relation to: (i) the individualistic focus of our science; (ii) our view of society as essentially egalitarian and equitable; (iii) our preference for politically neutral knowledge development, and (iv) an economy of knowledge development that supports rather than challenges the status quo. I argue that exposing, rather than ignoring, the liberal ideological values inherent in nursing science will render these assumptions open to debate, stimulate ongoing development of critically oriented knowledge, and increase our capacity to influence the social, political and economic determinants of health.
First, researchers will explore women's political leadership and the extent to which it promotes the will to transform gender relations both within and outside the state. Second, they will assess quota systems for their impact on women's participation and leadership in representative government. Third, they will evaluate the ...
Cockburn, Patrick Joseph
The central claim of this book is that thinking about ‘dependence’ should be at the core of political theory principally because it helps us to think about issues of economic justice. Unlike political theories that either condemn or celebrate dependence, the book argues that dependence...... is an inescapable fact of social life, neither good nor bad in itself. The real political issues are about how we as a society organise and judge various forms of dependence. And this is, in fact, what much political debate is about if we dig beneath the surface. On the one hand, we disagree about how we should...... organise vulnerability; on the other hand, we disagree about who we should condemn as parasitical. Vulnerability and parasitism are thus key concepts for understanding political debate about forms of dependence. Showing the tension between these two sides to the problem of economic dependence...
Christopher P. Long
Full Text Available This essay articulates the differences and suggests the similarities between the practices of Socratic political speaking and those of Platonic political writing. The essay delineates Socratic speaking and Platonic writing as both erotically oriented toward ideals capable of transforming the lives of individuals and their relationships with one another. Besides it shows that in the Protagoras the practices of Socratic political speaking are concerned less with Protagoras than with the individual young man, Hippocrates. In the Phaedo, this ideal of a Socrates is amplified in such a way that Platonic writing itself emerges as capable of doing with readers what Socratic speaking did with those he encountered. Socrates is the Platonic political ideal. The result is a picture of the transformative political power of Socratic speaking and Platonic writing both.
Kalupa, Kimberly L
.... Eating served different functions for the two groups of women. OB women rated "feeling full" and "removing hunger" as more important reasons to eat breakfast, lunch, and dinner than did NW women...
O. A. Tretyak
Full Text Available The public sphere of politics as a theoretical concept of modern political science has been discussed in the article. The reasons of the increasing interest to the public sphere is a dominating subject. Studied The phenomenon of the public sphere being a tool of theoretical and methodological definition of the political world’s boundaries has been studied. The value aspects of media activity in the contemporary politics has been investigated. An attempt has been made to establish the potential of political publicity for the qualitative understanding of participatory democracy. The potential of the public sphere in the development of civil society and social capital has been described. The distinction between the public sphere of politics and political communication in the specific conditions of modern transformational societies has been reasonably grounded. The importance of the presence of state power in all spheres of life of the transformational society has been stressed. Such transformation has not been stoped after the liberal market reforms, which had to ensure the existence of a formal representative democracy. The influence of the elite and expert groups being the reason of the absence of really functioning future civil society has been considered. The features of the formation of civil and social activities as a precondition for the democratic political class’ functioning have been studied. The specifics of public political activity being the prerogative of the competent entities’ political broadcasting have been analyzed. The gradual formation of cyber public sphere and its political branch segment has been revealed. Thorough attention has been given to the processes of the public sphere’s politicization which are usual for primarily authoritarian and closed societies.
N. V. Morar
The conclusion is made, that today the political process in Ukraine requires improvement of the legal base for the functioning of political parties and the need for a normative definition of the political opposition in the framework of public law and political science.
Political competencies are often considered a precondition for political action; however, they are not independent of previous political participation, which may also include the frequency and the kind of political media consumption. My research aims at finding out the importance of participation in political activities in the past, as well as…
We introduce an Absolute (Relative) Time-consistent Axiom of Revealed Preference which characterizes the consistency of a choice function with the property of absolute (relative) time-consistency and impatience. The axiom requires that the absolute (relative) time-consistent and impatient closure of the revealed preference relation does not conflict with the strict revealed preference relation.
'What has politics got to do with nursing?' This is a question I hear often as a lecturer in nursing with a specialist interest in politics, as is the comment: 'I did not come into nursing to learn about politics.'
Full Text Available Oil (called by some black gold has not always been as coveted and used, but only in the last hundred years has established itself as a highly sought after as an indispensable proper functioning of modern economic activity that an important factor in international politics. International oil regime has changed in the last decades. In 1960, oil regime was a private oligopol which had links with governments main consuming countries. By then the price of a barrel of oil was two U.S. dollars and seven major transnational oil companies decided the amount of oil that will be produced. Meanwhile the world region with the largest oil exports were more strongly expressed nationalism and decolonization. Result, it was so in the late 60s in the region occur independent states. They have created an organization aim of this resource to their advantage - OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Thus since 1973 there have been changes in the international regime governing oil field, namely producing countries were fixed production rate and price. After this time the oil weapon has become increasingly important in the management of international relations. Oil influenced the great powers to Middle East conflicts that occurred in the last century, but their attitude about the emergence of new sources of oil outside OPEC. In the late 90's, Russia has become a major supplier of oil to the West.
Irina V. Smirnova
Full Text Available Thanks to different mass media sources, members of any society are well aware of political developments and events and politicians. Every person has his or her own formed political beliefs and affirmations, interpreters other people's actions during political developments and evaluates events that take place. Political forces, in turn, see a person (a potential elector as an object of external information influence. This lets them use political communication when competing for the power. In the modern democratic society this competition is carried out via parliamentarian debates, politicians' speeches, examining political parties' programs, political agitation and voting. General audience-oriented political discourse implements its function of political information influence. As the goal of any political party's program (as an independent form of text in the system of political discourse is to win the elections and come to power, thus the audience influence function is one of the most fundamental and serve as the basis for the text. The text of a program itself is characterized by its persuasive orientation towards the audience, which reveal itself in such methods as convincing, argumentation, manipulation and evaluation. All the political programs pertain to parties which are at the power or which are in opposition. The main characteristic of oppositional programs is the criticism of the power, vice versa, the dominant party's programs confirm the correctness of their policy. All the political programs are multi-authored. The written form of any political program lets put into practice a detailed text analysis. This article presents the analysis of the texts of two leading Spanish political parties (the Spanish socialist worker's party and the people's party of Spain.
Fisher, Mark; Franklin, David L; Post, Jerrold M
Decision-making is an essential component of executive function, and a critical skill of political leadership. Neuroanatomic localization studies have established the prefrontal cortex as the critical brain site for executive function. In addition to the prefrontal cortex, white matter tracts as well as subcortical brain structures are crucial for optimal executive function. Executive function shows a significant decline beginning at age 60, and this is associated with age-related atrophy of prefrontal cortex, cerebral white matter disease, and cerebral microbleeds. Notably, age-related decline in executive function appears to be a relatively selective cognitive deterioration, generally sparing language and memory function. While an individual may appear to be functioning normally with regard to relatively obvious cognitive functions such as language and memory, that same individual may lack the capacity to integrate these cognitive functions to achieve normal decision-making. From a historical perspective, global decline in cognitive function of political leaders has been alternatively described as a catastrophic event, a slowly progressive deterioration, or a relatively episodic phenomenon. Selective loss of executive function in political leaders is less appreciated, but increased utilization of highly sensitive brain imaging techniques will likely bring greater appreciation to this phenomenon. Former Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon was an example of a political leader with a well-described neurodegenerative condition (cerebral amyloid angiopathy) that creates a neuropathological substrate for executive dysfunction. Based on the known neuroanatomical and neuropathological changes that occur with aging, we should probably assume that a significant proportion of political leaders over the age of 65 have impairment of executive function.
Stephen W. Litvin
Full Text Available Government policy has a significant impact on the hospitality and tourism industry, but it is unclear if political leaders fully understand this economic sector when crafting policies. This article offers new research about the direct involvement of industry practitioners in the political process, by analyzing the backgrounds of legislators in the six New England states. The data indicate that only 3% of these legislators have current or former careers related to hospitality and tourism. The author suggests that practitioners should seek election to political office, to better influence government policy.
Tang, Yi; Lin, Yu; Andersen, Torben Juul
Political networking is frequently used in transition economies to gain superior performance. This study draws on upper echelons theory (UET) and the resource-based view (RBV) to analyze the relationship between political networking and firm innovation moderated by the core self-evaluation (CSE......) of the CEO. Based on a sample of 381 manufacturing firms extracted from the Entrepreneurs Survey System of Chinese CEOs with 2014 data from the Jiangsu province, the study finds that political networking is positively related to explorative and exploitative innovation but negatively moderated by the CSE...
This thesis consists of five essays in the field of political economy. The first part of the thesis includes three essays covering various aspects of the political economy of globalization and economic reforms, which are linked in several ways. The second part of the thesis includes two essays on the political economy of development in India. The aim of this introductory section is to give a brief and non-technical overview of the essays, as well as to explain the links between them. The disc...
Full Text Available "Private political archives" are understood by me as all acts collected intently by a private person. These acts are connected with the person's participation in political life and gathered in order to be used in public activity as the source of argumentation and information about factors and mechanisms of political processes. Private political archives of the first half of the XVI century were mainly created by royal servants, often with reference to their job duties. These duties could inspire to collect political acts for private purposes. During the reign of Sigismund Augustus, archives of gentry activists were developed to small extent and they mainly focused on parliamentary life. Private political archives were created outside the executionist movement, namely in the community gathered around the royal court. After 1572, Crown and Lithuanian magnates greatly influenced the creation of political archives. Archives of lesser gentry, scarce and poor, did not disappear completely. However, they became difficult for identification. Therefore, developmental process concerned exclusively documentary "treasure troves" created by magnates. They had the financial means and possibilities to create truly valuable political archives. The same as in the previous period the dynamisms of executionist movement was reflected in political archival documentation, now the creation of patronage system and clientele, or traditionally understood magnate oligarchy, (depending on the point of view corresponded best to archives development. The heritage of previous generations was the treasure trove of patterns and solutions. However, this trove was used selectively, on one hand giving up patterns and rights that were uncomfortable, and, on the other, giving the value of precedence to unexpected acts that gained more importance or even new content in changed political conditions. The application of interpretation principle raised interest in old acts and patterns
Full Text Available Political competencies are often considered a precondition for political action; however, they are not independent of previous political participation, which may also include the frequency and the kind of political media consumption. My research aims at finding out the importance of participation in political activities in the past, as well as taking over civic responsibility in positions at school or university for cognitive political competencies. The focus is on structural political knowledge of the polity, symbolic political knowledge about political figures and actors, and political reasoning. The main hypothesis reads that the media primarily influence symbolic political knowledge, while structural political knowledge is mainly achieved by active political participation. The ability of political reasoning is assumed to be equally influenced by both, media consumption and political participation. By using a small, homogeneous sample of university students, these hypotheses are examined by taking into consideration socio-demographic control variables and political interest in statistical analyses and by considering differential effects of various political activities and different forms of political media consumption. The results are primarily discussed with respect to potential future research and by considering political education in modern societies.
Keiding, Hans; Tvede, Mich
In the present paper, we are concerned with the behavioural consequences of consumers having nontransitive preference relations. Data sets consist of ﬁnitely many observations of price vectors and consumption bundles. A preference relation rationalizes a data set provided that for every observed...... many observations of price vectors, lists of individual incomes and aggregate demands. We apply our main result to characterize market data sets consistent with equilibrium behaviour of pure-exchange economies with smooth nontransitive consumers....... consumption bundle, all strictly preferred bundles are more expensive than the observed bundle. Our main result is that data sets can be rationalized by a smooth nontransitive preference relation if and only if prices can normalized such that the law of demand is satisﬁed. Market data sets consist of ﬁnitely...
southern interior. 14 Once displaced, the new Shi’a areas of concentration were, “in the infertile zones of the Jebel Amil in the south and the Bekaa...valley.”22 The fact that they were pushed to rugged, infertile and arid lands denote a pattern of economic dislocation that continued over the...political and social subjugation of the Lebanese Shi’a culminated to form a powerfully resonant psychological “frame” upon which Hezbollah could build a
Perotti, E.C.; von Thadden, E.-L.
Legislation affects corporate governance and the protection of stakeholders versus investor claims. We allow the preference of a political majority to determine both the governance structure and the extent of stakeholder claims. In a society where median voters have relatively more at stake in the
Perotti, E.C.; von Thadden, E.-L.
Legislation affects corporate governance and the protection of stakeholders versus investor claims. We allow the preference of a political majority to determine both the governance structure and the extent of stakeholder claims. In a society where median voters have relatively more at stake in the
Perotti, E.C.; von Thadden, E.-L.
Legislation affects corporate governance and the return to human and financial capital. We allow the preference of a political majority to determine both the governance structure and the extent of labour rents. In a society where median voters have relatively more at stake in the form of human
individual and State subconscious personal preferences are an ever-present hazard. Secondly, what is needed is a conscious determination by judges to be guided by accepted traditional legal values . . . For present purposes a useful opening to an investigation into the influence of politics on the judiciary is to be found in ...
Chou, C.-I [Department of Physics, Chinese Culture University, Taipei, Taiwan 111 (China)]. E-mail: email@example.com; Li, S.-P. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan 115 (China)
The aim of the Political Districting Problem is to partition a territory into electoral districts subject to some constraints such as contiguity, population equality, etc. In this paper, we apply statistical physics methods to Political Districting Problem. We will show how to transform the political problem to a spin system, and how to write down a q-state Potts model-like energy function in which the political constraints can be written as interactions between sites or external fields acting on the system. Districting into q voter districts is equivalent to finding the ground state of this q-state Potts model. Searching for the ground state becomes an optimization problem, where optimization algorithms such as the simulated annealing method and Genetic Algorithm can be employed here.
Chou, Chung-I.; Li, Sai-Ping
The aim of the Political Districting Problem is to partition a territory into electoral districts subject to some constraints such as contiguity, population equality, etc. In this paper, we apply statistical physics methods to Political Districting Problem. We will show how to transform the political problem to a spin system, and how to write down a q-state Potts model-like energy function in which the political constraints can be written as interactions between sites or external fields acting on the system. Districting into q voter districts is equivalent to finding the ground state of this q-state Potts model. Searching for the ground state becomes an optimization problem, where optimization algorithms such as the simulated annealing method and Genetic Algorithm can be employed here.
Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan C.; O'Shaughnessy, Nicholas J.
relationships with a wide range of stakeholders using tools and concepts that exhibit a context-specific development to suit the assumed unique political context. The key difference between these approaches is whether political marketing manifests itself as a dedicated organisational function or as a wider...... organisational philosophy. The narrow and wide interpretations of political marketing are grounded in alternative paradigms, the managerial/instrumental and relationship paradigms, respectively. Many authors use the managerial/instrumental paradigm as the implicit foundation for their research, whilst more...... recent work has argued that the relationship marketing paradigm shows the most promise as a framework for understanding political behaviour. This divergence reflects discussions that have occurred in the marketing literature about the most appropriate research lens in the commercial context...
Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan C.
influences of such behavior. The study includes structural equation modeling to investigate several propositions. While the results show that political parties need to focus on several different aspects of market-oriented behavior, especially using an internal and external orientation as cultural antecedents......This article develops a conceptual framework and measurement model of political market orientation that consists of attitudinal and behavioural constructs. The article reports on perceived relationships among different behavioral aspects of political market orientation and the attitudinal......, a more surprising result is the inconclusive effect of a voter orientation on market-oriented behaviours. The article discusses the findings in the context of the existing literature in political marketing and commercial market orientation....
against established authorities. I adopt a ‘discursive institutionalist’ approach and argue that decisions to ban the political parties linked to the IRA and ETA can be explained at least in part by the dominance of a ‘discourse of intolerance’ in which proscription is seen predominantly as a problem......In the paper I address the empirical puzzle arising from different responses by political authorities in Spain and the UK to the existence of political parties integrated in the terrorist groups Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA, Basque Homeland and Freedom) and the Irish Republican Army (IRA). More...... specifically I address the question of why the radical Basque nationalist political party Herri Batasuna and its successors, and the republican parties Sinn Féin and the Republican Clubs, enjoyed periods of legality and illegality during periods in which they all were involved in (separate) violent campaigns...
Full Text Available Politicians are considered to be the ones whose honesty is doubtful. This is proven by the fact that there are a lot of negative perception about them. Most of the people know that their ideology is power. In public discussion they often violate or apply politeness with the purpose to get as much power as possible. How polite they are in using the language will be measured by the combination of Grice’s maxims of cooperative principles (1975 and Leech’s mxims of politeness principle. Through analysing the language used by politicians in the talk show Today;s Dialogue, it was found that there were violation and application of politeness in their effort to realize their ideology, which is power.
Tillman, Hope N.
Reviews the literature that deals with the political ramifications of weeding material from academic library collections and the need to involve users and other libraries within the institution in the decision process. (14 references) (CLB)
Department of Transportation — State boundaries with political limit - boundaries extending into the ocean (NTAD). The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an...
Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis
The rise of new media and the broader set of social changes they are part of present political communication research with new challenges and new opportunities at a time when many think the field is at an intellectual impasse (e.g., Bennett & Iyengar, 2008). In this article, I argue that parts...... of the field’s problems are rooted in the way in which political communication research has developed since the 1960s. In this period, the field has moved from being interdisciplinary and mixed-methods to being more homogenous and narrowly focused, based primarily on ideas developed in social psychology...... of political communication processes and questions concerning the symbolic, institutional, and technological nature of these processes—especially during a time of often rapid change. To overcome this problem, I argue that the field of political communication research should re-engage with the rest of media...
If doctors want to play a role in future health promotion, they have to leave their citadel, and come closer to life and society. Modern preventive medicine cannot be dissociated from basic political, cultural and religious values and processes. Genetic counseling and engineering, influencing lifestyle, community intervention and changing the health culture among patients and doctors all require ethical and political competence rather than traditional medical skills. The author advocates the development of a new discipline, medical politics, with two major commitments: -To define basic health rights -To study the public health consequences of political systems and decisions. In a polemic and provocative style the article enlightens the potentials and dangers associated with an expanded concept of preventive medicine.
Ellis, Erin M; Varner, Ashley
Patient-centered decision making requires cancer patients be actively involved and feel sufficiently informed about their care, but patients' preferences for information are often unrecognized or unmet by their oncologist, particularly for more distressing topics. This study examined cancer patients' preferences for information about three care-related topics: (1) diagnostic information, (2) treatment costs, and (3) prognosis. We tested whether factors known to influence information preferences (psychological distress, control preferences, and financial distress) were differently associated with information preferences for each topic. Cancer patients (N = 176) receiving ongoing treatment completed a questionnaire that assessed their out-of-pocket treatment costs, psychological distress, preferences for control over their medical decisions, and the amount of information they desired and received from their oncologists about the three topics. Patients' preferences were less often met for treatment cost information than for the other topics, p information than they received. One-third of patients also wanted more prognostic information than they received. Patients' preferences for diagnostic information did not differ as a function of financial burden, distress, or control preferences, ps > 0.05. Preferences for cost information were greater among patients who preferred more control over their medical decisions, p = 0.016. Patients' preferences for prognostic information were greater among those desiring more control and with lower distress, ps information preferences. Appreciating the variability in information preferences across topics and patients may aid efforts to meet patients' information needs and improve outcomes.
Islam, Jamal; Mohajan, Haradhan; Moolio, Pahlaj
Mathematical Economics is closely related with Social Choice Theory. In this paper, an attempt has been made to show this relation by introducing utility functions, preference relations and Arrow’s impossibility theorem with easier mathematical calculations. The paper begins with some definitions which are easy but will be helpful to those who are new in this field. The preference relations will give idea in individual’s and social choices according to their budget. Economists want to create ...
Lassen, David Dreyer; Serritzlew, Søren
This paper uses a novel research design to re-examine the causal effect of jurisdiction size on political participation. Two waves of municipal consolidation in Denmark, in 1970 and in 2005, provide exogenous variation in jurisdiction size.......This paper uses a novel research design to re-examine the causal effect of jurisdiction size on political participation. Two waves of municipal consolidation in Denmark, in 1970 and in 2005, provide exogenous variation in jurisdiction size....
Kevin M. Murphy; Andrei Shleifer
We present a model of the creation of social networks, such as political parties, trade unions, religious coalitions, or political action committees, through discussion and mutual persuasion among their members. The key idea is that people are influenced by those inside their network, but not by those outside. Once created, networks can be “rented out” to politicians who seek votes and support for their initiatives and ideas, which may have little to do with network members' core beliefs. In ...
Steffen Hertog’s article argues that Saudi Arabian regime has embarked upon the modernization of its authoritarian rule by attempting to institutionalize important aspects of the political debate. The way this is being done, he proposes, is best captured with the time-honoured concept of corporatism. It helps to bring the kingdom back into the framework of comparative politics, testing and giving new nuances to familiar concepts.
Stephen W. Litvin
Government policy has a significant impact on the hospitality and tourism industry, but it is unclear if political leaders fully understand this economic sector when crafting policies. This article offers new research about the direct involvement of industry practitioners in the political process, by analyzing the backgrounds of legislators in the six New England states. The data indicate that only 3% of these legislators have current or former careers related to hospitality and tourism. The ...
Gancia, Gino A.; Ponzetto, Giacomo A. M.; Ventura, Jaume
The first wave of globalization (1830-1914) witnessed a decline in the number of countries from 125 to 54. Political consolidation was often achieved through war and conquest. The second wave of globalization (1950-present) has led instead to an increase in the number of countries to a record high of more than 190. Political fragmentation has been accompanied by the creation of peaceful structures of supranational governance. This paper develops a theoretical model of the interaction between ...
The Political Parties and Political Participation in Rivers State, Nigeria: A Case Study of 2015 General Elections. Goddey Wilson. Abstract. The study reviewed the activities of the political parties and its impact on voters' participation in the political activities in Rivers State. In pursuit of this objective, the study generated ...
Dominguez, Casey B. K.; Smith, Keith W.; Williams, J. Michael
This study tests, and finds support, for the hypotheses that a student who majors in political science will have stronger feelings of political competence and will be more willing to engage in hypothetical political actions than two peer groups: (a) those who major in other fields and (b) those who show an interest in politics but have not studied…
, in particular the HoR and Haftar. The article argues that rather than speeding up elections it seems wise to concentrate on strengthening what might be left of centrist political powers in Libya. Hopefully it is not too late. Many Libyans will probably prefer a strong-man solution to continued anarchy...
Goldsmith, Judy; University of Kentucky; Junker, Ulrich; ILOG
This article explains the benefits of preferences for AI systems and draws a picture of current AI research on preference handling. It thus provides an introduction to the topics covered by this special issue on preference handling.
Furchtgott, Ernest; Busemeyer, Jerome R.
For all occupations except clergyman, a relationship between the age of the respondent and preferred age of the professional existed. Older individuals preferred older service providers with one exception, their physician. Highly educated respondents preferred younger physicians. (Author)
Full Text Available This paper considers the epistemological value of the concept of political theology in thanatopolitics. The concept can be useful if one wants to interpret political usage of death. In addition to blurred boundaries between politics and theology, there is a more general and deeper socially integrative affinity between the two. In addition, there have been various politicizations of salvation in the past and in the present. Every political theology accentuates obedience as an immanent condition of salvation, although interpretation of death in political theology has a different function than in secular ideologies. In the centre of politically theological ideas one can find crosscutting of the divisions between public friend and public enemy from political world with similar divisions from religious world. Finally, beside the theological influence on politics, this paper considers some analogies between theology and the secular judiciary. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 149005: Društveni akteri i društvene promene u Srbiji 1990-2010
Jacobi, L.R. Jr.
This paper was first presented at the annual meeting of the HPS in New Orleans in 1984. Twelve years later, the basic lessons learned are still found to be valid. In 1984, the following things were found to be true: A government agency is preferred by the public over a private company to manage radioactive waste. Semantics are important--How you say it is important, but how it is heard is more important. Public information and public relations are very important, but they are the last thing of concern to a scientist. Political constituency is important. Don't overlook the need for someone to be on your side. Don't forget that the media is part of the political process-they can make you or break you. Peer technical review is important, but so is citizen review. Sociology is an important issue that scientists and technical people often overlook. In summary, despite the political nature of radioactive waste disposal, it is as true today as it was in 1984 that technical facts must be used to reach sound technical conclusions. Only then, separately and openly, should political factors be considered. So, what can be said today that wasn't said in 1984? Nothing. open-quotes It's deja vu all over again.close quotes
Swire, Briony; Berinsky, Adam J; Lewandowsky, Stephan; Ecker, Ullrich K H
This study investigated the cognitive processing of true and false political information. Specifically, it examined the impact of source credibility on the assessment of veracity when information comes from a polarizing source (Experiment 1), and effectiveness of explanations when they come from one's own political party or an opposition party (Experiment 2). These experiments were conducted prior to the 2016 Presidential election. Participants rated their belief in factual and incorrect statements that President Trump made on the campaign trail; facts were subsequently affirmed and misinformation retracted. Participants then re-rated their belief immediately or after a delay. Experiment 1 found that (i) if information was attributed to Trump, Republican supporters of Trump believed it more than if it was presented without attribution, whereas the opposite was true for Democrats and (ii) although Trump supporters reduced their belief in misinformation items following a correction, they did not change their voting preferences. Experiment 2 revealed that the explanation's source had relatively little impact, and belief updating was more influenced by perceived credibility of the individual initially purporting the information. These findings suggest that people use political figures as a heuristic to guide evaluation of what is true or false, yet do not necessarily insist on veracity as a prerequisite for supporting political candidates.
Edgar Alfredo Nande Vazque
Full Text Available In the current economic context, one of the issues of concern is the growth of public spending of municipalities of Mexico and thus increasing public debt. This combines the traditional interest that literature has been devoted to the relationship between economics and politics from the perspective of Political Budget Cycle. The aim of this paper is to analyze the effect of elections in public expenditure management. To this end, a system based on the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM, which uses instrumental variables based on delays and differences of all variables in the model estimator was used. Our findings indicate that there is an expansion of total expenditure, spending on public works and infrastructure and current expenditure contracted work, indicating the preference of politicians for using investment spending to influence voter behavior. The work also notes that citizens value the policies of public expenditure management when making their voting decisions.
Grasten, Maj Lervad; Tzouvala, Ntina
This article reconstructs how democratic participation and interference can be fended off by the construction of an international authoritarian political architecture and a strongly legalised and specific form of market economy. We do this by interrogating International Territorial Administration...... (ITA) regulations established to administer post-conflict Kosovo and post-invasion Iraq. In following the regulations and executive decrees of a largely unaccountable international policy-making bureaucracy in reforming the agricultural sector, the article demonstrates how and with what impact...... corporations. Even though the two administrations focused on different aspects of land and agriculture regulation, we argue that significant commonalities exist between their political preferences and interests. Our work draws on the tradition of critical legal studies in International Law (IL) and we posit...
DE FRANTZ, Monika
While urban political economy tends to generalize the functional economic pressures upon socio-political transformations of cities, European research has stressed the importance of historical context and political institutions. Both perspectives’ references to urban culture imply either an economization or an essentialization of urbanity, and thus an underconceptualization of political agency. Whether defined economically, politically, or socio-culturally, most research of cities implies - mo...
Albæk, E.; van Dalen, A.; Jebril, N.; de Vreese, C.H.
Political journalism is often under fire. Conventional wisdom and much scholarly research suggest that journalists are cynics and political pundits. Political news is void of substance and overly focused on strategy and persons. Citizens do not learn from the news, are politically cynical, and are
A common complaint from political scientists involved in the study of religion is that religious issues have been largely overlooked by political science. Through a content analysis of leading political science and sociology journals from 2000 to 2010, this article considers the extent of this claim. The results show that political science…
SHUSTOVA IRINA NIKOLAEVNA
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of axiological possibilities of political nicknames. Political nicknames are very expressive. They can be personal and impersonal. Some nicknames lose their primary meaning to become a part of evaluative political lexis. In the language of politics nicknames often serve not only as means of assessment, but also as ideological weapon.
Andersen, John; Siim, Birte
The book examines the political and academic debates about the interplay between political, civil and social citizenship in US and Europe......The book examines the political and academic debates about the interplay between political, civil and social citizenship in US and Europe...
Hipel, K.W.; Fraser, N.W.
A conflict analysis technique is presented which allows risk to be considered when ascertaining the politically and socially feasible solutions to a given large scale engineering project. In particular, the improved metagame analysis algorithm can be employed to model a given conflict or game which may be concerned with risk and to predict the possible compromise solutions. Risk can be entertained in the analysis since it may affect the preference structure of a specific participant for the possible feasible outcomes in the dispute. To demonstrate how the methodology works in practice, it is applied to the Garrison Diversion Unit conflict which is a serious environmental dispute involving American and Canadian interests
Tasgin, Mursel; Bingol, Haluk O.
Community detection is the task of identifying clusters or groups of nodes in a network where nodes within the same group are more connected with each other than with nodes in different groups. It has practical uses in identifying similar functions or roles of nodes in many biological, social and computer networks. With the availability of very large networks in recent years, performance and scalability of community detection algorithms become crucial, i.e. if time complexity of an algorithm is high, it cannot run on large networks. In this paper, we propose a new community detection algorithm, which has a local approach and is able to run on large networks. It has a simple and effective method; given a network, algorithm constructs a preference network of nodes where each node has a single outgoing edge showing its preferred node to be in the same community with. In such a preference network, each connected component is a community. Selection of the preferred node is performed using similarity based metrics of nodes. We use two alternatives for this purpose which can be calculated in 1-neighborhood of nodes, i.e. number of common neighbors of selector node and its neighbors and, the spread capability of neighbors around the selector node which is calculated by the gossip algorithm of Lind et.al. Our algorithm is tested on both computer generated LFR networks and real-life networks with ground-truth community structure. It can identify communities accurately in a fast way. It is local, scalable and suitable for distributed execution on large networks.
