WorldWideScience

Sample records for political informational military

  1. Military and Political Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey I. Podberyozkin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Military-political issues is an important area of research work at MGIMO. The difference in this direction from the classical international specialization is that it is at the intersection of several disciplines: military science, military-technical and military-industrial as well as International Relations. A specialist in military and political issues should not only be an expert in the field of international relations and diplomacy, but also have a deep knowledge of military-technical issues to understand the basic trends in the development of scientific and technological progress and its impact on the balance of forces in the world. Global changes in the balance of power and the nature of the conflict, the emergence of new types of weapons are changing the basic methods and approaches to the art of war, which requires a science-based perspective on problem solving and multi-disciplinary approach in achieving the goals. Military and political studies allow us to understand how the development of military technology and military organization of the state affected by the political situation in the world, the national security of the country and its place in the system of international relations. Military-political research has been developing at MGIMO for a few decades. It laid down the basis for a scientific school of political-military studies. Its founding fathers were such prominent scholars of international affairs, as I.G. Usachyov, A.D. Nikonov, A.G. Arbatov, V.G. Baranovsky, V.M. Kulagin, A.N. Nikitin and other well-known experts. Their work covers a wide range of military and political issues, including the topics of arms control and disarmament, international, and especially European security, military policy, NATO, the Western military-political doctrines and their practical application. Now the lead in the development of this research at MGIMO has taken Center for Military-Political Studies, which became a concentration of relevant

  2. Military and Political Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Alexey I. Podberyozkin

    2014-01-01

    Military-political issues is an important area of research work at MGIMO. The difference in this direction from the classical international specialization is that it is at the intersection of several disciplines: military science, military-technical and military-industrial as well as International Relations. A specialist in military and political issues should not only be an expert in the field of international relations and diplomacy, but also have a deep knowledge of military-technical issu...

  3. 75 FR 50791 - Bureau of Political-Military Affairs: Directorate of Defense Trade Controls; Notifications to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... political, military, economic, human rights, and arms control considerations. More detailed information is... having taken into account political, military, economic, human rights, and arms control considerations... having taken into account political, military, economic, human rights and arms control considerations...

  4. Military Influence in Russian Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    militarization Union. I have concluded that the disappeared. 5 Indeed, a de -militarization military’s opportunity and motivation to of Soviet society and... sindrom 41-go." Novoe vremya, No. 8 (February volunteers over conscripts, and the Navy 1991); Maj. Gen. V.G. Strekozov, "Zakony ob oborone i statuse

  5. 75 FR 50793 - Bureau of Political-Military Affairs: Directorate of Defense Trade Controls; Notifications to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... political, military, economic, human rights, and arms control considerations. More detailed information is... items having taken into account political, military, economic, human rights and arms control... license the export of these items having taken into account political, military, economic, human rights...

  6. 75 FR 18937 - Bureau of Political-Military Affairs: Directorate of Defense Trade Controls; Notifications to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... having taken into account political, military, economic, human rights and arms control considerations... the transfer of these items having taken into account political, military, economic, human rights and... political, military, economic, human rights and arms control considerations. More detailed information is...

  7. "Polite People" and Military Meekness: the Attributes of Military Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel V. Didov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the phenomenon of "polite people" from the point of view of the history and theory of ethical thought. Identify and specify ethical principles that form the basis of military courtesy. On the basis of the revealed regularities, the study proves that ethics is impossible without a certain power attributes, which constitute its core. In relation to the traditions of Russian warriors revealed the key role to their formation of the Orthodox ethics and the military of meekness. The obtained results can serve as material for educational activities for the formation of fighting spirit.

  8. Resurgent Military Political Adventurism in West Africa: Implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR Nneka

    military intervention in the politics of some West African states and this calls for ... experienced military coup leading to military rule in most cases. ... study, we shall examine the closely knit nature of inter-state relationships in West ... It is instructive to note that the military juntas did not fare better in office. ..... Sweden: SIPRI.

  9. Resurgent Military Political Adventurism in West Africa: Implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The democratization efforts of the 1990s in West Africa appeared to have put paid to military political adventurism which had been the plague of that region since independence in the 1960s. But since the year 2000 there has been a resurgence of military intervention in the politics of some West African states and this calls ...

  10. The Role Of The Military In Myanmars Political Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    MILITARY IN MYANMAR’S POLITICAL ECONOMY by Pamela T. Stein March 2016 Thesis Advisor: Naazneen Barma Second Reader: Zachary Shore THIS......DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) This thesis examines the role of Myanmar’s military, the Tatmadaw, in the country’s political economy

  11. 77 FR 40140 - Bureau of Political-Military Affairs; Statutory Debarment of Pratt & Whitney Canada Corporation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 7946] Bureau of Political-Military Affairs; Statutory Debarment... INFORMATION CONTACT: Lisa Aguirre, Director, Office of Defense Trade Controls Compliance, Bureau of Political... conviction in a criminal proceeding, conducted by a United States Court, and as such the administrative...

  12. 77 FR 43414 - Bureau of Political-Military Affairs; Statutory Debarment Under the Arms Export Control Act and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 7962] Bureau of Political-Military Affairs; Statutory Debarment..., Bureau of Political-Military Affairs, Department of State (202) 632-2798. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION... based solely upon conviction in a criminal proceeding, conducted by a United States Court, and as such...

  13. 75 FR 31505 - Bureau of Political-Military Affairs: Directorate of Defense Trade Controls; Notifications to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ... Netherlands, Thailand, Chile, and Malaysia for the manufacture and sale of the Goalkeeper Gun Mount. The... political, military, economic, human rights, and arms control considerations. More detailed information is... the export of these items having taken into account political, military, economic, human rights, and...

  14. Political Literacy as Information Literacy

    OpenAIRE

    Ross Cory Alexander

    2009-01-01

    This paper contends that political literacy and information literacy are compatible concepts that are inextricably linked and should therefore be taught and stressed simultaneously to students in the classroom. Improving the information literacy and political literacy skills of students will allow them to not only perform better academically, but also empower them to become better citizens who form opinions and make decisions based on appropriate and quality information.

  15. 75 FR 70344 - Bureau of Political-Military Affairs: Directorate of Defense Trade Controls; Notifications to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... taken into account political, military, economic, human rights, and arms control considerations. More... taken into account political, military, economic, human rights, and arms control considerations. More... account political, military, economic, human rights, and arms control considerations. More detailed...

  16. 76 FR 30751 - Bureau of Political-Military Affairs: Directorate of Defense Trade Controls; Notifications to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... having taken into account political, military, economic, human rights and arms control considerations... account political, military, economic, human rights and arms control considerations. More detailed... license the export of these items having taken into account political, military, economic, human rights...

  17. 75 FR 62173 - Bureau of Political-Military Affairs: Directorate of Defense Trade Controls; Notifications to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ... of these items having taken into account political, military, economic, human rights, and arms... account political, military, economic, human rights, and arms control considerations. More detailed... taken into account political, military, economic, human rights, and arms control considerations. More...

  18. 76 FR 58332 - Bureau of Political-Military Affairs: Directorate of Defense Trade Controls; Notifications to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ... items having taken into account political, military, economic, human rights, and arms control... account political, military, economic, human rights and arms control considerations. More detailed... of these items having taken into account political, military, economic, human rights, and arms...

  19. Getting Relevant: Political Education and Military Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-22

    objectives? The question also posed itself this way: Is the importation of notions among our military leaders which contradict that "heritage" an unethical ...to the support of the cause of secession and slavery in the 1850’s -- have given an extended, if undistinguished, lineage to the views of those most

  20. Military Intervention, Kemalism, and Politics in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-01

    to inadequate or misdirected actions by the military during their tenure following the interventions. Despite the checkered history of democratic... ikeas .). AtaturK: Founder or a Modern State. London: C. Hurst.19. Hianeo. Anarew. "Turkey’s Ten Year Itch" in Tne wor!6 Today, 4oi 45 N’o. F. eb 1969

  1. Making IT Happen: Transforming Military Information Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mait, Joseph N

    2005-01-01

    .... This report is a primer for commercial providers to gain some understanding of the military's thinking about military information technology and some of the programs it foresees for the future...

  2. The Role of the Military in Building Political Community: The Case of the Two German States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    community is represented primarily by three vital intervening outcomes of the political socialization process: a distinct political culture, a separate...case-study attempts to first identify any conscious political socialization processes implemented by the two militaries, and then tries to link these processes to the two distinct German political communities....rapidly engineer political change in these cases, the resurrection and maintenance of a military may especially contribute to the process of political

  3. 78 FR 8218 - Bureau of Political-Military Affairs; Statutory Debarment Under the Arms Export Control Act and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8175] Bureau of Political-Military Affairs; Statutory Debarment... INFORMATION CONTACT: Lisa Aguirre, Director, Office of Defense Trade Controls Compliance, Bureau of Political... conviction in a criminal proceeding, conducted by a United States Court, and as such the administrative...

  4. Political and Military Intention Estimation: A Taxonometric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-01

    Ethearecige sees the perceptual blin.Oness of palicyrnakers as a consequence of the personality of those who 4ucceed in political life , i. e. , the...8217Pl), rvi.,-.ed below. Dhoitop(97)tes.lrl Arues UL,.0 -military life Mttacto atthortaranperonaitisand minitary trainiog %nd triaditiotv uli force the... uiversal cognitive foodback proce ses Which create and maintaia spocific erroneous beliofs and perceptions. BA~ie cognitive 2rocpg!sesa. £teinbruater

  5. Political science factor in information culture

    OpenAIRE

    Baranov G.

    2017-01-01

    The value of political science in information culture of society reveals; the main indicators of the public status of political science are investigated; the main functions of political science in the activity of actors of society are characterised.

  6. Securing military information systems on public infrastructure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, P

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available to set up in time for scenarios which require real time information. This may force communications to utilise public infrastructure. Securing communications for military mobile and Web based systems over public networks poses a greater challenge compared...

  7. 76 FR 20800 - Bureau of Political-Military Affairs: Directorate of Defense Trade Controls; Notifications to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... items having taken into account political, military, economic, human rights and arms control... license the export of these items having taken into account political, military, economic, human rights... taken into account political, military, economic, human rights and arms control considerations. More...

  8. 75 FR 51327 - Bureau of Political-Military Affairs: Directorate of Defense Trade Controls; Notifications to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-19

    ... items having taken into account political, military, economic, human rights and arms control... the export of these items having taken into account political, military, economic, human rights and... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 7125] Bureau of Political-Military Affairs: Directorate of...

  9. Social and Psycho-Political Impacts in the Social Construction of Political Memory of the Brazilian Military Dictatorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansara, Soraia

    2015-01-01

    This article refers to a research on the political memory of the military dictatorship in Brazil, held in three Brazilian cities (Belo Horizonte, Curitiba and São Paulo) in which we analyzed the social and psychopolitical impacts caused by the dictatorship as well as the redemocratization process in building the political memory of community and…

  10. Do All Lives Have the Same Value? Support for International Military Interventions as a Function of Political System and Public Opinion of Target States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falomir-Pichastor, J.M.; Pereira, A.; Staerklé, C.; Butera, F.

    2012-01-01

    This research examined the support for international military interventions as a function of the political system and the public opinion of the target country. In two experiments, we informed participants about a possible military intervention by the international community towards a sovereign

  11. The Pentagon vs. Congress: The Political Economy of Military Base Closures During BRAC

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kehl, Brian

    2003-01-01

    .... A quantitative approach, based on logistic regression, is used to analyze the significance and magnitude of economic and political variables that influenced the Pentagon and the BRAC Commissioners. Empirical findings indicate that politics was not removed from the process and that political variables were important in determining the probability a particular military facility remained open.

  12. Military-political Processes in the Caucasus Region and the Security of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna V. Vilovatykh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The unipolar world breaking and the tightening of geopolitical struggle led to destructive military-political processes in different regions of the world. In conditions of instability along the perimeter of Russia's borders the significance of the Caucasus region increases, especially in geo-strategic and geoeconomic perspectives. The efforts of world politics actors for the transformation of the region environment increase substantially. As a result the dynamics and the scope of the proceeding military-political processes in the Caucasus are complicated. The failures in the assessment and the prediction of the processes development influence on the safety of Russia. Wrong gradation of existing threats and challenges can lead to disastrous and irreversible consequences for state security. Designated circumstances caused the need for the expert survey on assessing the impact of the current military-political processes in the Caucasus region on the security of the Russian state and necessity for the concretization of military dangers and threats, due to political and military developments in the Caucasus. An expert survey was conducted in June 2014. During it authors interviewed 40 Russian and foreign experts representing Federal and regional authorities, academic community, research centers, analytical structures. Implementation of the survey allowed to identify the experts positions and the degree of their coherence on the military-political processes in the Caucasus region and their impact on the modern Russia security. As a result the degree of destructiveness of the regional military-political processes was fixed. We conclude that anti-Russian processes in the countries of the Caucasus continue to determine the overall geopolitical situation, including in the military-political sphere. The reason is mainly seen in interests clashing of Russia and countries of the "Atlantic world." Analysis of the military-political processes in the Caucasus

  13. Shaping Political Preferences: Information Effects in Political-Administrative Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blom-Hansen, Jens; Bækgaard, Martin; Serritzlew, Søren

    2016-01-01

    shows that even in a setting where the information is not disclosed by a powerful sender, information may have a stronger impact on political preferences than other well-known determinants such as committee and party affiliation. Our findings speak to learning theories, knowledge perspectives...

  14. FRACTURED CONSENSUS: Islamic Groups and the Perceived Military Politics in Post-Suharto Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukman Hakim

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Book Review:Book title:Military Politics, Islam, and the State in IndonesiaAuthor:Marcus MietznerNo. of Pages:xvi + 426Year:2009Publisher:Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Singapore

  15. L.D. TROTSKY’S MILITARY AND POLITICAL ACTIVITIES DURING THE CIWIL WAR: HISTORIOGRAPHICAL ESSAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Baklanova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the point of view represented in the national historiography and Russian literature abroad on individual aspects of the military-political activity of L.D. Trotsky during the civil war: the construction of the Red Army, the defense of Petrograd in 1919, participation in the development of military operations.

  16. Language Testing in the Military: Problems, Politics and Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Rita; Wall, Dianne

    2005-01-01

    There appears to be little literature available -- either descriptive or research-related -- on language testing in the military. This form of specific purposes assessment affects both military personnel and civilians working within the military structure in terms of posting, promotion and remuneration, and it could be argued that it has serious…

  17. Motivated Reasoning, Political Information, and Information Literacy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenker, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Research in psychology and political science has identified motivated reasoning as a set of biases that inhibit a person's ability to process political information objectively. This research has important implications for the information literacy movement's aims of fostering lifelong learning and informed citizenship. This essay argues that…

  18. DINFOS: Bibliography of Theses and Reports Related to Military Information Activities; Volume V, May 1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort Benjamin Harrison, IN. Defense Information School.

    This bibliography lists theses and research reports related to military information activities. The listings are grouped according to the following subject categories: journalism, public and internal information, mass communications, political science, international communications, sociology, history, education, public relations, leadership,…

  19. East Europe Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-20

    successfully abroad, revealed television to be the most significant factor in the political socialization of the children. Is it legitimate for a...about political socialization facing every society; to find out what the role of the most phenomena in the political world. (This has significance...societal level is felt more strongly in the political socialization process as the children grow older. This is further reinforced by data we

  20. East Europe Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs, No. 2161

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-06

    Military Affairs Chemistry Cybernetics, Computers and Automation Technology Earth Sciences Electronics and Electrical Engineering Engineering and...language "from which classical Latin developed."^ An army journal undertook the task to explain the etymological origin of the designation Walach

  1. The Construction of Democracy: Political Socialization Through Military Engagement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Atkinson, Carol

    2003-01-01

    .... This study investigates to what extent and under what conditions US military engagement activities are associated with either liberalizing or authoritarian trends during the years 1972-2000 in three...

  2. Managing Political Information: A Malaysian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamilah Ahmad

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the development of democratization and the expression of civil and political rights of Malaysian citizens, the pattern of control developed by the regime that is currently in power (Barisan Nasional for the last 50 years in the mass media began to reap the resistance and tend to be ineffective. Malaysian citizens began to demand the Malaysian government to change the pattern of political information management. In addition, the mass media alone is expected to play a more significant role as an intermediary agent in supporting the process of transparency and accountability of government policy. This article shows that the openness of public information is a prerequisite for political democracy in Malaysia to help the government minimize the mis-management of governance policies, especially in finance and resource management.

  3. Renegotiating Arab Civil-Military Relations: Political and Economic ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    At a time of unprecedented political transitions in the Arab world, this project will ... While the Arab revolts brought with them a wave of political change and ... Sign up now for IDRC news and views sent directly to your inbox each month.

  4. 78 FR 66984 - Bureau of Political-Military Affairs; Statutory Debarment Under the Arms Export Control Act and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8512] Bureau of Political-Military Affairs; Statutory Debarment... Compliance, Bureau of Political- Military Affairs, Department of State (202) 632-2872. SUPPLEMENTARY... required. Statutory debarment is based solely upon conviction in a criminal proceeding, conducted by a...

  5. 75 FR 13330 - Bureau of Political-Military Affairs; Statutory Debarment Under the Arms Export Control Act and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 6924] Bureau of Political-Military Affairs; Statutory Debarment... Trade Controls Compliance, Bureau of Political-Military Affairs, Department of State, (202) 663-2980... criminal proceeding, conducted by a United States Court, and as such the administrative debarment...

  6. 75 FR 52385 - Bureau of Political-Military Affairs; Lifting of Policy of Denial Regarding ITAR Regulated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 7128] Bureau of Political-Military Affairs; Lifting of Policy... Controls Compliance, Bureau of Political-Military Affairs, Department of State, (202) 663-2980..., identify compliance problems, and resolve alleged violations. Xe replaced senior management; established...

  7. 76 FR 2941 - Bureau of Political-Military Affairs: Directorate of Defense Trade Controls; Notifications to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7301] Bureau of Political-Military Affairs: Directorate of..., Managing Director, Directorate of Defense Trade Controls, Bureau of Political- Military Affairs, Department... services to support the design, manufacture and delivery of the Anik G1 Commercial Communication Satellite...

  8. Volume 3. Information Age Anthology: The Information Age Military

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alberts, David S; Papp, Daniel S

    2001-01-01

    ...? What will this mean for the U.S. military? In this third volume of the Information Age Anthology we turn finally to the task of exploring answers to these simply stated but vexing questions that provided the impetus for the first two volumes...

  9. Political change in Europe and the future of United States military presence in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Zduniak, Pawel Piotr

    2005-01-01

    This thesis analyzes American basing structure in Germany, in a new political environment at the beginning of the 21st century. The end of the Cold War changed the political and strategic situation in Europe and the substance of American military presence in Europe. The War on Terrorism suggests that the current threats are dynamic and unpredictable and the idea of a permanent U.S. basing structure in the heart of Europe should be reconsidered. Specifically, this thesis describes the reasons...

  10. Russian Military Politics and Russia’s 2010 Defense Doctrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    63 Jacob W. Kipp 3. Russian Defense Doctrine .............................. 153 Alexander G. Savelyev About...DOCTRINE Alexander G. Savelyev After President Vladimir Putin of Russian Fed- eration (RF) approved the Military Doctrine in April 2000, experts and...from the Pennsylvania State University. ALEXANDER SAVELYEV has been head of the Strategic Studies Department, Center of International Security

  11. Translations on Eastern Europe Political, Sociological and Military Affairs, Number 1608

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-11-13

    Schools Discussed (Laszlo Bodo; PEDAGOGIA SZEMLE, Sep 78) POLAND OHP Civil Defense, Political Training Increasing (Arkadiusz Myszkowski; ZOLNIERZ...OF PATRIOTIC-MILITARY EDUCATION AT SECONDARY SCHOOLS DISCUSSED Budapest PEDAGOGIA SZEMLE in Hungarian No 9, Sep 78 pp 799-807 [Article by Laszlo

  12. Information warfare technologies in political discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpova Anna Yu.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We attempt to examine the technology of «information warfare» in this paper. The dominant theme of the paper is that the outcome of the information warfare is important not only for the future of a state itself but for the future of the world balance of forces. The main task of geopolitical actors in information warfare is to introduce ideas corresponding to their interests into mass consciousness. All participants of political conflicts have common features in technologies of Information warfare. The information anomie is the indicator of the great geopolitical actors’ personified interests on the stage of «information warfare» - the process resulted in destroying the communicative line: report-information understanding and disrupting the social order in society. In this paper authors describe the following Information Warfare technologies: "Political volcano" technology; "SPIN" technology; "Widening media resource" technology; "specific gravity" technology; "Cold War 2.0" technology and Information cleaningup technology. It is assumed that in the future there will be new instructions on applying technologies of information warfare. To impart perspective to the paper we consider examples, opinions and trends.

  13. China Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs, No. 431.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-16

    feathers and unicorn horns." Another 42 Situation that also exists is that some comrades when they come across a variance of opinions, try to avoid...cadres to study theory, culture and various types of specialized knowledge. Consequently , many military commanders rapidly became talents for the cause...colleges are trying to keep up with the universities; and teacher colleges are trying to come close to comprehensive universities. Consequently , some

  14. War Termination Concepts and Political, Economic and Military Targeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-03-01

    imposed by the level of military technology, also served to reduce the probability of transcultural conflict; thus shared value systems probably...from the Berlin Blockade in 1948 through the Cuban Missile Crisis , and, utilizing the "lessons learned" approach, reformulates deterrence theory on...aspect of which is the "general crisis of capitalism," presently said to be in its most severe phase since the 1930s. The present crisis , Soviet

  15. Information Management: Military Affiliate Radio System (MARS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1986-01-01

    .... It describes a program sponsored by the Department of Defense and supported by the Department of the Army in which military installations, military units, clubs, and volunteer licensed amateur radio...

  16. Military Professionalism and Political Influence: A Case Study of the Mexican Military, 1917-1940

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    refused to support Obreg6n’s campaign and attempted to impose a relative unknown, Ignacio Bonillas , as the next president. 2 0 When Carranza...from military forces that claimed to be followers of such revolutionary leaders as Carranza, Villa, and Pablo Gonzalez. These armies were led by...was busy as the Director of Military Education, his successor as Secretary of War, General Pablo Quiroga (and for a short period, General Ldzaro C

  17. Late photography, military landscapes, and the politics of memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Faulkner

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This essay considers the photographic genre of ‘late photography’ that has emerged roughly over the last two decades. Late photographs picture material remains left in the aftermath of events that often involve forms of violence. These photographs are usually high in detail, but formally simple, framing aftermath sites in ways that suggest the reservation of judgement and commentary upon the things they picture. This gives the impression that such photographs are intended to distance the spectator from the political meanings of the events or situations to which they refer. The discussion presented in the essay suggests that it is this apparent distancing from the political that opens up possibilities for the imaginative rethinking of how the past might function in relation to the politics of the present. The essay explores these concerns through the discussion of photographs by Simon Norfolk, Angus Boulton, Gilad Ophir and Roi Kuper, in relation to two historical and political contexts: the Cold War, considered briefly in relation to Boulton’s work and the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, considered more extensively in relation to the work of Norfolk, Ophir, and Kuper.

  18. The Peaceful Uses of Military Forces. Praeger Special Studies in International Politics and Public Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanning, Hugh

    This study of the peaceful uses of military forces (PUMF) offers a compendium of information and principles for the planning and conduct of such PUMF activities as meeting disaster or emergency relief situations, education and training, and economic and social projects. The provision of training opportunities by the military is a means of…

  19. China Report: Political, Sociological and Military Affairs, No. 470.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-07

    legislation if it was passed by the Senate. At a press conference today, when he was asked why had he changed his mind, he said it was "of great...force in the political sphere. Therefore, with the election year approaching the legislation concerning Martin Luther King has become a sensitive...the fifth round today they will be armed with a brief from the prime minister. Senior sources at Westminister say Mrs Thatcher is now looking to Hong

  20. Political-Military Trends in Italy, Greece, and Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    the EU main- stream on most issues. PASOK , the leading opposition party, has also become increasingly moderate and centrist over the last decade...generally been supportive of Belgrade, and was overwhelmingly opposed to the western intervention in Kosovo. Despite this, the PASOK government of the...troversial character in the bilateral relationship in recent years. Politically, Crete is traditionally a PASOK stronghold, but not over

  1. East Europe Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-06

    CNS here, the reader will not know, I am sure, what it means, although it is simple. The reader has seen it as often as, say, the slogan. " Smoke ...It can be done. If, let us suppose, our distinguished ruler was not only just but also abstinent , then the menu would list only authentic juices and...not to mention the unemployed, seasonal workers and other groups which have become altogether marginalized as far as politics go. [Question] Why

  2. The Political and Military Impact of the Spanish-American War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    become a better Marine Corps Officer, thank you. Todo es para la familia . iv EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Title: The Political and Military Impact of the...12,096 soldiers and 1,000 augmented sailors provided by Cervera actually defended the Santiago garrison. General Linares’ objective was defense of...of Cervera’s squadron and Spain’s likely capitulation. Despite consensus, the actual execution of the campaign changed drastically after Shafter

  3. Translations on Eastern Europe Political, Sociological, and Military Affairs, Number 1333

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-12-15

    socialist house more and more beauti- fully and comfortably. This embodies the most deeply liberal and humanist content of the class assign- ment of...or economico - military potential of any given nation. This being so, the right of a nation to its character, territorial integrity, political...decade as a result of the technico-scientific revolution, and of the social and national liberation processes, has introduced in the national life

  4. Politics and technology in repository siting: military versus commercial nuclear wastes at WIPP 1972-1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downey, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    During the 1970s, attempts by the federal government to develop a comprehensive system for disposing of nuclear wastes in geologic repositories were plagued by two related political problems; (1) whether or not military and commercial wastes should be buried together in the same repository, and (2) how to define the host state's role in the repository siting mechanism. This article explains why these two problems were connected by showing how they proved to be of decisive importance in the development of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project in Carlsbad, New Mexico. Although WIPP was initially conceived as a wholly military facility, The Department of Energy triggered a three-year dispute over the project's scope by proposing in 1978 to include commercial wastes in the repository. The key issue in the dispute concerned the political legitimacy of decision-making mechanisms for repository siting, which depend upon the extent to which they both adequately represent the interests of affected groups and meet an indistinct technical/political criterion of acceptable safety. DOE's ill-fated proposal to mix military and commercial disposal at WIPP demonstrated that the two rely on somewhat different conditions for their legitimacy. The agency overlapped the legitimate authorities of the federal and state governments and gave itself the hopeless task of negotiating a new boundary between them. 50 references, 3 figures

  5. PATTERNS OF INTERNET AND TRADITIONAL MEDIA USE FOR POLITICAL INFORMATION AND POLITICAL PARTICIPATION IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Zaini Abu Bakar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been a growing academic interest in the role of new communication technology in the political process in Asia. The increasing influence of the Internet to diffuse political information may have facilitated high voter involvement in the political process in this region. This study examines patterns of on-line and traditional news media use among people who have access to the Internet in Malaysia. The results show an association between the use of the Internet and traditional media -- newspapers, television, and radio -- for political information among the respondents interviewed. This study suggests that the Internet is widely used to gather political information, but its use for this purpose is not replacing the newspapers and television. There is also an indication that the Internet users participate online in a limited number of political activities. However, the political knowledge gained from the Internet does not seem to influence the respondents’ choice of political candidate in elections.

  6. Standing in the middle: Insider/outsider positionality while conducting qualitative research with opposing military veteran political groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Flores

    2018-01-01

    This case study describes the process and challenges of conducting qualitative research on two opposing military veteran political groups: Iraq Veterans Against the War and Vets for Freedom. The discussion is based on a dissertation project that compelled me to reflect on my simultaneous "insider" status as a military veteran and "outsider" status...

  7. The Changing Dynamics of Military Advantage in the Information Age

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mulcahey, Sean

    2004-01-01

    .... national security, particularly from a new form of global insurgency. The continued development and proliferation of information technology impacts the very nature of conflict and military competitive advantage. Can the U.S...

  8. The language of the Soviet political propaganda in conditions of escalation of politico military opposition in western Ukraine at the initial of the World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dokash Oksana Yuriievna

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The discourse of Soviet political propaganda is analyzed in conditions of the beginning of the WWII and entering of the Red Army into Western Ukraine on September 17, 1939. The article gives characteristic of propagandistic and manipulative mechanisms of escalation of military and political struggle as well as theirs influence upon mass consciousness of population of the region as objects of realization of Stalin’s totalitarian regime. The submission of information flows to ideological-propagandistic objectives of the Stalinist totalitarian regime, including the use of special “Soviet language” is indicated.

  9. The Ottoman Siege and Assault of Constantinople in 1422 AD: Its Military and Political Aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana V. Kushch

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the military and political aspect of the Turkish siege of Constantinople in 1422 AD, when the Ottomans gained valuable experience to use it later, in the final battle of 1453. The research is based on the analysis of fifteenth-century Byzantine historical and rhetorical works. The author of this paper has reconstructed the course of the siege and the main stages of preparation to the decisive assault, has analysed the enemy’s military plans, the alignment of forces and tactical ploys of siege warfare, the specificities of Ottoman weaponry, and the sides’ actions during the assault. Attention has been paid to the Byzantines’ behaviour in the period of military conflict and the emperors’ political actions for the conflict resolution. The history of the siege and assault of the Byzantine capital in 1422 has been placed into the political context of the period in question, and has been uncovered as a stage in the development of the Byzantine-Ottoman relations in the late fourteenth and early fifteenth century. The paper concludes that the Ottomans’ rout resulted from a series of circumstances: the perfection of the fortification system of Constantinople, total mobilization of the metropolitan population, the lack of maritime blockade, and the rebel in the rear of the Ottomans starting not without a help from the Byzantines, all of this allowed the city to withstand. The siege was relieved; however, the situation in foreign policy was still difficult for Byzantium, thus making the emperor to search for peace with the sultan.

  10. Effects of political and military traumas on children: the Palestinian case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, A; Shalhoub-Kevorkian, N

    1999-12-01

    Social scientists have long recognized that individuals subjected to traumatic events associated with military and political conflict experience dire psychological consequences. The systematic study of this phenomenon, however, could be considered a nascent event. Research on the psychological sequel of traumatic events (traumatology) is well-rooted in the recognition and development of posttraumatic stress disorder as a separate psychological disorder category. The early studies in this field focused mainly on adult populations. With the recent advent of involvement of children in military conflicts such as in Africa (e.g., Mozambique), the Middle East (e.g., Palestine, Lebanon), and Southeast Asia (e.g., Cambodia), psychologists have taken a keen interest in examining the psychological effects such conflicts reap on children. Hence, a growing but modest body of literature has been amassed within the past 20 years on the subject. This article is an attempt to synthesize this literature in order to examine the universal and culture-specific correlates of political and military trauma. Specifically, the article will focus on the psychological symptoms children display following their exposure to such traumatic events. Special emphasis will be placed on anxiety, phobic, psychosomatic, and depressive symptoms. More importantly, however, an examination will be made to ascertain which factors (e.g., psychosocial, cultural, and political) serve to shield (protect) or predispose (vulnerability) children to psychological dysfunction. Furthermore, the analyses presented will be gender specific. The article will attempt to delineate a paradigm that explains the relationship between trauma, culture, and personality. Although the article will examine studies from various regions, specific emphasis will be placed on the Palestinian experience.

  11. TV programming in times of changing political communication: a longitudinal analysis of the political information environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santen, R.; Vliegenthart, R.

    2013-01-01

    Debate about the quantity of political information often tends to evaluate television negatively since it became a widely used mass medium. Systematic data on the supply and proportion of political information on television, however, are scarce. This research fills this gap by presenting a

  12. The Political Science of Information. Pratt Portfolio No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Patricia Senn, Ed.

    This collection of essays focuses on group social and political action as it relates to libraries and their environments. The introduction discusses the group-concept approach to studying library and information science. The essays are case studies of interest group politics, including: (1) the imprisonment of a librarian who refused to give…

  13. INFORMATION THREATS IN A GLOBALIZED WORLD: ECONOMICS, POLITICS, SOCIETY (EXPERIENCE OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy Holovka

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The scientific article deals with both integral vision of the contemporary informative risks in the globalized world and their classification. The essence of the informative security is exposed, which is one of main factors of steady development of the modern informative society. In consideration of the foreign practice, the experience of Ukraine is also analyzed in counteraction to the contemporary informative threats. The effective policy of safety and counteraction to the informative threats is one of the basic constituents of the state national safety system and at the same time testifies to the correct character of connections between the public organs and the society. Under the conditions of unrestrained progress of information technologies and general informatization in all sectors of people’s life (politics, economy, defense, energy etc., providing of control and defense of informative space of the country becomes much more difficult task. Modern Ukrainian realities certify convincingly, that Ukraine is in an extremely difficult political situation that influences all spheres of Ukrainians’ life. The key reason of such situation is a military-informative aggression against Ukraine from Russia, which is the fact of waging a «hybrid war». As it is known, this type of war combines the application of both classic soldiery instruments (military technique, firearms, regular troops and methods of informative influence (cyber-attack, informative diversions, aggressive propaganda, impact on public opinion. This factor encourages such research. The object of the study is the phenomenon of information risks in the modern world. Subject of research – is the impact of modern information threats to the state and society, namely the economic, political and social spheres. For a holistic analysis of the subject of research was used appropriate methodology – systematic approach, method of comparative analysis, general scientific methods

  14. Psychiatry, authoritarianism, and revolution: the politics of mental illness during military dictatorships in Argentina, 1966-1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Marco A

    2013-01-01

    From 1966 to 1983, Argentina underwent a period of political radicalization as fascist regimes used terror to control its citizens and leftist guerrillas resorted to violence to spark revolution. During this politically volatile period, psychiatry transformed from an apolitical clinical specialty into an ideological tool used for both leftist resistance and military oppression. The largest psychiatric organization at the time, the Federación Argentina de Psiquiatras (FAP), became the center for a new politically committed brand of psychiatry in Argentina that united psychoanalysis and community psychiatry with Marxist theory. Though the military targeted and eventually dismantled the FAP and its leftist brand of psychoanalysis and community psychiatry, sectors of the government also paradoxically appropriated and reframed community-based psychiatric perspectives to pathologize leftist subversion and advance their own conservative ideology.

  15. Military Health System Transformation Implications on Health Information Technology Modernization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Saad

    2018-03-01

    With the recent passage of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2017, Congress has triggered groundbreaking Military Health System organizational restructuring with the Defense Health Agency assuming responsibility for managing all hospitals and clinics owned by the Army, Navy, and Air Force. This is a major shift toward a modern value-based managed care system, which will require much greater military-civilian health care delivery integration to be in place by October 2018. Just before the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2017 passage, the Department of Defense had already begun a seismic shift and awarded a contract for the new Military Health System-wide electronic health record system. In this perspective, we discuss the implications of the intersection of two large-scope and large-scale initiatives, health system transformation, and information technology modernization, being rolled out in the largest and most complex federal agency and potential risk mitigating steps. The Military Health System will require an expanded unified clinical leadership to spearhead short-term transformation; furthermore, developing, organizing, and growing a cadre of informatics expertise to expand the use and diffusion of novel solutions such as health information exchanges, data analytics, and others to transcend organizational barriers are still needed to achieve the long-term aim of health system reform as envisioned by the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2017.

  16. Informed Questions on Angolan Political-Military Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davidson, Terry R

    2003-01-01

    ... of 5.4 billion barrels and daily production close to 1 million barrels, what has to date been a strife-torn problem could become a major supplier of oil to the United States and an important player in sub-Saharan Africa...

  17. Political Public Relations − Media and Information Management

    OpenAIRE

    Tomić, Zoran; Grbavac, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Political public relations, as one of the PR programmes, has slowly created strategies and tactics for communication with the public and the media. Media management and information management are the most important activities of the political public relations. These activities are frequently connected with non-ethical communication, whose aim is media manipulation and manipulation of the public. Media manipulation is well known as communication spin. These activities are created by governm...

  18. Memories of Boys, Girls, and Adolescent Victims of Political Prison and Torture by the Chilean Military-Civilian Dictatorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faúndez, Ximena; Cárdenas, Manuel; Hatibovic, Fuad; Palma, Evelyn; Bravo, Diego

    2017-08-01

    This article reconstructs and analyzes the memories of victims of political prison and torture during the Chilean Military-Civilian Dictatorship who were minors when they experienced this violence. Participants in the study were 11 adults, six women and five men from the region of Valparaíso, who were victims of State terrorism during childhood and adolescence. The information production technique used was the focus group. A textual analysis was performed, based on interdisciplinary contributions from interpretation theory and discourse theories. The analysis of the information identified distinctive elements in the traumatic memories according to the sex-gender system associated with the private/public and passivity/agency dimensions. The results of this study reveal the urgent need to recognize boys, girls, and adolescents as people with rights who should be protected by both adults and States. Moreover, these results emphasize the need to implement early intervention programs in people affected by psychosocial traumas and disasters of different types, and improve their quality of life.

  19. Internet Politics in an Information economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Marshall

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available It is argued that models of the "new" Information economy are in many ways incompatible with the more free wheeling modes of exchange which were part of the traditions of online society. The so called "hacker ethic" built around the prestation of open or free software seems to be under challenge, and not, as Pekka Himanen suggests, the forerunner of a new freer society. Knowledge workers may not be particularly powerful, or part of any kind of democratic vanguard. A contestation over types of property is occurring and apparently being won by the corporate sector. Furthermore it seems the "information society" may favour inaccuracies and certainty in information, rather than a kind of problem solving democracy based on factuality. As a result expectations that the Internet may lead to a revitalisation of democracy, or discussion, are probably over optimistic.

  20. Editorial Bias in Crowd-Sourced Political Information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua L Kalla

    Full Text Available The Internet has dramatically expanded citizens' access to and ability to engage with political information. On many websites, any user can contribute and edit "crowd-sourced" information about important political figures. One of the most prominent examples of crowd-sourced information on the Internet is Wikipedia, a free and open encyclopedia created and edited entirely by users, and one of the world's most accessed websites. While previous studies of crowd-sourced information platforms have found them to be accurate, few have considered biases in what kinds of information are included. We report the results of four randomized field experiments that sought to explore what biases exist in the political articles of this collaborative website. By randomly assigning factually true but either positive or negative and cited or uncited information to the Wikipedia pages of U.S. senators, we uncover substantial evidence of an editorial bias toward positivity on Wikipedia: Negative facts are 36% more likely to be removed by Wikipedia editors than positive facts within 12 hours and 29% more likely within 3 days. Although citations substantially increase an edit's survival time, the editorial bias toward positivity is not eliminated by inclusion of a citation. We replicate this study on the Wikipedia pages of deceased as well as recently retired but living senators and find no evidence of an editorial bias in either. Our results demonstrate that crowd-sourced information is subject to an editorial bias that favors the politically active.

