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Sample records for political factors shape

  1. Political and news media factors shaping public awareness of the HPV vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollust, Sarah E; Attanasio, Laura; Dempsey, Amanda; Benson, Allison M; Fowler, Erika Franklin

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration licensed a vaccine for the human papillomavirus (HPV) that prevents the strains of HPV that cause 70% of cervical cancers. Within months, many states introduced legislation requiring the vaccine for girls, prompting controversy and heightened political and media attention to the issue. Previous research has shown differences in HPV vaccine awareness by individual-level characteristics such as race/ethnicity, income, and education levels. We examined how individual political orientation and exposure to media coverage can also shape awareness of the vaccine. Using data from a 2009 Internet survey of 1,216 nationally representative adult respondents linked to data on state-specific news coverage, we assessed how political orientation, media exposure, and state political context predicted HPV vaccine awareness. Younger people, women, and those with more education were significantly more likely to be aware of the vaccine. Even after controlling for these characteristics, we found that exposure to news media was associated with higher HPV vaccine awareness. Whereas liberals and conservatives were both more aware of the vaccine compared with moderates, the data are suggestive that liberals were more sensitive to news coverage. These findings suggest that individual-level political identities and their interaction with the informational environment may be important factors to consider in evaluating the determinants of individuals' attitudes and behaviors related to politically charged women's health issues. Copyright © 2013 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. How Politics Shapes the Growth of Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Mads Leth Felsager; Mortensen, Peter Bjerre

    2015-01-01

    when, why, and how political factors shape changes in the stock of rules. Furthermore, we test these hypotheses on a unique, new data set based on all Danish primary legislation and administrative rules from 1989 to 2011 categorized into 20 different policy domains. The analysis shows......This article examines the impact of politics on governmental rule production. Traditionally, explanations of rule dynamics have focused on nonpolitical factors such as the self-evolvement of rules, environmental factors, and decision maker attributes. This article develops a set of hypotheses about...... that the traditional Weberian “rules breed rules” explanations must be supplemented with political explanations that take party ideology and changes in the political agenda into account. Moreover, the effect of political factors is indistinguishable across changes in primary laws and changes in administrative rules...

  3. Political Socialization of Right-Wing Conservative Politicians in Turkey: On The Factors of Their Political Belonging and Political Background

    OpenAIRE

    Suveren, Yaşar

    2014-01-01

    The understanding of the processes which shape the political belonging and political socialization of the right-wing conservative politicians in Turkey is crucial for clarifying right wing political tradition and the series of factors influencing political views of the politicians who belonged to this specific tradition. Figuring out these factors would at least make it possible to explain and evaluate the political culture in Turkey by focusing on a single dimension constituted by the politi...

  4. The political reference point: How geography shapes political identity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Feinberg

    Full Text Available It is commonly assumed that how individuals identify on the political spectrum-whether liberal, conservative, or moderate-has a universal meaning when it comes to policy stances and voting behavior. But, does political identity mean the same thing from place to place? Using data collected from across the U.S. we find that even when people share the same political identity, those in "bluer" locations are more likely to support left-leaning policies and vote for Democratic candidates than those in "redder" locations. Because the meaning of political identity is inconsistent across locations, individuals who share the same political identity sometimes espouse opposing policy stances. Meanwhile, those with opposing identities sometimes endorse identical policy stances. Such findings suggest that researchers, campaigners, and pollsters must use caution when extrapolating policy preferences and voting behavior from political identity, and that animosity toward the other end of the political spectrum is sometimes misplaced.

  5. Regulating the Role of PMCs in Shaping Security and Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leander, Anna

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the way PMCs shape security policies and more generally political priorities. Linking up with classical thinking about "civil-military relations", it suggests that preoccupation with security professionals' role in shaping politics is as important when these professionals...... the issue of regulating "civil-PMCs relations" on the agenda is essential....

  6. Regulating the Role of PMCs in Shaping Security and Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leander, Anna

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the way PMCs shape security policies and more generally political priorities. Linking up with classical thinking about "civil-military relations", it suggests that preoccupation with security professionals' role in shaping politics is as important when these professionals...

  7. Shaping Political Preferences: Information Effects in Political-Administrative Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blom-Hansen, Jens; Bækgaard, Martin; Serritzlew, Søren

    2016-01-01

    shows that even in a setting where the information is not disclosed by a powerful sender, information may have a stronger impact on political preferences than other well-known determinants such as committee and party affiliation. Our findings speak to learning theories, knowledge perspectives...

  8. Oil: economic and political factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayoub, A.

    1994-01-01

    This article deals with the evolution of the international petroleum sector since 1973 with a special view to interdependence between the economic and political factors that influence it. Two issues are focused upon: (1) the effects of the nationalization of oil companies on the sharing of oil rents and on changes in the structure of the oil market; and (2) the determination of oil prices. The latter involves a discussion of, on the one hand, the political and economic behaviour of the United States and Saudi Arabia and, on the other, the combination of cooperation and conflict that has tended to characterize relations among OPEC countries. (author). 30 refs

  9. Digital Media Shapes Youth Participation in Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahne, Joseph; Middaugh, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Will those who Tweet vote? Social media clearly create new opportunities for voice, for agency, and potentially for influence. But they create risks as well, because there is no reason to assume that engagement with participatory politics will inevitably or organically develop in positive ways. That's where schools come into the picture, playing…

  10. Interpersonal politics: the role of terror management and attachment processes in shaping political preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weise, David R; Pyszczynski, Tom; Cox, Cathy R; Arndt, Jamie; Greenberg, Jeff; Solomon, Sheldon; Kosloff, Spee

    2008-05-01

    Research on terror management theory (TMT) indicates that reminders of death affect political attitudes, but political orientation only sometimes moderates these effects. We propose that secure relationships are associated with values of tolerance and compassion, thus orienting people toward liberalism; insecure attachments are associated with more rigid and absolutist values that orient people toward conservatism. Given that attachment relationships become especially active when security needs are heightened, we predicted that mortality salience would be an important factor in understanding the relationship between attachment processes and political orientation. Supporting these ideas, Study 1 showed that after a mortality-salience manipulation, securely attached participants increased their support for a liberal presidential candidate, and less securely attached participants increased their support for a conservative presidential candidate. In Study 2, a secure-relationship prime following a mortality-salience manipulation engendered a less violent approach to the problem of terrorism than did a neutral-relationship prime. We discuss the interaction of TMT processes and individual differences in attachment in shaping political preferences.

  11. The Social Shaping of Technology: A New Space for Politics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshinaka, Yutaka; Clausen, Christian; Hansen, Anne Grethe

    2003-01-01

    effects, which are non-neutral and distributed, as the processes of shaping themselves have been. The chapter develops the notion of SST through socio-technical spaces. Here a heterogeneous set of elements, comprising of techniques, social actors, attribution of meanings, and problem definitions, etc...... on the socio-technical processes entailed in technology development and change. Our perspective is based on the understanding that technological development unfolds through processes with political implications, involving actors, their occasions and strategies that help bring about transitions in technological...... change. We identify a new perspective on political processes, with a broader focus on the political dimensions of technological decision-making, and a broader treatment of socio-technical space, maintaining a focus on inclusion and exclusion of actors, salient issues and how they are dealt...

  12. Politics and economics to shape international oil and gas activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that political and economic events play unusually strong roles in shaping worldwide oil and gas activity levels this year. Developments in the former U.S.S.R. will be critical. As the now-independent republics adopt new economic systems, production and demand patterns will change, as will exports from what has been the world's leading oil producer. Changing conditions in the Middle East among members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting countries also will affect the industry in the year following the brief Persian Gulf war. Unless worldwide demand surges unexpectedly, these substantial additions to supply will tend to weaken oil prices in 1992

  13. Political and economic factors of late transition in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josifidis Kosta L.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The transition in Serbia is late, from the aspects of both its start and course. The initial conditionality, strategy, sequentially, prospects and results shape transition profile. Key factors of the late transition are grouped within a complex of political and economic factors, which are themselves ambivalent - their external and internal effects are evident. An institutional vacuum is especially limiting complex, with a significant influence on the political and economic aspects of the transition. An analysis of the two groups of intertwined factors serves as a basis for making a projection of future course and reform dynamics in Serbia. Different scenarios are present. An increase or decrease in the transition dynamics is conditioned by elimination of negative impacts of political and economic factors, i.e. by promotion of positive aspects of the solutions.

  14. Political science factor in information culture

    OpenAIRE

    Baranov G.

    2017-01-01

    The value of political science in information culture of society reveals; the main indicators of the public status of political science are investigated; the main functions of political science in the activity of actors of society are characterised.

  15. Factors That Shape Design Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Colin M.

    2013-01-01

    A wide range of design literature discusses the role of the studio and its related pedagogy in the development of design thinking. Scholars in a variety of design disciplines pose a number of factors that potentially affect this development process, but a full understanding of these factors as experienced from a critical pedagogy or student…

  16. Shape Modelling Using Maximum Autocorrelation Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus

    2001-01-01

    of Active Shape Models by Timothy Cootes and Christopher Taylor by building new information into the model. This new information consists of two types of prior knowledge. First, in many situation we will be given an ordering of the shapes of the training set. This situation occurs when the shapes....... Both these types of knowledge may be used to defined Shape Maximum Autocorrelation Factors. The resulting point distribution models are compared to ordinary principal components analysis using leave-one-out validation.......This paper addresses the problems of generating a low dimensional representation of the shape variation present in a training set after alignment using Procrustes analysis and projection into shape tangent space. We will extend the use of principal components analysis in the original formulation...

  17. Which shape factor(s) best describe granules?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, Anneke M.; Bosma, Jaap C.; Vonk, Pieter; Wesselingh, J.A.; Frijlink, Henderik W.

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluates methods used for granule shape characterization. The aim is to identify an optimal combination of shape factors to measure granule shape and roughness. Granules were prepared from microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), alpha-lactose, microfine cellulose (MFC), and dextrin, using a

  18. Tobacco control policy development in the European Union: do political factors matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosdriesz, Jizzo R.; Willemsen, Marc C.; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E.

    2015-01-01

    There has been much variation between European countries in the development of tobacco control policy. Not much is known about the factors that shape this variation. This study aimed to assess the role of political factors in tobacco control policy development. We used data from 11 European

  19. Cultivating Political Powerhouses: TFA Corps Members Experiences That Shape Local Political Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Rebecca; White, Rachel; Reckhow, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, Teach for America (TFA) has invested in developing corps members as leaders. Although TFA asks corps members for a two-year commitment, TFA celebrates the achievements of alumni who have gone on to careers in politics, public policy, and advocacy. Thus, many community leaders see the arrival of TFA corps members as having a…

  20. Shape Modelling of Asteriods 1708 Polit, 2036 Sheragul, and 3015 Candy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    Results are presented on efforts to model the shapes of three asteroids: 1708 Polit, 2036 Sheragul, and 3015 Candy. Observations used in this study were made by the author over a number of oppositions from a variety of locations, most recently at the Preston Gott Observatory at Texas Tech University.

  1. [Population pressure: a factor of political destabilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallon, F

    1993-04-01

    Political stability throughout the world appears to be greater in countries with slowly growing populations than in those with rapid growth. Population is not the only influence on political stability, however. The relationship between political stability and development is strong. The rich countries with the slowest growth are the most stable, while poor developing countries with rapid growth suffer from chronic instability. Demographic pressure and density are not the same thing and must be distinguished. A fragile environment like that of the Sahel will experience demographic pressure despite low density. Japan has a greater population density than Rwanda and little cultivable land, but the population has a high standard of living. demographic pressure is not comparable in Japan and Rwanda because Japan has slow population growth and stable democratic political institutions. The rate of growth seems to be a more important element in destabilization than density. Rapid growth creates enormous political tensions especially when profound ethnic divisions exist, and it complicates problems of government by encouraging rapid urbanization. The unbalanced age structures resulting from rapid growth hinder the satisfaction of employment, educational, and health care needs for the ever-increasing masses of young people. 49% of Rwanda's population is under 15 and 66% is under 25. Rwanda is already densely populated, with around 300 inhabitants/sq km, and its population is projected to double in 20 years. 95% of the population is dependent on agriculture, but by 1988 the average landholding per family was only 1.25 hectares and 58% of families did not grown sufficient food for household needs. Further reduction in the size of holdings or a growing landless population will have multiple consequences. Urban migration will inevitably increase, bringing with it all the problems so evident in other poor countries where the process is more advanced than in Rwanda. Chaotic

  2. Local communities’ consolidation process: political factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Fedorenko

    2017-04-01

    It has been underlined that the local communities’ consolidation process in the contemporary world is the problem which has both empirical and theoretical importance. Depending on the size of the local area, local polices are taking different forms. As usual, they provide an agreement and compromise solutions based on issues that are important to the local community. The experience of the developed democracies has shown that local assemblies ensure the establishment of coalitions based on short-termed procedures. The study has tested that an important aspect of the formation of local communities consolidated position is based on development issues and civil participation. It is especially visible in the United States and the EU countries. The municipality level determines the quality of local political bodies, which is formed on party basis. For contemporary Ukraine important tools for provision of political responsibility are forces, which take care about the local communities and determine their development for a long period. Overall, the consolidation of political forces in the local government system is an important task that determines the need for the adoption of regulatory instruments which would ensure the harmonious and constructive political cooperation regardless of their ideological positions.

  3. How Intense Policy Demanders Shape Postreform Politics: Evidence from the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocco, Philip; Haeder, Simon F

    2018-04-01

    The implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) has been a politically volatile process. The ACA's institutional design and delayed feedback effects created a window of opportunity for its partisan opponents to launch challenges at both the federal and state level. Yet as recent research suggests, postreform politics depends on more than policy feedback alone; rather, it is shaped by the partisan and interest-group environment. We argue that "intense policy demanders" played an important role in defining the policy alternatives that comprised congressional Republicans' efforts to repeal and replace the ACA. To test this argument, we drew on an original data set of bill introductions in the House of Representatives between 2011 and 2016. Our analysis suggests that business contributions and political ideology affected the likelihood that House Republicans would introduce measures repealing significant portions of the ACA. A secondary analysis shows that intense policy demanders also shaped the vote on House Republicans' initial ACA replacement plan. These findings highlight the role intense policy demanders can play in shaping the postreform political agenda. Copyright © 2018 by Duke University Press.

  4. Factors shaping competitiveness of the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymańska Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Regions are competing between themselves for the highest position in the country. Achieving and maintaining this position is associated with benefits such as attracting investors, the growth of entrepreneurship living in the region or commune, improvement of housing conditions, local enrichment, lower unemployment, lower social spending and the development of the real estate market. The inventors of the region potential are: entrepreneurs, groups connecting various environments (clusters, associations, Special Economic Zones, knowledge, innovation, and the living conditions of citizens. Regions compete with each other by using monuments, attracting investors and investing funds. The main factors of territorial competition are associated with local resources. The most common and most general division of territorial competitiveness factors are classified into internal and external. External factors include national and global environment, social, economic and spacious politics of the state and other organizations. Internal factors are local opportunities and development needs. They are in the local coordinate system and depend on local resources (quantity and quality of education inhabitants of commune or region, natural resources in the region, the policy of the region - pro-health, pro-family and pro-environmental, infrastructure, their accessibility, quality and efficiency of their use. The aim of this article is to discuss about creators of region potential (mainly entrepreneurs, clusters, associations, Special Economic Zones, and the relationships between them.

  5. Modifiable Factors that Support Political Participation by Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Bobbi; Smart, Denise; Benavides-Vaello, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Political participation is an opportunity for individuals to give their time and energy in such a way that it benefits others and advances relevant agendas. Political participation is a key issue for nurses because they are familiar with clinical issues that directly impact health care policies instituted at the local, state, and federal levels. Collectively, nurses also represent the largest number of health care providers in the United States and are among the most trusted health professionals. However, there are many obstacles that prevent nurses from taking a more active role in politics, creating a gap in how nurses pursue and respond to political participation, or civic engagement. The purpose of this exploratory review is to identify modifiable factors that support political participation among nurses. A review of the extant literature revealed three primary factors that promote civic engagement among nurses: (a) integration of political education in the nursing curriculum; (b) value of active psychological engagement, including a personal interest in political knowledge and information; and (c) value of collective influence such as membership in professional organizations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The uranium market - economic and political factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, T.

    1978-01-01

    This is an article by the Secretary General of the Uranium Institute, who is also Head of the Reactor Development Divisiion, UKAE, Winfrith. Estimates are given of the demand for uranium up to 1990 and factors likely to affect it are considered. Estimates of production up to 1985 show that it should be able to keep pace with demand until late in the eighties. The world potential for production after 1985 is examined from the viewpoint of resource availability exploration, price and government policies. (author)

  7. Pull factors in the political economy of international commercial sex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pull factors in the political economy of international commercial sex work in Nigeria. Ifeanyi P Onyeonoru. Abstract. No Abstract. African Sociological Review 2004, 8(2): 115-135. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  8. Factors that influence the inclusion of values in political speeches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waheed, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates what factors contribute to the inclusion of values in political speeches. Semi structured interviews were conducted on 13 current and former, full time and part time speechwriters at the United Nations Head Quarters in New York. Applying Schwartz’s concept of Basic Human

  9. PREDICTION OF THE EXTREMAL SHAPE FACTOR OF SPHEROIDAL PARTICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Hlubinka

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the stereological unfolding problem for spheroidal particles the extremal shape factor is predicted. The theory of extreme values has been used to show that extremes of the planar shape factor of particle sections tend to the same limit distribution as extremes of the original shape factor for both the conditional and marginal distribution. Attention is then paid to the extreme shape factor conditioned by the particle size. Normalizing constants are evaluated for a parametric model and the numerical procedure is tested on real data from metallography.

  10. Tobacco control policy development in the European Union: do political factors matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosdriesz, Jizzo R; Willemsen, Marc C; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E

    2015-04-01

    There has been much variation between European countries in the development of tobacco control policy. Not much is known about the factors that shape this variation. This study aimed to assess the role of political factors in tobacco control policy development. We used data from 11 European countries from 1996 to 2010. Multilevel regression modelling was used to investigate associations between the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS) and indicators of left-wing government and government effectiveness (policy formulation, implementation and enforcement), with control for confounders. An association was found between left-wing government and TCS over the period 1996-2003, but not over the whole period. The association between government effectiveness and TCS was significant and negative over the whole period, but positive between 2001 and 2005. Residual analysis showed that TCS scores from 2002 onwards were higher than expected based on the political factors. Associations varied among the five subscales of the TCS. The results suggest that, on the whole, national political factors have had only a minor influence on the large variations in tobacco control policy development in Europe over the last 15 years. However, there are indications that left-wing governments were important for early adoption of tobacco control policy, and high government effectiveness was important in the phase of adopting innovative policies. However, since 2002, with the advent of international treaties, the influence of national politics has diminished. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  11. An Empirical Exploration of Factors Related to Adolescents' Political Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Brett L. M.

    2013-01-01

    Political scientists have found that one of the strongest predictors of political participation is political efficacy, the belief that individuals' actions can influence political processes. Prior research indicates that political efficacy increases through various experiences, such as discussions of public issues, but it does not explain why or…

  12. Shortwave shape factor inversion of earth radiation budget observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Richard N.; Smith, G. Louis

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented on an investigation of the effects of various assumptions (including assumptions of a constant flux field, a constant albedo field, and a variable albedo field) used for deriving the shortwave shape factor on the estimates, from radiometric measurements, of the albedo at the top of the atmosphere. The accuracies and the resolutions of the shape-factor-flux estimates obtained using these assumptions are determined by simulating the shape factor inversion technique with scanner data from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The resulting biases and variances are given for both the ERBE medium-field-of-view and wide-field-of-view radiometers.

  13. Personality, Political Attitudes and Participation in Protests: The Direct and Mediated Effects of Psychological Factors on Political Activism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ednaldo Aparecido Ribeiro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies combining psychology and political science have shown that personality traits such as extroversion and openness to experiences are conditioning factors of political activism. However, the mechanisms through which this effect occurs are still poorly understood. Aiming to advance this topic, this article presents the results of an investigation that looked to analyse the mediated effects of personality traits in the Brazilian context, taking as mediating conditioning factors various attitudes and subjective dispositions commonly found in the literature, such as interest in politics and subjective political efficacy. Using the Latin American Public Opinion Project data, the hypothesis was tested that personality influences behaviour, since it favours the development of a number of attitudes that function as basic factors conditioning civic engagement. The results indicate the significant mediated effects of extroversion and openness to experience, especially with regard to political knowledge.

  14. Cellular Factors Shape 3D Genome Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers, using novel large-scale imaging technology, have mapped the spatial location of individual genes in the nucleus of human cells and identified 50 cellular factors required for the proper 3D positioning of genes. These spatial locations play important roles in gene expression, DNA repair, genome stability, and other cellular activities.

  15. What factors shape genetic diversity in cetaceans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, Felicia; Whitehead, Hal; Frasier, Timothy R

    2018-02-01

    Understanding what factors drive patterns of genetic diversity is a central aspect of many biological questions, ranging from the inference of historical demography to assessing the evolutionary potential of a species. However, as a larger number of datasets have become available, it is becoming clear that the relationship between the characteristics of a species and its genetic diversity is more complex than previously assumed. This may be particularly true for cetaceans, due to their relatively long lifespans, long generation times, complex social structures, and extensive ranges. In this study, we used microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA data from a systematic literature review to produce estimates of diversity for both markers across 42 cetacean species. Factors relating to demography, distribution, classification, biology, and behavior were then tested using phylogenetic methods and linear models to assess their relative influence on the genetic diversity of both marker types. The results show that while relative nuclear diversity is correlated with population size, mitochondrial diversity is not. This is particularly relevant given the widespread use of mitochondrial DNA to infer historical demography. Instead, mitochondrial diversity was mostly influenced by the range and social structure of the species. In addition to population size, habitat type (neritic vs. oceanic) had a significant correlation with relative nuclear diversity. Combined, these results show that many often-unconsidered factors are likely influencing patterns of genetic diversity in cetaceans, with implications regarding how to interpret, and what can be inferred from, existing patterns of diversity.

  16. The Youth and Political Ideology in Ghanaian Politics: The Case of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In developed democracies, one key factor that motivates the youth in playing active role in politics is political ideology. This is because political ideology largely shapes the political future of the youth, especially students in tertiary institutions. Unfortunately, a brief survey shows that political ideology, though relevant, ...

  17. Declining cleavages and political choices : the interplay of social and political factors in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, Nan Dirk de; Heath, Anthony; Need, Ariana

    2001-01-01

    Many social scientists believe that in the Netherlands there has been a decline in the political impact of traditional class and religious divisions over the last quarter-century. In understanding the evolving political impact of social divisions it is important to recognise that political behaviour

  18. Politeness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Bergson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This is the English translation of a speech Bergson made at Lycée Henri-IV on July 30, 1892. This is an interesting text because it anticipates Bergson’s last book, his The Two Sources of Morality and Religion. Like the distinction in The Two Sources between the open and the closed, “Politeness” defines its subject matter in two ways. There is what Bergson calls “manners” and there is true politeness. For Bergson, both kinds of politeness concern equality. Manners or material politeness amount to the ritualized greetings and formalities by means of which we usually define politeness. Unfortunately and like The Two Sources, Bergson attributes this formalized relation to other human beings with primitive and “inferior races.” Nevertheless, Bergson sees in these formalities an attempt, in the name of equality, to ignore other people’s talents and merits so that one can dominate morally superior people. In contrast, true politeness or “spiritual politeness” consists in “intellectual flexibility.” When one meets a person of superior morality, one is flexible in one’s relation to him or her; one abandons the formalities in order to really live her life and think her thoughts. Here we find equality too: “what defines this very polite person is to prefer each of his friends over the others, and to succeed in this way in loving them equally.” After making a comparison to dance, Bergson defines spiritual politeness as “a grace of the mind.” Since both kinds of politeness concern equality, Bergson associates both with justice. However, beyond these two kinds of politeness and justice there is “politeness of the heart,” which concerns charity. In order to indicate politeness of the heart, Bergson describes the kind of person, a sensitive person, who anxiously awaits a word of praise in order to feel good about herself but who also, when she hears a word of reproach, is thrown into sadness. Although Bergson calls the

  19. Ideology, politics, and personality: shaping forces in Dutch psychology of religion, 1907-1957.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belzen, Jacob A

    2009-08-01

    Although the academic establishment of the psychology of religion in the Netherlands has been stronger than in any other Western country, the start of these developments has been remarkably late (in 1957), especially when taking into account that Dutch academic life: (1) before World War II modeled itself after Germany (where psychology of religion flourished); and (2) was to a considerable extent included in the system of pillarization, which characterized Dutch society at large. The general factors that can be distinguished as having played an important role in the shaping of the situation for psychology of religion in the Netherlands had different impacts in the several universities under consideration.

  20. Demagnetization factors for cylindrical shells and related shapes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beleggia, M.; Vokoun, David; De Graef, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 321, č. 9 (2009), s. 1306-1315 ISSN 0304-8853 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 46559 - CERINKA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : demagnetization factor * magnetostaticenergy * nano-ring * core-shell * dipolar interaction * shape anisotropy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.204, year: 2009

  1. Unconventional Participation in Time of Crisis: How Ideology Shapes Citizens’ Political Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Memoli

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Since democracy requires the involvement of citizens, the topic of political participation has attracted great attention from both practitioners and scholars. During the current financial and economic crisis, there have been various protest movements in many European countries. In this paper, which employs data from the European Social Survey and analyzes some European countries using a longitudinal study (2002-2012, I measure unconventional political participation considering three types of action - signed a petition, participated in a lawful demonstration and joined a boycott. By linking citizens to government ideology and vote for party government to political action through a multilevel model, this paper argues that both ideology and citizens’ electoral choices have a bearing on unconventional political participation. In times of crisis, government choices do not feed the level of unconventional political participation. However, differences emerge in terms of political behavior when I consider citizens’ ideology, loser status and government ideology.

  2. An exploration of the political economy dynamics shaping health worker incentives in three districts in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertone, Maria Paola; Witter, Sophie

    2015-09-01

    The need for evidence-based practice calls for research focussing not only on the effectiveness of interventions and their translation into policies, but also on implementation processes and the factors influencing them, in particular for complex health system policies. In this paper, we use the lens of one of the health system's 'building blocks', human resources for health (HRH), to examine the implementation of official policies on HRH incentives and the emergence of informal practices in three districts of Sierra Leone. Our mixed-methods research draws mostly from 18 key informant interviews at district level. Data are organised using a political economy framework which focuses on the dynamic interactions between structure (context, historical legacies, institutions) and agency (actors, agendas, power relations) to show how these elements affect the HRH incentive practices in each district. It appears that the official policies are re-shaped both by implementation challenges and by informal practices emerging at local level as the result of the district-level dynamics and negotiations between District Health Management Teams (DHMTs) and nongovernmental organisations (NGOs). Emerging informal practices take the form of selective supervision, salary supplementations and per diems paid to health workers, and aim to ensure a better fit between the actors' agendas and the incentive package. Importantly, the negotiations which shape such practices are characterised by a substantial asymmetry of power between DHMTs and NGOs. In conclusion, our findings reveal the influence of NGOs on the HRH incentive package and highlight the need to empower DHMTs to limit the discrepancy between policies defined at central level and practices in the districts, and to reduce inequalities in health worker remuneration across districts. For Sierra Leone, these findings are now more relevant than ever as new players enter the stage at district level, as part of the Ebola response and

  3. What were the socio-economic, political, and institutional factors influencing the construction of the Arms Trade Treaty?

    OpenAIRE

    Westbrook, T

    2016-01-01

    Critiquing Martha Finnemore and Kathryn Sikkink's life-cycle hypotheses, this project tries to understand the socio-economic, political and institutional factors that influenced the construction of the Arms Trade Treaty (ATT). It addresses restless debates about the role of institutions in shaping behaviour, particularly in the context of unequal power distributions under United Nations (UN) voting rules. It questions what states had to gain from the Treaty, how power was exercised under cons...

  4. Measurements of dynamic shape factors of LMFBR aggregate aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.D.; Moss, O.R.; Briant, J.K.

    1980-01-01

    Dynamic shape factors for branched, chain-like aggregates of LMFBR mixed-oxide fuels have been measured with a LAPS spiral-duct centrifuge. The aerosol was generated by repeatedly pulsing a focused laser beam onto the surface of a typical LMFBR fuel pellet. The measured values of the dynamic shape factor, corrected for slip, vary between kappa = 3.60 at D/sub ae/ = 0.5 μm, and kappa = 2.23 at D/sub ae/ = 1.5 μm

  5. Peaceful atoms in agriculture and food: how the politics of the Cold War shaped agricultural research using isotopes and radiation in post war divided Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachmann, Karin

    2015-01-01

    During the Cold War, the super powers advanced nuclear literacy and access to nuclear resources and technology to a first-class power factor. Both national governments and international organizations developed nuclear programs in a variety of areas and promoted the development of nuclear applications in new environments. Research into the use of isotopes and radiation in agriculture, food production, and storage gained major importance as governments tried to promote the possibility of a peaceful use of atomic energy. This study is situated in divided Germany as the intersection of the competing socio-political systems and focuses on the period of the late 1940s and 1950s. It is argued that political interests and international power relations decisively shaped the development of "nuclear agriculture". The aim is to explore whether and how politicians in both parts of the divided country fostered the new field and exerted authority over the scientists. Finally, it examines the ways in which researchers adapted to the altered political conditions and expectations within the two political structures, by now fundamentally different.

  6. When Professions Shape Politics: The Case of Accountability in K-12 and Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Jal

    2014-01-01

    Professionalization is an important but overlooked dimension in education politics, particularly the politics of accountability. To isolate the importance of professionalization, this article compares accountability movements in K-12 education with similar movements in higher education. I draw on three pairs of reports that have sought to impose…

  7. SHAPING THE AGENDA: FEMINIST STRATEGIES OF CIVIC AND POLITICAL ACTION IN POST-COMMUNISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Elena NEAGA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available More than 20 years after the 1989 Revolution, the Romanian society continues to be patriarchal – and implicitly less democratic for women. This fact becomes more obvious if one looks towards the political sphere and at the way in which women’s interests are represented at the political decision level. In this social environment, civil society and especially the feminist movement have a particularly important role in terms of promoting women’s specific civic and political agendas. Our paper is an exploratory investigation of the strategies of political and civic actions used by the feminist movement in Romania during the postcommunist period. We will try to identify and categorize these strategies. Our aim is to explore a way of formulating a sort of typology (a methodological exploration of the civil and political models of action used by five Romanian feminist NGOs, while trying to assess their activity. This study is one of a prospective nature, in other words, it is not an exhaustive attempt to analyze the entire specter of feminist organizations, but rather an attempt to test the methodological apparatus and to adapt the theoretical framework to the realities found in the field.

  8. Connected Activism: Indigenous Uses of Social Media for Shaping Political Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Elena Duarte

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Prior studies describe digital tactics as specific strategies actors apply within broader repertoires of contention, specifically in social and political contexts. A comparison of EZLN, Idle No More, and the ongoing Rio Yaqui water rights movement reveals the kinds of community knowledge work that has to happen prior to and around activating digital tactics in Indigenous rights movements, including choices in messaging and discourses of Indigeneity, targeting of movement opponents, and selection of digital tools and techniques. Activists harness these communicative affordances to practice a politics of visibility, cultivate solidarity, diffuse an Indigenous consciousness, enforce dominant governments’ trust and treaty responsibilities, and remind many of the irrevocable injustice of colonialism. Designing methodologies that account for specific Indigenous social and political contexts as well as the affordances of various digital environments is part of the future work of Indigenous media theorists.

  9. Preliminary Validation on the Factors Influence Political Belief of Flood Victims in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ayob, Noor Hadzlida; Sakdan, Mohd Fo’ad

    2016-01-01

    This study attempt to explore the factors determined the political belief among the flood victims in Malaysia. In disaster situation such as flood, political institution plays a significant role in supplying aid for the victims. However, even with the same relief assistant that had been provided by the government, different appraisals often heard from the victims. Criticizes and compliments regarding the ways of the political institution handling the aid are among the issues that have been hi...

  10. A method of factor analysis for shape coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookstein, Fred L

    2017-10-01

    Currently the most common reporting style for a geometric morphometric (GMM) analysis of anthropological data begins with the principal components of the shape coordinates to which the original landmark data have been converted. But this focus often frustrates the organismal biologist, mainly because principal component analysis (PCA) is not aimed at scientific interpretability of the loading patterns actually uncovered. The difficulty of making biological sense of a PCA is heightened by aspects of the shape coordinate setting that further diverge from our intuitive expectations of how morphometric measurements ought to combine. More than 50 years ago one of our sister disciplines, psychometrics, managed to build an algorithmic route from principal component analysis to scientific understanding via the toolkit generally known as factor analysis. This article introduces a modification of one standard factor-analysis approach, Henry Kaiser's varimax rotation of 1958, that accommodates two of the major differences between the GMM context and the psychometric context for these approaches: the coexistence of "general" and "special" factors of form as adumbrated by Sewall Wright, and the typical loglinearity of partial warp variance as a function of bending energy. I briefly explain the history of principal components in biometrics and the contrast with factor analysis, introduce the modified varimax algorithm I am recommending, and work three examples that are reanalyses of previously published cranial data sets. A closing discussion emphasizes the desirability of superseding PCA by algorithms aimed at anthropological understanding rather than classification or ordination. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Comparing Political Journalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comparing Political Journalism is a systematic, in-depth study of the factors that shape and influence political news coverage today. Using techniques drawn from the growing field of comparative political communication, an international group of contributors analyse political news content drawn f...... Comparing Political Journalism offers an unparalleled scope in assessing the implications for the ongoing transformation of Western media systems, and addresses core concepts of central importance to students and scholars of political communication world-wide.......Comparing Political Journalism is a systematic, in-depth study of the factors that shape and influence political news coverage today. Using techniques drawn from the growing field of comparative political communication, an international group of contributors analyse political news content drawn...... from newspapers, television news, and news websites from 16 countries, to assess what kinds of media systems are most conducive to producing quality journalism. Underpinned by key conceptual themes, such as the role that the media are expected to play in democracies and quality of coverage...

  12. Mugabeism: Rhesus Factor in African Politics | Elochukwu | UJAH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    but because of the political turmoil which has atrophied in the being of that country all the major forces of national existence. Zimbabwe now boasts the highest inflation rate in the world; millions of Zimbabweans have fled their country as the Zimbabwean dollar, which was stronger than the US dollar a few years ago, has ...

  13. BRICS and OMC: Conflicts of interest and political factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitri Felix Nascimento

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The roles of the BRICS in the current international system extend the influence of this group of countries in the representations in the news disputes and guidelines in the World Trade Organization - WTO. The analysis aims to verify the political and economic consequences of the BRICS in the dispute with the developed countries surrounding the WTO negotiations.

  14. Factors shaping intersectoral action in primary health care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaf, Julia; Baum, Fran; Freeman, Toby; Labonte, Ron; Javanparast, Sara; Jolley, Gwyn; Lawless, Angela; Bentley, Michael

    2014-12-01

    To examine case studies of good practice in intersectoral action for health as one part of evaluating comprehensive primary health care in six sites in South Australia and the Northern Territory. Interviews with primary health care workers, collaborating agency staff and service users (Total N=33); augmented by relevant documents from the services and collaborating partners. The value of intersectoral action for health and the importance of partner relationships to primary health care services were both strongly endorsed. Factors facilitating intersectoral action included sufficient human and financial resources, diverse backgrounds and skills and the personal rewards that sustain commitment. Key constraining factors were financial and time limitations, and a political and policy context which has become less supportive of intersectoral action; including changes to primary health care. While intersectoral action is an effective way for primary health care services to address social determinants of health, commitment to social justice and to adopting a social view of health are constrained by a broader health service now largely reinforcing a biomedical model. Effective organisational practices and policies are needed to address social determinants of health in primary health care and to provide a supportive context for workers engaging in intersectoral action. © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  15. The Effect of Political and Economic Factors on Corporate Tax Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Hansson, Åsa; Porter, Susan; Perry Williams, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Economists and political scientists have long been interested in factors that affect the statutory tax rate on businesses set by federal governments. In this study, we examine the impact of political and economic factors on several measures of tax rates and tax incentives offered across 19 developed countries for the years 1979 through 2005. Our results indicate that while economic conditions such as openness, strategic interaction, budget constraints, economic downturns and an aging populati...