Анна Александровна Горностаева
Full Text Available This article represents the analysis of American modern political discourse, mainly the field connected with the pre-election campaign 2016. It explores primary genres of political discourse (speeches, announcements, debates, party programmes, as well as secondary genres (commentaries, discussions, interpretation, political interviews. Owing to the fact that political communication embraces the whole range of informal political processes in society, the field of research includes the so-called informal political socializing. The aim of the paper is to study the use of irony and its functions in political discourse. The data used for the study were taken from candidates’ speeches, interviews with political and public figures, and recent witty sayings/comments. The study is based on the theory of critical discourse analysis (M. Bilig 2007, Teun A. van Dijk 2009, N. Fairclough 1996, P. Graham 2007, J. Lemke 2007, S. Scollon 2007, political discourse analysis (A. Beard 2001, D. Ponton 2011 etc. and theory of irony (L. Alba-Juez 2014, S. Attardo 2007, R. Giora 2001, 2003, L. Hutcheon 2005, B. Komlosi 2010 etc.. The analysis showed that irony is a frequent communicative strategy used by politicians in pre-election campaigns, it performs different functions, such as aggression, defense, entertainment and some others and plays a positive role in commucation with the audience. When used expertly, irony contributes to making political discourse more expressive and convincing. An ironic politician is a better manipulator of public opinion than one unable to use irony.
Grünbaum, Niels Nolsøe; Stenger, Marianne
The aim of this paper is to create a more complex and holistic understanding of the value system of the political consumer. A case study was undertaken were the unit of analysis constituted 12 high users of organic food products. The empirical data was analysed by utilizing Reynolds and Gutman’s ...... or services will enable companies to better understand consumers need and expectations. The latter being a necessity if confirmation of expectations, satisfaction, retention of customers and customer loyalty are goals of importance for the selling company....
This paper mainly discusses the political promotion system in China. Specifically, we develop a generalized analytical framework by introducing the contest success function. On the one hand, the central government can give the optimal political promotion benefits to local officials to incentivize them to exert desirable developmental efforts. On the other hand, the central government can undertake a further design of the political promotion system to motivate local officials vi...
The political economy of India’s economic growth is an issue of abiding interest. Higher and sustained economic growth has, all over the world, been the surest and most time tested means of raising living standards and reducing poverty. Further, given that it is a functioning democracy, economic policy in India can often be dictated by political expediency as political parties indulge in competitive populism in the face of improvements in social indicators such as literacy, infant mortality a...
Wynn C Stirling
Full Text Available Neoclassical noncooperative game theory is based on a simple, yet powerful synthesis of mathematical and logical concepts: unconditional and immutable preference orderings and individual rationality. Although this structure has proven useful for characterizing competitive multi-player behavior, its applicability to scenarios involving complex social relationships is problematic. In this paper we directly address this limitation by the introduction of a conditional preference structure that permits players to modulate their preference orderings as functions of the preferences of other players. Embedding this expanded preference structure in a formal and graphical framework provides a systematic approach for characterizing a complex society. The result is an influence network that allows conditional preferences to propagate through the community, resulting in an emergent social model which characterizes all of the social relationships that exist and which leads to solution concepts that account for both group and individual interests. The Ultimatum game is presented as an example of how social influence can be modeled with conditional preferences.
Olsen, Annemarie; Kildegaard, Heidi; Gabrielsen, Gorm
juices (tangible products), chosen to span the preference spectrum, were hedonically evaluated for appearance and taste. Finally, an actual product choice was performed by having the children choose between two buns and two juices.Results showed that the computer evaluationswith pictures of foods...... provided reproducible information about the children’s visual food preferences, which were in concordance with both hedonic measures and products choices, and can thus be considered valid.......The aim of this study is to investigate if children’s food preferences can be reliable measured by using pictures of foods presented on a computer screen in a conjoint layout.We investigate reproducibility (test–retest) and infer validity by comparison with traditional hedonic evaluations...
Rhetoric – the tool of politicians seeking to gain public support appeared and was developed in times of ancient Greece. In our days political rhetoric still is considered to be powerful tool in political arena and even survives kind of renascence. Politician as any other professional is obliged to be skilled user of methods of political rhetoric. Municipality elections are coming soon in Lithuania. Public discourse is going to be filled of different political speeches, examples of political ...
Alexey I. Podberyozkin
Full Text Available Military-political issues is an important area of research work at MGIMO. The difference in this direction from the classical international specialization is that it is at the intersection of several disciplines: military science, military-technical and military-industrial as well as International Relations. A specialist in military and political issues should not only be an expert in the field of international relations and diplomacy, but also have a deep knowledge of military-technical issues to understand the basic trends in the development of scientific and technological progress and its impact on the balance of forces in the world. Global changes in the balance of power and the nature of the conflict, the emergence of new types of weapons are changing the basic methods and approaches to the art of war, which requires a science-based perspective on problem solving and multi-disciplinary approach in achieving the goals. Military and political studies allow us to understand how the development of military technology and military organization of the state affected by the political situation in the world, the national security of the country and its place in the system of international relations. Military-political research has been developing at MGIMO for a few decades. It laid down the basis for a scientific school of political-military studies. Its founding fathers were such prominent scholars of international affairs, as I.G. Usachyov, A.D. Nikonov, A.G. Arbatov, V.G. Baranovsky, V.M. Kulagin, A.N. Nikitin and other well-known experts. Their work covers a wide range of military and political issues, including the topics of arms control and disarmament, international, and especially European security, military policy, NATO, the Western military-political doctrines and their practical application. Now the lead in the development of this research at MGIMO has taken Center for Military-Political Studies, which became a concentration of relevant
Monogan III, James E
Political Analysis Using R can serve as a textbook for undergraduate or graduate students as well as a manual for independent researchers. It is unique among competitor books in its usage of 21 example datasets that are all drawn from political research. All of the data and example code is available from the Springer website, as well as from Dataverse (http://dx.doi.org/10.7910/DVN/ARKOTI). The book provides a narrative of how R can be useful for addressing problems common to the analysis of public administration, public policy, and political science data specifically, in addition to the social sciences more broadly. While the book uses data drawn from political science, public administration, and policy analyses, it is written so that students and researchers in other fields should find it accessible and useful as well. Political Analysis Using R is perfect for the first-time R user who has no prior knowledge about the program. By working through the first seven chapters of this book, an entry-level user sho...
Hjorth, Katrine; Börjesson, Maria; Engelson, Leonid
distributed independent random variables: Assuming smooth preferences; this holds only for specifications with a constant marginal utility of time at the origin and an exponential or affine marginal utility of time at the destination. We apply a generalized version of this model to stated preference data...... utility of being at the origin. Another issue is that models with the exponential marginal utility formulation suffer from empirical identification problems. Though our results are not decisive, they partly support the constant-affine specification, in which the value of travel time variability...
Lenert, Leslie A; Sturley, Ann P; Rapaport, Mark H; Chavez, Shannon; Mohr, Penny E; Rupnow, Marcia
Schizophrenia is a common severe syndrome with a highly variable pattern of symptoms. The medications used to treat this disorder are expensive and may cause severe adverse effects. Little is known about how the public perceives health outcomes in schizophrenia or the potential adverse effects of antipsychotic medication. This complicates the use of standard cost-effectiveness analysis to set priorities for health resource allocation. In this study, we measured utility weights for a set of health states derived from Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS) scores, and a set of health states that included the presence of common adverse effects of medication, thus creating utility mapping function for clinical data. We presented a convenience sample of members of a large commercial Internet survey panel with digital video materials portraying eight different patterns of schizophrenia with varying levels of positive, negative and cognitive symptoms, and five common adverse effects of antipsychotic medications. We then elicited their standard gamble (SG) and visual analog scale (VAS) ratings using iMPACT3 computer program, with an automated error repair feature, deliberately over-sampling minority ethnic groups in the panel. We censored subjects with uncorrected errors in ratings and estimated utilities for each state by re-weighting responses to match United States population demographics. 620 well-educated, ethnically diverse volunteers (54% Caucasian), who spanned a broad range of age groups and geographical regions of the US participated in this study. Because of evidence of bias in ratings, 175 (29%) subjects with internal inconsistencies in ratings were censored from estimates of mean population utilities. In the remaining 441 subjects, SG utilities, re-weighted to match US population demographic profiles, ranged from 0.88 for mild schizophrenia to 0.47 extremely severe schizophrenia. Variability in the types of symptoms exhibited (positive, negative or
Fraga, Elizabeth D; Atkinson, Donald R; Wampold, Bruce E
Asian American (n = 155), European American (n = 200), and Hispanic (n = 152) undergraduate students were surveyed using a paired-comparison format to determine preferences for the 9 attitudes/beliefs, 11 knowledges, and 11 skills identified by D. W. Sue, P. Arredondo, and R. J. McDavis (1992) as characteristics of the competent multicultural counselor. The Bradley-Terry-Luce model, which uses a weighted least square regression to place the competencies on a continuum from least preferred to most preferred and to test for significant intergroup differences, was used to analyze the data. Results indicated that preferences for 5 of the 9 attitudes/beliefs, 5 of the 11 knowledges, and 7 of the 11 skills competencies varied as a function of race/ethnicity.
Bischoff, Carina Saxlund; Christiansen, Flemming Juul
Public innovation and political parties are usually not studied together. Given the key position parties hold in representative democracies, it is somewhat odd that their influence on public innovation has not been explored. We propose to open this line of inquiry and introduce a typology...... that highlights four avenues for studying the links between public innovation and political parties: linkage, programme, interaction and policy. We use the typology to discuss relevant themes and empirical examples in existing literature and to formulate of a number of hypotheses about innovation of political...... parties themselves as well their impact on potentially innovative public decisions. One major expectation is that hierarchical parties with centralized leadership make more efficient decisions but that sustainable innovation outcomes promoted by collaborative efforts are easier to obtain for decentralized...
Munksgaard, Rasmus; Demant, Jakob Johan
is specifically libertarian. The aim of the paper is to investigate the prevalence of political discourses within discussions of cryptomarket drug dealing, and further to research the potential changes of these over the timespan of the study. Methods We develop a novel operationalization of discourse analytic...... still observe political matter. We identified one topic which expresses a libertarian discourse that emphasizes the individual's right to non-interference. Over time we observe an increasing prevalence of the libertarian discourse from 2011 to the end of 2013. In the end of 2013 - when Silk Road...... was seized - we observe an abrupt change in the prevalence of the libertarian discourse. Conclusions The libertarian political discourse has historically been prevalent on cryptomarket forums. The closure of Silk Road has affected the prevalence of libertarian discourse suggesting that while the closure did...
For almost 20 years, gay rights advocates and defenders of military anti-gay discrimination engaged in a phony debate about whether allowing open service would undermine unit cohesion. To be sure, a preponderance of evidence showed that open service would not undermine cohesion, and the repeal of don't ask, don't tell (DADT) required advocates to prevail on that point in the court of public opinion. But concerns about cohesion were never the basis of opposition to open service. Rather, opposition was a modern incarnation of the politics of paranoia, a dangerous tradition in American history. Acknowledging that DADT had nothing to do with cohesion and that military leaders allowed the armed forces to be implicated in the politics of paranoia could facilitate disabling paranoia as the basis for other political projects such as anti-immigrant xenophobia. For a video on DADT and paranoia, search for "Donnelly Belkin DADT" on YoutTube.
Korsgaard, Morten Timmermann
This paper presents the controversial separation of education from the realm of the political as proposed by Hannah Arendt. For the sake of children and the future of the world, we must, according to Arendt, separate education from the political. If we do not do so, we not only expose our children...... to claim that this separation is based on a psychological misunderstanding and that it renders children incapable of political action. I propose here that, by considering the separation instead to be a question of protection, not only can we heed the two essences of education that Arendt articulates...... in The Crisis in Education, namely natality and conservation, but we can also form a clearer understanding of the separation and of her educational thinking more broadly....
Uranium is the most political of all the elements, the material for the production of both the large amounts of electricity and the most destructive weapons in the world. The problems that its dual potential creates are only now beginning to become evident. Author Norman Moss looks at this situation and sheds light on many of the questions that emerge. The nuclear issue always comes back to how much uranium there is, what can be done with it, and which countries have it. Starting with a concise history of uranium and explaining its technology in terms the nonspecialist can understand, The Politics of Uranium considers the political issues that technical arguments obscure. It tells the little-known story of the international uranium cartel, explains the entanglements of governments with the uranium trade, and describes the consequences of wrong decisions and blunders-especially the problems of nuclear waste. It also examines the intellectual and emotional roots of the anti-nuclear movement
In this paper, I propose that depression is a political phenomenon insofar as it has political sources and consequences. I then investigate one aspect of this argument—whether depression reduces participation. I hypothesize that individuals with depression lack the motivation and physical capacity to vote and engage in other forms of political participation due to somatic problems and feelings of hopelessness and apathy. Moreover, I examine how depression in adolescence can have downstream consequences for participation in young adulthood. The analyses, using both cross-sectional and longitudinal data, show that voter turnout and other forms of participation decrease as the severity of depressed mood increases. These findings are discussed in light of disability rights and potential efforts to boost participation among this group. PMID:26924857
Kannabiran, Gobinaath; Petersen, Marianne Graves
At the birth of participatory design, there was a strong political consciousness surrounding the design of new technology, the design process in particular, establishing a rich set of methods and tools for user-centered design. Today, the term design has extended its scope of concern beyond...... the process of design and into how users interact with the designed product on a day-to-day basis. This paper is an attempt to call to attention the need for a new set of methods, attitudes and approaches, along with the existing, to discuss, analyze and reflect upon the politics at the interface....... By presenting a critical analysis of two design cases, we elicit the importance of such an agenda and the implications for design in doing so. We use the Foucauldian notion of power to analyze the power relationships in these two cases and to articulate the politics at the interface. We conclude by emphasizing...
Full Text Available During the 2000 Presidential election between George H. W. Bush and Al Gore, journalists often used the terms blue states and red states to describe the political landscape within the United States. This article studies the framing of these terms during the years 2004 through 2007. Using latent and manifest qualitative content analyses, six different news media frames were found in a sample of 337 newspaper articles. Two hypotheses were also tested indicating that framing patterns varied slightly by time period and article types. However, the argument that increased levels of political polarization in the United States have been created by predominantly conflict-oriented coverage may not be true. Instead, these terms became journalistic heuristics that were used to organize how people think about politics in a way that fit with contemporary media practices, and there is no single agreed upon interpretation of these terms within this reporting.