  1. Editorial Bias in Crowd-Sourced Political Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalla, Joshua L; Aronow, Peter M

    2015-01-01

    The Internet has dramatically expanded citizens' access to and ability to engage with political information. On many websites, any user can contribute and edit "crowd-sourced" information about important political figures. One of the most prominent examples of crowd-sourced information on the Internet is Wikipedia, a free and open encyclopedia created and edited entirely by users, and one of the world's most accessed websites. While previous studies of crowd-sourced information platforms have found them to be accurate, few have considered biases in what kinds of information are included. We report the results of four randomized field experiments that sought to explore what biases exist in the political articles of this collaborative website. By randomly assigning factually true but either positive or negative and cited or uncited information to the Wikipedia pages of U.S. senators, we uncover substantial evidence of an editorial bias toward positivity on Wikipedia: Negative facts are 36% more likely to be removed by Wikipedia editors than positive facts within 12 hours and 29% more likely within 3 days. Although citations substantially increase an edit's survival time, the editorial bias toward positivity is not eliminated by inclusion of a citation. We replicate this study on the Wikipedia pages of deceased as well as recently retired but living senators and find no evidence of an editorial bias in either. Our results demonstrate that crowd-sourced information is subject to an editorial bias that favors the politically active.

  2. Serbs in political and military elites of the Ustaše's Independent State of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atlagić Marko P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of Serbian participation in the political and military elites and leadership of the Independent State of Croatia was not enough or rather not at all scientifically analysed and researched. The purpose of this paper is to inspire the historians of our recent past to research and critically evaluate the problems. In the beginning of the war during the establishment of the Independent State of Croatia, the Serbs were not involved in the Home Guard units as regular armed forces of Independent State of Croatia. Along with the development of the Independent Ustaš State of Croatia, the necessity for Serbian participation in Home Guard units arose. The Serbs were mainly educated in Austro-Hungarian schools for officers. They also participated in the armed forces of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes i.e. the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. The most prominent among them were: Dr Savo Besarović, general Teodor Dragojlov, general Đuro Dragičević, general Đuro Grujić, a knight, general Milan Desović, general Mihailo Lukić, general Dušan Palčić, general Miroslav Opačić (Fridrich, a church official Zvonimir Stimaković, general Miloš Obrknežević, Minister without portfolio Ljubomir Antić, general Lalislav Milić, general Milan Uzelac and others. Apart from being the most prominent ones in the Home Guard units, there were Serbs in the political elites of the Independent State of Croatia, as well as in the Presidency of the Parliament and in the positions of the Ministers in the Independent State of Croatia. This phenomenon should be an example for future generations, in a case of war, not to happen that one part of the people takes the enemy side because the greatest sin ever is to betray its own people and country.

  3. History and political cultures: the legal conceptions evoked by the military governments while score of getting legitimacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Pereira da Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes to analyse the period of brazilian military governments (1964-1985 under the view of lawfulness culture. We intend to show how the take of political power in 1964, far of being considered just the invest of the force and of the will, it was based into a juridical effort engagement, made upon a determined theory of constitutional right with emphasis in the thought of Carl Schmitt and Hans Kelsen.

  4. The Absurdity of Moderation in War: Is Military Force a Credible Means to Compel United States Political Will in the 21st Century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    June/July 2002): 11. 15 David Whetham, "The Challenge of Ethical Relativism in a Coalition Environment," Journal of Military Ethics 7, no. 4...Palgrave Macmillan, 2011. ———. "The Challenge of Ethical Relativism in a Coalition Environment." Journal of Military Ethics 7, no. 4 (December 2008...territory once was, are re-defining military responsibility and utility. 7 These political, legal, moral, ethical and fiscal considerations constrain the

  5. Uses and Gratifications of Online Information Sources: Political Information Efficacy and the Effects of Interactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, David Lynn

    2011-01-01

    There are two distinct purposes to this investigation: to develop the predictive power of the theory of political information efficacy and to determine how exposure to political information formats on the Internet under distinctly different interactive conditions affects cognitive and affective processes. Examined in the first section of this…

  6. Informal caregiving and intimate relationships: the experiences of spouses of UK military personnel

    OpenAIRE

    Thandi, Gursimran; Oram, S.; Verey, A.; Greenberg, N.; Fear, N. T.

    2017-01-01

    Aim Currently, there is no research available on the experiences of spouses providing informal care to wounded, injured or sick (WIS) UK military personnel. The aim of this study was to fill this gap by investigating the relationship experiences of non-military partners caring for WIS UK military personnel.Methods Spouses of WIS military personnel (n=25) completed telephone interviews with the research team. The data were transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. The transcripts were ...

  7. Volume 3. Information Age Anthology: The Information Age Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    Mexico’s Zapatista wars or other such insurgencies, the underdog may have access to global information sources that mitigate his inferiority. Thus he...capabilities are nowhere near capable enough to measure the massed effects of NCW’s souped-up brand of 495Chapter 15 information warfare. Some assume that the

  8. An overview of the political-military implications of missile proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahnken, T.

    1990-01-01

    The proliferation of advanced military technology, and of ballistic missiles in particular, should be viewed as a phenomenon with potential strategic ramifications for both the U.S. and its allies. This paper examines these ramifications on three levels: military, politico-military, and geostratigic. Four broad policy approaches can be taken singly or in combination to deal with the ballistic missile threat. They are: arms control, deterrence, preemption, and defense

  9. The Political Economy of Privatization: Its Impact on the American Military

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Deavel, R

    1998-01-01

    .... Opponents have castigated privatization, asserting that it operates as a Trojan Horse, hollowing out the foundational support structure of the military and creating a brittle operational force...

  10. Citizens' Political Information Behaviors during Elections on Twitter in South Korea: Information Worlds of Opinion Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Sue

    2016-01-01

    This research investigated South Korean citizens' political information behaviors on Twitter during the 2014 Seoul Mayoral election. By using the mixed methods design of network analysis, tweet content analysis, and interviews, this research examined how citizens collaboratively engaged in the political communication and deliberation via Twitter…

  11. Young Danes and perceptions of information and political debate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stald, Gitte Bang

    2017-01-01

    of information and political debate The debates could be like, well, on Facebook. Or, it could be in kind of small groups. Like with one’s friends. I mean, if you talk things through, and you get a new view on things and they get a new view. Discussing things, that is a good idea. (Anders, 19 years) The profound...... changes in information and debate patterns and -practices, in particular for young citizens, are important. Societal reference points are increasingly missing and young people have started their own information and debate practices by using available digital media, while still including traditional media...... and f2f encounters in their information and debate repertoire. Changing practices affect perceptions of what information and informed citizenship is, and how informed citizenship translates into engagement, debate, and democratic participation. Hence, there are discrepancies between traditional...

  12. Translations on Eastern Europe Political, Sociological, and Military Affairs, Number 1457

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-10-07

    science of science, logic, semantics, etymology , and so on), land for it to fit the country’s existing division of sciences, making understanding...engineering,~ army communications, military chemistry , the rear, military aviation, air defense, navy, and civil defense). The article is polemic in

  13. Trump’s transgender ban reminds us that the US military does not float above politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crosbie, Thomas Alexander

    2017-01-01

    In July, President Donald Trump announced via Twitter that transgendered individuals would no longer be allowed to serve in the US military. Thomas Crosbie writes that there is no justifiable reason to exclude the transgendered from the military and such an order ignores its tradition...

  14. Bridging the Gaps: Political-Military Coordination at the Operational Level

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steers, Howard

    2001-01-01

    The political influence that the five geographic combatant commanders, the so-called "proconsuls," wield in the post Cold War era has become a topical issue highlighting the need for better political...

  15. How can research inform educational and political practice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    such as partnership models and networks with researchers and politicians, linkage-agents or knowledge brokers that are designed to play a facilitating role between researchers and political practitioners. The panel debate will revolve around questions such as: How can research inform policy about what makes good......Whilst it is accepted that teacher education research has the potential to contribute to educational policy making in the same way as education research, there is a question about how education research in general can become more influential in political decision making process. This issue is well...... debated through the use of such terms as knowledge transfer, knowledge exchange, knowledge utilization and knowledge mobilization. At the same time as we witness an increasing interest in making use of research to improve policy making, we also see many attempts and strategies suggested...

  16. U.S. Military Aviation Mishaps In Japan and Okinawan Political Controversy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    rectify their environmental concerns. Specifically, university officials were angered by how many trees were cut down and how the soil contamination...condolence and support emails from strangers following the 174 U.S. Military Public Affairs

  17. Information Technologies in the System of Military Engineer Training of Cadets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khizhnaya, Anna V.; Kutepov, Maksim M.; Gladkova, Marina N.; Gladkov, Alexey V.; Dvornikova, Elena I.

    2016-01-01

    The necessity of enhancement of the information component in the military engineer training is determined by the result of a comparative analysis of global and national engineering education standards. The purpose is to substantiate the effectiveness and relevance of applying information technology in the system of military engineer training of…

  18. An Exploratory Study of the Relationship Between the Big-Five Personality Dimensions and Political Skills with Military Staff Members’ Perceived Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Alicia Ohlsson; Rhino Bandelitz Johansen; Gerry Larsson

    2017-01-01

    The purpose was to explore the relationship and mediation effects between the Big Five personality dimensions, and political skill with military staff members’ perceived performance. The sample included 185 Armed Forces International staff members from several military education facilities. The results indicated that the PSI and several personality dimensions were positively correlated with individuals’ perceived performance. In addition, the personality dimension Conscientiousness acted as a...

  19. An Exploratory Study of the Relationship Between the Big-Five Personality Dimensions and Political Skills with Military Staff Members’ Perceived Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Ohlsson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to explore the relationship and mediation effects between the Big Five personality dimensions, and political skill with military staff members’ perceived performance. The sample included 185 Armed Forces International staff members from several military education facilities. The results indicated that the PSI and several personality dimensions were positively correlated with individuals’ perceived performance. In addition, the personality dimension Conscientiousness acted as a statistically significant mediator between an individual’s use of political skills and their perceived performance. Practical considerations and future research directions are suggested.

  20. Translations on Eastern Europe, Political, Sociological, and Military Affairs, Number 1567.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-07-21

    confirmation of the Porter Snob abrid/ajanie en-’? oppression-—cor ".equeneer" of the political and militar-/- relatio^a eet~b- liehed in favor of the...bold defiance to fascism. In this regard, the RCP also addressed appeals many times to the most diverse parties and political groupings and obtained

  1. Military Parents' Personal Technology Usage and Interest in e-Health Information for Obesity Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jai, Tun-Min; McCool, Barent N; Reed, Debra B

    2016-03-01

    U.S. military families are experiencing high obesity rates similar to the civilian population. The Department of Defense's Military Health System (MHS) is one of the largest healthcare providers in the United States, serving approximately 9.2 million active duty service members, retirees, spouses, and children. The annual cost to the MHS for morbidities associated with being overweight exceeds $1 billion. The preschool age has been suggested as an opportune time to intervene for the prevention of obesity. Thus, this study investigated the current level of technology usage by military service member families and assessed their needs and interests in health/nutrition information. This needs assessment is crucial for researchers/educators to design further studies and intervention programs for obesity prevention in military families with young children. In total, 288 military parents (233 Army and 55 Air Force) at two military bases whose children were enrolled in military childcare centers in the southwestern United States participated in a Technology Usage in Military Family (TUMF) survey in 2013. Overall, both bases presented similar technology usage patterns in terms of computer and mobile device usage on the Internet. Air Force base parents had a slightly higher knowledge level of nutrition/health information than Army base parents. The TUMF survey suggested practical ways such as mobile applications/Web sites, social networks, games, etc., that health educators can use to disseminate nutrition/health information for obesity prevention among military families with young children.

  2. Public funding of political parties when campaigns are informative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortín, Ignacio Ortuño; Schultz, Christian

    dependence on vote shares induces fur- ther moderation and improves welfare. If parties are asymmetric, vote share dependent public funding bene…ts the large party and makes it moderate its candidate, while the smaller party reacts by choosing a more extremist candidate. On balance, however, if the parties......The paper considers public funding of political parties when some voters are poorly informed about parties’ candidates and campaigns are informative. For symmetric equilibria, it is shown that more pub- lic funding leads parties to chose more moderate candidates, and that an increase in the funding’s...... are not too asymmetric, an increase in vote share dependent funding improves welfare and increases the likelihood that a moderate candidate wins the election...

  3. Information from Yüan Shih on the Military Cooperation between the Golden Horde and the Yüan Dynasty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu-Cheng Zhao.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Research objective: to reveal relations in military affairs between the Golden Horde and the Yüan Dynasty on the basis of the data of the Chinese dynastic history Yüan shih. Research materials: because of the large distance between these medieval Chinggisid powers, internecine strife between the houses of the Jochids and Toluids, armed conflicts between Arik-Boke and Kublai and due to the fact that the rulers of the Jochid ulus supported Arik-Boke, their state became independent from the Great Mongol Empire. Later on, long-term military conflicts and political turmoil interrupted communication between Sarai and Khanbalik. The Jochid ulus and the Yuan dynasty conducted their own foreign policies. However, communication between them was not interrupted and some information from the Golden Horde still fall in Chinese chronicles. One of the important and fundamental sources relating to the Mongol history is Yüan shih (History of the Yüan Dynasty. This written source contains some materials (although in fragments revealing the nature of the relations between the Yuan Dynasty and the Golden Horde. Research results and novelty: the author has provided information that the military units composed of the peoples of the Golden Horde (primarily of the Ases and Kipchaks, as well as of the Russians were among the troops in the Yüan Empire. At the same time, their proportion was significant both in the composition of commanding staff, as well as among ordinary soldiers. However, the source does not contain any information about the conditions under which these warriors arrived in China as well as about the routes they were moving. It is indisputable fact that they were sent to the Far East from the Jochid ulus during the highest power of this state in the reign of khan Uzbek. Perhaps it was an indication that the Yüan emperor displayed his authority over Sarai Khan in the political sense as well.

  4. Psychosocial Trauma Transmission and Appropriation in Grandchildren of Former Political Prisoners of the Civic--Military Dictatorship in Chile (1973-1990)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faúndez, Ximena; Goecke, Ximena

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces and discusses a research which sought to comprehend, through the analysis of the narratives of the grandchildren of victims of the Civic-Military Dictatorship in Chile, the phenomena of transgenerational psychosocial trauma. The research involved 14 grandchildren of former political prisoners (FPP), between 18 and 25 years…

  5. The informational turn in food politics: The US FDA's nutrition label as information infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohlich, Xaq

    2017-04-01

    This article traces the history of the US FDA regulation of nutrition labeling, identifying an 'informational turn' in the evolving politics of food, diet and health in America. Before nutrition labeling was introduced, regulators actively sought to segregate food markets from drug markets by largely prohibiting health information on food labels, believing such information would 'confuse' the ordinary food consumer. Nutrition labeling's emergence, first in the 1970s as consumer empowerment and then later in the 1990s as a solution to information overload, reflected the belief that it was better to manage markets indirectly through consumer information than directly through command-and-control regulatory architecture. By studying product labels as 'information infrastructure', rather than a 'knowledge fix', the article shows how labels are situated at the center of a legally constructed terrain of inter-textual references, both educational and promotional, that reflects a mix of market pragmatism and evolving legal thought about mass versus niche markets. A change to the label reaches out across a wide informational environment representing food and has direct material consequences for how food is produced, distributed, and consumed. One legacy of this informational turn has been an increasing focus by policymakers, industry, and arguably consumers on the politics of information in place of the politics of the food itself.

  6. The Political Economy of the United States Military Market: 1963-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    motivation 34 of individuals to behave morally. Rawls (1971) depicts a similar process, but in the opposite direction; where the moral (or cooperative...develop or maintain optimal levels of commitment. Machiavelli ([1513] 1995) argued that although a military leader should try to avoid being hated, it is...very necessary that he does not worry about a reputation for cruelty ( Machiavelli , p. 94)". On the other hand, Rousseau ([1762] 1951) argues that

  7. A Hollow Army Reappraised: President Carter, Defense Budgets, and the Politics of Military Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    enlistees. A Carter political appointee in the Office of the Secretary of Defense helped Thurman by introducing the general to first-rate advertising ...spoken words ( storytelling ), are historically situated and culturally determined. In this real life drama, webs of mean- ing—beliefs, desires, and

  8. Translations on Eastern Europe, Political, Sociological, and Military Affairs. Number 1309

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-10-19

    Similarly, the shortcomings in the planning field, as, for instance, in the restricted use of the balancing method, in the failure to extend the...petit-bourgeois customs as egoism , political indifference and the pursuit of money. Whether or not we solve this task within the socialist brigade

  9. Information Communication Technology and Politics: A Synthesized Analysis of the Impacts of Information Technology on Voter Participation in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuma, Clive Katiba

    2011-01-01

    The availability of political information throughout society made possible by the evolution of contemporary information communication technology has precipitated conflicting debate regarding the effects of technology use on real life political participation. Proponents of technology argue that the use of new information technology stimulates…

  10. Translations on Eastern Europe Political, Sociological, and Military Affairs No. 1359.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-03-01

    of the development of productive forces, science and technology and cannot ensure the right to work, an increase in the standard of living and the...winning of international peace and security. In this struggle the chief tool, in addition to political enlight - enment activity, is the organization...development of the trade exchange and to find and utilize new forms of cooperation in the economy, science, technology and culture. Mr Prime Minister

  11. The use of stereotypes and individuating information in political person perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jarret T; Jussim, Lee; Madon, Stephanie; Cain, Thomas R; Stevens, Sean T

    2011-04-01

    This article introduces the political person perception model, which identifies conditions under which perceivers rely on stereotypes (party membership), individuating information (issue position), or both in political person perception. Three studies supported the model's predictions. Study 1 showed that perceivers gave primacy to target information that was narrowly relevant to a judgment, whether that information was stereotypic or individuating. Study 2 found that perceivers relied exclusively on individuating information when it was narrowly relevant to the judgment and relied on both stereotype and individuating information when individuating information was not narrowly relevant to the judgment but did imply a political ideology. Study 3 replicated these findings in a more ecologically valid context and showed that people relied on party information in the absence of narrowly relevant policy positions and when individuating information did not imply a political ideology. Implications for political person perception and theories of stereotyping are discussed.

  12. Translations on Eastern Europe. Political, Sociological, and Military Affairs, Number 1461

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-10-17

    traditional and other social determinants. This at once amounts to a strict rejection of such theories as, for instance, advocated by Kelsen , in his "Pure...1975, pp 334 ff. 5. As to the pure law doctrine, H. Kelsen would like it understood as "a pure law theory, that is to say, cleansed of all political...ideology and all natural science elements" (cf. H. Kelsen , "Reine Rechtslehre," Vienna, 1960, preface). For a criticism of Kelsen’s legal positivism

  13. [Approaches to development and implementation of the medical information system for military-medical commission of the multidisciplinary military-medical organisation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuvshinov, K E; Klipak, V M; Chaplyuk, A L; Moskovko, V M; Belyshev, D V; Zherebko, O A

    2015-06-01

    The current task of the implementation of medical information systems in the military and medical organizations is an automation of the military-medical expertise as one of the most important activities. In this regard, noteworthy experience of the 9th Medical Diagnostic Centre (9th MDC), where on the basis of medical information system "Interi PROMIS" for the first time was implemented the automation of the work of military medical commission. The given paper presents an algorithm for constructing of the information system for the military-medical examination; detailed description of its elements is given. According to military servicemen the implementation of the Military Medical Commission (MMC) subsystem of the medical information system implemented into the 9th MDC has reduced the time required for the MMC and paperwork, greatly facilitate the work of physicians and medical specialists on military servicemen examination. This software can be widely applied in ambulatory and hospital practice, especially in case of mass military-medical examinations.

  14. Smart Questions : Context-dependent mobile information exchange for military operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streefkerk, J.W.; Heuvelink, A.

    2014-01-01

    During military mISSIOns, mobile devices allow information exchange between distributed groups of soldiers. As the context of use changes frequently and more (unstructured) information becomes available during missions, the challenge is to ensure that the right information reaches the right

  15. Image and Issue Political Information: Message Content or Interpretation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Deirdre D.

    1989-01-01

    Explores the existence of a cognitive bias that affects an individual's processing of political advertisements. Finds that whether voters see messages as issue or image material depends on their predisposition. (RS)

  16. Informal caregiving and intimate relationships: the experiences of spouses of UK military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thandi, Gursimran; Oram, S; Verey, A; Greenberg, N; Fear, N T

    2017-08-01

    Currently, there is no research available on the experiences of spouses providing informal care to wounded, injured or sick (WIS) UK military personnel. The aim of this study was to fill this gap by investigating the relationship experiences of non-military partners caring for WIS UK military personnel. Spouses of WIS military personnel (n=25) completed telephone interviews with the research team. The data were transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. The transcripts were cross-coded and checked for inter-rater reliability. Six major themes were identified: (1) communication between couples, (2) adverse family environment, (3) reintegration, (4) intimacy, (5) financial uncertainty and (6) transition from partner to caregiver. Partners caring for injured/ill military personnel appear to be at risk of experiencing personal distress caused by impaired relationship functioning, which may lead to diminished physical and mental well-being. Partners of WIS military personnel experience significant levels of distress and burden associated with caregiving in the form of arguments with the military partner, problems in reintegration and a lack of physical and emotional intimacy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. THE VISUAL POLITICS OF PORTRAYING POWER: IMAGES OF THE POLICE AND MILITARY IN STOCK PHOTOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaelene Cox

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Visualizing power is an imaginative and multifaceted undertaking. Those who can use imagery to harness and transform cultural expectations about authority can influence how societies face current and future challenges. For instance, we find a concern with security to be one of the most pressing issues at the individual, state and international levels. Perceptions of law enforcement and the armed services certainly have bearing on our confidence in those institutions to safeguard lives, property and cultural values. We understand that impressions mirror reality to varying degree and are manipulated by a myriad of forces, including nonverbal communication. It is valuable then to consider the nature of images furnished today for public consumption. Photographs from one of the world’s largest electronic image banks reveal attributes of contemporary representations of the military and police. Although such collections have not been mined by many scholars yet, the study herein finds room for considerable investigation and reflection across disciplines about the role of stock photography in shaping and reflecting cultural norms and identities.

  18. SERVARE-VITAS political consequences for Romanian national government and military of hostage deaths in a Romanian Special Operations Forces hostage rescue operation

    OpenAIRE

    Rapanu, Adrian.

    2006-01-01

    Humankind conflicts reached a point where the use of terrorism continues to be viewed as an acceptable and valuable instrument to pursue political goals. Because of the fact that the Romanian forces have encountered little action in the terrorism arena, one can say that the Romanian counter-terrorism and antiterrorism arrangements within the law enforcement and military are immature. This paper attempts to shed light upon the current crisis management procedures and how that arrangement...

  19. Letters from Officer/Orientalist K.N. Smirnov from the Caucasian Front as a Source for the Study of the Military/Political Situation in Turkey and Iran in 1914–1917 (Continuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugzar K. Ter-Oganov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to analyze the letters of officer/orientalist and military oriental scholar, officer in the Intelligence Section of the Staff of the Caucasian Military District, Staff Captain Konstantin Nikolayevich Smirnov, sent by him from the Turkish and Iranian sectors of the Caucasian front to his wife Kseniya Karlovna Smirnova (Kester over the period 1914–1917. Depending on changes in the deployment of Russian troops fighting against the Turkish army, as well as the German-Turkish block, both in the north-eastern part of Turkey and in the north-west of Iran, K.N. Smirnov had sent those letters from Kamarli, Diadin, Iğdır, Beyazıt, Trebizond, Kazvin, Kermanshah, Kerind, Qasr-e Shirin, Ava now to Tiflis and now to Sevastopol, Hamadan, and Kazvin, where his wife was staying at that particular point in time. K.N. Smirnov’s surviving letters, just like their fragments, give us an idea of the military/political situation along the line of contact with the enemy on the Caucasian front, as well as many aspects of the activity of officers from the Expeditionary Corps of General N.N. Baratov in Iran over the period 1915–1917. Of interest is his characterization of the personal qualities of many Russian officers, such as General N.N. Baratov, the immediate superior of Staff Captain Smirnov, who at the time headed the reconnaissance unit of the Expeditionary Corps, Colonel N.F. Ern, Chief of Staff, and other officers of the corps. The letters also bring to light the character of activity by K.N. Smirnov as a ―political officer‖. K.N. Smirnov’s letters contain extremely rare information on the episode of short-term Anglo-Russian military cooperation on the Caucasian front intended to coordinate actions against Turkish troops in Mesopotamia.

  20. Informal politics and inequity of access to health care in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Bradley

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Despite the importance of political institutions in shaping the social environment, the causal impact of politics on health care access and inequalities has been understudied. Even when considered, research tends to focus on the effects of formal macro-political institutions such as the welfare state. We investigate how micro-politics and informal institutions affect access to care. Methods This study uses a mixed-methods approach, combining findings from a household survey (n = 1789 and qualitative interviews (n = 310 in Lebanon. Multivariate logistic regression was employed in the analysis of the survey to examine the effect of political activism on access to health care while controlling for age, sex, socioeconomic status, religious commitment and piety. Results We note a significantly positive association between political activism and the probability of receiving health aid (p , with an OR of 4.0 when comparing individuals with the highest political activity to those least active in our sample. Interviews with key informants also reveal that, although a form of “universal coverage” exists in Lebanon whereby any citizen is eligible for coverage of hospitalization fees and treatments, in practice, access to health services is used by political parties and politicians as a deliberate strategy to gain and reward political support from individuals and their families. Conclusions Individuals with higher political activism have better access to health services than others. Informal, micro-level political institutions can have an important impact on health care access and utilization, with potentially detrimental effects on the least politically connected. A truly universal health care system that provides access based on medical need rather than political affiliation is needed to help to alleviate growing health disparities in the Lebanese population.

  1. Informal politics and inequity of access to health care in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bradley; Cammett, Melani

    2012-05-09

    Despite the importance of political institutions in shaping the social environment, the causal impact of politics on health care access and inequalities has been understudied. Even when considered, research tends to focus on the effects of formal macro-political institutions such as the welfare state. We investigate how micro-politics and informal institutions affect access to care. This study uses a mixed-methods approach, combining findings from a household survey (n = 1789) and qualitative interviews (n = 310) in Lebanon. Multivariate logistic regression was employed in the analysis of the survey to examine the effect of political activism on access to health care while controlling for age, sex, socioeconomic status, religious commitment and piety. We note a significantly positive association between political activism and the probability of receiving health aid (p political activity to those least active in our sample. Interviews with key informants also reveal that, although a form of "universal coverage" exists in Lebanon whereby any citizen is eligible for coverage of hospitalization fees and treatments, in practice, access to health services is used by political parties and politicians as a deliberate strategy to gain and reward political support from individuals and their families. Individuals with higher political activism have better access to health services than others. Informal, micro-level political institutions can have an important impact on health care access and utilization, with potentially detrimental effects on the least politically connected. A truly universal health care system that provides access based on medical need rather than political affiliation is needed to help to alleviate growing health disparities in the Lebanese population.

  2. Informal politics and inequity of access to health care in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Despite the importance of political institutions in shaping the social environment, the causal impact of politics on health care access and inequalities has been understudied. Even when considered, research tends to focus on the effects of formal macro-political institutions such as the welfare state. We investigate how micro-politics and informal institutions affect access to care. Methods This study uses a mixed-methods approach, combining findings from a household survey (n = 1789) and qualitative interviews (n = 310) in Lebanon. Multivariate logistic regression was employed in the analysis of the survey to examine the effect of political activism on access to health care while controlling for age, sex, socioeconomic status, religious commitment and piety. Results We note a significantly positive association between political activism and the probability of receiving health aid (p political activity to those least active in our sample. Interviews with key informants also reveal that, although a form of “universal coverage” exists in Lebanon whereby any citizen is eligible for coverage of hospitalization fees and treatments, in practice, access to health services is used by political parties and politicians as a deliberate strategy to gain and reward political support from individuals and their families. Conclusions Individuals with higher political activism have better access to health services than others. Informal, micro-level political institutions can have an important impact on health care access and utilization, with potentially detrimental effects on the least politically connected. A truly universal health care system that provides access based on medical need rather than political affiliation is needed to help to alleviate growing health disparities in the Lebanese population. PMID:22571591

  3. Spatial Regulation, Politics of Access and Informal economic Policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to draw attention to the political contestation over space. The city was 'invaded' and 'conquered' by traders who were formerly excluded (Nesvag, 2000, 2001; Tsoeu, 2003). At the same time, attention is drawn to the current attempts by city managers to control and regulate this contested space in an environment of flux.

  4. Forecasting Complex Political and Military Events: The Application of Expected Utility to Crisis Situations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kugler, Jacek; Abdollahian, Mark A; Tammen, Ronald L

    2000-01-01

    .... There is a need to create "real time" crisis decision-making environments where players can apply their current information base and manipulate hundreds of variables to achieve optimum outcomes...

  5. The Internet, Political Communications Research and the Search for a New Information Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, William Franklin

    2013-01-01

    The Internet, as a digital record of human discourse, provides an opportunity to directly analyze political communicative behavior. The rapid emergence of social online networks augurs a transformation in the quality and quantity of information people have to evaluate their political system. Digital formats instantiate new categories of actors and…

  6. Translations on Eastern Europe Political, Sociological, and Military Affairs, Number 1323

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-11-24

    TJ .Q ■$■ SEWP* \\ Q DQir « r f*l ^| z* o ct. U. S. JOINT PUBLICATIONS RESEARCH SERVICE REPRODUCED BY NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE...34rabble" as I could never attribute to a bedridden man, a man whose days on this world are in all likelihood about to end. "When," I asked for want of

  7. Political rhetoric from Canada can inform healthy public policy argumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Patrick B; McIntyre, Lynn; Anderson, Laura C; Mah, Catherine L

    2017-10-01

    Household food insecurity (HFI), insufficient income to obtain adequate food, is a growing problem in Canada and other Organisation of economic cooperation and development (OECD) countries. Government political orientations impact health policies and outcomes. We critically examined Canadian political rhetoric around HFI from 1995 to 2012 as a means to support effective healthy public policy argumentation. We analysed a data set comprised of Hansard extracts on HFI from the legislative debates of the Canadian federal and three provincial governments, using thematic coding guided by interpretivist theories of policy. Extracts were examined for content, jurisdiction, the political affiliation of the legislator speaking and governing status. Members of non-governing, or 'opposition' parties, dominated the rhetoric. A central hunger-as-poverty theme was used by legislators across the political spectrum, both in government and in opposition. Legislators differed in terms of policy approach around how income should flow to citizens facing HFI: income intervention on the left, pragmatism in the centre, reliance on markets on the right. This analysis is a case-example from Canada and caution must be exercised in terms of the generalizability of findings across jurisdictions. Despite this limitation, our findings can help healthy public policy advocates in designing and communicating HFI policy interventions in OECD countries with a similar left-right spectrum. First, even with a divisive health policy issue such as actions to address HFI, core themes around poverty are widely understood. Secondly, the non-polarizing centrist, pragmatist, approach may be strategically valuable. Thirdly, it is important to treat the rhetoric of opposition members differently from that of government members. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Translations on Eastern Europe, Political, Sociological, and Military Affairs, Number 1394

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-05-31

    revolutionary and public activists to be anachronistic and outdated, and the dogmatists called the young personnel newcomers and Beatles . Certain reflexes...language sources are translated; those from English-language sources are transcribed or reprinted, with the original phrasing and other...Excerpt] in the first line of each item, or following the last line of a brief, indicate how the original information was processed. Where no

  9. Crisis and Legitimacy: The Role of the Mexican Military in Politics and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Clark, ed. Las relaciones: Mdxico-Estados Unidos ( Lecturas 43). Mexico: Fondo de Cultura Econ6mica, 1981. Temas Mexicanos 2: IV informe del...rebellion heard throughout New Spain, and abroad. Hidalgo’s rebel army, la tropa insurgents (insurgent troops), was Mexico’s first popular armed force - a...opponents occurred over rumors of rebellion; such was the fate of General Garcia de la Cadena. State governors were all Porfirian appointees, trusted

  10. The Effectiveness of Information Technology Simulation and Security Awareness Training on U.S Military Personnel in Iraq and Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstead, Stanley K.

    2017-01-01

    In today's dynamic military environment, information technology plays a crucial role in the support of mission preparedness and operational readiness. This research examined the effectiveness of information technology security simulation and awareness training on U.S. military personnel in Iraq and Afghanistan. Also, the study analyzed whether…

  11. Information Factor Color Revolutions and Modern Technology Dismantling of Political Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Victorovich Manoylo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the problems associated with the dismantling of the political regimes in modern states (both authoritarian and democratic type and the role of technology in the process of color revolutions. Problems of dismantling of political regimes and the associated problems of color revolutions acquire extreme urgency and actuality in modern conditions. In the world history always there were problems associated with the dismantling of the political regimes. But formerly the instruments of dismantling included mostly violent methods in the classical sense, applied in armed coups, local armed conflicts, civil wars and military interventions. And the international community managed to develop effective methods to counter these threats and to create effective mechanisms for political control of these processes, even at the international level. Acuteness of the problem associated with the threat of military coups in the various countries of the world does not cease to be actual and not removed from the agenda, but for the whole international community this category of threats is familiar, and the world community knows how to react to it. However, today the world is changing, and technologies of armed coups are replaced by more subtle color revolutions technology that is cleverly disguised as a true revolutionary movement and virtually unopposed from both countries witch fully developed democracy and of the Oriental type, preserved traditional livelihoods. Repetition of the scenario of color revolutions in Ukraine causes legitimate concern (well founded anxiety, since there is growing confidence that Ukraine -not the end point of this scenario, but simply a bargaining chip to the geopolitical game in which the brunt of American directors (producers of color revolutions may be directed to Russia, China and Kazakhstan.

  12. Information Factor Color Revolutions and Modern Technology Dismantling of Political Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Victorovich Manoylo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the problems associated with the dismantling of the political regimes in modern states (both authoritarian and democratic type and the role of technology in the process of color revolutions. Problems of dismantling of political regimes and the associated problems of color revolutions acquire extreme urgency and actuality in modern conditions. In the world history always there were problems associated with the dismantling of the political regimes. But formerly the instruments of dismantling included mostly violent methods in the classical sense, applied in armed coups, local armed conflicts, civil wars and military interventions. And the international community managed to develop effective methods to counter these threats and to create effective mechanisms for political control of these processes, even at the international level. Acuteness of the problem associated with the threat of military coups in the various countries of the world does not cease to be actual and not removed from the agenda, but for the whole international community this category of threats is familiar, and the world community knows how to react to it. However, today the world is changing, and technologies of armed coups are replaced by more subtle color revolutions technology that is cleverly disguised as a true revolutionary movement and virtually unopposed from both- countries witch fully developed democracy and of the Oriental type, preserved traditional livelihoods. Repetition of the scenario of color revolutions in Ukraine causes legitimate concern (well founded anxiety, since there is growing confidence that Ukraine -not the end point of this scenario, but simply a bargaining chip to the geopolitical game in which the brunt of American directors (producers of color revolutions may be directed to Russia, China and Kazakhstan.

  13. The Political Economy of Information Exchange : Politics and Property Rights in the Development and Use of Interorganizational Information Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.M.F. Homburg (Vincent)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractInterorganizational information systems are information systems that cross organizational boundaries. Information managers and system developers often assume that the more integrated these information systems are, the more successful the system will be. Such an assumption is indeed

  14. Parameters Differentiating the Characteristics and Security of Military Information Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Farooq-i-Azam, Muhammad; Ayyaz, Muhammad Naeem

    2016-01-01

    Revolution in the area of information technology has brought about changes in many spheres of life. Today, information systems are being used in very sensitive areas such as defence and missile control systems, nuclear plants, etc. Not only has it changed how business is conducted, it has also brought about entirely new paradigms like that of information and cyber warfare. Similarly, one of the many impacts that it has made, is how wars are fought. For all what it has contributed, the informa...

  15. Educating Junior Military Officers for the Information Age

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sayles, Andre

    1998-01-01

    .... Improved situational awareness is expected to be a product of the Information Revolution in which telecommunications, sensors, all sources of intelligence, and global positioning are integrated...

  16. Transpacific Partnership (TPP Agreement. Is the commercial solution for political-military tension at the region? or Is an american strategy to diminish China influence in Asia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Ramírez Zamudio

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available China and the United States have had a difficult relation over the past 10 years. First of all, the rise of China as a military and economic superpower on the world´s stage is seen under suspicion and discontent by the American political, military and even economic authorities. The United States government does not fully believe China´s intention of pacific rise and has perceived the Chinese government more as a strategic rival than a partner. On the economic field the Americans manufacturing companies complain of China´s distorted economic policies that keep its currency undervalued and subsidise its own companies at the expense of foreign enterprises. On the political side, the American Congress has repeatedly accused the Chinese government of systematically violating its people´s fundamental Human Rights and has pointed out the Chinese governments´ attempts to stop democratic manifestations in the country. As for the military, the U.S. Pentagon publishes each year an updated document on the Chinese military capabilities, rising concerns about China´s fast-growing military modernisation.All these accusations have been replied by the Chinese counterparts of Commerce, Military and Political agencies, whose general answer is to point out the American’s lack of knowledge about China’s development. Whenever the Pentagon makes a statement about China’s military capabilities; the Chinese Military Speaker replies that his country has no intention to compete militarily with the United States army. Whenever the U.S. Secretary of State argues that China does not respect Human Rights; the Chinese government question the American interference in other countries’ internal affairs. Whenever the American industrialists complain about China’s economic subsidies; the Chinese government remind them about the United States’ tendency of subsidising its own economic sectors, such as the agriculture. China and the United States disagree upon

  17. Information and Communication Technologies in Creating Political Media Reality in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Yu. Pavlyutenkova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article explores intended use of infocomms in creation of political media reality, acting as a virtual environment, effectively replacing reality. A noteworthy detail is that mainstreaming of information and communication technologies into political sphere substantially increases the authoritative potential for the media discourse. Those forces that assert their own media versions of events and media images for their participants have been winning in the competitive struggle amidst media discourses today. Furthermore, all available communication channels (television, media, Internet resources, mobile telecommunications are used to set up a political pseudo-environment for their information consumers, replacing political reality. The article shows what way new media resources, initially aimed at manipulating the mass consciousness in the pre-election race are being incorporated today. In particular, impressive manipulative media effects are demonstrated when a fake discourse is included in the media space. In addition, computer attacks, hacking, and the prime of independent cyber organizations fighting against the “world evil” are in effect as an instrument in the political struggle, in obtaining compromising material and interstate opposition. The work records the inclusion of graphic elements, emoji, clips in the media discourse. In general, symbols, encroaching into the politics space, become a part of the political mainstream, change the style of political demonstrations, discussions, chats that unite adherents to influence the actions of the authorities. It follows that the political media reality design, supported by the latest information and communication technologies tools, directly affects the perception of what is happening on a global scale, quickly formatting the mass consciousness.