  16. POLITICAL FACTORS OF NSTITUTIONAL TRANSFORMATION OF RUSSIAN PUBLIC SERVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Borshevskiy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We define the civil service as a political and administrative institution established to meet the needs in the professional performance of political decisions and providing the daily contact between the society and the political power. The definition of civil service in the Russian legislation is not fit the features of public institution, that is why the institutionalization of the civil service in post-Soviet Russia face difficulties.We see ways to overcome this contradiction, which include the improvement of legislation and implementation to the strategic documents the goals, objectives and performance criteria of civil service institution-building. This goals and objectives should orientate the civil servants to ensure economic growth and improving the quality of citizen’s life.The architecture of the civil service institution was offered, including the legal, institutional and human components. We identified the institutional characteristics and location of this institution in the environment of society.The algorithm of civil service institutional change was clarified, which includes elements such as institutional selection, the definition of institutional norms and institutional effects.The requirements for the assessment of institutional effectiveness were formulated. We proved the necessity to describe the driving forces of civil service development not only by external influences, but also its internal environment.The comparison of this set of statistics with indicators of internal development of the civil service allows concluding about the correlation between the civil service performance on different stages of its institutional transformation and attainment the priorities of the economy and society.

  17. The importance of the impact of political risk factors in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Essel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Political risk factors often impact negatively on the financial results of an enterprise, industry, geographical region or an entire country. In severe cases they may even lead to financial disasters. Previous research (by Essel identified 10 specific political risk factors which are common to emerging market economies. As South Africa is a developing country with an emerging market economy, these 10 political risk factors should also be present in this country. This paper focuses on the importance of the impact of political risk factors on an agent’s total annual claims amount when underwriting political risk insurance in South Africa. The objective of this research paper embodies the improvement of financial decision-making by a particular enterprise, industry, geographical region or country operating in an emerging market economy, pertaining to the importance of the impact of political risk factors. A literature study as well as an empirical survey was done to achieve the study’s objective. The conclusions of this research should also be valuable to other enterprises, industries, geographical regions or countries which operate in an emerging market economy.

  18. Gas, the Key Political Factor in the Eastern Mediterranean?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drevet, Jean-Francois

    2016-01-01

    Since the increased tension in relations between Russia and the European Union following the Ukrainian conflict and the annexation of Crimea, the EU's energy dependence on Russia has become a matter of major concern, particularly as, according to the European Commission, that dependence could increase greatly in the coming decades as energy needs rise. In this context, the recent discoveries of gas deposits in the Eastern Mediterranean represent, if not an alternative, then at least an opportunity to diversify supplies in the long term. However, if these reserves are to be exploited and potentially exportable, it will be necessary, as Jean-Francois Drevet shows here, to remove a number of political obstacles so that the various countries concerned can be made to cooperate. This column offers an assessment of gas potential in the Eastern Mediterranean, which is largely divided between Israel, Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, Palestine and Cyprus and has at times been a source of conflict in respect of the demarcation of exclusive economic zones for its exploitation. It also points up the issues with regard to energy self-sufficiency for the countries concerned and to the exporting of the gas (given the costs involved in building the necessary infrastructure), together with the difficulties of regional cooperation on this question. (author)

  19. Factors shaping the composition of the cutaneous microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, K; Erdei, L; Bolla, B Sz; Tax, G; Bíró, T; Kemény, L

    2017-02-01

    From birth, we are constantly exposed to bacteria, fungi and viruses, some of which are capable of transiently or permanently inhabiting our different body parts as our microbiota. The majority of our microbial interactions occur during and after birth, and several different factors, including age, sex, genetic constitution, environmental conditions and lifestyle, have been suggested to shape the composition of this microbial community. Propionibacterium acnes is one of the most dominant lipophilic microbes of the postadolescent, sebum-rich human skin regions. Currently, the role of this bacterium in the pathogenesis of the most common inflammatory skin disease, acne vulgaris, is a topic of intense scientific debate. Recent results suggest that Westernization strongly increases the dominance of the Propionibacterium genus in human skin compared with natural populations living more traditional lifestyles. According to the disappearing microbiota hypothesis proposed by Martin Blaser, such alterations in the composition of our microbiota are the possible consequences of socioeconomic and lifestyle changes occurring after the industrial revolution. Evanescence of species that are important elements of the human ecosystem might lead to the overgrowth and subsequent dominance of others because of the lack of ecological competition. Such changes can disturb the fine-tuned balance of the human body and, accordingly, our microbes developed through a long co-evolutionary process. These processes might lead to the transformation of a seemingly harmless species into an opportunistic pathogen through bacterial dysbiosis. This might have happened in the case of P. acnes in acne pathogenesis. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  20. Social-political factors influencing the expansion of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waltar, A.E.; Upson, P.

    1999-01-01

    As humanity marches closer to entering a new millennium, it is crucial that we nuclear professionals take renewed stock in the importance of our role in public interactions. The lack of public support has been very influential in bringing the once robust nuclear power construction program in America, Europe and Russia to a grinding halt. In trying to understand the key forces that shape public opinion on technologies such as ours, it becomes clear that the major force is the media enterprise. If we compare the basic driving forces behind successful media with the basic drivers behind successful science, we quickly come to the realization that the media are fundamentally in the entertainment business. Capturing instant attention and holding it are the principal ingredients of success for newspapers, radio, and television. Recognizing that these success drivers are diametrically opposite of those governing good science, we can readily understand why the antinuclear movement has been so successful in orchestrating their message in a package ideally suited to a receptive media enterprise. However, before blaming all our woes on the media, we need to assess at least four technical areas where additional professional work could be of substantial value. These include determining the real health effects of low-level radiation, further developing intrinsic robustness to enhance reactor safety, refining and articulating the environmental ethic associated with the recycling of nuclear waste, and exposing the myth that burying plutonium solves our nuclear non-proliferation problems. We suggest six key ingredients as necessary steps that merit strong consideration in regaining public support for nuclear power. These include 1) seriously addressing the four technical issues summarized above; 2) expressing our key issues and results in language understandable at the high school (or lower) level; 3) continually striving for an open and honest management of the Industry; 4

  1. Critical factors which shaped Iranian cities in History

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabibian, M.

    1997-01-01

    The history of Iranian Cities and its associated urban a paces are long and colourful. the role of urban areas has always been an important one. It is important for the purpose at hand, to examine, albeit in a cursory fashion, some of critical factors which shaped the development of Iranian Cities, including urban spaces. Moreover, I believe that these forces created, in Iran, a variable, rational urban system and that the currency set of p roblems i n Iranian Cities results from new technological forces interacting with l der, historical forces. Of course, making generalizations about Persian towns is at best, a risky business, The wide range of natural and historical forces which have played across the face of this country have created special conditions in each urban settlement. But, in spite of the fact that each Persian town has a distinct character and ambience, one can easily see that these differences occur within a framework which is remarkably similar in both basic principles and details. Now, however, even greater forces are operating in Iran, as all over the world, to alter towns almost beyond recognition. The internal combustion engine is introducing a new scale of distance to the city; telecommunications are giving the city a new time scale; industrialization is challenging the traditional economic bases of cities. Tine and again, for both the East and West, these new forces have overwhelmed the more modest human scale of old towns. Times and again, planners and administrators have realized very late in the process that the other scales must be preserved as well. Iran is no exception. This article offers some suggestion as to how Iranian planners and administrators might preserve the human scale in Persian towns. It begins with a look at the history of Persian towns in an attempt to define (implicitly) the Persian human scale by describing the rational urban systems and details which developed in Iran over some 5,000 years of urbanisation. Then we

  2. The Political Role of the Ethnic Factor around Elections in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper analyses the role of the ethnic factor in political choices in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and its impact on democratisation and the implementation of the practice of good governance. This is done by focusing especially on the presidential and legislative elections of 1960 and 2006. The Congolese ...

  3. The Political Role of the Ethnic Factor Democratic Republic of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper analyses the role of the ethnic factor in political choices in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and ... At all times, ethnicity seems to play a determining role in the. * Hubert Kabungulu Ngoy-Kangoy is a ..... in Leopoldville, there was a remarkable solidarity among them. But when it was time to elect members of ...

  4. Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment in Nigeria: Political Factor Effects Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    ibrahim, waheed; Omoniyi, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    The paper examines the determinants of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in Nigeria during 1970 – 2006. cointegration techniques reveal that the major determinants of FDI are market size, real exchange rate and political factor thereby validating theoretical expectations. Furthermore, simulations using impulse response and variance decomposition analysis suggest that uncontrolled trade liberalization must be avoided.

  5. Development of Education in Kenya: Influence of the Political Factor beyond 2015 Mdgs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackatiani, Caleb; Imbovah, Mercy; Imbova, Navin; Gakungai, D. K.

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a critical appraisal of development of education system in Kenya. Education of any country is an important tool for the developmental process of that particular nation. There are various factors that influence national systems of education. They range from social, economical, technological to political influences. In this…

  6. Exposure to Political Conflict and Violence and Posttraumatic Stress in Middle East Youth: Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubow, Eric F.; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Boxer, Paul; Landau, Simha; Dvir, Shira; Shikaki, Khalil; Ginges, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    We examine the role of family- and individual-level protective factors in the relation between exposure to ethnic-political conflict and violence and posttraumatic stress among Israeli and Palestinian youth. Specifically, we examine whether parental mental health (lack of depression), positive parenting, children's self-esteem, and academic…

  7. What Factors Shape "by" Ratings in Relation to Landmarks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hund, Alycia M.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments investigated how absolute and relative distance shape adults' and young children's ratings concerning the extent to which the term "by" describes the relation between locations. Three- and 4-year-old children and adults were asked to rate how well the word "by" described the relation between several blocks and a landmark. The…

  8. Business Politics-Incorporating Factor of Slovenske Zeleznice Holding in European Traffic Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Pirš

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The joining of the Republic of Slovenia in the EuropeanUnion gives special significance to the economic subjects becausethe past market and competition are open directly for theSlovenian economic subjects. It means that competition will increasefor the market of transport service. There will be morepossibilities for the enterprises to move faster towards culmination,the phase of degeneration - crisis. Since the business crisisendangers the future existence and development of the Slovenskeieleznice Holding, it has become very important to be ableto control it. In order to avoid this, the Slovenske ielezniceHolding needs clear and methodical business politics whichmeans common interconnections and interacting influence ofelements (rules, criteria, measures and activities, which constantlymove, change and develop. The business politics givesaims and feedback as a condition for the existence and functioningof everything, so it cannot be regarded only as a globalprogramme of development, but rather as a very complex anddynamic system.The elements of the business politics model- incorporatingfactor to the European traffic flows are the sub-politics of thebusiness politics which influence its realisation; production,staff, marketing, finances and development sub-politics. Theevaluation of the elements of the model has taken into considerationtheir condition and meaning in the realisation of the businesspolitics in 2003 and their expected values in 2008, whensimple transmission of achievements is expected in the railwaytraffic in the European Union and in the year 2012 when a repeatedenlargement of the European Union is foreseen.The model of business politics -factor of integration of theSlovenske ieleznice Holding into the European traffic flows isan experiment to restore the collaborating relation between certainelements of the model.

  9. Political Ecology

    OpenAIRE

    DeFriez, Joshua; Larsen, Justine; Hilton, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Environmental legislation is commonly accepted as an altruistic approach to land management. A closer examination however, reveals that political incentives and flawed arguments consistently shape U.S. environmental policy at high public costs. As student fellows at the Institute of Political Economy at Utah State University, we have had the opportunity to research this subject under the direction of Professor Randy Simmons. Political Ecology is his upcoming book that explores a variety of en...

  10. Political Campaigns

    OpenAIRE

    Lilleker, Darren

    2017-01-01

    Political campaigns are orchestrated attempts by political organizations to garner public support through persuasive communication in order to influence public policy in their favor. This broad definition encapsulates all forms of campaigns from those of neighborhood organizations seeking to influence local politicians to the campaigns of political parties and candidates who seek election to office in order to shape policy themselves. In pluralist democracies, campaigns are crucial for repres...

  11. Factors Determining the Pore Shape in Polycarbonate Track Membranes

    CERN Document Server

    Apel, P Yu; Orelovich, O L; Akimenko, S N; Sartowska, B; Dmitriev, S N

    2004-01-01

    The process of pore formation in ion-irradiated polycarbonate films on treatment with alkali solutions in the presence of a surfactant is studied. It is found that the pore shape depends on both the structure of the initial films and the peculiarities of the interaction of the surfactant with the polymer surface and the transport of the surfactant into tracks. Due to heterogeneity of the films the cross-section of a track pore channel changes along its length. The presence of the surfactant results in a further effect. Surfactant molecules adsorb on the polymer surface at the pore entries and reduce the etch rate which leads to formation of cigar-like pore channels. The use of surfactant as a component of chemical etchant enables one to control the pore shape in track membranes thus optimizing their retention and permeation characteristics.

  12. Factors influencing shape memory effect and phase transformation behaviour of Fe-Mn-Si based shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, H.; Dunne, D.; Kennon, N.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this research work was to investigate the factors influencing the shape memory effect and phase transformation behaviour of three Fe-Mn-Si based shape memory alloys: Fe-28Mn-6Si, Fe-13Mn-5Si-10Cr-6Ni and Fe-20Mn-6Si-7Cr-1Cu. The research results show that the shape memory capacity of Fe-Mn-Si based shape memory alloys varies with annealing temperature, and this effect can be explained in terms of the effect of annealing on γ ε transformation. The nature and concentration of defects in austenite are strongly affected by annealing conditions. A high annealing temperature results in a low density of stacking faults, leading to a low nucleation rate during stress induced γ→ε transformation. The growth of ε martensite plates is favoured rather than the formation of new ε martensite plates. Coarse martensite plates produce high local transformation strains which can be accommodated by local slip deformation, leading to a reduction in the reversibility of the martensitic transformation and to a degradation of the shape memory effect. Annealing at low temperatures (≤673 K) for reasonable times does not eliminate complex defects (dislocation jogs, kinks and vacancy clusters) created by hot and cold working strains. These defects can retard the movement and rearrangement of Shockley partial dislocations, i.e. suppress γ→ε transformation, also leading to a degradation of shape memory effect. Annealing at about 873 K was found to be optimal to form the dislocation structures which are favourable for stress induced martensitic transformation, thus resulting in the best shape memory behaviour. (orig.)

  13. A public health framework to translate risk factors related to political violence and war into multi-level preventive interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, J.T.V.M.

    2010-01-01

    Political violence, armed conflicts and human rights violations are produced by a variety of political, economic and socio-cultural factors. Conflicts can be analyzed with an interdisciplinary approach to obtain a global understanding of the relative contribution of risk and protective factors. A

  14. Factors associated with Spanish older people's membership in political organizations: the role of active aging activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrat, Rodrigo; Villar, Feliciano; Celdrán, Montserrat

    2015-09-01

    This study explores older people's membership in political organizations by using data from the Survey on older people 2010, carried out by Spain's National Institute for older people and social services. The objectives were to describe the extent of this kind of participation among Spaniards aged 65 and over, and to analyze the factors that are associated with it. Results show that only slightly less than 7 % of the sample belonged to a political organization. To analyze the factors related to this membership, a set of models of multivariate analyses were run, including socioeconomic resources and participation in other types of active aging activity (participation in leisure, learning, and productive activities). Educational level, leisure activities, learning activities, and only volunteering in the case of productive activities were found to be associated with membership in political organizations. Results provide partial support for the socioeconomic resources model and suggest that engagement in leisure activities, learning activities, and volunteering might have an enhancing effect on membership in political organizations.

  15. A criterion for the recalculation of shape factors in reactor kinetics problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamelander, G.

    1983-01-01

    One of the best known methods to solve the neutron kinetics equations is the factorization method which consists in splitting the neutron flux in an amplitude factor P(t) and in a shape factor PSI(r,t). This shape factor is approximated by the solution of the stationary form of the neutron diffusion equation. If the flux shape changes significantly during the course of the transient PSI(r,t) must be recalculated. The present paper gives a qualitative criterion for the recalculation of the shape factor. The physical model of the code TRANS-II using this criterion is presented. The results of two transient calculations are given. It is shown that this criterion provides a reliable tool to optimize the factorization method. (orig.) [de

  16. The Role of Civil Society in Shaping Democratic Civil-Military Relations During Political Transition in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188) Washington, DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) I 2...own police forces to protect their leaders and to manage political rallies.”89 Rose and Scholz claim that despite substantial control in the...Nepal: A Case Study of Political Acculturation (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1966). 24

  17. System dynamics modeling of social/political factors in nuclear power plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, K.F.; Turek, M.G.; Eubanks, C.K.

    1995-01-01

    The safety and performance of nuclear power plants are a function of many technical factors such as initial design, service and maintenance programs, and utility investment in improvements. Safety and performance are also a function of the social/political influences that affect requirements on personnel, practices and procedures, and resource availability. This paper describes a process for constructing models of the social/political influences on plant operations using the system dynamics technique. The model incorporates representation of internal utility actions and decisions as affected by external factors such as public opinion, intervenor actions, safety and economic regulation, and the financial community. The feedback between external agents and plant performance is explicitly modeled. The resulting model can be used to simulate performance under a variety of different external and internal policy choices. In particular, the model can be used to study means of improving performance in response to externally imposed regulations

  18. Political innovations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva

    2017-01-01

    are mainly interested in assessing and promoting innovations in public service delivery, but have paid little or no attention to the need for innovations in polity, politics and policy. This article develops a research agenda for studying innovations in political institutions, in the political process...... and in policy outputs. It proposes a number of research themes related to political innovations that call for scholarly attention, and identifies push and pull factors influencing the likelihood that these themes will be addressed in future research....

  19. A new multi-axial particle shape factor--application to particle sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dihalu, Dosti S; Geelhoed, Bastiaan

    2011-09-21

    Because for a given sample size the sampling uncertainty increases with increasing particle mass, the mass of a representative sample depends on the particle mass during chemical, physical and biological analysis. Sampling theory can be used to formulate the quantitative relationship between the particle mass and the corresponding mass or weight of a representative sample. But in practice, especially for small particles, it is often easier to evaluate the particle size in dimension of length (e.g. μm) rather than in dimension of mass (e.g. μg). In order to be able to apply sampling theory to predict the mass or weight of a representative sample, a well-defined methodology that relates the mass of a particle to its size is required. We here propose a new multi-axial shape factor which requires information of multiple sizes of the particle of interest, whereas a uniaxial shape factor only needs one. In view of the information loss that is implicit in the use of a one-dimensional shape factor like the Brunton shape factor, the here-proposed new multi-axial shape is expected to perform better. Experimental data confirm the better performance of the new shape factor. A multi-segment generalisation of the new multi-axial shape factor is proposed.

  20. Factors Shaping Agri-food Product Trade in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bórawski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to recognize the role of internal and external factors in the trade balance. The analysis of the trade balance is useful to help formulate goals and premises of economy policy to properly allocate production means to eliminate the negative effects of trade liberalization. The authors have studied data about trade of agricultural commodities in the years 2000–2010. To measure the impact of macroeconomic variables used a regression model. The macroeconomic factors included: X1 (inflation, X2 (investment in agriculture and hunting, X3 (GDP and X4 (exchange rate and X5 (FAO food price index. We wanted to recognize the impact of macroeconomic factors on: Y1 (total export, Y2 (total import, Y3 (trade balance.

  1. Visualising the demographic factors which shape population age structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Wilson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The population pyramid is one of the most popular tools for visualising population age structure. However, it is difficult to discern from the diagram the relative effects of different demographic components on the size of age-specific populations, making it hard to understand exactly how a population's age structure is formed. Objective: The aim of this paper is to introduce a type of population pyramid which shows how births, deaths, and migration have shaped a population's age structure. Methods: Births, deaths, and population data were obtained from the Human Mortality Database and the Australian Bureau of Statistics. A variation on the conventional population pyramid, termed here a components-of-change pyramid, was created. Based on cohort population accounts, it illustrates how births, deaths, and net migration have created the population of each age group. A simple measure which summarises the impact of net migration on age structure is also suggested. Results: Example components-of-change pyramids for several countries and subnational regions are presented, which illustrate how births, deaths, and net migration have fashioned current population age structures. The influence of migration is shown to vary greatly between populations. Conclusions: The new type of pyramid aids interpretation of a population's age structure and helps to understand its demographic history over the last century.

  2. Factors shaping the user experience on utiliterian websites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hompe, T.; Leker, J.; Mast, C. van der; Neerincx, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores factors that influence the user experience when using utilitarian websites. A theoretical model for the user experience of utilitarian websites is proposed and investigated. This model is an extension of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). The effects of perceived ease of use,

  3. Maintaining a politicised climate of opinion? Examining how political framing and journalistic logic combine to shape speaking opportunities in UK elite newspaper reporting of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Julian

    2017-05-01

    This article explores the importance of issue politicisation and mediation for the reporting of climate change in UK elite newspapers. Specifically, this investigates how journalistic logic mediates political framing to produce commentaries on and discussion about climate change in the news. In analysing elite newspaper coverage over time in this case, the article shows that (1) various frames introduce the issue as a legitimate problem within coverage and that (2) the news stories these inform are opened to specific commentaries according to 'elite journalistic logic'. This configuration of coverage orders the speaking opportunities of established voices of science, politics and industry as well as those less established voices that enter to explain and qualify these elite accounts. The article concludes that the ingrained combination of issue politicisation and journalistic logic observed here will likely shape future elite reporting and those voices that it will include.

  4. Factorization and resummation for groomed multi-prong jet shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkoski, Andrew J.; Moult, Ian; Neill, Duff

    2018-02-01

    Observables which distinguish boosted topologies from QCD jets are playing an increasingly important role at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). These observables are often used in conjunction with jet grooming algorithms, which reduce contamination from both theoretical and experimental sources. In this paper we derive factorization formulae for groomed multi-prong substructure observables, focusing in particular on the groomed D 2 observable, which is used to identify boosted hadronic decays of electroweak bosons at the LHC. Our factorization formulae allow systematically improvable calculations of the perturbative D 2 distribution and the resummation of logarithmically enhanced terms in all regions of phase space using renormalization group evolution. They include a novel factorization for the production of a soft subjet in the presence of a grooming algorithm, in which clustering effects enter directly into the hard matching. We use these factorization formulae to draw robust conclusions of experimental relevance regarding the universality of the D 2 distribution in both e + e - and pp collisions. In particular, we show that the only process dependence is carried by the relative quark vs. gluon jet fraction in the sample, no non-global logarithms from event-wide correlations are present in the distribution, hadronization corrections are controlled by the perturbative mass of the jet, and all global color correlations are completely removed by grooming, making groomed D 2 a theoretically clean QCD observable even in the LHC environment. We compute all ingredients to one-loop accuracy, and present numerical results at next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy for e + e - collisions, comparing with parton shower Monte Carlo simulations. Results for pp collisions, as relevant for phenomenology at the LHC, are presented in a companion paper [1].

  5. Economic, political, and public acceptance factors influencing the future of nuclear power in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    Views are presented on the economic, political, and public acceptance factors influencing the future of nuclear power in the United States. Electricity has been the preferred energy choice throughout the world. Nuclear energy must produce a competitive economic result along with energy supply security and environmental impacts. In the United States there exists ample experience and capacity to plan, design, construct, and operate new large nuclear power plants which could be competitive. Even at the lowest level of apparent safety and acceptance there was on the whole enough economic incentive and political support to keep the enterprise going. According to the United States Council for Energy Awareness polls, public acceptance is positive. The long-term outlook of nuclear power should be favorable. The one thing which would preclude nuclear power having a future in the United States would be for all parties to insist on eliminating all risks

  6. Accuracy of Environmental Monitoring in China: Exploring the Influence of Institutional, Political and Ideological Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Brombal

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental monitoring data are essential to informing decision-making processes relevant to the management of the environment. Their accuracy is therefore of extreme importance. The credibility of Chinese environmental data has been long questioned by domestic and foreign observers. This paper explores the potential impact of institutional, political, and ideological factors on the accuracy of China’s environmental monitoring data. It contends that the bureaucratic incentive system, conflicting agency goals, particular interests, and ideological structures constitute potential sources of bias in processes of environmental monitoring in China. The current leadership has acknowledged the issue, implementing new measures to strengthen administrative coordination and reinforce the oversight of the central government over local authorities. However, the failure to address the deeper political roots of the problem and the ambivalence over the desirability of public participation to enhance transparency might jeopardize Beijing’s strive for environmental data accuracy.

  7. Density-conserving shape factors for particle simulations in cylindrical and spherical coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruyten, Wilhelmus M.

    1993-01-01

    It is established that a particle-to-grid weighting which is based on both conventional particle-in-cell (PIC) and cloud-in-cell (CIC) shape factors will yield nonuniform grid densities, even in the case of uniform particle distributions, in both cylindrical and spherical coordinates. In view of this, alternative density-conserving weighting schemes are discussed which encompass modified PIC and CIC weighting. These alternative shape factors are mathematically no more complicated than the conventional nondensity-conserving expressions.

  8. Oscillatory shear response of moisture barrier coatings containing clay of different shape factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugge, C; Vanderhoek, N; Bousfield, D W

    2011-06-01

    Oscillatory shear rheology of barrier coatings based on dispersed styrene-butadiene latex and clay of various shape factors or aspect ratio has been explored. Barrier performance of these coatings when applied to paperboard has been assessed in terms of water vapour transmission rates and the results related to shape factor, dewatering and critical strain. It has been shown that a system based on clay with high shape factor gives a lower critical strain, dewatering and water vapour transmission rate compared with clays of lower shape factor. The dissipated energy, as calculated from an amplitude sweep, indicated no attractive interaction between clay and latex implying a critical strain that appears to be solely dependent on the shape factor at a constant volume fraction. Particle size distribution was shown to have no effect on the critical strain while coatings of high elasticity exhibited high yield strains as expected. The loss modulus demonstrated strain hardening before the elastic to viscous transition. The loss modulus peak was identified by a maximum strain which was significantly lower for a coating based on clay with a high shape factor. The characteristic elastic time was found to vary between 0.6 and 1.3s. The zero shear viscosity of barrier dispersion coatings were estimated from the characteristic elastic time and the characteristic modulus to be of the order of 25-100 Pa s. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The National School Lunch Program: Ideas, proposals, policies, and politics shaping students' experiences with school lunch in the United States, 1946 - present

    OpenAIRE

    Gosliner, Wendi Anne

    2013-01-01

    AbstractThe National School Lunch Program:Ideas, proposals, policies, and politics shaping students' experiences with school lunch in the United States, 1946 - presentBy Wendi Anne GoslinerDoctor of Public HealthUniversity of California, BerkeleyProfessor Ann Keller, ChairOn an average school day in 2012, The National School Lunch Program (NSLP) supported the provision of lunch meals to almost 2/3 of school-age youth in the United States. Recent spikes in childhood obesity rates and the emerg...

  10. Social and Political Factors in Post-Colonial Indian Archaeology: The Case of Sanghol, Punjab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Gupta

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I present the case of Sanghol, Punjab, in Indian archaeology to highlight the influence of social and political factors on the interpretation of archaeological data and the preservation of cultural heritage. Using a geographic approach, I show how geopolitical tensions and the desire for internal political stability influenced archaeological practices in post-colonial India. In the aftermath of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi’s assassination in 1984, local archaeological investigations in Sanghol, located 200 kilometres from the sensitive Pakistan-India frontline, piqued the interest of the Archaeological Survey of India, the national department for archaeology and heritage management. The Survey subsequently carried out collaborative field studies in Sanghol between 1986 and 1990, reflecting the changing relationship between the local community and the national government at a time of intense political uncertainty. I argue that there is greater competition and collaboration between knowledge producers in Indian archaeology than has been accepted. This, in turn, impacts our understanding of the practice of national archaeology.

  11. Institutional Political and Fiscal Factors In the Development of Library Automation, 1967-71.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen B. Veaner

    1974-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper (1 summarizes an investigation into the political and financial factors which inhibited the ready application of computers to individual academic libraries during the period 1967-71, and (2 presents the author's speculations on the future of libraries in a computer dominant society. Technical aspects of system design were specifically excluded from the investigation. Twenty-four institutions were visited and approximately 100 persons interviewed. Substantial future change is envisaged in both the structure and function of the library, if the emerging trend of coalescing libraries and computerized "information processing centers" continues.

  12. How four different political systems have shaped the modernization of traditional Korean medicine between 1900 and 1960.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongwon, Shin

    2008-03-01

    In this paper, I examine the modern formation of traditional Korean medicine and discuss the characteristics of the modernization, or modernity, of the medicine. I probe for answers to three questions: first, prior to the twentieth century, what were the main factors that traditional Korean medicine needed to be transformed into a new one? Second, how did four states, the Taehan Empire, colonial Korea, North Korea, and South Korea, treat traditional medicine differently, and why? Third, what are the main characteristics of the modernization of traditional Korean medicine? In examining these questions, I found the following four factors to be important in shaping the modern formation of traditional Korean medicine during the twentieth century: first, the influences of Western science and institutions; second, the rise of nationalism; third, the economics of the state; and fourth, the effectiveness of traditional medicine. Among them, the introduction of Western science and institutions was the most important factor. All the different states in modern Korea realized that Western science and institutions were indispensable for the country to be a powerful nation and to enhance people's welfare. The degree of confidentiality in scientific Western medicine determined the number of traditional medical practitioners and their professional status. The modernization also was greatly affected by modern nationalism, which clashed with Westernization. Many Koreans and the Korean governments regarded the traditional medicine as something culturally valuable to protect from Western culture. Especially, the majority of Koreans who had experienced the cruelty of the Japanese rule under colonization tended to believe that Japan, a foreign ruler, had suppressed traditional Korean medicine as a liquidation policy of Korean culture during the colonial period. This belief contributed greatly to the recovery of the traditional doctors' prestige in South Korea and North Korea after

  13. Analysis of Human Error Types and Performance Shaping Factors in the Next Generation Main Control Room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sin, Y. C.; Jung, Y. S.; Kim, K. H.; Kim, J. H.

    2008-04-01

    Main control room of nuclear power plants has been computerized and digitalized in new and modernized plants, as information and digital technologies make great progresses and become mature. Survey on human factors engineering issues in advanced MCRs: Model-based approach, Literature survey-based approach. Analysis of human error types and performance shaping factors is analysis of three human errors. The results of project can be used for task analysis, evaluation of human error probabilities, and analysis of performance shaping factors in the HRA analysis

  14. What factors mediate the relationship between global self-worth and weight and shape concerns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Edel; Dooley, Barbara; Menton, Aoife; Dolphin, Louise

    2016-04-01

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether the relationship between global self-worth and weight concerns and global self-worth and shape concerns was mediated by pertinent body image factors, while controlling for gender and estimated BMI. Participants were 775 adolescents (56% male) aged 12-18years (M=14.6; SD=1.50). Mediation analysis revealed a direct and a mediated effect between global self-worth and two body image models: 1) weight concerns and 2) shape concerns. The strongest mediators in both models were physical appearance, restrained eating, and depression. Partial mediation was observed for both models, indicating that body image factors which span cognitive, affective, and behavioral constructs, explain the association between global self-worth and weight and shape concerns. Implications for future research, weight and shape concern prevention and global self-worth enhancement programs are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Chemical risk factors responsible for the formation of wedge-shaped lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perić Dejan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Non-carious tooth substances loss pose a major health problem of a modern man. The literature often collectively describes all non-carious lesions and is therefore difficult to compare results obtained by different authors. Chemical factors are one of the predisposing factors responsible for the formation of wedge-shaped erosions. Aim: Examination of chemical risk factors as one of the predisposing causes responsible for the formation of wedge-shaped lesions. Method: We examined 62 patients with wedge-shaped erosions (mean age 45.52 ± 12.03 years, 58.1% of men and 60 patients without erosions in the control group (mean age 34.40 ± 9.28 years, 60% men . The entire examination was completed by using a questionnaire at the Dental Clinic of the University of Pristina - Kosovska Mitrovica. salivary pH was measured by the pH meter. Results: The results show that the wedge-shaped lesions often occur equally in both men and women. Considerably often it might appear in older people but can also occur in teenagers. Patients with wedge-shaped erosion have increased acidity of saliva, a heightened sense of acid in the mouth and consume a lot more carbonated drinks compared to patients without erosions. Conclusion: Wedge-shaped lesions are more common in people older than 40 years. Taking into account the results obtained in this study it can be concluded that the chemical risk factors truly fall within the predisposing factors that may be responsible for the creation of wedge-shaped erosions.

  16. A public health framework to translate risk factors related to political violence and war into multi-level preventive interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jong, Joop T V M

    2010-01-01

    Political violence, armed conflicts and human rights violations are produced by a variety of political, economic and socio-cultural factors. Conflicts can be analyzed with an interdisciplinary approach to obtain a global understanding of the relative contribution of risk and protective factors. A public health framework was designed to address these risk factors and protective factors. The framework resulted in a matrix that combined primary, secondary and tertiary interventions with their implementation on the levels of the society-at-large, the community, and the family and individual. Subsequently, the risk and protective factors were translated into multi-sectoral, multi-modal and multi-level preventive interventions involving the economy, governance, diplomacy, the military, human rights, agriculture, health, and education. Then the interventions were slotted in their appropriate place in the matrix. The interventions can be applied in an integrative form by international agencies, governments and non-governmental organizations, and molded to meet the requirements of the historic, political-economic and socio-cultural context. The framework maps the complementary fit among the different actors while engaging themselves in preventive, rehabilitative and reconstructive interventions. The framework shows how the economic, diplomatic, political, criminal justice, human rights, military, health and rural development sectors can collaborate to promote peace or prevent the aggravation or continuation of violence. A deeper understanding of the association between risk and protective factors and the developmental pathways of generic, country-specific and culture-specific factors leading to political violence is needed.

  17. Factors affecting public and political acceptance for the implementation of geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to identify conditions which affect public concern (either increase or decrease) and political acceptance for developing and implementing programmes for geologic disposal of long-lived radioactive waste. It also looks how citizens and relevant actors can be associated in the decision making process in such a way that their input is enriching the outcome towards a more socially robust and sustainable solution. Finally, it aims at learning from the interaction how to optimise risk management addressing needs and expectations of the public and of other relevant stakeholders. In order to meet these objectives, factors of relevance for societal acceptance conditions are identified, described and analysed. Subsequently these factors are looked for in the real world of nuclear waste management through cases in several countries. The analysis is conducted for six stages of a repository programme and implementation process, from policy development to the realisation of the repository itself. The diversity of characteristics of such contexts increases insight in the way society and values of reference are influencing technological decision making. These interrelated factors need to be integrated in step by step decision making processes as emerging the last years in HLW disposal management. In the conclusions, the effect of each factor on acceptance is derived from the empirical record. In the course of carrying out this analysis, it became clear that acceptance had a different meaning in the first three stages of the process, more generic and therefore mainly discussed at policy level and the other stages, by nature more site-specific, and therefore requesting both public and political acceptance. Experience as clearly addressed in this report has shown that a feasible solution has its technical dimension but that 'an acceptable solution' always will have a combined technical and social dimension. If the paper provides tentative answers

  18. International Family Planning: How Political and Religious Conservatives Respond and How to Shape Messaging for Successful Advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Jenny Eaton; Heuser, Brian L; Franklin, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    As a global health organization committed to advocacy and research, Hope Through Healing Hands directed two national polling projects. The 2016 National Survey of Registered Voters Tracking was a longitudinal study to compare and contrast the results from a 2013 national polling project with the same sampling and questionnaire. The primary finding here was that in 2016, conservatives show a statistically significant shift indicating greater, more positive, beliefs in the correlation of contraceptives and women in developing nations and saving lives, although the rest of the populace (moderates and liberals) remained unchanged. In the Optimized Messaging Study of Political, Religious Conservatives (PRCs), we examined emotionally and cognitively held beliefs and attitudes toward the language of family planning. We found that PRCs resonate best with language that is clear and understandable, such as contraceptives. Moreover, this group bases their opinion on family planning on their own morals and beliefs.

  19. THE CASE OF BREXIT: AN ANALYSIS OF THE POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Kokotovic

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the short-term economic, as well as the long-term political consequences of Brexit. In order to analyse the short-term economic impact, we implement Chow’s test for a structural break on the main stock exchange indexes. Another significant part of this paper is an analysis of the factors that have an impact on the exports of the United Kingdom and whether the potential decrease of the exchange rate will be more relevant than the anticipated decrease of FDI and GDP. This paper concludes that there is significant evidence that there was a negative short-term economic impact caused by Brexit, as well that it might have a detrimental impact on the long-term exports of the United Kingdom. This paper further concludes that Brexit was a unnecessary and avoidable event that might not have happened had there been an accountable political class that fairly and objectively presented the potential consequences of Brexit.

  20. TERRORISM, AS SOCIO-POLITICAL PHENOMENON AND IMPEDING FACTOR FOR GLOBAL BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temur SHENGELIA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Economic stability and peace are the important determinants of socio-economic development in the modern world. Analysis of the situation in conflicting regions worldwide clarifies that at the modern stage it is very complicated to reach this. One of the main factors, which cause the process of economic and political destabilization, is global terrorism, which became the world’s important phenomenon. After the terrorist act of 11 September in the USA in 2001 and the terrorist act on the journal “Charlie Hebdo” in Paris in 2015 the problem became more acute. Compared with 2013, in 2014 the world terrorism threat increased up to 61%, which considerably limits dynamic development of the global market. In such countries, where threat of terrorism is high, it becomes far difficult to develop the international trade relations, inflow of foreign investments go into decline, and the danger of starting business is high. Within this context, the main principles of market formation are determined not by the supply-demand phenomenon, but the main source of its destabilization is the fear caused in result of terrorism. In result of we receive atrophied market relations, when separate states possess relevant resources and economic potential for economic development, but in result of interference of exogamic forces (terrorism it is impossible to perfectly master them and, owing to this, dynamic development of the economic system. In the presented article we have studied the socio-political aspects of terrorism and its influence on the global business.