This paper will argue that astronomical models have long been applied to political theory, from the use of the Sun as a symbol of the emperor in Rome to the application of Copernican theory to the needs of absolute monarchy. We will begin with consideration of astral divination (the use of astronomy to ascertain divine intentions) in the ancient Near East. Particular attention will be paid to the use of Newton's discovery that the universe operates according to a single set of laws in order to support concepts of political quality and eighteenth century Natural Rights theory. We will conclude with consideration of arguments that the discovery of the expanding, multi-galaxy universe, stimulated political uncertainty in the 1930s, and that photographs of the Earth from Apollo spacecraft encouraged concepts of the `global village'.
Venezuela's struggle to develop its economic and political independence separate from the colonialism of foreign oil companies and free from the authoritarian dictatorships of other developing countries is described by one who has been intimately involved in the nation's political life and is knowledgeable in the relationships of oil, economics, and politics during the bid for democracy and economic egalitarianism. First published in 1956, the treatise has been revised and updated to show how strong party organization was responsible for developing demoncratic programs and how this new strength allowed Venezuela to domesticate much of the foreign involvement in oil production. Historical facts, though acknowledged to have a bias, are documented. 88 references. (DCK)
' wild type. Our results indicate a bias in the frequency of independent functional mutations at specific base pair (bp positions within the gene HvHox1. Conclusions A new TILLING population was developed as a resource for high-throughput gene discovery in an alternative barley germplasm. Pilot screening demonstrated a similar or even slightly higher mutation frequency when compared to previously published barley TILLING populations that should allow for the identification of diverse allelic variation. Partial phenotypic evaluation of the M2 and M3 generations has revealed the presence of a wide spectrum of morphological diversity that highlights the great potential of this resource for use in forward genetic screens. Altogether, our study shows the efficiency of screening and the applicability of the new TILLING population for genetic studies in the barley crop model system.
Full Text Available Considering how persistently a certain amount of specialized critics work to diminish contemporary Brazilian poetry, this essay seeks to conceive an articulation among poetry, philosophy and politics. We atempt to do that, on the one hand, through the philosophical concepts of aporia and wonder (thaumazein, and, on the another hand, by considering what Giorgio Agamben refers to as “an insurmontable disjunction between whatever singularity and the State organization”. Among the many poets that could be approached in this context, we chose to close the text with an interpretation some of Tarso de Melo's remarkably and explicitly political poems.
Lowe, P.; Goyder, J.
The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introduction; (Part I) the environmental movement (environmental groups and the attentive public; the episodic development of the environmental movement; the underlying values of environmentalism; the roots of environmental concern; the social limits to growth; elite manipulation of values); the organisation of environmental groups; environmental groups in national politics; environmental groups in local politics; (Part II) the Henley Society; Friends of the Earth; the National Trust; the Royal Society for Nature Conservation; the European Environmental Bureau. (U.K.)
Olsen, Asmus Leth
-endings data. Second, nine-ending and other higher-end decimals are found to be over-represented which echoes odd pricing research. It suggests that incumbents take voters’ biases into account and apply odd taxes to minimize the political costs of taxation while maximizing revenue. Attention should be given......From the concept of odd pricing, i.e., setting rightmost price digits below a whole number, this paper advances the political counterpart of odd taxation using a panel of Danish municipal taxes. First, the distribution of tax decimals is non-uniform and resembles the distribution of price...
This book, divided into four parts, describes, first, energy consumption and national economy growth. In a second part, the irresistible ascent of coal, natural gas and petroleum international markets is studied. In the third part, energy politic is investigated: exchanges releasing, prices deregulation, contestation of power industry monopoly, energy national market and common energetic politic, single market concept. In the last part, global risks and world-wide regulations are given: demand, energy resources, technical changes, comparative evaluations between fossil, nuclear and renewable energies, environment, investments financing and international cooperation. 23 refs., 14 figs., 16 tabs
Myers, J. C.
One rather striking description of what lies behind the various phenomena we now refer to with the term "globalisation" comes to us from the chairman of Magna International, a Canadian-owned auto-parts manufacturer whose production lines are located in Mexico. "To be in business," he states, "your first mandate is to make money, and money has no heart, soul, conscience, homeland" (Henwood, 1997, 113). If this is the world of business and money, might politics be its obverse? To be sure, polit...
Dahl, Sofia; Huron, David; Brod, Garvin
In two experiments participants tuned a drum machine to their preferred dance tempo. Measurements of height, shoulder width, leg length, and weight were taken for each participant, and their sex recorded. Using a multiple regression analysis, height and leg length combined was found to be the bes...
This study sought to evaluate components of the Environmental Preference Questionnaire (EPQ). The 267 teenagers who completed the EPQ in this study also responded to questions relating to facets of self esteem and the reasons for selecting their favorite activities. (BT)
Full Text Available When faced with large or complex decision problems, human decision makers (DM can make costly mistakes, due to inherent limitations of their memory, attention, and knowledge. Preference elicitation tools assist the decision maker in overcoming these limitations. They do so by interactively learning the DM’s preferences through appropriately chosen queries and suggesting high-quality outcomes based on the preference estimates. Most state-of-the-art techniques, however, fail in constructive settings, where the goal is to synthesize a custom or entirely novel configuration rather than choosing the best option among a given set of candidates. Many wide-spread problems are constructive in nature: customizing composite goods such as cars and computers, bundling products, recommending touristic travel plans, designing apartments, buildings, or urban layouts, etc. In these settings, the full set of outcomes is humongous and can not be explicitly enumerated, and the solution must be synthesized via constrained optimization. In this article, we describe recent approaches especially designed for constructive problems, outlining the underlying ideas and their differences as well as their limitations. In presenting them, we especially focus on novel issues that the constructive setting brings forth, such as how to deal with sparsity of the DM’s preferences, how to properly frame the interaction, and how to achieve efficient synthesis of custom instances.
Koenderink, Jan; van Doorn, A.J.; Pinna, Baingio; Pepperell, Robert
Do generic observers in their free-style viewing of postcard-size pictures have a preference for specific modes of perspective rendering? This most likely depends upon the phrasing of the question. Here we consider the feeling of ‘presence’: does the observer experience a sense of being ‘immersed in
We examine whether social preferences are determined by hormones. We do this by investigating whether markers for the strength of prenatal testosterone exposure (finger length ratios) and current exposure to progesterone and oxytocin (the menstrual cycle) are correlated with choices in social
Lloyd George Waller
Full Text Available Youth participation through political talk appears to be shifting to the online public sphere in many parts of the world. Many attribute this shift to online social networks such as Facebook. Emerging research seem to suggest that this may be a cure for the problem of political apathy among the youth. This study explores such a possibility in Jamaica. In all, 752 youth ages 15 to 24 were surveyed to ascertain whether Facebook encourages political talk among this age cohort, and what if any are the primary factors that discourage this practice. The findings suggest that (a Facebook is an extension of offline political talk among the civically engaged and politically charged youth of Jamaica; (b Facebook does not substantively encourage political talk among the politically apathetic Jamaican youth; and (c fear of political victimization is the primary factor that discourages many Jamaican youth to engage in political talk on Facebook.
Nengher N. Vang, Ph.D
Full Text Available Since the initial resettlement of the Hmong in the United States in the mid-1970s, they have maintained strong political and military relationships with the Lao People‘s Democratic Republic (LPDR. Yet, there is little research on that relationship and the involvement of the Hmong in the United States in political developments in Laos. Most works on Hmong political activism have focused on the electoral participation and representation of Hmong Americans in relation to American domestic politics. In this article, using archival, ethnographic, and interview data that I have collected between 2006 and 2009 in Laos, Thailand, and the United States, I describe and analyze the non-domestic or transnational form of Hmong American political expression and participation. I argue that Hmong political activism in America not only was transnational from the outset, but that their transnational involvement in political developments in Laos and their relations with the Lao PDR government also had a significant impact on their ethnic politics. Many Hmong political activists made their entry into ethnic politics through the door of transnational politics, and many were motivated by transnational political issues to participate in domestic American politics. By exploring their transnational involvement in political developments in Laos and their relations with the Lao PDR government, we get a more complete and dynamic understanding of Hmong political activism in the United States than is possible by focusing exclusively on domestic and electoral participation. Examining their transnational politics also allows us to see the transnationality of not only their culture, identity, and community but also that of their political activities and aspirations.
Gozzi, Marta; Zamboni, Giovanna; Krueger, Frank; Grafman, Jordan
Studies on political participation have found that a person's interest in politics contributes to the likelihood that he or she will be involved in the political process. Here, we looked at whether or not interest in politics affects patterns of brain activity when individuals think about political matters. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we scanned individuals (either interested or uninterested in politics based on a self-report questionnaire) while they were expressing their agreement or disagreement with political opinions. After scanning, participants were asked to rate each political opinion presented in the scanner for emotional valence and emotional intensity. Behavioral results showed that those political opinions participants agreed with were perceived as more emotionally intense and more positive by individuals interested in politics relative to individuals uninterested in politics. In addition, individuals interested in politics showed greater activation in the amygdala and the ventral striatum (ventral putamen) relative to individuals uninterested in politics when reading political opinions in accordance with their own views. This study shows that having an interest in politics elicits activations in emotion- and reward-related brain areas even when simply agreeing with written political opinions. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Full Text Available Successful constitutions manage to predetermine in juridical frame the political life of a country, by imposing a durable core equilibrium, i.e., a specific political system. The integrative function of the constitution derives from a reflexive political decision, at the constitution-making moment, for a specific form. The current theoretical difficulty in characterizing with precision the political system established by the Constitution of 1991 reflects the syncopated constitutional conflicts of recent years. The instability can be traced back to the continued absence of the preconditions for a genuine constitutional foundation. The initial indecision has been reinforced by later influences, including the EU accession process.
Yet, the logic of politics and its textual representations are far from homogeneous within the post-colonial text corpus, especially when fictional and non-fictional writings are compared. Out of such a comparison of some African writers arises legitimate questions as to the function of politics in their fictional writing, as well as ...
It is within this context that this article explores links between politics and religion as articulated in Kiswahili poetry. In particular, the paper offers a synthesis between political poetry and intellectual history of Africa. By examining the character and function of this type of Swahili poetry, the paper strives to understand the ...
Oct 27, 2012 ... marketing function similar in intent and purpose to product marketing. (Nwosu, 1992:66). .... Advertising is the process of persuading potential customers to buy products or promote its services. It is the .... political parties in Nigeria can use the new media to influence the populace concerning their political ...
This paper empirically evaluates the proposition that political conformism, specifically structural, passive, psychological, and defensive conformism, is a function of exposure to mass media. Secondary analysis of data from the National Opinion Research Center's 1975 General Social Survey revealed a significant relationship between TV viewing and…
Full Text Available Autobiographical narratives, which include autobiography, autobiographical novel, memoir, and chronicle, constitute a major genre in African francophone literature. Informed by history, they do not celebrate personal accomplishment, but rather accentuate the group experience. These self-stories rely on realistic representation in order to document events for future generations and function to correct stereotypical misconceptions—therein lies their political consciousness.
This paper draws upon sociological theory to demonstrate that the manufacture and deployment of trust is an integral part of the function of complex systems such as health care. The discussion begins by identifying the error within the nursing literature which arises from a rather technical conceptualization of trust. This tends to limit the dimensions to trust which is established, and fails to recognize that trust may be subject to competition and conflict. The paper continues by drawing upon the work of two theorists, Niklas Luhmann and Susan P. Shapiro, to demonstrate how trust functions within systems such as health care and the mechanisms through which it is controlled. The title of this paper, 'Towards a politics of trust', identifies that this is merely the first stage in the analysis. Further stages are necessary which analyse the ways in which power is exercised in the conflict for control within discrete elements of the system.
Andersen, John; Siim, Birte
The objective of the book is to analyse different politics of inclusion and empowerment and the different paradigms of inclusion/exclusion in order to underline the close link between politics of scoial equality and politics of recognition of ciultural difference. Politics of inclusion is thus...... theproductive/innovative linkage of politics of redistributuin and politics og resognition, whnich over a longer time span creates sustainable paths of democratic and social development, which increases the capacity to handle both conflicts about economic resources and life-chances and conflicts about...
Sousa, Cindy A; Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M; Feldman, Guy; Lee, Jessica
Research has documented a link between political violence and the functioning of individuals and communities. Yet, despite the hardships that political violence creates, evidence suggests remarkable fortitude and resilience within both individuals and communities. Individual characteristics that appear to build resilience against political violence include demographic factors such as gender and age, and internal resources, such as hope, optimism, determination, and religious convictions. Research has also documented the protective influence of individuals' connection to community and their involvement in work, school, or political action. Additionally, research on political violence and resilience has increasingly focused on communities themselves as a unit of analysis. Community resilience, like individual resilience, is a process supported by various traits, capacities, and emotional orientations toward hardship. This review addresses various findings related to both individual and community resilience within political violence and offers recommendations for research, practice, and policy.
Full Text Available The language of politics is commonly studied within discourse analysis, whereby its linguistic features relating to vocabulary, grammar structures, textual and intertextual aspects are investigated using various methodologies. This paper presents an analysis of political discourse from a syntactic-semantic point of view. The corpus studied has been extracted from five. Montenegrin dailies and the analysis attempts to describe the genre as effectuated in the Montenegrin political discourse. As a result, the functions of political language are extrapolated and illustrated and its style is described in terms of intertextuality and other linguistic strategies commonly employed in political discourse. The paper aims to give a contribution to the understanding and linguistic profiling of political language.
The use of Twitter by politicians, parties, and the general audience in politics, particularly during election campaigns, has become an extremely popular research field almost overnight. Even though Twitter, a medium that emerged early in 2006 – the first tweet was posted on 21 March 2006 by Jack
Spears, R; Smith, HJ
The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the political nature of laboratory experiments. Such experiments can be construed as paradigms of power, open to construction and debate, where different agents and interests are involved in a process of struggle over both (re)presentation and substance.
Berthou, Sara Kristine Gløjmar
This thesis revolves around ideas of social change and attempts to ameliorate the consequences of climate change at the local level. Based on extensive ethnographic fieldwork participating in the making of a Local Agenda 21 plan the thesis explores rationales and practices of planning, governing ...... as serious political support for the climate change mitigation agenda....
In short, the "politics of aviation" lies in a few propositions: the need of having as large a number of fields as possible and of sufficient area; the utilization of the larger part of the existing military fields; the selection of uncultivated or unproductive fields, whenever technical conditions permit; ability to disregard (save in exceptional cases) objections of an agricultural nature.
Boase, Paul H.
Examines the phenomenon of political correctness, its roots and objectives, and its successes and failures in coping with the conflicts and clashes of multicultural campuses. Argues that speech codes indicate failure in academia's primary mission to civilize and educate through talk, discussion, thought,166 and persuasion. (SR)
If one reads Michel Foucault "backward," so to speak, one can sense the contours of a "big narrative" of "the political" which is founded on the claim that "Where there is obedience there cannot be parrhesia" (Foucault, 2011, p. 336). What Foucault is doing with this sentence is breaking the circle...