  18. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1988-01-01

    Partial Contents: Military Political Issues, Military Science, Warsaw Pact, Armed Forces, Air Forces, Air Defense Forces, Naval Forces, Strategic Rocket Forces, Civil Defense, Rear Services, Defense Industries, DOSAAF...

  19. 76 FR 44086 - Agency Information Collection (Notice of Waiver of VA Compensation or Pension To Receive Military...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... number of days equal to the number of days in which they received training pay. An agency may not conduct... of Waiver of VA Compensation or Pension To Receive Military Pay and Allowances) Activity Under OMB....'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Notice of Waiver of VA Compensation or Pension to Receive Military Pay and...

  20. Cultivation of personality awareness - The starting point of thinking and politics in colleges and universities in the current network information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jie

    2018-03-01

    With the continuous development of network technology, the development of network information age has promoted the orderly development of ideological and political education in colleges and universities. It can effectively improve students' political accomplishments and continuously broaden the ways of thinking and education in colleges and universities. Ideological and political work to provide more information platform and education. This article will elaborate on the cultivation of personality consciousness in college ideological and political work under the network age and put forward corresponding measures.

  1. Military Classics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    the relation of religion and politics to seventeenth-century English military history. Frederick II, King of Prussia. Frederick the Great on the Art...Beginning with the reign of King Henry VIII, Barnett’s work explores the history of the British Army as an institution and fighting force. The volume...native clans led by Shaka , to its fall under the guns of the British Army by 1878. The Zulus produced a formidable military force, and this excellent

  2. The Politics of Air Power: From Confrontation to Cooperation in Army Aviation Civil-Military Relations, 1919-1940

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rice, Rondall

    2002-01-01

    .... In order to sway public opinion and elected officials, air leaders used propaganda to arouse public sentiment and circumvented military and civilian superiors to appeal directly to like-minded congressmen...

  3. Auditing of the Computerised Information Systems in the Military Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pîrvuţ Valentin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An internal public auditing mission is a complex process with multiple objectives and auditable objects, which offers a most complete management of the audited entity’s identified risks and proposes solutions and recommendations for limiting their impact. In the informatics segment, the calculators, informatics systems (the operation systems, the informatics applications used in the entity, the accounting management systems of the data bases, the communication networks, the procedures and operations adjacent to the informatics systems, the policies in the system are subjected to control and evaluation. To this end, due to the importance the use of the calculator grants within the entities, in some countries there have been elaborated several normative acts regulating the use, control and auditing of the electronic devices used for processing the data. Thus, the most important regulations referring to the auditing within the computerized information systems (CIS - Computerized Information Systems are the ISA ( International Standards on Auditing and IAPS ( International Auditing Practice Statement standards elaborated by IFAC ( International Federation of Accountants.

  4. Two sides to every story : Causes and consequences of selective exposure to balanced political information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brenes Peralta, C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Although the current information environment offers citizens an unprecedented opportunity to engage in selective exposure behavior, namely to seek mostly pro-attitudinal information about politics and public affairs, the debate about the prevalence and consequences of selective exposure in a

  5. Development and Implementation of the DHAPP Military eHealth Information Network System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratz, Mary; Thomas, Anne; Hora, Ricardo; Vera, Delphis; Lutz, Mickey; Johnson, Mark D

    2017-01-01

    As the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, the Global Fund, and the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief focus on reaching 90-90-90 goals, military health systems are scaling up to meet the data demands of these ambitious objectives. Since 2008, the US Department of Defense HIV/AIDS Prevention Program (DHAPP) has been working with military partners in 14 countries on implementation and adoption of a Military eHealth Information Network (MeHIN). Each country implementation plan followed a structured process using international eHealth standards. DHAPP worked with the private sector to develop a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) electronic medical record (EMR) for the collection of data, including patient demographic information, clinical notes for general medical care, HIV encounters, voluntary medical male circumcision, and tuberculosis screening information. The COTS software approach provided a zero-dollar software license and focused on sharing a single version of the EMR across countries, so that all countries could benefit from software enhancements and new features over time. DHAPP also worked with the public sector to modify open source disease surveillance tools and open access of HIV training materials. Important lessons highlight challenges to eHealth implementation, including a paucity of technology infrastructure, military leadership rotations, and the need for basic computer skills building. While not simple, eHealth systems can be built and maintained with requisite security, flexibility, and reporting capabilities that provide critical information to improve the health of individuals and organizations. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. U.S. Military Information Operations in Afghanistan: Effectiveness of Psychological Operations 2001-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    cultural norms and sensibilities. To highlight the un-Islamic ideology and behavior of the terrorists, 4 Christopher N. Koontz , Enduring Voices: Oral...maintaining law and order at the local 57 Koontz , 2008, p. 363. 84 U.S. Military Information Operations in Afghanistan level, this presents a serious...theme. However, although 61 Koontz , 2008, p. 141. 62 Koontz , 2008, p. 141. 63 Joshua Partlow and Scott Wilson, “Karzai Rails Against Foreign Presence

  7. Patient Privacy, Consent, and Identity Management in Health Information Exchange: Issues for the Military Health System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    JPC-1b Joint Program Committee-1b on Health Information Technology and Medical Informatics MAeHC Massachusetts eHealth Collaborative MHS Military...efficiency of care. The second study, by the eHealth Initiative (2011), surveyed communities across the United States with initiatives to share health...Simon et al. (2009) conducted focus groups involving 64 participants in several rural towns participating in the Massachusetts eHealth Collaborative

  8. Method of Choosing the Information Technology System Supporting Management of the Military Aircraft Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barszcz Piotr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a method of choosing the information technology system, the task of which is to support the management process of the military aircraft operation. The proposed method is based on surveys conducted among direct users of IT systems used in aviation of the Polish Armed Forces. The analysis of results of the surveys was conducted using statistical methods. The paper was completed with practical conclusions related to further usefulness of the individual information technology systems. In the future, they can be extremely useful in the process of selecting the best solutions and integration of the information technology systems

  9. Legislative amendments and informal politics in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cross, James P.; Hermansson, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    the Commission’s proposals and the final legislative outcome passed by the European Union. It does so by implementing minimum edit distance algorithms to measure changes between legislative proposals and outcomes. The findings suggest that legislative amendments are determined by the formal and informal...... institutional structures in which negotiations take place and characteristics of the proposal itself. Our conclusions contribute to the ongoing debate on the nature and distribution of legislative powers in the European Union....

  10. FISCAL MANAGEMENT IN INDONESIA: THE PERSPECTIVE OF POLITICAL-ECONOMY INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Darono

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fiscal management is an effort to formulate fiscal policies to be implemented, controlled, and responsible based on the government regulation. For this purpose, fiscal authority undoubtedly needs an adequate support from the country’s financial information. The provision of information for the sake of this fiscal management cannot only be seen as an issue of economic-information which tends to emphasize on the process of information allocation, production, distribution, and consumption as an economic commodity. Using a conceptual framework of political-economy information, the information provision in the context of fiscal management is more of a constellation of various existing economic-information that should be correlated with the involved actors, and comprehensively take into account the surrounding social-political structure. By employing an interpretive policy analysis as the data analysis approach, this study finds that fiscal authority in Indonesia has gradually made a number of efforts to improve the mechanism of the nation’s financial information provision for those who have fiscal management interests, either from income information (tax/non-tax or expenditure information. In some conditions, it is identified that the initiative of information provision for the advantage of fiscal management as well as its implementation requires proper political support.

  11. The Need for a USAF Information Warfare(IW) Strategy for Military Operations Other Than War (MOOTW)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Butler, Bradley

    1996-01-01

    .... Two areas having an impact on the answer to this question but not normally examined together are information warfare and the broad area of military operations short of large scale conventional combat...

  12. Risk Information Management Resource (RIMR): modeling an approach to defending against military medical information assurance brain drain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Willie E.

    2003-05-01

    As Military Medical Information Assurance organizations face off with modern pressures to downsize and outsource, they battle with losing knowledgeable people who leave and take with them what they know. This knowledge is increasingly being recognized as an important resource and organizations are now taking steps to manage it. In addition, as the pressures for globalization (Castells, 1998) increase, collaboration and cooperation are becoming more distributed and international. Knowledge sharing in a distributed international environment is becoming an essential part of Knowledge Management. This is a major shortfall in the current approach to capturing and sharing knowledge in Military Medical Information Assurance. This paper addresses this challenge by exploring Risk Information Management Resource (RIMR) as a tool for sharing knowledge using the concept of Communities of Practice. RIMR is based no the framework of sharing and using knowledge. This concept is done through three major components - people, process and technology. The people aspect enables remote collaboration, support communities of practice, reward and recognize knowledge sharing while encouraging storytelling. The process aspect enhances knowledge capture and manages information. While the technology aspect enhance system integration and data mining, it also utilizes intelligent agents and exploits expert systems. These coupled with supporting activities of education and training, technology infrastructure and information security enables effective information assurance collaboration.

  13. How digital design shapes political participation: A natural experiment with social information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Scott A; John, Peter; Margetts, Helen; Yasseri, Taha

    2018-01-01

    Political behaviour increasingly takes place on digital platforms, where people are presented with a range of social information-real-time feedback about the behaviour of peers and reference groups-which can stimulate (or depress) participation. This social information is hypothesized to impact the distribution of political activity, stimulating participation in mobilizations that are increasing in popularity, and depressing participation in those that appear to be less popular, leading to a non-normal distribution. Changes to these platforms can generate natural experiments allowing for an estimate of the impact of different kinds of social information on participation. This paper tests the hypothesis that social information shapes the distribution of political mobilizations by examining the introduction of trending information to the homepage of the UK government petition platform. The introduction of the trending feature did not increase the overall number of signatures per day, but the distribution of signatures across petitions changed significantly-the most popular petitions gained more signatures at the expense of those with fewer signatories. We further find significant differences between petitions trending at different ranks on the homepage. This evidence suggests that the ubiquity of trending information on digital platforms is introducing instability into political markets, as has been shown for cultural markets. As well as highlighting the importance of digital design in shaping political behaviour, the findings suggest that a non-negligible group of individuals visit the homepage of the site looking for petitions to sign, without having decided the issues they wish to support in advance. These 'aimless petitioners' are particularly susceptible to changes in social information.

  14. Civil-Military Relations in Post-Conflict Sri Lanka: Successful Civilian Consolidation in the Face of Political Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    residence in Ceylon. This impacted Indian Tamil citizenship and franchise rights. The founder of All Ceylon Tamil Congress (ACTC), G. G. Ponnambalam...187 Ibid. 188 Bandarage, The Separatist Conflict in Sri Lanka, 154. 189 Minister Athulathmudali visited the U.S. to buy military hardware

  15. 76 FR 40768 - Bureau of Political-Military Affairs: Directorate of Defense Trade Controls; Notifications to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ... defense services to Russia for the RD-180 Liquid Propellant Rocket Engine Program. The United States... select F110-GE-129 engine components for end-use by the Republic of Korea Air Force. The United States..., depot level repair, and overhaul services on components of various military fixed and rotary wing...

  16. Can We Generalize from Student Experiments to the Real World in Political Science, Military Affairs, and International Relations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz, Alex; Redd, Steven B.; Vedlitz, Arnold

    2006-01-01

    The authors conducted an experiment with a group of military officers and replicated it with a group of students at a public university in the United States. The experimental scenario dealt with a decision problem in the area of counterterrorism. The authors found that while more than one-third of students recommended doing nothing, the…

  17. Socio-political structure of Turkey in general elections since 1980 military intervention up to date (last 23 years)

    OpenAIRE

    D. Ali Arslan; Mustafa Çağlayandereli

    2006-01-01

    This study aims to analyze socio-political structure of Turkish society at the basis of the results of Turkish General elections since 1983 up to date. Documentary and historical research techniques will be employed during the study.

  18. Native Americans in Cold War Public Diplomacy: Indian Politics, American History, and the US Information Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denson, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This essay examines the depiction of Native Americans by the US Information Agency (USIA), the bureau charged with explaining American politics to the international public during the Cold War. In the 1950s and 1960s, the USIA broadcast the message that Americans had begun to acknowledge their nation's history of conquest and were working to…

  19. Military Leadership in the Context of Challenges and Threats Existing in Information Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Kacała

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present the role of a military leader in engaging the challenges and threats existing in the I nformation Environment (IE. Military leadership is crucial for the functioning of a particular form of hierarchical institution, namely the armed forces, in their external surrounding called O perational Environment (OE. A specific type of O E is I nformation Environment (IE characterized by the three dimensions: physical, informational and cognitive. Moreover, its characteristics include the occurrence of a number of challenges and threats. The most important challenges include: overabundance of information, unstructured information, problematic value of information and low information-related competences of its users. I n turn, the most important of the threats identified in the I E are disinformation and propaganda. The role of an effective leader is to prevent, and if it is impossible, to alleviate the consequences of the challenges and threats that may disrupt or even prevent the achievement of the objectives set by an organisation.

  20. THWARTING THE "MERCHANTS OF DEATH" ACCUSATION: THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF MILITARY PROCUREMENT IN INDUSTRIAL DEMOCRACIES DURING THE INTERWAR PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jari Eloranta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article charts the interwar military procurement practices of several democratic states, concentrating on the United States, the United Kingdom, Sweden, and Finland. In addition to comparing some of the foundations of the Allies' successful industrial mobilization in World War II, this article concludes that interwar procurement practices in some of the most liberal democracies were surprisingly resistant to capture by business interests. This finding suggests that in describing this era, we should be cautious about ascribing causal power to trans-historical economic behaviors such as rent-seeking and collusion, without taking into account the institutional setting in which such activities took place. The record of the interwar period suggests that democracies can use bureaucratic administration and public enterprise to establish robust barriers to rent-seeking and corruption in the military economy. During the interwar period, these administrative barriers were erected in conjunction with intense public concern about military profiteering. Whether they would be less effective in different ideological environments deserves further investigation.

  1. Effects of first time voters’ political social media use on electoral behaviour - A smartphone-based measurement of media exposure to political information in an election campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohme, Jakob; de Vreese, Claes; Jensen, Camilla

    in citizens’ political media diet. Especially social media platforms like Facebook, Twitter or YouTube offer an up-to-date stream of information, easy to tune in and with personalized content citizens (or at least their network) are interested in. A recent study by PEW (Mitchell, Gottfried & Matsa, 2015...... for young citizens in an election campaign. Second, it will concentrate on their social media use to gain not only gain information about the platform first time voters use, but digging deeper to distinguish between types of content their social media exposure to political information consists of. Third......, it will determine what effect the exposure to political information on different media channels can have on electoral participation and their first vote in a national election....

  2. Patterns of media use in Brazil and their impact on political information levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladimir G Gramacho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available REVISTA DEBATES OPEN JOURNAL SYSTEMS Journal Help USER Username Password Remember me Login LANGUAGE JOURNAL CONTENT Search Search Browse By Issue By Author By Title Other Journals FONT SIZE Make font size smallerMake font size defaultMake font size larger INFORMATION For Readers For Authors For Librarians HOME ABOUT LOGIN REGISTER SEARCH CURRENT ARCHIVES UFRGS Home > Vol 9, No 3 (2015 >\tGramacho Patterns of media use in Brazil and their impact on political information levels Wladimir G Gramacho, André Jácomo Abstract The use of media repertoires that include internet is associated with higher levels of political information policy. This is the main conclusion of this article, whose argument is organized in three stages. The first describes the scene of the Brazilian audience fragmentation and identifies the media usage patterns in the country based on cluster analysis using data from the Brazilian Media Survey 2015. The second indicates the socio-economic characteristics prevailing in each pattern of media use. Finally, the third one examines the influence of these different media repertoires on levels of political information among Brazilians, based on an ordinal logistic regression model.

  3. Epidemic model for information diffusion in web forums: experiments in marketing exchange and political dialog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jiyoung; Chen, Hsinchun

    2016-01-01

    As social media has become more prevalent, its influence on business, politics, and society has become significant. Due to easy access and interaction between large numbers of users, information diffuses in an epidemic style on the web. Understanding the mechanisms of information diffusion through these new publication methods is important for political and marketing purposes. Among social media, web forums, where people in online communities disseminate and receive information, provide a good environment for examining information diffusion. In this paper, we model topic diffusion in web forums using the epidemiology model, the susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model, frequently used in previous research to analyze both disease outbreaks and knowledge diffusion. The model was evaluated on a large longitudinal dataset from the web forum of a major retail company and from a general political discussion forum. The fitting results showed that the SIR model is a plausible model to describe the diffusion process of a topic. This research shows that epidemic models can expand their application areas to topic discussion on the web, particularly social media such as web forums.

  4. The Role of Civil Society in Shaping Democratic Civil-Military Relations During Political Transition in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Participation,” in Nepal: Quest for Participatory Democracy , ed. L. R. Baral (New Delhi: Adroit, 2006), 1. 68 Ibid, 3. 69 Ibid, 10. 70 Yanyong Innanchai...Political Participation.” In Nepal: Quest for Participatory Democracy , edited by L. R. Baral, 1–15. New Delhi: Adroit, 2006. . “The Nepali...with an emphasis on the current period. Since its first experience with democracy in 1950, the king intenupted Nepal ’s pw-suit of consolidation until

  5. The Long War and America's Relationship With Its Military

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Field, Kimberly C

    2008-01-01

    The unique characteristics of the "Global War on Terrorism" have implications for the relationship society has with its military, and therefore, for military effectiveness in achieving political ends...

  6. Urban political ecologies of informal recyclers׳ health in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parizeau, Kate

    2015-05-01

    Buenos Aires׳ informal recyclers (cartoneros) confront multiple health hazards in their work. Based in a survey with (n=397) informal recyclers, this study establishes that these workers experience uneven health landscapes as evidenced through their health outcomes, the social determinants of their health, and their living and working environments. I argue that the analytical framework of urban political ecology can provide insights to the ways that the urban environments where cartoneros live and work are socially-constructed phenomena, drawing on concepts of crisis, metabolism, and multi-scalar analyses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. German Economic Expansion under the Conditions of the European Debt Crisis and Military-Political Conflict in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Михаил Михайлович Кухтин

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The German economic expansion in the EU is examined in the article. Berlin is using the European debt crisis and the political instability in Ukraine to strengthen its positions in the world. Interests of weak countries of the Eurozone are being ignored. Chancellor A. Merkel is striving for a gradual revision of European legislation in Germany’s favor. Today’s Berlin is supporting Ukrainian nationalists, hoping to hinder the growth of Russian influence in Eastern Europe with their help. The aggravation of international competition does not allow Germany to pursue a different European policy.

  8. TRICARE, Military Health System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Claim Get Proof of TRICARE Coverage View My Military Health Record Less TRICARE Enrollment Freeze Starting Dec. ... Disaster Information Download a Form Go Paperless My Military Health Records Multimedia Center Plan Information Kits Recoupment ...

  9. Championing the Joint Force: A Job for the Public and our Political Leaders – Not Just Military Professionals Alone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Beare

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Canada’s security interests and the mission of our Armed Forces – that is to defend Canada, defend North America and to promote peace and security abroad – may largely remain unchanged and timeless. The nature of the security environment, however, has not – nor will it be in the years to come. An effective and relevant Canadian Armed Forces will continue to require capable, wellequipped and operationally-ready maritime, air and land forces who are largely raised and trained within our Army, Navy and Air Force. But in order for Defence to remain relevant and effective in an era of increased instability, volatility and unpredictability, our Armed Forces need the ability and capacity to match these with an increased understanding of what is going on, and preparedness for what is to come. This is the business of our military’s Joint Forces – those beyond the tactical units that the services provide. It is the joint organizations and networks within the institution that generate intelligence, provide understanding and lead the partnering, planning, force posturing and practicing so essential to the anticipation of, preparation for, and conduct of, operations – in particular in a world of unrelenting complexity. A decade after General Rick Hillier’s extraordinary initiatives to transform our Armed Forces from a service-centric machine-age force to one focused on the business of operations, one that thinks and acts Canadian Forces (joint first, we do see evidence of real progress in the approach to joint operations and improved appreciation of our military’s joint functions and capabilities. Unlike the political and public calls for strong services and the modernization of their major platforms, however, this progress has been realized largely through efforts internal to the Armed Forces themselves. The initiative has been without political leadership and external policy topcover, rendering this progress and its future vulnerable and

  10. Tandem anchoring: informational and politeness effects of range offers in social exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Daniel R; Mason, Malia F

    2015-02-01

    We examined whether and why range offers (e.g., "I want $7,200 to $7,600 for my car") matter in negotiations. A selective-attention account predicts that motivated and skeptical offer-recipients focus overwhelmingly on the attractive endpoint (i.e., a buyer would hear, in effect, "I want $7,200"). In contrast, we propose a tandem anchoring account, arguing that offer-recipients are often influenced by both endpoints as they judge the offer-maker's reservation price (i.e., bottom line) as well as how polite they believe an extreme (nonaccommodating) counteroffer would be. In 5 studies, featuring scripted negotiation scenarios and live dyadic negotiations, we find that certain range offers yield improved settlement terms for offer-makers without relational costs, whereas others may yield relationship benefits without deal costs. We clarify the types of range offers that evoke these benefits and identify boundaries to their impact, including range width and extremity. In addition, our studies reveal evidence consistent with 2 proposed mechanisms, one involving an informational effect (both endpoints of range offers can be taken as signals of an offer-maker's reservation price) and another involving a politeness effect (range offers can make extreme counteroffers seem less polite). Our results have implications for models of negotiation behavior and outcomes and, more broadly, for the nature of social exchange. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. [Political and organizational-legal frameworks for cooperation between countries of the Asia-Pacific region in the field of military medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholikov, I V; Dmitrakovich, D V

    2014-12-01

    A framework for cooperation in the field of military medicine in the Asia-Pacific region is considered. Expert Working Group on Military Medicine in cooperation with the Association of Southeast Asian dialogue partners (including Russia) was formed to discuss the most important issues in the field of military medicine, to share practical experience of military physicians, standardization and unification of medical equipment, medicines, levels and standards of medical services and other issues in order to enhance cooperation of military medical services of the participating countries. From 2014 to 2016, the Russian Federation and the Kingdom of Thailand are co-chairs of the expert group.

  12. SPECIAL AND MILITARY COMMUNICATIONS AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS AS VITAL PART OF THE CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURES IN ROMANIA. SECURING THEIR PHYSICAL AND INFORMATIONAL PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin MINCU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents several arguments on the need to study the critical infrastructure in Romania including various systems (networks and special military communications. It emphasizes the role and place of such systems and networks to provide national defense and security and the risks and vulnerabilities faced by these infrastructures, and some necessary measures to be taken for the physical and informational protection in the case of hostile military actions, natural disasters or other negative phenomena. Finally some conclusions and proposals are formulated.

  13. Corporate political activity of the dairy industry in France: an analysis of publicly available information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mialon, Melissa; Mialon, Jonathan

    2017-09-01

    In the present study, we used a structured approach based on publicly available information to identify the corporate political activity (CPA) strategies of three major actors in the dairy industry in France. We collected publicly available information from the industry, government and other sources over a 6-month period, from March to August 2015. Data collection and analysis were informed by an existing framework for classifying the CPA of the food industry. Setting/Subjects Our study included three major actors in the dairy industry in France: Danone, Lactalis and the Centre National Interprofessionnel de l'Economie Laitière (CNIEL), a trade association. During the period of data collection, the dairy industry employed CPA practices on numerous occasions by using three strategies: the 'information and messaging', the 'constituency building' and the 'policy substitution' strategies. The most common practice was the shaping of evidence in ways that suited the industry. The industry also sought involvement in the community, establishing relationships with public health professionals, academics and the government. Our study shows that the dairy industry used several CPA practices, even during periods when there was no specific policy debate on the role of dairy products in dietary guidelines. The information provided here could inform public health advocates and policy makers and help them ensure that commercial interests of industry do not impede public health policies and programmes.

  14. Before the Looking Glass: An Informed Questions Paper on Kenyan Politics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alsace, Juan A

    2003-01-01

    Political scientist Angelique Haugerud has lived or worked in Kenya for 25 years and posits that those seeking even a shallow understanding of Kenyan politics must first appreciate the role of "baraza...

  15. Vedr.: Military capacity building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Josefine Kühnel; Struwe, Lars Bangert

    2013-01-01

    Military capacity building has increasingly become an integral part of Danish defence. Military capacity is a new way of thinking Danish defence and poses a new set of challenges and opportunities for the Danish military and the Political leadership. On the 12th of december, PhD. Candidate Josefine...... Kühnel Larsen and researcher Lars Bangert Struwe of CMS had organized a seminar in collaboration with Royal Danish Defense Colleg and the East African Security Governance Network. The seminar focused on some of the risks involved in Military capacity building and how these risks are dealt with from...

  16. USSR Report Military Affairs No. 1790

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1983-01-01

    Partial Contents: Military Political Issues, Ministry Of Defense and General Staff, Warsaw Pact and Groups of FOrces, Armed Forces, Ground Forces, Air Defense Forces, Naval Forces, Civil Defense, DOSAAF and Military...

  17. The "chicken-and-egg" development of political opinionsThe roles of genes, social status, ideology, and information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Beattie J D

    2017-01-01

    Twin studies have revealed political ideology to be partially heritable. Neurological research has shown that ideological differences are reflected in brain structure and response, suggesting a direct genotype-phenotype link. Social and informational environments, however, also demonstrably affect brain structure and response. This leads to a "chicken-and-egg" question: do genes produce brains with ideological predispositions, causing the preferential absorption of consonant information and thereby forming an ideology, or do social and informational environments do most of the heavy lifting, with genetic evidence the spurious artifact of outdated methodology? Or are both inextricably intertwined contributors? This article investigates the relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors to ideological development using a role-play experiment investigating the development of opinions on a novel political issue. The results support the view that the process is bidirectional, suggesting that, like most traits, political ideology is produced by the complex interplay of genetic and (social/informational) environmental influences.

  18. Aspects of Information Architecture involved in process mapping in Military Organizations under the semiotic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mac Amaral Cartaxo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The description of the processes to represent the activities in an organization has important call semiotic, It is the flowcharts of uses, management reports and the various forms of representation of the strategies used. The subsequent interpretation of the organization's employees involved in learning tasks and the symbols used to translate the meanings of management practices is essential role for the organization. Objective: The objective of this study was to identify evidence of conceptual and empirical, on aspects of information architecture involved in the mapping process carried out in military organizations under the semiotic perspective. Methodology: The research is characterized as qualitative, case study and the data collection technique was the semi-structured interview, applied to management advisors. Results: The main results indicate that management practices described with the use of pictorial symbols and different layouts have greater impact to explain the relevance of management practices and indicators. Conclusion: With regard to the semiotic appeal, it was found that the impact of a management report is significant due to the use of signs and layout that stimulate further reading by simplifying complex concepts in tables, diagrams summarizing lengthy descriptions.

  19. Defining the Information within Military Information Operations: Utilizing a Case Study of the Jammu and Kashmir Conflict

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bookard, Joe D

    2006-01-01

    .... A function of the U.S. military is to deter adversaries who oppose the will of the United States, and if unsuccessful, render them incapable of physical resistance, thus ultimately altering their behavior. In essence, the U.S...

  20. Cyberwar and Information Warfare: A Revolution in Military Affairs or Much Ado about Not Too Much?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ray, Charles A

    1997-01-01

    .... Looking back on these changes, and at the changes that are being caused by the rapid advances in today's technology, many people assert that we are in the midst of a revolution in military affairs (RMA...

  1. From DTCA-PD to patient information to health information: the complex politics and semantics of EU health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Eleanor; Geyer, Robert

    2012-12-01

    Between 2001 and 2011 the pharmaceutical industry, supported by DG Enterprise, was engaged in an ongoing campaign to repeal/amend the European Union (EU) ban on direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs (DTCA-PD). As it became increasingly clear that the ban would not be repealed, DTCA-PD supporters tried to shift the debate away from advertising and towards the provision of 'patient information' and the rights of patients to access such information. Meanwhile, a variety of national and European health organizations, supported by DG SANCO, sought to maintain the ban and oppose the industry-supported 'patient information' campaign. Instead, they promoted a concept of 'health information' that included all aspects of citizens' health, not just pharmaceuticals. This article aims to analyse the transition from DTCA-PD to patient information to health information and examine its implications for EU health policy as a complex policy space. The article examines the emergence and development of EU health policy and the evolution of the DTCA-PD debate through the lens of complexity theory. It analyses the nature of the semantic, political and policy transition and asks why it occurred, what it tells us about EU health policy and future EU health legislation and how it may be understood from a complexity perspective. The article concludes that the complexity framework is ideally suited for the field of public health and, in particular, the DTCA-PD debate. Having successfully shifted the policy-focus of the debate to patients' rights and health information, opponents of the legislation are likely to face their next battle in the realm of cyberspace, where regulatory issues change the nature of advertising. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Trust and Political Information: Attitudinal Change in Participants in the Youth Parliament in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Fuks

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the impact of socializing experiences on the political attitudes of youngsters. More specifically, our goal is to evaluate the impact of the Youth Parliament program on youngsters’ confidence levels in the Minas Gerais State Assembly (MGSA. The analysis focuses on the cognitive foundations of attitudes and results show a substantial increase in confidence levels in MGSA, an increase associated with the acquisition of information on the institution. It is asserted that the increase in confidence in MGSA represents and attitudinal “gain”. The study design involves quasi-experimental research on a non-random sample. We conducted two rounds of interviews in 2008, prior and subsequent to the program, with 335 participants (167 in the treatment group; and 168 in the control group.

  3. Design and Implementation of Multi Agentbased Information Fusion System for Decision Making Support (A Case Study on Military Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arwin Datunaya Wahyudi Sumari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Quick, accurate, and complete information is highly required for supporting strategically impact decision making in a Military Operation (MO in order to reduce the decision cycle and to minimize the loss. For that purpose, we propose, design and implement a hierarchical Multi Agentbased Information Fusion System for Decision Making Support (MAIFSDMS. The information fusion is implemented by applying Maximum Score of the Total Sum of Joint Probabilities (MSJP fusion method and is done by a collection of Information Fusion Agents (IFA that forms a multiagent system. MAIFS uses a combination of generalization of Dasarathy and Joint Director’s Laboratory (JDL process models for information fusion mechanism. Information fusion products that are displayed in graphical forms provide comprehensive information regarding the MO’s area dynamics. By observing the graphics resulted from the information fusion, the commandant will have situational awareness and knowledge in order to make the most accurate strategic de cision as fast as possible.

  4. Species protection, the changing informal economy, and the politics of access to the bushmeat trade in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Merode, Emmanuel; Cowlishaw, Guy

    2006-08-01

    Our understanding of the linkages between the bushmeat trade and the wider informal economy is limited. This lack of knowledge is particularly problematic for conservation under conditions of political instability, when the informal economy can be highly dynamic and impacts on wildlife populations can be severe. To explore these interlinked processes, we conducted a study of the bushmeat trade in Garamba National Park, Democratic Republic of Congo, through a combination of market surveys, semistructured interviews, and direct observation. We focused on the sale of protected and unprotected species in urban and rural markets, and the bushmeat commodity chains that supplied these markets, under conditions of political stability and armed conflict. During peacetime, protected species from the park (predominantly elephant and buffalo) rarely appeared in the rural markets, but they comprised more than half of all bushmeat sales in the urban markets. This pattern reflected differences in the rural and urban commodity chains. Automatic weapons were urban trade. The use of such weapons was discouraged by the traditional chiefs, who administered the village markets. During wartime, the sales of protected species in the urban markets increased fivefold because the military officers fled, leaving behind an open-access system that led to a massive increase in the exploitation of protected species. In contrast, the rural markets remained relatively stable because of the continued authority of the village chiefs. Our results indicate that sociopolitical factors can be an important determinant of species offtake and, therefore, that knowledge of the bushmeat commodity chain can be vital to controlling theprocesses that drive species extraction. In addition, our findings suggest that traditional authorities can be potentially valuable partners for bushmeat management.

  5. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1988-01-01

    Partial Contents: Military Political Issues, Warsaw Pact, Armed Forces, Ground Forces, Air Force, Air Defense Forces, Naval Forces, Strategic Rocket Forces, Civil Defense , Rear Services, Defense Industries, DOSAAF...

  6. Tunnel vision information: a paradox of ethics, economics, politics and science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilton, D; Stephens, D; Gorman, F

    1998-09-01

    Improvement in vision with spinal manipulation was first observed in the early 1970s. Reports of the phenomenon appeared in the 1980s in the popular press and at scientific meetings, but it was not until the mid-1990s that general discussion of the potential value of this knowledge occurred. Considering the far-reaching implications of the possible ability to improve brain function by spinal manipulation, the delay in consideration and implementation of this concept is a paradox in general terms and a total mystery in the case of the chiropractic profession. To provide explanations for the delay in scientific assessment of the discovery that vision improves, in appropriate patients, when the spine is manipulated and to discuss the implications of this finding. This discovery is now called the "tunnel vision information." A schema of pathological hierarchy is depicted in which the level of intervention of spinal manipulation outranks other forms of treatment. The significance of this precedence is portrayed. Possible reasons for the failure to address this hierarchy in light of the tunnel vision information are discussed with reference to established protocols, medical politics, the presentation of the data, the failure of scientific editorship and the illogical aspects of the illness itself. In the future, the delay from the initial observation of the tunnel vision discovery to its free discussion in scientific literature may seem incongruous, particularly if the health benefits which it augurs are realized.

  7. Critical Information Technology Must be Funded to Achieve a Successful Revolution in Military Logistics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weidenthal

    1998-01-01

    ...) has moved him to declare there can be no Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA) without an RML. As the Army prepares to enter into the 21st Century, it's critically recognized that logistics plays a more important role than ever before in our...

  8. Warfighting is for the Warriors? How the U.S. Military Can Ensure Effectiveness Despite the Participation of Political Leadership in Operational Decision-Making

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McAleer, Pete

    2007-01-01

    .... Any further involvement by the national-strategic leadership hampers the conduct of the war, impacts the military leadership, and wrestles decision-making from the trained, professional, experienced...

  9. SERVARE VITAS- Political Consequences for Romanian National Government and Military of Hostage Deaths in a Romanian Special Operations Forces Hostage Rescue Operation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rapanu, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    ... enforcement and military are immature. This paper attempts to shed light upon the current crisis management procedures and how that arrangement can affect the effectiveness of the state response in hostage situation crises both in country and abroad...

  10. Reckoning Informal Politics: Expands the Logic of Survival and Failure of Regional Heads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wawan Sobari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The qualitative research addresses the political logic of why and how the incumbents succeed and fail in direct election for regional heads (pilkada in emerging democratic Indonesia. De Mesquita et al. (2003 believe that, to survive in office, a leader needs to offer a benefit at least equal to the greatest possible benefit offered by a potential challenger. Particular to the pilkada cases in Indonesia, Erb and Sulistiyanto (2009 elaborate several factors connected to “reward and punishment” logic that may lead to the incumbents’ survival and failure in re-election bids. This study expands the logic by revealing that populism, rivalry, and tangibility are the core strategies for the successful incumbents in retaining their offices in four rural and urban regions in East Java. Particularly, the survival of an incumbent hinges on his capacity to manage rivalry risks, namely the capability to manage support and opposition both from formal and informal actors through fair or unfair means. These strategies, then, foster the success of patronage-based winning tactics to retain public office in the pilkada. To better assessment, it calls for the importance of democratic accountability as a complementary perspective (to consolidology in measuring the progress of democracy in the country. 

  11. Provincial–regional ANC politics in the Northern Cape: corruption or everyday informal practices?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thina Nzo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Research over the last decade on local government in South Africa has highlighted that some municipal councils under the political leadership of the Africa National Congress (ANC have shown weak political leadership, coupled with strong patronage systems, rent-seeking and corruption which have had an impact on the institutional functionality of municipalities in South Africa. Although patronage politics have been predominantly used to analyse the dynamics of post-apartheid local government ANC politics and councillor representation, this prevents us from understanding the representational focus of ANC councillors in decision-making processes. This paper offers an ethnographic insight into experiences of ANC councillors and the political complexities involved in council decision-making. Using ethnographic research, this paper will analyse how a political decision by the ANC provincial party, which was supported by the ANC regional party at local level – to erect a statue of Nelson Mandela in one of the municipalities in the Northern Cape – generated tensions amongst ANC councillors who strongly viewed their primary role as promoters of better ‘service delivery’ rather than approving the allocation of scarce municipal resources for erecting a statue. The paper reveals how the dominant presence of ANC sub-regional structures at local level contribute to the complex interaction of both ANC party political and municipal organisational rules and norms that influence and shape councillors’ choices in decision-making.

  12. Western Political Consulting Techniques and Post-Soviet Political Technology in Political Campaigns in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Bērziņa, Ieva

    2012-01-01

    Western Political Consulting Techniques and Post-Soviet Political Technology in Political Campaigns in Latvia Ieva Dmitričenko Keywords: political campaignsm political consulting, political technology, parties, marketing, media Political campaigning is an international phenomenon, because there is a free flow of information, knowledge and human resource among practitioners of political campaigning in various countries. As a result political campaigning techniques that have proven to ...

  13. Some Citizens Are Ill Informed and Lack Basic Knowledge of Politics. Should We Limit Their Right to Vote?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria CERNAT

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article tries to examine some of the anti-democratic messages that appeared in social media during the Romanian presidential campaign of 2014. My hypothesis is that the idea of limiting the right to vote gained the sympathy of the middle class – highly trained and remunerated individuals as a result of those messages disseminated during the 2014 presidential campaign. Namely, for the first time the electoral messages did not targeted only a political candidate but also his voters who were supposedly old, poor, ill-informed, dependent of social aid and prone to sacrifice their political power for material benefits. In the first part of my article I shall focus on the way the new media are shaping the political competition trying to find out whether these media are indeed alternative media fostering rational political debate and encouraging political engagement. In the second part of my article I shall focus on some of the onlineanti-democratic messages that were distributed during the first and the second round of the presidential elections. In the third part of the article I shall present the result of an empirical research composed of the semi-structured interviews I conducted having as subjects people working in the IT field. The theme of my interviews was the possibility of limitation of the right to vote.