  1. THE EFFECT OF GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS TO FACIAL SHAPE IN DOWN’S SYNDROME PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaretha Suharsini

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Down’s syndrome is caused by chromosomal aberration, namely 21 trisomy. Skeletal and neurological disorders are found in Down’s syndrome patients. Skeletal disorder may cause craniofacial growth abnormalities whereas neurological disorder may cause brain growth defects, which result in mental retardation, as well as neuromuscular disorder, which results in muscular hypotonia. The aim of this study was to prove that facial shape in Down’s syndrome patient was not only influenced by genetic factors, but also by environmental factors such as cognitive capability, oral muscular exercises and oral muscular tone. The population consisted of Down’s syndrome children aged 14 to 18 years from Sekolah Luar Biasa (Special School in Jakarta. Samples used in the study consisted of 25 Down’s syndrome patients. Clinical and cytogenic test were conducted to ensure a diagnosis. Lateral cephalograms were made to analyze facial shape by Fourier analysis on gonion angle. Intelligence Quotient (IQ and Social Quotient (SQ tests, electromyography examination of the masseter and temporal muscles, oral function examination and speech therapy questionnaires to the respondents were performed. The data were analyzed using path analysis. Based on the results of the study, it could be concluded that the genetic factor is the main factor causing Down’s syndrome facial shape abnormalities. The environmental factors such as oral muscular tone, cognitive capability, and oral muscular exercises may also play a role in Down’s syndrome facial shape.

  2. Political changes and trends in cardiovascular risk factors in the Czech Republic, 1985-92.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobak, M; Skodova, Z; Pisa, Z; Poledne, R; Marmot, M

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mortality from cardiovascular diseases is substantially higher in central and eastern Europe than in the west. After the fall of communism, these countries have undergone radical changes in their political, social, and economic environments but little is known about the impact of these changes on health behaviours or risk factors. Data from the Czech Republic, a country whose mortality rates from cardiovascular diseases are among the highest, were analysed in this report. OBJECTIVES: To examine the trends in cardiovascular risk factors in Czech population over the last decade during which a major and sudden change of the political and social system occurred in 1989, and whether the trends differed in relation to age and educational group. DESIGN AND SETTING: Data from three cross sectional surveys conducted in 1985, 1988, and 1992 as a part of the MONICA project were analysed. The surveys examined random samples of men and women aged 25-64 in six Czech districts and measured the following risk factors: smoking, blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), and total and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. RESULTS: The numbers of subjects (response rate) examined were 2573 (84%) in 1985, 2769 (87%) in 1988, and 2353 (73%) in 1992. Total cholesterol and body mass index increased between 1985 and 1988 and decreased between 1988 and 1992. The prevalence of smoking was declining slightly in men between 1985 and 1992 but remained stable in women. There were only small changes in blood pressure. The decline in cholesterol and BMI in 1988-92 may be related to changes in foods consumption after the price deregulation in 1991. An improvement in risk profile was more pronounced in younger age groups, and the declines in cholesterol and obesity were substantially larger in men and women with higher education. By contrast, there was an increase in smoking in women educated only to primary level. CONCLUSION: Substantial changes in cholesterol, obesity, and women

  3. Alternative management structures for municipal waste collection services: The influence of economic and political factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plata-Díaz, Ana María; Zafra-Gómez, José Luis; Pérez-López, Gemma; López-Hernández, Antonio Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyzed the factors that influence on the restructuring of MSW services. • We evaluated five different alternatives for public and private service. • Our analysis covers a broad time horizon, 2002–2010. • We used a conditional fixed-effects logistic regression as the evaluation method. • Municipalities tend to contract out the MSW service in the presence of high costs and fiscal stress. - Abstract: Identifying and characterising the factors that determine why a local authority opts for a particular way of managing its waste collection service is an important issue, warranting research interest in the field of municipal solid waste (MSW) management. This paper presents empirical evidence spanning a broad time horizon (2002–2010) showing that economic and political factors impact in different ways on the provision of waste management services. We examine five alternatives in this area, including public and private service delivery formulas and, within each field, individual and joint options. Our findings highlight the importance of the service cost and that of the various indicators of fiscal stress as determinant factors of management decisions regarding the provision of MSW management services

  4. Macroecological factors shape local-scale spatial patterns in agriculturalist settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Tingting; Abades, Sebastián; Teng, Shuqing; Huang, Zheng Y X; Reino, Luís; Chen, Bin J W; Zhang, Yong; Xu, Chi; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2017-11-15

    Macro-scale patterns of human systems ranging from population distribution to linguistic diversity have attracted recent attention, giving rise to the suggestion that macroecological rules shape the assembly of human societies. However, in which aspects the geography of our own species is shaped by macroecological factors remains poorly understood. Here, we provide a first demonstration that macroecological factors shape strong local-scale spatial patterns in human settlement systems, through an analysis of spatial patterns in agriculturalist settlements in eastern mainland China based on high-resolution Google Earth images. We used spatial point pattern analysis to show that settlement spatial patterns are characterized by over-dispersion at fine spatial scales (0.05-1.4 km), consistent with territory segregation, and clumping at coarser spatial scales beyond the over-dispersion signals, indicating territorial clustering. Statistical modelling shows that, at macroscales, potential evapotranspiration and topographic heterogeneity have negative effects on territory size, but positive effects on territorial clustering. These relationships are in line with predictions from territory theory for hunter-gatherers as well as for many animal species. Our results help to disentangle the complex interactions between intrinsic spatial processes in agriculturalist societies and external forcing by macroecological factors. While one may speculate that humans can escape ecological constraints because of unique abilities for environmental modification and globalized resource transportation, our work highlights that universal macroecological principles still shape the geography of current human agricultural societies. © 2017 The Author(s).

  5. Practices in Less Commonly Taught Languages: Factors that Shape Teachers’ Beliefs and Guide Their Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Saydee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this qualitative study, the researcher investigated teachers’ perceptions about effective teaching and learning methodologies and discovered the factors that shape teachers’ beliefs and lead them to prefer certain methodologies. Data was collected through interviews of Arabic, Chinese, Dari, Pashto, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, and Persian teachers (N=25 and their adult students, ten per teacher (N=241 at institutions of higher education in Southern California. In general, the teachers had similar views about effective teaching strategies and similar factors influenced their views- all the teachers emphasized the languages they teach differ from commonly taught languages; and, therefore, teaching and learning strategies should also be different. Knowing the factors that shape teachers’ beliefs significantly contributes to the field of teacher education. In particular, educators will become more cognizant of content to include in their teacher training program curriculum to better influence teachers and alter their instructional methodologies.

  6. Evaluation of Decontamination Factor of Aerosol in Pool Scrubber according to Bubble Shape and Size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Hyun Joung; Ha, Kwang Soon; Jang, Dong Soon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The scrubbing pool could play an important role in the wet type FCVS because a large amount of aerosol is captured in the water pool. The pool scrubbing phenomena have been modelled and embedded in several computer codes, such as SPARC (Suppression Pool Aerosol Removal Code), BUSCA (BUbble Scrubbing Algorithm) and SUPRA (Suppression Pool Retention Analysis). These codes aim at simulating the pool scrubbing process and estimating the decontamination factors (DFs) of the radioactive aerosol and iodine gas in the water pool, which is defined as the ratio of initial mass of the specific radioactive material to final massy after passing through the water pool. The pool scrubbing models were reviewed and an aerosol scrubbing code has been prepared to calculate decontamination factor through the pool. The developed code has been verified using the experimental results and parametric studies the decontamination factor according to bubble shape and size. To evaluate the decontamination factor more accurate whole pool scrubber phenomena, the code was improved to consider the variety shape and size of bubbles. The decontamination factor were largely evaluated in ellipsoid bubble rather than in sphere bubble. The pool scrubbing models will be enhanced to apply more various model such as aerosol condensation of hygroscopic. And, it is need to experiment to measure to bubble shape and size distribution in pool to improve bubble model.

  7. Socio-Economic and Cultural Factors Influencing Access and Success of Women in Political Leadership in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluyu, Veronicah

    2015-01-01

    In the 21st century, women and leadership have been a global topical issue, especially with countries trying to interpret and implement the millennium development goals, and with increased awareness of human rights. In Africa, political leadership among women has had its own challenges that range from social, cultural and even economic factors. In…

  8. Political Sustainability of Economic reforms : Dynamics and Analysis of Regional Economic Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fidrmuc, J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper analyzes the political economy of the reform process theoretically and empirically.Building on the framework developed by Rodrik [1995], a two-sector model of a transition economy is constructed.This model is then used to study the dynamics of political support for the reforms.The key

  9. Individual difference factors and beliefs in medical and political conspiracy theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galliford, Natasha; Furnham, Adrian

    2017-10-01

    This study examined the relationship between a series of individual difference measures and belief in political and medical conspiracy theories. Participants (N = 323) rated 20 conspiracy theories (10 medical, 10 political) and completed a set of questionnaires. Belief in political conspiracies was strongly positively correlated with belief in medical conspiracies. Belief in both conspiracy types was correlated with low self-esteem, low Conscientiousness, more right-wing political views, younger age, and greater belief in the benefits of Alternative Medicine. It was also correlated with religiousness and gender. Low Emotional Stability and Agreeableness were also correlated with belief in political conspiracies, and higher education level was correlated with belief in medical conspiracies. The findings generally demonstrated support for a monological belief system. Implications and limitations are discussed. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Human reliability under sleep deprivation: Derivation of performance shaping factor multipliers from empirical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, Candice D.; Mahadevan, Sankaran

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops a probabilistic approach that could use empirical data to derive values of performance shaping factor (PSF) multipliers for use in quantitative human reliability analysis (HRA). The proposed approach is illustrated with data on sleep deprivation effects on performance. A review of existing HRA methods reveals that sleep deprivation is not explicitly included at present, and expert opinion is frequently used to inform HRA model multipliers. In this paper, quantitative data from empirical studies regarding the effect of continuous hours of wakefulness on performance measures (reaction time, accuracy, and number of lapses) are used to develop a method to derive PSF multiplier values for sleep deprivation, in the context of the SPAR-H model. Data is extracted from the identified studies according to the meta-analysis research synthesis method and used to investigate performance trends and error probabilities. The error probabilities in test and control conditions are compared, and the resulting probability ratios are suggested for use in informing the selection of PSF multipliers in HRA methods. Although illustrated for sleep deprivation, the proposed methodology is general, and can be applied to other performance shaping factors. - Highlights: • Method proposed to derive performance shaping factor multipliers from empirical data. • Studies reporting the effect of sleep deprivation on performance are analyzed. • Test data using psychomotor vigilance tasks are analyzed. • Error probability multipliers computed for reaction time, lapses, and accuracy measures.

  11. Density and Shape Factor Terms in Stokes' Equation for Aerodynamic Behavior of Aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Anthony J; Edwards, David A

    2018-03-01

    Pharmaceutical aerosols are used to treat many pulmonary diseases. The use of low-density powders has proven useful to support efficient drug delivery. Measurements must account for the low-density, spherical particle features contributing to aerodynamic behavior. Ideally, the aerodynamic particle size distribution (APSD) is measured experimentally. Without formal measurement of APSD, calculations may be performed using surrogate measures such as bulk or tapped density and dynamic shape factor in Stokes' equation. However, the particles' low density must be established independently for this approach to be valid. In addition, where particles deviate from sphericity, the dynamic shape factor must be estimated from aerodynamic measurement not from geometric imaging of morphology. Finally, geometric sizing from particle images results in number distributions that exhibit smaller median sizes than mass distributions for the same polydisperse system. Simply applying density and shape factor corrections to geometric particle sizes does not convert number distributions to mass distributions. For log-normally distributed particle size distributions, Hatch-Choate equations, employing both median size and geometric standard deviation terms, may be used to convert number to mass distributions. Assigning small APSDs from calculations based on erroneous assumptions will result in serious interpretive flaws in subsequent in vitro and in vivo data. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The dynamic relationship between homicide rates and social, economic, and political factors from 1970 to 2000*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Patricia L; Parker, Karen F; MacDonald, John M

    2008-09-01

    After reaching their highest levels of the 20th century, homicide rates in the United States declined precipitously in the early 1990s. This study examines a number of factors that might have contributed to both the sharp increase and decline in homicide rates. We use a pooled cross-sectional time series model to assess the relationship between changes in structural conditions and the change in homicide rates over four decennial time points (1970, 1980, 1990, and 2000). We assess the extent to which structural covariates associated with social, economic and political conditions commonly used in homicide research (e.g., urban decay, poverty, and the weakening of family and social bonds) are related to the change in homicide rates. Along with these classic covariates, we incorporate some contemporary explanations (e.g., imprisonment rates and drug trafficking) that have been proposed to address the recent decline in urban homicide rates. Our results indicate that both classic and contemporary explanations are related to homicide trends over the last three decades of the 20th century. Specifically, changes in resource deprivation and in the relative size of the youth population are associated with changes in the homicide rate across these time points. Increased imprisonment is also significantly related to homicide changes. These findings lead us to conclude that efforts to understand the changing nature of homicide will require serious consideration, if not integration, of classic and contemporary explanations.

  13. The Conditions of the Environment as Factors Affecting the Social and Political Stability of Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Pedrazzini

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this review article, the different conditions of the environment which could affect the well-being of the populations living on it are taken into consideration and analysed. A specific attention is paid to the phenomenon of water reduction, land degradation and consequent desertification. Such a phenomenon is particularly worrying in selected regions of the world (the Mediterranean Region and Central Asia in which a combination of several factors including climate variations, pressure of populations and increased competition for the available resources have a direct consequence on the economical, social and political conditions of the population. In addition, migrations could also take place, increasing the instability of entire regions. A proper management of water resources and the preservation of land and soil resources are essential requisites to counteract the mentioned adverse effects. Such a management is frequently a transboundary concern since it might involve different regions and countries; this is an additional reason for debating the environment degradation issues at the international level and for increasing the awareness of the civil society, the policy makers and governments.

  14. The shapes of bird beaks are highly controlled by nondietary factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Jen A.; Marugán-Lobón, Jesús; Cobb, Samuel N.

    2016-01-01

    Bird beaks are textbook examples of ecological adaptation to diet, but their shapes are also controlled by genetic and developmental histories. To test the effects of these factors on the avian craniofacial skeleton, we conducted morphometric analyses on raptors, a polyphyletic group at the base of the landbird radiation. Despite common perception, we find that the beak is not an independently targeted module for selection. Instead, the beak and skull are highly integrated structures strongly regulated by size, with axes of shape change linked to the actions of recently identified regulatory genes. Together, size and integration account for almost 80% of the shape variation seen between different species to the exclusion of morphological dietary adaptation. Instead, birds of prey use size as a mechanism to modify their feeding ecology. The extent to which shape variation is confined to a few major axes may provide an advantage in that it facilitates rapid morphological evolution via changes in body size, but may also make raptors especially vulnerable when selection pressures act against these axes. The phylogenetic position of raptors suggests that this constraint is prevalent in all landbirds and that breaking the developmental correspondence between beak and braincase may be the key novelty in classic passerine adaptive radiations. PMID:27125856

  15. The challenges and factors of political socialization of the contemporary youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N М Belgarokova

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The article provides the analysis of the conditions and results of the processes of political culture development and political socialization of the contemporary youth in the frame of sociological research. The analysis of the conflicting influences of the agents of political socialization (family, system of education, mass media, the difficult circumstances and the challenging economic status of the contemporary Russian youth as well as the macropolitical environment in the country provides an opportunity to arrive at the conclusion concerning the socialization crisis of youth in contemporary Russia.

  16. The shape factor influence on the control process of multiferroic nanoparticle configurations in GHz range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, D.; Kovaci, M.

    2015-11-01

    Materials with piezoelectric properties associated with the ferroic phases generate multiferroic structures at microscopic level. Multiferroic core-shell nanoparticles with different configurations were considered: nanospheres versus nanotubes - spherical (magnetostrictive core / piezoelectric shell), respectively cylindrical (magnetostrictive rod / piezoelectric cylindrical coating) The external sphere diameter / cylinder lengths were of 80 - 100 nm to 360 nm, while the inner sphere / rod diameters were of 20 to 60 nm. The influence of the constituents shape on their control process realized by an applied magnetic field, H0 (100 - 270 Oe) was investigated. The nanoparticles were simulated using the HFSS 13.0 program, at frequencies in microwave range (16 - 28 GHz), considering the nanostructures with hexaferrites as magnetic phase (AFe12O19 M-type hexaferrites, with A an alkali earth metal) and the Bi2NiMnO6 perovskite like piezoelectric. The particle configurations response is function of their geometrical shape, modified by the core diameter and the shell thickness. The magnetoelectric (ME) coefficient tensor has been determined using a physical algorithm based on the near-filed values in the particles vicinity, generated by the HFSS, and also the ME voltage coefficient (obtained of tens of mV/cmOe). Performance of the two shapes composite nanoparticles to generate a strong ME response was discussed comparatively and the influence of the shape factor was illustrated on graphs. Each composite configuration presents specific advantages in respect with the control process by the H0 field, considering that the effect of dipolar field generated as response by the electric phase is strongly anisotropic. These features can be elegant illustrated by simulations (non destructive, applied at nanoscale) which help us to decide to the proper nanoparticles shape and the optimal intensity of the applied fields for the desired strength of the ME effect in a defined microscopic

  17. SHAPE EFFECT OF ANNULAR CONCENTRATOR IN ULTRASONIC SYSTEM ON AMPLIFICATION FACTOR OF VIBRATIONS AMPLITUDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Stepanenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains a theoretical underpinning on creation of ultrasonic vibration concentrators based on annular elastic elements with non-circular (ellipse-like eccentric shape of internal contour. Shape of internal contour in polar coordinates is described by Fourier series relative to angular coordinate that consists of a constant term and first and second harmonics. An effect of geometric parameters of the concentrator on amplification factor and natural vibration frequencies has been investigated with the help of a finite element method. The paper reveals the possibility to control an amplification factor of annular concentrators while varying eccentricity of internal contour and mean value of cross-section thickness. The amplification factor satisfies a condition K < N, where N is thickness ratio of amplifier input and output sections, and it is decreasing with increase of vibration mode order. The similar condition has been satisfied for conical bar concentrator with the difference that in the case of bar concentrators an amplification is ensured due to variation of diameter and N will represent ratio of diameters. It has been proved that modification of internal contour shape makes it possible to carry out a wide-band tuning of natural frequencies of concentrator vibrations without alteration of its overall dimensions and substantial change of amplification factor, which is important for frequency matching of the concentrator and ultrasonic vibratory system. Advantages of the proposed concentrators include simplicity of design and manufacturing, small overall dimensions, possibility for natural frequency tuning by means of static load variation. The developed concentrators can find their application in ultrasonic devices and instruments for technological and medical purposes.

  18. Impact of detector-element active-area shape and fill factor on super-resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Craig Hardie

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In many undersampled imaging systems, spatial integration from the individual detector elements is the dominant component of the system point spread function (PSF. Conventional focal plane arrays (FPAs utilize square detector elements with a nearly 100% fill factor, where fill factor is defined as the fraction of the detector element area that is active in light detection. A large fill factor is generally considered to be desirable because more photons are collected for a given pitch, and this leads to a higher signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR. However, the large active area works against super-resolution (SR image restoration by acting as an additional low pass filter in the overall PSF when modeled on the SR sampling grid. A high fill factor also tends to increase blurring from pixel cross-talk. In this paper, we study the impact of FPA detector-element shape and fill factor on SR. A detailed modulation transfer function analysis is provided along with a number of experimental results with both simulated data and real data acquired with a midwave infrared (MWIR imaging system. We demonstrate the potential advantage of low fill factor detector elements when combined with SR image restoration. Our results suggest that low fill factor circular detector elements may be the best choice. New video results are presented using robust adaptive Wiener filter SR processing applied to data from a commercial MWIR imaging system with both high and low detector element fill factors.

  19. Absence of prognostic value of nuclear shape factor analysis in colorectal carcinoma: relevance of interobserver and intraobserver variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fabio, Francesco; Shrier, Ian; Bégin, Louis R; Gordon, Philip H

    2008-12-01

    Several retrospective studies, including our previous investigation, have shown a prognostic value of nuclear shape factor in colorectal carcinomas. This prospective study was designed to assess the reliability of nuclear shape factor determined by nuclear morphometry and to confirm its prognostic value. Ninety-eight patients who underwent colorectal carcinoma resection were prospectively enrolled. Measurement of nuclear shape factor was performed by using a computer-based image analysis system. Nuclear shape factor was defined as the degree of circularity of the nucleus (1.0 for a perfect circle and values by American Joint Committee on Cancer stage were: 0.73 (0.07) in Stage I, 0.74 (0.06) in Stage II, and 0.75 (0.05) in Stage III carcinomas (P = 0.78, ANOVA). The intraobserver agreement was poor for observer A (r = 0.28) and practically nonexistent for observer B (r = -0.004, Pearson correlation). The intraclass coefficient for interobserver agreement was practically nonexistent. No significant association between nuclear shape factor and ten-year survival was found. Our prospective results, as opposed to our previous retrospective results, suggest that the reliability for nuclear shape factor morphometric analysis is very poor. We failed to confirm a prognostic value for nuclear shape factor in colorectal carcinoma.

  20. CA-CFAR Adjustment Factor Correction with a priori Knowledge of the Clutter Distribution Shape Parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Raúl Machado-Fernández

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Oceanic and coastal radars operation is affected because the targets information is received mixed with and undesired contribution called sea clutter. Specifically, the popular CA-CFAR processor is incapable of maintaining its design false alarm probability when facing clutter with statistical variations. In opposition to the classic alternative suggesting the use of a fixed adjustment factor, the authors propose a modification of the CA- CFAR scheme where the factor is constantly corrected according on the background signal statistical changes. Mathematically translated as a variation in the shape parameter of the clutter distribution, the background signal changes were simulated through the Weibull, Log-Normal and K distributions, deriving expressions which allow choosing an appropriate factor for each possible statistical state. The investigation contributes to the improvement of radar detection by suggesting the application of an adaptive scheme which assumes the clutter shape parameter is known a priori. The offered mathematical expressions are valid for three false alarm probabilities and several windows sizes, covering also a wide range of clutter conditions.

  1. The Measure of Human Error: Direct and Indirect Performance Shaping Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring; Candice D. Griffith; Jeffrey C. Joe

    2007-08-01

    The goal of performance shaping factors (PSFs) is to provide measures to account for human performance. PSFs fall into two categories—direct and indirect measures of human performance. While some PSFs such as “time to complete a task” are directly measurable, other PSFs, such as “fitness for duty,” can only be measured indirectly through other measures and PSFs, such as through fatigue measures. This paper explores the role of direct and indirect measures in human reliability analysis (HRA) and the implications that measurement theory has on analyses and applications using PSFs. The paper concludes with suggestions for maximizing the reliability and validity of PSFs.

  2. A theoretical relation between the form factor concept and the fractal description of irregularily shaped particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumann, K.H.; Bunz, H.

    1994-04-01

    This report describes a theoretical concept that establishes a complete link between the form factor characterization and the fractal description of irregularily shaped particles. Of central importance is the approximate consideration of hydrodynamic interactions between the primary particles within the framework of the Kirkwood-Riseman theory, resulting in a clear distinction between the geometric and the hydrodynamic radius of the agglomerates. Furthermore, special attention is given to the description of the density decay in the outer regions of the particles. Using connectivity arguments it is shown that the case of particles with very low fractal dimension (e.g. chainlike species) requires a specific treatment. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Factors shaping bacterial phylogenetic and functional diversity in coastal waters of the NW Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boras, Julia A.; Vaqué, Dolors; Maynou, Francesc; Sà, Elisabet L.; Weinbauer, Markus G.; Sala, Maria Montserrat

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the main factors shaping bacterioplankton phylogenetic and functional diversity in marine coastal waters, we carried out a two-year study based on a monthly sampling in Blanes Bay (NW Mediterranean). We expected the key factors driving bacterial diversity to be (1) temperature and nutrient concentration, together with chlorophyll a concentration as an indicator of phytoplankton biomass and, hence, a carbon source for bacteria (here called bottom-up factors), and (2) top-down pressure (virus- and protist-mediated mortality of bacteria). Phylogenetic diversity was analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rRNA. Functional diversity was assessed by using monomeric carbon sources in Biolog EcoPlates and by determining the activity of six extracellular enzymes. Our results indicate that the bacterial phylogenetic and functional diversity in this coastal system is shaped mainly by bottom-up factors. A dendrogram analysis of the DGGE banding patterns revealed three main sample clusters. Two clusters differed significantly in temperature, nitrate and chlorophyll a concentration, and the third was characterized by the highest losses of bacterial production due to viral lysis detected over the whole study period. Protistan grazing had no effect on bacterial functional diversity, since there were no correlations between protist-mediated mortality (PMM) and extracellular enzyme activities, and utilization of only two out of the 31 carbon sources (N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and α-cyclodextrin) was correlated with PMM. In contrast, virus-mediated mortality correlated with changes in the percentage of use of four carbon sources, and also with specific leu-aminopeptidase and β-glucosidase activity. This suggests that viral lysate provides a pool of labile carbon sources, presumably including amino acids and glucose, which may inhibit proteolytic and glucosidic activity. Our results indicate that bottom-up factors play a more important role than

  4. Retrospective study of the survival and associated risk factors of wedge-shaped implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Vadillo, Rafael; Leite, Fabiola Pessoa Pereira; Guevara-Canales, Janet; Netto, Henrique Duque; Miranda Chaves, Maria das Gracas Afonso; Cruz, Fernando; Cruz, Gustavo; Cruz-Pierce, Silvia; Cruz, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    To assess the long-term behavior of wedge-shaped implants and evaluate the influence of the associated risk factors on implant survival rates. A retrospective review of clinical records of patients treated with wedge-shaped implants between 1992 and 2011 was conducted. Data on patient sex, age, smoking habits, and history of periodontitis; details of implant length, diameter, angle, and location; and data on surgical, reconstructive, and prosthetic procedures, and systemic disease were selected for analysis. A total of 1,169 implants placed in 154 patients (mean age 55.17 ± 11.33 years) were evaluated. Women received 637 implants, and men received 532 implants; 60.4% were placed in patients who were undergoing periodontal maintenance care, 17.9% in smokers, 17.7% in hypertensive patients, 5.7% in diabetic patients, and 4.4% in cardiac patients. The mean overall survival for implants was 194.26 ± 9.91 months. Seventy-three implants were lost: 3 before implant loading and 70 after loading. The cumulative survival rates at 5 and 10 years were 96.6% (confidence interval [CI]: 95.5% to 97.7%) and 91.8% (CI: 90.1% to 94.1%), respectively. Univariate analysis indicated tobacco smoking (P = .014) and implant location (P implant failure. The multivariate analysis showed tobacco smoking (P = .016), location (P = .001), and male sex (P = .038) as significant, and the latter factor was associated with previous periodontal disease. Overall survival of the wedge-shaped implant showed good long-term results. Male sex, tobacco smoking, and posterior maxillary location were associated with a greater risk of implant failure.

  5. Roles of Municipal Councils in Poland and in the Czech Republic: Factors Shaping the Roles and the Dynamic of Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Radzik-Maruszak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Research Question (RQ: After many years of not being in vogue, the issue of representative democracy at the local level has yet again caught the scholars’ attention. The interest is related both to falling turnout in local elections, disappointment in party politics as well as to the impact of the new trends such as the strengthening of the executive power or citizens’ more direct involvement in the decision-making process. Quite often the afore-mentioned trends force local councils to redefine their roles. Purpose: The main objective of the article is to investigate the factors that shape the roles of municipal councils in two CEE countries, Poland and the Czech Republic, and to track the possible dynamic of their change. Method: The analysis conducted in the paper is grounded mainly in institutional theory. The study is based on available statistic data, examination of legal regulations, documents and information included in the corpus of selected articles and books. Results: The outcome of the analysis conducted indicates that in both countries the basic roles of councils – representative, decision - making and administrative one – are being diminished. Nevertheless, the existing institutional framework as well as reforms implemented in recent years provide potential for the development of new roles, such as the facilitator of the governing process or a network coordinator. Organization: The paper may contribute to better organisation of local administration at the municipal level. Society: The study has an impact on the understanding of representative democracy in local self-governments. Originality: The paper elaborates on representative democracy at the municipal level in Poland and the Czech Republic, countries where the discussion over this issue is still much less visible than in Western Europe. Limitations / further research: The paper should be mainly perceived as a kind of theoretical introduction to further

  6. HUMAN ERROR QUANTIFICATION USING PERFORMANCE SHAPING FACTORS IN THE SPAR-H METHOD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harold S. Blackman; David I. Gertman; Ronald L. Boring

    2008-09-01

    This paper describes a cognitively based human reliability analysis (HRA) quantification technique for estimating the human error probabilities (HEPs) associated with operator and crew actions at nuclear power plants. The method described here, Standardized Plant Analysis Risk-Human Reliability Analysis (SPAR-H) method, was developed to aid in characterizing and quantifying human performance at nuclear power plants. The intent was to develop a defensible method that would consider all factors that may influence performance. In the SPAR-H approach, calculation of HEP rates is especially straightforward, starting with pre-defined nominal error rates for cognitive vs. action-oriented tasks, and incorporating performance shaping factor multipliers upon those nominal error rates.

  7. [Influence of sociohygienic factors on the shaping of the nutritional status in children and teenagers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogomolova, E S; Kuzmichev, Yu G; Olushina, E A; Polyashova, A S; Kotova, N V; Badeeva, T V; Ashina, M V; Maksimenko, E O; Kiseleva, A S; Pisareva, A N; Kovalchuk, S N; Shaposhnikova, M V

    There was revealed the structure of deteriorations in the nutritional status of schoolchildren in the city: the most of students has normal nutritional status, but there was noted the high prevalence of excessive body weight and obesity among children and teenagers. Risk factors for development of deteriorations of the nutrition state were detected as follows: irrational food regimen, qualitative compartment offood, factors of educational environment, lifestyle. The main role in system of control of the nutritional status in children is referred to the correction of socio-hygienic factors which prove to be the priority ones in the shaping of the nutritional status in students. As the main condition determining the nutrition state of the up-to-date schoolchildren and the quality of their life in the whole the social cultural level of children and adolescents must be regarded as a result of the hygienic education and training in fundamentals of healthy lifestyle. Priority protective factors of the gain in the part of schoolchildren with normal nutritional status (optimalfood regimen, optimal dietary habits, sufficient level of physical activity) laidfrom the child age in conditions of the family, sufficient level of the physical activity and the implementation of the other element of hygienically expedient day regimen served as the base for the elaboration of the system of the control of nutritional status. Algorithm of the control of the nutritional status in the students of educational institutions includes the creation of healthcare educational environment, optimization of nutrition and physical activity, the shaping of the culture of healthy lifestyle, health-improving measures for children with disorders of nutritional status and their psychological pedagogical supports at the stage of the correction of the nutritional status, improvement of the medical service for the early detection of deviations of nutritional status with the estimation of the efficiency of

  8. THE INFLUENCE OF CRITICAL PNENOMENA ON THE EDUCATIONAL PROCESS OF CHILDREN AND YOUNG PEOPLE. PART III. "GENERAL SOCIAL FACTORS SHAPING THE EDUCATIONAL PROCESSES OF THE TRANSFORMATION PERIOD"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golbik Ewa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, the generation of people born in the eighties, entered the period of their adulthood. The time of their childhood and development was raddled with the time of the highest social tensions, the end of the socialism age, the nascency of the new constitutional transformation, and the changes in almost every aspect of social, economic and political life. The new order was born among conflicts and adversities, which did not come without the influence on the kelter of an average family. All the threats influence the shape of Polish families, and what was noticed by Z. Kwieciński, the educational reactions undertaken in the families are incoherent. If we add often negative, or outright aggressive impact of school and out of school (television, literature etc. factors, it is difficult to be surprised with the miserable educational effects appearing in the form of pathological behaviours touching children and young people.

  9. Do political or economic factors drive healthcare financing privatisations? Empirical evidence from OECD countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiese, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    This paper adds new empirical evidence to the political economy literature of economic reform. One of the main contributions of this paper is the development of a novel methodology to identify privatisations. The methodology is a combination of the Bai & Perron structural break filter, and

  10. Print and Broadcast Mass Media Factors as Predictors of Nigerian Teachers' Political Awareness and Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbatogun, A. Olaoluwakotansibe

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which the use of print and broadcast mass media could predict the level of awareness and participation of secondary school teachers in political activities and its implications on the quality of Nigerian education system. Eight hundred and two secondary school teachers from South West states of Nigeria served as…

  11. Study on Performance Shaping Factors (PSFs) Quantification Method in Human Reliability Analysis (HRA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ar Ryum; Jang, Inseok Jang; Seong, Poong Hyun; Park, Jinkyun; Kim, Jong Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of HRA implementation is 1) to achieve the human factor engineering (HFE) design goal of providing operator interfaces that will minimize personnel errors and 2) to conduct an integrated activity to support probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). For these purposes, various HRA methods have been developed such as technique for human error rate prediction (THERP), simplified plant analysis risk human reliability assessment (SPAR-H), cognitive reliability and error analysis method (CREAM) and so on. In performing HRA, such conditions that influence human performances have been represented via several context factors called performance shaping factors (PSFs). PSFs are aspects of the human's individual characteristics, environment, organization, or task that specifically decrements or improves human performance, thus respectively increasing or decreasing the likelihood of human errors. Most HRA methods evaluate the weightings of PSFs by expert judgment and explicit guidance for evaluating the weighting is not provided. It has been widely known that the performance of the human operator is one of the critical factors to determine the safe operation of NPPs. HRA methods have been developed to identify the possibility and mechanism of human errors. In performing HRA methods, the effect of PSFs which may increase or decrease human error should be investigated. However, the effect of PSFs were estimated by expert judgment so far. Accordingly, in order to estimate the effect of PSFs objectively, the quantitative framework to estimate PSFs by using PSF profiles is introduced in this paper

  12. From Agglomerates of Spheres to Irregularly Shaped Particles: Determination of Dynamic Shape Factors from Measurements of Mobility and Vacuum Aerodynamic Diameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelenyuk, Alla; Cai, Yong; Imre, Dan G.

    2006-03-01

    With the advert of aerosol instrumentation it has become possible to simultaneously measure individual particle mobility and vacuum aerodynamic diameters. For spherical particles these two diameters yield individual particle density. In contrast, assigning a physical meaning to the mobility or aerodynamic diameter of aspherical particles is not straightforward. This paper presents an experimental exploration of the effect of particle shape on the relationship between mobility and vacuum aerodynamic diameters. We make measurements on systems of three types: 1) Agglomerates of spheres, for which the density and the volume are known; 2) Ammonium sulfate, sodium chloride, succinic acid and lauric acid irregularly shaped particles of known density; and 3) Internally mixed particles, containing organics and ammonium sulfate, of unknown density and shape. For agglomerates of spheres we observed alignment effects in the DMA and report the first measurements of the dynamic shape factors (DSFs) in free molecular regime. We present here the first experimental determination of the DSF of ammonium sulfate particles. We find for ammonium sulfate particles a DSF that increases from 1.03 to 1.07 as particle mobility diameter increases from 160 nm to 500 nm. Three types of NaC1 particles were generated and characterized: nearly spherical particles with DSF of ~1.02; cubic with DSF that increases from 1.065 to 1.17 as particle mobility diameter increases from 200 nm to 900 nm; and compact agglomerates with DSF 1.3-1.4. Organic particles were found very nearly spherical. The data suggest that particles composed of binary mixtures of ammonium sulfate and succinic acid have lower dynamic shape factors than pure ammonium sulfate particles. However, for internally mixed ammonium sulfate and lauric acid particles we cannot distinguish between nearly spherical particles with low density and particles with DSF of 1.17.