Stevens, Richard G.
The meaning and understanding of conscience in political thought are examined. The problem of distinguishing apparent and real conscience and private and public judgment is illustrated by contrasting the acts of conscience of Socrates and Thomas More with the rejection of private judgment against the state in Hobbes and Locke. (RM)
Thomassen, Bjørn; Forlenza, Rosario
This article engages with the thought of Augusto Del Noce (1910-1989), the most important Italian Catholic philosopher and political thinker of the twentieth century. The focus is on how Del Noce came to elaborate a Catholic ‘modernity,’ bridging a positive encounter between Catholicism, democracy...
A state of the art artcle on academic work on religion, politics, and religious freedom in Burma......A state of the art artcle on academic work on religion, politics, and religious freedom in Burma...
Full Text Available There are two major preferences shaping political choices: one, regarding who should play the leading role in running the economy (mar-kets or politicians and the other, concerning social spending. According to reputation, leftist parties assign the leading role to politicians (i.e. the state, whereas rightist parties entrust mar-kets with the central role in running the econo-my. Right-wing parties’ reputation of not favoring social spending is not backed by facts. Since both the left and the right display similar behav-iors vis-à-vis social spending, it is preferable that markets play the central role in running the econ-omy. Flexible markets help economic growth and employment, reducing the need for high social spending. The freedom of property and freedom from corruption indexes show that, in Romania, the market has never played the central role in running the economy. People’s prevailing con-cern over their wellbeing ‘now’ rather than ‘to-morrow’ generates competition among political right and left for higher social spending, leading to high public debt. Neither left, nor right can guarantee sustainable limits for social benef ts and public debt. Capping the share of public debt in GDP by means of the Constitution provides no guarantee for public debt sustainability, but is worth a try.
Ledyaeva Ol'ga Mikhaylovna
Full Text Available Several approaches that underlie urban politics are discussed in the paper. They include neo-liberalism, political economy discourse, elitist/pluralist debates, and postmodernism. The neoliberal approach focuses on the limited role of the state and individual responsibility. The legal framework protects both the rights and responsibilities of individuals and regulates the operation of the market. It is the market that fosters individual choices and provides goods and services by virtue of the processes which are flexible, efficient and transparent. The political economy approaches (regulation theory, public choice theory, neo-Marxism explain urban politics via the analysis of national and international economic processes and changes in contemporary capitalism. Changes in national and international economies determine what solutions are possible. The discourse has been influenced by the debate on globalization of capital and labour markets. Modern elitism and neopluralism are represented by theories of "growth machines" and "urban regimes". The former focuses on bargaining alliances between political and business leaders in order to manage the urban system and to promote its growth. The latter develops neopluralist explanations of power within local communities with an emphasis on the fragmented nature of the government where local authorities lack comprehensive governing powers. Postmodernism views the city as the site of the crisis of late capitalism which leads to segregation of neighbourhoods onto prosperous areas and ghettoes. In contrast to the modern city, the postmodern city is not defined by its industrial base; rather, it is determined by its consumerist environment of malls and museums, characterized by revivalist architecture. At the same time, the suburban shopping mall and a motorway network make nonsense of the idea of the city as a unique and well-defined space. These and other approaches encompass a wide spectrum of possibilities
- Джеффри Лич
Full Text Available The present paper was planned for this issue of our journal, which Geoffrey Leech and I intended to devote to Politeness phenomena across cultures. It is based on his article titled “Politeness: Is there an East-West Divide?” (2005 which he suggested as a theoretical framework and includes results of our discussions held during our personal meetings and our epistolary exchange. Unfortunately the final version of the paper was never read by Geoffrey Leech for the reasons we all sadly know. Nevertheless I decided to publish it as a tribute to him in the knowledge that the result was not going to have the degree of excellence it would have had if he were still with us today. I therefore apologise for any mistakes or misinterpretations of his thoughts that might be found in the paper. The aim of this article is to sum up the main ideas of Politeness Theory presented earlier in Leech 1983, 2003, 2005, and other publications and discuss how that theory applies (or fails to apply to other languages, with the main emphasis on the Russian language and culture. The term ‘maxim’ used in Principles of Pragmatics (Leech 1983 is avoided here as much as possible, as it implies some kind of moral imperative, rather than a pragmatic constraint. Instead, a single constraint, which comprehends all the maxims (the Maxims of Tact, Generosity, Approbation, Modesty, Agreement, Sympathy, and is called the Grand Strategy of Politeness (GSP, is used. The GSP says: In order to be polite, S expresses or implies meanings which place a high value on what pertains to O- his/her wants, qualities, obligation, opinion, feelings (O = other person[s], [mainly the addressee, i.e. H = hearer] or place a low value on what pertains to S (S = self, speaker. The essential point is that these are not separate, independent constraints or maxims: they are instances of the operation of the GSP as ‘super-maxim’ which is an overarching framework for studying linguistic politeness
Perissinotto, Renato Monseff; Universidade Federal do Paraná
The purpose of this essay is to make some considerations on the limits and advantages of institutionalism’s rational choice in regard to the understanding of political phenomena. The text critically examines some of the representative studies that Brazilian political science has attached to this theoretical approach. This criticism develops around three themes: state, political elites and democracy. It suggests that a prudent return to the approach of political sociology wou...
Economic Organization, Translated by Talcott Parsons , New York: Oxford, 1947. Weiner, Myron, "Political Participation Crisis of the Political Process...industriali- zation and education have on the development of political culture in Egypt, but rather that the importance of these factors of modernization...kinship and subsequently on the political culture become more understandable. The impact of education perhaps more than any other factor of
Full Text Available This special issue of Confero takes its start in an essay by John Mazarakis who presents an overarching perspective on the underpinning politics of transhumanism. Considering theoretical debates and differences in the transhumanist movement over the last two decades, Mazarakis proposes the emergence of two distinct political stances: the techno-progressive and the technolibertarian. Using Lyotardian concepts, Mazarakis questions the latent legacy of "the grand narratives of modernism" and their potential to function as a basis for theorizing a transhuman future.
The IAEA's organization of its 20th General Conference at Rio de Janeiro clearly underlined the importance of a comprehensive international transfer of nuclear technology. Despite all efforts to keep the Agency out of general political confrontations, the Conference was tinged politically by the PLO and South Africa problems. Besides the next five year program, which was agreed upon in the light of existing factual constraints, the support and control functions of the IAEA and next year's Salzburg Fuel Cycle Conference were other main topics of discussion. The 1977 IAEA budget was approved at a level of 43.5 million, the General Fund at 6.5 million. (orig.) [de
Michail A. Burda
Full Text Available Author analyzes the practice of functioning of political elite of modern Russia, the phenomenon of high rating of one of its actors and the crisis of alternative political leaders. The article pays special attention to the existing, in accordance with the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the breadth of presidential powers. Separately discusses the features of current and in General closed for the controlled companies to the private process of formation of the Russian political elite. According to the author, this process takes the form of selection of candidates by a narrow circle of senior officials for subjective reasons, in connection with which the political elite even more segregated from the controlled companies and rising to a new, unattainable level of elitism. Referring to the existing practice of the presidential elections in Russia in the early 90-ies of XX century to the present focuses on the stagnation of the political opposition, lack of political competition among major political parties and their low electoral support in view of the existing political absenteeism. In the article the author considers the historical context of the formation of elite groups and privileged minorities, and draws attention to features of "technocratic parliamentarism", which is inherent in States with a parliamentary form of government and does not implement at present in Russia, with its prevailing system of governance by public authorities. In conclusion, the special attention of author is turned on the existing in society political absenteeism, latent protest potential and, as a consequence, the request for the renewal of political elites, particularly in the framework of the upcoming presidential elections of the Russian Federation in 2018, the participation of new candidates. According to the author of the inventory of such social demand companies will allow to stop the risks enhance the destructive part of economic and regional political
In 2007, University of Oklahoma political science professor Cindy Simon Rosenthal was elected mayor of Norman, Oklahoma, after having served as a member of its city council. Was her activity unique within the political science profession among female political scientists? Her election stimulated the curiosity of some of us in the…
Baccini, Leonardo; Sudulich, Laura; Wall, Matthew
This paper evaluates the influence of online news consumption on attitudes toward the European Union in a context of protracted economic crisis. Using data from the 2011 Irish National Election Study, we combine location-specific information on broadband availability with respondent geo-location data, which facilitates causal inference about the effects of online news consumption via instrumental variable models. Results show that Irish citizens who source political information online are more prone to blame the EU for the poor state of the economy than those who do not. There is evidence of preference reinforcement among those with negative predispositions toward the EU, but not among pro-EU citizens. We complement this analysis with a study of voting behavior in the European Fiscal Compact Referendum, employing a similar methodological approach. The results from this second survey confirm the anti-EU influence of online news consumption among Irish citizens, although evidence suggests a pro-EU effect among voters who browsed the website of the politically neutral Irish Referendum Commission. Our paper contributes to the literature on public opinion, the EU, and political attitudes in times of crisis. PMID:27274571
The author considers the place of education for leisure in primitive political systems, traditional political systems, and modern political systems (including premobilized and mobilized dictatorships and democracies). (GW)
Pfau, Michael; Burgoon, Michael
Posits a strategy of resistance to the influence of attack messages in political campaigns. Finds that political campaign messages can be designed to inoculate supporters of candidates against subsequent attack messages of opposing candidates. (MS)
Terry, P C; Howe, B L
The study examined the coaching preferences of 80 male and 80 female athletes, as measured by the Leadership Scale for Sports (Chelladurai and Saleh, 1978, 1980). In addition, it attempted to assess the applicability to sport of the Life-cycle and Path-goal theories of leadership. Comparisons between groups were made on the basis of sex, age, and type of sport. A MANOVA indicated that athletes in independent sports preferred more democratic behaviour (p less than .001) and less autocratic behaviour (p = .028) than athletes in interdependent sports. No differences in coaching preferences were found which could be attributed to the age or sex of the athlete, or the variability of the sports task. These results partially supported the Path-goal theory, but did not support the Life-cycle theory. Athletes of all groups tended to favour coaches who displayed training behaviour and rewarding behaviour "often", democratic behaviour and social support behaviour "occasionally", and autocratic behaviour "seldom". This consistency may be a useful finding for those organizations and institutions interested in preparing coaches.
Full Text Available With the ongoing making of a European polity the character of political representation and the role of national parliaments is changing. Europe is more and more facing a situation where input legitimacy is produced at the national level whereas binding political decisions are taken at the supranational level. This is why there is an ongoing debate about the democratic deficit. The paper takes up this discussion from a particular perspective: how do the members of national parliaments of eleven member states and the members of the European Parliament perceive the future of European integration, to which degree do they support further competence shift, and which kind of future political order of the EU do they prefer? The impact of several factors on support for further integration are explored including policy character, exposure to economic globalization, and national institutional settings. Results show that the ideas about institutional reform and future political order do differ considerably between MPs of different nations, ideologies as well as the national and European level partly due to the mentioned factors. The necessary consensus about the future order seems to be far from feasible.
Farah, Abdulkadir Osman
Within the past two decades Somalia became synonymous with everything from violence, famine to religious extremism. Somalia is a country with contradictions. On the one hand, it is a country with relatively homogeneous people in terms of language, ethnicity, culture and religion. On the other hand......, we see a nation that so far failed to translate the cultural and social relationship to a legitimate functioning political and institutional system. Contemporary experts of the Somali society underline the significance of the Somali language, especially in Somali proverbs, not only reflecting......, underestimate the Somali’s ability to interpret and develop their political culture and society through language and literature. The political and economic elite have for decades ignored or oppressed people’s attempt to build their society with linguistic and communicative public engagement based on mutual...
Farah, Abdulkadir Osman
, we see a nation that so far failed to translate the cultural and social relationship to a legitimate functioning political and institutional system. Contemporary experts of the Somali society underline the significance of the Somali language, especially in Somali proverbs, not only reflecting...... the essence of culture but also everything about the Somalis. For instance the nation’s short histories and proverbs contain not only description and analysis of the society, but also solutions to the numerous challenges facing the country (Kapchitz, 2010). Somalis themselves, as well as the rest of the world......, underestimate the Somali’s ability to interpret and develop their political culture and society through language and literature. The political and economic elite have for decades ignored or oppressed people’s attempt to build their society with linguistic and communicative public engagement based on mutual...
Political polarization has been shown to significantly influence a country's economic performance. However, little is known about the drivers of political polarization. In this article, we aim to identify the main determinants of political polarization using Bayesian Model Averaging to overcome the problem of model uncertainty. We find that the level of trust within a country and the degree of income inequality are the most robust determinants of political polarization.
Chen, Daniel L.; Levonyan, Vardges; Yeh, Susan
Whether policies shift preferences is relevant to policy design. We exploit the random assignment of U.S. federal judges creating geographically local precedent and the fact that judges’ politics, religion, and race predict decision-making in abortion jurisprudence. Instrumenting for abortion jurisprudence with exogenous judicial characteristics, we estimate the impact of abortion jurisprudence on state laws, campaign donations, and abortion attitudes. We verify information transmission in th...
Chen, Daniel L.; Levonyan, Vardges; Yeh, Susan
Whether policies shift preferences is relevant to policy design. We exploit the random assignment of U.S. federal judges creating geographically local precedent and the fact that judgesâ€™ politics, religion, and race predict decision-making in abortion jurisprudence. Instrumenting for abortion jurisprudence with exogenous judicial characteristics, we estimate the impact of abortion jurisprudence on state laws, campaign donations, and abortion attitudes. We verify information transmission in ...
T. M. Zakharova
Full Text Available The article describes the features of transformation and structural analysis of Ukrainian political and administrative elite in modern Ukraine. The basic conceptual going near concepts «political class» and «political elite» is analysed, that appeared in modern political science and also the factor of the use and correlation of these concepts is examined in scientific discussion in Ukraine. Given description to the basic stages of forming of political class and modern tendencies of his functioning, the role of political class opens up in the conditions of transformation of the political mode. On the basis of functional analysis an attempt to educe the specific of difficult and dynamic structure of political class is done, grounded, that structural changes into a political class have considerable external consequences both for a political class and for the political system on the whole. Heterogeneity of structure of political class is analysed and the presence of horizontal and vertical distribution of power is investigated. For more complete understanding of forming of political class in the article a quantitative method is used for research of statistical data, that helped to get exact numerical descriptions of statistical model of the investigated indexes. The attempt of analysis of structure of political class is done after the hierarchical system where imperious plenary powers of elite are divided into higher, middle and administrative.