  14. Iraqi Military Academies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nodar Z. Mossaki

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the system of training of officers in military academies in Iraq – in Zakho, Qalacholan, ar-Rustamiyah and an-Nasiriyah. The author describes the history of creation, process of evolution, challenges and features of training in these colleges. Particular attention paid to military academies in the territory of Iraqi Kurdistan, which actually do not obey the central government of Iraq, however, have the highest level of training. Currently, Iraq's military academies operate on the basis of the NATO standards. Iraqi military academies paid miuch attention to the specifics of the military and political situation in Iraq – counterinsurgency and counterterrorism operations, patrolling cities, fighting in an urban environment etc. Significant place in the curriculum take the courses contributing to the formation of pro-Western sentiment.

  15. Sex Worker Political Development in Costa Rica: from Informal Solidarities to Formal Organizing

    OpenAIRE

    Koné, Mzilikazi

    2014-01-01

    While many accounts of sex workers presume they lack agency, this project studies how people framed as powerless assert positions of power through social interactions, friendships, and organizing. I examine sex workers' politics and power from the perspective of a subset of female Costa Rican sex workers. I engage specifically with sex workers who organize, in order to theorize everyday experiences of politics, including solidarity building and acts of accommodation or resistance vis-à-vis st...

  16. Psychological Safety During Military Integrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wermser, Frederik; Täuber, Susanne; Essens, Peter; Molleman, Henricus; Beeres, Robert; Bakx, Gwendolyn; de Waard, Erik; Rietjens, Sebastiaan

    Increased military cooperation between member states of the European Union is a political given. The Netherlands and Germany form a spearhead in this process by integrating entire military units (i.e., brigades, battalions, companies) into higher-order units of the respective other nation (i.e.,

  17. Psychosocial Trauma Transmission and Appropriation in Grandchildren of Former Political Prisoners of the Civic – Military Dictatorship in Chile (1973-1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Faúndez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces and discusses a research which sought to comprehend, through the analysis of the narratives of the grandchildren of victims of the Civic-Military Dictatorship in Chile, the phenomena of transgenerational psychosocial trauma. The research involved 14 grandchildren of former political prisoners (FPP, between 18 and 25 years old, both from the Metropolitan Region of Chile and from the Araucanía Region. It considered life story as the productive technique, and applied a narrative analysis to the sample collected. The results of this study allow us to state that the life story of the grandchildren of FPP is included in a logic of transgenerational transmission and appropriation of the psychosocial trauma. Which implies that inside the families of FPP still persists the avoidance and silence dynamic around the torture’s experience, determining the relationship of the grandchildren with the traumatic experience. Also, the results show that there are important gendered features to take into consideration while listening to the narratives of transgenerational transmission.   Este artículo presenta y discute una investigación que buscó, a partir del relato de los nietos de víctimas de la dictadura cívico-militar chilena, comprender el fenómeno de la transgeneracionalidad del trauma psicosocial. En el estudio participaron 14 nietos de ex presos/as políticos/as, de entre 18 y 25 años de edad, procedentes de las regiones Metropolitana y de La Araucanía. Se usó el relato de vida como técnica de producción de información y se realizó un análisis narrativo. Los resultados de este estudio permiten plantear que la historia de vida de los nietos de FPP de la dictadura cívico-militar chilena se inscribe en una lógica de transmisión y apropiación transgeneracional del trauma psicosocial. En las familias de FPP persiste una dinámica de evitación y silencio en torno a la experiencia de tortura, la que determina la

  18. Civil-Military Relations in Thailand: Military Autonomy or Civilian Control?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matthews, Warren E

    2005-01-01

    ...: economic development, political parties, and the Monarchy. Next, the thesis analyzes three different periods in Thailand's political development to determine trends in the level of military autonomy and civilian control...

  19. Sobre la centralización de la república: estructura militar y sistema político en Guanajuato, 1835-1847 On the Centralization of the Republic: Military Structure and Political System in Guanajuato, 1835-1847

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Serrano Ortega

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available La mayoría de los diputados del Congreso Constituyente de 1835-1836 apoyaron la centralización y monopolio en manos del gobierno nacional del uso legítimo de la fuerza militar, con exclusión en su mando y organización de cualquier otra institución local y regional. Ahora sabemos que el proyecto de desarmar a las regiones fue un fracaso. Conocer las causas de este revés es el principal objetivo de este artículo, tomando como materia de estudio al departamento de Guanajuato. Asimismo, se destaca que para entender la historia de las fuerzas militares de Guanajuato y del fallo del proceso de centralización castrense es necesario relacionar directamente el tema militar con otros aspectos de la estructura societal de Guanajuato, en particular su sistema político.Most of the delegates in the Constituent Congress of 1835-1836 supported the government's centralization and monopoly of the legitimate use of military force, with the exclusion of any other local or regional institution from its command and organization. We now know that the project to disarm the regions failed. Determining the causes of this failure is the main purpose of this article, which focuses on the department of Guanajuato. This article highlights the fact that in order to understand the history of the military forces of Guanajuato and the failure of the process of military centralization, the military issue must be directly linked to other aspects of the societal structure of Guanajuato, particularly its political system.

  20. Political Science and Political Geography: Neglected Areas, Areas for Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laponce, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    Since at least the 1950s, political scientists have tended to ignore the possible contributions of political geography to political science because of a move away from considering spatial factors on political structure. Political scientists need to use more information from geography to enhance their understanding of political power and conflict.…

  1. African Journal of Political Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This essay examines the role which the Nigerian media played in the transition from military rule to elected civilian government. It observes that the immediate political context of the transition was a post-Abacha liberalizing military administration as well as a resurgent civil society. This context meant that the media was able ...

  2. USMC Relocation to Guam: Political Pressure and Poor Plam1ing to Blame for an Ill-Postured U.S. Military in the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    Projects and Programs to Support a Larger Military Presence (Washington, D.C.: Government Accountability Office, 2009), 1. 22 Akiko Yamamoto , "Rice, on...Washington, D.C.: Government Accountability Office, 2009. Yamamoto , Akiko . "Rice, on Japan Visit, Offers U.S. Regrets Over Alleged Rape

  3. A theory of military dictatorships

    OpenAIRE

    Acemoglu, Daron; Ticchi, Davide; Vindigni, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    We investigate how nondemocratic regimes use the military and how this can lead to the emergence of military dictatorships. Nondemocratic regimes need the use of force in order to remain in power, but this creates a political moral hazard problem; a strong military may not simply work as an agent of the elite but may turn against them in order to create a regime more in line with their own objectives. The political moral hazard problem increases the cost of using repression in nondemocratic r...

  4. Europeization - A New Topic in Political Science Research – information from the conference

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Linek, Lukáš

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 3 (2005), s. 529-532 ISSN 0038-0288 R&D Projects: GA MPS(CZ) 1J004/04-DP1 Keywords : Europeisation * political parties Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.113, year: 2005

  5. Private Military and Security Contractors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In Private Military and Security Contractors: Controlling the Corporate Warrior a multinational team of 16 scholars and a practitioner from political science, sociology, and law address a developing phenomenon: controlling the use of privatized force by states in international politics. Robust...

  6. Political environment in the effect of the regional government financial performance on disclosure of financial information on website

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yustina Hiola

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the effect of financial performance of local governments towards the disclosure compliance of financial information on the website, as well as the political environment as a moderating variable for the effect of the financial performance of local governments towards disclosure compliance of financial infor-mation on the website. The study was conducted at the local government in Sulawesi with the sample consisting of 53 governments. The data were analyzed by partial least square (PLS. The results showed that good financial performance of local governments can encourage disclosure compliance of financial information on the website. This study also found that the political environment cannot moderate the effect of the financial performance towards the disclosure compliance of financial information on the website. This is due to the people who are interested more in paper-based reporting. The implication of this study was to encourage related re-search as well as encouraging local governments to use website as a media for finan-cial information reporting. Gorontalo district government is local government, which has excellent financial performance with complete disclosure of financial information on the website.

  7. INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES IN PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITY OF SCIENTIFIC AND EDUCATIONAL PERSONNEL IN THE SPHERE OF POST DIPLOMA MILITARY MEDECINE EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan F. Honcharenko

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the place and the role of information and communication technologies in the scientific and pedagogical activity of pedagogical personnel in the sphere of post diploma military medicine education. The results of the questionnaire for the above mentioned personnel are presented in the article. There are emphasized and generalized the problems of information and communication competence formation of scientific and educational personnel in the sphere of post diploma military medicine using ICT in their teaching activities in the process of post-diploma education.

  8. An Agency Theory View of the Military Advisor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petrina, Gilbert E

    2005-01-01

    ...: Agency, Oversight, and Civil-Military Relations, political scientist Peter Feaver proposes a theory of civil- military relations based on principal-agent theory called Agency theory which defines...

  9. Reckoning Informal Politics: Expands the Logic of Survival and Failure of Regional Heads

    OpenAIRE

    Wawan Sobari

    2018-01-01

    The qualitative research addresses the political logic of why and how the incumbents succeed and fail in direct election for regional heads (pilkada) in emerging democratic Indonesia. De Mesquita et al. (2003) believe that, to survive in office, a leader needs to offer a benefit at least equal to the greatest possible benefit offered by a potential challenger. Particular to the pilkada cases in Indonesia, Erb and Sulistiyanto (2009) elaborate several factors connected to “reward and punishmen...

  10. Politics of aviation fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivent, Jacques

    1922-01-01

    In short, the "politics of aviation" lies in a few propositions: the need of having as large a number of fields as possible and of sufficient area; the utilization of the larger part of the existing military fields; the selection of uncultivated or unproductive fields, whenever technical conditions permit; ability to disregard (save in exceptional cases) objections of an agricultural nature.

  11. Military Librarians Workshop: A Premier Gathering of Military Librarians, 1957-1999

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Palmer, William A., Jr; Hanna, Marcia

    2000-01-01

    The Military Librarian Workshop(MLW) is an annual meeting that brings together civilian and military personnel who serve as special librarians, library supervisors, or technical information officers in military or governmental...

  12. Development of internet-based information systems using software components with the emphasis on the application in the military organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš J. Pejanović

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of personal computers and Internet technology causes continuous changes in methodological approaches and concepts of development of information systems. Most existing information systems, due to their heterogeneity, have a problem of integration of subsystems. In order to overcome this problem, software vendors offer different solutions. In this work we explore different approaches and propose an optimal way, with a special emphasis on its application in the military organization. By applying modern approaches in the development of information systems on the concept of distributed component systems, we come to the set of proposed solutions from different manufacturers. The solutions are related to the mechanisms which should ensure that components written in different languages cooperate with each other in heterogeneous systems that are in different nodes in the computer network. This work describes the concept of component distributed information systems of Internet technology and their capabilities and offers a solution specifying the implementation environment in the military organization. Access to the development of information systems In the development of information systems, an important role is given to the choice of appropriate methods and tools. For large systems such as military organizations, standardized procedures and methodologies for the development of information systems are recommended. There are different methodological approaches in the development of information systems: a systematic integrated approach to development (from design, implementation to implementation and maintenance and development of information systems as technical - technological structures (standard computer and network service. The combination of these two approaches leads to the concept of 'open systems' that allow different standards and IT services to operate on these systems. The UML system description of the process of software

  13. 77 FR 65707 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Request for Certification of Military or Naval Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-30

    ... information technology, e.g., permitting electronic submission of responses. Overview of This Information... estimate of .333 hours per response; 10,000 respondents for the biometric processing with an estimate of 1...

  14. Decision Maker Perception of Information Quality: A Case Study of Military Command and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Grayson B.

    2013-01-01

    Decision maker perception of information quality cues from an "information system" (IS) and the process which creates such meta cueing, or data about cues, is a critical yet un-modeled component of "situation awareness" (SA). Examples of common information quality meta cueing for quality criteria include custom ring-tones for…

  15. [The framing of transgenics in São Paulo newspapers: the potential contribution of information to political participation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothberg, Danilo; Berbel, Danilo Brancalhão

    2010-06-01

    In 2007, Brazil's National Health Surveillance Agency (Anvisa) conducted an online public consultation to obtain input on its Proposed Technical Regulations for assessing the safety of transgenic food products. The article describes the context and results of a research study that identified the main ways in which the newspapers Folha de S.Paulo and O Estado de S.Paulo framed and addressed topics related to the subject matter of this consultation. Our goal was to evaluate the gamut of information available that could contribute to this form of political participation. The journalistic coverage in question was generally fragmented; 70% of articles offered incomplete views on the topics in question.

  16. Political Crowdfunding as concept of political technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria GOLKA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Political crowdfunding is analyzed as a new concept of political science. The justification of use of crowdfunding technologies not only in business but also in the political sphere is argued. The efficiency, availability, low cost of the new forms of political investment through the development of information and communication technologies are noted. The typology of political crowdfunding is proposed. Political projects promoting domestic crowdfunding platforms are analyzed. Attention is drawn to the problem of legal gaps in the regulation of crowdfunding is studied. The foreign experience of organizing public support (mikroinvestment political projects. It is emphasized that in terms of political theory crowdfunding is based on solidarity. The crowdfunding properties of transforming social capital accumulated by social networks into financial capital are mentioned.

  17. Military exceptionalism or tobacco exceptionalism: How civilian health leaders' beliefs may impede military tobacco control efforts

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, EA; Malone, RE

    2013-01-01

    Smoking impairs the readiness and performance of military personnel, yet congressional opposition has thwarted military tobacco control initiatives. Involvement of civilian organizations might alter this political dynamic. We interviewed 13 leaders of national civilian public health and tobacco control organizations to explore their perspectives on military tobacco control, inductively analyzing data for themes. Leaders believed that military tobacco use was problematic but lacked specific kn...

  18. 77 FR 54559 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Offsets in Military Exports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ...: Direct all written comments to Jennifer Jessup, Departmental Paperwork Clearance Officer, Department of...) 482-4895, Lawrence[email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract This collection of...

  19. The Application of Operations Research Techniques to the Evaluation of Military Management Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    systems such as management information systems . To provide a methodology yielding quantitative results which may assist a commander and his staff in...this analysis, it is proposed that management information systems be evaluated as a whole by a technique defined as the semantic differential. Each

  20. 75 FR 70961 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Voluntary Disclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    .... Type of Request: Extension of Currently Approved Collection. Originating Office: Bureau of Political.../DDTC, SA-1, 12th Floor, Directorate of Defense Trade Controls, Bureau of Political-Military Affairs, U... consider criminal prosecution. Methodology: These forms/information collections may be sent to the...

  1. Maritime Military Decision Making in Environments of Extreme Information Ambiguity: An Initial Exploration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reeves, Andrew T

    2005-01-01

    ... to make effective decisions. An environment of extreme information ambiguity, a dependent variable, is one of the most difficult components of a battle where the decision maker may reach a confusing and debilitating point...

  2. Attracting the Best. How the Military Competes for Information Technology Personnel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hosek, James R; Mattock, Michael G; Fair, C. C; Kavanagh, Jennifer; Sharp, Jennifer; Totten, Mark

    2004-01-01

    The late-1990s peak in demand for information technology (IT) workers led private firms to respond by offering higher pay, enhanced on-the-job training opportunities, flexible work hours, and support for career development...

  3. Perspectives on Information and Communications Technology (ICT) for Civil-Military Coordination in Crises

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christman, Gerard; Kramer, Franklin; Starr, Stuart; Wentz, Larry

    2006-01-01

    ...), stabilization and reconstruction (S&R), and complex emergencies. Although these types of crises can differ in their causes and specific impacts, there are significant similarities in the information and communications technology (ICT...

  4. Off the Trodden Path: Thinking Through the Military Exploration of the Information Domain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Connell, Ed

    1997-01-01

    Trends in today's security environment point to a changed information domain on the horizon--a cyberspace of increased density, interconnectivity and collaboration, where links and nodes have disappeared...

  5. The Military Dimension of American Hegemony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONELA BĂLŢĂTESCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A Political Economy of American Hegemony - Buildups, Booms and Busts by Thomas Oatley offers relevant historical and statistical evidence regarding military buildups in postwar America, assessing the economic and political impact of deficit financed military spending. From this point of view the book proves to be a very instructive and challenging reading. Thomas Oatley is professor of political science at North Carolina University, teaching courses on international politics and political economy. He is also the author of a series of papers and books on international political economy. His main theme of research is the interaction between economic interests and political institutions and how it shaped governments’ foreign economic policies. A Political Economy of American Hegemony Buildups, Booms and Busts is the most recent and also the most challenging of his books, in terms of inquired questions and defended theses.

  6. The Use Of Information And Communication Technology And Social Networking Sites In Political Governance Of East African Legislative Assembly Parliament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainebyona Robert

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This research project was carried out to ascertain the use of Information and Communication Technologies and Social Networking Sites in political governance of East African Legislative Assembly Parliament. The research project was based on the conviction that in this era of globalization use of ICTs and SNSs are fundamentally important and will have tremendous impact on governance leadership and legislation now and in the near future. The specific objective of this study was intended a To evaluate the use of Social Networking Sites in enhancing the political governance of East African Legislative assembly Parliament. The findings from the research showed that that all the respondents 100 were subscribed to social networking sites and used them from time to time. Additionally the EALA parliamentarians had a disparity when it came to use of SNSs to interact with constituents 73.3 of the respondents indicated that they have used SNSs to interact with constituents on matters affecting the community from time to time however 26.7 showed that they did not use Social Networking sites to interact with constituents. Lastly the use of ICTs and SNSs by EALA has also made it possible for citizens to view Assembly proceedings in real time and hence where able to view their representatives in the course of carrying out their duties in the political arena.Lastly the world is changing in a dynamic fashion SNSs are among the tools leading the transformation and it is about time Parliamentarians in Africa embrace SNSs as major tools in changing how leaders interact and remain accountable to their constituents a practice thats been a myth in Africa.

  7. Military Deception Reconsidered

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, Charmaine L

    2008-01-01

    ...: focus, integration, timeliness, security, objective, and centralized control. However, I propose that operational advantage, consisting of surprise, information advantage and security, are essential elements of a successful military deception...

  8. The Nonlinear Effect of Information on Political Attention: Media Storms and U.S. Congressional Hearings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walgrave, S.; Boydstun, A.E.; Vliegenthart, R.; Hardy, A.

    2017-01-01

    Agenda-setting scholars have claimed that the typical punctuated pattern of governmental attention is a consequence of disproportionate information processing. Yet these claims remain unsubstantiated. We tackle this challenge by considering mass media coverage as a source of information for

  9. Does Fiscal Austerity Affect Political Decision-Makers’ Use and Perception of Performance Information?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnholt, Bente; Bækgaard, Martin; Houlberg, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    of performance information is tested using survey and documentary data from Danish municipalities. The article concludes that politicians who face high fiscal austerity use performance information to a lesser extent than colleagues who face less fiscal austerity, thus indicating the use of performance...

  10. Improving Civil-Military Information Sharing in Peace Support Operations Using a Service-Oriented Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    solutions that operate reliable under adverse conditions including a bandwidth-limited environment, and provide them with customised information...236 Klein, G. (1998) Sources of Power: How people make decisions, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass ., USA, 1998 NATO (2007) NATO Architecture Framework

  11. Affect and Public Support for Military Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dukhong Kim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effects of affect on public opinion on foreign policy. It extends the existing studies which show a significant role that affect, as measured by feelings toward a country, plays in shaping public opinion on military action. According to the existing theory, the mass public, which does not have high levels of political information and knowledge, can rely on affect to make reasonable decisions and opinions. This is possible because affect works as an information shortcut or heuristic that can help those individuals who lack cognitive capacity to engage in a systematic search for information and a decision-making process. The research finding confirms this theory. More importantly, this study extends the existing studies by elaborating the conditions under which affect works in accounting for individuals’ support for military intervention. The effect of affect is conditioned by the level of political knowledge, which shows that knowledgeable individuals are more adept at using affect as a heuristic tool.

  12. Boundary management and integration framework for a joint cyber defence capability for military forces: analysis and synthesis from a through-life capability management perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roodt, JHS

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available friendly use. Psychological Operations (PO). Psychological activities, including political, economic and military actions, in peace, military operations other than war, and war, directed to an enemy and/or foreign friendly and neutral audiences... into information/intelligence presented in the form of situation pictures to decision makers at different levels and positions (C2 nodes) throughout the organisation. These layers are capped by the cognitive layer, which as the name suggests, addresses...

  13. NATO Enlargement: Balancing Economic and Military Objectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bostick, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    The military requirements of NATO Enlargement should be tied to NATO's overall goal of seeking stability in all of Europe such that it does not undermine political and economic success in new member countries...

  14. MILITARY OPERATIONS IN THE INFORMATION AGE: PUTTING THE COGNITIVE DOMAIN ON TOP

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-06

    social media . Although information and the power of influence is recognized as an important component of the diplomatic instrument of national power...operational level for surveillance but it is not only an opportunity to better understand the battlespace but also to influence it. Social media was...to use messaging to influence on the internet and through social media , it is important to study and employ proven methods to ensure the messages are

  15. Realizacija računarske mreže vojnomedicinske akademije / Medical military academy information system management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Stojanović

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Vojnomedicinska akademija (VMA u Beogradu danas se ne može zamisliti bez kvalitetnog informacionog sistema, koji se najčešće razvija u sistemu računarske mreže. Cilj ovoga rada je da prikaže smernice i definiše neka rešenja u implementaciji buduće računarske mreže VMA. Težište rada je na implementaciji prva tri nivoa OSI modela jedne složene i kompleksne mreže kakva bi trebalo da bude računarska mreža VMA. / The Medical Military Academy (MMA in Belgrade cannot be imagined without a high-quality information system implemented in a corresponding computer network. The aim of this study is to show guidelines and possible solutions in implementing a computer network in to the MMA in the future. The main part of this study describes the implementation of the first three levels of the OSI model into the complex MMA computer network.

  16. Military Strategy Of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Zaitsev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the evolution of military strategy of the Republic of India and key factors that influences its development. New Delhi keeps an eye on the balance of power in South Asia to create favorable conditions for its economic and social development, yet the remaining threats and new challenges still undermine the security and stability in India. The ambitions of China aspiring to power in Asia-Pacific region, combined with its immense military build-up and territorial disputes, cause disturbance in New Delhi. The remaining tensions between India and Pakistan also cause often border skirmishes and medium-scale conflicts. Close relations between China and Pakistan, labeled as “all-weather friendship”, are a source of major concern for India. The fact that both Beijing and Islamabad wield nuclear weapons means that without effective mechanisms of nuclear deterrence any military conflict may turn into a full-scale nuclear war. Terrorist activities and insurgency in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir and in the North-Eastern regions of the country, along with maritime piracy and illicit drug trafficking contribute to the complicated nature of the challenges to the Indian security. Indian military strategy is considered as a combination of the army doctrine, maritime doctrine and nuclear doctrine. The Indian political and military leadership wants to meet the challenges of changing geopolitical environment and thus continuously adapts its strategy. However, there is still a gap between theory and practice: Indian armed forces lack the capacity to implement the declared goals because of bulky bureaucratic system, outdated military equipment and insufficient level of command and control. The government needs to mobilize political will and administrative resources to upgrade its defense sector to counter its security threats and challenges.

  17. Informed Switchers? How the Impact of Election News Exposure on Vote Change Depends on Political Information Efficacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geers, S.; Bos, L.; de Vreese, C.H.

    2017-01-01

    The increase in electoral volatility in European democracies has raised the question of whether volatile voters are just randomly switching or actually making more informed vote choices. This study addresses this question by examining the underlying mechanisms through which election news exposure

  18. Translations on USSR Military Affairs, Number 1319

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-12-22

    basis of military economics. As is known, the modern scientific and technological revolution has strengthened even more the dependence of war and...investment spheres of an academy’s graduates must also be consider- ed The teaching of political and military economies would border on enlight - enment...dynamics of its military, economic, scientific and technological potential without mastering the changes in the industrial structure of physical

  19. Pending crisis in Russian civil military relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, D.Y.

    1997-10-01

    A key issue in the study of civil-military relations has been how to create a military sufficiently strong to ensure security from external threats while simultaneously preventing the military from using its preponderance of power in the domestic arena. This dilemma arises from the fear engendered by a large armed force created to combat foreign threats, but which is also inherently a threat to the society that created it. In Russia, however, the question is not how the civilian leadership can keep the military out of politics, but how the military can keep the leadership from politicizing the armed forces. The Russian military has no interest in resolving Russia`s domestic political problems. It is a professional military that prefers to leave politics to the politicians, and to carry out its mission of defending the nation against external attack. But the lack of responsible central leadership and the poor state of the economy are driving the military toward involvement in domestic politics if for no other reason than to ensure its own survival.

  20. The Back-Office of E-Government (Managing Information Domains as Political Economies)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.M.F. Homburg (Vincent); V.J.J.M. Bekkers (Victor)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractMany governmental organizations nowadays are setting up e-government initiatives to improve the delivery of services to citizens. Often, these initiatives require information exchange in networks of various governmental organizations in so-called back-offices. In this article, resource

  1. Creating the American National Information Infrastructure The Interaction of Science, Technology, Business, Legislation and Politics

    CERN Document Server

    Kahn, R E

    1995-01-01

    R.KAHN will discuss the current situation in the United States with respect to development of a National Information Infrastructure(NII). He will address the roles being played by various government and private sector parties and likely scenarios for evolution of the NII. The interplay of technology with non-technological considerations will also be addressed.

  2. Designing the public sphere: information technologies and the politics of mediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, Peter P.C.C.; Floridi, Luciano

    2014-01-01

    After a few decades of living with Information and Communication Technologies, we have got so much used to their presence in our daily lives, that we hardly realize that the societal and cultural revolution they are causing has only just begun. While most discussions still focus on privacy issues

  3. Design and Implementation of Multi Agent-based Information Fusion System for Supporting Decision Making (A Case Study on Military Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arwin Datumaya Wahyudi Sumari

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Quick, accurate, and complete information is highly required for supporting strategically impact decision making in a Military Operation (MO in order to reduce the decision cycle and to minimize the loss. For that purpose, we propose, design and implement a hierarchical Multi Agent-based Information Fusion System for Decision Making Support (MAIFS-DMS. The information fusion is implemented by applying Maximum Score of the Total Sum of Joint Probabilities (MSJP fusion method and is done by a collection of Information Fusion Agents (IFA that forms a multiagent system. MAIFS uses a combination of generalization of Dasarathy and Joint Director’s Laboratory (JDL process models for information fusion mechanism. Information fusion products that are displayed in graphical forms provide comprehensive information regarding the MO area dynamics. By observing the graphics resulted from the information fusion, the commandant will have situational awareness and knowledge in order to make the most accurate strategic decision as fast as possible

  4. Culture, agency and power: Theoretical reflections on informal economic networks and political process

    OpenAIRE

    Meagher, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Do network theory really offer a suitable concept for the theorization of informal processes of economic regulation and institutional change? This working paper challenges both essentialist and skeptical attitudes to networks through an examination of the positive and negative effects of network governance in contemporary societies in a range of regional contexts. The analysis focuses on three broad principles of non-state organization - culture, agency and power - and their role in shaping p...

  5. Political Transmigrants: Rethinking Hmong Political Activism in America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nengher N. Vang, Ph.D

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the initial resettlement of the Hmong in the United States in the mid-1970s, they have maintained strong political and military relationships with the Lao People‘s Democratic Republic (LPDR. Yet, there is little research on that relationship and the involvement of the Hmong in the United States in political developments in Laos. Most works on Hmong political activism have focused on the electoral participation and representation of Hmong Americans in relation to American domestic politics. In this article, using archival, ethnographic, and interview data that I have collected between 2006 and 2009 in Laos, Thailand, and the United States, I describe and analyze the non-domestic or transnational form of Hmong American political expression and participation. I argue that Hmong political activism in America not only was transnational from the outset, but that their transnational involvement in political developments in Laos and their relations with the Lao PDR government also had a significant impact on their ethnic politics. Many Hmong political activists made their entry into ethnic politics through the door of transnational politics, and many were motivated by transnational political issues to participate in domestic American politics. By exploring their transnational involvement in political developments in Laos and their relations with the Lao PDR government, we get a more complete and dynamic understanding of Hmong political activism in the United States than is possible by focusing exclusively on domestic and electoral participation. Examining their transnational politics also allows us to see the transnationality of not only their culture, identity, and community but also that of their political activities and aspirations.

  6. Chemicals of military deployments: revisiting Gulf War Syndrome in light of new information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimfield, A A

    2012-01-01

    Despite the amount of hard work that has gone into elucidating a toxicological basis for Gulf War Illness, we do not appear to have reached a mechanistic understanding. Investigation of long-term low-level exposure as a basis does not seem to have provided an answer. Nor does the deployment-related toxic soup idea, where exposure to a mixture of toxic chemicals not usually encountered in the same physical vicinity, seems to have explained the symptoms developed by Gulf War Veterans. The idea that an overabundance of CNS acetylcholine leftover from excessive cholinesterase inhibition is at the basis of this syndrome is intellectually appealing and offers a level of neurochemical complexity that may be just beyond the reach of our technical understanding. But no one has yet assembled a coherent mechanism from it either. It seems reasonable that chemical warfare agents were involved. They were not included in early work because it was felt that the toxicant plumes produced during the destruction of stockpiled Iraqi chemical weapons had not been large enough to cause an exposure of US forces and those of our allies. That misconception was disproven, and it is now accepted that people could very well have been exposed to low levels of massive quantities of sarin, cyclosarin, and sulfur mustard. It also seems reasonable that excess acetylcholine or neurological consequences of its presence that we do not fully understand were involved. The combination of nerve agents and the insecticidal anticholinesterases plus the pyridostigmine bromide given prophylactically were probably sufficient to cause the problem. However, the most notable thing is the result of recent work on the toxic mechanism of sulfur mustard showing that it can inhibit the microsomal electron transport chain as a result of sulfonium ion reduction to carbon free radicals by NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase. This information was not available during the work on Gulf War Illness. So this provides an

  7. Do Crisis Response Operations Affect Political and Economic Stability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-05-01

    military presence itself actually affects overall levels of political and economic stability is still an open question. We look at the following two...relationship between military actions and political and economic stability . In this paper, we focus only on the crisis response piece of the overseas presence issue.

  8. Records working in libraries of federal universities: ethics, politics and access to information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina de Souza Caetano

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The librarian work also relates to the registrations of their working procedures. In addition to the efficiency in the management and consistency of work, they give transparency to the guidelines and choices made, and allow periodic reassessment of the shares. Classical authors, who conceptualize the document, emphasize the importance of the act of documenting. Objectives: Maps the existence of records of employment policies, and actions, in Brazilian federal universities libraries and inquire about the ethical problems, and of the lack of access to information in his absence. Methodology: Mapping the sites of fifty-seven federal universities libraries searching the provision of official records containing policies, plans, manuals, user guides, regulations, among others. Results: 57% of libraries do not offer any kind of record. The greater supply of different working documents is found in the libraries of the Southeast and South. But still, 41% of them does not provide any kind of document. The lack of transparency can create opportunities of injustices and even unethical actions. Conclusions: Among the reasons for not document we find the lack of clear guidelines on official documents to drive the profession and the university librarians. It contradicts the principle of the law of access to information and shown inconsistent with professionals and institutions that would theoretically primary obligation to do it.

  9. Politics of change: the discourses that inform organizational change and their capacity to silence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Kim

    2016-09-01

    Changes in healthcare organizations are inevitable and occurring at unprecedented rates. Such changes greatly impact nurses and their work, yet these experiences are rarely explored. Organizational change discourses remain grounded in perspectives that explore and explain systems, often not the people within them. Change processes in healthcare organizations informed by such organizational discourses validate only certain perspectives and forms of knowledge. This fosters exclusionary practices, limiting the capacity of certain individuals or groups of individuals to effectively contribute to change discourses and processes. The reliance on mainstream organizational discourses in healthcare organizations has left little room for the exploration of diverse perspectives on the subject of organizational change, particularly those of nurses. Michel Foucault's work challenges dominant discourse and suggest that strong reliance's on specific discourses effectively disqualify certain forms of knowledge. Foucault's writings on disqualified knowledge and parrhesia (truth telling and frank speech) facilitate the critical exploration of discourses that inform change in healthcare organizations and nurses capacities to contribute to organizational discourses. This paper explores the capacity of nurses to speak their truths within rapidly and continuously changing healthcare organizations when such changes are often driven by discourses not derived from nursing knowledge or experience. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Mindlessly Polite: A Conceptual Replication of the Emotional Seesaw Effect on Compliance and Information Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, Magdalena C; Steffens, Melanie C

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrated that the sequential induction of contrasting negative and positive emotions can be used as a social influence technique. The original field experiments found that whenever a sudden change in the emotional dynamic occurs - from negative to positive or vice versa - an increase in compliant behavior and an impairment in cognitive functioning can be observed. The goal of the present experiments was a conceptual replication and extension of the results in a more controlled and counterbalanced fashion. To this aim a novel emotion induction technique was created using an outcome related expectancy violation to induce and change emotions. In a first experiment, the influence of contrasting emotions (vs. only one emotion) on compliance, message processing and information recall was assessed among 80 undergraduate students. We were able to show that a positive, then negative experience, and vice versa, led to losses in processing efficacy, not only leaving individuals momentarily vulnerable to social influence attempts, but also impairing information recall. We replicated this pattern of findings in a second experiment ( N = 41). The implications of this innovative induction technique and its findings for theory and future research on the emerging field on contrasting emotions as social-influence techniques are discussed.

  11. Keeping Current and Increasing The Effectiveness of the Decision-Making Process and the Interoperability in the Digital Age: Geospatial Intelligence and Geospatial Information Systems' Applications in the Military and Intelligence Fields for the Mexican Navy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meillon, Salomon C

    2008-01-01

    The birth of the digital era full of new technologies and information systems that increase as time goes by has forced the military to embrace these innovations so that they do not lose effectiveness...

  12. Atomic politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skogmar, G.

    1979-01-01

    The authors basic point is that the military and civil sides of atomic energy cannot be separated. The general aim of the book is to analyze both the military and civil branches, and the interdependence between them, of American foreign policy in the atomic field. Atomic policy is seen as one of the most important imstruments of foreign policy which, in turn, is seen against the background of American imperialism in general. Firstly, the book investigates the most important means by which the United States has controlled the development in the nuclear field in other countries. These means include influencing the conditions of access to nuclear resources of various kinds, influencing the flow of technical-economic information and influencing international organizations and treaties bearing on atomic energy. The time period treated is 1945-1973. 1973 is chosen as the end-year of the study mainly because of the new conditions in the whole energy field initiated by the oil crisis in that year. The sources of the empirical work are mainly hearings before the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy of the U.S. Congress and legal material of various kinds. Secondly, the goals of the American policy are analyzed. The goals identified are armament effect, non-proliferation (horizontal), sales, and energy dependence. The relation between the main goals is discussed.The discussion is centered on the interdependence between the military and the civil aspects, conflict and coincidence of various goals, the relation between short-term and long-term goals, and the possibilities of using one goal as pretext for another. Thirdly, some causes of the changes in the atomic policy around 1953 and 1963 are identified. These are the strategic balance, the competitive situation, the capacity (of the American atomic productive apparatus), and the nuclear technological stage. The specific composition of these four factors at the two time-points can explain the changes of policy. (author)

  13. South Africa and the Korean War, the politics of involvement | Van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa and the Korean War, the politics of involvement. ... Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies ... The Union of South Africa's military involvement in the Korean War was an exercise in political maneuvering as opposed to one of any great military significance.1 South Africa's new right wing ...

  14. Linking Political Systems and War Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2009-01-01

    Decisive parts of the Western political system have demonstrated a seemingly surprising misinterpretation of military might. As Madelaine Albright has suggested, the mighty perceived themselves as "almighty". Political power seems to have invested in instrumental coercive power relations and found...... military coercion to be the appropriate mean. Using the system theory and the theory of systemic risks displayed by the German sociologist Niklas Luhmann the article demonstrates how military systems due to their own autonomy and autopoiesis do not fit into the idea of political government....... The Clausewitzian ideal of a political system that could continue its power games by means of war was moderated by Clausewitz' own analysis of "friction". How can a political system be so blind towards the possibilities of another system? What are the risks of systemic blind spots? The argument of the paper...

  15. Kimon's military campaign in Caria and Lycia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranov D.A.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available the article analyzes the reasons, course and results of the military campaign of the Athenian military commander Kimon in the southwest of Asia Minor. The author provides a brief comparative-historical and textual analysis of written sources and archaeological materials testifying the military-political activity of Athens in Caria and Lycia. An attempt is made to analyze the evolution of views on the problem within the framework of classical and modern historiography. Based on the involvement of a wide range of data, an attempt is made to analyze the evolution of the political influence of Athens in southwestern Anatolia.

  16. Comparing military and civilian critical thinking and information processes in operational risk management: what are the lessons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanVactor, Jerry D; Gill, Tony

    2010-03-01

    Business continuity has expanded into a discipline that spans most functional areas of large enterprises. Both the military and financial sectors have consistently demonstrated an aptitude to expand the boundaries of continuity planning and crisis mitigation. A comparison of both enterprises is provided to see how their respective methodologies compare. Interestingly, the similarities far outweigh the differences. The paper provides commentary related to comparative insight from risk practitioners' perspectives from within the US Army, one of the largest military organisations in the world, and the Bank of Montreal, one of Canada's leading financial institutions.