  13. Fear Factors in: Political Rhetoric, Threat Inflation, and the Narrative of September 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    documents SIT social identity theory U.S. United States UN United Nations WMD weapons of mass destruction WOT War on Terror WTC World Trade...insecurity and vulnerability to the threat of terrorism in the homeland. The terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center ( WTC ) and the Pentagon...is to describe the characteristics of political rhetoric and the discursive devices employed in response to the attacks on the WTC and Pentagon

  14. Strategic planning for future learning environments: an exploration of interpersonal, interprofessional and political factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Cathrine

    2013-09-01

    This article, written from the stance of a public planner and a policy maker, explores the challenges and potential in creating future learning environments through the concept of a new learning landscape. It is based on the belief that physical planning can support the strategic goals of universities. In Denmark, a political focus on education as a mean to improve national capacity for innovation and growth are redefining the universities role in society. This is in turn changing the circumstances for the physical planning. Drawing on examples of physical initiatives in three different scales--city, building and room scale, the paper highlights how space and place matters on an interpersonal, an interprofessional and a political level. The article suggests that a wider understanding of how new learning landscapes are created--both as a material reality and a political discourse--can help frame an emerging community of practice. This involves university leaders, faculty and students, architects, designers and urban planners, citizens and policy makers with the common goal of creating future learning environments today.

  15. Determination of K-factors for arbitrarily shaped flaws at pressure vessel nozzle corners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryson, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    Photoelastic and finite element studies are being conducted to determine Mode I stress intensity factor distributions along arbitrarily shaped flaw fronts at pressure vessel nozzle corners. Comparisons of results from NOZ-FLAW, BIGIF, and the photoelastic studies showed that (1) good agreement was obtained between NOZ-FLAW and the photoelastically determined K 1 's for the deep flaw in an ITV model, (2) good agreement was obtained between NOZ-FLAW BIGIF for shallow and moderately deep flaws in a BWR model, and (3) less satisfactory agreement was obtained between NOZ- FLAW and the photoelastic results for the BWR models, particularly for moderately deep to deep flaws. Attempts are presently being made at understanding and explaining the discrepancies between the two

  16. Average value of the shape and direction factor in the equation of refractive index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao

    2017-10-01

    The theoretical calculation of the refractive indices is of great significance for the developments of new optical materials. The calculation method of refractive index, which was deduced from the electron-cloud-conductor model, contains the shape and direction factor 〈g〉. 〈g〉 affects the electromagnetic-induction energy absorbed by the electron clouds, thereby influencing the refractive indices. It is not yet known how to calculate 〈g〉 value of non-spherical electron clouds. In this paper, 〈g〉 value is derived by imaginatively dividing the electron cloud into numerous little volume elements and then regrouping them. This paper proves that 〈g〉 = 2/3 when molecules’ spatial orientations distribute randomly. The calculations of the refractive indices of several substances validate this equation. This result will help to promote the application of the calculation method of refractive index.

  17. Human Error Probabilites (HEPs) for generic tasks and Performance Shaping Factors (PSFs) selected for railway operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thommesen, Jacob; Andersen, Henning Boje

    at task level, which can be performed with fewer resources than a more detailed analysis of specific errors for each task. The generic tasks are presented with estimated Human Error Probabili-ties (HEPs) based on and extrapolated from the HRA literature, and estimates are compared with samples of measures......This report describes an HRA (Human Reliability Assessment) of six generic tasks and four Perfor-mance Shaping Factors (PSFs) targeted at railway operations commissioned by Banedanmark. The selection and characterization of generic tasks and PSFs are elaborated by DTU Management in close...... on estimates derived from industries other than rail and the general warning that a task-based analysis is less precise than an error-based one. The authors recommend that estimates be adjusted to actual measures of task failures when feasible....

  18. Endophytic and Epiphytic Phyllosphere Fungal Communities Are Shaped by Different Environmental Factors in a Mediterranean Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Teresa; Pereira, José Alberto; Benhadi, Jacinto; Lino-Neto, Teresa; Baptista, Paula

    2018-03-02

    The diversity and factors influencing fungal assemblages in phyllosphere of Mediterranean tree species have been barely studied, especially when endophytic and epiphytic communities are simultaneously considered. In this work, the endophytic and epiphytic fungal communities from olive tree phyllosphere were studied. This tree species is natural from the Mediterranean region and adapted to grow under adverse climatic conditions. The main objectives were to determine whether there are differences between both fungal communities and to examine whether different abiotic (climate-related) and biotic (plant organs) factors play a pivotal role in structuring these communities. Both communities differed in size and composition, with epiphytic community being richer and more abundant, displaying also a dominance of melanized fungi. Season was the major driver of community composition, especially of epiphytes. Other drivers shaping epiphytes were wind speed and temperature, while plant organ, rainfall, and temperature were the major drivers for endophytic composition. In contrast, canopy orientation caused slight variations in community composition of fungi, but with distinct effects in spring and autumn seasons. In conclusion, epiphytic and endophytic communities are not driven by the same factors. Several sources of variation undergo complex interactions to form and maintain phyllosphere fungal community in Mediterranean climates. Climatic parameters have influence on these fungal communities, suggesting that they are likely to be affected by climate changes in a near future.

  19. Understanding Factors that Shape Gender Attitudes in Early Adolescence Globally: A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kågesten, Anna; Gibbs, Susannah; Blum, Robert Wm; Moreau, Caroline; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Herbert, Ann; Amin, Avni

    2016-01-01

    Early adolescence (ages 10-14) is a period of increased expectations for boys and girls to adhere to socially constructed and often stereotypical norms that perpetuate gender inequalities. The endorsement of such gender norms is closely linked to poor adolescent sexual and reproductive and other health-related outcomes yet little is known about the factors that influence young adolescents' personal gender attitudes. To explore factors that shape gender attitudes in early adolescence across different cultural settings globally. A mixed-methods systematic review was conducted of the peer-reviewed literature in 12 databases from 1984-2014. Four reviewers screened the titles and abstracts of articles and reviewed full text articles in duplicate. Data extraction and quality assessments were conducted using standardized templates by study design. Thematic analysis was used to synthesize quantitative and qualitative data organized by the social-ecological framework (individual, interpersonal and community/societal-level factors influencing gender attitudes). Eighty-two studies (46 quantitative, 31 qualitative, 5 mixed-methods) spanning 29 countries were included. Ninety percent of studies were from North America or Western Europe. The review findings indicate that young adolescents, across cultural settings, commonly express stereotypical or inequitable gender attitudes, and such attitudes appear to vary by individual sociodemographic characteristics (sex, race/ethnicity and immigration, social class, and age). Findings highlight that interpersonal influences (family and peers) are central influences on young adolescents' construction of gender attitudes, and these gender socialization processes differ for boys and girls. The role of community factors (e.g. media) is less clear though there is some evidence that schools may reinforce stereotypical gender attitudes among young adolescents. The findings from this review suggest that young adolescents in different cultural

  20. Understanding Factors that Shape Gender Attitudes in Early Adolescence Globally: A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kågesten

    Full Text Available Early adolescence (ages 10-14 is a period of increased expectations for boys and girls to adhere to socially constructed and often stereotypical norms that perpetuate gender inequalities. The endorsement of such gender norms is closely linked to poor adolescent sexual and reproductive and other health-related outcomes yet little is known about the factors that influence young adolescents' personal gender attitudes.To explore factors that shape gender attitudes in early adolescence across different cultural settings globally.A mixed-methods systematic review was conducted of the peer-reviewed literature in 12 databases from 1984-2014. Four reviewers screened the titles and abstracts of articles and reviewed full text articles in duplicate. Data extraction and quality assessments were conducted using standardized templates by study design. Thematic analysis was used to synthesize quantitative and qualitative data organized by the social-ecological framework (individual, interpersonal and community/societal-level factors influencing gender attitudes.Eighty-two studies (46 quantitative, 31 qualitative, 5 mixed-methods spanning 29 countries were included. Ninety percent of studies were from North America or Western Europe. The review findings indicate that young adolescents, across cultural settings, commonly express stereotypical or inequitable gender attitudes, and such attitudes appear to vary by individual sociodemographic characteristics (sex, race/ethnicity and immigration, social class, and age. Findings highlight that interpersonal influences (family and peers are central influences on young adolescents' construction of gender attitudes, and these gender socialization processes differ for boys and girls. The role of community factors (e.g. media is less clear though there is some evidence that schools may reinforce stereotypical gender attitudes among young adolescents.The findings from this review suggest that young adolescents in different

  1. Understanding Factors that Shape Gender Attitudes in Early Adolescence Globally: A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Susannah; Blum, Robert Wm; Moreau, Caroline; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Herbert, Ann; Amin, Avni

    2016-01-01

    Background Early adolescence (ages 10–14) is a period of increased expectations for boys and girls to adhere to socially constructed and often stereotypical norms that perpetuate gender inequalities. The endorsement of such gender norms is closely linked to poor adolescent sexual and reproductive and other health-related outcomes yet little is known about the factors that influence young adolescents’ personal gender attitudes. Objectives To explore factors that shape gender attitudes in early adolescence across different cultural settings globally. Methods A mixed-methods systematic review was conducted of the peer-reviewed literature in 12 databases from 1984–2014. Four reviewers screened the titles and abstracts of articles and reviewed full text articles in duplicate. Data extraction and quality assessments were conducted using standardized templates by study design. Thematic analysis was used to synthesize quantitative and qualitative data organized by the social-ecological framework (individual, interpersonal and community/societal-level factors influencing gender attitudes). Results Eighty-two studies (46 quantitative, 31 qualitative, 5 mixed-methods) spanning 29 countries were included. Ninety percent of studies were from North America or Western Europe. The review findings indicate that young adolescents, across cultural settings, commonly express stereotypical or inequitable gender attitudes, and such attitudes appear to vary by individual sociodemographic characteristics (sex, race/ethnicity and immigration, social class, and age). Findings highlight that interpersonal influences (family and peers) are central influences on young adolescents’ construction of gender attitudes, and these gender socialization processes differ for boys and girls. The role of community factors (e.g. media) is less clear though there is some evidence that schools may reinforce stereotypical gender attitudes among young adolescents. Conclusions The findings from this

  2. THE PHENOMENON OF THE KOREAN WAVE AS A POLITICAL FACTOR OF «SOFT POWER» OF THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В И Ким

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is of an overview nature and is devoted to the phenomenon of the Korean wave. This term refers to the toolkit of “soft power”, which is gaining increasing importance in world political practice. The article reveals the basic factors that determine the success of the Republic of Korea’s foreign policy in building an attractive image of its country. The notion of a state rebranding associated with a suc-cessful modernization of the economy and the Westernization of culture is singled out.

  3. Factors shaping interactions among community health workers in rural Ethiopia: rethinking workplace trust and teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynes, Michelle M; Stephenson, Rob; Hadley, Craig; Sibley, Lynn M

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, a shortage of skilled health workers has prompted a shift toward community-based health workers taking on greater responsibility in the provision of select maternal and newborn health services. Research in mid- and high-income settings suggests that coworker collaboration increases productivity and performance. A major gap in this research, however, is the exploration of factors that influence teamwork among diverse community health worker cadres in rural, low-resource settings. The purpose of this study is to examine how sociodemographic and structural factors shape teamwork among community-based maternal and newborn health workers in Ethiopia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with health extension workers, community health development agents, and traditional birth attendants in 3 districts of the West Gojam Zone in the Amhara region of Ethiopia. Communities were randomly selected from Maternal and Newborn Health in Ethiopia Partnership (MaNHEP) sites; health worker participants were recruited using a snowball sampling strategy. Fractional logit modeling and average marginal effects analyses were carried out to identify the influential factors for frequency of work interactions with each cadre. One hundred and ninety-four health workers participated in the study. A core set of factors-trust in coworkers, gender, and cadre-were influential for teamwork across groups. Greater geographic distance and perception of self-interested motivations were barriers to interactions with health extension workers, while greater food insecurity (a proxy for wealth) was associated with increased interactions with traditional birth attendants. Interventions that promote trust and gender sensitivity and improve perceptions of health worker motivations may help bridge the gap in health services delivery between low- and high-resource settings. Inter-cadre training may be one mechanism to increase trust and respect among diverse health workers, thereby increasing

  4. An Historical Overview of the Political Status of Blacks in England, since 1945.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Lydia

    1989-01-01

    Argues that the present status of Blacks in England has been shaped by the changing nature of the Empire and Commonwealth, the declining British economy, and political underrepresentation, and that it reflects immigration restrictions and the British polity's refusal to acknowledge the effect of adverse racial, colonial, and political factors. (AF)

  5. The meaning of labour pain: how the social environment and other contextual factors shape women's experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitburn, Laura Y; Jones, Lester E; Davey, Mary-Ann; Small, Rhonda

    2017-05-30

    The majority of women experience pain during labour and childbirth, however not all women experience it in the same way. In order to develop a more complete understanding of labour pain, this study aimed to examine women's experiences within the perspective of modern pain science. A more complete understanding of this phenomenon can then guide the development of interventions to enhance women's experiences and potentially reduce their need for pharmacological intervention. A qualitative study was conducted using phenomenology as the theoretical framework. Data were collected from 21 nulliparous women, birthing at one of two large maternity services, through face-to-face interviews and written questionnaires. Data were analysed using an Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis approach. The data from this study suggest that a determining factor of a woman's experience of pain during labour is the meaning she ascribes to it. When women interpret the pain as productive and purposeful, it is associated with positive cognitions and emotions, and they are more likely to feel they can cope. Alternatively, when women interpret the pain as threatening, it is associated with negative cognitions and emotions and they tend to feel they need help from external methods of pain control. The social environment seems particularly important in shaping a woman's pain experience by influencing her interpretation of the context of the pain, and in doing so can change its meaning. The context and social environment are dynamic and can also change throughout labour. A determining factor in a woman's experience of pain during labour is its perceived meaning which can then influence how the woman responds to the pain. The meaning of the pain is shaped by the social environment and other contextual factors within which it is experienced. Focussed promotion of labour pain as a productive and purposeful pain and efforts to empower women to utilise their inner capacity to cope, as well as

  6. Quality-Shaping Factors and Endodontic Treatment amongst General Dental Practitioners with a Focus on Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sune Demant

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a gap between the endodontic outcome that can be achieved and the outcome observed on the basis of worldwide general dental practitioner data. The quality of root canal treatment (RCT is shaped by the dentist's knowledge, attitude, and skills, but it may also be influenced by the patient's demands and degree of satisfaction. The topic has only been sparsely investigated. Although dental health has increased over the years in Denmark, the number of performed root fillings has also increased, probably because the number of tooth extractions have declined and more molar teeth have been treated. Caries appears to be the main cause for performing RCT and a preventive approach by employing stepwise excavation may reduce RCT, but this strategy does not remove the gap. Factors influencing RCT quality could be the status on adoption of nickel-titanium rotary technology, more focus on infection control (rubber dam use, knowledge of factors important for prognosis, as dentists often think that they are good at doing RCT, but often perform inadequately, an alteration of clinician's awareness of their performance in the context of dental practices, seems warranted. Finally, the development of new preventive modalities for pulp and apical inflammation are crucial.

  7. Lipid shape is a key factor for membrane interactions of amphipathic helical peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandberg, Erik; Tiltak, Deniz; Ehni, Sebastian; Wadhwani, Parvesh; Ulrich, Anne S

    2012-07-01

    The membrane alignment of the amphiphilic alpha-helical model peptide MSI-103 (sequence [KIAGKIA]3-NH2) was examined by solid state 2H-NMR in different lipid systems by systematically varying the acyl chain length and degree of saturation, the lipid head group type, and the peptide-to-lipid molar ratio. In liquid crystalline phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipids with saturated chains, the amphiphilic helix changes its orientation from a surface-bound "S-state" to a tilted "T-state" with increasing peptide concentration. In PC lipids with unsaturated chains, on the other hand, the S-state is found throughout all concentrations. Using phosphatidylethanolamine lipids with a small head group or by addition of lyso-lipids with only one acyl chain, the spontaneous curvature of the bilayer was purposefully changed. In the first case with a negative curvature only the S-state was found, whereas in systems with a positive curvature the peptide preferred the obliquely immersed T-state at high concentration. The orientation of MSI-103 thus correlates very well with the shape of the lipid molecules constituting the membrane. Lipid charge, on the other hand, was found to affect only the initial electrostatic attraction to the membrane surface but not the alignment preferences. In bilayers that are "sealed" with 20% cholesterol, MSI-103 cannot bind in a well-oriented manner and forms immobilized aggregates instead. We conclude that the curvature properties of a membrane are a key factor in the interactions of amphiphilic helical peptides in general, whose re-alignment and immersion preferences may thus be inferred in a straightforward manner from the lipid-shape concept.

  8. Politics, Security, Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæver, Ole

    2011-01-01

    ’ is distinct from both the study of political practices of securitization and explorations of competing concepts of politics among security theories. It means tracking what kinds of analysis the theory can produce and whether such analysis systematically impacts real-life political struggles. Securitization...... theory is found to ‘act politically’ through three structural features that systematically shape the political effects of using the theory. The article further discusses – on the basis of the preceding articles in the special issue – three emerging debates around securitization theory: ethics...

  9. The Impact of Economic and Political Factors on the 2010 Turkish Referendum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun YÜKSEL

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The referendum held on September 12, 2010 included fundamental changes in Turkish constitution related with the social, judicial and economic aspects. We are of the opinion that the referendum offered a general view on the reflections of government policies, since the incumbent party, Justice and Development Party (AKP, officially supported the proposed changes and the main opposition parties, Republican People’s Party (CHP and Nationalist Action Party (MHP, were opposed. We tested the effects of political tendencies on the referendum results using provincial data. The results show that the “yes” votes are higher in the provinces where AKP has a stronger base, and lower in the provinces where the opposition parties, especially CHP, have stronger bases. Moreover, our analyses imply that referendum votes are higher where economic conditions are getting relatively better in the last year. However, we could not find a positive effect of public spending on the patterns of voting.

  10. Determination of equilibrium factor between radon and its progeny using surface barrier detector for various shapes of passive radon dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamil, K.; Fazal-ur-Rehman; Ali, S.; Khan, H.A.

    1997-01-01

    In the field of radon dosimetry, it is customary to measure radon ( 222 Rn) concentration while potential health hazard is due to the radon short-lived progeny. When radon is in secular equilibrium, the measured activity of radon equals the activity of radon's progeny. However, in practical cases an inequilibrium between radon and its progeny exists which is measured in terms of the equilibrium factor. To determine the equilibrium factor between radon and its progeny in a closed environment various shapes of passive dosimeters based upon solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) are employed. In order to observe the dependence of equilibrium factor upon shapes or effective volumes, experiments have been performed replacing the SSNTDs with a surface barrier detector in Karlsruhe diffusion chamber, pen-type and box-type dosimeters. Using the collected alpha spectra, the equilibrium factor has been determined for a radon-air mixture in a custom designed radon chamber simulating a closed environment of a room. The results show that the radon equilibrium factor is about 0.20 for different shapes of dosimeters studied in this research. It is concluded that the determination of equilibrium factor between radon and its progeny does not depend upon effective volume or shape of the passive dosimeters using alpha spectroscopic data acquired by surface barrier detector. (orig.)

  11. Peat decomposition – shaping factors, significance in environmental studies and methods of determination; a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drzymulska Danuta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A review of literature data on the degree of peat decomposition – an important parameter that yields data on environmental conditions during the peat-forming process, i.e., humidity of the mire surface, is presented. A decrease in the rate of peat decomposition indicates a rise of the ground water table. In the case of bogs, which receive exclusively atmospheric (meteoric water, data on changes in the wetness of past mire surfaces could even be treated as data on past climates. Different factors shaping the process of peat decomposition are also discussed, such as humidity of the substratum and climatic conditions, as well as the chemical composition of peat-forming plants. Methods for the determination of the degree of peat decomposition are also outlined, maintaining the division into field and laboratory analyses. Among the latter are methods based on physical and chemical features of peat and microscopic methods. Comparisons of results obtained by different methods can occasionally be difficult, which may be ascribed to different experience of researchers or the chemically undefined nature of many analyses of humification.

  12. Modelling and assessment of dependent performance shaping factors through Analytic Network Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Ambroggi, Massimiliano; Trucco, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Despite continuous progresses in research and applications, one of the major weaknesses of current HRA methods dwells in their limited capability of modelling the mutual influences between performance shaping factors (PSFs). Indeed at least two types of dependencies between PSFs can be defined: (i) dependency between the states of the PSFs; (ii) dependency between the influences (impacts) of the PSFs on the human performance. This paper introduces a method, based on Analytic Network Process (ANP), for the quantification of the latter, where the overall contribution of each PSF (weight) to the human error probability (HEP) is eventually returned. The core of the method is the modelling process, articulated into two steps: firstly, a qualitative network of dependencies between PSFs is identified, then, the importance of each PSF is quantitatively assessed using ANP. The model allows to distinguish two components of the PSF influence: direct influence that is the influence that the considered PSF is able to express by itself, notwithstanding the presence of other PSFs and indirect influence that is the incremental influence of the considered PSF through its influence on other PSFs. A case study in Air Traffic Control is presented where the proposed approach is integrated into the cognitive simulator PROCOS. The results demonstrated a significant modification of the influence of PSFs over the operator performance when dependencies are taken into account, underlining the importance of considering not only the possible correlation between the states of PSFs but also their mutual dependency in affecting human performance in complex systems.

  13. Human performance modeling for system of systems analytics: combat performance-shaping factors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, Craig R.; Miller, Dwight Peter

    2006-01-01

    The US military has identified Human Performance Modeling (HPM) as a significant requirement and challenge of future systems modeling and analysis initiatives. To support this goal, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has undertaken a program of HPM as an integral augmentation to its system-of-system (SoS) analytics capabilities. The previous effort, reported in SAND2005-6569, evaluated the effects of soldier cognitive fatigue on SoS performance. The current effort began with a very broad survey of any performance-shaping factors (PSFs) that also might affect soldiers performance in combat situations. The work included consideration of three different approaches to cognition modeling and how appropriate they would be for application to SoS analytics. This bulk of this report categorizes 47 PSFs into three groups (internal, external, and task-related) and provides brief descriptions of how each affects combat performance, according to the literature. The PSFs were then assembled into a matrix with 22 representative military tasks and assigned one of four levels of estimated negative impact on task performance, based on the literature. Blank versions of the matrix were then sent to two ex-military subject-matter experts to be filled out based on their personal experiences. Data analysis was performed to identify the consensus most influential PSFs. Results indicate that combat-related injury, cognitive fatigue, inadequate training, physical fatigue, thirst, stress, poor perceptual processing, and presence of chemical agents are among the PSFs with the most negative impact on combat performance.

  14. Factors Shaping the Human Exposome in the Built Environment: Opportunities for Engineering Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Dongjuan; Prussin, Aaron J; Marr, Linsey C; Vikesland, Peter J; Edwards, Marc A; Pruden, Amy

    2017-07-18

    The "exposome" is a term describing the summation of one's lifetime exposure to microbes and chemicals. Such exposures are now recognized as major drivers of human health and disease. Because humans spend ∼90% of their time indoors, the built environment exposome merits particular attention. Herein we utilize an engineering perspective to advance understanding of the factors that shape the built environment exposome and its influence on human wellness and disease, while simultaneously informing development of a framework for intentionally controlling the exposome to protect public health. Historically, engineers have been focused on controlling chemical and physical contaminants and on eradicating microbes; however, there is a growing awareness of the role of "beneficial" microbes. Here we consider the potential to selectively control the materials and chemistry of the built environment to positively influence the microbial and chemical components of the indoor exposome. Finally, we discuss research gaps that must be addressed to enable intentional engineering design, including the need to define a "healthy" built environment exposome and how to control it.

  15. The Origins of the SPAR-H Method's Performance Shaping Factor Multipliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring; Harold S. Blackman

    2007-08-01

    The Standardized Plant Analysis Risk-Human Reliability Analysis (SPAR-H) method has proved to be a reliable, easy-to-use method for human reliability analysis. Calculation of human error probability (HEP) rates is especially straightforward, starting with pre-defined nominal error rates for cognitive vs. action oriented tasks, and incorporating performance shaping factor (PSF) multipliers upon those nominal error rates. SPAR-H uses eight PSFs with multipliers typically corresponding to nominal, degraded, and severely degraded human performance for individual PSFs. Additionally, some PSFs feature multipliers to reflect enhanced performance. Although SPAR-H enjoys widespread use among industry and regulators, current source documents on SPAR-H such as NUREG/CR-6883 do not provide a clear account of the origin of these multipliers. The present paper redresses this shortcoming and documents the historic development of the SPAR-H PSF multipliers, from the initial use of nominal error rates, to the selection of the eight PSFs, to the mapping of multipliers to available data sources such as a Technique for Human Error Rate Prediction (THERP). Where error rates were not readily derived from THERP and other sources, expert judgment was used to extrapolate appropriate values. In documenting key background information on the multipliers, this paper provides a much needed cross-reference for human reliability practitioners and researchers of SPAR-H to validate analyses and research findings.

  16. Establishing Political Deliberation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; Sæbø, Øystein

    2008-01-01

    The extension and transformation of political participation is dependent on widespread deliberation supported by information and communication technologies.  The most commonly found examples of these eParticipation systems are political discussion forums.  Though much of the discussion...... of these technologies is conducted in the eGovernment and (particularly) the eDemocracy literature, political discussion forums present a distinct set of design and management challenges which relate directly to IS concerns. In this article we analyze problems in establishing political deliberation systems under five...... headings: stakeholder engagement, web platform design, web platform management, political process re-shaping and evaluation and improvement. We review the existing literature and present a longitudinal case study of a political discussion forum: the Norwegian DemokratiTorget (Democracy Square).  We define...

  17. Politics without Politics

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, Jodi

    2009-01-01

    textabstractProf.dr. Jodi Dean, hoogleraar politieke filosofie aan Hobart and William Smith Colleges (Geneva, New York), sprak donderdag 19 februari 2009 haar inaugurele rede uit, getiteld "Politics without politics". Dean is dit jaar Erasmus Professor op de Erasmus Chair of Humanities in de Faculteit der Wijsbegeerte. De Erasmus Wisselleerstoel is ingesteld door de G. Ph. Verhagen Stichting. V In haar oratie gaat Dean in op het thema democratie in relatie tot linkse politiek. Enkele politiek...

  18. Cannabis Beyond Good and Evil. How genetic and epidemiological factors shape the relationship between cannabis and psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schubart, C.D.

    2013-01-01

    The studies presented in this thesis aimed to identify genetic and non-genetic (epidemiological) factors that shape the association between cannabis use and psychosis. We showed that the age of first use of cannabis is a determinant for the strength of the association between cannabis use and

  19. Imperfect Isolation: Factors and Filters Shaping Madagascar’s Extant Vertebrate Fauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samonds, Karen E.; Godfrey, Laurie R.; Ali, Jason R.; Goodman, Steven M.; Vences, Miguel; Sutherland, Michael R.; Irwin, Mitchell T.; Krause, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Analyses of phylogenetic topology and estimates of divergence timing have facilitated a reconstruction of Madagascar’s colonization events by vertebrate animals, but that information alone does not reveal the major factors shaping the island’s biogeographic history. Here, we examine profiles of Malagasy vertebrate clades through time within the context of the island’s paleogeographical evolution to determine how particular events influenced the arrival of the island’s extant groups. First we compare vertebrate profiles on Madagascar before and after selected events; then we compare tetrapod profiles on Madagascar to contemporary tetrapod compositions globally. We show that changes from the Mesozoic to the Cenozoic in the proportions of Madagascar’s tetrapod clades (particularly its increase in the representation of birds and mammals) are tied to changes in their relative proportions elsewhere on the globe. Differences in the representation of vertebrate classes from the Mesozoic to the Cenozoic reflect the effects of extinction (i.e., the non-random susceptibility of the different vertebrate clades to purported catastrophic global events 65 million years ago), and new evolutionary opportunities for a subset of vertebrates with the relatively high potential for transoceanic dispersal potential. In comparison, changes in vertebrate class representation during the Cenozoic are minor. Despite the fact that the island’s isolation has resulted in high vertebrate endemism and a unique and taxonomically imbalanced extant vertebrate assemblage (both hailed as testimony to its long isolation), that isolation was never complete. Indeed, Madagascar’s extant tetrapod fauna owes more to colonization during the Cenozoic than to earlier arrivals. Madagascar’s unusual vertebrate assemblage needs to be understood with reference to the basal character of clades originating prior to the K-T extinction, as well as to the differential transoceanic dispersal advantage of

  20. Pathways to Carbon Pollution: The Interactive Effects of Global, Political, and Organizational Factors on Power Plants’ CO2 Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don Grant

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is arguably the greatest threat to society as power plants, the single largest human source of heat-trapping pollution, continue to emit massive amounts of carbon into the atmosphere. Sociologists have identified several possible structural determinants of electricity-based CO2 emissions, including international trade and global normative regimes, national political–legal systems, and organizational size and age. But because they treat these factors as competing predictors, scholars have yet to examine how they might work together to explain why some power plants emit vastly more pollutants than others. Using a worldwide data set of utility facilities and fuzzy-set methods, we analyze the conjoint effects of global, political, and organizational conditions on fossil-fueled plants' CO2 emissions. Findings reveal that hyperpolluters' emission rates are a function of four distinct causal recipes, which we label coercive, quiescent, expropriative, and inertial configurations, and these same sets of conditions also increase plants' emission levels.

  1. The Occupy Central (Umbrella) movement and mental health distress in the Hong Kong general public: political movements and concerns as potential structural risk factors of population mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Joseph T F; Kim, Yoona; Wu, Anise M S; Wang, Zixin; Huang, Bishan; Mo, Phoenix K H

    2017-05-01

    Political tension, as expressed by mass movements such as the Occupy Central movement (2014) in Hong Kong, is a potential but understudied structural factor of population mental health. A random population-based telephone survey anonymously interviewed 344 Hong Kong Chinese adults aged 18-65 years during the 2 weeks since the termination date of the 2-month-long Occupy Central movement (15/12/2014). Linear regression models were fit using mental distress (depression, anxiety and negative mood) and self-perceived changes in mood/sleeping quality as dependent variables. Prevalence of participation in the movement was 10.5% (self), 17.7% (family members/relatives), and 34.0% (peers); 8.5% had participated for ≥2 days. Young age, but not participation, was associated with mental distress. In adjusted analysis, three types of responses to the movement (worry about safety, negative emotional responses to media reports, and conflicts with peers about the movement) and emotional responses to local political situations were significantly associated with all/some of the dependent variables related to mental distress. The variable on emotions toward local political situations was correlated with the three responses to the movement; it fully mediated the associations between such responses and mental distress. Many citizens participated in the movement, which was led by youths and might have increased the general public's mental distress. Negative personal responses to the movement and emotions toward political situations were potential risk factors. As the political tension would last and political pessimism is globally found, politics may have become a regular and persistent structural risk factor negatively affecting population mental health.

  2. Evaluation of the CMAQ and GMI Model-Simulated Shape Factors with DISCOVER-AQ Observations with Implications for Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, C. M.; Pickering, K. E.; Crawford, J. H.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Diskin, G. S.; Loughner, C.; Strode, S.

    2016-12-01

    The NASA Earth Venture-1 DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) project took place over four years and was comprised of four deployments: the Baltimore-Washington metropolitan region of Maryland during July 2011: the San Joaquin Valley of California during January-February 2013; the Houston, TX, metropolitan area during September 2013; and the last in the Front Range region of Colorado during July-August 2014. The P-3B aircraft provided in situ vertical profiles of meteorological quantities, trace gases, and aerosols over surface air quality monitoring sites during flight days for each deployment. A major goal of DISCOVER-AQ is to understand the processes linking column abundances to surface concentrations for O3 and NO2, which includes understanding the typical profile shapes and the atmospheric conditions influencing these profile shapes. Additionally, these data may be used to evaluate the ability of air quality models to replicate the observed profile shapes. This has implications for the global models currently used in remote sensing retrievals of vertical column abundance as well as for the use of regional air quality models within retrievals. The regional CMAQ and global GMI atmospheric chemistry and transport models are evaluated against the observed P-3B lower tropospheric shape factors (the fraction of the column within each vertical layer) for the clusters of typical profile shapes obtained through an agglomerative hierarchical clustering technique for O3 and NO2. The CMAQ model captured the shape factors for O3, and moderately well captured the NO2 shape factors, for the conditions associated with the Maryland campaign, suggesting that a regional air quality model may adequately specify a priori profile shapes for remote sensing retrievals for the conditions associated with this deployment. Coarser vertical resolution in the GMI model affected the ability of that

  3. Model of fission yeast cell shape driven by membrane-bound growth factors and the cytoskeleton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler Drake

    Full Text Available Fission yeast serves as a model for how cellular polarization machinery consisting of signaling molecules and the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton regulates cell shape. In this work, we develop mathematical models to investigate how these cells maintain a tubular shape of approximately constant diameter. Many studies identify active Cdc42, found in a cap at the inner membrane of growing cell tips, as an important regulator of local cell wall remodeling, likely through control of exocyst tethering and the targeting of other polarity-enhancing structures. First, we show that a computational model with Cdc42-dependent local cell wall remodeling under turgor pressure predicts a relationship between spatial extent of growth signal and cell diameter that is in agreement with prior experiments. Second, we model the consequences of feedback between cell shape and distribution of Cdc42 growth signal at cell tips. We show that stability of cell diameter over successive cell divisions places restrictions on their mutual dependence. We argue that simple models where the spatial extent of the tip growth signal relies solely on geometrical alignment of confined microtubules might lead to unstable width regulation. Third, we study a computational model that combines a growth signal distributed over a characteristic length scale (as, for example, by a reaction-diffusion mechanism with an axis-sensing microtubules system that places landmarks at positions where microtubule tips touch the cortex. A two-dimensional implementation of this model leads to stable cell diameter for a wide range of parameters. Changes to the parameters of this model reproduce straight, bent, and bulged cell shapes, and we discuss how this model is consistent with other observed cell shapes in mutants. Our work provides an initial quantitative framework for understanding the regulation of cell shape in fission yeast, and a scaffold for understanding this process on a more molecular

  4. FRAGMENTATION AND CONFLICT AMONG ISLAMIC POLITICAL PARTIES IN INDONESIA DURING REFORMASI ERA (1998-2009: Anatomy, Factors and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Yunanto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since independence of the Republic of Indonesia, Muslims, as the majority population, have established diverse Islamic political parties. The nature of such parties has changed from the days of the Old Order to the New Order and Reformasi eras. Despite similar anatomies between Islamic parties of the Old Order and those of Reformasi, Islamic political parties profess different ideological missions. While the beginning of Old Order saw the confederation of Islamic political parties, Masyumi, seeking to promote the establishment of an Islamic State, none of the Islamic political parties which mushroomed during Reformasi era expressly struggled for the establishment of an Islamic state. However, the Islamic political parties had to weather similar problems of internal conflict and fragmentation. Different ideological strands, policy stances and leadership styles are believed to be amongst the pivotal root causes of their domestic troubles. With their popular votes and parliamentary seats significantly reduced, they prove to be no competition to the nationalist political parties.

  5. A New Factor in American Destiny: Visions of Porfirio Díaz and the Politics of “Logical Paternalism”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Ruiz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay interprets American representations of dictator Porfirio Díaz in relation to the “economic conquest” of Mexico that took place during his long rule (1876–1911, a period known as the “Porfiriato,” in which Americans invested more than $1 billion. No single person inspired as much attention from travelers, reporters, and photographers during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries as Díaz, and their visions of the President helped to shape perceptions of Mexico as a desirable field in which to expand US capitalism and influence. Travelers clamored to meet him and his sophisticated young wife, and their travelogues were rich with descriptions of such encounters. Reporters, dazzled by the rapid transformation of Mexico during his 35-year rule, described Díaz in such terms as “the Mexican Wizard” and “the maker of modern Mexico” until the very end of his regime. Photographers, working in a relatively new medium, amassed a huge body of works devoted to the dictator; even at an advanced age late in his rule, the President’s image adorned postcards and commemorative cartes-de-visite that posited him in heroic and hypermasculine terms (not unlike those of his US counterpart, Theodore Roosevelt. Ultimately, this essay argues that representations like these reflected American desires for a Mexican body politic that was amenable to economic and social transformation under the inextricable banners of “progress” and US capitalism. Prevailing images of Díaz and his family suggested that Mexico was as friendly to foreign investors as it was to foreign visitors.

  6. Gender Role and Social Identifications: The Two Major Factors to Shape Turkish Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erden-Imamoglu, Seval

    2013-01-01

    The process of being a woman starts with biological gender but it is shaped by learning the social gender roles. Besides social gender role; age, education, marriage, and motherhood supply social roles and attributions and they have an impact on women identification and their interpersonal relationships. The aim of the study is to investigate…

  7. Quality-Shaping Factors and Endodontic Treatment amongst General Dental Practitioners with a Focus on Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Sune; Markvart, Merete; Bjørndal, Lars

    2012-01-01

    There is a gap between the endodontic outcome that can be achieved and the outcome observed on the basis of worldwide general dental practitioner data. The quality of root canal treatment (RCT) is shaped by the dentist's knowledge, attitude, and skills, but it may also be influenced by the patient...