Rossmeisl, Jan; Bækgaard, Iben Sig Buur; Gregersen, Misha Marie
The natural amino acids have different preferences of occurring in specific types of secondary protein structure. Simulations are performed on periodic model â-sheets of 14 different amino acids, at the level of density functional theory, employing the generalized gradient approximation. We find ...
de Baets, Antoon
This essay, Archivists Killed for Political Reasons, offers an overview of archivists who were killed for political reasons through the ages. After determining the criteria for inclusion, sixteen such political murders of archivists are briefly discussed. These cases were distributed over six
Garoupaa, Nuno; Grembi, Veronica
of substantive judicial review (ricorsi in via principale) from 1985 to 2005, and proposing new measures of political alignment within constitutional review, we analyze the effect of a change in the political party system on judicial behavior. Our results show that political alignment is a stronger predictor...
This paper, which was given as the Dudley Allen Sargent lecture at the 2012 conference of the National Association for Kinesiology and Physical Education in Higher Education, discusses the politics of physical education. It examines how both national politics and local/campus politics affect the discipline. Drawing from the history of national…
Discusses political correctness and cultural politics in the schools. Questions whether concern over education's traditionally Eurocentric view justifies rejecting the curriculum. Observes that the issue of how teachers teach also has cultural implications. Suggests that the political correctness debate shows how long the road to cross-cultural…
Carey, James W.
Discusses political correctness and cultural studies, dealing with cultural studies and the left, the conservative assault on cultural studies, and political correctness in the university. Describes some of the underlying changes in the university, largely unaddressed in the political correctness debate, that provide the deep structure to the…
The tasks of socialization (especially political) and modernization have placed the political and educational systems in India in close interrelationship. One result of this close relationship has been politicization which forces the educational system to resort to the use of political influence. (Author/MS)
Jessica J Neff
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In their 2005 study, Adamic and Glance coined the memorable phrase 'divided they blog', referring to a trend of cyberbalkanization in the political blogosphere, with liberal and conservative blogs tending to link to other blogs with a similar political slant, and not to one another. As political discussion and activity increasingly moves online, the power of framing political discourses is shifting from mass media to social media. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Continued examination of political interactions online is critical, and we extend this line of research by examining the activities of political users within the Wikipedia community. First, we examined how users in Wikipedia choose to display their political affiliation. Next, we analyzed the patterns of cross-party interaction and community participation among those users proclaiming a political affiliation. In contrast to previous analyses of other social media, we did not find strong trends indicating a preference to interact with members of the same political party within the Wikipedia community. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that users who proclaim their political affiliation within the community tend to proclaim their identity as a 'Wikipedian' even more loudly. It seems that the shared identity of 'being Wikipedian' may be strong enough to triumph over other potentially divisive facets of personal identity, such as political affiliation.
Neff, Jessica J.; Laniado, David; Kappler, Karolin E.; Volkovich, Yana; Aragón, Pablo; Kaltenbrunner, Andreas
Background In their 2005 study, Adamic and Glance coined the memorable phrase ‘divided they blog’, referring to a trend of cyberbalkanization in the political blogosphere, with liberal and conservative blogs tending to link to other blogs with a similar political slant, and not to one another. As political discussion and activity increasingly moves online, the power of framing political discourses is shifting from mass media to social media. Methodology/Principal Findings Continued examination of political interactions online is critical, and we extend this line of research by examining the activities of political users within the Wikipedia community. First, we examined how users in Wikipedia choose to display their political affiliation. Next, we analyzed the patterns of cross-party interaction and community participation among those users proclaiming a political affiliation. In contrast to previous analyses of other social media, we did not find strong trends indicating a preference to interact with members of the same political party within the Wikipedia community. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate that users who proclaim their political affiliation within the community tend to proclaim their identity as a ‘Wikipedian’ even more loudly. It seems that the shared identity of ‘being Wikipedian’ may be strong enough to triumph over other potentially divisive facets of personal identity, such as political affiliation. PMID:23573269
Full Text Available Political exile is a mechanism of institutional exclusion geared at revoking citizenship rights and removing individuals from full participation in the political and public arenas of a country. Due to its exclusionary character, the literature tends to assume a correlation between authoritarianism and exile, on the one hand, and democracy and asylum, on the other. This work challenges this view and discusses the more complex interactions between exile and democracy. Relying on qualitative case analysis of individual and massive exile and on a quantitative database of presidential exile in the nineteenth and twentieth century, it shows that also democracies generate exile and that also authoritarian countries have provided sites of exile and asylum for those fleeing from their home countries.
Breuning, Marijke; Ishiyama, John
This study investigates the security implications of growing orphan populations, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. Little has been written about the security implications of this especially vulnerable group of children. Are growing orphan populations associated with increases in political instability as has been suggested? Using data from several sources, we employ regression analysis to test whether Sub-Saharan African countries with larger proportions of orphans and those with increasing orphan populations experience higher rates of political instability. We find that the increase in the orphan population is related to an increasing incidence of civil conflict, but do not find a similar relationship for the proportion of orphans. In addition, we find that the causes of orphanhood matter. We conclude that increases in orphan populations (rather than simple proportions) are destabilizing. We suggest possible avenues for mediating the security risks posed by growing orphan populations.
Asheim, Geir B.
A belief operator derived from preferences is presented. It generalizes ‘belief with probability1’ to incomplete preferences and satisﬁes minimal requirements for belief operators under weak conditions.
Sanders, T G
Women are gradually gaining influence in Brazilian politics, especially since recent advances in the women's movement, but they still play a limited role. There have been journals devoted to feminism and some notable feminists since 1850. In 1932 suffragettes in Brazil gained women the right to vote. Women's associations burgeoned in the 1940s and 1950s, culminating in a peak in number of women in national elected positions in 1965. A repressive military regime reversed the process, which resumed in 1975. 1975 was also significant for the Brazilian women's movement because of the U.N. Women's Year. Several large, influential feminist political action groups were formed, typically by upper class women with leftist views, although some church and union groups from lower classes also appeared. In 1979-1981, the coherence of these groups fell into schism and fragmentation, because of disagreements over the feminist political doctrines and roles, views on legality of abortion, and special interest groups such as lesbians. Another bitter dispute is opposition by leftist women to BEMFAM, the Brazilian Society of Family Welfare, which provides family planning for the poor: leftists oppose BEMFAM because it is supported by funds from "imperialist" countries such as the U.S. There are several types of feminists groups: those that emphasize health, sexuality and violence; those composed of lesbians; those originating from lower classes and unions; publicly instituted organizations. Brazilian law forbids discrimination against women holding public office, but in reality very few women actually do hold office, except for mayors of small towns and a few administrators of the Education and Social Security ministries. Political office in Brazil is gained by clientism, and since women rarely hold powerful positions in business, they are outsiders of the system. Brazilian women have achieved much, considering the low female literacy rate and traditional power system, but their
Jensen, Mads Dagnis; Snaith, Holly
This article analyses Britain’s quest to negotiate its future membership of the European Union (EU) through the lens of Liberal intergovernmentalism. The article demonstrates that despite the significant economic consequences of a potential Brexit, party political factors have hitherto proven mor...... significant in defining the terrain of the debate than lobby group influence where a cross section of United Kingdom (UK) lobby groups are either actively or passively in favour of remaining within the EU ahead of the referendum....
Cornelius, Wayne A.; Rosenblum, Marc R.
With nearly one in ten residents of advanced industrialized states now an immigrant, international migration has become a fundamental driver of social, economic, and political change. We review alternative models of migratory behavior (which emphasize structural factors largely beyond states’ control) as well as models of immigration policy making that seek to explain the gaps between stated policy and actual outcomes. Some scholars attempt to explain the limited efficacy of control policies ...
Pastine, Ivan; Pastine, Tuvana
Political campaign spending ceilings are purported to limit the incumbent’s ability to exploit his fundraising advantage. If the challenger does not have superior campaign effectiveness, in contrast to conventional wisdom, we show that the incumbent always benefits from a limit as long as he has an initial voter disposition advantage, however small and regardless of the candidates’ relative fundraising ability. If the challenger has higher campaign spending effectiveness, th...
Bruheze, A.A.A. de la.
In the 1970s radioactive waste disposal became a controversial scientific and social issue in the United States, after the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) charged with the development, regulation and promotion of nuclear technology, had tried to implement its disposal technology near Lyons, Kansas. This study traces the emergence of this controversy as part of the long-term development of the US radioactive waste disposal technology. Radioactive waste was not always considered a problem, and different meanings were attached to radwaste in the 1940s and early 1950s. Problem definitions and technical designs that underlaid this technology can be reconstructed, and its possible to show how some definitions received attention and others not, and how some became, and remained, dominant. During the process of problem definition, views compete, agendas are built, resources are allocated, and boundaries are created and maintained between 'inside' and 'outside world'. This is a political process, and by heuristically using concepts from political science and recent technology studies, the Political Construction of US radioactive waste disposal technologically can be reconstructed. (author). 301 refs.; 3 figs.; 15 tabs
Toftum, Jørn; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Tynel, A.
Human preference for air movement was studied at slightly cool, neutral, and slightly warm overall thermal sensations and at temperatures ranging from 18 deg.C to 28 deg.C. Air movement preference depended on both thermal sensation and temperature, but large inter-individual differences existed...... between subjects. Preference for less air movement was linearly correlated with draught discomfort, but the percentage of subjects who felt draught was lower than the percentage who preferred less air movement....
Wagstaff, Kiri L.; desJardins, Marie; Eaton, Eric
A method is being developed that provides for an artificial-intelligence system to learn a user's preferences for sets of objects and to thereafter automatically select subsets of objects according to those preferences. The method was originally intended to enable automated selection, from among large sets of images acquired by instruments aboard spacecraft, of image subsets considered to be scientifically valuable enough to justify use of limited communication resources for transmission to Earth. The method is also applicable to other sets of objects: examples of sets of objects considered in the development of the method include food menus, radio-station music playlists, and assortments of colored blocks for creating mosaics. The method does not require the user to perform the often-difficult task of quantitatively specifying preferences; instead, the user provides examples of preferred sets of objects. This method goes beyond related prior artificial-intelligence methods for learning which individual items are preferred by the user: this method supports a concept of setbased preferences, which include not only preferences for individual items but also preferences regarding types and degrees of diversity of items in a set. Consideration of diversity in this method involves recognition that members of a set may interact with each other in the sense that when considered together, they may be regarded as being complementary, redundant, or incompatible to various degrees. The effects of such interactions are loosely summarized in the term portfolio effect. The learning method relies on a preference representation language, denoted DD-PREF, to express set-based preferences. In DD-PREF, a preference is represented by a tuple that includes quality (depth) functions to estimate how desired a specific value is, weights for each feature preference, the desired diversity of feature values, and the relative importance of diversity versus depth. The system applies statistical
Morsing, Mette; Roepstorff, Anne
–image dynamics of political CSR’. Concretely, we describe in two vignettes how IKEA’s declared ‘apolitical and neutral’ CSR identity becomes entangled with national and international socio-political events that critically challenge the corporate engagement prior national understandings of citizenship rights....... In this process, IKEA’s CSR identity becomes defined as a political and non-neutral activity. Our article contributes by bringing attention to the organizational level dynamics of political CSR by offering a conceptualization of how global and local socio-political events may disturb the alignment between CSR...
Wampold, Bruce E.; Mondin, Gregory W.; Ahn, Hyun-nie
Investigates preference of Social (S) and Investigative (I) people for performing S and I tasks with S or I people or alone. Upper-division undergraduates in S majors (n=38) or I majors (n=15) were utilized in study. S participants preferred working with S people. I participants most preferred to perform I tasks with I people and least preferred…
Carmen CAMACHO; Cagri SAGLAM; Agah TURAN
This paper presents a strategic growth model that analyzes the impact of Endogenous preferences on equilibrium dynamics by employing the tools provided by lattice theory and supermodular games. Supermodular game structure of the model let us provide monotonicity results on the greatest and the least equilibrium without making any assumptions regarding the curvature of the production function. We also sharpen these results by showing the differentiability of the value function and the uniquene...
Giacalone, Davide; Duerlund, Mette; Bøegh-Petersen, Jannie
The present work investigated consumers’ hedonic response to flavor stimuli in light of Berlyne’s (1967) collative-motivational model of aesthetic preferences. According to this paradigm, sensory preferences are a function of a stimulus’ arousal potential, which is determined by its collative......, whereas mixed results were obtained for familiarity and complexity. Additionally, in two of the studies the moderating role of relevant consumer characteristics – product knowledge, food neophobia and variety seeking tendency – was investigated. A consumer’s degree of product knowledge was found...
Full Text Available This paper examines the way political responsibility is constructed through discourse by Romanian politicians in the Web 2.0 era. Drawing on an analytical framework proposed by Augoustinos, Hastie and Wright (2011, based on discursive psychology, and critical discourse analysis, this paper analyses the Facebook messages released by the main political actors in Romania, after the Colectiv nightclub fire. The empirical endeavour is guided by two research objectives: to analyse the discursive strategies used to create discursive identities, to assign political responsibility and to express solidarity with the victims; and to analyse a specific kind of rhetoric, the political apology, focusing on its pragmatic and linguistic features and on the emotion categories (empathy, sympathy, anger, guilt, sadness deployed to deliver the apology. The results of the study show that when faced with a situation where the offender is hard to define, political actors prefer the use of another speech act: the expression of solidarity and compassion. While the political apology is offered only after and explicit demand, the expression of solidarity is offered promptly and willingly.
Borondo, J.; Morales, A. J.; Benito, R. M.; Losada, J. C.
The structure of the social networks in which individuals are embedded influences their political choices and therefore their voting behavior. Nowadays, social media represent a new channel for individuals to communicate, what together with the availability of the data, makes it possible to analyze the online social network resulting from political conversations. Here, by taking advantage of the recently developed techniques to analyze complex systems, we map the communication patterns resulting from Spanish political conversations. We identify the different existing communities, building networks of communities, and finding that users cluster themselves in politically homogeneous networks. We found that while most of the collective attention was monopolized by politicians, traditional media accounts were still the preferred sources from which to propagate information. Finally, we propose methods to analyze the use of different languages, finding a clear trend from sympathizers of several political parties to overuse or infra-use each language. We conclude that, on the light of a social media analysis perspective, the political conversation is constrained by both ideology and language.
In this paper, I compare three different views of the relation between subjectivity and modernity: one proposed by Elisabeth Young-Bruehl, a second by theorists of institutionalised individualisation, and a third by writers in the Foucaultian tradition of studies of the history of governmentalities. The theorists were chosen because they represent very different understandings of the relation between contemporary history and subjectivity. My purpose is to ground psychoanalytic theory about what humans need in history and so to question what it means to talk ahistorically about what humans need in order to thrive psychologically. Only in so doing can one assess the relation between psychoanalysis and progressive politics. I conclude that while psychoanalysis is a discourse of its time, it can also function as a counter-discourse and can help us understand the effects on subjectivity of a more than thirty year history in the West of repudiating dependency needs and denying interdependence. PMID:23678239
Full Text Available This paper aims to find some answers regarding the long term sustainability of the pension system. Romania’s pension system originates from the invalidity insurances and pension system designed by the German cancellor Otto Eduard Leopold von Bismark in 1889. From a European perspective, Romania has to fill an obvious gap regarding the reformation of the national public pension system. International experience, particularly of the last 130 years, indicates that, in actuality, multiple pension systems have been put into function in most of the world’s countries and which are diferenciated by some elements (organizing and managing the system, defyning pension rights, method of forming the resources, the pension’s level rapported to the average income etc. and after the eficacity degree dependent on internal influences, social, economic and demographic environment, and last but not least by the political factor.