  17. ``Political'' Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzak Hopkins, Laura

    2013-03-01

    Politics and policy affect all of us, both as scientists and as citizens, and issues ranging from laboratory budgets to arms control treaties clearly require research problem-solving skills and technical expertise. There is a critical role for scientists in each aspect of the political system, and in fact, we as a society need more scientists to take part in politics. Furthermore, the research we pursue has important societal applications and is fascinating! We have a right and a responsibility to share our scientific knowledge not only with each other, but with the general public as well. So, why are we as a community of scientists reticent in the public arena, hesitant to enter politics, and even at times unsupportive of our peers who transition into governmental roles? In this time of fiscal constraint, when difficult research funding (and de-funding) choices are regularly being made, we as scientists must step up to the plate, reach across the aisle, and explain why what we do is fascinating, inspiring, and important, not just to us, but to society as a whole. A range of policy-relevant roles exists inside and outside the laboratory, such as Congressional Fellowships. Each year the Congressional Fellowships program brings together approximately thirty scientists at all stages of their careers to serve as scientific advisors in a variety of offices in the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives. Although the jump from lab to lobbying meetings can be frustrating, the transition can also be intriguing. Firsthand experience with the ``how'' and ``why'' (or lack thereof) of politics and policy is invaluable and provides a unique opportunity to expand and broaden one's background. The opportunity to work on Capitol Hill is unparalleled, particularly because our nation has a definite need for scientists with the inclination and interest to inform and develop policy. But, whatever role you decide to take, from contributing scientific news to local publications to

  18. Political ecology and environmental justice analysis of information and communication technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Wang-Jin

    There has been rapid growth in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) development during the last decades. Worldwide PC numbers will rise to 2 billion by 2015, with more than 1 billion in use by the end of 2008. Over 4 billion subscribers use mobile cellular telephones, translating into a worldwide penetration rate of 61 percent by the end of 2008. Analyses have shown evidence that ICT has significantly contributed to capitalist growth economy. Regarding the environmental impacts of ICT, optimists hail a rosy future of a weightless knowledge economy, critics, however, point out that ICT also threatens environment through reinforcing capitalist growth economy and accelerating commodification of nature. Although some case studies have shown the potential environmental benefits through ICT application, these approaches need to be balanced against a range of countervailing effects, including negative direct impacts of ICT manufacture, use, and disposal, effects of incomplete substitution of ICT for existing services, and rebound effects. In addition, the migration of ICT, which includes not only manufacturing facilities of ICT devices, but electronic wastes, coincides with the distribution of environmental and social problems of high technology. Examples of how ICT reinforces economic growth, and at the same time, results in environmental problems are evident in a Korean context. Since the middle of the 1990s, the ICT industry has been a new growth driver in the Korean economy, and has played a critical role in restoring economic activity after the financial crisis in 1997. Due to the rapid diffusion of ICT products and a market trend that makes the life span of the products become shorter, the amount of e-waste has drastically increased in Korea. However, society's concern over environmental problems caused by ICT is at a rudimentary stage in Korea. Although Korea has established the EPR program to manage the e-waste problem, limited scope of e-waste items for

  19. Military, Transitioning Democracy and Rights: The Case of Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Imam, Windi Arini

    2016-01-01

    Indonesia embarks on transitioning period in 1998 after 32 years under authoritarian regime led by General Suharto. Since then the country has seen rapid changes particularly in relation to the Indonesian military (TNI). The military no longer plays role in day-to-day politics and has been returned to the barrack. New laws were enacted aiming at reforming the military and increase their professionality. Despite these positive notes, however, the military has been involved in several human rig...

  20. Military Dissent: What are the Ethical Implications of Tensions in U.S. Civil-Military Relations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ethical , and political. 22 Pfaff 1999, 8). The beliefs of egoism and post-modern relativism can be...MILITARY DISSENT: WHAT ARE THE ETHICAL IMPLICATIONS OF TENSIONS IN U.S. CIVIL-MILITARY RELATIONS? A thesis presented to the...JUN 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Military Dissent: What are the Ethical Implications of Tensions in U.S. Civil-Military Relations? 5a. CONTRACT

  1. Microblogging, online expression, and political efficacy among young chinese citizens: the moderating role of information and entertainment needs in the use of weibo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Michael; Wu, Xuan; Hao, Yinqi; Xi, Rui; Jin, Tian

    2012-07-01

    In 2011, China's Internet population reached over half a billion users and the popular Twitter-like social networking service, Weibo, has been adopted by half of the users since its launch in August 2009. Given the potential of the Internet to facilitate a civic culture in the authoritarian state, the use of Weibo and its effects on citizens' political attitudes and behaviors are of important concern. A survey of 499 Weibo users found that intensity of use was related to increased willingness to express opinions about government and politics, the perception that one has the ability to participate in politics, and feelings that the government is not responsive to the demands of citizens. Moreover, the above relationships were moderated by the motivations of Weibo use, such that information motives strengthened the relationships while entertainment motives weakened the relationships.

  2. Military Strategy vs. Military Doctrine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfoed, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    The article argues that while doctrine represents the more scientific side of warfare, strategy represents the artistic side. Existing doctrine will almost never meet the requirements for winning the next war; it is through the artistic application of generic peacetime doctrine to the specific st...... strategic and operational context, using doctrine as building blocks for a context specific military strategy, that the military commander outwits and defeats or coerces the adversary and achieves the military objectives....

  3. From ‘Post-Industrial’ to ‘Network Society’ and Beyond: The Political Conjunctures and Current Crisis of Information Society Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Ampuja

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article critically discusses the intellectual and conceptual shifts that have occurred in information society theories (and also policies in the previous four decades. We will examine the topic by focusing on the work of Daniel Bell and Manuel Castells, arguably two of the most important information society theorists. A key element in the academic shift from “post-industrial” (Bell thinking to the discourse on “network society” (Castells is that it has brought forward a different way of understanding the role of the state vis-a-vis the development of new information and communication technologies, as well as a new assessment of the role of the state in the economy and society at large. Against the Keynesian undertones of Bell’s ideas, Castells’ network society theory represents a neoliberally restructured version of “information society” that is associated with the rise of flexibility, individuality and a new culture of innovation. We argue that these changing discourses on the information society have served a definite hegemonic function for political elites, offering useful ideals and conceptions for forming politics and political compromises in different historical conjunctures. We conclude the article by looking at how the on-going global economic crisis and neoliberalism’s weakening hegemonic potential and turn to austerity and authoritarian solutions challenges existing information society theories.

  4. Russian Political, Economic, and Security Issues and U.S. Interests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goldman, Stuart D

    2007-01-01

    .... Federal forces have suppressed large-scale military resistance in Chechnya and in 2006 succeeded in killing most of the remaining top Chechen rebel military and political leaders, although sporadic violence continues...

  5. Service Learning and Political Socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Diana

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the link between political socialization scholarship and service learning. States that information gleaned from socialization research on adolescents' political identities and beliefs can inform service learning, asserting that the relationship between political socialization and service learning needs to be encouraged. (CMK)

  6. Informal learning exercise for TIC professionals: a study at the superior military court / Aprendizagem informal de profissionais de TIC: um estudo no superior tribunal militar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Donato

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Describe the informal learning strategies used by the IT and Communication professionals (TIC of the Superior Military Court (STM, discussing their importance for professional development and labor skills related to the maximization of the results of human performance. Originality/gap/relevance/implications: The research proved the differences in the use of the learning strategies among the TIC professionals and made it possible to capture the meaning of informal learning by professionals. Key methodology aspects: The mixed methodology was applied and a questionnaire was created based on the studies of Camillis and Antonello (2010, Antonello (2011b, Pantoja and Borges-Andrade (2009, Lohman (2009, Berg and Chyung (2008 and Cunningham and Hillier (2013. Descriptive statistical analyses for quantitative data and thematic and categorical analyses were made for the content of the open answers. Summary of key results: Five categories of informal learning were identified: interpersonal relationships; work practices; sharing knowledge; unsystematic training and autonomous. Informal learning depends on: 1. interpersonal relationships, 2. plan for work practices, 3. sharing the knowledge, and 4. autodidactism. Some factors were considered facilitators and/or inhibitors and favorable and/or unfavorable to informal learning. Key considerations/conclusion: The professionals describe informal learning as something difficult to prove and that the same thing happens through practice and the exercise of their skills. For future research, it was suggested the following: 1. analyze the influence of environment variables when employing the use of informal strategies of learning; 2. relate the learning of TIC professionals to the initiatives of knowledge management in the Organization; and 3. observe the role of leadership in the process of informal learning among professionals. Objetivo: Descrever as estratégias de aprendizagem informal utilizadas entre

  7. THE DEMOCRATIC CONTROL OF MILITARY FORCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smail Oštraković

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The transition requirement for post communism countries, especially the part that is about military forces is to establish those civil-military relation that will have prepared projects for awareness evolving of society and military about necessity of democratic control over military sector of country through development of many different communication forms and shapes. Before everything, it means the entire freedom and independence of media at access to military forces as the topic and subject of its interests and also the organization of public military communication system as integral part of information-communication system in society

  8. The politics of agenda setting at the global level: key informant interviews regarding the International Labour Organization Decent Work Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Ruggiero, Erica; Cohen, Joanna E; Cole, Donald C

    2014-07-01

    Global labour markets continue to undergo significant transformations resulting from socio-political instability combined with rises in structural inequality, employment insecurity, and poor working conditions. Confronted by these challenges, global institutions are providing policy guidance to protect and promote the health and well-being of workers. This article provides an account of how the International Labour Organization's Decent Work Agenda contributes to the work policy agendas of the World Health Organization and the World Bank. This qualitative study involved semi-structured interviews with representatives from three global institutions--the International Labour Organization (ILO), the World Health Organization and the World Bank. Of the 25 key informants invited to participate, 16 took part in the study. Analysis for key themes was followed by interpretation using selected agenda setting theories. Interviews indicated that through the Decent Work Agenda, the International Labour Organization is shaping the global policy narrative about work among UN agencies, and that the pursuit of decent work and the Agenda were perceived as important goals with the potential to promote just policies. The Agenda was closely linked to the World Health Organization's conception of health as a human right. However, decent work was consistently identified by World Bank informants as ILO terminology in contrast to terms such as job creation and job access. The limited evidence base and its conceptual nature were offered as partial explanations for why the Agenda has yet to fully influence other global institutions. Catalytic events such as the economic crisis were identified as creating the enabling conditions to influence global work policy agendas. Our evidence aids our understanding of how an issue like decent work enters and stays on the policy agendas of global institutions, using the Decent Work Agenda as an illustrative example. Catalytic events and policy

  9. The politics of agenda setting at the global level: key informant interviews regarding the International Labour Organization Decent Work Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Global labour markets continue to undergo significant transformations resulting from socio-political instability combined with rises in structural inequality, employment insecurity, and poor working conditions. Confronted by these challenges, global institutions are providing policy guidance to protect and promote the health and well-being of workers. This article provides an account of how the International Labour Organization’s Decent Work Agenda contributes to the work policy agendas of the World Health Organization and the World Bank. Methods This qualitative study involved semi-structured interviews with representatives from three global institutions – the International Labour Organization (ILO), the World Health Organization and the World Bank. Of the 25 key informants invited to participate, 16 took part in the study. Analysis for key themes was followed by interpretation using selected agenda setting theories. Results Interviews indicated that through the Decent Work Agenda, the International Labour Organization is shaping the global policy narrative about work among UN agencies, and that the pursuit of decent work and the Agenda were perceived as important goals with the potential to promote just policies. The Agenda was closely linked to the World Health Organization’s conception of health as a human right. However, decent work was consistently identified by World Bank informants as ILO terminology in contrast to terms such as job creation and job access. The limited evidence base and its conceptual nature were offered as partial explanations for why the Agenda has yet to fully influence other global institutions. Catalytic events such as the economic crisis were identified as creating the enabling conditions to influence global work policy agendas. Conclusions Our evidence aids our understanding of how an issue like decent work enters and stays on the policy agendas of global institutions, using the Decent Work Agenda as an illustrative

  10. ICTs and Political Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbin, Alice; Courtright, Christina; Davis, Leah

    2004-01-01

    Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to information and communications technologies (ICTs): (1) theories of ICTs and how they frame political life; (2) normative democratic theory and concepts; (3) e-political life; and (4) research on e-government, e-governance, and e-democracy; (Contains 276 references.) (MES)

  11. What drives political commitment for nutrition? A review and framework synthesis to inform the United Nations Decade of Action on Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Phillip; Hawkes, Corinna; Wingrove, Kate; Parkhurst, Justin; Thow, Anne Marie; Walls, Helen

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Generating country-level political commitment will be critical to driving forward action throughout the United Nations Decade of Action on Nutrition (2016–2025). In this review of the empirical nutrition policy literature, we ask: what factors generate, sustain and constrain political commitment for nutrition, how and under what circumstances? Our aim is to inform strategic ‘commitment-building’ actions. Method We adopted a framework synthesis method and realist review protocol. An initial framework was derived from relevant theory and then populated with empirical evidence to test and modify it. Five steps were undertaken: initial theoretical framework development; search for relevant empirical literature; study selection and quality appraisal; data extraction, analysis and synthesis and framework modification. Results 75 studies were included. We identified 18 factors that drive commitment, organised into five categories: actors; institutions; political and societal contexts; knowledge, evidence and framing; and, capacities and resources. Irrespective of country-context, effective nutrition actor networks, strong leadership, civil society mobilisation, supportive political administrations, societal change and focusing events, cohesive and resonant framing, and robust data systems and available evidence were commitment drivers. Low-income and middle-income country studies also frequently reported international actors, empowered institutions, vertical coordination and capacities and resources. In upper-middle-income and high-income country studies, private sector interference frequently undermined commitment. Conclusion Political commitment is not something that simply exists or emerges accidentally; it can be created and strengthened over time through strategic action. Successfully generating commitment will likely require a core set of actions with some context-dependent adaptations. Ultimately, it will necessitate strategic actions by cohesive

  12. What drives political commitment for nutrition? A review and framework synthesis to inform the United Nations Decade of Action on Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Phillip; Hawkes, Corinna; Wingrove, Kate; Demaio, Alessandro Rhyl; Parkhurst, Justin; Thow, Anne Marie; Walls, Helen

    2018-01-01

    Generating country-level political commitment will be critical to driving forward action throughout the United Nations Decade of Action on Nutrition (2016-2025). In this review of the empirical nutrition policy literature, we ask: what factors generate, sustain and constrain political commitment for nutrition, how and under what circumstances? Our aim is to inform strategic 'commitment-building' actions. We adopted a framework synthesis method and realist review protocol. An initial framework was derived from relevant theory and then populated with empirical evidence to test and modify it. Five steps were undertaken: initial theoretical framework development; search for relevant empirical literature; study selection and quality appraisal; data extraction, analysis and synthesis and framework modification. 75 studies were included. We identified 18 factors that drive commitment, organised into five categories: actors; institutions; political and societal contexts; knowledge, evidence and framing; and, capacities and resources. Irrespective of country-context, effective nutrition actor networks, strong leadership, civil society mobilisation, supportive political administrations, societal change and focusing events, cohesive and resonant framing, and robust data systems and available evidence were commitment drivers. Low-income and middle-income country studies also frequently reported international actors, empowered institutions, vertical coordination and capacities and resources. In upper-middle-income and high-income country studies, private sector interference frequently undermined commitment. Political commitment is not something that simply exists or emerges accidentally; it can be created and strengthened over time through strategic action. Successfully generating commitment will likely require a core set of actions with some context-dependent adaptations. Ultimately, it will necessitate strategic actions by cohesive, resourced and strongly led nutrition actor

  13. Establishing Political Deliberation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; Sæbø, Øystein

    2008-01-01

    The extension and transformation of political participation is dependent on widespread deliberation supported by information and communication technologies.  The most commonly found examples of these eParticipation systems are political discussion forums.  Though much of the discussion...... of these technologies is conducted in the eGovernment and (particularly) the eDemocracy literature, political discussion forums present a distinct set of design and management challenges which relate directly to IS concerns. In this article we analyze problems in establishing political deliberation systems under five...... headings: stakeholder engagement, web platform design, web platform management, political process re-shaping and evaluation and improvement. We review the existing literature and present a longitudinal case study of a political discussion forum: the Norwegian DemokratiTorget (Democracy Square).  We define...

  14. Military Citation, Sixth Edition, July 1997

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    .... If the Military Citation and The Bluebook do not address a source of authority used in military practice, the author should attempt to maintain uniformity in citation style by adapting the most analogous and useful citation form that Military Citation and The Bluebook do address. Most importantly, the author should provide the reader with sufficient information to locate the referenced material swiftly.

  15. China Report: Political, Sociological and Military Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-18

    Production Brigade of Guangbao Commune in raising chickens and rabbits in a big way. We must mobilize the commune member house- holds to utilize...The state and the commune, production brigades, and production teams operate fish farms, some of which raise fry . Why not go ahead with raising fish...Wei Xinyi, Huang Yu, Yang Jike, Guo Tixiang, Meng Fulin, Hu Tan, Zhu Nong, Fang Shiliang, Wang Zenong, Pan Ezhang, Liu Zhengwen, Chen Tianren, Ma

  16. CHINA Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-18

    pumpkins and pumpkins as big as bath basins." However, the survey form, which children were not asked to sign, revealed that too much homework was a...sales. Regarding the Henry Liu murder case, it is, as Senator Thurmond’s assistant has noted, a purely judicial matter and should be left entirely to

  17. China Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-08

    developing weapons, and Jane ( Lauder ) [Luo-de-er 3157 1795 1422], former senior official of the National Security Council. Many U.S. scholars and...growth will lead to economic bankruptcy, disturbances, and war...So Reagan’s proposal is very important." From 1958 to 1980, the amount of money ... money and forgot the whole thing. Those people were afraid of disequilibrium and would rather let all of us remain in poverty. We can never complete

  18. China Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-16

    the dual fermentation method, tech- nology to reclaim sugar residue, technology to make glucose from rice, fructose and dextrose syrup and other...Hu Wenjun [5170 2429 0689], Su Mingkun [5685 2494 0981], Wang Qian [3769 0241] and other conrades to suc- cessfully trial-produce an oral glucose of...company, the comrades praise in unison his high sense of responsibility toward the enterprise and say that old friend Hong is now like a fish in water

  19. China Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-11

    attacked by hidden Vietnamese troops; a Chinese young man and a Chinese young woman were killed. Immediately afterward, the Vietnamese kid - napped...hours; streamlining course content; introducing heuristic pedagogical methods; strengthening laboratory work and training in engineering; placing

  20. China Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-27

    owe $300 billion in foreign debts and half of this amount was borrowed from American banks of all sizes. America has become the world’s biggest...paid to overcome the use of any adult model and formalism. The children and teenagers should not be subjected to passive restriction and bondage or...in debt . The old people, because they lacked food and money to spend, had a bellyful of ideas. How to find a way out? From his own feelings and

  1. The “Austrian School of Critical Political Economy”? A Review of Thomas Allmer’s Book “Towards a Critical Theory of Surveillance in Informational Capitalism”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Amon Prodnik

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is a review of Thomas Allmer’s book “Towards a Critical Theory of Surveillance in Informational Capitalism”. The book was published in 2012 by the publishing house Peter Lang (in Frankfurt am Main, Berlin, New York, Oxford […]. In the start of the article the author also poses the question whether there is a new school of thought emerging, namely the “Austrian School of Critical Political Economy”.

  2. Political innovations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva

    2017-01-01

    are mainly interested in assessing and promoting innovations in public service delivery, but have paid little or no attention to the need for innovations in polity, politics and policy. This article develops a research agenda for studying innovations in political institutions, in the political process...... and in policy outputs. It proposes a number of research themes related to political innovations that call for scholarly attention, and identifies push and pull factors influencing the likelihood that these themes will be addressed in future research....

  3. Moral politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapp, Carolin; Traunmüller, Richard; Freitag, Markus

    2014-01-01

    This article combines the research strands of moral politics and political behavior by focusing on the effect of individual and contextual religiosity on individual vote decisions in popular initiatives and public referenda concerning morally charged issues. We rely on a total of 13 surveys with 1...... American research on moral politics, direct democracies, and the public role of religion....

  4. Office Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Paula; Kelly, Robert; deVries, Susann

    2008-01-01

    People and organizations are inherently political. Library workplace environments have zones of tension and dynamics just like any corporation, often leading to the formation of political camps. These different cliques influence productivity and work-related issues and, at worst, give meetings the feel of the Camp David negotiations. Politics are…

  5. Calculation of ground vibration spectra from heavy military vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylov, V. V.; Pickup, S.; McNuff, J.

    2010-07-01

    The demand for reliable autonomous systems capable to detect and identify heavy military vehicles becomes an important issue for UN peacekeeping forces in the current delicate political climate. A promising method of detection and identification is the one using the information extracted from ground vibration spectra generated by heavy military vehicles, often termed as their seismic signatures. This paper presents the results of the theoretical investigation of ground vibration spectra generated by heavy military vehicles, such as tanks and armed personnel carriers. A simple quarter car model is considered to identify the resulting dynamic forces applied from a vehicle to the ground. Then the obtained analytical expressions for vehicle dynamic forces are used for calculations of generated ground vibrations, predominantly Rayleigh surface waves, using Green's function method. A comparison of the obtained theoretical results with the published experimental data shows that analytical techniques based on the simplified quarter car vehicle model are capable of producing ground vibration spectra of heavy military vehicles that reproduce basic properties of experimental spectra.

  6. Systematic review of caregiver burden in spouses and partners providing informal care to wounded, injured or sick (WIS) military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thandi, Gursimran; Harden, L; Cole, L; Greenberg, N; Fear, N T

    2018-02-12

    For the purposes of this review, caregivers are individuals who provide care that is typically unpaid and usually takes place at home. This systematic review aims to identify burden among spouses/partners caring for wounded, injured or sick military personnel and the factors associated with caregiver burden. A systematic review was undertaken using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses reporting guidelines. Five electronic databases and relevant websites were searched. Two reviewers appraised the quality of the studies and carried out data extraction. Ten original papers were identified, of which eight were quantitative studies and two were qualitative. These papers highlighted the potential negative impact caregiving can have on spouses/partners and also some of the positive aspects of caring that can strengthen intimate relationships. Caring for an injured or ill military spouse or partner is a difficult task, compounded by the complexity of dealing with potentially both their physical and mental health problems. However, research has also identified some positive aspects of caring that can strengthen intimate relationships. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Black Berets and the Berry Amendment: Politics, Parochialism, and the Press

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zeller, William E

    2006-01-01

    .... It also demonstrates how politics and parochialism can affect an otherwise benign and insignificant procurement of one piece of military headgear and move it to the center of public and political...

  8. Political participation of registered nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenhouten, Christine L; Malakar, Crystalmichelle L; Kubsch, Sylvia; Block, Derryl E; Gallagher-Lepak, Susan

    2011-08-01

    Level of political participation and factors contributing to participation were measured among Midwest RNs (n = 468) via an online survey (Cronbach's α = .95). Respondents reported engaging in primarily "low cost" activities (e.g., voting, discussing politics, and contacting elected officials), with fewer reporting speaking at public gatherings, participating in demonstrations, and membership in nursing organizations. Psychological engagement was most predictive (p political participation with the dimensions of political interest, political efficacy, and political information/knowledge highly significant (p political participation (p political content and did not prepare them for political participation. Findings showed that nurse educators and leaders of professional nursing organizations need to model and cultivate greater psychological engagement among students and nurses.

  9. Space, politics, and the political

    OpenAIRE

    dikec , mustafa

    1987-01-01

    International audience; Introduction Geography and politics'', Gottmann wrote in 1980, ``have long been in search of each other'' (page 11). Debates in the literature suggest not only that they have found each other, but also that the encounter has instigated, notably in the last decade or so, a body of literature seeking to think space politically, and to think politics spatially. This is not to suggest that previous work on space was apolitical, nor to suggest that previous work on politics...

  10. Performing Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy R. E. Paddock

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Walter Benjamin’s observation that fascism turns politics into aesthetics is, by now, a well-worn idea. This article argues that Benjamin’s critique of politics can apply just as much to the modern democratic politics of the United States. Borrowing from Benjamin, Jürgen Habermas, and Carl Schmitt, this article suggests that modern political discourse in the United States does not follow the classical liberal ideal of rational discourse in the marketplace of ideas within the public sphere. Instead, contemporary politics has become spectacle where images and slogans replace thought and debate in a 24/7 news cycle and political infotainment programs. The result is that progressives and conservatives have their own political “ecospheres” which enable them to have their own perspective reinforced, and debate is replaced by straw man arguments and personal attacks.

  11. 20 CFR 614.21 - Findings of Federal military agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Findings of Federal military agency. 614.21... UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION FOR EX-SERVICEMEMBERS Responsibilities of Federal Military Agencies and State Agencies § 614.21 Findings of Federal military agency. (a) Findings in military documents. Information...

  12. A proposed approach to systematically identify and monitor the corporate political activity of the food industry with respect to public health using publicly available information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mialon, M; Swinburn, B; Sacks, G

    2015-07-01

    Unhealthy diets represent one of the major risk factors for non-communicable diseases. There is currently a risk that the political influence of the food industry results in public health policies that do not adequately balance public and commercial interests. This paper aims to develop a framework for categorizing the corporate political activity of the food industry with respect to public health and proposes an approach to systematically identify and monitor it. The proposed framework includes six strategies used by the food industry to influence public health policies and outcomes: information and messaging; financial incentive; constituency building; legal; policy substitution; opposition fragmentation and destabilization. The corporate political activity of the food industry could be identified and monitored through publicly available data sourced from the industry itself, governments, the media and other sources. Steps for country-level monitoring include identification of key food industry actors and related sources of information, followed by systematic data collection and analysis of relevant documents, using the proposed framework as a basis for classification of results. The proposed monitoring approach should be pilot tested in different countries as part of efforts to increase the transparency and accountability of the food industry. This approach has the potential to help redress any imbalance of interests and thereby contribute to the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases. © 2015 World Obesity.

  13. To the Question on the Nature of Military Threats and Non-Military Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambu R. Tsyrendorzhjyev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The notion of "military danger, military threats, military and non-military measures to Parry, and other definitions from the policy of the State to ensure the military security of the now widely used in journalism, conceptual, other documents and research. The attentive reader it is not difficult to notice the ambiguity in the interpretation of these concepts. This makes it difficult to not only the perception of the relevant topics for ensuring military security publications, but also the development of the theory and practice of ensuring the defence and security of the State. The author's view on the essence of the reasoning logic of non-military measures to counter military threats, as the ultimate goal of the article is the following.First the task of analyzing the concept of "national security", "object of national security" and understand the functions of the State, society and the individual to ensure national security. Decomposition of an object of national security, which is "national property" (the content of the concepts described in the article has made it possible to substantiate the basis for classification of national security threats and with better understanding of the nature, variety, Genesis. This provided a rationale for the role and the place of the tasks ensuring military security in the common task of ensuring national security, the correlation of military and non-military threats.The final phase of the research, the results of which are set out in the article is devoted to analysis of military threats, which made it possible to identify their main structural elements: source, media, military-political and strategic nature, install the main factors defining the content of these elements and their interaction. Based on these results, the proposed definition of the essence of non-military measures for counteracting of military threats, as well as guidelines for developing these measures.

  14. There is an app for that - Development and validation of a smartphone-based measurement of media exposure to political information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohme, Jakob; Albæk, Erik; de Vreese, Claes Holger

    of the citizens with a new, simple three-step measurement and thereby directly connecting it to the participatory behavior of the citizens. The exposure measurement with the app on a daily basis reduces the demands on respondents’ memory and has the unique opportunity to measure the content-related short-term...... of the citizen and focuses on the Danish case. First results are available at the end of 2014. In todays’ high choice media environment (Prior, 2007), with innumerable short-term exposures (e.g. on social media), it is increasingly difficult to measure exposure to specific content and trace it back...... to attitudinal changes or actions of an individual. This study assesses citizens’ exposure to political information across different media and connects it with their public engagement and political participation. The high demands on respondents’ memory as well as the restrictiveness to only a few media outlets...

  15. [Political psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.

  16. The access of political representatives to information and the new laws on transparency and access to public information. In particular, their capacity to file claims with the transparency authorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Guichot Reina

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The new public independent authorities in charge of access to information’s claims have adopted conflicting positions on the rules applicable to requests for information made by political representatives and on their own competence to hear complaints they may raise. The right of access to the information of the political representatives cannot have a smaller scope in its substantive, procedural and guarantees content than the one that the new regulation on transparency and access to the information recognizes to any person. The case law of the Supreme Court has consistently affirmed this. It would contribute to legal certainty if this criterion was followed by every new public independent authorities and it was expressly established by a future legislative reform.

  17. THE MILITARY, WAR AND SOCIETY: THE NEED FOR CRITICAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heinecken, LPT, Prof

    political power, military power and economic power – feed into each other to shape society.34 This ... Bauman who, in his book Liquid modernity, examines the shift from 'stable' ..... Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press,.

  18. civil-military relations in disaster rescue and relief activities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abel

    military's task in disaster response; (2) whether said framework invests authoritative decisions to a ... conflict or political instability. In the latter, security is a .... The Philippine emergency-management framework rests on disaster coordinating ...

  19. “We need more data”! The politics of scientific information for water governance in the context of hydraulic fracturing

    OpenAIRE

    Michele-Lee Moore; Karena Shaw; Heather Castleden

    2018-01-01

    Proposed and actual developments of hydraulic fracturing, as a high-volume water user, have proven contentious in recent years. However, one point of agreement has emerged amongst all actors with regards to water use and hydraulic fracturing: we need more data. This consensus fits with a longstanding reification of the role of data in water governance, and yet we argue it hides a politically contested terrain. Based on a literature review, an empirical Delphi study and a workshop ...

  20. The Military Coup and its Implications for the Thai Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    The paper analyses the regional and international implications of the Thai military coup in September 2006. Focus is furthermore  attached to the economic consequences and the geo-political and geo-economic aspects related to the coup.......The paper analyses the regional and international implications of the Thai military coup in September 2006. Focus is furthermore  attached to the economic consequences and the geo-political and geo-economic aspects related to the coup....

  1. Political Campaigns

    OpenAIRE

    Lilleker, Darren

    2017-01-01

    Political campaigns are orchestrated attempts by political organizations to garner public support through persuasive communication in order to influence public policy in their favor. This broad definition encapsulates all forms of campaigns from those of neighborhood organizations seeking to influence local politicians to the campaigns of political parties and candidates who seek election to office in order to shape policy themselves. In pluralist democracies, campaigns are crucial for repres...

  2. Political CSR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Søren; Morsing, Mette

    We engage a discussion of political CSR in SMEs in an African context. Based on critical observations on Western MNC CSR action in emerging economies that holds counterproductive implications for social development, political economists have argued that business profit far more than society...... development in local African communities. Our findings extend political CSR research by directing attention to how the corporate influence in developing economies does not only emerge from MNCs but is also established and retained by SMEs CSR work....

  3. Systematic examination of publicly-available information reveals the diverse and extensive corporate political activity of the food industry in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Mialon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The political influence of the food industry, referred to as corporate political activity (CPA, represents a potential barrier to the development and implementation of effective public health policies for non-communicable diseases prevention. This paper reports on the feasibility and limitations of using publicly-available information to identify and monitor the CPA of the food industry in Australia. Methods A systematic search was conducted for information from food industry, government and other publicly-available data sources in Australia. Data was collected in relation to five key food industry actors: the Australian Food and Grocery Council; Coca Cola; McDonald’s; Nestle; and Woolworths, for the period January 2012 to February 2015. Data analysis was guided by an existing framework for classifying CPA strategies of the food industry. Results The selected food industry actors used multiple CPA strategies, with ‘information and messaging’ and ‘constituency building’ strategies most prominent. Conclusions The systematic analysis of publicly-available information over a limited period was able to identify diverse and extensive CPA strategies of the food industry in Australia. This approach can contribute to accountability mechanisms for NCD prevention.

  4. Systematic examination of publicly-available information reveals the diverse and extensive corporate political activity of the food industry in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mialon, Melissa; Swinburn, Boyd; Allender, Steven; Sacks, Gary

    2016-03-22

    The political influence of the food industry, referred to as corporate political activity (CPA), represents a potential barrier to the development and implementation of effective public health policies for non-communicable diseases prevention. This paper reports on the feasibility and limitations of using publicly-available information to identify and monitor the CPA of the food industry in Australia. A systematic search was conducted for information from food industry, government and other publicly-available data sources in Australia. Data was collected in relation to five key food industry actors: the Australian Food and Grocery Council; Coca Cola; McDonald's; Nestle; and Woolworths, for the period January 2012 to February 2015. Data analysis was guided by an existing framework for classifying CPA strategies of the food industry. The selected food industry actors used multiple CPA strategies, with 'information and messaging' and 'constituency building' strategies most prominent. The systematic analysis of publicly-available information over a limited period was able to identify diverse and extensive CPA strategies of the food industry in Australia. This approach can contribute to accountability mechanisms for NCD prevention.

  5. Military men and sexual practices: Discourses of 'othering' in safer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Military men and sexual practices: Discourses of 'othering' in safer sex in the light of HIV/AIDS. ... Military men are particularly vulnerable to HIV because of their working conditions; for example, working far from home and being among communities where they have greater economic and political power, as well as in relation ...

  6. The pending crisis in Russian civil-military relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, D.Y.

    1997-01-01

    A key issue in the study of civil-military relations has been how to create a military sufficiently strong to ensure security from external threats while simultaneously preventing the military from using its preponderance of power in the domestic arena. This dilemma arises from the fear engendered by a large armed force created to combat foreign threats, but which is also inherently a threat to the society that created it. In Russia, however, the question is not how the civilian leadership can keep the military out of politics, but how the military can keep the leadership from politicizing the armed forces. The Russian military has no interest in resolving Russia's domestic political problems. It is a professional military that prefers to leave politics to the politicians, and to carry out its mission of defending the nation against external attack. But the lack of responsible central leadership and the poor state of the economy are driving the military toward involvement in domestic politics if for no other reason than to ensure its own survival

  7. Merdeka: Dutch military operations in Indonesia (1945-1950)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    the military stalemate.170 Conclusion The supreme art of war is to subdue the enemy without fighting. — Sun Tzu , The Art of War The political and...military leaders of the Republic of Indonesia had no need of the writings of the Chinese thinker and author of the Art of War, Sun Tzu in order to wrong...54 Bibliography

  8. Obesity and the US Military Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Sbrocco, Tracy; Theim, Kelly R.; Cohen, L. Adelyn; Mackey, Eleanor R.; Stice, Eric; Henderson, Jennifer L.; McCreight, Sarah J.; Bryant, Edny J.; Stephens, Mark B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This review discusses the current knowledge and future directions regarding obesity within the US military family (i.e., active-duty servicemembers, as well as military spouses, children, retirees, and veterans). The increasing rates of overweight and obesity within the US military adversely impact military readiness, limit recruitment, and place a significant financial burden on the Department of Defense. Design and Methods The following topics are reviewed: 1) The prevalence of and the financial, physical, and psychological costs associated with overweight in military communities; 2) military weight regulations, and challenges faced by the military family related to overweight and disordered eating; 3) the continued need for rigorous program evaluations and new intervention development. Results Overweight and its associated sequelae impact the entire military family. Military families share many similarities with their civilian counterparts, but they face unique challenges (e.g., stress related to deployments and relocations). Although the military has weight management resources, there is an urgent need for rigorous program evaluation and the development of enhanced obesity prevention programs across the lifespan of the military family–several of which are proposed herein. Conclusions Interdisciplinary and collaborative research efforts and team-based interventions will continue to inform understanding of obesity treatment and prevention within military and civilian populations. PMID:23836452

  9. Tobacco Pricing in Military Stores: Views of Military Policy Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elizabeth A; Jahnke, Sara A; Poston, Walker S C; Malone, Ruth E; Haddock, Christopher K

    2016-10-01

    Higher tobacco taxes reduce tobacco use. On military installations, cigarettes and other tobacco products are sold tax-free, keeping prices artificially low. Pricing regulations in the military specify that tobacco should be within 5% of the local most competitive price, but prices still average almost 13% lower than those at local Walmarts. To gain insight into policy leaders' ideas and positions on military tobacco pricing, we interviewed members of the Department of Defense (DoD) Addictive Substances Misuse Advisory Committee and the Advisory Committee on Tobacco about tobacco pricing policies (n = 12). Participants frequently lacked specific knowledge of details of military pricing policy, and the impact higher prices might have on military tobacco use. Most participants thought tobacco should not be sold at military stores, but many also felt that this policy change was unlikely due to tobacco industry pressure, and DoD reliance on tobacco profits to support Morale, Welfare, and Recreation funds. Achieving a tobacco-free military will require changing pricing policy, but this study suggests that for effective implementation, military leadership must also understand and articulate more clearly the rationale for doing so. Previous work has found that adherence to military tobacco pricing policy is inconsistent at best. This study suggests that lack of knowledge about the policy and conflicting pressures resulting from the funding stream tobacco sales represent extend to high level military policy leaders. Without clearer information and direction, these leaders are unlikely to be able to establish and implement better tobacco pricing policy. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Military necessity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayashi, N.

    2017-01-01

    It is often said that international humanitarian law (IHL) “accounts for” military necessity, but its meaning and normative consequences have remained obscure. This thesis develops a theory that offers a coherent explanation of the process through which IHL generates its rules. To

  11. Military radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Historic military uses of radiography are discussed in this chapter: Battle of Adowa in 1986 was the first. Besides describing the early campaigns in which radiography was used, the author discusses the problems faced: a reliable source of electricity; the problems of extreme heat; moving and breakage of equipment. Numerous historical photographs are included. 9 refs

  12. Political psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Susanna; Johnson, Kate M; Beall, Erica; Meindl, Peter; Smith, Benjamin; Graham, Jesse

    2014-07-01

    Political psychology is a dynamic field of research that offers a unique blend of approaches and methods in the social and cognitive sciences. Political psychologists explore the interactions between macrolevel political structures and microlevel factors such as decision-making processes, motivations, and perceptions. In this article, we provide a broad overview of the field, beginning with a brief history of political psychology research and a summary of the primary methodological approaches in the field. We then give a more detailed account of research on ideology and social justice, two topics experiencing a resurgence of interest in current political psychology. Finally, we cover research on political persuasion and voting behavior. By summarizing these major areas of political psychology research, we hope to highlight the wide variety of theoretical and methodological approaches of cognitive scientists working at the intersection of psychology and political science. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:373-385. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1293 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. The Party Politics of Legislative-Executive Relations in Security and Defence Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, W.M.; Herranz-Surralles, A.; Kaarbo, J.; Ostermann, F.

    2017-01-01

    The move from territorial defence to ‘wars of choice’ has influenced the domestic politics of military interventions. This paper examines the extent to which both the substance and the procedure of military interventions are contested among political parties. Regarding the substance, our analysis of

  14. Politicization beyond politics: Narratives and mechanisms of Iraq War veterans’ activism

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Flores

    2016-01-01

    There is growing interest in the implications of military service for the political attitudes, behaviors, and activism of military veterans. This article considers how promission and antiwar veterans’ narrate their experiences of becoming political activists and the mechanisms that effect that transition. The research draws on narratives from 40 members of the...

  15. Exploring of Wireless Technology to Provide Information Sharing Among Military, United Nations and Civilian Organizations During Complex Humanitarian Emergencies and Peacekeeping Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bridges, Douglas

    2003-01-01

    ...) and peacekeeping operations. Humanitarian emergencies and peacekeeping operations are a complex mix of related activities that require the combined efforts of the UN, military, International Organizations (IOs...

  16. 'Grounded' Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Garbi

    2012-01-01

    play within one particular neighbourhood: Nørrebro in the Danish capital, Copenhagen. The article introduces the concept of grounded politics to analyse how groups of Muslim immigrants in Nørrebro use the space, relationships and history of the neighbourhood for identity political statements....... The article further describes how national political debates over the Muslim presence in Denmark affect identity political manifestations within Nørrebro. By using Duncan Bell’s concept of mythscape (Bell, 2003), the article shows how some political actors idealize Nørrebro’s past to contest the present...... ethnic and religious diversity of the neighbourhood and, further, to frame what they see as the deterioration of genuine Danish identity....