  8. VERSHINA – A POLISH VILLAGE IN SIBERIA. FACTORS INFLUENCING LANGUAGE MAINTENANCE UNDER CHANGING SOCIAL, CULTURAL, ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Głuszkowski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses factors influencing language maintenance under changing social, cultural, economic and political conditions of Polish minority in Siberia. The village of Vershina was founded in 1910 by Polish voluntary settlers from Little Poland.During its first three decades Vershina preserved Polish language,traditions, farming methods and machines and also the Roman Catholic religion. The changes came to a village in taiga in the1930s. Vershina lost its ethnocultural homogeneity because of Russian and Buryat workers in the local kolkhoz. Nowadays the inhabitants of Vershina regained their minority rights: religious, educational and cultural. However, during the years of sovietization and ateization, their culture and customs became much more similar to other Siberian villages. Polish language in Vershina is under strong influence of Russian, which is the language of education,administration, and surrounding villages. Children from Polish-Russian families become monolingual and use Polish very rare, only asa school subject and in contacts with grandparents. The process of abandoning mother tongue in Vershina is growing rapidly. However,there are some factors which may hinder the actual changes:the activity of local Polish organisations and Roman Catholic parish as well as folk group “Jazhumbek”.

  9. 137Cs concentrations in northern Alaskan Eskimos, 1962-79: effects of ecological, cultural and political factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    Concentrations of worldwide fallout 137 Cs were measured in the lichen-caribou-Eskimo food chain of northern Alaska during the period 1962-79. Pronounced inputs of fallout occurred after major nuclear weapons tests in the atmosphere and 137 Cs was transmitted through the food chain to Eskimos with about a 2-yr delay due to environmental parameters. Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) meat sampled during spring harvest contained 4 times the 137 Cs concentration of lichens obtained from their winter range. Calculated caribou meat ingestion rates of Anaktuvuk Pass Eskimos during winter ranged from approximately equal to 1 kg/day in 1964 to 0.16 kg/day in 1977. Several environmental factors affected seasonal patterns and amounts of 137 Cs transferred through the food chain. Maximum 137 Cs concentrations of approximately equal to 20 nCi/kg body weight in Eskimos occurred in 1964 and have now decreased to approximately equal to 0.5 nCi/kg, largely because of cultural and political factors. Radiation doses from 137 Cs body burdens during the study period ranged from 60 mrad/yr in 1962 to approximately equal to 140 mrad/yr during the 1962-64 maxima and decreased to 8 mrad/yr in 1979. (author)

  10. Gender, risk assessment, and political ambition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet-Cushman, Jennie

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, women have long held the right to vote and can participate fully in the political process, and yet they are underrepresented at all levels of elected office. Worldwide, men's dominance in the realm of politics has also been the norm. To date, scholars have focused on supply-side and demand-side explanations of women's underrepresentation but differences in how men and women assess electoral risk (the risk involved in seeking political office) are not fully explained. To fill this gap, I explore how evolutionary theory offers insights into gendered differences in political ambition and the evaluation of electoral risk. Using the framework of life-history theory, I hypothesize that both cognitive and environmental factors in human evolution, particularly as they relate to sexual selection and social roles, have shaped the psychology of ambition in gendered ways affecting contemporary politics. Cognitive risk-assessment mechanisms evolving in the hominid line came to be expressed differently in females and males, in women and men. These gendered expressions plausibly reflect differentiable environmental pressures in the past and may help explain behaviors in and barriers to women's electoral political activity in the present. If so, then the success of efforts to increase such activity - or, regressively, to suppress it - may be better understood.

  11. The role of the integrating factor in the shaping of transborder co-operation: The case of Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Dołzbłasz, Sylwia; Raczyk, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    Transborder co-operation is shaped by many factors and thus takes various forms on particular borders. Within the same formal-legal arrangements under Interreg Programmes, the greatest role in the diversification of co-operation was played by non-system-related conditions specific to particular border regions. To identify what specifically drives co-operation, the nature of Polish-German and Polish-Czech transborder co-operation was compared. On the basis of the research conducted...

  12. Finite element analysis in defining the optimal shape and safety factor of retentive clasp arms of removable partial denture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šćepanović Miodrag

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Retentive force of removable partial denture (RPD directly depends on elastic force of stretched retentive clasp arms (RCAs. During deflection RCA must have even stress distribution. Safety factor is the concept which can be applied in estimating durability and functionality of RCAs. This study was based on analyzing properties of clasps designed by conventional clasp wax profiles and defining the optimal shapes of RCAs for stress distribution and safety factor aspects. Methods. Computer-aided-design (CAD models of RCAs with simulated properties of materials used for fabrication of RPD cobalt-chromium-molybdenum (CoCrMo alloy, commercially pure titanium (CPTi and polyacetale were analyzed. Results. The research showed that geometrics of Rapidflex profiles from the BIOS concept are defined for designing and modeling RCAs from CoCrMo alloys. I-Bar and Bonihard clasps made from CPTi might have the same design as Co- CrMo clasp only by safety factor aspect, but it is obvious that CPTi are much more flexible, so their shape must be more massive. Polyacetale clasps should not be fabricated by BIOS concept for CoCrMo alloy. A proof for that is the low value of safety factor. Conclusion. The BIOS concept should be used only for RCAs made of CoCrMo alloy and different wax profiles should be used for fabricating clasps of other investigated materials. The contribution of this study may be the improvement of present systems for defining the clasps shapes made from CoCrMo alloys. The more significant application is possibility of creating new concepts in defining shapes of RCA made from CPTi and polyacetale.

  13. The Emotional Impact Nursing Faculty Experience in Relationship to Student Academic Dishonesty and the Social and Political Factors That Influence Their Decision to Report Dishonesty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scebold, Jody L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore the emotional impact nursing faculty experience in relationship to nursing student academic dishonesty and the social and political factors that influence their decision to report suspected acts of academic dishonesty. The study was based on Fontana's 2009 study titled "Nursing Faculty Experiences of…

  14. Political Culture and the Nature of Political Participation in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    Economic Organization, Translated by Talcott Parsons , New York: Oxford, 1947. Weiner, Myron, "Political Participation Crisis of the Political Process...industriali- zation and education have on the development of political culture in Egypt, but rather that the importance of these factors of modernization...kinship and subsequently on the political culture become more understandable. The impact of education perhaps more than any other factor of

  15. The theoretical and political framing of the population factor in development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Martha; Bedford, Kathleen

    2009-10-27

    The silence about population growth in recent decades has hindered the ability of those concerned with ecological change, resource scarcity, health and educational systems, national security, and other global challenges to look with maximum objectivity at the problems they confront. Two central questions about population--(1) is population growth a problem? and (2) what causes fertility decline?--are often intertwined; if people think the second question implies possible coercion, or fear of upsetting cultures, they can be reluctant to talk about the first. The classic and economic theories explaining the demographic transition assume that couples want many children and they make decisions to have a smaller family when some socio-economic change occurs. However, there are numerous anomalies to this explanation. This paper suggests that the societal changes are neither necessary nor sufficient for family size to fall. Many barriers of non-evidence-based restrictive medical rules, cost, misinformation and social traditions exist between women and the fertility regulation methods and correct information they need to manage their family size. When these barriers are reduced, birth rates tend to decline. Many of the barriers reflect a patriarchal desire to control women, which can be largely explained by evolutionary biology. The theoretical explanations of fertility should (i) attach more weight to the many barriers to voluntary fertility regulation, (ii) recognize that a latent desire to control fertility may be far more prevalent among women than previously understood, and (iii) appreciate that women implicitly and rationally make benefit-cost analyses based on the information they have, wanting modern family planning only after they understand it is a safe option. Once it is understood that fertility can be lowered by purely voluntary means, comfort with talking about the population factor in development will rise.

  16. Construction of Gender Identity in Political Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizaveta D. Butsyk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article regards the phenomenon of political communication from the perspective of the particularities of constructing gender identity by politicians. As far as the influence of the gender factor on politicians' speech is concerned, the most relevant approach among many others is the discourse approach formed within the paradigm of cognitive linguistics, which considers political discourse as the object of study. The paper deals with the notion of political discourse and examines a hypothesis that gender factor might have a number of manifestations in political communication. It is noted that studying the specificity of constructing gender identity by politicians in discursive practices is becoming a highly topical issue as the importance of female participation in public and political life is growing. Political decision-making has long been considered the prerogativeofmen, but now the necessity of studying the female factor in this sphere is obvious. The author dwells upon the historical background of linguistic gender studies and summarizes the main stages of their development focusing mainly on the theory of the social construction of gender. The founders of this theory advance the thesis that an individual's gender identity is shaped in the process of constructing gender relations in communicative interaction. Further in the article we analyse a few devices of creating the images of masculinity and femininity by famous English and American politicians. As structural components of gender identity, masculinity and femininity turn out to be modifiable parameters depending on the pragmatic attitudes of communicators. Traditional androcentrism of political discourse may account for modifying the female speech style towards masculinity to achieve certain communicative aims.

  17. The politics and anti-politics of social movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burchardt, Marian; Patterson, Amy S.; Mubanda Rasmussen, Louise

    2013-01-01

    's poverty. Religious HIV/AIDS activities must be analysed in a conceptual space between a civil society/politics approach and a service-provider/anti-politics framework. That is, religious mobilisation may at times seek to engage the public realm to shape policies, while at other times it may shun politics...... in its provision of services. Case studies that illustrate these themes and demonstrate the multi-faceted interactions between religion and HIV/AIDS are included....

  18. Cross-National Gender Gaps in Political Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin-Rittberger, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Although the majority of studies on political knowledge document lingering gender-based differences in advanced industrial democracies, most contributors have drawn such conclusions from a single or a handful of countries, using limited batteries of political information items. Exploiting a pooled data set of the Comparative Study of Electoral Systems encompassing 106 post-election surveys in forty-seven countries between 1996 and 2011, this article demonstrates that survey instrument–related factors, such as question format and content, as well as the overall difficulty of questions, are more consequential in shaping the size of gender gaps in political knowledge than institutional factors, such as electoral rules or opportunity structures. The research design of this article draws from almost three hundred different items measuring factual political knowledge using the broadest country coverage and most comprehensive approach to measurement to date. PMID:27524874

  19. Study on relationship of performance shaping factor in human error probability with prevalent stress of PUSPATI TRIGA reactor operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Ahmad Nabil Bin Ab; Mohamed, Faizal; Farid, Mohd Fairus Abdul; Fazli Zakaria, Mohd; Sangau Ligam, Alfred; Ramli, Nurhayati Binti

    2018-01-01

    Human factor can be affected by prevalence stress measured using Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS). From the respondents feedback can be summarized that the main factor causes the highest prevalence stress is due to the working conditions that require operators to handle critical situation and make a prompt critical decisions. The relationship between the prevalence stress and performance shaping factors found that PSFFitness and PSFWork Process showed positive Pearson’s Correlation with the score of .763 and .826 while the level of significance, p = .028 and p = .012. These positive correlations with good significant values between prevalence stress and human performance shaping factor (PSF) related to fitness, work processes and procedures. The higher the stress level of the respondents, the higher the score of selected for the PSFs. This is due to the higher levels of stress lead to deteriorating physical health and cognitive also worsened. In addition, the lack of understanding in the work procedures can also be a factor that causes a growing stress. The higher these values will lead to the higher the probabilities of human error occur. Thus, monitoring the level of stress among operators RTP is important to ensure the safety of RTP.

  20. Enhancing Political Participation in Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloyd George Waller

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Youth participation through political talk appears to be shifting to the online public sphere in many parts of the world. Many attribute this shift to online social networks such as Facebook. Emerging research seem to suggest that this may be a cure for the problem of political apathy among the youth. This study explores such a possibility in Jamaica. In all, 752 youth ages 15 to 24 were surveyed to ascertain whether Facebook encourages political talk among this age cohort, and what if any are the primary factors that discourage this practice. The findings suggest that (a Facebook is an extension of offline political talk among the civically engaged and politically charged youth of Jamaica; (b Facebook does not substantively encourage political talk among the politically apathetic Jamaican youth; and (c fear of political victimization is the primary factor that discourages many Jamaican youth to engage in political talk on Facebook.

  1. Modeling and Optimization the Influence of CO2-MAG Welding Parameters on the Weld Joint Shape Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Ali Amin Alrabii

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents an experimentalattempt to predict the influence of CO2-MAG welding variables on the shape factors of the weld joint geometry. Theinput variables were welding arc voltage, wire feeding speed and gas flow rate to investigate their effects on the shape factorsof the weld joint geometry in terms of weld joint dimensions (bead width, reinforcement height, and penetration. Design of experiment with response surface methodology technique was employed to buildmathematical models for shape factors in terms of the input welding variables. Thepredicted models were found quadratic type and statistically checked by ANOVA analysis for adequacy purpose. Also, numerical and graphical optimizations were carried out to determine the optimum values for all responses and input variables. The optimum values of the voltage, wire feeding speed, gas flow rate, WPSF, and WRFF are (20 Volt, (153 cm/min, (10 L/min, (5.222, and (3.970, respectively. And, a good agreement was found between the experimental and predicted results. The weld joint efficiency was found (73% at the optimum conditions.

  2. New Institutional Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buğra KALKAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available New institutional politics is an interdisciplinary movement that tries to reinstate the institutional politics to the center of the political science. After the limits of formal-legal analyze, used by old institutional politics, have been criticized by behaviorists, rational choice and neo-Marxist movements, since 1950, the state was alienated from the center of the political studies as an independent variable. Since 1980, neo institutional politics, raised as a reaction to this development, has been developing a new description and understanding of the institution which goes beyond the limitations of the old one. The rise and change of the political institutions and the interactions between political institutions and the actors, are being retheorized, by depending on informal rules and conventions as much as formal rules, and pointing out cultural factors as much as legal factors. So, in this study, rational choice, sociological and historical new institutional politics, as the three different school of new institutionalism, will be examined separately and there will be a debate on colliding and overlapping points of these schools

  3. The subjective factor and its influence on adapting to the functioning of political institutions in the conditions of an unstable environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Ishchenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Political leaders solve a number of non­trivial task in conditions of instability. Moreover, they are responsible for making decisions. This explains why this topic is important. The purpose of the work is to study the essence of the impact of the subject of the policy on adaptation to the functioning of political institutions in the conditions of an unstable environment. Political actors act in a certain functional algorithm.This algorithm means the choice, formation and absorption of certain absorption of certain behaviors. Moreover, this algorithm would be dysfunctional if not found invariatyvnist involvement of transparency to the public attractive complex ideas and symbols designed to motivate specific behavior. Adaptation of the political institutions to changing conditions is successful, when politicians contribute to the promoting of interiorization society of certain values. Values are relatively stable mental formation. Values are generated in the system. This system includes the needs, interests and emotional distress. Therefore, during the instability subjects authorities should refocus the value orientations of the conflicting parties, affecting their constituents. Responsibility of a leader in high destructive entropy society is implemented in different ways. It depends on the constellation of potential resources, the type of political regime and dynamics of the situation. The article is devoted to the problem of the influence of subjective factor on the adaptation to the conditions of full democracy, unconsolidated democracy and authoritarian rule. The leader may direct the process of adaptation through the conflict, or performing a function remove excess conflict entropy.

  4. Egg albumin-assisted preparation, characterization and influencing factors of Dumbbell-shaped BaCO{sub 3} superstructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni Yonghong, E-mail: niyh@mail.ahnu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Key Laboratory of Functional Molecular Solids, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241000 (China); Li Xiaolong [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Key Laboratory of Functional Molecular Solids, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241000 (China); Hong Jianming; Ma Xiang [Centers of Modern Analysis, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2010-03-15

    Dumbbell-shaped barium carbonate superstructures were successfully synthesized in the aqueous system containing egg albumin and ethylenediaminetetraacetate disodium (EDTA-2Na), employing BaCl{sub 2}, NaHCO{sub 3} and NH{sub 3}.H{sub 2}O as the starting reagents. The as-prepared product was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Some factors influencing the morphology of BaCO{sub 3} crystals, such as the time, the amounts of egg albumin and EDTA-2Na, were studied. Experimental facts showed that a proper amount of egg albumin and EDTA-2Na played crucial roles in the formation of dumbbell-shaped BaCO{sub 3} superstructures.

  5. Nature protection in Greece: an appraisal of the factors shaping integrative conservation and policy effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papageorgiou, Kostas; Vogiatzakis, Ioannis N.

    2006-01-01

    The proliferation of designated areas following the implementation of Natura 2000 in Greece has initiated changes in the protected area design and conservation policy making aiming at delivering action for biodiversity and integrative planning on a wider landscape. Following the sustainability concept, an integrative approach cannot realistically take place simply by extending the protected area and designations. The paper addresses public involvement and inter-sectoral coordination as major procedural elements of integrative management and evaluates the nature and strength of their negative or positive influences on the fulfillment of an integrative vision of nature conservation. A review of the history of protected areas and administration developments in Greece provide useful input in the research. The analysis has shown that the selected network of Natura 2000 sites has been superimposed upon the existing system and resulted in duplication of administrative effort and related legislation. As a result the overall picture of protected areas in the country appears complex, confusing and fragmented. Major failures to integrated conservation perspective can be traced to structural causes rooted in politico-economic power structures of mainstream policy and in a rather limited political commitment to conservation. It is concluded that greater realisation of integrated conservation in Greece necessitates policy reforms related mainly to sectoral legal frameworks to promote environmentalism as well as an increased effort by the managing authorities to facilitate a broader framework of public dialogue and give local communities incentives to sustainably benefit from protected areas

  6. Social and Environmental Influences Shaping Risk Factors and Protective Behaviors in two Mexico-US Border Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Rebeca; Ferreira-Pinto, João B.; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Ramos, Maria Elena; Lozada, Remedios M.; Firestone-Cruz, Michelle; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2009-01-01

    The economic, social, cultural and political milieus that influence HIV risk behaviors along the U.S.- Mexico border are understudied. In an effort to appropriately inform interventions targeting structural influences, we compared injecting drug using populations living in two cities—Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua and Tijuana, Baja California— situated on the Mexico-U.S. border. These populations presented with similar demographic profiles, but differed significantly in terms of social and environmental influences that can influence both risk and protective factors (e.g., family drug use, migration, drug use patterns). We observed distinct behavioral and structural influences in these two border cities that will require tailored intervention strategies to reduce HIV transmission. PMID:19464228

  7. Regional and historical factors supplement current climate in shaping global forest canopy height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jian; Nielsen, Scott; Mao, Lingfeng

    2016-01-01

    Summary Canopy height is a key factor that affects carbon storage, vegetation productivity and biodiversity in forests, as well as an indicator of key processes such as biomass allocation. However, global variation in forest canopy height and its determinants are poorly known. We used global data...... the relative importance of the different hypothesized factors. Hmax was inversely related to latitude (i.e. tall canopies at the equator), but with high geographical variability. Actual evapotranspiration and annual precipitation were the factors most correlated to Hmax globally, thus supporting the water......–energy dynamics hypothesis. However, water limitation emerged as a key factor in tropical and temperate biomes within specific geographic regions, while energy limitation was a more important factor in boreal regions where temperature is more limiting to trees than water. Hmax exhibited strong variation among...

  8. Office Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Paula; Kelly, Robert; deVries, Susann

    2008-01-01

    People and organizations are inherently political. Library workplace environments have zones of tension and dynamics just like any corporation, often leading to the formation of political camps. These different cliques influence productivity and work-related issues and, at worst, give meetings the feel of the Camp David negotiations. Politics are…

  9. Moral politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapp, Carolin; Traunmüller, Richard; Freitag, Markus

    2014-01-01

    This article combines the research strands of moral politics and political behavior by focusing on the effect of individual and contextual religiosity on individual vote decisions in popular initiatives and public referenda concerning morally charged issues. We rely on a total of 13 surveys with 1...... American research on moral politics, direct democracies, and the public role of religion....

  10. Development and application of spaceflight performance shaping factors for human reliability analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindock, Jennifer

    The ability of crewmembers to perform various critical functions during spacecraft operations is widely recognized as being essential to mission success. This necessity motivates the desire to better characterize factors that can influence crewmember performance so that those with positive effects can be enhanced, while those with negative impacts can be minimized. Established Human Reliability Analysis methods exist for analyzing performance within the context of myriad terrestrial scenarios. Many of the existing methods have their roots in nuclear power plant operations. While perhaps similar, the factors influencing performance traditionally used in these methods do not take into account the unique conditions encountered during spaceflight. Therefore, this research has identified a tailored set of factors that influence human task performance during space missions. This thesis describes an organizational scheme developed to aid in classifying and communicating the factors across disciplines and organizations. Definitions of identified factors are given for the spaceflight-specific context. A visual display of the factors, called the Contributing Factor Map, is presented and its use as a risk communication tool is discussed. The Bayesian Network is discussed as a quantification approach allowing relationships between factors, in addition to the factor relationships to performance outcomes, to be modeled. A method for determining a network structure was developed for domains such as human spaceflight, in which a global set of data for analysis is not available. This method applied the Analytic Hierarchy Process, and causal latency concepts from the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System in a novel way to guide choices for modeling the dominant set of factors and relationships in a simplified Bayesian Network structure. In addition, an approach for modeling the factors as statistical variables in a Bayesian Network making use of existing design

  11. A simple method of calculating power-law velocity profile exponents from experimental data. [for boundary layer shape factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J. M.

    1974-01-01

    Analytical expressions for the effects of compressibility and heat transfer on laminar and turbulent shape factors H have been developed. Solving the turbulent equation for the power law velocity profile exponent N has resulted in a simple technique by which the N values of experimental turbulent profiles can be calculated directly from the integral parameters. Thus the data plotting, curve fitting, and slope measuring, which is the normal technique of obtaining experimental N values, is eliminated. The N values obtained by this method should be within the accuracy with which they could be measured.

  12. Politics for cities, cities for the political. About possibility (and necessity of radical urban politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiktor Marzec

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Essay faces the problem of determinacy of global capitalism processes for the reality of urban political life. The city is naturally communitarian form of human life and seems to be the place where radical pro-community politics could be undertaken. Already existing and operating forms of power could fruitfully influence the city social relations. Values and norms of conduct are broadly delegated on the urban space and materiality, thus conscious shaping of city space has severe consequences for community life. If a crisis of the political partly has its roots in metamorphoses of the cities, then also remedies, rising from the urban materiality and reestablishing political subjects, could be thought. City, as most real place of political life could be either reduced to the aggregate of consumers or reestablished as a political community. Due to this is the place where undesired course of action could be stopped, hence precisely here the radical democratic politics can emerge.

  13. What shapes output of policy reform?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kirsten

    and personal benefits. Rather, the thesis shows how state actors decisions are shaped by a complex inter-relation of circumstances, interests and resources at play during the level of policy implementation. Thesis findings are based on collection and analysis of qualitative data collected from actors within...... and with a particular focus on the factors influencing reform output. The main message is that state actor decisions are central determinants for the ways in which reform output is shaped. It contests political economy theory by showing that these decisions are not only determined by state actors sole pursuit of power...

  14. Space, politics, and the political

    OpenAIRE

    dikec, mustafa

    1987-01-01

    International audience; Introduction Geography and politics'', Gottmann wrote in 1980, ``have long been in search of each other'' (page 11). Debates in the literature suggest not only that they have found each other, but also that the encounter has instigated, notably in the last decade or so, a body of literature seeking to think space politically, and to think politics spatially. This is not to suggest that previous work on space was apolitical, nor to suggest that previous work on politics...

  15. Performing Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy R. E. Paddock

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Walter Benjamin’s observation that fascism turns politics into aesthetics is, by now, a well-worn idea. This article argues that Benjamin’s critique of politics can apply just as much to the modern democratic politics of the United States. Borrowing from Benjamin, Jürgen Habermas, and Carl Schmitt, this article suggests that modern political discourse in the United States does not follow the classical liberal ideal of rational discourse in the marketplace of ideas within the public sphere. Instead, contemporary politics has become spectacle where images and slogans replace thought and debate in a 24/7 news cycle and political infotainment programs. The result is that progressives and conservatives have their own political “ecospheres” which enable them to have their own perspective reinforced, and debate is replaced by straw man arguments and personal attacks.

  16. Teaching Politically without Political Correctness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Gerald

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how to bring political issues into the classroom, highlighting the influence of local context and noting conservative and liberal criticisms of political correctness. Suggests the need for a different idea of how to teach politically from the advocacy pedagogy advanced by recent critical educators, explaining that bringing students into…

  17. The Role of Home Country Political Resources for Brazilian Multinational Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Regina Vieira Bazuchi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the interactions between home country governments and Developing Country Multinational Companies (DMNCs. Drawing on evidence from the Brazilian political environment and Brazilian multinationals we investigate the mechanisms governments use to influence the internationalization process of domestic companies and firms’ political strategic responses to shape the political institutional environment in which they operate. We argue that foreign direct investment (FDI outflows from developing economies need to be explored given specific country level contextual factors, such as high levels of government involvement. Our main findings support this idea and indicate that home country governments use a series of formal and informal mechanisms in order to drive the international expansion of DMNCs in both the entry and consolidation phases. Moreover, DMNCs political behavior in the home country political environment accounts for an important part of their strategy to develop political resources and obtain above average returns from governmental benefits.

  18. A Political Economy Analysis of Domestic Resource Mobilization in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anne Mette; Ulriksen, Marianne Sandvad

    This synthesis paper brings together the research findings from four papers prepared by the Uganda team as a part of the UNRISD Politics of Domestic Resource Mobilization for Social Development project, which addresses three broad themes: bargaining and contestation, key relations, and institution......-building with regard to mobilizing resources for social development. In the paper we analyse how political economy factors affect revenue raising and social spending priorities in Uganda. We establish a theoretical framework based on the political settlement theory, within which we explore instances of revenue bargain......, which we understand as political negotiations that shape revenue mobilization, the actual revenue composition, and policy priorities guiding revenue allocation. We focus on three instances of revenue bargains: legislative tax reform, institutional performance of the revenue agencies, and policy...

  19. Avoiding Conflict Relapse Through Inclusive Political Settlements ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Existing evidence shows that the failure to focus on political settlements can increase the risk of peace agreements failing, power-sharing arrangements being contested, and states relapsing into conflict. It is clear that political settlements matter, but we are only beginning to understand the shape of political settlements that ...

  20. Expanding the disaster risk management framework: Measuring the constructed level of national identity as a factor of political risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barend Prinsloo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Political risk is identified as a dominant risk category of disaster risk management (DRM which could negatively affect the success of those measures implemented to reduce disaster risk. Key to political risk is the construct of national identity which, if poorly constructed, could greatly contribute to political risk. This article proposed a tool to measure the construct of national identity and to provide recommendations to strengthen the construct in order to mitigate the exacerbating influence it may have on political risk and ultimately on DRM. The design of the measurement tool consisted of a mixed methodological approach employing both quantitative and qualitative data. The data collection instruments included a literature review (which is shortly provided in the previous sections and an empirical study that utilised data obtained through structured questionnaires. Although the results of the proposed measuring instrument did not include a representative sample of all the cultures in SouthAfrica, the results alluded to different levels for the construction of national identity among black and white respondents, possibly because of different ideological expectations among these groups. The results of the study should be considered as a validation of the measuring tool and not necessarily of the construct of national identity in South Africa. The measuring tool is thus promising for future studies to reduce political risk and ultimately disaster risk.

  1. Motivation: Approaching an Elusive Concept through the Factors That Shape It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Bong Gee; Conradi, Kristin; McKenna, Michael C.; Jones, Jill S.

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this article is to provide educators with clear definitions of motivational factors in reading so that instructional planning can capitalize on important distinctions. The authors present definitions of a small set of related motivational concepts (including attitudes, interests, self-efficacy, self-concept, goals, and value)…

  2. Genetic factors have a major effect on growth, number of vertebrae and otolith shape in Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Berg

    Full Text Available Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus, have complex population structures. Mixing of populations is known, but the extent of connectivity is still unclear. Phenotypic plasticity results in divergent phenotypes in response to environmental factors. A marked salinity gradient occurs from Atlantic Ocean (salinity 35 into the Baltic Sea (salinity range 2-12. Herring from both habitats display phenotypic and genetic variability. To explore how genetic factors and salinity influence phenotypic traits like growth, number of vertebrae and otolith shape an experimental population consisting of Atlantic purebreds and Atlantic/Baltic F1 hybrids were incubated and co-reared at two different salinities, 16 and 35, for three years. The F1-generation was repeatedly sampled to evaluate temporal variation. A von Bertalanffy growth model indicated that reared Atlantic purebreds had a higher maximum length (26.2 cm than Atlantic/Baltic hybrids (24.8 cm at salinity 35, but not at salinity 16 (25.0 and 24.8 cm, respectively. In contrast, Atlantic/Baltic hybrids achieved larger size-at-age than the wild caught Baltic parental group. Mean vertebral counts and otolith aspect ratios were higher for reared Atlantic purebreds than Atlantic/Baltic hybrids, consistent with the differences between parental groups. There were no significant differences in vertebral counts and otolith aspect ratios between herring with the same genotype but raised in different salinities. A Canonical Analysis of Principal Coordinates was applied to analyze the variation in wavelet coefficients that described otolith shape. The first discriminating axis identified the differences between Atlantic purebreds and Atlantic/Baltic hybrids, while the second axis represented salinity differences. Assigning otoliths based on genetic groups (Atlantic purebreds vs. Atlantic/Baltic hybrids yielded higher classification success (~90% than based on salinities (16 vs. 35; ~60%. Our results demonstrate that

  3. Genetic factors have a major effect on growth, number of vertebrae and otolith shape in Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Florian; Almeland, Oda W; Skadal, Julie; Slotte, Aril; Andersson, Leif; Folkvord, Arild

    2018-01-01

    Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus, have complex population structures. Mixing of populations is known, but the extent of connectivity is still unclear. Phenotypic plasticity results in divergent phenotypes in response to environmental factors. A marked salinity gradient occurs from Atlantic Ocean (salinity 35) into the Baltic Sea (salinity range 2-12). Herring from both habitats display phenotypic and genetic variability. To explore how genetic factors and salinity influence phenotypic traits like growth, number of vertebrae and otolith shape an experimental population consisting of Atlantic purebreds and Atlantic/Baltic F1 hybrids were incubated and co-reared at two different salinities, 16 and 35, for three years. The F1-generation was repeatedly sampled to evaluate temporal variation. A von Bertalanffy growth model indicated that reared Atlantic purebreds had a higher maximum length (26.2 cm) than Atlantic/Baltic hybrids (24.8 cm) at salinity 35, but not at salinity 16 (25.0 and 24.8 cm, respectively). In contrast, Atlantic/Baltic hybrids achieved larger size-at-age than the wild caught Baltic parental group. Mean vertebral counts and otolith aspect ratios were higher for reared Atlantic purebreds than Atlantic/Baltic hybrids, consistent with the differences between parental groups. There were no significant differences in vertebral counts and otolith aspect ratios between herring with the same genotype but raised in different salinities. A Canonical Analysis of Principal Coordinates was applied to analyze the variation in wavelet coefficients that described otolith shape. The first discriminating axis identified the differences between Atlantic purebreds and Atlantic/Baltic hybrids, while the second axis represented salinity differences. Assigning otoliths based on genetic groups (Atlantic purebreds vs. Atlantic/Baltic hybrids) yielded higher classification success (~90%) than based on salinities (16 vs. 35; ~60%). Our results demonstrate that otolith shape and

  4. The Politics of EPSDT Policy in the 1990s: Policy Entrepreneurs, Political Streams, and Children's Health Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardell, Alice; Johnson, Kay

    1998-01-01

    The Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment (EPSDT) program, which was designed to ensure that Medicaid-eligible children receive comprehensive health services, is the only national attempt to provide a right to these services. The political factors that have shaped national EPSDT policy during the past decade are described, based on a conceptual framework developed by John W. Kingdon. The analysis focuses on the roles of two distinct sets of policy entrepreneurs: child health advocates and fiscally conservative governors. Their activities are described in relation to the larger political environment, or “political stream,” from the period of the expansion of Medicaid eligibility for pregnant women and children in the late 1980s to the enactment of a new State Children’s Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) in 1997. The relative saliency of eligibility and benefit issues in children’s health policies had a major influence on the politics and outcomes. PMID:9614420

  5. [Political psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.

  6. Early Uses of Computers in Schools in the United Kingdom: Shaping Factors and Influencing Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Passey, Don

    2014-01-01

    International audience; This chapter describes the early development and introduction of computers into schools in the United Kingdom from the 1970s to the evaluation of their impacts and a shift in the focus of their uses in the 1990s. The chapter explores key factors influencing the direction and deployment of uses of computers in schools. It considers influences of national initiatives and policies, the development of support, support centres and central agencies, the involvement of hardwa...

  7. Political competition, economic reform and growth : theory and evidence from transition countries

    OpenAIRE

    Pavletic, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Which political and institutional factors trigger reforms that enable the poor to benefit from the process of economic growth? How can the incentives of policy makers be influenced in order to achieve such a dynamic? These are the questions this study seeks to address by examining the transition process in post-communist countries. The author argues that political competition within an accepted and respected institutional environment has been a driving force in shaping the direction and succe...

  8. A cross sectional study of the prevalence and risk factors for owner misperception of canine body shape in first opinion practice in Glasgow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courcier, E A; Mellor, D J; Thomson, R M; Yam, P S

    2011-10-01

    The objectives of the study were to investigate whether owners were able to assign the correct body shape to their dog and to assess the dog and owner level factors associated with incorrect owner assessment of dog body shape. Six hundred and eighty questionnaires were administered to dog owners in 5 first opinion practices around Glasgow during July 2007. At the same time, the interviewer and owner assessed the body shape of each dog. The interviewer assessment of body shape was taken as the gold standard. Incorrect owner assessment of dog body shape (misperception) was divided into two groups: underestimation and overestimation. Multinomial logistic regression and classification and regression trees (CART) were used to assess risk factors associated with each type of misperception. Misperception of dog body shape was present in 44.1% of owners with underestimation (i.e. the owner considered the animal to have a leaner body shape from the gold standard assessment) being the most common form of misperception. Risk factors identified by both multinomial logistic regression and CART were gender of owner, age of the dog and dog body shape. The classification tree appeared to have improved predictive ability when compared to the multinomial model. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Political CSR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Søren; Morsing, Mette

    We engage a discussion of political CSR in SMEs in an African context. Based on critical observations on Western MNC CSR action in emerging economies that holds counterproductive implications for social development, political economists have argued that business profit far more than society...... development in local African communities. Our findings extend political CSR research by directing attention to how the corporate influence in developing economies does not only emerge from MNCs but is also established and retained by SMEs CSR work....

  10. Political Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Casey B. Mulligan; Kevin K. Tsui

    2006-01-01

    Political competitiveness - which many interpret as the degree of democracy - can be modeled as a monopolistic competition. All regimes are constrained by the threat of "entry," and thereby seek some combination of popular support and political entry barriers. This simple model predicts that many public policies are unrelated to political competitiveness, and that even unchallenged nondemocratic regimes should tax far short of their Laffer curve maximum. Economic sanctions, odious debt repudi...

  11. Political administration

    OpenAIRE

    Åkerstrøm Andersen, Niels

    2000-01-01

    One of the major discussions of the 1990s has been about the relation between politics and administration. The themes of the discussions have been many and varied. It has been suggested that the level of politics should concentrate on the general political outlining and entrust the remaining to the administration. It has been criticised that politicians make their decisions on the basis of single cases, which ought to be an administrative matter entirely. It has been a theme that efficient op...

  12. Interaction of Psychological Factors in Shaping Entrepreneurial Intention among Computer and Electrical Engineering Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Tung Liang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous technopreneurs start their ventures at college age, but the entrepreneurship of computer and electrical engineering (CEE students remains under-studied. This study analysed both the combined and interactive effects of psychological factors on the entrepreneurial intentions of CEE students. In this study, entrepreneurial intention comprised two dimensions, conviction and preparation. Regarding the direct effects, the results indicated that self-efficacy affected entrepreneurial conviction the most, followed by negative emotion, intrinsic motivation, and metacognition. Negative emotion affected entrepreneurial preparation the most, followed by self-efficacy and positive emotion. The results also revealed several crucial interactive effects resulting from psychological factors. An increase in cognitive load increased the entrepreneurial intention of students exhibiting high intrinsic motivation and reduced the intention of students exhibiting low intrinsic motivation. An increase in metacognition increased the entrepreneurial conviction of students exhibiting either high or low intrinsic motivation. An increase in positive emotion reduced the entrepreneurial intention of students exhibiting high negative emotion and increased the intention of students exhibiting low negative emotion. An increase in self-efficacy increased the entrepreneurial intention of students exhibiting either high or low negative emotion.