Damm, Anna Piil
and lack of a local immigrant population by migrating to large municipalities. Lack of local fellow countrymen, however, increases the exit rate to medium-sized as well as large municipalities. This finding is likely to be a result of the dispersal policy. Finally, refugees react strongly to assignment......This paper exploits a spatial dispersal policy for refugee immigrants to estimate the importance of local and regional factors for refugees' location preferences. The main results of a mixed proportional hazard competing risks model are that placed refugees react to high regional unemployment...... to small municipalities by migrating mainly to medium-sized municipalities....
Yesilkagit, A.K.; Christensen, J.
This article tests two competing hypotheses in the study of the institutional design of regulatory agencies. Political explanations consider the degree of institutional design of regulatory agencies as a function of political factors, such as the degree of policy conflict and political uncertainty.
The study finds that the recruitment of student cadres seems the most important function of party-political involvement in student politics, while student leaders gain goods and services as part of the benefits of their association with political parties. Additionally, while student leaders are influential in the weaker parties, there ...
Vipul Bhatt; Masao Ogaki; Yuichi Yaguchi
This paper proposes a framework to balance considerations of welfarism and virtue ethics in the normative analysis of economic models with endogenous preferences. We introduce the moral evaluation function (MEF), which ranks alternatives based purely on virtue ethics, and define the social objective function (SOF), which combines the Social Welfare Function (SWF) and the MEF. In a model of intergenerational altruism with endogenous time preference, using numerical simulations we show that max...
Full Text Available The robustness of the EU’s constitutional framework – and its ability to accommodate democratic politics – is challenged as never before. The growing disconnect between formally democratic procedures and substantive choice is well illustrated by the Greek crisis. Since its first bailout in May 2010, Greece has held four general elections and a referendum. Yet, the anti-austerity preferences of the Greek electorate have not been effectively translated into policy.
Morris, Robert; Morris, Paul; Khatib, Lina; Venable, Brent
This paper focuses on temporal constraint problems where the objective is to optimize a set of local preferences for when events occur. In previous work, a subclass of these problems has been formalized as a generalization of Temporal CSPs, and a tractable strategy for optimization has been proposed, where global optimality is defined as maximizing the minimum of the component preference values. This criterion for optimality, which we call 'Weakest Link Optimization' (WLO), is known to have limited practical usefulness because solutions are compared only on the basis of their worst value; thus, there is no requirement to improve the other values. To address this limitation, we introduce a new algorithm that re-applies WLO iteratively in a way that leads to improvement of all the values. We show the value of this strategy by proving that, with suitable preference functions, the resulting solutions are Pareto Optimal.
Stidsen, Lone; Bjerrum, H. S.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning
is introduced based on the theory by Gernot Böhmes i.e. “concept of atmosphere” dealing with the effect of experiencing atmosphere. The aim of this study for design of a lighting concept for wards is to get qualified information on patients light preferences for light atmosphere by studying the everyday use......When designing Danish hospitals in the future, patients, staff and guests are in focus and it is especially important to design an environment with knowledge of users sensory and functionally needs. Likewise, focus should be on how hospital wards can support patients’ experiences or maybe even how...... of light in homes. This explorative study displays the preferred light atmosphere in Danish homes in the age group of 60-85 years old people. With an anthropologically approach to the subject using semi structured interviews, the goal is to explore preferences for light atmosphere when the user...
Full Text Available We study a unique network dataset including periodic surveys and electronic logs of dyadic contacts via smartphones. The participants were a sample of freshmen entering university in the Fall 2011. Their opinions on a variety of political and social issues and lists of activities on campus were regularly recorded at the beginning and end of each semester for the first three years of study. We identify a behavioral network defined by call and text data, and a cognitive network based on friendship nominations in ego-network surveys. Both networks are limited to study participants. Since a wide range of attributes on each node were collected in self-reports, we refer to these networks as attribute-rich networks. We study whether student preferences for certain attributes of friends can predict formation and dissolution of edges in both networks. We introduce a method for computing student preferences for different attributes which we use to predict link formation and dissolution. We then rank these attributes according to their importance for making predictions. We find that personal preferences, in particular political views, and preferences for common activities help predict link formation and dissolution in both the behavioral and cognitive networks.
... not take an active part in political management or in a political campaign, except as permitted by... political campaign of a candidate for public office in a partisan election or a candidate for political... political party office in a political advertisement, a broadcast, campaign, literature, or similar material...
Faber, N.M.; Mojet, J.; Poelman, A.A.M.
In the common implementation of external preference mapping consumer preferences are fitted as polynomial functions of the first two principal components (PCs) of the sensory data. A major weakness of the method is the relatively small number of consumers that can be significantly fitted. Several
Fernbach, Philip M; Rogers, Todd; Fox, Craig R; Sloman, Steven A
People often hold extreme political attitudes about complex policies. We hypothesized that people typically know less about such policies than they think they do (the illusion of explanatory depth) and that polarized attitudes are enabled by simplistic causal models. Asking people to explain policies in detail both undermined the illusion of explanatory depth and led to attitudes that were more moderate (Experiments 1 and 2). Although these effects occurred when people were asked to generate a mechanistic explanation, they did not occur when people were instead asked to enumerate reasons for their policy preferences (Experiment 2). Finally, generating mechanistic explanations reduced donations to relevant political advocacy groups (Experiment 3). The evidence suggests that people's mistaken sense that they understand the causal processes underlying policies contributes to political polarization.
Bos, Linda; Kruikemeier, Sanne; de Vreese, Claes
Recent research suggests that more and more citizens select news and information that is congruent with their existing political preferences. This increase in political selective exposure (PSE) has allegedly led to an increase in polarization. The vast majority of studies stem from the US case with a particular media and political system. We contend that there are good reasons to believe PSE is less prevalent in other systems. We test this using latent profile analysis with national survey data from the Netherlands (n = 2,833). We identify four types of media use profiles and indeed only find partial evidence of PSE. In particular, we find that public broadcasting news cross-cuts all cleavages. This research note offers an important antidote in what is considered a universal phenomenon. We do find, however, a relatively large segment of citizens opting out of news consumption despite the readily available news in today's media landscape.
Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Hitti, Aline; Rutland, Adam; Abrams, Dominic; Killen, Melanie
Ingroup preferences when deciding who to include in 2 distinct intergroup contexts, gender and school affiliation, were investigated. Children and adolescents, in the 4th (9-10 years) and 8th (13-14 years) grades, chose between including someone in their group who shared their group norm (moral or conventional) or who shared their group membership (school affiliation or gender). With age, children displayed a greater ability to balance information about ingroup norms and group membership. Younger children were more likely to include an outgroup member who supported equal norms than were older children. Accompanying the choices made, there was a greater use of fairness reasoning in younger rather than older participants, and increased references to group identity and group functioning for school identification. There were no differences in ingroup preferences in the school and gender contexts for groups involving moral norms. Desires for equal allocation of resources trumped differences related to ingroup preference. For social-conventional norms, however, there was a greater ingroup preference in a school intergroup context than in a gender intergroup context. Thus, the results demonstrate the importance of context in the manifestation of ingroup preference and the increasing sophistication, with age, of children's and adolescents' group decision-making skills. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Jenkins-Smith, H.C.; Pratt, D.A.; Bassett, G.W. Jr.
The juxtaposition of public values, trust, and beliefs is at the core of policy-making in democratic political systems, and an accurate understanding of nuclear politics requires that researchers untangle and carefully think about the web of psychological and social influences that shape citizens' preferences. In this paper, we offer some tentative answers about several pieces of the trust open-quotes puzzleclose quotes. First, we reconsider what is meant by open-quotes trustclose quotes and how it is to be measured. We then use telephone survey data to explore the relationship between trust and citizens' nuclear policy preferences. The data lend support to the conclusion that trust is more mutable than previous research has shown, and besides the traditional measure of competence includes aspects of believability and fiduciary competence. The data further indicate that it is a mistake to think in terms of a single open-quotes publicclose quotes when exploring the link between trust and nuclear policies. A number of dissimilar open-quotes publicsclose quotes based on shared open-quotes worldviewsclose quotes or political cultures are apparent in the data analyzed here. These open-quotes publicsclose quotes appear to think about trust differently from one another and rely on different dimensions of trust when determining nuclear policy preferences. Policy-makers must recognize the different open-quotes publicsclose quotes coexisting within the U.S. nuclear policy arena, and the relative import that these publics place on different dimensions of trust
Full Text Available Essay faces the problem of determinacy of global capitalism processes for the reality of urban political life. The city is naturally communitarian form of human life and seems to be the place where radical pro-community politics could be undertaken. Already existing and operating forms of power could fruitfully influence the city social relations. Values and norms of conduct are broadly delegated on the urban space and materiality, thus conscious shaping of city space has severe consequences for community life. If a crisis of the political partly has its roots in metamorphoses of the cities, then also remedies, rising from the urban materiality and reestablishing political subjects, could be thought. City, as most real place of political life could be either reduced to the aggregate of consumers or reestablished as a political community. Due to this is the place where undesired course of action could be stopped, hence precisely here the radical democratic politics can emerge.
Petersen, Michael Bang; Aarøe, Lene
As evidenced by research in evolutionary psychology, humans have evolved sophisticated psychological mechanisms tailored to solve enduring adaptive problems of social life. Many of these social problems are political in nature and relate to the distribution of costs and benefits within and between groups. In that sense, evolutionary psychology suggests that humans are, by nature, political animals. By implication, a straightforward application of evolutionary psychology to the study of public opinion seems to entail that modern individuals find politics intrinsically interesting. Yet, as documented by more than fifty years of research in political science, people lack knowledge of basic features of the political process and the ability to form consistent political attitudes. By reviewing and integrating research in evolutionary psychology and public opinion, we describe (1) why modern mass politics often fail to activate evolved mechanisms and (2) the conditions in which these mechanisms are in fact triggered.
Full Text Available Political representation is the central issue in contemporary debates on the level of democracy in political institutions and processes in the European Union. Underrepresentation of particular groups in political institutions, decision-making and policy-making processes is perceived as the problem of justice, legitimacy and effectiveness in democratic societies. In this paper, the author analyzes the gender aspects of democratic decision-making processes and political representation of women in the EU member states. The social, historical and political dimension of women's efforts to obtain and promote their civil status and political rights have been the framework for developing the principle of gender equality as one of the founding EU principles. In the past hundred years, one of the most significant trends in politics has been the expansion of formal political representation of women. Yet, even though it has been more than a hundered years since women won their political rights in the 19th and the 20th century (the right to vote and the right to be voted, gender differences in political rights are still a substantial part of debate. Today, women's political representation is still inadequate and their political capacity and power have not been exercised to a sufficient extent (or proportionally through their actual representation in parliament. In March 2012, the European Commisision published a report on gender equality in different areas of social life; the Eurobarometer survey shows that women are generally underrepresented in politics. In national parliaments, only one out of four MPs is a woman. In the European Parliament, three out of ten parliamentarians are women. The statistics shows a huge discrepancy among the EU Member States in terms of women's representation in parliament (44.7% in Sweden as contrasted to 13.3% in Romania. The prevailing view in many studies is that post-industrial democracies are deficient as they have failed
Azzam, Tarek; Levine, Bret
The role of politics has often been discussed in evaluation theory and practice. The political influence of the situation can have major effects on the evaluation design, approach and methods. Politics also has the potential to influence the decisions made from the evaluation findings. The current study focuses on the influence of the political context on stakeholder decision making. Utilizing a simulation scenario, this study compares stakeholder decision making in high and low stakes evaluation contexts. Findings suggest that high stakes political environments are more likely than low stakes environments to lead to reduced reliance on technically appropriate measures and increased dependence on measures better reflect the broader political environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Machin, David; Van Leeuwen, T.
, in entertainments media, software, administrative processes, children's apps, healthcare and even office furniture design. We point to the way that there have been massive shifts away from traditional state forms of politics to the rule of neoliberalism and the power of the corporation which, like the former regime...... of power, requires meanings and identities which can hold them in place. We explain the processes by which critical multimodal discourse analysis can best draw out this ideology as it is realized through different semiotics resources. © John Benjamins Publishing Company....
Maisonneuve, Cecile; Boncourt, Maite de
As epicentres of the production of hydrocarbon, the Gulf States must adapt to an energy scene upset by the arrival of new resources on the market and by the historic reversal of demand in European countries. Consuming less energy and developing alternative sources in order to reserve hydrocarbon for exports: such is the huge challenge for countries whose social contract is based on unlimited consumption of subsidized energy. In the long term, their economic, social and political stability is at stake, together with their ability to remain key actors of the world energy system
This article brings together theories of journalistic objectivity and affectivity in order to discuss their relevance in light of the emergence of citizen journalism. The claim of subjectivity and bias in citizen journalism is discussed and an idea of journalistic subjectivity as affectivity...... is developed. The article discusses ways in which professional journalism is positioned in relation to engaging subjectivity of citizen journalism – as convergence media, as well as independent forms of knowledge and information sharing. The often political affectivity of citizen journalism is discussed...
Harrits, Gitte Sommer
Even though contemporary discussions of class have moved forward towards recognizing a multidimensional concept of class, empirical analyses tend to focus on cultural practices in a rather narrow sense, that is, as practices of cultural consumption or practices of education. As a result......, discussions within political sociology have not yet utilized the merits of a multidimensional conception of class. In light of this, the article suggests a comprehensive Bourdieusian framework for class analysis, integrating culture as both a structural phenomenon co-constitutive of class and as symbolic...
of regulation. The article traces how whitelists are tied to these transformations. The account is organized around how the practical, pragmatic and poetic character of lists (Umberto Eco) fashion the work and topological imprint (Manuel DeLanda) of whitelists in commercial security specifically. The article...... security into an infernal alternative (imagery borrowed from Pignarre and Stengers). As minions, whitelists appear insignificant when looked at in isolation. However, by describing their work as a decentralized, disjointed and disorganized group, this article shows their significance for the politics...
Александр Владимирович Соколов
Full Text Available The article discusses the process сrowdfunding’s formation in modern Russia. The authors highlighted the reasons for the appearance of this phenomenon. They justified choice of Russian politicians of mechanism for collecting funds in political campaigns. The article characterizes trends in political fundraising and сrowdfunding in Russia. The study highlighted their advantages and disadvantages for application in political activity. The authors give examples of successful сrowdfunding campaigns in modern Russia.