  17. The political uses of astrology: predicting the illness and death of princes, kings and popes in the Italian Renaissance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzolini, Monica

    2010-06-01

    This paper examines the production and circulation of astrological prognostications regarding the illness and death of kings, princes, and popes in the Italian Renaissance (ca. 1470-1630). The distribution and consumption of this type of astrological information was often closely linked to the specific political situation in which they were produced. Depending on the astrological techniques used (prorogations, interrogations, or annual revolutions), and the media in which they appeared (private letters or printed prognostica) these prognostications fulfilled different functions in the information economy of Renaissance Italy. Some were used to legitimise the rule of a political leader, others to do just the opposite. Astrological prorogations and interrogations were often used to plan military and political strategies in case of the illness or death of a political leader, while astrological prognostications were generally written to promote certain political leaders while undermining others. While certainly often partisan to this game, astrologers, for their part, worked within a very well established tradition that gave authority to their forecasts. This paper argues that, as indicators of deeper political tensions otherwise not always explicitly manifest, these prognostications are privileged sources of information providing a better understanding of the political history of the period.

  18. Military experience can influence Women's eating habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breland, Jessica Y; Donalson, Rosemary; Nevedal, Andrea; Dinh, Julie V; Maguen, Shira

    2017-11-01

    Disordered eating, ranging from occasional binge eating or restriction to behaviors associated with eating disorder diagnoses, is common among military personnel and veterans. However, there is little information on how military service affects eating habits. To describe possible pathways between military service and disordered eating among women veterans, a high risk group. Twenty women veterans who reported changing eating habits in response to stress participated in audio-recorded focus groups or dyadic interviews between April 2013 and October 2014. We used thematic analysis of transcripts to identify and understand women's self-reported eating habits before, during, and after military service. Participants reported entering the military with varied eating habits, but little disordered eating. Participants described several ways military environments affected eating habits, for example, by promoting fast, irregular, binge-like eating and disrupting the reward value of food. Participants believed military-related stressors, which were often related to gender, also affected eating habits. Such stressors included military sexual trauma and the need to meet military weight requirements in general and after giving birth. Participants also reported that poor eating habits continued after military service, often because they remained under stress. For some women, military service can result in socialization to poor eating habits, which when combined with exposure to stressors can lead to disordered eating. Additional research is needed, including work to understand possible benefits associated with providing support in relation to military weight requirements and the transition out of military service. Given the unique experiences of women in the military, future work could also focus on health services surrounding pregnancy-related weight change and the stress associated with being a woman in predominantly male military environments. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Determination of aims military-technical policy of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. F. Salnikova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the aims of military-technical policy are considered. Determination of aims (tasks of military-technical policy, its maintenance, requirements to it and directions of its further development it must come true by the analysis of different factors of external and internal environment. Among such factors: geopolitical and military-political position of Ukraine and its military doctrine; realized and operating programs of development (reformation of the soldiery forming and them technical rigging; terms of future military operations and progress of their maintenance, forms, methods and characteristic signs of battle actions trend; substantive provisions of art of war; conceptions, theories and doctrines of battle application of the soldiery forming of the different states; resources dedicated by the state on development of military-technical sphere and others like that. The fundamental chart of sequence of forming of public military-technical policy is presented in the article.

  20. Foreign Policy, National Security Strategy, and Morality: The Enduring Relevance of the Just War Theory to Military Strategy and Intervention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rathbun, Cheryl J

    1997-01-01

    .... The United States' political tradition, at least since 1945, has encompassed the imperative to not only maintain its power -- political, economic and military -- but also to project its values...

  1. The Transgender Military Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Dietert

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although there have been studies that focus on the experiences of the gay and lesbian population serving in the United States military, few have focused on the experience of active duty transgender service members. Transgender individuals transgress the binary conception of gender by deviating from societal gender norms associated with assigned sex at birth. The Department of Defense has set policies and standards that reflect a binary conception of gender, with a focus on conformity. We argue that able-bodied gender variant service personnel are just as capable of serving their country as anyone else. Because of the repercussions associated with active duty transgender military personnel, our sample is small and involves nine clandestine service members and two international service members who wanted to share their stories from a different perspective. Snowball sampling was aimed at finding current active duty and reserve transgender service members. Using a combination of telephone interviews and questionnaires, data were collected from active duty transgender service personnel throughout the United States and two from international militaries that allow transgender people to serve. Data collection focused on the overall experiences of the participants along with questions regarding workplace discrimination, suggestions for policy changes, and their views about the overturn of Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell. Our findings add to a growing source of information about the transgender military experience in the U.S. armed forces and the importance of overturning discriminatory workplace policies that negatively impact transgender service members.

  2. Political News and Political Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schertges, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with mass media in modern democratic societies, using the example of Israeli news reports in German television (TV) news. Central to this interest are processes of mediating politics: political socialisation and education; that is to say, empowering citizens via TV news to participate in democratic processes. The article…

  3. Information report brought in the application of the article 145 of the regulation by the foreign affairs commission in conclusion of the works of an information mission constituted the 30 January 2008 (1), on Iran and the geo-political equilibrium in Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This information report presents the Iran situation concerning the nuclear energy and its military program. It discusses in a first part the certainty concerning the military nuclear program. The second part is devoted to historical aspects of the today situation, the negotiations, the international sanctions and the Iran motivations. The third part presents the objective of the international community for the Iran: play a stabilizing role in the Middle East. (A.L.B.)

  4. Education vs. Training: A Military Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kime, Steve F.; Anderson, Clinton L.

    Civilian educators have long argued that the U.S. armed forces must be maintained as a reflection of society and that civilian education institutions must share responsibility in educating servicemembers. Political changes and technological advances have made education a strategic issue in structuring military forces for the third millennium. In…

  5. Nanotechnology in Military Development

    OpenAIRE

    Andrus Pedai; Igor Astrov

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology is the new cyber, according to several major leaders in this field. Just as cyber is entrenched across global society now, nano is poised to be major capabilities enabler of the next decades. Expert members from the National Nanotechnology Initiative (in U.S.) representing government and science disciplines say nano has great significance for the military and the general public. It is predicted that after next 15 years nanotechnology will replace information technology as the m...

  6. Bridging Innovation and Outreach to Overcome Global Gaps in Radiation Oncology Through Information and Communication Tools, Trainee Advancement, Engaging Industry, Attention to Ethical Challenges, and Political Advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dad, Luqman; Royce, Trevor J; Morris, Zachary; Moran, Meena; Pawlicki, Todd; Khuntia, Deepak; Hardenbergh, Patricia; Cummings, Bernard; Mayr, Nina; Hu, Kenneth

    2017-04-01

    An evolving paradigm in global outreach in radiation oncology has been the implementation of a more region-specific, needs-based approach to help close the gap in radiation services to low- and middle-income countries through the use of innovative tools in information and communication technology. This report highlights 4 information and communication technology tools in action today: (1) the NCCN Framework for Resource Stratification of NCCN guidelines, (2) ASTRO e-Contouring, (3) i.treatsafely.org, and (4) ChartRounds.com. We also render special consideration to matters related to global outreach that we believe require distinct attention to help us meet the goals established by the 2011 United Nations׳ Declaration on noncommunicable diseases: (1) trainee advancement toward careers in global health, (2) ethical challenges of international outreach, (3) critical importance of political advocacy, and (4) collaboration with Industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. All I know is that I know nothing’: (Some) Danish adolescents and their lack of self- confidence in relation to information and political participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stald, Gitte Bang

    2016-01-01

    and engaged citizenship is may be discouraging for young citizens? If the pronounced distrust in social media in relation to information and debate is influenced more by normative values and less on the actual opportunities and qualities? And, if the discourses about the selfish, individualized adolescent......, add to a lack of what I call democratic self-consciousness in the young citizens? The argument in the paper is based on findings from a DECIDIS survey (2015) on Danes, social media, and political engagement and on two pilot studies. The pilot studies comprehend two qualitative studies from 2016 on 18...... such as social media. Interestingly, social media are not often used for debate and statements of opinions and positions. Especially Facebook is increasingly mainly an entrance platform for information about social relations but also about everything else, that matters in adolescents’ everyday life. In parallel...

  8. A preparação dos agentes de informação e a ditadura civil-militar no Brasil (1964-1985 The training of information agents and the civil-military dictatorship in Brazil (1964-1985

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Viz Quadrat

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa a formação dos agentes de informação e/ou repressão que atuaram em dependências públicas civis e/ou militares durante a última ditadura brasileira (1964-1985. Para isso, analisamos as mudanças ocorridas no pensamento militar sob a influência estadunidense e francesa, bem como a criação de cursos, como os ministrados na Escola Superior de Guerra (ESG e na Escola Nacional de Informações (ESNI, esta última uma criação da ditadura civil-militar brasileira. Um terceiro aspecto analisado diz respeito ao contato estabelecido com oficiais estrangeiros através do oferecimento de treinamento em território nacional e/ou no envio de brasileiros para a realização de cursos fora do país. Consideramos este último ponto como fundamental para a criação do Plano Condor, a ação conjunta das ditaduras do Cone Sul na perseguição aos oponentes políticos além das suas fronteiras.The article analyzes the training of information and repression agents who acted in civil and military public institutions during last Brazilian dictatorship. In order to do so, we focus on changes occurred in military ideas under the influence of United States and France. We also examine the organization of the new courses in Escola Superior de Guerra (ESG and Escola Nacional de Informações (EsNI, the later created by the civil-military dictatorship. A third aspect under analysis is the interactions between Brazilian agents and foreigner military officials through training in Brazilian territory as well as outside the country. This had been of fundamental importance for the articulation of Condor Plan, which gathered Southern Cone dictatorships actions in persecution of political opponents through borders.

  9. Latin American Civil-Military Relations in a Historical Perspective: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Skaar, Elin; Malca, Camila Gianella

    2014-01-01

    Civil-military relationships constitute a crucial element in the transition to substantive democracy all over the world. During periods of authoritarianism or civil war, the military in Latin America has been responsible for extensive violations of human rights and humanitarian law. Since the reintroduction of democracy in the region in the 1980s and 1990s, the military has gradually been brought back under civilian rule. The balance of power between military and civil political actors has sh...

  10. Spiritual Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Rambeau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available According to Foucault, the uprising of the Iranian people in the seventies reveals how much the political force of Islam is due precisely to the fact that it is not principally located in the field of politics, but in that of ethics. Religion (Shiite Islam appears as the guarantee of real change in the very mode of existence. This spiritual politics is marginalized by Marxism, where it is understood as a discontinuity in relation to proper politics, given that the latter is necessarily linked to a strategic rationalization. By indicating, at this juncture of what is intolerable, the living source and the critical impulse of the Foucauldian ethics, this spiritual politics also leads to recognize in the concept of “subjectivation” a dimension that might escape the circle of freedom as determined by a total immanence to power. This conceptual possibility is highly present in the aporias of the Foucauldian concept of the “relation to oneself”, both as a first condition of governmentality and the ultimate point of resistance against any governmentality. It thus reveals the difficulties in relating political to ethical subjectivation.

  11. 'Chernobyl' in the public opinion of the Federal Republic of Germany - risk perception, political attitudes and information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennen, L.; Peters, H.P.

    1990-01-01

    The information behaviour of the population after Chernobyl was characterized by a sceptical attitude to reporting in the media, which was frequently considered to be inaccurate. A critical attitude was, however, also revealed towards primary information sources such as the government, opposition, nuclear research centres, industry, action groups and ecological research institutes. The majority of the population are evidently oriented both towards statements from established institutions such as the government and nuclear research centres as well as to information from institutions and persons critical of nuclear energy; they therefore did not shut their eyes to contradictions in the published information. It became clear that a majority of the respondents had a preference for a decentralized information policy where the public has unimpeded access to as many information sources as possible. (orig.) [de

  12. “We need more data”! The politics of scientific information for water governance in the context of hydraulic fracturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele-Lee Moore

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Proposed and actual developments of hydraulic fracturing, as a high-volume water user, have proven contentious in recent years. However, one point of agreement has emerged amongst all actors with regards to water use and hydraulic fracturing: we need more data. This consensus fits with a longstanding reification of the role of data in water governance, and yet we argue it hides a politically contested terrain. Based on a literature review, an empirical Delphi study and a workshop with a diverse array of participants from across Canada, we explore the data needs related to water governance and hydraulic fracturing. We then investigate three areas of deficiency that point to a lack of trust and oversight as well as the exclusion of community and Indigenous knowledge. We argue that in an era of neoliberal approaches to water governance, issues of trust, accountability and transparency all link back to a diminished role for data management within existing water governance arrangements. The challenge is that simply collecting more data will not help decision-makers navigate the complexity of water governance. Our findings suggest a growing call by participants for greater engagement by governments in data collection and knowledge management, new funding mechanisms for data collection and rethinking how and what to monitor if including multiple ways of knowing and values.

  13. Research on 6R Military Logistics Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Wan; Wen, Wang

    The building of military logistics network is an important issue for the construction of new forces. This paper has thrown out a concept model of 6R military logistics network model based on JIT. Then we conceive of axis spoke y logistics centers network, flexible 6R organizational network, lean 6R military information network based grid. And then the strategy and proposal for the construction of the three sub networks of 6Rmilitary logistics network are given.

  14. Private political archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Chorążyczewski

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available "Private political archives" are understood by me as all acts collected intently by a private person. These acts are connected with the person's participation in political life and gathered in order to be used in public activity as the source of argumentation and information about factors and mechanisms of political processes. Private political archives of the first half of the XVI century were mainly created by royal servants, often with reference to their job duties. These duties could inspire to collect political acts for private purposes. During the reign of Sigismund Augustus, archives of gentry activists were developed to small extent and they mainly focused on parliamentary life. Private political archives were created outside the executionist movement, namely in the community gathered around the royal court. After 1572, Crown and Lithuanian magnates greatly influenced the creation of political archives. Archives of lesser gentry, scarce and poor, did not disappear completely. However, they became difficult for identification. Therefore, developmental process concerned exclusively documentary "treasure troves" created by magnates. They had the financial means and possibilities to create truly valuable political archives. The same as in the previous period the dynamisms of executionist movement was reflected in political archival documentation, now the creation of patronage system and clientele, or traditionally understood magnate oligarchy, (depending on the point of view corresponded best to archives development. The heritage of previous generations was the treasure trove of patterns and solutions. However, this trove was used selectively, on one hand giving up patterns and rights that were uncomfortable, and, on the other, giving the value of precedence to unexpected acts that gained more importance or even new content in changed political conditions. The application of interpretation principle raised interest in old acts and patterns

  15. Nuclear test watchers feel political heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, E.

    1987-01-01

    One year after US citizen diplomats signed a remarkable pact with the Soviet Union to monitor nuclear bomb tests, they are running into some of the obstacles that regular diplomats encounter - political flak from the Pentagon and harassment by the Soviet military. But they have devised some technical solutions that they hope will get them around the roadblocks. These solutions are discussed

  16. Political leader survival : does competence matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Shu; Jong-A-Pin, Richard

    We examine whether economic and military competence of political leaders affect their duration in office. We introduce leader heterogeneity in the selectorate theory of Bueno de Mesquita et al. (2003) and derive the hypothesis that in the presence of a revolutionary threat, economic competence is

  17. Regulating the Role of PMCs in Shaping Security and Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leander, Anna

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the way PMCs shape security policies and more generally political priorities. Linking up with classical thinking about "civil-military relations", it suggests that preoccupation with security professionals' role in shaping politics is as important when these professionals...

  18. The Elite and Political Process in Nigeria | Banjo | Africa Insight

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria's crisis-ridden political history shows how it survived multiple military dictatorships, and had only three short-lived civilian-led political dispensations until the Fourth Republic. The article considers the concept of African elite and progresses to unravel the Nigerian elite and its role in the scuttling of the First and ...

  19. Liberian Political Culture | Yoder | Lagos Notes and Records

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As Liberians seek to restore their nation, much of the emphasis has been on formal political systems such as elections, the executive, regional authorities, the military, the judiciary, or the national legislature. The following essay argues that it will be equally important to understand and reshape Liberia's political culture ...

  20. Brazilian women in politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, T G

    1987-01-01

    Women are gradually gaining influence in Brazilian politics, especially since recent advances in the women's movement, but they still play a limited role. There have been journals devoted to feminism and some notable feminists since 1850. In 1932 suffragettes in Brazil gained women the right to vote. Women's associations burgeoned in the 1940s and 1950s, culminating in a peak in number of women in national elected positions in 1965. A repressive military regime reversed the process, which resumed in 1975. 1975 was also significant for the Brazilian women's movement because of the U.N. Women's Year. Several large, influential feminist political action groups were formed, typically by upper class women with leftist views, although some church and union groups from lower classes also appeared. In 1979-1981, the coherence of these groups fell into schism and fragmentation, because of disagreements over the feminist political doctrines and roles, views on legality of abortion, and special interest groups such as lesbians. Another bitter dispute is opposition by leftist women to BEMFAM, the Brazilian Society of Family Welfare, which provides family planning for the poor: leftists oppose BEMFAM because it is supported by funds from "imperialist" countries such as the U.S. There are several types of feminists groups: those that emphasize health, sexuality and violence; those composed of lesbians; those originating from lower classes and unions; publicly instituted organizations. Brazilian law forbids discrimination against women holding public office, but in reality very few women actually do hold office, except for mayors of small towns and a few administrators of the Education and Social Security ministries. Political office in Brazil is gained by clientism, and since women rarely hold powerful positions in business, they are outsiders of the system. Brazilian women have achieved much, considering the low female literacy rate and traditional power system, but their

  1. Political symbols and political transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrero de Miñón, Miguel

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Politics, Law and Psychology are fields that come together in the symbolic. This text takes evidence from those three areas to develop an analysis of political symbols and political transitions. The development of the analysis goes through three stages. The first succinctly describes the concept of transition and its meaning. The second closely examines the notion of the symbol, in terms of its definition, to explain aspects that allow us to understand it, characterise it and make its functions clear. Finally, from the author's experience as a witness and as an actor, I suggest three ways of understanding symbols in the processes of political transition: as symbols of change, as symbols of acknowledgment, and as symbols of support.

  2. Polity age and political budget cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaskoven, Lasse

    2018-01-01

    Incumbent incentive for competence-signaling and lack of voter information are generally thought to be factors that increase the prevalence of political budget cycles. These mechanisms should be more prevalent in new political units. Since the creation of new political units is rarely exogenous......-experimental to study whether political budget cycles are larger in new political units. Contrary to theoretical predictions, political budget cycles seem to be of a smaller scale in the new municipalities, but only regarding budget cycles in budgetary overruns. The findings are of wider interest for discussions about...... the mechanisms behind context-conditional political budget cycles....

  3. Education and Political Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massialas, Byron G.

    1977-01-01

    Considers how education is related to politics with the focus on political socialization, political recruitment, i.e., the selection and training of political elites, and political integration or nation building of groups of people. (Author/RK)

  4. The Closure of the Russian Military Base at Akhalkalaki: Challenges for the Local Energy Elite, the Informal Economy and Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Øverland

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2007, the base of the Russian army’s 62nd Division at Akhalkalaki, Georgia was shut down. After outlining the historical role of the base in Russian–Armenian–Turkish relations, this article examines how it was the linchpin of informal economies and power relations among the Javakheti Armenians. Vital to these relations was the control of the disproportionately large number of petrol stations in Akhalkalaki by key economic groups. The article then offers several reasons why, in light of the informal socio-economic structures and interests of local power brokers, one might have expected the closure of the base to result in upheaval among the Javakheti Armenians. Finally, the paper briefly considers Georgian and Western efforts to ameliorate the socio-economic situation, before concluding with reasons for the absence of major unrest following closure of the Akhalkalaki base.

  5. New business with the new military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apgar, Mahlon; Keane, John M

    2004-09-01

    A $200 billion market has appeared on your business horizon, but you may not have noticed it. It's the U.S. military--the new U.S. military. Virtually all aspects of the military are changing to ensure it can fight unpredictable threats while sustaining the infrastructure needed to support and train forces. The military is turning to non-traditional business partners to meet a wide range of needs, from health care to housing to information technology. The Defense Department is yielding its monopoly on every aspect of national security and adopting a more businesslike model in which the military's warfighting capabilities are supported through outsourcing and business alliances. Civilians are replacing military personnel in many noncombat roles. Military functions with corporate equivalents are candidates for outsourcing and privatization. Market standards are replacing the heavy customization that has locked many companies out of this marketplace. The authors have participated in the transformation process from different perspectives--one civilian, the other military. Together, they highlight the prospects that transformation is creating for companies outside the traditional defense industry and reveal paths to success in this complex market. They also present six principles for doing business with the military that require persistence, integrity, and a willingness to master the intricacies of a distinctive culture. By understanding the logic of military transformation, executives can identify and create vast new business opportunities. And by mastering the six principles, they can build profitable long-term relationships.

  6. Political ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohm, H.

    1979-01-01

    Using facts and examples, this didactically structures textbook gives an insight into the extent and consequences of the damage to the environment, with the subjects - fundamentals of ecology; - population and food problems; - the energy problem; - economic growth; scarcity of resources, recycling; - ground, water, and air pollution, - city and traffic problems; - work protection and medical care; - political alternatives and 'soft technologies'. The analysis of the political and economic reasons is combined with social and technical alternatives from which demands to be made and measures to be taken can be derived for individuals, citizens' interest groups, political groups and trade unions. Teaching models intend to help teachers to work on specific problems of ecology. (orig.) [de

  7. Political priorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng

    2016-01-01

    …THE POLITICAL LEADERS of the local government of Chongqing, China, vigorously promote a low-carbon economy and sustainable development to mitigate environmental pollution. Accordingly, research grants focused on this issue were supported by the government, and our group obtained a grant for a pr......…THE POLITICAL LEADERS of the local government of Chongqing, China, vigorously promote a low-carbon economy and sustainable development to mitigate environmental pollution. Accordingly, research grants focused on this issue were supported by the government, and our group obtained a grant...... for a project about industrial park planning and design.…In my view, political priorities based on correct decision-making and market requirements are beneficial for researchers....

  8. Predator Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Louisa Cappelli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Edward Abbey’s Desert Solitaire and Barbara Kingsolver’s Prodigal Summer urges readers to see coyotes as crucial members of the natural community whose predation is essential for the maintenance of biodiversity and ecological stability. Their cultural production provides a human story of ecocritical engagement for understanding the cascading effects of removing top predators from their ecosystems. By envisioning biocentric possibilities within place-based and scientific contexts, Edward Abbey and Barbara Kingsolver share a common theme of political ecology: political processes shape ecological conditions. A close reading of Edward Abbey’s Desert Solitaire and Barbara Kingsolver’s Prodigal Summer provides a literary entryway to connect research, arguments, and discourse across disciplines tasking readers to engage in political discussions of environmental sustainability and to consider viable solutions to preserve the ecological diversity of our predator populations and ecosystems.

  9. The Early Political Web (1995-2005) :A ten-year observational research seeking evidence of eDemocracy in the information architecture of political parties web sites worldwide

    OpenAIRE

    Ricci, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Scholarly interest for the impact of technologies on democracy has raised in parallel to the decline of political participation. Technology has often been seen as either one of the causes of the crisis of representative democracy or as a powerful remedy to heal the negative externalities generated by party oligopolies. The study of the impact of new media in party politics or presidential elections dates back the forties (with the outgrowth of radio) and has evolved in cyclical waves until to...

  10. The Political Control of the Soviet Armed Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-05

    training aids. 9In sum, the MPA is 6 responsible for providing coordination and standardization for the political socialization in the Soviet military...compelling nationalist loyalties and to instill approved Socialist values in soldiers of the non- lavic minorities. Along with this political ... socialization the political officer will 21 conduct language classes for those minorities with low levels of Russian fluency. In summary, the large number of

  11. The Political Control of Journalistic Information/ El control político de la información periodística

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Andreu Casero Ripollés; casero@com.uji.es

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s society, journalistic information represents an essential strategic resource for various reasons, including: its ability to define reality, the cognitive and symbolic capacity with which it can shape social meanings, its unquestionable ability to structure public visibility, and its potential to set the public agenda. In short, journalistic information has emerged as an element charged with symbolic power. For this reason, political actors have made it their priority to control journalistic information in their endeavour to structure the public sphere according to their own interests and objectives. However, this subordination has become increasingly difficult, due to the growing autonomy of the mass media system. This paper starts from the present arena, marked by the growing mediatisation of politics, to analyse the different ways in which the political system operates to control journalistic information in the current context, particularly in relation to television. Four major formulas are highlighted by which this control takes place: the adoption of media logic, the policy of alliances, news monitoring during election campaigns, and going public. A detailed description of each formula is accompanied by an analysis of various empirical illustrations. Finally, the study also offers an insight into the reactions of the mass media to these attempts by political agents to control them, in a context marked by the vigorous commercialisation of the communications sector. The research methodology is based on a combination of theoretical frameworks from political communication and the political economy of communication, thus taking an interactive approach that understands the relationship between the political and media systems as a constant process of exchange.La información periodística se configura en las sociedades actuales como un recurso estratégico fundamental por diversos motivos: su competencia para definir la realidad, su

  12. Defense Infrastructure: Guam Needs Timely Information from DOD to Meet Challenges in Planning and Financing Off-Base Projects and Programs to Support a Larger Military Presence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-13

    plan to guide the civilian community as a result of rapid military growth • Designing, testing, and implementation of an econometric model to...continue. 17 48 U.S.C. § 1423a. Most U.S. states and local municipalities have similar...additional revenue. For instance, Guam receives federal income taxes paid by military and civilian employees of the U.S. government stationed in Guam.22

  13. How Internal Political Efficacy Translates Political Knowledge Into Political Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This study presents evidence for the mediation effect of political knowledge through political self-efficacy (i.e. internal political efficacy) in the prediction of political participation. It employs an action theoretic approach—by and large grounded on the Theory of Planned Behaviour—and uses data from the German Longitudinal Election Study to examine whether political knowledge has distinct direct effects on voting, conventional, and/or unconventional political participation. It argues that political knowledge raises internal political efficacy and thereby indirectly increases the chance that a citizen will participate in politics. The results of mediated multiple regression analyses yield evidence that political knowledge indeed translates into internal political efficacy, thus it affects political participation of various kinds indirectly. However, internal political efficacy and intentions to participate politically yield simultaneous direct effects only on conventional political participation. Sequentially mediated effects appear for voting and conventional political participation, with political knowledge being mediated by internal political efficacy and subsequently also by behavioural intentions. The mediation patterns for unconventional political participation are less clear though. The discussion accounts for restrictions of this study and points to questions for answer by future research. PMID:27298633

  14. Managing the Civil-Military Relationship: A Study of Lincoln’s Management of the Army of the Potomac Within the Context of Mission Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    is intended to inform the relationship provided for in the Constitution between the politician and the military advisor . The fruitfulness of...leading up to his inauguration. Lincoln’s personal correspondence following his nomination to the Republican ticket smoothed egos, and cajoled his...the political appointments Lincoln made to the Armies of the Potomac and the West. As early as his nomination to the Republican presidential candidacy

  15. PoliNet and Information Utilities: Using Telecommunications in Political Science and Public Administration Education and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasu, Michael L.; Garson, G. David

    General information utilities and specialized networks, such as PoliNet, provide educators and researchers in public administration and allied fields with a diversity of new tools which include: (1) bibliographic searching; (2) international teleconferencing; (3) electronic news clipping services; (4) electronic mail; and (5) free public domain…

  16. Android Smartphone Relevance to Military Weather Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    lithium -ion battery that may be replaced by the user (unlike Apple iPod Touch devices), thus spare batteries can be carried. If there is only sporadic...Android Smartphone Relevance to Military Weather Applications by David Sauter ARL-TR-5793 October 2011...Android Smartphone Relevance to Military Weather Applications David Sauter Computational and Information Sciences Directorate, ARL

  17. MILITARY MISSION COMBAT EFFICIENCY ESTIMATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ighoyota B. AJENAGHUGHRURE

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Military infantry recruits, although trained, lacks experience in real-time combat operations, despite the combat simulations training. Therefore, the choice of including them in military operations is a thorough and careful process. This has left top military commanders with the tough task of deciding, the best blend of inexperienced and experienced infantry soldiers, for any military operation, based on available information on enemy strength and capability. This research project delves into the design of a mission combat efficiency estimator (MCEE. It is a decision support system that aids top military commanders in estimating the best combination of soldiers suitable for different military operations, based on available information on enemy’s combat experience. Hence, its advantages consist of reducing casualties and other risks that compromises the entire operation overall success, and also boosting the morals of soldiers in an operation, with such information as an estimation of combat efficiency of their enemies. The system was developed using Microsoft Asp.Net and Sql server backend. A case study test conducted with the MECEE system, reveals clearly that the MECEE system is an efficient tool for military mission planning in terms of team selection. Hence, when the MECEE system is fully deployed it will aid military commanders in the task of decision making on team members’ combination for any given operation based on enemy personnel information that is well known beforehand. Further work on the MECEE will be undertaken to explore fire power types and impact in mission combat efficiency estimation.

  18. Situated, embodied, and political

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2013-01-01

    is developed. The article discusses ways in which professional journalism is positioned in relation to engaging subjectivity of citizen journalism – as convergence media, as well as independent forms of knowledge and information sharing. The often political affectivity of citizen journalism is discussed...

  19. CIVIL-MILITARY RELATIONS IN MUSLIM COUNTRIES. THE CASES OF EGYPT, PAKISTAN, AND TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas C. BRUNEAU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the role of the military in the contemporary politics of Egypt, Pakistan, and Turkey. While there is literature on military coups, and analyses of the military in democratic consolidation, there is little on the military’s role in democratic transitions. There is virtually none on Arab or Muslim countries. The Arab Spring has brought renewed attention to the role of the military in these problematic transitions. Utilizing a common framework, based on Alfred Stepan’s “prerogatives”, the article compares and contrasts the position of the military in these three countries. In order to explain the different powers of the militaries in accord with these variables, the article then examines a series of five commonly identified factors promoting or impeding the political role position of the military.

  20. Congressional Restrictions on U.S. Military Operations in Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Somalia, and Kosovo: Funding and Non-Funding Approaches

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Belasco, Amy; Cunningham, Lynn J; Fischer, Hannah; Niksch, Larry A

    2007-01-01

    This report discusses the political context and congressional consideration of various funding and other restrictive legislative language applying to military operations in Indochina between 1970 and 1973...

  1. Who bears the cost of 'informal mhealth'? Health-workers' mobile phone practices and associated political-moral economies of care in Ghana and Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampshire, Kate; Porter, Gina; Mariwah, Simon; Munthali, Alister; Robson, Elsbeth; Owusu, Samuel Asiedu; Abane, Albert; Milner, James

    2017-02-01

    Africa's recent communications 'revolution' has generated optimism that using mobile phones for health (mhealth) can help bridge healthcare gaps, particularly for rural, hard-to-reach populations. However, while scale-up of mhealth pilots remains limited, health-workers across the continent possess mobile phones. This article draws on interviews from Ghana and Malawi to ask whether/how health-workers are using their phones informally and with what consequences. Health-workers were found to use personal mobile phones for a wide range of purposes: obtaining help in emergencies; communicating with patients/colleagues; facilitating community-based care, patient monitoring and medication adherence; obtaining clinical advice/information and managing logistics. However, the costs were being borne by the health-workers themselves, particularly by those at the lower echelons, in rural communities, often on minimal stipends/salaries, who are required to 'care' even at substantial personal cost. Although there is significant potential for 'informal mhealth' to improve (rural) healthcare, there is a risk that the associated moral and political economies of care will reinforce existing socioeconomic and geographic inequalities. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.

  2. The Human Volunteer in Military Biomedical Research (Military Medical Ethics. Volume 2, Chapter 19)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-10-01

    justice have long been associated with social practices such as punishment, taxation and political The Human Volunteer in Military Biomedical Research...suspension of eligibility to receive research funding, to use investigational interventions, or to practise medicine. Unless there are persuasive reasons to do

  3. Political Socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelweit, Hilde T.

    1983-01-01

    Described are two longitudinal studies, one British, the other American, which examined the influences of varied socializing agents--e.g., family, school, peer groups--on voting behavior. The studies emphasized the hitherto unappreciated importance of the political, social, and economic climate of society and its changes on socialization. (CS)

  4. Politics 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Abraham

    1977-01-01

    This article expresses some last thoughts from Abraham Maslow on his vision of humanistic psychology. He suggests that the two main problems of creating the good person and the good society are interwoven inextricably. He gives some social and political mechanisms which would enhance desirable personal growth and considers the main tasks of…

  5. Implementation Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegland, Troels Jacob; Raakjær, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    level are supplemented or even replaced by national priorities. The chapter concludes that in order to capture the domestic politics associated with CFP implementation in Denmark, it is important to understand the policy process as a synergistic interaction between dominant interests, policy alliances...

  6. Political Rationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solhaug, Trond; Kristensen, Niels Nørgaard

    The very idea about democracies is public participation in elections, decision-making and/or public engagement. The democratic participation distributes power among ordinary people and serve to legitimize decisions in public affairs and is a vital characteristic of a political culture.”The term...

  7. Framing politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lecheler, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation supplies a number of research findings that add to a theory of news framing effects, and also to the understanding of the role media effects play in political communication. We show that researchers must think more about what actually constitutes a framing effect, and that a

  8. Physical, Social, and Political Inequities Constraining Girls' Menstrual Management at Schools in Informal Settlements of Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girod, Candace; Ellis, Anna; Andes, Karen L; Freeman, Matthew C; Caruso, Bethany A

    2017-12-01

    Access to adequate water and sanitation is limited in informal settlements, contributing to girls' challenges managing menstruation at school, especially when they cannot access materials to absorb menstrual blood and appropriate facilities for hygiene. This study documents differences between girls' experience of menstruation at public schools (where the Kenyan government provides menstrual pads) and private schools (where pads are not provided) in two informal settlements of Nairobi, Kenya. Results showed that supply chains to public schools were not reliable, and equitable pad provision was not assured. Girls in private schools struggled to access pads because they were not provided. Sanitation facilities were physically available, but Muslim girls were unable to practice ablution due to the design of toilets in our study schools. Girls experienced fear and anxiety due to harassment from male peers and had incomplete information about menstruation from teachers. Findings suggest that practitioners and policy-makers should acknowledge the diversity of school populations and monitor programs to ensure efforts do not contribute to inequity.

  9. Patrimônio digital e informação: política, cultura e diversidadeDigital heritage and information: politics, culture and diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lídia Eugenia Cavalcanti

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este texto, que é parte da pesquisa de pós-doutorado em Ciências da Informação, realizada na École de Bibliothéconomie et des Sciences de l'Information (EBSI, da Université de Montréal – Canadá, versa sobre Informação, Memória Social, Cultura e Patrimônio Digital. Tem o objetivo de apresentar algumas reflexões sobre os desafios de salvaguarda e acesso ao patrimônio, em meio eletrônico, com ênfase nas questões culturais, econômicas e políticas que envolvem a temática. Toma como elemento inicial de reflexão o documento: “Carta da UNESCO sobre a Preservação do Patrimônio Digital” e sobre a “Memória do Mundo”, amplamente divulgado na Internet, e que tem estimulado os diferentes países membros e instituições ao estabelecimento de políticas, estratégias, ações, programas, padrões, diretrizes e metodologias que assegurem a preservação e o acesso à memória e ao patrimônio mundial em ambiente virtual.This text is part of the post-doctoral research in Information Science, performed at the École de Bibliothéconomie et des Sciences de l'Information (EBSI, at Université de Montréal – Canada. The following areas are discussed: Information, Social Memory,Culture and Digital Heritage. Some reflections are presented concerning the challenges of heritage safeguard and access, with emphasis on the related cultural, economical and political questions. The following document is taken as an initial element for reflection: “UNESCO Charter on the Preservation of the Digital Heritage” and on the “World Memory”. This document, widely disseminated on the Internet, has stimulated the different member countries and institutions in the establishment of politics, strategies, action, programs, patterns, directives and methodologies to ensure the preservation and access to the world memory and heritage in the virtual environment.

  10. Coping strategies of Nigerian Military Service Personnel: A Survey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The peculiar characteristics of a military career, such as the specific professional military aims or tasks, working environment, strict subordination typical to military structures and formal and informal relationships, influence the type of coping strategies employed by individuals. The authors present the first study ...

  11. O estável poder de veto Forças Armadas sobre o tema da anistia política no Brasil The stable military power as veto players in issues related to the political amnesty in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Celina D'Araujo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho propõe-se a demonstrar porque desde 1979 foi possível aos militares brasileiros atuarem como veto players sempre que entrou em debate a revisão da Lei de Anistia. Nossa hipótese é que esse poder de veto explica-se pela existência de uma grande autonomia militar antes, durante e depois da ditadura, associada aos baixos níveis de respeito aos direitos humanos na sociedade brasileira e ao baixo interesse do Congresso e do governo em geral pelo tema das Forças Armadas.The study aims to show why since 1979 the Brazilian military had been able to act as veto players whenever the debate about Amnesty Law was argued. Our hypothesis is that this veto power is explained by the existence of a large military autonomy before, during and after the dictatorship, associated with low levels of human rights culture in Brazilian society and the low interest of Congress and government in general about Armed Forces issues.

  12. Inclusion as political mobilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anne Mette; Muwanga, Nansozi

    2016-01-01

    constituencies. Finally, there is relatively weak pressure to push through education quality-enhancing reforms, be it from civil society in general, powerful interest groups, or parliament. At the local level, we find that how a school is situated within local elite networks is important in explaining local...... to implement qualityenhancing policies, first, because the formal and informal governance arrangements allow for a system of decentralised rent management that serves to appease lower level factions. Secondly, the NRM government is caught in the rhetoric of allowing free education in an appeal to rural......Uganda has been successful in broadening access to education. However, this achievement has been undermined by low literacy and numeracy levels and high drop-out rates. A political settlement perspective sheds light on the politics of education reforms. We find that there are weak political drives...

  13. "Vojnik i Narod" The Soldier and the People Civil-Military Relations in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Civil-Military Relations in Slovenia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Derdzinski, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    .... Slovenia, seven years after independence, provides a relevant model of study. I argue that Slovenia is an example of a healthy civil- military relationship. Other South Slav states must consider Slovenia's example when analyzing and adopting their own political structures.