  13. Role of Environmental Factors in Shaping Spatial Distribution of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi, Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Alwis, Ruklanthi; Watson, Conall; Nikolay, Birgit; Lowry, John H; Thieu, Nga Tran Vu; Van, Tan Trinh; Ngoc, Dung Tran Thi; Rawalai, Kitione; Taufa, Mere; Coriakula, Jerimaia; Lau, Colleen L; Nilles, Eric J; Edmunds, W John; Kama, Mike; Baker, Stephen; Cano, Jorge

    2018-02-01

    Fiji recently experienced a sharp increase in reported typhoid fever cases. To investigate geographic distribution and environmental risk factors associated with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi infection, we conducted a cross-sectional cluster survey with associated serologic testing for Vi capsular antigen-specific antibodies (a marker for exposure to Salmonella Typhi in Fiji in 2013. Hotspots with high seroprevalence of Vi-specific antibodies were identified in northeastern mainland Fiji. Risk for Vi seropositivity increased with increased annual rainfall (odds ratio [OR] 1.26/quintile increase, 95% CI 1.12-1.42), and decreased with increased distance from major rivers and creeks (OR 0.89/km increase, 95% CI 0.80-0.99) and distance to modeled flood-risk areas (OR 0.80/quintile increase, 95% CI 0.69-0.92) after being adjusted for age, typhoid fever vaccination, and home toilet type. Risk for exposure to Salmonella Typhi and its spatial distribution in Fiji are driven by environmental factors. Our findings can directly affect typhoid fever control efforts in Fiji.

  14. TOURISM AS A POLITICAL INTERSTATE DIALOGUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sergeevna Matveevskaya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available International tourism in the 21st century is an important factor in the world politics’ development. The growth of tourist flows and the worldwide scale of travels define tourism as part of the overall internationalization process of socio-economic relations. The tourism industry is developing quite stably and efficiently in many countries. National policies should be focused on obtaining the maximum benefit from international cooperation. The importance of international tourism in political discourse emphasizes the creation of international legal acts regulating the tourism industry, as well as different levels of tourist organizations. International tourism in world politics has a special advantage in resolving disagreements between states. The role of tourism in shaping the image and prestige of the country is noted. Russia’s participation in international tourism projects is a source of cultural, social and economic development. Interstate tours contribute to the development of cultural tourism into the sustainable development policies of countries and regions. A positive trend is the consent of the foreign partners on the inclusion of Russian tourist destinations in the perspective of cultural routes. Purpose. Determination of the political role of tourism in interstate relations. Methodology in article theoretical analysis and descriptive method were used. Results: international tourism in the XXI century is one of the most important factor in world politics. Practical implications. The results of the research can serve as a basis for the further development and improvement of interstate relations by means of tourism.

  15. The Success of Gay-Straight Alliances in Waterloo Region, Ontario: A Confluence of Political and Social Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. John, Alex; Travers, Robb; Munro, Lauren; Liboro, Renato; Schneider, Margaret; Greig, Carrie L.

    2014-01-01

    This article outlines how gay-straight alliances (GSAs) work to connect youth with community resources, and outlines the political and social context of GSAs in Waterloo Region, Ontario, Canada. Fifteen individuals (youth, teachers, and a lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer [LGBTQ] youth service provider) participated in interviews…

  16. A changing climate of skepticism: The factors shaping climate change coverage in the US press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid-Petri, Hannah; Adam, Silke; Schmucki, Ivo; Häussler, Thomas

    2017-05-01

    Skepticism toward climate change has a long tradition in the United States. We focus on mass media as the conveyors of the image of climate change and ask: Is climate change skepticism still a characteristic of US print media coverage? If so, to what degree and in what form? And which factors might pave the way for skeptics entering mass media debates? We conducted a quantitative content analysis of US print media during one year (1 June 2012 to 31 May 2013). Our results show that the debate has changed: fundamental forms of climate change skepticism (such as denial of anthropogenic causes) have been abandoned in the coverage, being replaced by more subtle forms (such as the goal to avoid binding regulations). We find no evidence for the norm of journalistic balance, nor do our data support the idea that it is the conservative press that boosts skepticism.

  17. Cognitive factors shape brain networks for auditory skills: spotlight on auditory working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Nina; Strait, Dana L; Parbery-Clark, Alexandra

    2012-04-01

    Musicians benefit from real-life advantages, such as a greater ability to hear speech in noise and to remember sounds, although the biological mechanisms driving such advantages remain undetermined. Furthermore, the extent to which these advantages are a consequence of musical training or innate characteristics that predispose a given individual to pursue music training is often debated. Here, we examine biological underpinnings of musicians' auditory advantages and the mediating role of auditory working memory. Results from our laboratory are presented within a framework that emphasizes auditory working memory as a major factor in the neural processing of sound. Within this framework, we provide evidence for music training as a contributing source of these abilities. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  18. Cognitive factors shape brain networks for auditory skills: spotlight on auditory working memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Nina; Strait, Dana; Parbery-Clark, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Musicians benefit from real-life advantages such as a greater ability to hear speech in noise and to remember sounds, although the biological mechanisms driving such advantages remain undetermined. Furthermore, the extent to which these advantages are a consequence of musical training or innate characteristics that predispose a given individual to pursue music training is often debated. Here, we examine biological underpinnings of musicians’ auditory advantages and the mediating role of auditory working memory. Results from our laboratory are presented within a framework that emphasizes auditory working memory as a major factor in the neural processing of sound. Within this framework, we provide evidence for music training as a contributing source of these abilities. PMID:22524346

  19. The emission factor of volatile isoprenoids: caveats, model algorithms, response shapes and scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niinemets, Ü.; Monson, R. K.; Arneth, A.; Ciccioli, P.; Kesselmeier, J.; Kuhn, U.; Noe, S. M.; Peñuelas, J.; Staudt, M.

    2010-02-01

    In models of plant volatile isoprenoid emissions, the instantaneous compound emission rate typically scales with the plant's emission capacity under specified environmental conditions, also defined as the emission factor, ES. In the most widely employed plant isoprenoid emission models, the algorithms developed by Guenther and colleagues (1991, 1993), instantaneous variation of the steady-state emission rate is described as the product of ES and light and temperature response functions. When these models are employed in the in atmospheric chemistry modeling community, species-specific ES values and parameter values defining the instantaneous response curves are typically considered as constant. In the current review, we argue that ES is largely a modeling concept, importantly depending on our understanding of which environmental factors affect isoprenoid emissions, and consequently need standardization during ES determination. In particular, there is now increasing consensus that variations in atmospheric CO2 concentration, in addition to variations in light and temperature, need to be included in the emission models. Furthermore, we demonstrate that for less volatile isoprenoids, mono- and sesquiterpenes, the emissions are often jointly controlled by the compound synthesis and volatility, and because of these combined biochemical and physico-chemical properties, specification of ES as a constant value is incapable of describing instantaneous emissions within the sole assumptions of fluctuating light and temperature, as are used in the standard algorithms. The definition of ES also varies depending on the degree of aggregation of ES values in different parameterization schemes (leaf- vs. canopy- or region-level, species vs. plant functional type level), and various aggregated ES schemes are not compatible for different integration models. The summarized information collectively emphasizes the need to update model algorithms by including missing environmental and

  20. The leaf-level emission factor of volatile isoprenoids: caveats, model algorithms, response shapes and scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niinemets, Ü.; Monson, R. K.; Arneth, A.; Ciccioli, P.; Kesselmeier, J.; Kuhn, U.; Noe, S. M.; Peñuelas, J.; Staudt, M.

    2010-06-01

    In models of plant volatile isoprenoid emissions, the instantaneous compound emission rate typically scales with the plant's emission potential under specified environmental conditions, also called as the emission factor, ES. In the most widely employed plant isoprenoid emission models, the algorithms developed by Guenther and colleagues (1991, 1993), instantaneous variation of the steady-state emission rate is described as the product of ES and light and temperature response functions. When these models are employed in the atmospheric chemistry modeling community, species-specific ES values and parameter values defining the instantaneous response curves are often taken as initially defined. In the current review, we argue that ES as a characteristic used in the models importantly depends on our understanding of which environmental factors affect isoprenoid emissions, and consequently need standardization during experimental ES determinations. In particular, there is now increasing consensus that in addition to variations in light and temperature, alterations in atmospheric and/or within-leaf CO2 concentrations may need to be included in the emission models. Furthermore, we demonstrate that for less volatile isoprenoids, mono- and sesquiterpenes, the emissions are often jointly controlled by the compound synthesis and volatility. Because of these combined biochemical and physico-chemical drivers, specification of ES as a constant value is incapable of describing instantaneous emissions within the sole assumptions of fluctuating light and temperature as used in the standard algorithms. The definition of ES also varies depending on the degree of aggregation of ES values in different parameterization schemes (leaf- vs. canopy- or region-scale, species vs. plant functional type levels) and various aggregated ES schemes are not compatible for different integration models. The summarized information collectively emphasizes the need to update model algorithms by including

  1. Family factors in shaping parental attitudes in young students at the stage of entering adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Karabanova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Parenthood is a process of promoting the child’s progressive development and achieving personal autonomy. Social, family and psychological factors of formation of parental attitudes of the person at the stage of entering adulthood are considered. The mechanisms of the parental family influence on parental attitudes are analyzed. Parenting and children raising are recognized by modern young students as a significant family value with priority of professional and social activity. The revealed gender differences prove a higher assessment of the importance of parenthood and the upbringing of children among males rather than females, who have strongly prioritize their professional careers as compared to parenthood. Young women’s expectations of difficulties in the future of family life are related to child birth and upbringing. The experience of emotional relations in one’s own parent family is proved to determine the importance of parenting for young adults. Positive expectations of student youth regarding future family life and a certain underestimation of the difficulties of the transitional periods of the family life cycle are revealed. The greatest difficulties are predicted by students in connection with the period of child expectation and the first year of child life. The beginning of parental function realization, child raising, economic and household functioning of the family and mutual adaptation of the spouses are listed as the most difficulties in family life cycle. Family factors that determine expectations about difficulties and subjective satisfaction with family life include gender, experience of romantic partnership, full or incomplete family in origin, chronological age.

  2. Genomic factors that shape craniofacial outcome and neural crest vulnerability in FASD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Smith

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE causes distinctive facial characteristics in some pregnancies and not others; genetic factors may contribute to this differential vulnerability. Ethanol disrupts multiple events of neural crest development including induction, survival, migration, and differentiation. Animal models and genomic approaches have substantially advanced our understanding of the mechanisms underlying these facial changes. PAE during gastrulation produces craniofacial changes corresponding with human fetal alcohol syndrome. These result because PAE reduces prechordal plate extension and suppresses sonic hedgehog, leading to holoprosencephaly and malpositioned facial primordia. Haploinsufficiency in sonic hedgehog signaling increases vulnerability to facial deficits and may influence some PAE pregnancies. In contrast, PAE during early neurogenesis produces facial hypoplasia, preceded by neural crest reductions due to significant apoptosis. Factors mediating this apoptosis include intracellular calcium mobilization, elevated reactive oxygen species, and loss of trophic support from β-catenin/calcium, sonic hedgehog, and mTOR signaling. Genomewide SNP analysis links PDGF receptor genes with facial outcomes in human PAE. Multiple genomic-level comparisons of ethanol-sensitive and –resistant early embryos, in both mouse and chick, independently identify common candidate genes that may potentially modify craniofacial vulnerability, including ribosomal proteins, proteosome, RNA splicing, and focal adhesion. In summary, research using animal models with genome-level differences in ethanol vulnerability, as well as targeted loss- and gain-of-function mutants, has clarified the mechanisms mediating craniofacial change in PAE. The findings additionally suggest that craniofacial deficits may represent a gene-ethanol interaction for some affected individuals. Genetic-level changes may prime individuals toward greater sensitivity or resistance to

  3. Factors shaping how clinical educators use their educational knowledge and skills in the clinical workplace: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Koshila; Greenhill, Jennene

    2016-02-18

    In order to consolidate their educational knowledge and skills and develop their educational role, many clinicians undertake professional development in clinical education and supervision. It is well established that these educationally-focussed professional development activities have a positive impact. However, it is less clear what factors within the clinical workplace can shape how health professionals may use and apply their educational knowledge and skills and undertake their educational role. Looking through the lens of workplace affordances, this paper draws attention to the contextual, personal and interactional factors that impact on how clinical educators integrate their educational knowledge and skills into the practice setting, and undertake their educational role. Data were gathered via a survey of 387 clinical educators and semi-structured interviews with 12 clinical educators and 6 workplace managers. In this paper, we focus on analysing and reporting the qualitative data gathered in this study. This qualitative data were subject to a thematic analysis and guided by theoretical constructs related to workplace affordances. Three key themes were identified including contextual, personal and interactional factors. Contextual elements referred to organisational structures and systems that impact on participants' educational role, how participants' clinical education role was articulated and configured within the organisation, and how the organisation shaped the educational opportunities available to clinicians. Personal factors encompassed clinicians' personal motivations and goals to teach and be involved in education, develop their own educational skills and function as a role model for students. Interactional factors referred to the professional interactions and networks through which clinicians shared their educational knowledge and skills and further consolidated their profile as educational advocates in their workplace. There are a number of

  4. On the measurement of political instability and its impact on economic growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong-A-Pin, R.

    We examine the multidimensionality of political instability using 25 political instability indicators in an Exploratory Factor Analysis. We find that political instability has four dimensions: politically motivated violence, mass civil protest. instability within the political regime. and

  5. The Political Opportunity of the Outsider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lubinski, Christina

    This paper examines the political strategies of two German firms—Siemens and I.G. Farben—in interwar India as a way to consider how multinational enterprises (MNEs) deal with political risk. The interwar period was characterized by rising political risks throughout the global economy, as conflicts...... contexts but actively shaping political identities and processes of legitimization. This paper uses this case to argue for a rethink of political risk in international business, to regard it as a source of political opportunities that multinationals can capitalize on, and not exclusively as a source...

  6. Discovery of non-directional and directional pioneer transcription factors by modeling DNase profile magnitude and shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Sophia; Barkal, Amira A; van Hoff, John Peter; Karun, Vivek; Jaakkola, Tommi; Gifford, David K

    2014-01-01

    Here we describe Protein Interaction Quantitation (PIQ), a computational method that models the magnitude and shape of genome-wide DNase profiles to facilitate the identification of transcription factor (TF) binding sites. Through the use of machine learning techniques, PIQ identified binding sites for >700 TFs from one DNase-seq experiment with accuracy comparable to ChIP-seq for motif-associated TFs (median AUC=0.93 across 303 TFs). We applied PIQ to analyze DNase-seq data from mouse embryonic stem cells differentiating into pre-pancreatic and intestinal endoderm. We identified (n=120) and experimentally validated eight ‘pioneer’ TF families that dynamically open chromatin, enabling other TFs to bind to adjacent DNA. Four pioneer TF families only open chromatin in one direction from their motifs. Furthermore, we identified a class of ‘settler’ TFs whose genomic binding is principally governed by proximity to open chromatin. Our results support a model of hierarchical TF binding in which directional and non-directional pioneer activity shapes the chromatin landscape for population by settler TFs. PMID:24441470

  7. Factors shaping initial decision-making to self-test amongst cohabiting couples in urban Blantyre, Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumwenda, Moses; Munthali, Alister; Phiri, Mackwellings; Mwale, Daniel; Gutteberg, Tore; MacPherson, Eleanor; Theobald, Sally; Corbett, Liz; Desmond, Nicola

    2014-07-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, most new HIV infections occur in stable relationships, making couples testing an important intervention for HIV prevention. We explored factors shaping the decision-making of cohabiting couples who opted to self-test in Blantyre, Malawi. Thirty-four self-tested participants (17 couples) were interviewed. Motivators for HIV self-testing (HIVST) emerged at three main levels. Individual motivations included perceived benefits of access to treatment, and self-checking of serostatus in the hope of having been cured by prolonged treatment or faith-healing. HIVST was considered convenient, confidential, reassuring and an enabling new way to test with one's partner. Partnership motivations included both positive (mutual encouragement) and negative (suspected infidelity) aspects. For women, long-term health and togetherness were important goals that reinforced motivations for couples testing, whereas men often needed persuasion despite finding HIVST more flexible and less onerous than facility-based testing. Internal conflict prompted some partners to use HIVST as a way of disclosing their previously concealed HIV positive serostatus. Thus, the implementation of community-based HIVST should acknowledge and appropriately respond to decision-making processes within couples, which are shaped by gender roles and relationship dynamics.

  8. Sex-specific genetic diversity is shaped by cultural factors in Inner Asian human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchi, Nina; Hegay, Tatyana; Mennecier, Philippe; Georges, Myriam; Laurent, Romain; Whitten, Mark; Endicott, Philipp; Aldashev, Almaz; Dorzhu, Choduraa; Nasyrova, Firuza; Chichlo, Boris; Ségurel, Laure; Heyer, Evelyne

    2017-04-01

    Sex-specific genetic structures have been previously documented worldwide in humans, even though causal factors have not always clearly been identified. In this study, we investigated the impact of ethnicity, geography and social organization on the sex-specific genetic structure in Inner Asia. Furthermore, we explored the process of ethnogenesis in multiple ethnic groups. We sampled DNA in Central and Northern Asia from 39 populations of Indo-Iranian and Turkic-Mongolic native speakers. We focused on genetic data of the Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA. First, we compared the frequencies of haplogroups to South European and East Asian populations. Then, we investigated the genetic differentiation for eight Y-STRs and the HVS1 region, and tested for the effect of geography and ethnicity on such patterns. Finally, we reconstructed the male demographic history, inferred split times and effective population sizes of different ethnic groups. Based on the haplogroup data, we observed that the Indo-Iranian- and Turkic-Mongolic-speaking populations have distinct genetic backgrounds. However, each population showed consistent mtDNA and Y chromosome haplogroups patterns. As expected in patrilocal populations, we found that the Y-STRs were more structured than the HVS1. While ethnicity strongly influenced the genetic diversity on the Y chromosome, geography better explained that of the mtDNA. Furthermore, when looking at various ethnic groups, we systematically found a genetic split time older than historical records, suggesting a cultural rather than biological process of ethnogenesis. This study highlights that, in Inner Asia, specific cultural behaviors, especially patrilineality and patrilocality, leave a detectable signature on the sex-specific genetic structure. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Factors shaping effective utilization of health information technology in urban safety-net clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sheba; Garth, Belinda; Fish, Allison; Baker, Richard

    2013-09-01

    Urban safety-net clinics are considered prime targets for the adoption of health information technology innovations; however, little is known about their utilization in such safety-net settings. Current scholarship provides limited guidance on the implementation of health information technology into safety-net settings as it typically assumes that adopting institutions have sufficient basic resources. This study addresses this gap by exploring the unique challenges urban resource-poor safety-net clinics must consider when adopting and utilizing health information technology. In-depth interviews (N = 15) were used with key stakeholders (clinic chief executive officers, medical directors, nursing directors, chief financial officers, and information technology directors) from staff at four clinics to explore (a) nonhealth information technology-related clinic needs, (b) how health information technology may provide solutions, and (c) perceptions of and experiences with health information technology. Participants identified several challenges, some of which appear amenable to health information technology solutions. Also identified were requirements for effective utilization of health information technology including physical infrastructural improvements, funding for equipment/training, creation of user groups to share health information technology knowledge/experiences, and specially tailored electronic billing guidelines. We found that despite the potential benefit that can be derived from health information technologies, the unplanned and uninformed introduction of these tools into these settings might actually create more problems than are solved. From these data, we were able to identify a set of factors that should be considered when integrating health information technology into the existing workflows of low-resourced urban safety-net clinics in order to maximize their utilization and enhance the quality of health care in such settings.

  10. Arab Political Participation and the Future of Democracy in Israel ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Arab Political Participation and the Future of Democracy in Israel : Increasing Political Efficacy and Influencing Democratic Change ... role in politics is becoming increasingly important, especially in terms of shaping Israeli democracy and identity, and influencing Israeli-Palestinian relations and regional political dynamics.

  11. Mutations in an AP2 transcription factor-like gene affect internode length and leaf shape in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fukun; Guo, Mei; Yang, Fang; Duncan, Keith; Jackson, David; Rafalski, Antoni; Wang, Shoucai; Li, Bailin

    2012-01-01

    Plant height is an important agronomic trait that affects yield and tolerance to certain abiotic stresses. Understanding the genetic control of plant height is important for elucidating the regulation of maize development and has practical implications for trait improvement in plant breeding. In this study, two independent, semi-dwarf maize EMS mutants, referred to as dwarf & irregular leaf (dil1), were isolated and confirmed to be allelic. In comparison to wild type plants, the mutant plants have shorter internodes, shorter, wider and wrinkled leaves, as well as smaller leaf angles. Cytological analysis indicated that the leaf epidermal cells and internode parenchyma cells are irregular in shape and are arranged in a more random fashion, and the mutants have disrupted leaf epidermal patterning. In addition, parenchyma cells in the dil1 mutants are significantly smaller than those in wild-type plants. The dil1 mutation was mapped on the long arm of chromosome 6 and a candidate gene, annotated as an AP2 transcription factor-like, was identified through positional cloning. Point mutations near exon-intron junctions were identified in both dil1 alleles, resulting in mis-spliced variants. An AP2 transcription factor-like gene involved in stalk and leaf development in maize has been identified. Mutations near exon-intron junctions of the AP2 gene give mis-spliced transcript variants, which result in shorter internodes and wrinkled leaves.

  12. Mutations in an AP2 transcription factor-like gene affect internode length and leaf shape in maize.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukun Jiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plant height is an important agronomic trait that affects yield and tolerance to certain abiotic stresses. Understanding the genetic control of plant height is important for elucidating the regulation of maize development and has practical implications for trait improvement in plant breeding. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, two independent, semi-dwarf maize EMS mutants, referred to as dwarf & irregular leaf (dil1, were isolated and confirmed to be allelic. In comparison to wild type plants, the mutant plants have shorter internodes, shorter, wider and wrinkled leaves, as well as smaller leaf angles. Cytological analysis indicated that the leaf epidermal cells and internode parenchyma cells are irregular in shape and are arranged in a more random fashion, and the mutants have disrupted leaf epidermal patterning. In addition, parenchyma cells in the dil1 mutants are significantly smaller than those in wild-type plants. The dil1 mutation was mapped on the long arm of chromosome 6 and a candidate gene, annotated as an AP2 transcription factor-like, was identified through positional cloning. Point mutations near exon-intron junctions were identified in both dil1 alleles, resulting in mis-spliced variants. CONCLUSION: An AP2 transcription factor-like gene involved in stalk and leaf development in maize has been identified. Mutations near exon-intron junctions of the AP2 gene give mis-spliced transcript variants, which result in shorter internodes and wrinkled leaves.

  13. The role of abiotic and biotic environmental factors in shaping epiphyton on common reed in shallow, hydrologically transformed, temperate lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toporowska Magdalena

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Epiphytic algae are an important group of organisms involved in primary productivity, nutrient cycling, and energy transfer in littoral food webs. However, multifactorial studies conducted on epiphyton on the same substrate across a spectrum of environmental parameters are very limited. Here, we present first complex field study on the role of abiotic and biotic factors in shaping the species richness, diversity, abundance, and biomass composition of epiphyton on common reed in four shallow lakes with different trophic status, water and fish management, and the abundance and structure of potential algal grazers: littoral crustaceans and fish. The obtained results revealed that the algal taxa richness was the lowest in the hypertrophic lake and the highest in the meso-eutrophic lake. Epiphyton abundance (predominated by pennate diatoms and biomass were found to be the highest in eutrophic water bodies. Biomass consisted primarily of diatoms, but we found the seasonal predominance of filamentous Chlorophyta (in the eutrophic lakes and Chlorophyceae (in the meso-eutrophic lake. Redundancy analysis (RDA showed that the frequency of water level fluctuations was the most significant variable in the composition of epiphyton. RDA also revealed the importance of grazing pressure of fish. Thus, in hydrologically transformed lakes, man-made factors may be of great relevance in the development of epiphytic algae.

  14. Pirate political parties: New democracy or political utopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karanović Bojana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern society is changing under the influence of IT technologies, more and more we talk about 'digital revolution', and political and economic developments are shaped by computer networks. Undeniably, the Internet has opened new possibilities for socio-political expansion, networking and mobilization. Besides the political establishment, many social movements found their chance in cyberspace recognizing the IT technology as a platform for the development and improvement of their internal and external communication. In this article we will focus on the Pirate Party, movement that has been seriously growing on the European political stage for last several years. Following the example of German Pirate Party we will try to explain the characteristics of the movement, its goals and communication strategies, and political dilemmas which it brings.

  15. [In search of politics in knowledge production. A plea for a historical-political epistemology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelcke, Volker

    2010-06-01

    Knowledge production has an intrinsic political dimension. Starting from this presupposition, it is argued that the systematic integration of and reflection on the political dimension is necessary for an adequate understanding of historical processes of knowledge production in the sciences. The consecutive plea for a historical-political epistemology proceeds in two steps: First, it is illustrated that in a number of recent historical science study cases, the political dimension is frequently marginal, or even absent. After a short discussion of previous theoretical concepts to describe the impact of politics for the production of scientific knowledge, an approach is sketched which builds on Hans-Jörg Rheinberger's historical epistemology and Bruno Latour's symmetrical anthropology. It is argued that in addition to Rheinberger's program to describe epistemic systems, the political dimension is intrinsic to three stages of the process of data production: First to an initial phase which consists in the arrangement socio-technical configurations to produce new evidence. Here, factors such as the culturally shaped perception and evaluation of "relevant" problems, as well as the perception of career resources have to be taken into account. Second, the political dimension is relevant in view of the continuous re-adjustments of the configuration of epistemic systems, e.g., towards newly available financial, technical, or intellectual resources and "relevant" challenges from outside the system. Thirdly, the data produced and represented by epistemic systems--"evidence"--are yet in need of interpretation. This process is in itself imbued with continuously shifting mechanisms of selecting and creating hierarchies amongst the pool of available data.

  16. Neonatal rearing conditions distinctly shape locus coeruleus neuronal activity, dendritic arborization, and sensitivity to corticotrophin-releasing factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinny, Jerome D.; O'Farrell, Eimear; Bingham, Brian C.; Piel, David A.; Valentino, Rita J.; Beck, Sheryl G.

    2010-01-01

    Early life events influence vulnerability to psychiatric illness. This has been modelled in rats and it has been demonstrated that different durations of maternal separation shape adult endocrine and behavioural stress reactivity. One system through which maternal separation may act is the locus coeruleus (LC)–norepinephrine system that regulates emotional arousal. Here we demonstrate that different durations of maternal separation have distinct effects on LC physiology and dendritic morphology. Rat pups were separated from the dam for 15 min/d (HMS-15) or 180 min/d (HMS-180) from post-natal days 2–14. Others were either undisturbed (HMS-0) or were vendor-purchased controls. LC characteristics were compared at age 22–35 d using whole-cell recordings in vitro. Cells were filled with biocytin for morphological analysis. LC neurons of HMS-180 rats were tonically activated compared to HMS-15 and control rats, with firing rates that were 2-fold higher than these groups. Corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) application did not further activate LC neurons of HMS-180 rats but increased LC firing rate in HMS-0 and control rats. LC neurons of HMS-15 rats were resistant to excitation by CRF. Maternal separation also affected LC dendritic morphology. LC dendrites of HMS-15 rats exhibited less branching and decreased total dendritic length, an effect that could decrease the probability of contacting limbic afferents that terminate in the pericoerulear region. This effect may provide a structural basis for an attenuated magnitude of emotional arousal. Together, these results demonstrate long-term consequences of early life events on the LC–norepinephrine system that may shape adult behaviour. PMID:19653930

  17. Assessing Political Dynamics in Contemporary Malaysia: Implications for Democratic Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surain Subramaniam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines political dynamics in Malaysia and assesses the prospects for change in the direction of greater political liberalization. It focuses on the 12th General Election of 2008 and its implications for opportunities and challenges for liberal democratic change in Malaysia. It discusses the role of the internet-based new media in shaping an emerging public sphere, and some factors affecting the changing role of non-Malay voters in the political process. This article argues that democratization in Malaysia is already occurring, albeit at a gradual pace; it is being pushed by the new political forces of civil society actors, newly empowered opposition parties, and the internet-based media. The boundaries of this emerging democratic space is simultaneously being shaped and contested by the political competition between status-quo and reformist forces in this society. Some institutional changes have expanded the parameters of democratic space, although the entrenched dominant institutions of the ruling regime continue to wield sufficient amounts of institutional capacity to subvert any consolidation of these democratic changes for now.

  18. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF POLITICAL CONSERVATISM

    OpenAIRE

    ŞEYHALIOĞLU, Hüseyin

    2011-01-01

    Enlightenment, Industrialization and French Revolution are the three most important stages in the world history in the last three centuries. Among which the French Revolution, a product of political demand, brought out the birth of Liberalism, Socialism and Conservatism. These theories have shaped the world from 1789 up to now. During this process, Political Conservatism, coming into being as a reaction to the French Revolution, has been widely accepted by the UK, Germany and the United State...

  19. Elite Cohesion in Political Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayerhöffer, Eva

    there is no shortage of research on the changing nature of politics due to the increasing influence of the media, the relations between the key elites in the age of ‘mediated politics’ have yet to be analyzed thoroughly. Theoretically, the dissertation provides a new bridge between elite theory and political......The dissertation presents the first comprehensive analysis of the political communication elite– high-ranking journalists, editors, politicians and their communication advisors – that shapes the content and form of political messages, news, debate and decisions in modern democracies. Although...... communication studies that allows us to view high-ranking journalists and editors as elites in their own right, entering into enduring relations with political elites. Based on the combination of these two otherwise separated disciplines, the dissertation develops an integrated and comprehensive model of elite...

  20. Spiritual Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Rambeau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available According to Foucault, the uprising of the Iranian people in the seventies reveals how much the political force of Islam is due precisely to the fact that it is not principally located in the field of politics, but in that of ethics. Religion (Shiite Islam appears as the guarantee of real change in the very mode of existence. This spiritual politics is marginalized by Marxism, where it is understood as a discontinuity in relation to proper politics, given that the latter is necessarily linked to a strategic rationalization. By indicating, at this juncture of what is intolerable, the living source and the critical impulse of the Foucauldian ethics, this spiritual politics also leads to recognize in the concept of “subjectivation” a dimension that might escape the circle of freedom as determined by a total immanence to power. This conceptual possibility is highly present in the aporias of the Foucauldian concept of the “relation to oneself”, both as a first condition of governmentality and the ultimate point of resistance against any governmentality. It thus reveals the difficulties in relating political to ethical subjectivation.

  1. Long-Term Military Contingency Operations: Identifying the Factors Affecting Budgeting in Annual or Supplemental Appropriations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Evans, Amanda B

    2006-01-01

    .... The results show that planning, timing, accountability, visibility, politics and policy, stakeholder influence, military objectives, and fear of change are the most important factors. These findings can help stakeholders shape funding strategy.

  2. Private political archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Chorążyczewski

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available "Private political archives" are understood by me as all acts collected intently by a private person. These acts are connected with the person's participation in political life and gathered in order to be used in public activity as the source of argumentation and information about factors and mechanisms of political processes. Private political archives of the first half of the XVI century were mainly created by royal servants, often with reference to their job duties. These duties could inspire to collect political acts for private purposes. During the reign of Sigismund Augustus, archives of gentry activists were developed to small extent and they mainly focused on parliamentary life. Private political archives were created outside the executionist movement, namely in the community gathered around the royal court. After 1572, Crown and Lithuanian magnates greatly influenced the creation of political archives. Archives of lesser gentry, scarce and poor, did not disappear completely. However, they became difficult for identification. Therefore, developmental process concerned exclusively documentary "treasure troves" created by magnates. They had the financial means and possibilities to create truly valuable political archives. The same as in the previous period the dynamisms of executionist movement was reflected in political archival documentation, now the creation of patronage system and clientele, or traditionally understood magnate oligarchy, (depending on the point of view corresponded best to archives development. The heritage of previous generations was the treasure trove of patterns and solutions. However, this trove was used selectively, on one hand giving up patterns and rights that were uncomfortable, and, on the other, giving the value of precedence to unexpected acts that gained more importance or even new content in changed political conditions. The application of interpretation principle raised interest in old acts and patterns

  3. Polity age and political budget cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaskoven, Lasse

    2018-01-01

    Incumbent incentive for competence-signaling and lack of voter information are generally thought to be factors that increase the prevalence of political budget cycles. These mechanisms should be more prevalent in new political units. Since the creation of new political units is rarely exogenous......-experimental to study whether political budget cycles are larger in new political units. Contrary to theoretical predictions, political budget cycles seem to be of a smaller scale in the new municipalities, but only regarding budget cycles in budgetary overruns. The findings are of wider interest for discussions about...... the mechanisms behind context-conditional political budget cycles....

  4. Political symbols and political transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrero de Miñón, Miguel

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Politics, Law and Psychology are fields that come together in the symbolic. This text takes evidence from those three areas to develop an analysis of political symbols and political transitions. The development of the analysis goes through three stages. The first succinctly describes the concept of transition and its meaning. The second closely examines the notion of the symbol, in terms of its definition, to explain aspects that allow us to understand it, characterise it and make its functions clear. Finally, from the author's experience as a witness and as an actor, I suggest three ways of understanding symbols in the processes of political transition: as symbols of change, as symbols of acknowledgment, and as symbols of support.

  5. Waste disposal and households' heterogeneity. Identifying factors shaping attitudes towards source-separated recycling in Bogotá, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J Padilla, Alcides; Trujillo, Juan C

    2018-04-01

    Solid waste management in many cities of developing countries is not environmentally sustainable. People traditionally dispose of their solid waste in unsuitable urban areas like sidewalks and satellite dumpsites. This situation nowadays has become a serious public health problem in big Latin American conurbations. Among these densely-populated urban spaces, the Colombia's capital and main city stands out as a special case. In this study, we aim to identify the factors that shape the attitudes towards source-separated recycling among households in Bogotá. Using data from the Colombian Department of Statistics and Bogotá's multi-purpose survey, we estimated a multivariate Probit model. In general, our results show that the higher the household's socioeconomic class, the greater its effort for separating solid wastes. Likewise, our findings also allowed us to characterize household profiles regarding solid waste separation and considering each socioeconomic class. Among these profiles, we found that at lower socioeconomic classes, the attitudes towards solid waste separation are influenced by the use of Internet, the membership to an environmentalist organization, the level of education of the head of household and the homeownership. Hence, increasing the education levels within the poorest segment of the population, promoting affordable housing policies and facilitating Internet access for the vulnerable population could reinforce households' attitudes towards a greater source-separated recycling effort. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Improvements in scaling of counter-current imbibition recovery curves using a shape factor including permeability anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Jassem; Sarafrazi, Shiva; Riazi, Masoud; Ghaedi, Mojtaba

    2018-02-01

    Spontaneous imbibition is the main oil production mechanism in the water invaded zone of a naturally fractured reservoir (NFR). Different scaling equations have been presented in the literature for upscaling of core scale imbibition recovery curves to field scale matrix blocks. Various scale dependent parameters such as gravity effects and boundary influences are required to be considered in the upscaling process. Fluid flow from matrix blocks to the fracture system is highly dependent on the permeability value in the horizontal and vertical directions. The purpose of this study is to include permeability anisotropy in the available scaling equations to improve the prediction of imbibition assisted oil production in NFRs. In this paper, a commercial reservoir simulator was used to obtain imbibition recovery curves for different scenarios. Then, the effect of permeability anisotropy on imbibition recovery curves was investigated, and the weakness of the existing scaling equations for anisotropic rocks was demonstrated. Consequently, an analytical shape factor was introduced that can better scale all the curves related to anisotropic matrix blocks.