Burchardt, Marian; Patterson, Amy S.; Mubanda Rasmussen, Louise
's poverty. Religious HIV/AIDS activities must be analysed in a conceptual space between a civil society/politics approach and a service-provider/anti-politics framework. That is, religious mobilisation may at times seek to engage the public realm to shape policies, while at other times it may shun politics...... in its provision of services. Case studies that illustrate these themes and demonstrate the multi-faceted interactions between religion and HIV/AIDS are included....
Davis, Ernest Kofi; Bishop, Alan J.; Seah, Wee Tiong
This paper reports on a study which sought to investigate how social and political influences affect students' preference for language of instruction in mathematics in Ghana, where the language of instruction from grade 4 onwards in school is not the students' main language. 4 focus group interviews were carried out with 16 primary school…
Nielsen, Sandro; Fuertes Olivera, Pedro
which pragmatic information types are needed when translating business letters. The analysis focuses on a Spanish-English business dictionary and its treatment of politeness in special sections dealing with business correspondence. The findings show that the treatment is insufficient, because users......Politeness is an important element in interlingual business communication. Translators uae bilingual dictionaries as tools helping them in business discourse across cultures, but dictionaries do not contain the relevant pragmatic information. The functions of dictionaries are used to determine......' business-language competence does not enable them to express the right level of politeness. Bilingual dictionaries should offer a systematic treatment of cultural and genre-specific means of expressing politeness in contrastive, informative texts showing the specific uses of politeness in business...
Common mistakes are frequent in sensory evaluation of meats and meat products. Conceptual confusion is often observed in triangular tests when add-on questions are included in the testing procedures, and when descriptive and hedonic scales are mixed in profiling exercises. Similar consumer responses are often recorded from trained, and thus biased, panels. Preference for meats seems to be most strongly affected by changes in colour/appearance and texture, and to a lesser extent by changes in flavour (that is when off-flavours are not present). It is difficult to generalise as to whether appearance/colour attributes or texture attributes are the most important. A simplified model for texture understanding is suggested, where water/fat perception and structure perception (described by juiciness and tenderness) are orthogonal phenomena and where most other textural attributes can be explained by this structure. Copyright © 1993. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
The Role of Parliaments in Times of Transition: The Impact of Participatory Politics on Social Cohesion and the Quality of Governance in Post-Authoritarian Settings This contribution presents the theoretical basis for the normative preference given to electoral politics and investigates the insti......The Role of Parliaments in Times of Transition: The Impact of Participatory Politics on Social Cohesion and the Quality of Governance in Post-Authoritarian Settings This contribution presents the theoretical basis for the normative preference given to electoral politics and investigates...
The role of the anionic and cationic pt sites in the adsorption site preference of water and ethanol on defected Pt4/Pt(111) substrates: A density functional theory investigation within the D3 van der waals corrections
Seminovski, Yohanna; Amaral, Rafael C.; Tereshchuk, Polina; Da Silva, Juarez L. F.
Platinum (Pt) atoms in the bulk face-centered cubic structure have neutral charge because they are equivalent by symmetry, however, in clean Pt surfaces, the effective charge on Pt atoms can turn slightly negative (anionic) or positive (cationic) while increasing substantially in magnitude for defected (low-coordinated) Pt sites. The effective charge affect the adsorption properties of molecular species on Pt surfaces and it can compete in importance with the coupling of the substrate-molecule electronic states. Although several studies have been reported due to the importance of Pt for catalysis, our understanding of the role played by low-coordinated sites is still limited. Here, we employ density functional theory within the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof exchange-correlation functional and the D3 van der Waals (vdW) correction to investigate the role of the cationic and anionic Pt sites on the adsorption properties of ethanol and water on defected Pt4/Pt(111) substrates. Four substrates were carefully selected, namely, two two-dimensional (2D) Pt4 configurations (2D-strand and 2D-island) and two tri-dimensional (3D) Pt4 (3D-fcc and 3D-hcp), to understand the role of coordination, effective charge, and coupling of the electronic states in the adsorption properties. From the Bader charge analysis, we identified the cationic and anionic sites among the Pt atoms exposed to the vacuum region in the Pt4/Pt(111) substrates. We found that ethanol and water bind via the anionic O atoms to the low-coordinated defected Pt sites of the substrates, where the angle PtOH is nearly 100° for most configurations. In the 3D-fcc or 3D-hcp defected configurations, the lowest-coordinated Pt atoms are anionic, hence, those Pt sites are not preferable for the adsorption of O atoms. The charge transfer from water and ethanol to the Pt substrates has similar magnitude for all cases, which implies similar Coulomb contribution to the adsorption energy. Moreover, we found a correlation of the
Rentfrow, Peter J; Gosling, Samuel D
The present research examined individual differences in music preferences. A series of 6 studies investigated lay beliefs about music, the structure underlying music preferences, and the links between music preferences and personality. The data indicated that people consider music an important aspect of their lives and listening to music an activity they engaged in frequently. Using multiple samples, methods, and geographic regions, analyses of the music preferences of over 3,500 individuals converged to reveal 4 music-preference dimensions: Reflective and Complex, Intense and Rebellious, Upbeat and Conventional, and Energetic and Rhythmic. Preferences for these music dimensions were related to a wide array of personality dimensions (e.g., Openness), self-views (e.g., political orientation), and cognitive abilities (e.g., verbal IQ).
Lauridsen, Laurids Sandager
Governing elites in Southeast Asia are preoccupied with high-speed railways, which are also a cornerstone in China’s new Silk Road initiative - the “One Belt, One Road.” Chinese political leaders have in recent years travelled around Southeast- and Central Asia to promote Chinese high-speed railway...... as rationales behind the Sino-Thai high-speed rail project. It is argued that there are multiple motives behind the “One-Road-One-Belt” initiative and that the Sino-Thai project is driven by a mixture economic and security concerns on the Chinese side, while it on the Thai side combines the need for economic...... systems. The Thai military junta has decided to go forward with four high-speed railway lines. Chinese state-owned enterprises will construct the Northeast-South line. The article analyses the economic and political-security drivers behind the land-based part of the new silk road vision as well...
A review is presented of the evolution of the international petroleum sector since 1973 with a special emphasis on the interdependence between the economic and political factors that influence it. Two issues are focused on: the effects of the nationalization of oil companies on the sharing of oil rents and on changes in the structure of the oil market; and the determination of oil prices. Definitions are presented of oil rents, and the reasons for OPEC nationalization of oil companies are explored. The effects of nationalization on market structures, expansion of free markets, and vertical integration are discussed. The existence of an oil price floor and the reasons for such a floor are examined. It is shown that nationalization induced an internalization of rents by the producing countries, leading to the emergence of a differential rent supported by the politics of the industrialized countries. Nationalization led to the breakup of systems of vertical and horizontal integration, with replacement by a new dual structure with OPEC controlling the upstream activities of the oil sector and oil companies controlling the downstream ones. Prices move between a floor price set by the costs of substitute deposits in the U.S., while the determination of ceiling levels by OPEC rests on successive fragile compromises. Overall oil is still a strategic product, despite the existence of spot markets, forward trading options, etc. 29 refs
Schima, M E; Viel, B; Chen, P C; Gille, H; Epstein, S G
China's birth planning program has its own separate administrative hierarchy. The political commitment to population planning which originates with the top leadership extends to peer pressure exerted on couples at the brigade and neighborhood level. While family planning services are primarily delivered in health structures, responsibility for the population program falls to the Leading Group on Birth Planning. Not only health officials but also officials responsible for economic planning, political propaganda, scientific research, trade unions, women's affairs, and all those whose participation is considered necessary to the program's success attend meeting. The Leading Group on Birth Planning is chaired by a Vice-Premier. At each administrative level, provincial to work brigade, the same pattern is repeated: centralized responsibility combined with broad representation and high-level potitical leadership. With a tight, working structure, China has been able to enact its birth control program with remarkable speed and effectiveness. Each production brigade has its own planned birth leading group headed by the captain of the brigade or the captain of the women's team. The leading group supervises the barefoot doctors, midwives, and team level health aides who deliver contraceptives to households or accompany people to the community health center to obtain surgical services.
Abdul Rashid Moten
Full Text Available Muslim societies in all of their social and cultural variety are, as Donald E. Smith points out, ‘organic’ societies characterized by organic religious systems. In these societies, religion tends to permeate all institutions rather than to be differentiated and/or autonomous. The vast body of literature produced since the departure of the colonialists from the Muslim lands suggests, however, either the implicit existence of the dichotomy or at least the feasibility and advisability of radical separation between the spiritual and temporal realms. The seriousness of the issue, evidenced by an outpouring of studies, calls for an examination of the linkage between the two realms through textual (Qur’an and Hadith, intellectual (ideas of Muslim thinkers and historical evidence. Only in such a manner can the dynamics of the relationship between Islam and politics be understood and a determination made of what has changed and what has remained unchanged. This entails, first, an understanding of the meaning and nature of politics from the Western perspective to facilitate a comparison...
Manners, Ian James
The chapter engages in a survey of what political psychology and European integration have to say to each other in the understanding of the European Union. The chapter draws on five strands of political psychology as part of this engagement – conventional psychology, social psychology, social...... construction, psychoanalysis, and critical political psychology. Within each strand a number of examples of scholarship at the interface of political psychology and European integration are examined. The chapter argues that the study of the EU has much to benefit from political psychology in terms of theories...... and methods of European identity and integration, but it also argues that political psychology can benefit from the insights of European integration by rethinking the processes that drive the marking of inside and outside, interior and exterior, belonging and otherness....
Osgood, Iain Guthrie
Which firms support trade liberalization and under what circumstances? The dominant approaches to trade politics ignore two key features of modern international commerce -- firm heterogeneity in export performance and intra-industry trade -- which jointly imply that industries will be divided over bilateral trade liberalization. This dissertation examines the impact of these features on the politics of trade, exploring the preferences of firms, the attitudes of industries, and the motivations...
Valentín Figueroa; Universidad Torcuato Di Tella / IIGG
In this paper, I use a slightly modified version of the Becker–Stigler model of corrupt behavior to explain bureaucratic political involvement. Since bureaucrats prefer higher rewards and not to support losing candidates, we expect them to become politically involved near elections – when rewards are expected to be higher, and information more abundant. Taking advantage of a natural experiment, I employ differences-in-means and differences-in-differences techniques to esti-mate the effect of ...
K. U. Kublik
Full Text Available Analyzing the political life through political ideology and political culture should pay attention to political consciousness, which presents set of theoretical positions, views, opinions, attitudes, values orientation, etc. that are implemented in the process of implementing functions of political power. Because postulates political ideology are implemented using some mechanism, election campaigns and public opinion, their analysis is undoubtedly one of the major directions of political sociology. At the present stage of creation of the state of Ukraine, formation of the Institute of civil society is important to the study of the mechanism of formation of political consciousness of the nation. On the state of political consciousness influenced by processes not only within the country but also in the international arena. The growing interdependence of countries and peoples, General threat to the existence of humans and the General difficulties on the path of human progress lead to the «globalization» of all the forms of public consciousness, including political. A shift from confrontation to mutual understanding and cooperation means considerable changes in the political consciousness and politics subjects of international cooperation. These are not only the state but also directly peoples, peaceloving democratic mass movements, people of good will on all continents. Consolidation of their efforts is able to resist all forms of hegemony and dictates, any policy which is conducted from a position of strength.
Ednaldo Aparecido Ribeiro
Full Text Available Studies combining psychology and political science have shown that personality traits such as extroversion and openness to experiences are conditioning factors of political activism. However, the mechanisms through which this effect occurs are still poorly understood. Aiming to advance this topic, this article presents the results of an investigation that looked to analyse the mediated effects of personality traits in the Brazilian context, taking as mediating conditioning factors various attitudes and subjective dispositions commonly found in the literature, such as interest in politics and subjective political efficacy. Using the Latin American Public Opinion Project data, the hypothesis was tested that personality influences behaviour, since it favours the development of a number of attitudes that function as basic factors conditioning civic engagement. The results indicate the significant mediated effects of extroversion and openness to experience, especially with regard to political knowledge.
Full Text Available The paper explores the relevance of critical theories of modernity in the research of memory transmission and political socialization. Firstly, the relevant concepts of Habermas, Giddens and Bourdieu are overviewed. Secondly, the notion of political culture and memory transmission are reinterpreted from the perspective of these theories, revealing different sources and forms of radicalism. Finally, divergent constellations of modernization are reintroduced as the broadest context of the processes of political formation.
Alberto Alesina; Enrico Spolaore; Romain Wacziarg
Trade liberalization and political separatism go hand in hand. In a world of trade restrictions, large countries enjoy economic benefits because political boundaries determine the size of the market. In a world of free trade and global markets even relatively small cultural, linguistic or ethnic groups can benefit from forming small and homogeneous political jurisdictions that trade peacefully and are economically integrated with others. This paper provides a formal model of the relationship ...
Bardhan, Pranab; Yang, Tsung-Tao
It is sometimes argued that political competition yields benefits to the citizens just as competition in economic markets yields benefits to consumers. We consider the economic costs and benefits of political competition and find that the story is somewhat more complicated. We first review the limited existing literature on this topic, and in the process, identify a number of distinct interpretations of what constitutes political competition. We then turn our attention to two forms of poli...
Azam, Jean-Paul; Bates, Robert H; Biais, Bruno
Economic growth occurs as resources are reallocated from the traditional sector to the more productive modern sector. Yet, the latter is more vulnerable to political predation. Hence, political risk hinders development. We analyse a politico-economic game between citizens and governments, whose type (benevolent or predatory) is unknown to the citizens. In equilibrium, opportunistic governments mix between predation and restraint. As long as restraint is observed, political expectations improv...
interest groups? 6. The Ministry of Labor estimates that nearly 11,000 labor unions operate in Brazil. Although unions are independent of political...parties, a number of labor leaders are 4 prominent members of political parties. Additionally, labor unions have been known to form alliances with...social movements and political parties when advocating individual issues. (Department of State, Humans Rights Report.) How influential are labor
Aleshina E. Yu.
The problem of political discourse genre specificity has been in the center of attention of Russian and foreign scholars, which is determined by the relevance of political discourse as a multidimensional object of study with its linguistic properties in particular. The ambiguity of principles for genre gradation of political discourse is linked to the variability of understanding genre proper. The definition of genre as goal-oriented text characteristics allows accentuating some genres of pol...
Sarlak, Zeynep; Bali, Besim Bulent
The objective of this article is to question the functionality of the formulas developed for "international struggles against corruption paradigm," that has specifically been brought in after the 2001 economic crisis. This analysis is carried out through two main characteristics of the Turkish political structure and it is also targeted to construct a different perspective on the approaches that hold the public sector and essentially the politician, as the sole responsible for the corruption ...