  14. TECHNOLOGY AND EDUCATIONAL POLITICS: CHALLENGES AND CONTRIBUTIONS OF TECHNOLOGIES OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS FROM ITAPERUNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valquiria Oscar Teixeira

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of technology in schools made its mark at the end of the XX century and mainly expands in the XXI century. With the advance of globalization, technology has become indispensable presence in daily life and at this juncture has been adding new forms of social mediation, revolutionizing the communicability, bringing in evidence different ways of communication and interaction among people. This work discusses about the importance of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT in the educational context, considering the public policies, responsible for their integration in schools, as well as the vision that educators have about them and obstacles they face in the practical use of ICT. The literature review about the theme gave support to data constructed from interviews with three teachers of state schools in Itaperuna. The interviews were based on the issue of how teachers have seen the advent of Information and Communication Technology in the school environment and what they have done to incorporate it for the benefit of education. Through interviews and literature review it was found that with the help of the ICT, the school can teach what it means to live immersed in a shared knowledge community. The school can also educate for citizenship exercise, qualification for work and social practices, as described in the LDB. However, despite the contributions in social spects and learning enabled to the students, we also observed substantial obstacles that clutter the scope of success in the use of ICT in school. The deficit teacher training and infrastructural aspects of the institutions are some of the obstacles.

  15. Exploring Women's Understanding of Politics, Political Contestation ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Exploring Women's Understanding of Politics, Political Contestation and Gender ... First, researchers will explore women's political leadership and the extent to ... Sign up now for IDRC news and views sent directly to your inbox each month.

  16. Political accountability and autonomous weapons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Igoe Walsh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous weapons would have the capacity to select and attack targets without direct human input. One important objection to the introduction of such weapons is that they will make it more difficult to identify and hold accountable those responsible for undesirable outcomes such as mission failures and civilian casualties. I hypothesize that individuals can modify their attribution of responsibility in predicable ways to accommodate this new technology. The results of a survey experiment are consistent with this; subjects continue to find responsible and hold accountable political and military leaders when autonomous weapons are used, but also attribute responsibility to the designers and programmers of such weapons.

  17. SEARCH AND DETENTION OF THE MILITARY PERSONNEL WHO HAS AVOIDED THE MILITARY SERVICE: SOURCES, REALITIES, IMPROVEMENT PROSPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia V. V.

    2014-01-01

    The article is devoted to the topical issues of the search and detention of the military personnel who has avoided the military service. On the basis of official information, the author gave a short historical digression, the analysis of a current state of the problem of evasion of the military personnel from military service is carried out and possible ways of its solutions are proposed

  18. Underground Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galis, Vasilis; Summerton, Jane

    Public spaces are often contested sites involving the political use of sociomaterial arrangements to check, control and filter the flow of people (see Virilio 1977, 1996). Such arrangements can include configurations of state-of-the-art policing technologies for delineating and demarcating borders...... status updates on identity checks at the metro stations in Stockholm and reports on locations and time of ticket controls for warning travelers. Thus the attempts by authorities to exert control over the (spatial) arena of the underground is circumvented by the effective developing of an alternative...... infrastructural "underground" consisting of assemblages of technologies, activists, immigrants without papers, texts and emails, homes, smart phones and computers. Investigating the embedded politics of contested spatial arrangements as characteristic of specific societies one can discover not only the uses...

  19. Political Epistemology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, David Budtz

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation is intended to establish a framework for a revised picture of the loci of epistemic preferences in our complex knowledge-based society. In what ways do institutions, policies and regulations determine the conditions under which knowledge is produced and justified? This dissertat......? This dissertation argues that we can identify multiple epistemic preferences in the institutional and political settings that govern the production and distribution of knowledge....

  20. The Politics of Teaching Shakespeare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, Sean

    1991-01-01

    Considers the literary achievement of William Shakespeare and specifically why he continues to hold such an honored and sanctified position in the literary canon. Proposes a theoretically informed, politically aware pedagogy by which Shakespeare might be more usefully taught. (HB)

  1. Redefined Soviet military doctrine in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menning, B.W.

    1992-01-01

    On May 29, 1987, the Warsaw Pact's Political Consultative Committee issued a communique proclaiming that the military doctrine of the Warsaw Pact member states is strictly defensive and proceeds from the fact that the application of military means to resolve any dispute is inadmissible under current conditions. Following this declaration, a corresponding redefinition of Soviet military doctrine to emphasize defensiveness and war prevention has evoke lively commentary and debate in both the West and the East. Because doctrinal issues are likely to retain significance during arms control and security negotiations. The purpose of this paper is to highlight important trends associated with a continuing dialogue over Soviet military doctrine and to assess what the future portends as doctrinal discussions unfold. Since 1987 the accelerating pace of change has accentuated the importance of doctrinally related concerns. As a result of the INF Treaty and the Stockholm agreement, there has been greater transparency regarding Soviet and Warsaw Pact military developments. On December 7, 1988, General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev announced unilateral troop reduction over the next two years, which, when completed, would reduce the offensive capabilities of Soviet forces in Eastern Europe. In March 1989 talks on Confidence- and Security-Building Measures (CSBM) opened in Vienna, with suggestions for exchanges of views on military policy. At the very same time, NATO and the Warsaw Pact began formal negotiations on reduction of Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE) with a specific mandate to reduce those asymmetries that most favored prosecution of deep operations

  2. That’s Not What I Joined to Do, Sir -- Understanding Military Culture and Ethos is Critical for the Correct Use of the Military Instrument of Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    took over a decade and was ―like trying to stop a tank by throwing marshmallows at it. The military, like any huge bureaucracy, resists innovation...leadership, will be like ―throwing marshmallows against a tank.‖ The latter requires a re-evaluation by political leaders of the part the military

  3. Foundations of a Marxist Theory of the Political Economy of Information: Trade Secrets and Intellectual Property, and the Production of Relative Surplus Value and the Extraction of Rent-Tribute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Rigi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to sketch a preliminary outline of a Marxist theory of the political economy of information. It defines information as a symbolic form that can be digitally copied. This definition is purely formal and disregards epistemological, ideological, and functional aspects. The article argues that the value of information defined in this sense tends to zero and therefore the price of information is rent. However, information plays a central role in the production of relative surplus value on the one hand, and the distribution of the total social surplus value in forms of surplus profits and rents, on the other. Thus, the hegemony of information technologies in contemporary productive forces has not made Marx’s theory of value irrelevant. On the contrary, the political economy of information can only be understood in the light of this theory. The article demonstrates that the capitalist production and distribution of surplus value at the global level forms the foundation of the political economy of information.

  4. The Political Dynamics of Higher Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Luciana

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a framework informed by spatial models of politics to explain the dynamics of political competition in higher education policy and, in particular, the observed instability in the relationship between political variables and policy outcomes. To this end, I explore competing hypotheses for the relationship between government…

  5. Cultural evolution of military camouflage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talas, Laszlo; Baddeley, Roland J; Cuthill, Innes C

    2017-07-05

    While one has evolved and the other been consciously created, animal and military camouflage are expected to show many similar design principles. Using a unique database of calibrated photographs of camouflage uniform patterns, processed using texture and colour analysis methods from computer vision, we show that the parallels with biology are deeper than design for effective concealment. Using two case studies we show that, like many animal colour patterns, military camouflage can serve multiple functions. Following the dissolution of the Warsaw Pact, countries that became more Western-facing in political terms converged on NATO patterns in camouflage texture and colour. Following the break-up of the former Yugoslavia, the resulting states diverged in design, becoming more similar to neighbouring countries than the ancestral design. None of these insights would have been obtained using extant military approaches to camouflage design, which focus solely on concealment. Moreover, our computational techniques for quantifying pattern offer new tools for comparative biologists studying animal coloration.This article is part of the themed issue 'Animal coloration: production, perception, function and application'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  6. The Role of the Military in Counterterrorism: Unintended Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    threatened with a political aim; it can involve a variety of acts, of targets, and of actors; it possesses an important psychological dimension...military and led to military rule in countries like Argentina, Brazil and Chile between the 1960s and the mid-1980s.25 Stanislaw Andreski also supports that...estates, gained money through providing transportation with the fleet of black taxis, and even provided sports and social centers. They established

  7. Military conversion and science in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stach, S.

    1994-01-01

    The sphere of science, research and development is undergoing the difficult process of transformation in the Czech Republic since the political changes after the Cold War occurred. The duality of the military and civil production was present in some of the industry branches and that is why the factories and linked research institutions are rather successful in reduction of military production and in transition to the civil one

  8. Improving Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ) Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    U.S. Army.78 Westmoreland and Prugh believed that the military justice system at the time of the Vietnam War was not “combat tested .”79 They conclude...SECDEF-Memo-Comprehensive-Review- of-UCMJ.pdf. 168Timothy M. Phelps , Pentagon Plans Major Review of the Military Justice System, L.A. TIMES, April 15...detailed understanding of politics, psychology , and law are not required. This thesis employs a comparative, epidemiological analysis of multiple

  9. Political Warfare and Contentious Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    the DC and PSLI Overt, Indirect • US forming a coalition with France and Britain to return Trieste to Italy control • US Urged French and British...efforts to alter Chile’s social construct by calling for the end to the Allende government, pointing out the failures of Marxism , encouraging a...political or social change. Frances Piven and Richard Cloward describe three attributes associated with group consciousness and cognitive

  10. Restoring Politics to Political History

    OpenAIRE

    Kousser, J. Morgan

    1982-01-01

    If history ever was simply the study of past politics, it is no longer. Dissatisfied with narratives of Great Men, more interested in analyzing the impact of larger forces and in tracing out patterns of the lives of the masses of people, skeptical that a recounting of election campaigns and a counting of votes reveals much about social thought or action, strongly affected by currents of opinion which have long run deep in France, American historians have turned increas...

  11. Enhancing Mental Readiness in Military Personnel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Megan M; McCreary, Donald R

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we explore how the psychological literature on stress and coping might inform military training programs to enhance "mental readiness" as a method to develop the baseline psychological...

  12. Myanmar: Political Reforms and the Recalibration of External Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bünte

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This opening chapter provides some background to the domestic reform agenda, along with its drivers and motivations. From 1988 to 2011, the military built up institutions that guaranteed the military’s dominant position in the political arena. The second phase, since 2011, has seen a guided relaxation of the military’s coercive controls and the liberalisation of political spaces for the opposition and civil society. In order to contextualise Myanmar’s external relations, this article will first describe the military’s strategy and then outline the key changes that have been implemented in the country’s foreign policy.

  13. Why Thailand’s Military Stepped In

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    8 Craig J. Reynolds (ed.), National Identity and its Defenders: Thailand Today ( Chiang Mai : Silkworm Books, 2002). 9...and Authority in Thailand,” in National Identity and its Defenders: Thailand Today (rev. ed.), ed. Craig J. Reynolds ( Chiang Mai : Silkworm Books, 2002...Business of Politics in Thailand ( Chiang Mai : Silkworm Books, 2004), 230. 128 Ockey, “Thailand,” 199. 52 days of the military directly administering

  14. Marching Under Darkening Skies The American Military and the Impending Urban Operations Threat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Glenn, Russell

    1998-01-01

    .... Success in accomplishing the assigned military mission can fall short of national political objectives if the cost of that accomplishment includes too great a loss of American or noncombatant life...

  15. Long-Term Military Contingency Operations: Identifying the Factors Affecting Budgeting in Annual or Supplemental Appropriations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Evans, Amanda B

    2006-01-01

    .... The results show that planning, timing, accountability, visibility, politics and policy, stakeholder influence, military objectives, and fear of change are the most important factors. These findings can help stakeholders shape funding strategy.

  16. U.S. Military Arms Sales to Taiwan: Deterrent or Provocation?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cox, Kevin

    2002-01-01

    ...) of a peaceful resolution of the Taiwan issue may be furthered by significantly increasing the economic, military and political cost of reunification by any means other than a peaceful resolution...

  17. Political electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Terence.

    1990-01-01

    This book is a non-technical exploration of the political and policy issues that have influenced the development of nuclear power. Part One describes the successes, failures, horse-trading, and infighting that make up nuclear power's history, taking nine counties as examples. Part Two reviews the main problems that now confront us, as seen in mid-June 1990; like all contemporary accounts, the book is unavoidably incomplete. However, by then it was possible to make provisional judgements about two very important recent influences: the political consequences of Chernobyl, and concerns about the greenhouse effect. The story that emerges is of a nuclear industry that has rarely been guilty of dereliction of duty, though it was undeniably complacent in not addressing sooner the causes of the public's entirely reasonable anxieties. The anti-nuclear lobby has been skilled in debate, and sometimes extraordinarily percipient; but less than fair in failing to acknowledge the industry's achievements and its willingness to learn from past mistakes. As for the politicians, the book contains many examples that show how the flames of controversy can be deliberately fanned when there are votes to be gained. The story has few heroes, but within the industry fewer villains than the public has been led to believe. (author)

  18. Street Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Shapiro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available I write from Prague, where, unlike in most urban formations, the main city street plays an iconic role; it references a history of political protest. However, before elaborating on the protest iconography of the Prague street, Vaclavske nam, I want to locate the ways in which the design of urban space is actualized in everyday life in the cities of the world. Three functions stand out; the first involves dwelling, the second seeing, and the third moving. With respect to the first function – dwelling – the design partitions and coordinates residential, commercial and leisure functions. At times these are organized to segregate different classes (Robert Moses’ redesign of much of New York stands out with respect to the segregation function. With respect to the second function – seeing – the design of urban space is allegiance-inspiring; it involves sight lines that afford urban dwellers and visitors views of iconic buildings and statues, which reference key founding moments in the past and/or authoritative political functions in the present (Here, L’Enfants design for Washington DC stands out as exemplary. Its manifest intention was to make the buildings housing executive, legislative and judicial functions visible from many vantage points. Rarely are the streets themselves iconic. Their dominant role is involved with the effectuation of movement. As for this third function: As Lewis Mumford famously points out, streets were once part of an asterisk design, radiating out from an exemplary, often spiritual center...

  19. Dilemmas in Military Medical Ethics: A Call for Conceptual Clarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochon, Christiane

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increase in and evolving nature of armed conflicts, the ethical issues faced by military physicians working in such contexts are still rarely examined in the bioethics literature. Military physicians are members of the military, even if they are non-combatants; and their role is one of healer but also sometimes humanitarian. Some scholars wonder about the moral compatibility of being both a physician and soldier. The ethical conflicts raised in the literature regarding military physicians can be organized into three main perspectives: 1 moral problems in military medicine are particular because of the difficulty of meeting the requirements of traditional bioethical principles; 2 medical codes of ethics and international laws are not well adapted to or are too restrictive for a military context; and 3 physicians are social actors who should either be pacifists, defenders of human rights, politically neutral or promoters of peace. A review of the diverse dilemmas faced by military physicians shows that these differ substantially by level (micro, meso, macro, context and the actors involved, and that they go beyond issues of patient interests. Like medicine in general, military medicine is complex and touches on potentially contested views of the roles and obligations of the physician. Greater conceptual clarity is thus needed in discussions about military medical ethics.

  20. China's Military Potential

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wortzel, Larry

    1998-01-01

    The People's Republic of China (PRC) is seen by many as an economic powerhouse with the world's largest standing military that has the potential to translate economic power into the military sphere...

  1. Military Effectiveness: A Reappraisal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bernasconi, Jeffrey J

    2007-01-01

    .... Two divergent theories cover the ground of military effectiveness. One looks at the interaction of social structures, whereas the other looks at the effect organization has on military effectiveness...

  2. Price of military uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimenko, A.V.

    1998-01-01

    The theoretical results about optimum strategy of use of military uranium confirmed by systems approach accounts are received. The numerical value of the system approach price of the highly enriched military uranium also is given

  3. National Military Family Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MilitaryFamily.org © 2017 - National Military Family Association Twitter Facebook Pinterest Instagram Charity Navigator Four Star Charity GuideStar Exchange Better Business Bureau Charity Watch Independent Charity of America nonprofit ...

  4. Perceptions of political leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Schmitz, J; Murray, Gregg R

    2017-01-01

    Partisan identification is a fundamental force in individual and mass political behavior around the world. Informed by scholarship on human sociality, coalitional psychology, and group behavior, this research argues that partisan identification, like many other group-based behaviors, is influenced by forces of evolution. If correct, then party identifiers should exhibit adaptive behaviors when making group-related political decisions. The authors test this assertion with citizen assessments of the relative physical formidability of competing leaders, an important adaptive factor in leader evaluations. Using original and novel data collected during the contextually different 2008 and 2012 U.S. presidential elections, as well as two distinct measures obtained during both elections, this article presents evidence that partisans overestimate the physical stature of the presidential candidate of their own party compared with the stature of the candidate of the opposition party. These findings suggest that the power of party identification on political behavior may be attributable to the fact that modern political parties address problems similar to the problems groups faced in human ancestral times.

  5. The Emerging Pattern of Civil-Military Relations in Islamist States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    in Turkish Politics?” Today’s Zaman, February 2, 2012, http://www.todayszaman.com/ columnist -270368-are-the-national-police- assuming-the-militarys...Egypt’s professional syndicates and student organizations. Even as Sadat and Mubarak targeted the group in periodic crackdowns, the Brothers continued to...February 2, 2012, http://www.todayszaman.com/ columnist - 270368-are-the-national-police-assuming-the-militarys-role-in-turkish- politics.html. Vatikiotis

  6. THE MILITARY STATE IN SOUTH AMERICA: INTERVENTIONISM, CAUDILLOS AND ARMED FORCES

    OpenAIRE

    PEDRO RIVAS NIETO

    2018-01-01

    In this work the author analyzes the elements of the Military State, which was the result of National Security Regimes. They ruled South America during the last third of the 20th century. The behaviour of the Armed Forces is compared with that of the classic caudillos. The Armed Forces-Civil Society relationship is studied too. And, of course, the intervention in political issues by the military and their relationship with political parties is also analyzed, as well. The conclusion ends with ...

  7. História e culturas políticas: as concepções jurídicas evocadas pelos governos militares enquanto instrumento de obtenção de legitimidade History and political cultures: the legal conceptions evoked by the military governments while score of getting legitimacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Pereira da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo se propõe a analisar o período dos governos militares brasileiros (1964-1985 sob a ótica da cultura da legalidade. Pretendemos demonstrar como a tomada do poder político em 1964, longe de se caracterizar apenas pelo emprego da força e do arbítrio, foi pautada por um esforço jurídico, produzido com base numa determinada teoria do direito constitucional, com ênfase no pensamento de Carl Schmitt e Hans Kelsen.This article proposes to analyse the period of brazilian military governments (1964-1985 under the view of lawfulness culture. We intend to show how the take of political power in 1964, far of being considered just the invest of the force and of the will, it was based into a juridical effort engagement, made upon a determined theory of constitutional right with emphasis in the thought of Carl Schmitt and Hans Kelsen.

  8. The Bright Face of Dark Tourism - Military Conflicts and World Travel in the Modern Era

    OpenAIRE

    Mihály Miklós Nagy

    2016-01-01

    In the history of modern culture, besides its primary task of imposing political will, the military has also served as a major travel institution. The geographical dimensions of wars and the increasingly greater military forces involved have resulted in millions of people being compelled to get to know foreign lands and cultures as soldiers. Thus, military forces have become agents of developing societies’ geographical culture. This phenomenon is the bright face of dark tourism. Still, dark t...

  9. The ontology of "political" in political consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Niels Nolsøe; Stenger, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to create a more complex and holistic understanding of the value system of the political consumer. A case study was undertaken were the unit of analysis constituted 12 high users of organic food products. The empirical data was analysed by utilizing Reynolds and Gutman’s ...... or services will enable companies to better understand consumers need and expectations. The latter being a necessity if confirmation of expectations, satisfaction, retention of customers and customer loyalty are goals of importance for the selling company.......The aim of this paper is to create a more complex and holistic understanding of the value system of the political consumer. A case study was undertaken were the unit of analysis constituted 12 high users of organic food products. The empirical data was analysed by utilizing Reynolds and Gutman......’s laddering technique. The results revealed that the purposive selected informants activate different cognitive structures when buycotting organic food. In other words, the informants activate different values for similar attributes and consequences. This means that consumption of organic food is related...

  10. Utility of Military Strategy as an Instrument of Foreign Policy | Ebaye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research has taken a critical appraisal of state actors in the international system, and the utility of military power as an instrument of foreign policy. The paper asserts as Osgood did, that one of the main prerequisite of a credible state actor is to develop the military compatibilities and political will, to back its diplomacy by ...

  11. Information report brought in the application of the article 145 of the regulation by the foreign affairs commission in conclusion of the works of an information mission constituted the 30 January 2008 (1), on Iran and the geo-political equilibrium in Middle East; Rapport d'information depose en application de l'article 145 du reglement par la commission des affaires etrangeres en conclusion des travaux d'une mission d'information constituee le 30 janvier 2008 (1), sur Iran et equilibre geopolitique au Moyen-Orient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This information report presents the Iran situation concerning the nuclear energy and its military program. It discusses in a first part the certainty concerning the military nuclear program. The second part is devoted to historical aspects of the today situation, the negotiations, the international sanctions and the Iran motivations. The third part presents the objective of the international community for the Iran: play a stabilizing role in the Middle East. (A.L.B.)

  12. Information report brought in the application of the article 145 of the regulation by the foreign affairs commission in conclusion of the works of an information mission constituted the 30 January 2008 (1), on Iran and the geo-political equilibrium in Middle East; Rapport d'information depose en application de l'article 145 du reglement par la commission des affaires etrangeres en conclusion des travaux d'une mission d'information constituee le 30 janvier 2008 (1), sur Iran et equilibre geopolitique au Moyen-Orient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This information report presents the Iran situation concerning the nuclear energy and its military program. It discusses in a first part the certainty concerning the military nuclear program. The second part is devoted to historical aspects of the today situation, the negotiations, the international sanctions and the Iran motivations. The third part presents the objective of the international community for the Iran: play a stabilizing role in the Middle East. (A.L.B.)

  13. A brief introduction to the military workplace culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, S A; Wilcox, S L; Campbell, S; Kim, A; Finney, K; Barr, K; Hassan, A M

    2015-01-01

    Military culture and workplace are areas of interest for researchers across disciplines. However, few publications on military culture exist. The purpose of this article is to introduce general concepts regarding the structure and culture of the United States Military and discuss how this creates challenges for reintegrating into the civilian world. Topics that will be covered in this article include an overview of the Department of Defense (DoD) and Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), socialization to military culture, the unique features of the military as a workplace, the cultural experiences of military personnel reintegrating back into the community, and the challenges faced by military members and their spouses. The provided information on military culture will expand military cultural competency so that civilian employers can enhance their ability to create supportive workplaces for veterans and military spouses during times of transition and reintegration. The unique characteristics of the military culture should be understood by those who work with or plan to work with military populations.

  14. Young Australians’ Attitudes to the Military and Military Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Wadham

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available What are young Australians’ understandings of, and attitudes to, the military and military service? This article describes a pilot study of 320 young Australian university students’ attitudes to the military and military service during a time when Australia was engaged in the Afghanistan war. The main purpose of this study was to develop a survey instrument for further work in researching civil–military relations in Australia. Civil–military relations describe the complex set of relationships between the civil and military spheres. The role of the military, the relationship between the state and the military, the division of labor between civilian and military entities, foreign policy, and knowledge of military service are some of the fields that constitute a study of civil–military relations. This article reports on beliefs about, and attitudes to the specificities of military service and responses to the broader field of civil–military relations.

  15. Ada (Trade Name) Foundation Technology. Volume 4. Software Requirements for WIS (WWMCCS (World Wide Military Command and Control System) Information System) Text Processing Prototypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-01

    position, and priority. Debuggers edit memory images , and sub-editors within them edit tables of breakpoinrs. Various utilities edit file system...systems may edit complex linked structures representing images and spreadsheet managers, such as Viskak, edit financial models. AU of these systems...hardcopy versions. High-quality typography is not a first-or^er concern. Formats for military standard documents are defined in Appendix I of AFSC PUB

  16. THE INFLUENCE OF THE INTERNATIONAL RIGHT IN THE MILITARY JUSTICE REFORM IN LATIN AMERICA

    OpenAIRE

    DANIEL SOTO MUÑOZ

    2017-01-01

    This article describes that the military right comes from the constitutional regulation of the use of force. This regulation imposes a particular duty of obedience to the military, that is guarded at the same time, by the military disciplinary right and the military penal code. It informs that although military justice is not forbidden by the international right of the Human Rights, is considered as a regulation of restricted application. Also details, the valid requisites presented by the in...

  17. Arms control: moral, political and historical lesson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, K.W.

    1990-01-01

    Many of the world's most influential policy-makers and analysts view arms control as a scientific and technological problem. They measure a nation's nuclear power exclusively by megatonnage and throw-weights leaving the intangible elements of military and political power to philosophers and historians. They tend to ignore the human and qualitative aspects of power. This is a book that shift the emphasis to aspects of the nuclear problem which are sometimes overlooked. Basically, these elements are bound up in the moral, political, and historical lessons of the nuclear age. Nonquantitative factors have been central to studies of national defense and military power since the rise of the modern nation state system. However, most students of present-day nuclear weapons tend to stress their revolutionary character. Because they are considered wholly unique, analysts tend to write about them in a historical and apolitical terms. One purpose of the collection of papers in this little volume is to redirect attention to the moral, political, and historical lessons that the nuclear age presents. What most distinguishes the writings of contributors to this volume is their use of certain well-established principles and concepts long acknowledged in military and foreign policy analysis. Thus Father Hehir asks many of the same questions that students of ethics and foreign policy have asked for four hundred years

  18. Communications, Immunization, and Polio Vaccines: Lessons From a Global Perspective on Generating Political Will, Informing Decision-Making and Planning, and Engaging Local Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menning, Lisa; Garg, Gaurav; Pokharel, Deepa; Thrush, Elizabeth; Farrell, Margaret; Kodio, Frederic Kunjbe; Veira, Chantal Laroche; Wanyoike, Sarah; Malik, Suleman; Patel, Manish; Rosenbauer, Oliver

    2017-07-01

    The requirements under objective 2 of the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018-to introduce at least 1 dose of inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine (IPV); withdraw oral poliomyelitis vaccine (OPV), starting with the type 2 component; and strengthen routine immunization programs-set an ambitious series of targets for countries. Effective implementation of IPV introduction and the switch from trivalent OPV (containing types 1, 2, and 3 poliovirus) to bivalent OPV (containing types 1 and 3 poliovirus) called for intense global communications and coordination on an unprecedented scale from 2014 to 2016, involving global public health technical agencies and donors, vaccine manufacturers, World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund regional offices, and national governments. At the outset, the new program requirements were perceived as challenging to communicate, difficult to understand, unrealistic in terms of timelines, and potentially infeasible for logistical implementation. In this context, a number of core areas of work for communications were established: (1) generating awareness and political commitment via global communications and advocacy; (2) informing national decision-making, planning, and implementation; and (3) in-country program communications and capacity building, to ensure acceptance of IPV and continued uptake of OPV. Central to the communications function in driving progress for objective 2 was its ability to generate a meaningful policy dialogue about polio vaccines and routine immunization at multiple levels. This included efforts to facilitate stakeholder engagement and ownership, strengthen coordination at all levels, and ensure an iterative process of feedback and learning. This article provides an overview of the global efforts and challenges in successfully implementing the communications activities to support objective 2. Lessons from the achievements by countries and partners will likely be drawn upon when

  19. Reflexive Positioning in a Politically Sensitive Situation: Dealing with the Threats of Researching the West Bank Settler Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possick, Chaya

    2009-01-01

    For the past 7 years, the author has conducted qualitative research projects revolving around the experiences of West Bank settlers. The political situation in Israel in general, and the West Bank in particular, has undergone rapid and dramatic political, military, and social changes during this period. In highly politically sensitive situations…

  20. Oil Politics and its Social Implications in the Niger Delta: A Study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    info

    in terms of the people's reaction in the face of this ''death by instalment''. Other writers in the region have ... exploration by Shell usually on the orders of political leaders both in the military and. 'democratic' dispensations whose ... the Niger Delta having most senior military officers on its payrolls. SHELL LOVES THE DELTA.

  1. STAFF TRAINING FOR MILITARY AND CIVIL SERVICE IN THE MIDDLE OF THE 19TH CENTURY: ACADEMIC YEARS OF HISTORIAN, GENERAL-LIEUTENANT N.K. SCHILDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т В Слепцова

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to replenish the information fi eld of Russian historians by introducing data about a little-known element in the historiography in the system of staff trai-ning in elite educational institutions of Russia in the middle of the 19th century. The object of the study is the young age of Nikolai Karlovich Schilder (1842-1902, who by honourable service in the military fi eld rose to the rank of Lieutenant General (1893 after completing two educational institutions. As a result of his historical studies, he became the corresponding mem-ber of the Petersburg Academy of Sciences (1900. Based on the information found in archival and published historical sources, as well as in the an-nexes to the published historical works, there is considered the process of N.K. Schilder’s acquiring not only a large body of knowledge, but also the process of his personality formation as a patriot of Russia.Five years (1857-1862 were a special period of his life as a future military engineer and historian - the time when he obtained secondary and special higher military education. The years of studies in the Pages Corps and the Nikolaev Engineering Academy were of great use for him. He showed good results in studies and extraordinary creative abilities. The article shows the scope of knowledge and quality of skills obtained by N.K. Shilder while studying, the degree of his preparedness to work both as a military engineer and historian-researcher. The article proves that he obtained professional knowledge necessary for a military engineer; he was accustomed to thinking big, to working systematically, independently and creatively. Self-discipline and acquired skills of research work were the key to his future success in the fi eld of military and military-political history and in the biographical genre.

  2. Power, plutonium and politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, J.

    1982-01-01

    Distinctions between civil and military nuclear energy activities in the context of the Anglo-American trading relationship are described. Origins of the civil-military divide, the beginning of the nuclear power industry, and the use of British nuclear power stations for military purposes are discussed together with IAEA safeguards and US policies initiated by the Carter and Reagan administrations. (U.K.)

  3. Political Awakenings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Franziska Brühwiler

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Le Complot contre l’Amérique de Philip Roth décrit l’initiation politique de ses deux protagonistes, le narrateur Philip et son frère aîné, Sanford. Tandis que ce dernier passe par un processus initiatique quasi classique — il se déroule conformément au schéma tripartite de van Gennep — l’apogée de l’initiation de Philip est marquée par douleur et blessure. Toutefois, tous les deux connaissent seulement une initiation partielle, car le premier doit d’abord admettre ses erreurs tandis que le second va devoir apprendre, non seulement à remettre en cause l’autorité, mais également à développer ses idées de façon indépendante.Philip Roth’s The Plot Against America traces the political awakening of its two child protagonists, the narrator Philip and his elder brother Sanford. While the latter undergoes an initiation process nearly in accordance with the classical tripartite scheme as coined by van Gennep, the height of Philip’s initiation process is marked by physical pain and injury. However, both experience only a partial initiation, since the elder brother will have to recognize his errors and the younger one will first have to learn how to go beyond the mere questioning of authority.

  4. Psychedelics, Personality and Political Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, Matthew M; Evans, Lisa; Carhart-Harris, Robin L

    2017-01-01

    The psychedelic experience (including psychedelic-induced ego dissolution) can effect lasting change in a person's attitudes and beliefs. Here, we aimed to investigate the association between naturalistic psychedelic use and personality, political perspectives, and nature relatedness using an anonymous internet survey. Participants (N = 893) provided information about their naturalistic psychedelic, cocaine, and alcohol use, and answered questions relating to personality traits of openness and conscientiousness (Ten-Item Personality Inventory), nature relatedness (Nature-Relatedness Scale), and political attitudes (one-item liberalism-conservatism measure and five-item libertarian-authoritarian measure). Participants also rated the degree of ego dissolution experienced during their "most intense" recalled psychedelic experience (Ego-Dissolution Inventory). Multivariate linear regression analysis indicated that lifetime psychedelic use (but not lifetime cocaine use or weekly alcohol consumption) positively predicted liberal political views, openness and nature relatedness, and negatively predicted authoritarian political views, after accounting for potential confounding variables. Ego dissolution experienced during a participant's "most intense" psychedelic experience positively predicted liberal political views, openness and nature relatedness, and negatively predicted authoritarian political views. Further work is needed to investigate the nature of the relationship between the peak psychedelic experience and openness to new experiences, egalitarian political views, and concern for the environment.

  5. Sino-American Military Relations: Determinants of Policy and Corresponding Military Responsiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ford, Christopher T

    2007-01-01

    Military contacts between the United States and the People s Republic of China have presented opportunities for leaders in both countries defense community to share information and promote transparency...

  6. The Technologies of the Information and the Communications (TICs and their influence in the political and ideological work: a proposal in the university teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario R. Casa-Guerrero

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The present work has as objective to demonstrate the implementation of the TICs in the political and ideological work, in the university teaching. They offer theoretical and methodological recommendations for the treatment of the selected materials, from the educational process, in the political preparation of the new generations and our educational ones. The main result of the work is to offer to educational and students, materials that contribute to the reflection in such a current topic as the use of the TICs in the ideological political preparation and how the enemy to influence in our social project can use it. In the work topics related with the subversion are approached that is not only the activity related with the actions of the historical opponent of the Cuban Revolution, USA.  

  7. Effects of Political Knowledge on Political Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, John Powell

    2018-01-01

    Sexual orientation continues to be an explosive issue in American classrooms. Increasing the political knowledge of students can reduce the volatility of this explosive issue by increasing tolerance toward the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender community. This relationship between political knowledge and political tolerance has been…

  8. Role of euphemisms in information war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agapova Sophia Grigorievna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the role of political euphemisms as the manipulative means of modern information wars on the example of the Syrian conflict. It is considered in detail: the concept of information war, its characteristic features, objectives, means and methods. One of the unarmed means of information resistance is the media as a regulator of general-governmental opinion, has a wide arsenal of verbal means, in particular, operating with euphemisms that in case of military conflicts characteristic manipulative component is typical. An analysis of the factual material illustrating the Syrian conflict, clearly presented, is the possibility of manipulative use of euphemistic expression in the publications of the media to exert such influence on the minds of the public that later became possible to change cognitive and behavioral patterns. Usage of euphemisms is often explained by the needs of political correctness, but the latter, in fact, is nothing more than a tendency of political discourse to comply with the measure of language, diplomatic etiquette, which are expressed in implicit form of transmission of information to create the desired image for the government. In other words, “politically correct” language tools in the information war are not in connection with the ideas of tolerance, but rather are aimed at hiding sharp truth of what is happening, smoothing any unwillingness-enforcement situations

  9. About green political parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlović Slobodan P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the author refers to some legal and political questions in connection with green political parties. Those questions cover: the ideology of green political parties, their number and influence, both in general and in Serbia. The first part of work is generally speaking about political parties - their definition, ideology, role and action. Main thesis in this work is that green political parties, by their appearance, were something new on the political scene. But quickly, because of objective and subjective reasons, they were changing original ideas and were beginning to resemble to all other political parties. In this way, they lost their vanguard and political alternativeness.

  10. Governing Insecurity: Democratic Control of Military and Security ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    P H Stoker

    democratic control of military and security institutions is strategic to democratisation for two main reasons: firstly because these institutions have a peculiar intimate relationship to political power and secondly because their security functions, including the management of insecurities that may be generated by democratisation ...

  11. Negotiating Race: Military Manpower Policy in Multiethnic States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    that there were “high inertia and psychological barriers” towards advocating for integration, and acknowledged that integration was a process that...from office, or if the constituents are powerful military elites who can forcibly overthrow them. As a result, political leaders must nudge , entice

  12. Military Engagement with Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    or position of the Department of the Army, Department of Defense, or the U.S. Government. MILITARY ENGAGEMENT WITH SOCIAL MEDIA BY...been the Army’s best and most effective messengers. Every time a member of the Army family joins Army social media , it increases the timely and...transparent dissemination of information. Social media is a cheap, effective , and measurable form of communication.”6 The Deputy Secretary of Defense

  13. Humanitarian action and military intervention: temptations and possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Fabrice

    2004-06-01

    Although the war in Liberia in July 2003 claimed hundreds of lives, the international community was reluctant to intervene. In this article, the author debates the question: does international military intervention equal protection of populations? The role of humanitarian organisations in military intervention is considered. Aid organisations cannot call for deployment of a protection force without renouncing their autonomy or appealing to references outside their own practices. Such organisations provide victims with vital assistance and contribute to ensuring that their fate becomes a stake in political debate by exposing the violence that engulfs them, without substituting their own voices for those of the victims. The political content of humanitarian action is also outlined and military intervention in the context of genocide is discussed. The author concludes that the latter is one of the rare situations in which humanitarian actors can consider calling for an armed intervention without renouncing their own logic.

  14. Politics Backstage - Television Documentaries, Politics and Politicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ib Bondebjerg

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with "the transformation of visibility" in political discourse on and representation of politics and politicians in resent Dansih television documentaries. Drawing on the theories of Habermas, Meyrowitz and John B. Thompson, it is argued that the political persona on television is moved closer to the individual citizen, creating a sort "mediated quasi-inter- action" giving mediated communication a stronger element of face-to-face interaction. Together with the more pervasive "live" coverage of politics and politicians, this expands media coverage to both the backstage of political processes and the private and personal backstage of politicians, changing the form of democracy and public debate.

  15. Political Participation and Power Relations in Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shehata, Mostafa

    2017-01-01

    The political use of media in Egypt post-2011 revolution brought about drastic transformations in political activism and power structures. In the context of communication power theory, this article investigates the effects of newspapers and social network sites on political participation...... and political power relations. The research employed a mixed methodology, comprised of a survey of 527 Egyptian youth and semi-structured interviews of 12 political activists and journalists. The results showed a significant relationship between reading newspapers and youth’s political participation......, but not between using social network sites and political participation. In addition, newspapers and social network sites were platforms for a series of conflicts and coalitions that emerged between pro- and anti-revolution actors. Despite the importance of social network sites as key tools for informing...

  16. Multinationals' Political Activities on Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolk, A.; Pinkse, J.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the international dimensions of multinationals' corporate political activities, focusing on an international issue - climate change - being implemented differently in a range of countries. Analyzing data from Financial Times Global 500 firms, it examines the influence on types and process of multinationals' political strategies, reckoning with institutional contexts and issue saliency. Findings show that the type of political activities can be characterized as an information strategy to influence policy makers toward market-based solutions, not so much withholding action on emission reduction. Moreover, multinationals pursue self-regulation, targeting a broad range of political actors. The process of political strategy is mostly one of collective action. International differences particularly surface in the type of political actors aimed at, with U.S. and Australian firms focusing more on non-government actors (voluntary programs) than European and Japanese firms. Influencing home-country (not host-country) governments is the main component of international political strategy on climate change

  17. The Management of Political Actors in Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Odion Omoijiade

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The argument that the minimization of the dysfunctional consequences of organizational politics is no longer dependent on self-equilibrating mechanism remains valid. This inquiry is therefore framed with a view to establishing suitable strategies for managing political actors. There is a nexus between the diagnosis typology of political actors and the qualitative classes of political actors and their management strategies. In the management of mixed blessing, supportive, non-supportive and marginal political actors; collaborative, involvement, defensive and information strategies respectively were found suitable. This research is based on existing theoretical knowledge on organizational politics and stakeholders management. Data was collected from the literature by means of critical analysis and dialectic reflection on the emerging themes. The study will enhance capability in contexts where the scientific management of political actors is yet to be exemplified.