  7. Host-specific interactions with environmental factors shape the distribution of symbiodinium across the Great Barrier Reef.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Tonk

    Full Text Available The endosymbiotic dinoflagellates (genus Symbiodinium within coral reef invertebrates are critical to the survival of the holobiont. The genetic variability of Symbiodinium may contribute to the tolerance of the symbiotic association to elevated sea surface temperatures (SST. To assess the importance of factors such as the local environment, host identity and biogeography in driving Symbiodinium distributions on reef-wide scales, data from studies on reef invertebrate-Symbiodinium associations from the Great Barrier Reef (GBR were compiled.The resulting database consisted of 3717 entries from 26 studies. It was used to explore ecological patterns such as host-specificity and environmental drivers structuring community complexity using a multi-scalar approach. The data was analyzed in several ways: (i frequently sampled host species were analyzed independently to investigate the influence of the environment on symbiont distributions, thereby excluding the influence of host specificity, (ii host species distributions across sites were added as an environmental variable to determine the contribution of host identity on symbiont distribution, and (iii data were pooled based on clade (broad genetic groups dividing the genus Symbiodinium to investigate factors driving Symbiodinium distributions using lower taxonomic resolution. The results indicated that host species identity plays a dominant role in determining the distribution of Symbiodinium and environmental variables shape distributions on a host species-specific level. SST derived variables (especially SSTstdev most often contributed to the selection of the best model. Clade level comparisons decreased the power of the predictive model indicating that it fails to incorporate the main drivers behind Symbiodinium distributions.Including the influence of different host species on Symbiodinium distributional patterns improves our understanding of the drivers behind the complexity of Symbiodinium

  8. Host-specific interactions with environmental factors shape the distribution of symbiodinium across the Great Barrier Reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonk, Linda; Sampayo, Eugenia M; Weeks, Scarla; Magno-Canto, Marites; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove

    2013-01-01

    The endosymbiotic dinoflagellates (genus Symbiodinium) within coral reef invertebrates are critical to the survival of the holobiont. The genetic variability of Symbiodinium may contribute to the tolerance of the symbiotic association to elevated sea surface temperatures (SST). To assess the importance of factors such as the local environment, host identity and biogeography in driving Symbiodinium distributions on reef-wide scales, data from studies on reef invertebrate-Symbiodinium associations from the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) were compiled. The resulting database consisted of 3717 entries from 26 studies. It was used to explore ecological patterns such as host-specificity and environmental drivers structuring community complexity using a multi-scalar approach. The data was analyzed in several ways: (i) frequently sampled host species were analyzed independently to investigate the influence of the environment on symbiont distributions, thereby excluding the influence of host specificity, (ii) host species distributions across sites were added as an environmental variable to determine the contribution of host identity on symbiont distribution, and (iii) data were pooled based on clade (broad genetic groups dividing the genus Symbiodinium) to investigate factors driving Symbiodinium distributions using lower taxonomic resolution. The results indicated that host species identity plays a dominant role in determining the distribution of Symbiodinium and environmental variables shape distributions on a host species-specific level. SST derived variables (especially SSTstdev) most often contributed to the selection of the best model. Clade level comparisons decreased the power of the predictive model indicating that it fails to incorporate the main drivers behind Symbiodinium distributions. Including the influence of different host species on Symbiodinium distributional patterns improves our understanding of the drivers behind the complexity of Symbiodinium

  9. Marketing campaigns and politics – british experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halida Sarajlić

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available By gaining political power, individuals and political par¬ties at the same time gain the power to shape not only political but also public life. An accelerated growth of mass media communication has led to the development of various means and techniques of political marketing. This in turn requires certain adjustments to political campaigns and programs, out of which only those adapted to the new communication environment may succeed. Marketing in terms of politics and especially negative comparative advertising, which is becoming increasingly more present and intense in political campaigning, opens a series of ethical questions. Among others, these include whether such advertising in politics is effective, to what extent and what its consequences are. The goal of this paper is to present the main characteristics of political marketing, the effectiveness of the methods and techniques used in the course of elect¬ion campaigning, their consequences and basic differences between political marketing and products and services marketing. A special emphasis will be placed on the presentation of political marketing of Great Britain, which has a long tradition in utilizing marketing methods and techniques in the political arena. Moreover, political moves made by politicians and political parties in Great Britain certainly make a good starting point for shaping an optimal political strategy in other countries, while at the same time taking into account the particulars of a specific political and social environment. Content analysis methodology was used in the preparation of this paper and all the data were gathered from secondary sources.

  10. Words Left Unspoken: The External Forces Shaping Online Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curd B. Knüpfer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how various aspects of US politics and culture may define the boundaries of transnational online discourse. The argument presented focuses on two general categories by which these dynamics may emerge, namely systemic and agential factors. Systemic limitations include language, codes and protocols, algorithms, and parameters set by media specific terms of services. Agential factors are tied to specific sets of political and economic interests, legal frameworks or cultural norms, as well as individual forms of human agency involved in content moderation. As these examples show, the speech environments we encounter in our daily online interactions do not take place in an ephemeral (cyber-space devoid of power relations. In order to understand their boundaries, we must come to understand the forces that shape them. Doing so may illuminate how online content comes to reflect deep-seeded power dynamics within US culture, Western societies, as well as transnational politics.

  11. Political ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohm, H.

    1979-01-01

    Using facts and examples, this didactically structures textbook gives an insight into the extent and consequences of the damage to the environment, with the subjects - fundamentals of ecology; - population and food problems; - the energy problem; - economic growth; scarcity of resources, recycling; - ground, water, and air pollution, - city and traffic problems; - work protection and medical care; - political alternatives and 'soft technologies'. The analysis of the political and economic reasons is combined with social and technical alternatives from which demands to be made and measures to be taken can be derived for individuals, citizens' interest groups, political groups and trade unions. Teaching models intend to help teachers to work on specific problems of ecology. (orig.) [de

  12. Political priorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng

    2016-01-01

    …THE POLITICAL LEADERS of the local government of Chongqing, China, vigorously promote a low-carbon economy and sustainable development to mitigate environmental pollution. Accordingly, research grants focused on this issue were supported by the government, and our group obtained a grant for a pr...... for a project about industrial park planning and design.…In my view, political priorities based on correct decision-making and market requirements are beneficial for researchers.......…THE POLITICAL LEADERS of the local government of Chongqing, China, vigorously promote a low-carbon economy and sustainable development to mitigate environmental pollution. Accordingly, research grants focused on this issue were supported by the government, and our group obtained a grant...

  13. Political CSR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Søren; Morsing, Mette

    We engage a discussion of political CSR in SMEs in an African context. Based on critical observations on Western MNC CSR action in emerging economies that holds counterproductive implications for social development, political economists have argued that business profit far more than society...... development in local African communities. Our findings extend political CSR research by directing attention to how the corporate influence in developing economies does not only emerge from MNCs but is also established and retained by SMEs CSR work....... in developing economies from CSR. In this paper we argue that local SMEs CSR work have strong influence in developing economies, that also includes counterproductive influence for social development. Based on empirical findings from African countries, we conceptualize how CSR in African SMEs differ from...

  14. How Internal Political Efficacy Translates Political Knowledge Into Political Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Reichert

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents evidence for the mediation effect of political knowledge through political self-efficacy (i.e. internal political efficacy in the prediction of political participation. It employs an action theoretic approach—by and large grounded on the Theory of Planned Behaviour—and uses data from the German Longitudinal Election Study to examine whether political knowledge has distinct direct effects on voting, conventional, and/or unconventional political participation. It argues that political knowledge raises internal political efficacy and thereby indirectly increases the chance that a citizen will participate in politics. The results of mediated multiple regression analyses yield evidence that political knowledge indeed translates into internal political efficacy, thus it affects political participation of various kinds indirectly. However, internal political efficacy and intentions to participate politically yield simultaneous direct effects only on conventional political participation. Sequentially mediated effects appear for voting and conventional political participation, with political knowledge being mediated by internal political efficacy and subsequently also by behavioural intentions. The mediation patterns for unconventional political participation are less clear though. The discussion accounts for restrictions of this study and points to questions for answer by future research.

  15. How Internal Political Efficacy Translates Political Knowledge Into Political Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This study presents evidence for the mediation effect of political knowledge through political self-efficacy (i.e. internal political efficacy) in the prediction of political participation. It employs an action theoretic approach—by and large grounded on the Theory of Planned Behaviour—and uses data from the German Longitudinal Election Study to examine whether political knowledge has distinct direct effects on voting, conventional, and/or unconventional political participation. It argues that political knowledge raises internal political efficacy and thereby indirectly increases the chance that a citizen will participate in politics. The results of mediated multiple regression analyses yield evidence that political knowledge indeed translates into internal political efficacy, thus it affects political participation of various kinds indirectly. However, internal political efficacy and intentions to participate politically yield simultaneous direct effects only on conventional political participation. Sequentially mediated effects appear for voting and conventional political participation, with political knowledge being mediated by internal political efficacy and subsequently also by behavioural intentions. The mediation patterns for unconventional political participation are less clear though. The discussion accounts for restrictions of this study and points to questions for answer by future research. PMID:27298633

  16. Cross-National Gender Gaps in Political Knowledge: How Much Is Due to Context?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin-Rittberger, Jessica

    2016-09-01

    Although the majority of studies on political knowledge document lingering gender-based differences in advanced industrial democracies, most contributors have drawn such conclusions from a single or a handful of countries, using limited batteries of political information items. Exploiting a pooled data set of the Comparative Study of Electoral Systems encompassing 106 post-election surveys in forty-seven countries between 1996 and 2011, this article demonstrates that survey instrument-related factors, such as question format and content, as well as the overall difficulty of questions, are more consequential in shaping the size of gender gaps in political knowledge than institutional factors, such as electoral rules or opportunity structures. The research design of this article draws from almost three hundred different items measuring factual political knowledge using the broadest country coverage and most comprehensive approach to measurement to date.

  17. Demographic profile of states with human cloning laws: morality policy meets political economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabile, Bonnie

    2007-03-01

    This analysis seeks to identify factors that may shape the policy stance - whether restrictive or permissive - that each state in the United States with a human cloning law in place takes toward human therapeutic cloning. The investigation also considers if cloning policy is more the product of morality politics or political economy. Results show that among states with human cloning policies in place, those with a greater biotechnological capacity, more permissive abortion laws, fewer Evangelical Protestants, and higher political liberalism rankings are more likely to have permissive cloning laws. A higher Roman Catholic population is strongly associated with permissive cloning laws, rather than restrictive cloning laws as originally supposed. Factors with morality policy and economic bases were both found to be associated with cloning policy outcomes. Results suggest that morality policies, though distinct in some ways, do share determinants with public policies based on political economy.

  18. Data politics

    OpenAIRE

    Bigo, Didier; Isin, Engin; Ruppert, Evelyn

    2017-01-01

    The commentary raises political questions about the ways in which data has been constituted as an object vested withcertain powers, influence, and rationalities.We place the emergence and transformation of professional practices such as‘data science’, ‘data journalism’, ‘data brokerage’, ‘data mining’, ‘data storage’, and ‘data analysis’ as part of the reconfigurationof a series of fields of power and knowledge in the public and private accumulation of data. Data politics asksquestions about ...

  19. 'Grounded' Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Garbi

    2012-01-01

    A prominent strand within current migration research argues that, to understand the participation of immigrants in their host societies, we must focus on their incorporation into the cities in which they settle. This article narrows the perspective further by focusing on the role that immigrants...... play within one particular neighbourhood: Nørrebro in the Danish capital, Copenhagen. The article introduces the concept of grounded politics to analyse how groups of Muslim immigrants in Nørrebro use the space, relationships and history of the neighbourhood for identity political statements...

  20. Belief About Mandatory School Vaccinations and Vaccination Refusal Among Ohio Appalachian Parents: Do Demographic and Religious Factors, General Health, and Political Affiliation Play a Role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krok-Schoen, Jessica L; Bernardo, Brittany M; Weier, Rory C; Peng, Juan; Katz, Mira L; Reiter, Paul L; Richardson, Morgan S; Pennell, Michael L; Tatum, Cathy M; Paskett, Electra D

    2017-11-14

    To examine how demographic, general health, religious, and political characteristics influenced beliefs about mandatory school vaccinations and history of vaccination refusal for children among Ohio Appalachian parents. In 2013 and 2014, baseline data were obtained from parents (n = 337) of girls aged 9-17 from 12 counties in rural Ohio Appalachia enrolled in the Community Awareness, Resources and Education (CARE II) Project. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify correlates of parental beliefs about mandatory school vaccinations and history of refusing a doctor-recommended vaccine for their child(ren). About 47% of parents agreed that parents should have the right to refuse mandatory school vaccinations for their child(ren). Participants who reported their political affiliation as Republican (OR = 2.45, 95% CI: 1.28-4.66) or Independent (OR = 3.31, 95% CI: 1.70-6.44) were more likely to agree that parents should have the right to refuse school-mandated vaccinations than parents who reported their political affiliation as Democrat. Approximately 39% of parents reported ever refusing a vaccine for their child(ren). Participants who were female (OR = 3.90, 95% CI: 1.04-14.58) and believed that parents should have the right to refuse mandatory school vaccinations (OR = 3.27, 95% CI: 1.90-5.62) were more likely to report ever refusing a vaccine for their child(ren). The study findings provide information to better understand factors related to vaccination refusal among parents in Appalachia Ohio that can be used to design interventions to improve vaccination uptake. © 2017 National Rural Health Association.

  1. Political Efficacy and Participation of Nurse Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Nancy C; Crawford, Sybil L; Morris, Nancy S; Pulcini, Joyce

    2017-08-01

    Twenty-eight states have laws and regulations limiting the ability of nurse practitioners (NPs) to practice to the full extent of their education and training, thereby preventing patients from fully accessing NP services. Revisions to state laws and regulations require NPs to engage in the political process. Understanding the political engagement of NPs may facilitate the efforts of nurse leaders and nursing organizations to promote change in state rules and regulations. The purpose of this study was to describe the political efficacy and political participation of U.S. NPs and gain insight into factors associated with political interest and engagement. In the fall of 2015, we mailed a survey to 2,020 NPs randomly chosen from the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners' database and 632 responded (31% response rate). Participants completed the Trust in Government (external political efficacy) and the Political Efficacy (internal political efficacy) scales, and a demographic form. Overall, NPs have low political efficacy. Older age ( p≤.001), health policy mentoring ( p≤.001), and specific education on health policy ( p≤.001) were all positively associated with internal political efficacy and political participation. External political efficacy was not significantly associated with any of the study variables. Political activities of NPs are largely limited to voting and contacting legislators. Identifying factors that engage NPs in grassroots political activities and the broader political arena is warranted, particularly with current initiatives to make changes to state laws and regulations that limit their practice.

  2. Creativity, Religiosity, and Political Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zysberg, Leehu; Schenk, Tal

    2013-01-01

    Although theoretically proposed in the literature, the direct associations between political attitudes, religion, and creativity have been scarcely explored. A convenience sample of 123 adults working in Israel filled out questionnaires assessing political-social attitudes, religiosity, and background factors (e.g., age, gender, education, and…

  3. Politics 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Abraham

    1977-01-01

    This article expresses some last thoughts from Abraham Maslow on his vision of humanistic psychology. He suggests that the two main problems of creating the good person and the good society are interwoven inextricably. He gives some social and political mechanisms which would enhance desirable personal growth and considers the main tasks of…

  4. Political bugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    Certain decisions, problems, and successes are selected to recall the great impact of the 1950s on the history of rocketry, and particularly the inauguration of the space age. In reviewing the history of the Redstone, Juno, and Jupiter, some of the largest stepping stones to space, problems stand out in three areas: technical or engineering, management, and political.

  5. Political polarization

    OpenAIRE

    Dixit, Avinash K.; Weibull, Jörgen W.

    2007-01-01

    Failures of government policies often provoke opposite reactions from citizens; some call for a reversal of the policy, whereas others favor its continuation in stronger form. We offer an explanation of such polarization, based on a natural bimodality of preferences in political and economic contexts and consistent with Bayesian rationality.

  6. Political polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Avinash K; Weibull, Jörgen W

    2007-05-01

    Failures of government policies often provoke opposite reactions from citizens; some call for a reversal of the policy, whereas others favor its continuation in stronger form. We offer an explanation of such polarization, based on a natural bimodality of preferences in political and economic contexts and consistent with Bayesian rationality.

  7. Framing politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lecheler, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation supplies a number of research findings that add to a theory of news framing effects, and also to the understanding of the role media effects play in political communication. We show that researchers must think more about what actually constitutes a framing effect, and that a

  8. Political Rationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solhaug, Trond; Kristensen, Niels Nørgaard

    The very idea about democracies is public participation in elections, decision-making and/or public engagement. The democratic participation distributes power among ordinary people and serve to legitimize decisions in public affairs and is a vital characteristic of a political culture.”The term ’...

  9. The politics of environmental narratives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sconfienza, Umberto

    2017-01-01

    What makes environmental conflicts complex and difficult to solve? This question is increasingly important because, more and more, environmental problems are going to shape local, national, regional, and international politics. Not surprisingly, this question has generated a lot of scholarship. Most

  10. Logical Empiricism, Politics, and Professionalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Scott

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers George A. Reisch's account of the role of Cold War political forces in shaping the apolitical stance that came to dominate philosophy of science in the late 1940s and 1950s. It argues that at least as early as the 1930s, Logical Empiricists such as Rudolf Carnap already held that philosophy of science could not properly have…

  11. Verification of a pencil beam based treatment planning system: output factors for open photon beams shaped with MLC or blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansson, H.

    1999-01-01

    The accuracy of monitor unit calculations from a pencil beam based, three-dimensional treatment planning system (3D TPS) has been evaluated for open irregularly shaped photon fields. The dose per monitor unit was measured in water and in air for x-ray beam qualities from 6 to 15 MV. The fields were shaped either with a multileaf collimator (MLC) or with customized alloy blocks. Calculations from the 3D TPS were compared with measurements. The agreement between calculated and measured dose per monitor unit depended on field size and the amount of blocking and was within 3% for the MLC-shaped fields. The deviation could be traced to limitations in head scatter modelling for the MLC. For fields shaped with alloy blocks, the dose per monitor unit was calculated to be within 1.6% of measured values for all fields studied. The measured and calculated relative phantom scatter for fields with the same equivalent field size were identical for MLC and alloy shaped fields. These results indicate that the accuracy in the TPS calculations for open irregular fields, shaped with MLC or blocks, is satisfactory for clinical situations. (author)

  12. Attitudes towards gender roles. Institutions, culture or/and individual factors shaping the attitudes towards gender roles?

    OpenAIRE

    Constantin, Valentina Andreea

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this thesis falls on the subjective dimension of gender equality, as translated into attitudes towards gender roles in the private and public spheres of life. Studying and understanding attitudes towards gender roles is relevant due to their broader implications for democratization, political participation, leadership, fertility, educational achievements, gender roles and division of labour. Based on the assumption that attitudes towards gender roles can impact important social p...

  13. Social and Environmental Influences Shaping Risk Factors and Protective Behaviors in two Mexico-US Border Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Rebeca; Ferreira-Pinto, João B.; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Ramos, Maria Elena; Lozada, Remedios M.; Firestone-Cruz, Michelle; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2009-01-01

    The economic, social, cultural and political milieus that influence HIV risk behaviors along the U.S.- Mexico border are understudied. In an effort to appropriately inform interventions targeting structural influences, we compared injecting drug using populations living in two cities—Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua and Tijuana, Baja California— situated on the Mexico-U.S. border. These populations presented with similar demographic profiles, but differed significantly in terms of social and environm...

  14. Elite Cohesion in Political Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayerhöffer, Eva

    cohesion in political communication, focusing on the extent and patterns of attitudinal cohesion among elites. Empirically the dissertation builds on unique survey data from more than 1,500 high-ranking politicians and journalists in six European countries (Sweden, Denmark, Germany, Austria, France......The dissertation presents the first comprehensive analysis of the political communication elite– high-ranking journalists, editors, politicians and their communication advisors – that shapes the content and form of political messages, news, debate and decisions in modern democracies. Although...... communication studies that allows us to view high-ranking journalists and editors as elites in their own right, entering into enduring relations with political elites. Based on the combination of these two otherwise separated disciplines, the dissertation develops an integrated and comprehensive model of elite...

  15. The Politics of Political Correctness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minsky, Leonard

    1992-01-01

    This article reacts to President Bush's entry into the dispute over "political correctness" on college campuses. The paper summarizes discussions of students, faculty, and others in the Washington, D.C. area which concluded that this seeming defense of free speech is actually an attack on affirmative action and multiculturalism stemming…

  16. Gendered Politics

    OpenAIRE

    Luconi, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Political incorporation resulting from voter participation is often a relevant feature of the migration experience. When the legislation of the receiving nations enables the newcomers to get naturalized and grants citizenship to their children born in the adoptive country by means of the jus soli, as is the case of the United States, casting ballots in the elections of the land of their destination usually becomes part of the first and second-generation immigrants’ accommodation into the host...

  17. Effect of Temperature-Force Factors and Concentrator Shape on Impact Fracture Mechanisms of 17Mn1Si Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Panin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the notch shape on the impact fracture of 17Mn1Si steel is investigated at different temperatures with the focus placed on the low-temperature behavior. An approach towards fracture characterization has been suggested based on the description of elastic-plastic deformation of impact loaded specimens on the stage of crack initiation and growth at ambient and lower temperatures. The analysis of the impact loading diagrams and fracture energy values for the pipe steel 17Mn1Si revealed the fracture mechanisms depending on the notch shape. It was found that the testing temperature reduction played a decisive role in plastic strain localization followed by dynamic fracture of the specimens with differently shaped notches. A classification of fracture macro- and microscopic mechanisms for differently notched specimens tested at different temperatures was proposed which enabled a self-consistent interpretation of impact test results.

  18. Between Evasion and Activism: A Qualitative Inquiry into the Political Behavior of German and Swedish Long-Term Unemployed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Hobbins

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This comparative article aims to understand the patterns underlying the political behavior of young German and Swedish long-term unemployed individuals. Based on almost 40 qualitative interviews, the analysis follows a grounded theory approach and shows that “unemployment” is not an objective reality that imposes uniform living conditions. Social and political activities diverge considerably, even though our respondents experience similar pressures and sanctions by public opinion, political parties, public administrations, relatives and/or acquaintances. The consequences of unemployment depend on individual mind-sets, support networks and coping strategies. This study identifies informal networks of social relations as one main factor influencing unemployed young peoples’ political behavior. Three types of political involvement are shaped by the routines and norms reproduced within their web of social relations in everyday life: evasion, civic minimalism and reluctant activism. The similarities between the German and the Swedish respondents overshadowed the national differences

  19. Gender, Social Trust And Political Socialization In Ghanaian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The raison d'etre of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of families, religious leaders, teachers, political leaders, mass media and peer groups in the shaping boys and girls into political beings using the case of the Wa Municipality of Ghana. This was undertaken because the task of political socialization is very crucial ...

  20. Political complexity predicts the spread of ethnolinguistic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Thomas E; Mace, Ruth

    2009-05-05

    Human languages show a remarkable degree of variation in the area they cover. However, the factors governing the distribution of human cultural groups such as languages are not well understood. While previous studies have examined the role of a number of environmental variables the importance of cultural factors has not been systematically addressed. Here we use a geographical information system (GIS) to integrate information about languages with environmental, ecological, and ethnographic data to test a number of hypotheses that have been proposed to explain the global distribution of languages. We show that the degree of political complexity and type of subsistence strategy exhibited by societies are important predictors of the area covered by a language. Political complexity is also strongly associated with the latitudinal gradient in language area, whereas subsistence strategy is not. We argue that a process of cultural group selection favoring more complex societies may have been important in shaping the present-day global distribution of language diversity.

  1. Simulation study of geometric shape factor approach to estimating earth emitted flux densities from wide field-of-view radiation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, W. L.; Green, R. N.

    1980-01-01

    A study was performed on the use of geometric shape factors to estimate earth-emitted flux densities from radiation measurements with wide field-of-view flat-plate radiometers on satellites. Sets of simulated irradiance measurements were computed for unrestricted and restricted field-of-view detectors. In these simulations, the earth radiation field was modeled using data from Nimbus 2 and 3. Geometric shape factors were derived and applied to these data to estimate flux densities on global and zonal scales. For measurements at a satellite altitude of 600 km, estimates of zonal flux density were in error 1.0 to 1.2%, and global flux density errors were less than 0.2%. Estimates with unrestricted field-of-view detectors were about the same for Lambertian and non-Lambertian radiation models, but were affected by satellite altitude. The opposite was found for the restricted field-of-view detectors.

  2. Analysis of simulated measurements of earth emitted radiation using geometric shape factors, and some results from analysis of ESSA 7 and Nimbus 6 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, W. L.; Green, R. N.

    1978-01-01

    In the reported study, simulated measurements of earth radiation with wide field-of-view (WFOV) radiometers are reduced to earth fluxes through geometric shape factors. Estimates of emitted flux for global and zonal scales and for regions smaller than the detector field-of-view are compared to fluxes derived directly from a model. Geometric shape factors are used to estimate global, zonal, and regional averages of earth-emitted flux from measurements with WFOV detectors on the ESSA 7 satellite and the Nimbus 6 satellite. Zonal and global averages of emitted flux for each of the 3-month periods of ESSA 7 data are shown in a graph. Another graph shows zonal and global averages of emitted flux for August 1975 obtained with the aid of Nimbus 6. The data are compared to values reported by Green and Smith (1977) who used a spherical harmonic solution.

  3. Political and Media Factors in the Evolution of the Media’s Role in U.S. Supreme Court Nominations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Davis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The selection of U.S. Supreme Court justices has become a highly media-oriented process both in the presidential selection and Senate confirmation stages. In the former stage, the White House uses the media to signal consideration of certain nominees, while interest groups publicly pressure the president to appoint favoured candidates or threaten confirmation fights over unacceptable candidates. In the confirmation stage, the White House, and nominee supporters, battle nominee opponents through image-making strategies intended to shape media coverage of the nominee. This paper will describe and explain the role of the media in the current nomination process, briefly assess why the media’s role has evolved in the past half century, and also predict how those roles would be changed under differing reform scenarios for Supreme Court nominations. La selección de los magistrados de la Corte Suprema de Estados Unidos se ha convertido en un proceso muy influenciado por los medios de comunicación, tanto en la elección presidencial como en las etapas de confirmación del Senado. En la primera etapa, la Casa Blanca utiliza los medios de comunicación para señalar los candidatos que se están considerando, mientras que los grupos de interés presionan públicamente al presidente para que designe a sus candidatos de su preferencia, o amenaza con luchas ante la confirmación de candidatos no afines. En la fase de confirmación, la Casa Blanca y los partidarios del magistrado seleccionados se enfrentan a sus oponentes a través de una estrategia de creación de imagen, para determinar la cobertura mediática del candidato. Este artículo describe y explica el papel de los medios de comunicación en el proceso actual de nombramiento, evalúa brevemente por qué el papel de los medios de comunicación ha evolucionado en el último medio siglo, y también predice cómo cambiaría este papel ante diferentes escenarios de reforma del proceso de nombramiento

  4. Understanding the local context and its possible influences on shaping, implementing and running social accountability initiatives for maternal health services in rural Democratic Republic of the Congo: a contextual factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafuta, Eric M; Hogema, Lisanne; Mambu, Thérèse N M; Kiyimbi, Pontien B; Indebe, Berthys P; Kayembe, Patrick K; De Cock Buning, Tjard; Dieleman, Marjolein A

    2016-11-09

    Social accountability has to be configured according to the context in which it operates. This paper aimed to identify local contextual factors in two health zones in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and discuss their possible influences on shaping, implementing and running social accountability initiatives. Data on local socio-cultural characteristics, the governance context, and socio-economic conditions related to social accountability enabling factors were collected in the two health zones using semi-structured interviews and document reviews, and were analyzed using thematic analysis. The contexts of the two health zones were similar and characterized by the existence of several community groups, similarly structured and using similar decision-making processes. They were not involved in the health sector's activities and had no link with the health committee, even though they acknowledged its existence. They were not networked as they focused on their own activities and did not have enough capacity in terms of social mobilization or exerting pressure on public authorities or providers. Women were not perceived as marginalized as they often occupied other positions in the community besides carrying out domestic tasks and participated in community groups. However, they were still subject to the local male dominance culture, which restrains their involvement in decision-making, as they tend to be less educated, unemployed and suffer from a lack of resources or specific skills. The socio-economic context is characterized by subsistence activities and a low employment rate, which limits the community members' incomes and increases their dependence on external support. The governance context was characterized by imperfect implementation of political decentralization. Community groups advocating community rights are identified as "political" and are not welcomed. The community groups seemed not to be interested in the health center's information and had no access

  5. A New Factor in American Destiny: Visions of Porfirio Díaz and the Politics of “Logical Paternalism”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Ruiz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay interprets American representations of dictator Porfirio Díaz in relation to the “economic conquest” of Mexico that took place during his long rule (1876–1911, a period known as the “Porfiriato,” in which Americans invested more than $1 billion. No single person inspired as much attention from travelers, reporters, and photographers during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries as Díaz, and their visions of the President helped to shape perceptions of Mexico as a desirable field in which to expand US capitalism and influence. Travelers clamored to meet him and his sophisticated young wife, and their travelogues were rich with descriptions of such encounters. Reporters, dazzled by the rapid transformation of Mexico during his 35-year rule, described Díaz in such terms as “the Mexican Wizard” and “the maker of modern Mexico” until the very end of his regime. Photographers, working in a relatively new medium, amassed a huge body of works devoted to the dictator; even at an advanced age late in his rule, the President’s image adorned postcards and commemorative cartes-de-visite that posited him in heroic and hypermasculine terms (not unlike those of his US counterpart, Theodore Roosevelt. Ultimately, this essay argues that representations like these reflected American desires for a Mexican body politic that was amenable to economic and social transformation under the inextricable banners of “progress” and US capitalism. Prevailing images of Díaz and his family suggested that Mexico was as friendly to foreign investors as it was to foreign visitors.

  6. Redistributive Politics in a Political Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele; Justesen, Mogens Kamp

    One of the main functions of centralized budgets in federal and political unions is to act as an equalizing mechanism to support economic cohesion. This is also the case with the European Union’s budget, which operates as a redistributive mechanism that counteracts the cross-national and cross...... redistributive dynamics. We find that the relative wealth of a country vis-à-vis the other EU countries is a powerful factor in explaining its net fiscal position, but the change in the relative wealth of a country over time has little effect on its position as net contributor or net beneficiary. In addition, we...

  7. Political balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hopmann, David Nicolas; Van Aelst, Peter; Salgado, Susana

    2017-01-01

    Before every election campaign, the French Conseil supérieur de l’audiovisuel (CSA) publishes detailed rules on how much news coverage candidates are allowed to have vis-à-vis one another in the electronic media to ensure what it calls pluralisme politique (e.g., CSA 2011). Also outside election...... and control news coverage (mainly public broadcasters) or have informal rules that determine news coverage of politics (Hopmann, Van Aelst, and Legnante 2012; Kaid and Strömbäck 2008)....

  8. Political Epistemology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, David Budtz

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation is intended to establish a framework for a revised picture of the loci of epistemic preferences in our complex knowledge-based society. In what ways do institutions, policies and regulations determine the conditions under which knowledge is produced and justified? This dissertat......This dissertation is intended to establish a framework for a revised picture of the loci of epistemic preferences in our complex knowledge-based society. In what ways do institutions, policies and regulations determine the conditions under which knowledge is produced and justified......? This dissertation argues that we can identify multiple epistemic preferences in the institutional and political settings that govern the production and distribution of knowledge....

  9. Exploring Local Level Factors Shaping the Implementation of a Blended Learning Module for Information and Geospatial Literacy in Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle M. Vine

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research study were to examine local level factors shaping the implementation of a blended pedagogical approach for geospatial- and information-literacy, and to understand implementer satisfaction. As such, we addressed the following research questions: What local-level factors shape the implementation of the blended learning model? and How satisfied are implementers (faculty, administrators and library instructional/support staff with the new blended learning model for geospatial and information fluency? Focus groups (n=7 plus one interview (total n=22 were conducted with key stakeholders (e.g., staff, faculty, administrators to better understand facilitators, barriers, and/or issues related to module development, in addition to perceptions about how the modules are utilized by teaching assistants (TAs, instructional assistants (IAs, and instructors. Participants were identified according to their status as either discipline-specific instructional staff (i.e., instructor, TA, IA or staff who supported the development of modules (i.e., library instructional staff, library management, administrators. From an ontological standpoint that privileges an individual perspective on the nature of reality, while epistemologically seeking to understand the relationship between the “knower” and what can be known, we adopted a theory of constructivism to support this inquiry. Transcripts were imported into a qualitative analysis software package (NVivo 8.0 for organization, coding and analysis. Instructors found value in the online modules, particularly in a blended learning setting. Instructors felt that having the material in advance, in-class time could be better focused on interaction, assignments, and assessments and resulted in reduced anxiety in busy lab environments. Several key themes emerged, including: (a instructor expectations (time constraints, sustainability, and collaborative nature of development process and

  10. When politics froze fashion: the effect of the Cultural Revolution on naming in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obukhova, Elena; Zuckerman, Ezra W; Zhang, Jiayin

    2014-09-01

    The authors examine the popularity of boys' given names in Beijing before and after the onset of the Cultural Revolution to clarify how exogenous and endogenous factors interact to shape fashion. Whereas recent work in the sociology of culture emphasizes the importance of endogenous processes in explaining fashion, their analysis demonstrates two ways in which politics shaped cultural expression during the Cultural Revolution: by promoting forms of expression reflecting prevailing political ideology and by limiting individuals' willingness to act differently. As argued by Lieberson and developed further in this article, the second condition is important because endogenous fashion cycles require a critical mass of individuals who seek to differentiate themselves from common practice. Exogenous factors can influence the operation of the endogenous factors. The authors discuss the implications of their study for understanding the nature of conformity under authoritarian regimes and social conditions supporting individual expression.

  11. Street Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Shapiro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available I write from Prague, where, unlike in most urban formations, the main city street plays an iconic role; it references a history of political protest. However, before elaborating on the protest iconography of the Prague street, Vaclavske nam, I want to locate the ways in which the design of urban space is actualized in everyday life in the cities of the world. Three functions stand out; the first involves dwelling, the second seeing, and the third moving. With respect to the first function – dwelling – the design partitions and coordinates residential, commercial and leisure functions. At times these are organized to segregate different classes (Robert Moses’ redesign of much of New York stands out with respect to the segregation function. With respect to the second function – seeing – the design of urban space is allegiance-inspiring; it involves sight lines that afford urban dwellers and visitors views of iconic buildings and statues, which reference key founding moments in the past and/or authoritative political functions in the present (Here, L’Enfants design for Washington DC stands out as exemplary. Its manifest intention was to make the buildings housing executive, legislative and judicial functions visible from many vantage points. Rarely are the streets themselves iconic. Their dominant role is involved with the effectuation of movement. As for this third function: As Lewis Mumford famously points out, streets were once part of an asterisk design, radiating out from an exemplary, often spiritual center...

  12. Political electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Terence.

    1990-01-01

    This book is a non-technical exploration of the political and policy issues that have influenced the development of nuclear power. Part One describes the successes, failures, horse-trading, and infighting that make up nuclear power's history, taking nine counties as examples. Part Two reviews the main problems that now confront us, as seen in mid-June 1990; like all contemporary accounts, the book is unavoidably incomplete. However, by then it was possible to make provisional judgements about two very important recent influences: the political consequences of Chernobyl, and concerns about the greenhouse effect. The story that emerges is of a nuclear industry that has rarely been guilty of dereliction of duty, though it was undeniably complacent in not addressing sooner the causes of the public's entirely reasonable anxieties. The anti-nuclear lobby has been skilled in debate, and sometimes extraordinarily percipient; but less than fair in failing to acknowledge the industry's achievements and its willingness to learn from past mistakes. As for the politicians, the book contains many examples that show how the flames of controversy can be deliberately fanned when there are votes to be gained. The story has few heroes, but within the industry fewer villains than the public has been led to believe. (author)

  13. Factors shaping the financial liquidity of farms Czynniki kształtujące płynność finansową gospodarstw rolnych

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bieniasz

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article an attempt was undertaken to determine power and direction of the influence of chosen factors on the level of farms financial liquidity at applying econometric methods. The study was based on EU agricultural accountancy system FADN. Constructed regression models showed, that factor most strongly shaping the level of the financial liquidity is a politicy of working capital management. Its conservative character, appointed through the longer cycle of obligations and the cycle of the working capital, in-deed reducies the risk of the financial liquidity.

  14. ISLAMIC PARTIES AND THE POLITICS OF CONSTITUTIONALISM IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukrimin Mukrimin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the relationship between religion and the state in Indonesia by exploring how Islam is used by political parties to shape the politics. The study shows that Islamic politics is a complementary in both nationhood and statehood in Indonesia. From the early days of the new-born nation-state, Muslims in Indonesia had played significant role in shaping the nation; nonetheless, they have never dominated the political power. Fragmentation among Muslims themselves and internal political parties is among the reason why religious (Islamic parties failed in bringing religious identity to the state arena. Political subordination-inclusion-ignorance-confrontation is the circular game that features Islamic politics in Indonesia. The debatable issue on shari‘ah law, which is frequently used by Islamic parties, always becomes the core problem of the relation between Islam and the state. Even though Islam has played an important role in colouring the Indonesian politics, its existence remains complementary.

  15. When politics prevails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Dagnis; Snaith, Holly

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses Britain’s quest to negotiate its future membership of the European Union (EU) through the lens of Liberal intergovernmentalism. The article demonstrates that despite the significant economic consequences of a potential Brexit, party political factors have hitherto proven mor...... significant in defining the terrain of the debate than lobby group influence where a cross section of United Kingdom (UK) lobby groups are either actively or passively in favour of remaining within the EU ahead of the referendum....

  16. Immigration and Politics

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelius, Wayne A.; Rosenblum, Marc R.

    2004-01-01

    With nearly one in ten residents of advanced industrialized states now an immigrant, international migration has become a fundamental driver of social, economic, and political change. We review alternative models of migratory behavior (which emphasize structural factors largely beyond states’ control) as well as models of immigration policy making that seek to explain the gaps between stated policy and actual outcomes. Some scholars attempt to explain the limited efficacy of control policies ...