  18. Defining Political Marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.

    ’ and ‘narrow’ interpretations of political marketing, the nature of the political marketing exchange, political relationship marketing and how one can integrate the stakeholder concept into an understanding of political marketing. Finally, we propose a definition of political marketing that differs from......The aim of this working paper is to develop a definition of political marketing that builds on the political rather than commercial marketing literature. This aim is motivated by the need to make explicit our understanding of what political marketing is, a necessary exercise when discussing theory......, concepts and empirical methods in political marketing. We first present five existing definitions of political marketing that have been selected to represent advances in research from the origins of academic research into political marketing in the mid-1970’s to the present day. After this we discuss ‘wide...

  19. The Influence of Urbanism and Information Consumption on Political Dimensions of Social Capital: Exploratory Study of the Localities Adjacent to the Core City from Brașov Metropolitan Area, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezeanu, Cătălina-Ionela; Briciu, Arabela; Briciu, Victor; Repanovici, Angela; Coman, Claudiu

    2016-01-01

    Background The last two decades have seen a growing trend towards the research of voting behavior in post-communist countries. Urban sociology theorists state that not only space structures influence political participation, but also space structures are changing under the influence of global, local, and individual factors. The growing role played by information in the globalised world has accelerated the paradigm shift in urban sociology: from central place model (based on urban-rural distinction and on monocentric metropolitan areas) to network society (based on space of flows and polycentric metropolitan areas). However, recent studies have mainly focused on countries with solid democracies, rather than on former communist countries. The present study aims to analyze the extent to which a new emerging spatial structure can be envisaged within a metropolitan area of Romania and its consequences for the political dimensions of social capital. Methods The Transilvania University Ethics Commission approved this study (S1 Aprouval). The research is based upon individual and aggregate empirical data, collected from the areas adjacent to the core city in Brașov metropolitan area. Individual data has been collected during October 2012, using the oral survey technique (S1 Survey), based on a standardized questionnaire (stratified simple random sample, N = 600). The National Institute of Statistics and the Electoral Register provided the aggregate data per locality. Unvaried and multivariate analyses (hierarchical regression method) were conducted based on these data. Results Some dimensions of urbanism, identified as predictors of the political dimensions of social capital, suggest that the area under analysis has a predominantly monocentric character, where the rural-urban distinction continues to remain relevant. There are also arguments favoring the dissolution of the rural-urban distinction and the emergence of polycentric spatial structures. The presence of some

  20. The Influence of Urbanism and Information Consumption on Political Dimensions of Social Capital: Exploratory Study of the Localities Adjacent to the Core City from Brașov Metropolitan Area, Romania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina-Ionela Rezeanu

    Full Text Available The last two decades have seen a growing trend towards the research of voting behavior in post-communist countries. Urban sociology theorists state that not only space structures influence political participation, but also space structures are changing under the influence of global, local, and individual factors. The growing role played by information in the globalised world has accelerated the paradigm shift in urban sociology: from central place model (based on urban-rural distinction and on monocentric metropolitan areas to network society (based on space of flows and polycentric metropolitan areas. However, recent studies have mainly focused on countries with solid democracies, rather than on former communist countries. The present study aims to analyze the extent to which a new emerging spatial structure can be envisaged within a metropolitan area of Romania and its consequences for the political dimensions of social capital.The Transilvania University Ethics Commission approved this study (S1 Aprouval. The research is based upon individual and aggregate empirical data, collected from the areas adjacent to the core city in Brașov metropolitan area. Individual data has been collected during October 2012, using the oral survey technique (S1 Survey, based on a standardized questionnaire (stratified simple random sample, N = 600. The National Institute of Statistics and the Electoral Register provided the aggregate data per locality. Unvaried and multivariate analyses (hierarchical regression method were conducted based on these data.Some dimensions of urbanism, identified as predictors of the political dimensions of social capital, suggest that the area under analysis has a predominantly monocentric character, where the rural-urban distinction continues to remain relevant. There are also arguments favoring the dissolution of the rural-urban distinction and the emergence of polycentric spatial structures. The presence of some influences

  1. The Influence of Urbanism and Information Consumption on Political Dimensions of Social Capital: Exploratory Study of the Localities Adjacent to the Core City from Brașov Metropolitan Area, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezeanu, Cătălina-Ionela; Briciu, Arabela; Briciu, Victor; Repanovici, Angela; Coman, Claudiu

    2016-01-01

    The last two decades have seen a growing trend towards the research of voting behavior in post-communist countries. Urban sociology theorists state that not only space structures influence political participation, but also space structures are changing under the influence of global, local, and individual factors. The growing role played by information in the globalised world has accelerated the paradigm shift in urban sociology: from central place model (based on urban-rural distinction and on monocentric metropolitan areas) to network society (based on space of flows and polycentric metropolitan areas). However, recent studies have mainly focused on countries with solid democracies, rather than on former communist countries. The present study aims to analyze the extent to which a new emerging spatial structure can be envisaged within a metropolitan area of Romania and its consequences for the political dimensions of social capital. The Transilvania University Ethics Commission approved this study (S1 Aprouval). The research is based upon individual and aggregate empirical data, collected from the areas adjacent to the core city in Brașov metropolitan area. Individual data has been collected during October 2012, using the oral survey technique (S1 Survey), based on a standardized questionnaire (stratified simple random sample, N = 600). The National Institute of Statistics and the Electoral Register provided the aggregate data per locality. Unvaried and multivariate analyses (hierarchical regression method) were conducted based on these data. Some dimensions of urbanism, identified as predictors of the political dimensions of social capital, suggest that the area under analysis has a predominantly monocentric character, where the rural-urban distinction continues to remain relevant. There are also arguments favoring the dissolution of the rural-urban distinction and the emergence of polycentric spatial structures. The presence of some influences related to the

  2. Electoral democracy, revolutionary politics and political violence: the emergence of Fascism in Italy, 1920-21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elazar, D S

    2000-09-01

    This study examines the determination of the Italian Fascists' extra-parliamentary, para-military, violent strategy. What were the effects of the socialists' political strategy, relying on electoral democracy, on the creation and strategy of the Fascist Action Squads? A comparison among Italy's 69 provinces, based on quantitative and qualitative historical evidence reveals a distinct pattern in the Fascists' violence. They attacked mainly provinces where the Socialists enjoyed the greatest electoral support. This pattern was a product of two historical processes: (a) the threat of the Socialist party to the landlords' economic and political hegemony, and (b) the landlords' tradition of militant anti-worker organization which culminated in their alliance with the Fascists. The Fascists' struggle for, and takeover of, political power was not an immanent historical necessity. It was first and foremost an anti-socialist reaction. It was shaped both 'from below', by the political power and radicalism of the PSI and the para-military capacity of the Fascist Squads; and 'from above', by the active support the Fascists received from the landlords and the state. Supported by organized landlords and blessed with the authorities' benevolence, the Squads were able to destroy - physically and politically - the legitimately constituted provincial governments of the Socialists. The alliance with the landlords determined the Squads' almost exclusive attacks on Socialist provincial strongholds that constituted the greatest threat to the landlords' interests, while provinces dominated by the ruling Liberal party were excluded from the Squads' path of 'punitive expeditions'.

  3. The Brazilian Military Regime of 1964-1985: Legacies for Contemporary Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Power

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article revisits the 21-year military dictatorship in Brazil to examine how it shaped subsequent democratic politics after the transition to civilian rule in 1985. In particular, six legacies are analysed. The paper begins by focusing on the relative legitimacy of the Brazilian military regime when compared to other dictatorships in the Southern Cone. The article then examines several variables which impact on the way politics has played out between 1985 and 2014: a high level of continuity of personnel inherited from the military period, an accentuated commitment to civil liberties (as in the Constitution of 1988, a more robust level of political competition compared to the pre-coup years, and a delayed but increasingly meaningful consideration of transitional justice issues. The article concludes by noting how mass mobilization (the street engendered the collapse of the military regime in 1983-1984, and how this strategy of collective action has been repeated on several occasions under democracy.

  4. Military veterans and Social Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Anya

    There are 9.4 million military veterans receiving Social Security benefits, which means that almost one out of every four adult Social Security beneficiaries has served in the United States military. In addition, veterans and their families make up almost 40 percent of the adult Social Security beneficiary population. Policymakers are particularly interested in military veterans and their families and have provided them with benefits through several government programs, including Social Security credits, home loan guarantees, and compensation and pension payments through the Department of Veterans Affairs. It is therefore important to understand the economic and demographic characteristics of this population. Information in this article is based on data from the March 2004 Current Population Survey, a large, nationally representative survey of U.S. households. Veterans are overwhelmingly male compared with all adult Social Security beneficiaries who are more evenly split between males and females. Military veterans receiving Social Security are more likely to be married and to have finished high school compared with all adult Social Security beneficiaries, and they are less likely to be poor or near poor than the overall beneficiary population. Fourteen percent of veterans receiving Social Security benefits have income below 150 percent of poverty, while 25 percent of all adult Social Security beneficiaries are below this level. The higher economic status among veterans is also reflected in the relatively high Social Security benefits they receive. The number of military veterans receiving Social Security benefits will remain high over the next few decades, while their make-up and characteristics will change. In particular, the number of Vietnam War veterans who receive Social Security will increase in the coming decades, while the number of veterans from World War II and the Korean War will decline.

  5. Signs of political economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Lamizet

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Like any political system, economy is a system of signs and representations. The Semiotics of economy elaborates its analytical methods to interpret such signs, which give meaning to the economy by representing its performances in public debate and in the media. Four major features distinguish the Semiotics of political economy from other semiotic forms or other systems of information and political representation. First of all, the relationship between the signification of the economy and the real or the imaginary phenomena to which they refer always pertains to the order of values. The second characteristic of economic signs is the significance of the state of lack they express. The third characteristic of signs of the economy is the form of sign production, which can be designated by the concept of emission of signs and their diffusion. Finally, as all signs, the economic sign is arbitrary. In the field of Economics, such arbitrariness does not imply that the Subject is free to superimpose whatever value to the signs themselves, but refers to the rupture between the world and its possible transformation. The very meaning of the word economy is here at stake. Oikos, in Greek (the term from which the word economy is derived refers to a known, familiar space. Economy transforms the real, natural world into a symbolic social world, into a world of relations with others whom we recognise and whose actions are relatively predictable. It might be useful to consider the contemporary issue of debt, its implications and its multiple meanings, which includes both the ethical and moral dimension of the condemnation of debt as well as the imaginary political dimension based on the expression of an idea of independence.

  6. the french nuclear bet: political history of the main decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taccoen, L.

    2003-01-01

    The double french nuclear bet was an ultimate political choice of an old nation which did not wanted to renounce its glamour. but the world had changed. Is it always possible to conceive a national energy policy, knowing that the french military nuclear strategy is opposed to the rules of the next International Penal Court? (A.L.B.)

  7. African Ruling Political Parties and the Making of 'Authoritarian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    appearing to be a 'reincarnation' of the one-party system and military rule that held sway for about three to four decades in Africa (from the 1960s). In the process of this transformation, African ruling parties have been grossly destabilising opposition and perceived dissenters through clientelism, patronage politics and ...

  8. About Military Sexual Trauma

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  9. About Military Sexual Trauma

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  10. About Military Sexual Trauma

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  11. The Military's Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mikkel Vedby

    If the military were a business, would you buy shares? Over recent years, Western armed forces, particularly the US, have been costing more yet achieving less. At the same time, austerity measures are reducing defence budgets. This book uses defence data to examine the workings of modern Western...... militaries and explore what kind of strategies can overcome this gap between input and output. Instead of focusing on military strategy, Mikkel Vedby Rasmussen seeks to draw on the ideas of business strategy to assess alternative business cases - reforming military HR to combat instability in the 'Global...

  12. The Military's Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mikkel Vedby

    If the military were a business, would you buy shares? Over recent years, Western armed forces, particularly the US, have been costing more yet achieving less. At the same time, austerity measures are reducing defence budgets. This book uses defence data to examine the workings of modern Western...... militaries and explore what kind of strategies can overcome this gap between input and output. Instead of focusing on military strategy, Mikkel Vedby Rasmussen seeks to draw on the ideas of business strategy to assess alternative business cases - reforming military HR to combat instability in the 'Global...... to fit within a nation's overall national security system without ever-increasing budgets....

  13. About Military Sexual Trauma

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  14. Fan action and political participation on "The Colbert Report"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Schulzke

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Colbert Report merges the increasingly popular political satire genre with fan activism. The result is that the fan community helps to construct Colbert's malleable character and demonstrates symbolic power through its willingness to act. The fans are usually a nonpartisan force, acting to produce entertainment rather than substantive political change. However, this can be politically meaningful, as the fans' projects promote collective action, parallel political activities like voting and protesting, and encourage critical thinking about political information.

  15. Heritability in political interest and efficacy across cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemmensen, Robert; Hatemi, Peter K; Hobolt, Sara B

    2012-01-01

    Interest in politics is important for a host of political behaviors and beliefs. Yet little is known about where political interest comes from. Most studies exploring the source of political interest focus on parental influences, economic status, and opportunity. Here, we investigate an alternative....... These findings add to the growing body of literature that documents political behaviors and attitudes as not simply the result of socialization, but also as part of an individual's genetically informed disposition....

  16. Finding Feminism, Finding Voice? Mobilising Community Education to Build Women's Participation in Myanmar's Political Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maber, Elizabeth Jane Tregoning

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the role played by women activists and educators in mobilising community education to support new opportunities for women's activism in the context of Myanmar's political transition. Recent political reorientations in Myanmar which have resulted in a civilian-led democracy emerging from a repressive military regime, have…

  17. Resilient development and environmental justice in divided territory: political ecology in the San Diego-Tijuana bioregion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Haines

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores issues in the expansion of environmental justice rhetoric to the developing world, and propose insights from resilience theory, political ecology, and bioregionalism as supplements. I do this from the frame of the San Diego-Tijuana region, where regional inequalities are stark and global processes have a heavy local footprint. Sharing a broadly-defined natural region, the growing evidence of ecological crisis increasingly calls for collaboration between two communities which often perceive themselves as relatively disconnected. Understanding challenges to social-ecological resilience and environmental justice in the San Diego-Tijuana region, however, also requires understanding it as an inflection point for global economic, military, and human migration flows occurring at many scales. It is in the context of building effective regional collaboration that environmental justice must engage the analyses of scale and political economy contained in political ecology as a challenge. I suggest, however, that any environmental justice discourse informed by political ecology cannot remain abstract from the local context. A “bioregional” community forged around shared ecological systems may serve as an important resource for creating social-ecological resilience in politically divided territory.

  18. Intercultural Interactions in a Military Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgieva Valentina

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the impact of various factors on the process of communication between military specialists and with the local civilians during peace support operations. The importance of religion, national and ethnic identities, military subculture, social status, and personal characteristics for achieving success or failure in interactions is underlined. Some differences between civil culture and military culture are disclosed and the need for cultural knowledge of the military members is stressed. The study is based on presenting and analysing situations of current intercultural interactions in Afghanistan, which deal with various problems that could be encountered by servicemen on a daily basis, i.e. body language differences, expression of friendly, unfriendly or indifferent attitude, typical reactions to gestures, common everyday topics for informal chats. Although the cultural interactions take place in present-day Afghanistan, the conclusions and suggestions are applicable to a much wider context of interacting between people with different cultural background.

  19. Assessment of Military Cultural Competence: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Eric G; Hall-Clark, Brittany N; Hamaoka, Derrick; Peterson, Alan L

    2015-08-01

    Cultural competence is widely considered a cornerstone of patient care. Efforts to improve military cultural competency have recently gained national attention. Assessment of cultural competence is a critical component to this effort, but no assessment of military cultural competence currently exists. An assessment of military cultural competence (AMCC) was created through broad input and consensus. Careful review of previous cultural competency assessment designs and analysis techniques was considered. The AMCC was organized into three sections: skills, attitudes, and knowledge. In addition to gathering data to determine absolute responses from groups with different exposure levels to the military (direct, indirect, and none), paired questions were utilized to assess relative competencies between military culture and culture in general. Piloting of the AMCC revealed significant differences between military exposure groups. Specifically, those with personal military exposure were more likely to be in absolute agreement that the military is a culture, were more likely to screen for military culture, and had increased knowledge of military culture compared to those with no military exposure. Relative differences were more informative. For example, all groups were less likely to agree that their personal culture could be at odds with military culture as compared to other cultures. Such perceptions could hinder asking difficult questions and thus undermine care. The AMCC is a model for the measurement of the skills, attitudes, and knowledge related to military cultural competence. With further validity testing, the AMCC will be helpful in the critical task of measuring outcomes in ongoing efforts to improve military cultural competence. The novel approach of assessing variance appears to reduce bias and may also be helpful in the design of other cultural competency assessments.

  20. Exploring Political Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denhardt, Robert B.

    1975-01-01

    The author distinguishes between the concepts of political socialization and political education. He argues that political socialization has come to dominate both our thinking and our teaching in the area of civic education. Suggestions for promoting political education are included. (DE)

  1. Language and Politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimombo, Moira

    1999-01-01

    Surveys the interrelationship between language and politics. Touches on the context of political discourse, or political culture and ideology in new and old democracies and the reemerging manifestations of totalitarianism, censorship, and linguistic imperialism; then examines selected linguistic features of political discourse and their…

  2. Political power and health inequalities in Vieques, Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Catherine K; Pellegrini, Lawrence C; Mogro-Wilson, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between political power and the various pathways to health inequalities in Vieques, Puerto Rico, is explored. The U.S. Navy used the island for 62 years for bombing and other military exercises. The article focuses on the resulting changes to the island's socioeconomic positioning and the health inequalities over six decades. Secondary data analysis of census data using a revised World Health Organization model is used to examine the relationships of political power, labor markets, employment, material deprivation, social and family networks, and health inequalities. Findings are interpreted through a social justice lens and implications suggest the use of political advocacy for social change.

  3. Strategic political postures and political market orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan C.

    2010-01-01

    by developing an integrated concept of political marketing strategy using two complementary frameworks, namely Strategic Political Postures (SPP) and Political Market Orientation (PMO). We introduce the two main concepts and derive for each of the strategic posture-specific PMO profiles as well as inter......Recently, the areas of strategic political marketing and political market orientation have been the subject of several conceptual articles which have provided the theoretical foundations for further empirical work. However, despite the close conceptual relatedness of the proposed concepts......, these have yet to be integrated to provide a more nuanced framework which both researchers and political marketing practitioners can utilise in the development of strategies and offerings with which to achieve their organizational goals. The aim of this conceptual paper is to address this deficit...

  4. Economic Value of Army Foreign Military Sales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT ECONOMIC VALUE OF ARMY FOREIGN MILITARY SALES ...this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instruction, searching existing data...sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden

  5. Politics Backstage - Television Documentaries, Politics and Politicians

    OpenAIRE

    Ib Bondebjerg

    2006-01-01

    This article deals with "the transformation of visibility" in political discourse on and representation of politics and politicians in resent Dansih television documentaries. Drawing on the theories of Habermas, Meyrowitz and John B. Thompson, it is argued that the political persona on television is moved closer to the individual citizen, creating a sort "mediated quasi-inter- action" giving mediated communication a stronger element of face-to-face interaction. Together...

  6. Political entrepreneurship and bidding for political monopoly

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Wohlgemuth

    2000-01-01

    An analytical framework for dealing with political entrepreneurship and reform is proposed which is based on some new combinations of Schumpeterian political economy, an extended version of Tullock's model of democracy as franchise-bidding for natural monopoly and some basic elements of New Institutional Economics. It is shown that problems of insufficient award criteria and incomplete contracts which may arise in economic bidding schemes, also - and even more so - characterise political comp...

  7. Resource Windfalls, Political Regimes, and Political Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Caselli; Andrea Tesei

    2011-01-01

    We study theoretically and empirically whether natural resource windfalls affect political regimes. We document the following regularities. Natural resource windfalls have no effect on the political system when they occur in democracies. However, windfalls have significant political consequences in autocracies. In particular, when an autocratic country receives a positive shock to its flow of resource rents it responds by becoming even more autocratic. Furthermore, there is heterogeneity in t...

  8. Military Justice Study Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    statute within the military system, persons unfamiliar with the military justice system may find the procedure something of a paradox at first blush...Manual for Courts-Martial) Is RM Nemitafinuestlitimelf.(er- V. GRAD*: c. ORGANIZATION dDT FRPR ast eiRO t: fII) EPR LCDR/ Naval Justice School

  9. Families in the Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... family that loses the active presence of a parent through separation faces significant challenges and stress. During the parent's ... children can and do adjust successfully to the separation and stress involved when a parent in the military is deployed. Visit AACAP's Military ...

  10. Political party affiliation, political ideology and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabayo, Roman; Kawachi, Ichiro; Muennig, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Ecological and cross-sectional studies have indicated that conservative political ideology is associated with better health. Longitudinal analyses of mortality are needed because subjective assessments of ideology may confound subjective assessments of health, particularly in cross-sectional analyses. Data were derived from the 2008 General Social Survey-National Death Index data set. Cox proportional analysis models were used to determine whether political party affiliation or political ideology was associated with time to death. Also, we attempted to identify whether self-reported happiness and self-rated health acted as mediators between political beliefs and time to death. In this analysis of 32,830 participants and a total follow-up time of 498,845 person-years, we find that political party affiliation and political ideology are associated with mortality. However, with the exception of independents (adjusted HR (AHR)=0.93, 95% CI 0.90 to 0.97), political party differences are explained by the participants' underlying sociodemographic characteristics. With respect to ideology, conservatives (AHR=1.06, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.12) and moderates (AHR=1.06, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.11) are at greater risk for mortality during follow-up than liberals. Political party affiliation and political ideology appear to be different predictors of mortality. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Citizens, Soldiers, and War: Comparing American Societal-Military Relationships with the Use of Forces Abroad, 1975-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    connection is the same as a smaller gap. Both manners of speech seek to explain the convergence or divergence between a society and its military...the Military Establishment,” 100-122. 23 Morris Janowitz, The Professional Soldier: A Social and Political Portrait (New York: Free Press, 1960...indications of discomfort between non-military citizens and some of the service members who have been fighting in the Global War on Terror. Although it is

  12. Dale Herspring, The Kremlin and the High Command. Presidential Impact on the Russian Military from Gorbachev to Putin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Facon

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In late 2008 Russian civil-military relations underwent a difficult period. Following the war in Georgia, the political leadership initiated new efforts to reform the military. Anatoly Serdiukov, the Russian Defense Minister, was appointed in 2007 by former president Vladimir Putin with a clear mandate to control military spending and eliminate many redundant senior officer posts. Concurrently, the new Russian president, Dmitri Medvedev, has affirmed his predecessor’s position that the condit...

  13. not a miracle after all… côte d'ivoire's downfall: flawed civil-military ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACS

    more common category in the sub-region: praetorian states mired in political ... praetorianism as “a situation in which military officers [in the case of Africa non- ... Scientia Militaria, South African Journal of Military Studies, Vol 33, Nr 1, 2005. .... after independence, Ivory Coast kept unique relations with France, thanks to the.

  14. Sixty years of the Military Technical Courier: Origins of the military technical thinking in the military printing of the Kingdom of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan B. Mijatović

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article sheds light on the origins of the military technical thinking in the military publishing of the Kingdom of Serbia with a view to marking a jubilee - the sixtieth anniversary of the Military Technical Courier. 'Vojin', the first military review, printed in the middle of 19th century as a private venture, covered a wide scope of military issues, among which a special place was given to 'the science of weapons'. No sooner had this review ceased to exist than The Headquarters of the Army of the Kingdom of Serbia started publishing a new military review, 'Ratnik', which, apart from the art of war and war literature, dealt with the science of weapons in order to inform officers about the latest achievements in military technology and to educate them as well. Serbian military thinking, including its technical aspect, did not fall behind modern trends in its European and world counterparts until 1914. The development of weaponry in Europe and the world was regularly covered on the pages of military reviews.

  15. Barriers to mental health treatment for military wives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewy, Colleen S; Oliver, Celina M; McFarland, Bentson H

    2014-09-01

    An Internet-based survey sought information about barriers to mental health services for military wives. On the basis of qualitative work, an Internet-based program was created to identify military wives who may have major depressive disorder. Women (N=569, ages 18 to 56) were recruited from 45 states and eight foreign countries. Most participants (78%) reported mild to severe depression. Many (44%) reported unaddressed mental health needs. Barriers included inability to attend daytime appointments (38%), inability to find a counselor who understands the needs of military spouses (35%), inability to find a counselor the participant could trust (29%), concerns about confidentiality (26%), and lack of knowledge about where to get services (25%). The barriers reported differed markedly from those described by distressed women in the general population. Military wives are an underserved population. Knowledge of military culture is essential for civilian mental health providers working with military wives.

  16. Private Political Violence and Boss-Rule in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kreuzer

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite its rather strong and venerable democratic credentials the Philippines is still marred by political violence. Targeted killings and physical harassment by vigilantes, death squads, private armed groups, para-military militias, the police or members of the armed forces as well as violent competition for political jobs cost hundreds of lives every year. One central anchor point of this broad range of violent actors and forms are the locally embedded political bosses. (Defective democracy provides an ideal frame for the continuing competition between various segments of the highly fragmented elite. The paper shows how the bosses succeeded in controlling most means of political violence employed and were thereby able to advance their interests to an extraordinary extent. Upholding private control over means of violence furthered their interests as a political class even though it weakened the state

  17. Media competition and electoral politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piolatto, A.; Schütt, F.

    2015-01-01

    We build a framework linking competition in the media market to political participation. Media outlets report on the ability of candidates running for office and compete for audience through their choice of slant. Citizens consume news only if the expected utility of being informed about candidates'

  18. Using Historical Simulations to Teach Political Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorton, William; Havercroft, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    As teachers of political theory, our goal is not merely to help students understand the abstract reasoning behind key ideas and texts of our discipline. We also wish to convey the historical contexts that informed these ideas and texts, including the political aims of their authors. But the traditional lecture-and-discussion approach tends to…

  19. Troubling Consequences of Online Political Rumoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, R. Kelly

    2011-01-01

    Fear that the Internet promotes harmful political rumoring is merited but not for reasons originally anticipated. Although the network accelerates and widens rumor circulation, on the whole, it does not increase recipient credulity. E-mail, however, which fosters informal political communication within existing social networks, poses a unique…

  20. 75 FR 3448 - Federal Advisory Committee; Military Leadership Diversity Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Federal Advisory Committee; Military Leadership... of Defense established the Military Leadership Diversity Commission (hereafter referred to as the... INFORMATION CONTACT: Jim Freeman, Deputy Committee Management Officer for the Department of Defense, 703-601...

  1. Military Climate Resilience Planning and Contemporary Urban Systems Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-11

    Knowledge Management Information Technology Laboratory (ERDC-ITL) ERDC/CERL MP-17-4 1 1 Introduction: Climate Change Adaptation and Military... fundamental transformation in thinking from emphasizing equilib- rium, homogeneity, and determinism to non-equilibrium, heterogeneity, and stochasticity, with...oriented culture of the military, overt statements of uncertainty are important in applying risk management strategies that pri- oritize limited

  2. Political learning among youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solhaug, Trond; Kristensen, Niels Nørgaard

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on students’ first political learning and explores the research question, what dynamic patterns of political learning can be explored among a selection of young, diverse Danish students’ first political interests? The authors use theories of learning in their analytical......, but are active constructors of their political life. Their emotions and social environment are highly important for their political orientation. It is recommended that further research focus on dynamic learning and on arenas for political learning rather than on “single agent studies.” Recommendations...

  3. Cognitive Engagement and Online Political Participation on Social Media among Youths in Malaysia: The Moderating role of Political Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrauf Aishat Adebisi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of political knowledge in engendering political participation among youths in a society cannot be overstated. Yet, there is scarcity of research in this area. Thus, this study assessed the moderating role of political knowledge in the relationship between Access to Political Information on Facebook and Twitter (APIFT, Political Interest (PI and Policy Satisfaction (PS with Online Political Participation on Facebook and Twitter (OPPFT. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 238 undergraduate students of Universiti Utara Malaysia. Questionnaire was used to collect data which was analysed using Partial Least Squares-MultiGroup Analysis (PLS-MGA. Results revealed that political knowledge moderated the relationship between access to political information on Facebook and Twitter and political interest with youth online political participation on Facebook and Twitter. However, it did not moderate the relationship between policy satisfaction with youth online political participation on Facebook and Twitter. Generally, these findings suggests that political knowledge plays a significant role in youth online political participation in Malaysia. Consequently, this study has added empirical evidence to predictors of political participation while at the same time contributing to the body of knowledge on online political participation.

  4. Perceived Organisational Politics, Political Behaviour and Employee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    facing both private and public sector organisations (Nidhi & Prerna, 2015;. Gotsis & Kortezi ... These studies suggest that organisational politics often interfere with normal ..... Rawls's (1971) theory of justice provides a theoretical foundation for the relationship between ..... Ethical considerations in organisational politics: ...

  5. Celebrity politics: the politics of late modernity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsh, D.; t Hart, P.; Tindall, K.

    2010-01-01

    The academic literature on celebrity politics is rarely systematic; more often it is superficial and anecdotal. In addition, most of the literature focuses either upon classifying different types/categories of celebrity politicians and their roles in politics, or upon the question of whether the

  6. Exploring Women's Understanding of Politics, Political Contestation ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Exploring Women's Understanding of Politics, Political Contestation and Gender Transformation in the Caribbean. IDRC's Democratic Governance, Women's Rights and Gender Equality initiative is supporting a body of comparative research on whether and how democratic processes and institutions are responding to ...

  7. Young Australians’ Attitudes to the Military and Military Service

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Wadham; Grace Skrzypiec; Phillip Slee

    2014-01-01

    What are young Australians’ understandings of, and attitudes to, the military and military service? This article describes a pilot study of 320 young Australian university students’ attitudes to the military and military service during a time when Australia was engaged in the Afghanistan war. The main purpose of this study was to develop a survey instrument for further work in researching civil–military relations in Au...

  8. Interactive communication and political consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pikula Mykola Mykolayovych

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the research of the new communication technologies’ influence on the political consciousness formation. According to the author, today the Internet has become a kind of environment where people spend a lot of time and where the huge flow of information streams, unlimited with national borders and language barriers. This gives the Internet communication a mediating role in the display of the real world in people's minds. Such forms of interactive communication like social networks, blogs, forums and chats have a particularly important role in development of the society political consciousness.

  9. Military legislation: explaining military officers' writing deficiencies

    OpenAIRE

    Borysov, Andrii

    2016-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited In performing jobs related to national security and defense, personnel must comply with rules and decisions communicated in the form of written legislation, which includes directives, memos, instructions, manuals, standard operating procedures, and reports. Incorrect understanding of legislative provisions may lead to disastrous consequences, making clear communication through these documents paramount. The vast majority of military of...

  10. Political Values or the Value of Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simoska, Emilija

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay was motivated by the gap between proclaimed democratic principles and the perceptions of politics which are exhibited by the citizens in transitional countries -more specifically in the Republic of Macedonia. It is based on research data collected in the past few decades, which illustrate that, in their political actions, the citizens are highly motivated by personal benefits and profits, rather than by their internalized values and ideologies. Non-democratic, authoritarian values prevail, while politics is perceived as a value itself, in the most materialistic meaning of the word. It creates a suitable milieu for growth of corruption, nepotism and clientelism. The authors conclude that such a circulus vitsiosus is a corner stone of the Macedonian political regime, and an enormous obstacle for the advancement of the participative, democratic political culture in reality, in spite of its formal acceptance.

  11. The Analysis of Personnel Training of Business Information Website---Based on the Perspective of Ideological and Political Education%商业类资讯网站媒体从业人员思想政治教育探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宇文宏; 帅全锋; 梁巍

    2015-01-01

    作为职业教育的特定群体,商业类资讯网站媒体从业人员承担着舆论引导、生活方式指导和价值观熏陶等重任。在市场经济的浪潮中,他们的生存状态、履职能力和社会责任感的强弱会直接影响受众。本文将从调研这一群体的工作环境入手,阐述提升商业类资讯网站媒体从业人员思想政治教育水平的必要性,并有针对性的提出加强其思想政治教育的对策。%As a specific group of vocational education ,the business information website practitioners bear the task of leading consensus、guiding life style and influencing values .In the market economy , their living status ,performance ability and sense of social responsibility will directly affect the audience . This paper will start with the investigation of this group ’s work environment ,elaborate the necessity enhancing about the level of ideological political education of business information website media practi-tioners ,and put forword strategies which can strengthen the ideological and political education of business information website media practitioners .

  12. IRONIC METAPHORS IN POLITICAL DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А А Горностаева

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at revealing the current trends in the usage of ironic metaphors in Russian, British and American political discourse. Given the diversity of political genres, which makes it difficult to classify them, the article draws on the division into primary, secondary and folklore genres (Bazylev 2005, Sheigal 2000. The study focuses on secondary and folklore genres, as, being informal, they presuppose the use of irony. The data was taken from the speeches of Russian, American and British political leaders (V. Putin, S. Lavrov, D. Trump, B. Obama, N. Farage, B. Johnson and others. Drawing on the works on po-litical discourse (Beard 2001, Budaev 2010, Charteris-Black 2005, Chudinov 2001, Lakoff 2003, Ponton 2016, Van Dijk 2009 and developing a discursive approach to the study of irony which is often conveyed through metaphor (Shilikhina 2008, Alba-Juez 2014, Attardo 2007, Giora 2003, Hutcheon 2005, we have identified the conceptual spheres that are the most active sources of modern metaphors. We have traced the link between the new political trends and new metaphors, as well as existing metaphors which acquire a new ironic meaning. The results of the conducted analysis show the frequency of ironic metaphors, includ-ing aggressive ones, and the diversity of their functions in modern political discourse. The comparative analysis made it possible to reveal some peculiarities of the usage of ironic metaphors in Russian, English and American political discourse, which are presupposed by the speakers’ individual characteristics as well as culture specific discursive features.

  13. Security Contents: Politico-Military or Multidimensional?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pere Vilanova

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The description of security problems has dramatically changed since the end of the bipolar system, and there are difficulties in building new concepts to comprehend a new and not yet defined international system. In the bipolar world, based on the North-South and East-West axes, security was described as systemic stability built upon deterrence and the defense of the statu quo. After the end of the Cold War, a new concept of multidimensional security was formulated. It lay emphasis on political, social (economic development andinternational (peaceful international relations democracy and the rule of law, putting aside too rapidly the military dimension. Vilanova argues that what have been identified as sources of new threats –narcotrafficking, ecology, migration, terrorism and fundamentalism– are not really new. There is a need to formulate political responses to these risks factors by means of public policies and intergovernmental and supranational action.

  14. New media in political communication: general approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chekunova Marina A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, in transformation of the realm of political communication, a more important part is given to the so-called «new social media». Previously, political communication was seen as a process of production, dissemination and perception of political information for the purpose of achieving a consent regarding one or another political action. Additionally, communication appeared as a mechanism of one-way information exchange. Under new conditions, political communication becomes a tool of ensuring the process of preparation, making and implementing political decisions. In a modern understanding, an informational message is built by means of specific cooperation between communicants. In this regard, information sources appear as a specific base for state actions. This paper deals with old (traditional and new social media and lists several characteristics that help distinguish these media. It also shows how authorities and representatives of political opposition can use social media to achieve their political purposes. This article analyses not only benefits but also drawbacks in the application of new information technologies in politics, considering a problem of manipulation as a main disadvantage. It also compares the use of social networks by authorities in Russia and abroad. Because of differences in political culture, social networks are not popular with Russian authorities. However, the number of social networking users among Russian politicians is increasing year by year. Moreover, the most popular network with them is Twitter. A conclusion can be drawn that new media play an important role in creating a system of rules of conduct on the Internet and in establishing a specific culture of electronic communication between representatives of authority and society.

  15. MILITARY LEADERSHIP VISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe CALOPĂREANU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The actual study is aimed at defining the place and the role of the concepts of authority, management and leadership and their connexions within the recognized military strategic systems. In addition to the above mentioned main objective, the following related aims will be achieved in the present work: - to analyze the command, management and leadership nexus; - to make suggestions for configuring an effective professional framework to address the armed forces leadership challenges and the visionary leader concept. Eventually, the present study will emphasize the need for the military leaders to lead not only the members of the organization but the military organizations themselves.

  16. Sustainability : Politics and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinrichs, Harald; Biermann, Frank

    2016-01-01

    he article gives an overview of global sustainability policy and politics. It is shown how international policy making on sustainable development has progressed from environmental policy toward recent approaches of Earth system governance. Key challenges of international sustainability politics are

  17. Political Economy of Finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.

    2013-01-01

    This survey reviews how a recent political economy literature helps explaining variation in governance, competition, funding composition and access to credit. Evolution in political institutions can account for financial evolution, and appear critical to explain rapid changes in financial structure,

  18. Politics, Security, Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæver, Ole

    2011-01-01

    theory is found to ‘act politically’ through three structural features that systematically shape the political effects of using the theory. The article further discusses – on the basis of the preceding articles in the special issue – three emerging debates around securitization theory: ethics......This article outlines three ways of analysing the ‘politics of securitization’, emphasizing an often-overlooked form of politics practised through theory design. The structure and nature of a theory can have systematic political implications. Analysis of this ‘politics of securitization......’ is distinct from both the study of political practices of securitization and explorations of competing concepts of politics among security theories. It means tracking what kinds of analysis the theory can produce and whether such analysis systematically impacts real-life political struggles. Securitization...

  19. Labelling : Security in Information Management and Sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotanus, H.A.; Hartog, T.; Hut, D.H.; Boonstra, D.

    2011-01-01

    Military communication infrastructures are often deployed as stand-alone information systems operating at the System High mode. Network-Enabled Capabilities (NEC) and combined military operations lead to new requirements for information management and sharing which current communication

  20. Comparing Political Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Pfetsch, Barbara; Esser, Frank

    2012-01-01

    This chapter describes the maturation of comparative political communications as a sub-discipline and defines its conceptual core. It then lays out the concept of “political communication system”. At the macro-level, this model captures the patterns of interaction between media and politics as social systems; at the micro-level it captures the interactions between media and political actors as individuals or organizations. Comparative research in this tradition focuses on the structure of pol...