  17. Politics, proximity and the pipeline: Mapping public attitudes toward Keystone XL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravelle, Timothy B.; Lachapelle, Erick

    2015-01-01

    The politics of oil pipelines have become increasingly salient in American politics in recent years. In particular, debates about economic benefits, energy security and environmental impact have been provoked by the proposed Keystone XL pipeline expansion intended to take bitumen from northern Alberta in Canada to refineries on the Gulf Coast in Texas. Drawing on data from recent surveys conducted by the Pew Research Center, this article asks a series of questions. What levels of support for (and opposition to) the pipeline exist among the American public? What are the roles of political factors (such as party identification and ideology), economic attitudes, environmental attitudes and proximity to the proposed pipeline route in shaping attitudes toward the pipeline? And how do political factors and proximity to the pipeline interact? We find that partisanship and ideology drive attitudes toward the Keystone XL pipeline, and that the effect of ideology is attenuated by proximity to the proposed route. The policy implications of these findings for energy infrastructure siting controversies are discussed. -- Highlights: •Americans are divided on the Keystone XL energy pipeline. •Attitudes toward Keystone XL are driven by political party identification and ideology. •Attitudes toward the pipeline are also shaped by attitudes toward the economy and global warming. •The effect of proximity on attitudes toward Keystone XL is non-linear. •Spatial proximity to the pipeline attenuates the effect of ideology

  18. Underground Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galis, Vasilis; Summerton, Jane

    of various kinds, as well as for identifying and displacing undesired individuals/groups/bodies. A case in point is a recently-established police project (REVA) in Sweden for strengthening the so-called internal border control. Specifically, several underground stations in Stockholm now have checkpoints......Public spaces are often contested sites involving the political use of sociomaterial arrangements to check, control and filter the flow of people (see Virilio 1977, 1996). Such arrangements can include configurations of state-of-the-art policing technologies for delineating and demarcating borders...... status updates on identity checks at the metro stations in Stockholm and reports on locations and time of ticket controls for warning travelers. Thus the attempts by authorities to exert control over the (spatial) arena of the underground is circumvented by the effective developing of an alternative...

  19. Shape change of the vitreous chamber influences retinal detachment and reattachment processes: is mechanical stress during eye rotations a factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meskauskas, Julia; Repetto, Rodolfo; Siggers, Jennifer H

    2012-09-19

    We aim to understand how mechanical causation influences retinal detachment and reattachment processes. In particular, myopes suffer retinal detachment more frequently than emmetropes, and following a retinal detachment, scleral buckling promotes retinal reattachment. We test the hypothesis that stresses arising from saccadic eye rotations are involved in the processes, and that the alteration in the stress due to the change in the vitreous chamber geometry is sufficient to explain the phenomena. The vitreous chamber of the eye has an approximately spherical shape and it is filled with vitreous humor. We developed a mathematical model, treating the vitreous chamber in emmetropic and myopic eyes as a spheroid and in eyes subjected to scleral buckling as a sphere with a circumferential indentation. We assume that the eye performs prescribed small-amplitude, periodic, torsional rotations and we solve semi-analytically for the fluid pressure, velocity, and stress distributions. The shape of the vitreous chamber has a large effect on the retinal stress. The vitreous and the retina of a highly myopic eye continuously experience shear stresses significantly higher than those of an emmetropic eye. An eye fitted with a scleral buckle experiences large stress levels localized around the buckle. Our results provide a mechanical explanation for the more frequent occurrence of posterior vitreous detachment and retinal detachment in myopic eyes. To understand how the stress distribution in a buckled eye facilitates reattachment, an additional model of the details of the reattachment process should be coupled to this model.

  20. Calculation of computed tomography dose index to effective dose conversion factors based on measurement of the dose profile along the fan shaped beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, J T; Geleijns, J; Zweers, D; Schultz, F W; Zoetelief, J

    1996-01-01

    The variation in computed tomography dose index (CTDI) to effective dose conversion factors between different types of CT scanner is large (i.e. a factor of about 2 due to differences in beam shaping filters). Consequently, scanner specific conversion factors have to be applied. For some types of scanner, however, detailed information on the construction of beam shaping filters is not provided by the manufacturers. It is of interest to investigate the use of measured dose profiles for the calculation of conversion factors. Based upon measured dose profiles, two appropriate photon spectra selected on the basis of measured half value layers, gender specific adult phantoms Adam and Eva, and the Monte Carlo neutron and photon radiation transport code (MCNP), organ and effective dose conversion factors are calculated. To validate the method, a comparison is made between results for measured and calculated beam profiles for a Philips Tomoscan 350. The results in terms of effective dose per slice per unit of CTDI are compared with published data. Relative difference in conversion factors per slice averaged over all slices used for the calculations is 13 +/- 4% between the two spectra, 10.2 +/- 0.2% between measured and calculated beam profiles and 50 +/- 191% between the phantoms of different gender. The relative difference between the averaged results for the Adam and Eva phantoms and published results for a hermaphrodite phantom is on average equal to or less than 15 +/- 13%, depending on the spectrum and beam profile used, although larger differences can occur for specific slices. It is concluded that CTDI to effective dose conversion factors can be derived on the basis of measured beam profiles.

  1. Preferences for political decision-making processes and issue publics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wojcieszak, M.

    2014-01-01

    Research on public attitudes toward political decision-making has typically focused on politics in general. This study attends to issue-level as well as individual-level factors that can explain political process preferences. First, drawing on the classic distinction between easy and hard political

  2. Identification and understanding the factors affecting the public and political acceptance of long term storage of spent fuel and high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorea, Valica

    2006-01-01

    , during the storage. There is a powerful scientific and technical consensus according to which a well placed final repository must be provided with some barriers, including the geological and engineered ones. The wide-spread and accepted concept of final repository for spent fuel and high level waste is the so-called geological disposal which means the solid radioactive waste storage in underground repositories in a stable geological structure (ordinary at some hundreds of meters deep) so ensuring the isolation of radionuclides from biosphere on long term. The types of radioactive waste (high level and long life waste) which will be placed in geological repository are established by the national strategy and politics for the safe management of the radioactive waste. The development and implementation process of a repository can be achieved in the next non compulsory steps: - Developing the national politics in the field of safe management of the radioactive waste - Developing the legislative and institutional framework - Developing the technical concept of geological repository - Initiation of underground and surface investigations for the characterization of the host rock - Selecting the suitable site for an underground repository - Design, licensing for construction (which takes into account the environmental impact, nuclear safety and so on), operation and shut down. The decision to construct a geological repository must be taken by the Government or by the producers of waste. The steps for the establishing the legal framework, regulation and licensing are prerogatives of the Government, all the others steps could be achieved by non governmental organizations. The achievement of a geological repository, from the technical concept to the operation may last even more than 50 years and its operation some hundreds years. The paper contains the following sections: 1. Introduction; 2. Public and political acceptance; 3. Factors which affect the public and political

  3. A FIELD RESEARCH ON THE ANALYSIS OF VOTERS POLITICAL TRUST PERCEPTIONS AS A MARKETING TOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet TAN

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The developments in the culture of democracy have led to shaping of activities in politics and political parties from a marketing point of view. Therefore the concept of political marketing has become a new field of study both for academicians and professionals. The aim of this study is to investigate whether demographic and socio-cultural characteristics of voters differed in their perceptions of political trust. The data, which collected through face-to-face surveys conducted with 574 participants, were analyzed statistically using SPSS package program. According to the analysis results, hypotheses which argue that the confidence variable, which is one of the three factors that constitute the trust perceptions of voters, differs according to age groups, education levels, professional groups and political views were accepted. Also hypotheses which argue that ‘doing non-political works’ variable that is another factor, differs according to education levels, income levels, and occupational groups were accepted, while the other hypotheses were rejected. The communication variable did not differ in term of any characteristic of the participants.  Given the limited work on this topic, the findings of the research which were conceptually in accordance with the previous results, show that this study has made considerable contributions to the literature.

  4. Historical intersections of psychology, religion, and politics in national contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugelmann, Robert; Belzen, Jacob A

    2009-08-01

    Various types of psychology have come into existence in and have been interacting with a plurality of contexts, contexts that have been radically varying in different states or nations. One important factor in the development of psychology has been the multiple relationships to the Christian religion, whether understood as an institution, a worldview, or a form of personal spirituality. The articles in this issue focus on the intertwinements between institutional religion and national political structures and on their influence on developing forms of psychology in four different national contexts: Spain, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Within these four settings, aspects of the ways in which varying forms of Christian religion coconstituted, facilitated, and shaped psychology, theoretically, practically, and institutionally, are examined. The formative power of the religions was not independent of the relationships between religion and political power, but rather mediated by these.

  5. Political Crowdfunding as concept of political technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria GOLKA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Political crowdfunding is analyzed as a new concept of political science. The justification of use of crowdfunding technologies not only in business but also in the political sphere is argued. The efficiency, availability, low cost of the new forms of political investment through the development of information and communication technologies are noted. The typology of political crowdfunding is proposed. Political projects promoting domestic crowdfunding platforms are analyzed. Attention is drawn to the problem of legal gaps in the regulation of crowdfunding is studied. The foreign experience of organizing public support (mikroinvestment political projects. It is emphasized that in terms of political theory crowdfunding is based on solidarity. The crowdfunding properties of transforming social capital accumulated by social networks into financial capital are mentioned.

  6. Population genetic structure is shaped by historical, geographic, and environmental factors in the leguminous shrub Caragana microphylla on the Inner Mongolia Plateau of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bo; Sun, Guoli; Wang, Xuemin; Lu, Jingwei; Wang, Ian J; Wang, Zan

    2017-11-13

    Understanding how landscape factors, including suites of geographic and environmental variables, and both historical and contemporary ecological and evolutionary processes shape the distribution of genetic diversity is a primary goal of landscape and conservation genetics and may be particularly consequential for species involved in ecological restoration. In this study, we examine the factors that shape the distribution of genetic variation in a leguminous shrub (Caragana microphylla) important for restoration efforts on the Mongolian Plateau in China. This region houses several major bioclimatic gradients, and C. microphylla is an important restoration species because it stabilizes soils and prevents advancing desertification on the Inner Mongolia Plateau caused by ongoing climate change. We assembled an expansive genomic dataset, consisting of 22 microsatellite loci, four cpDNA regions, and 5788 genome-wide SNPs from ten populations of C. microphylla. We then applied ecological niche modelling and linear and non-linear regression techniques to investigate the historical and contemporary forces that explain patterns of genetic diversity and population structure in C. microphylla on the Inner Mongolia Plateau. We found strong evidence that both geographic and environmental heterogeneity contribute to genetic differentiation and that the spatial distribution of genetic diversity in C. microphylla appears to result partly from the presence of a glacial refugium at the southwestern edge of its current range. These results suggest that geographic, environmental, and historical factors have all contributed to spatial genetic variation in this ecologically important species. These results should guide restoration plans to sustain genetic diversity during plant translocations.

  7. Deducing the form factors for shear used in the calculus of the displacements based on strain energy methods. Mathematical approach for currently used shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinescu, E.; Oanta, E.; Panait, C.

    2017-08-01

    The paper presents an initial study concerning the form factors for shear, for a rectangular and for a circular cross section, being used an analytical method and a numerical study. The numerical study considers a division of the cross section in small areas and uses the power of the definitions in order to compute the according integrals. The accurate values of the form factors are increasing the accuracy of the displacements computed by the use of the strain energy methods. The knowledge resulted from this study will be used for several directions of development: calculus of the form factors for a ring-type cross section of variable ratio of the inner and outer diameters, calculus of the geometrical characteristics of an inclined circular segment and, using a Bool algebra that operates with geometrical shapes, for an inclined circular ring segment. These shapes may be used to analytically define the geometrical model of a complex composite section, i.e. a ship hull cross section. The according calculus relations are also useful for the development of customized design commands in CAD commercial applications. The paper is a result of the long run development of original computer based instruments in engineering of the authors.

  8. Community factors shaping early age at first sex among adolescents in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Malawi, and Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Rob; Simon, Calleen; Finneran, Catherine

    2014-06-01

    Using data from the National Survey of Adolescents (2004), we examine the community-level factors associated with early age at first sex among adolescents 14-19 years old in four African countries. Regression models are fitted separately by sex for each country for an outcome measuring early age at first sex, with a focus on community-level factors as potential influences of age on sexual debut. The community-level factors associated with adolescents' sexual debut vary widely by both country and gender. Community influences that emerge as risk or protective factors of early sexual debut include community levels of adolescent marriage, wealth, religious group affiliation, sex education, parental monitoring, reproductive health knowledge, media exposure, membership in adolescent social group, and use of alcohol. Results indicate the importance of context-specific understanding of adolescents' sexual behaviour and suggest how elements of place should be harnessed in the development of effective HIV and sexual health interventions.

  9. Memories of war: Sources of Vietnam veteran pro- and antiwar political attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Flores

    2014-01-01

    The sources of political attitudes are among the most studied phenomena of modern politics. Moving away from the traditional focus on party systems, the demographic characteristics of voters, or political socialization, I consider instead how memory and narrative shape political consciousness. Specifically, I focus on how culturally sanctioned memories of warfare...

  10. Political Awakenings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Franziska Brühwiler

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Le Complot contre l’Amérique de Philip Roth décrit l’initiation politique de ses deux protagonistes, le narrateur Philip et son frère aîné, Sanford. Tandis que ce dernier passe par un processus initiatique quasi classique — il se déroule conformément au schéma tripartite de van Gennep — l’apogée de l’initiation de Philip est marquée par douleur et blessure. Toutefois, tous les deux connaissent seulement une initiation partielle, car le premier doit d’abord admettre ses erreurs tandis que le second va devoir apprendre, non seulement à remettre en cause l’autorité, mais également à développer ses idées de façon indépendante.Philip Roth’s The Plot Against America traces the political awakening of its two child protagonists, the narrator Philip and his elder brother Sanford. While the latter undergoes an initiation process nearly in accordance with the classical tripartite scheme as coined by van Gennep, the height of Philip’s initiation process is marked by physical pain and injury. However, both experience only a partial initiation, since the elder brother will have to recognize his errors and the younger one will first have to learn how to go beyond the mere questioning of authority.

  11. Political processes and variation in renewable energy policies between U.S. states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasseur, Michael

    Over the past forty years federal efforts at renewable energy policy in the United States have been fragmented and are largely stalled. This is much different from U.S. states, which enact a diverse array of renewable energy policies. What factors explain this subnational variation? Addressing this question requires moving past the standard model of binary policy adoption that dominates studies of renewable energy policy. In its place I provide analyses of multifaceted policy outcomes, and also include predictors from a more inclusive view of politics than the standard economic and political interest factors. These additions to the standard energy policy model shed light not just on when states take policy action, but also on the content of the policies states ultimately adopt. In this dissertation I argue that different combinations of state-level political and economic characteristics influence policy adoption and policy content, a fact that is obscured by analysis of only binary policy action. I demonstrate this through three empirical projects that utilize an original longitudinal dataset and a variety of quantitative methods. The first project examines the diffusion of two varieties of a single regulatory policy instrument within a political context. I demonstrate that, contrary to most diffusion studies, policy adoption should be thought of as a multifaceted process, with separate factors determining the impetus for action and others shaping the content of the policy. My second project examines the role of economic, political, institutional, and cultural factors on a state's portfolio of policies. This work extends findings from prior literature on tax policies and incorporates institutional and cultural accounts of policy adoption into the study of renewable energy policy. I show that state economic and political factors, the predictors in traditional energy policy models, predict policy action but not policy content. Instead it is a state's cultural context

  12. Alternate stresses and temperature variation as factors of influence of ultrasonic vibration on mechanical and functional properties of shape memory alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, Sergey; Volkov, Alexander; Resnina, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    It is known that the main factors in a variation in the shape memory alloy properties under insonation are heating of the material and alternate stresses action. In the present work the experimental study of the mechanical behaviour and functional properties of shape memory alloy under the action of alternate stresses and varying temperature was carried out. The data obtained had demonstrated that an increase in temperature of the sample resulted in a decrease or increase in deformation stress depending on the structural state of the TiNi sample. It was shown that in the case of the alloy in the martensitic state, a decrease in stress was observed, and on the other hand, in the austenitic state an increase in stress took place. It was found that action of alternate stresses led to appearance of strain jumps on the strain-temperature curves during cooling and heating the sample through the temperature range of martensitic transformation under the constant stress. The value of the strain jumps depended on the amplitude of alternate stresses and the completeness of martensitic transformation. It was shown that the heat action of ultrasonic vibration to the mechanical behaviour of shape memory alloys was due to the non-monotonic dependence of yield stress on the temperature. The force action of ultrasonic vibration to the functional properties was caused by formation of additional oriented martensite. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Some Correlates of Media Political Advertising Credibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einsiedel, E. F.; Casey, William

    Data collected as part of a larger survey that focused on the 1978 gubernatorial race in New York State were used in a study of political advertising and media credibility. Specifically, the study examined the factors that influence an individual's rating of the helpfulness of political advertising and related these factors to voting patterns. A…

  14. Effects of Political Knowledge on Political Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, John Powell

    2018-01-01

    Sexual orientation continues to be an explosive issue in American classrooms. Increasing the political knowledge of students can reduce the volatility of this explosive issue by increasing tolerance toward the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender community. This relationship between political knowledge and political tolerance has been…

  15. About green political parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlović Slobodan P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the author refers to some legal and political questions in connection with green political parties. Those questions cover: the ideology of green political parties, their number and influence, both in general and in Serbia. The first part of work is generally speaking about political parties - their definition, ideology, role and action. Main thesis in this work is that green political parties, by their appearance, were something new on the political scene. But quickly, because of objective and subjective reasons, they were changing original ideas and were beginning to resemble to all other political parties. In this way, they lost their vanguard and political alternativeness.

  16. Political Impetus: Towards a Successful Agenda-Setting for Inclusive Health Policies in Low- and Middle-Income Countries Comment on "Shaping the Health Policy Agenda: The Case of Safe Motherhood Policy in Vietnam".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoguang; Qian, Xu

    2016-02-04

    Agenda-setting is a crucial step for inclusive health policies in the low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Enlightened by Ha et al manuscript, this commentary paper argues that 'political impetus' is the key to the successful agenda-setting of health policies in LMICs, though other determinants may also play the role during the process. This Vietnamese case study presents a good example for policy-makers of other LMICs; it offers insights for contexts where there are limited health resources and poor health performance. Further research which compares various stages of the health policy process across countries, is much needed. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  17. Systemic evil and the international political imagination

    OpenAIRE

    Hayden, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    In light of the persistence of discourses of atrocity in the post-Holocaust era, and with the resurgence of talk of evil that followed 11 September 2001, it is clear that the idea of evil still possesses a powerful hold upon the modern imagination. Yet, the interplay of evil and the political imagination – in particular, how different images of evil have shaped the discourses and practices of international politics – remains neglected. This article suggests that evil is depicted through three...

  18. Computing fluid-coupled resonance frequencies, mode-shapes, and damping loss factors using the singular value decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahnline, John B.

    2003-10-01

    In many acoustic design problems, it would be useful to be able to compute fluid-coupled resonance frequencies, mode shapes, and their associated damping levels. Unfortunately, conventional eigenvalue solution procedures are either computationally-inefficient, unreliable, or have limited applicability. Sophisticated methods for identifying modal parameters using the singular value decomposition have recently emerged in the area of experimental modal analysis, where the available data typically consists of velocity to force transfer function data as a function of frequency for several drive point locations. Here, these techniques are shown to be even more effective for coupled finite element/boundary element solutions because full matrices of transfer function data can be computed as a function of frequency. This allows the modes to be completely separated from each other, such that the modal parameters can be identified using simple methods designed for single degree of freedom systems. Several benchmark example problems are solved numerically including a baffled circular plate, an unbaffled rectangular plate, and a spring-mounted piston coupled to fluid within a rigid-walled pipe.

  19. FINANCIAL INSTABILITY AND POLITICAL INSTABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionescu Cristian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There is an important link between the following two variables: financial instability and political instability. Often, the link is bidirectional, so both may influence each other. This is way the lately crisis are becoming larger and increasingly complex. Therefore, the academic environment is simultaneously talking about economic crises, financial crises, political crises, social crises, highlighting the correlation and causality between variables belonging to the economic, financial, political and social areas, with repercussions and spillover effects that extend from one area to another. Given the importance, relevance and the actuality of the ones described above, I consider that at least a theoretical analysis between economic, financial and political factors is needed in order to understand the reality. Thus, this paper aims to find links and connections to complete the picture of the economic reality.

  20. Schapiro Shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Emily

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a lesson on Schapiro Shapes. Schapiro Shapes is based on the art of Miriam Schapiro, who created a number of works of figures in action. Using the basic concepts of this project, students learn to create their own figures and styles. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  1. Strategic political postures and political market orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan C.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the areas of strategic political marketing and political market orientation have been the subject of several conceptual articles which have provided the theoretical foundations for further empirical work. However, despite the close conceptual relatedness of the proposed concepts...... by developing an integrated concept of political marketing strategy using two complementary frameworks, namely Strategic Political Postures (SPP) and Political Market Orientation (PMO). We introduce the two main concepts and derive for each of the strategic posture-specific PMO profiles as well as inter...

  2. Social factors shaping the formation of a multi-stakeholder trails network group for the Monongahela National Forest, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen Robinson; Steven Selin; Chad Pierskalla

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the results and management implications of a longitudinal research study examining the social factors affecting the formation of a trails network advisory group for the Monongahela National Forest (MNF) in West Virginia. A collaborative process of creating an MNF trails network with input from local users and stakeholders has been largely...

  3. Defining Political Marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.

    ’ and ‘narrow’ interpretations of political marketing, the nature of the political marketing exchange, political relationship marketing and how one can integrate the stakeholder concept into an understanding of political marketing. Finally, we propose a definition of political marketing that differs from......The aim of this working paper is to develop a definition of political marketing that builds on the political rather than commercial marketing literature. This aim is motivated by the need to make explicit our understanding of what political marketing is, a necessary exercise when discussing theory......, concepts and empirical methods in political marketing. We first present five existing definitions of political marketing that have been selected to represent advances in research from the origins of academic research into political marketing in the mid-1970’s to the present day. After this we discuss ‘wide...

  4. Specification of Scientific Tasks in Collaboration between Science, Industry and State, and Impact of Political Factors on Managerial Levers and Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondarenko Tetiana M.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The issue of collaboration between science, industry and state is of relevance in domestic and international practice. In leading countries of the world and in Ukraine compatible production and scientific complexes are created; collaboration between research institutions and state is established, in particular the theory and practice of collaboration between science, industry and state on the basis of Triple Helix Model is widespread in the world; in scientific papers objects of research of economic processes, subjects of research of the economic theory are considered. However, there are no works where the objects and tasks of economic researches are studied on the basis of macroeconomic environment, and a distinct principle to distinguish research objects relating to different economies and types of production is laid out; scientific and practical problems of economy in the field of collaboration between state, science and industry are clearly defined. According to the purpose of the article (to specify scientific and practical tasks to rationalize scientific research, the experience gained is systematized and a scheme-matrix of scientific and practical problems is proposed. In scientific practice there are works highlighting principles of scientific research work, research tasks in the field of economy, scientific problems of economy but there are no works considering both principles and tasks of collaboration of academic economists with state and industry in order to provide scientists with recommendations on optimization of economic processes to improve the economic efficiency. Taking into account the experience gained, principles of collaboration of academic economists with the state and industry are identified. On the basis of the developed matrix of scientific and practical tasks, the principle of impact of political factors on managerial levers, the level of Gross Domestic Product and Gross Social Product is demonstrated.

  5. A systematic review of factors that shape implementation of mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis in sub-Saharan Africa

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    Adam Silumbwe

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding factors surrounding the implementation process of mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis (MDA for LF elimination programmes is critical for successful implementation of similar interventions. The sub-Saharan Africa (SSA region records the second highest prevalence of the disease and subsequently several countries have initiated and implemented MDA for LF. Systematic reviews have largely focused on factors that affect coverage and compliance, with less attention on the implementation of MDA for LF activities. This review therefore seeks to document facilitators and barriers to implementation of MDA for LF in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods A systematic search of databases PubMed, Science Direct and Google Scholar was conducted. English peer-reviewed publications focusing on implementation of MDA for LF from 2000 to 2016 were considered for analysis. Using thematic analysis, we synthesized the final 18 articles to identify key facilitators and barriers to MDA for LF programme implementation. Results The main factors facilitating implementation of MDA for LF programmes were awareness creation through innovative community health education programmes, creation of partnerships and collaborations, integration with existing programmes, creation of morbidity management programmes, motivation of community drug distributors (CDDs through incentives and training, and management of adverse effects. Barriers to implementation included the lack of geographical demarcations and unregistered migrations into rapidly urbanizing areas, major disease outbreaks like the Ebola virus disease in West Africa, delayed drug deliveries at both country and community levels, inappropriate drug delivery strategies, limited number of drug distributors and the large number of households allocated for drug distribution. Conclusion Mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis elimination programmes should design their implementation

  6. A systematic review of factors that shape implementation of mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silumbwe, Adam; Zulu, Joseph Mumba; Halwindi, Hikabasa; Jacobs, Choolwe; Zgambo, Jessy; Dambe, Rosalia; Chola, Mumbi; Chongwe, Gershom; Michelo, Charles

    2017-05-22

    Understanding factors surrounding the implementation process of mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis (MDA for LF) elimination programmes is critical for successful implementation of similar interventions. The sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) region records the second highest prevalence of the disease and subsequently several countries have initiated and implemented MDA for LF. Systematic reviews have largely focused on factors that affect coverage and compliance, with less attention on the implementation of MDA for LF activities. This review therefore seeks to document facilitators and barriers to implementation of MDA for LF in sub-Saharan Africa. A systematic search of databases PubMed, Science Direct and Google Scholar was conducted. English peer-reviewed publications focusing on implementation of MDA for LF from 2000 to 2016 were considered for analysis. Using thematic analysis, we synthesized the final 18 articles to identify key facilitators and barriers to MDA for LF programme implementation. The main factors facilitating implementation of MDA for LF programmes were awareness creation through innovative community health education programmes, creation of partnerships and collaborations, integration with existing programmes, creation of morbidity management programmes, motivation of community drug distributors (CDDs) through incentives and training, and management of adverse effects. Barriers to implementation included the lack of geographical demarcations and unregistered migrations into rapidly urbanizing areas, major disease outbreaks like the Ebola virus disease in West Africa, delayed drug deliveries at both country and community levels, inappropriate drug delivery strategies, limited number of drug distributors and the large number of households allocated for drug distribution. Mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis elimination programmes should design their implementation strategies differently based on specific contextual factors to

  7. Measuring the Effects of Social Media Participation on Political Party Communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Effing, R.; van Hillegersberg, Jos; Huibers, Theo W.C.; Reddick, C.; Aikins, S.

    2012-01-01

    Political parties can potentially benefit from Social Media to shape interactions between their members. This chapter presents the Social Media Participation Model (SMPM), which measures the effects of Social Media Participation on political party communities. As people and politicians increasingly

  8. Measuring the effects of social media participation on political party communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Effing, Robin; van Hillegersberg, Jos; Huibers, T.; Reddick, C.; Aikins, S.K.

    2012-01-01

    Political parties can potentially benefit from Social Media to shape interactions between their members. This chapter presents the Social Media Participation Model (SMPM), which measures the effects of Social Media Participation on political party communities. As people and politicians increasingly

  9. Assessing the Influence of Political Parties on Public Opinion: The Challenge from Pretreatment Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slothuus, Rune

    2016-01-01

    Despite generations of research, political scientists have trouble pinpointing the influence of political parties on public opinion. Recently, scholars have made headway in exploring whether parties in fact shape policy preferences by relying on experimental designs. Yet, the evidence from...

  10. Factors that shape mental health treatment-seeking behaviors of HIV-positive African-American women with depressive symptoms: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Roberta; Brawner, Bridgette; Gipson-Jones, Trina L

    2008-12-01

    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) remains a leading cause of death for African-American women from 25 to 34 years of age. Depressive symptoms are commonly associated with the diagnosis of AIDS. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is needed for optimal treatment; however, African-American women who are infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and who experience depressive symptoms have low and/or inconsistent use of HAART. Additionally, behaviors associated with untreated depressive symptoms increase the chances for HIV transmission. Clinicians, therefore, need to recognize both the individual and the contextual factors that influence those seeking treatment for depressive symptoms. The purpose of this article is to gain a better understanding of the factors that shape treatment seeking for depressive symptoms among HIV-positive African-American women, an important variable in secondary HIV prevention. Multi-contextual underpinnings shape this phenomenon; therefore, Bronfenbrenner's ecological framework was used to organize this literature review. Knowledge gained from this paper can support the promotion of health and can prevent or manage depressive symptoms among this vulnerable group.

  11. Historical factors that have shaped the evolution of tropical reef fishes: a review of phylogenies, biogeography, and remaining questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowman, Peter F.

    2014-01-01

    Biodiversity patterns across the marine tropics have intrigued evolutionary biologists and ecologists alike. Tropical coral reefs host 1/3 of all marine species of fish on 0.1% of the ocean’s surface. Yet our understanding of how mechanistic processes have underpinned the generation of this diversity is limited. However, it has become clear that the biogeographic history of the marine tropics has played an important role in shaping the diversity of tropical reef fishes we see today. In the last decade, molecular phylogenies and age estimation techniques have provided a temporal framework in which the ancestral biogeographic origins of reef fish lineages have been inferred, but few have included fully sampled phylogenies or made inferences at a global scale. We are currently at a point where new sequencing technologies are accelerating the reconstruction and the resolution of the Fish Tree of Life. How will a complete phylogeny of fishes benefit the study of biodiversity in the tropics? Here, I review the literature concerning the evolutionary history of reef-associated fishes from a biogeographic perspective. I summarize the major biogeographic and climatic events over the last 65 million years that have regionalized the tropical marine belt and what effect they have had on the molecular record of fishes and global biodiversity patterns. By examining recent phylogenetic trees of major reef associated groups, I identify gaps to be filled in order to obtain a clearer picture of the origins of coral reef fish assemblages. Finally, I discuss questions that remain to be answered and new approaches to uncover the mechanistic processes that underpin the evolution of biodiversity on coral reefs. PMID:25431581

  12. Political Market Orientation: A Framework for Understanding Relationship Structures in Political Parties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.; Savigny, Heather

    2012-01-01

    This article is motivated by the growing need to integrate the current political science and marketing literature in order to provide a deeper understanding of the behaviour of political actors and their relationships with relevant stakeholder groups. In our article, we demonstrate how Ormrod......’s conceptual model of political market orientation complements political science models of party organization by drawing attention to the competing interests of stakeholders in shaping party strategy and organizational structure. We treat parties as a multitude of actors rather than as monolithic entities...... and thus address the dearth of literature on the micro foundations of parties. Whilst the underlying conceptualization of a political market orientation draws on the management-based ‘relationship marketing’ approach, we acknowledge that the commercial and political contexts are not isomorphic, and thus we...

  13. The political gender gap: gender bias in facial inferences that predict voting behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Y Chiao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Throughout human history, a disproportionate degree of political power around the world has been held by men. Even in democracies where the opportunity to serve in top political positions is available to any individual elected by the majority of their constituents, most of the highest political offices are occupied by male leaders. What psychological factors underlie this political gender gap? Contrary to the notion that people use deliberate, rational strategies when deciding whom to vote for in major political elections, research indicates that people use shallow decision heuristics, such as impressions of competence solely from a candidate's facial appearance, when deciding whom to vote for. Because gender has previously been shown to affect a number of inferences made from the face, here we investigated the hypothesis that gender of both voter and candidate affects the kinds of facial impressions that predict voting behavior. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Male and female voters judged a series of male and female political candidates on how competent, dominant, attractive and approachable they seemed based on their facial appearance. Then they saw a series of pairs of political candidates and decided which politician they would vote for in a hypothetical election for President of the United States. Results indicate that both gender of voter and candidate affect the kinds of facial impressions that predict voting behavior. All voters are likely to vote for candidates who appear more competent. However, male candidates that appear more approachable and female candidates who appear more attractive are more likely to win votes. In particular, men are more likely to vote for attractive female candidates whereas women are more likely to vote for approachable male candidates. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Here we reveal gender biases in the intuitive heuristics that voters use when deciding whom to vote for in major political elections. Our

  14. Revisiting the Factors Shaping Outcomes for Forest and Landscape Restoration in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Way Forward for Policy, Practice and Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Nadia S. Djenontin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A lack of systematic understanding of the elements that determine the success of forest and landscape restoration (FLR investments leads to the inability to clearly articulate strategic and practical approaches to support natural resource restoration endeavors across Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. This review examines the different challenges and opportunities for effective restoration interventions. Using a structured literature review, we draw evidence from a broad range of scholarly works on natural resource conservation and governance to investigate the early dynamics of FLR in SSA. We first engage in a contextual clarification of FLR concepts and then provide a synthesis of the factors that influence the results of FLR interventions at the social and institutional level to inform relevant restoration stakeholders—policy makers, investors, and practitioners. The review finds that several interacting factors shape the outcomes of FLR interventions. We classified them into three categories based on their features, intensity, and scale of occurrence: (1 micro-scale factors that enable or limit individual engagement in FLR and sustainable management practices; (2 project/program-level factors, including the design and implementation stages; and (3 institutional, policy, and governance factors, and issues of inequity that operate at the local or national government scale. The review goes beyond underscoring funding constraints as a major challenge to the up- and out-scaling of restoration interventions and FLR success. The findings also set out a premise for future research to guide the design and implementation of successful FLR models in SSA.

  15. Language and Politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimombo, Moira

    1999-01-01

    Surveys the interrelationship between language and politics. Touches on the context of political discourse, or political culture and ideology in new and old democracies and the reemerging manifestations of totalitarianism, censorship, and linguistic imperialism; then examines selected linguistic features of political discourse and their…

  16. Adaptation as a political process: adjusting to drought and conflict in Kenya's drylands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Siri; Lind, Jeremy

    2009-05-01

    In this article, we argue that people's adjustments to multiple shocks and changes, such as conflict and drought, are intrinsically political processes that have uneven outcomes. Strengthening local adaptive capacity is a critical component of adapting to climate change. Based on fieldwork in two areas in Kenya, we investigate how people seek to access livelihood adjustment options and promote particular adaptation interests through forming social relations and political alliances to influence collective decision-making. First, we find that, in the face of drought and conflict, relations are formed among individuals, politicians, customary institutions, and government administration aimed at retaining or strengthening power bases in addition to securing material means of survival. Second, national economic and political structures and processes affect local adaptive capacity in fundamental ways, such as through the unequal allocation of resources across regions, development policy biased against pastoralism, and competition for elected political positions. Third, conflict is part and parcel of the adaptation process, not just an external factor inhibiting local adaptation strategies. Fourth, there are relative winners and losers of adaptation, but whether or not local adjustments to drought and conflict compound existing inequalities depends on power relations at multiple geographic scales that shape how conflicting interests are negotiated locally. Climate change adaptation policies are unlikely to be successful or minimize inequity unless the political dimensions of local adaptation are considered; however, existing power structures and conflicts of interests represent political obstacles to developing such policies.

  17. Boar genotype as a factor shaping age-related changes in semen parameters and reproduction longevity simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knecht, Damian; Jankowska-Mąkosa, Anna; Duziński, Kamil

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was a detailed analysis of the boar genotypes used in AI stations with an indication of their production capacity, including age and a precise analysis of their culling time and reason. The study included 334 boars: 81 Polish Large White (PLW), 108 Polish Landrace (PL), 49 Pietrain (P), 56 Duroc × Pietrain (D × P) and 40 Hampshire × Pietrain (H × P). Semen volume, spermatozoa concentration, total number of spermatozoa, number of motile spermatozoa, and number of insemination doses were analyzed. Quadratic regression was used to illustrate the selected sperm parameters at specific ages. Among all the studied boars the lowest motilities of spermatozoa were identified in white breeds PLW and PL, and the difference between motility extremes was 3.53% (P ≤ 0.01). The highest number of insemination doses were produced from D × P crossbreed boars: about 0.7 portions more compared to PL, 1.13 to PLW, 1.18 to H × P and 1.8 to P (all differences P ≤ 0.01). It has been shown in the case of ejaculate volume that for PLW and H × P boars the culling moment was far too early in terms of production capacity and differences were, respectively, 16.35 ml for PLW and 12.61 ml for H × P. Based on the developed regression equations, the earliest maximum number of motile sperm (73.82 × 10 9 ) was obtained by H × P crossbreed boars as early as at age 24 months. The highest values for this parameter were achieved, however, by other D × P crossbreed boars: 74.30 × 10 9  at the later age of 32 months. A consequence of the high number of motile sperm in young H × P boars was that the theoretical maximum value of the number of AI doses was produced as early as the 14th month (25.59 portions). Curves of similar shape were obtained for PL and D × P boars; the difference in maximal values was 0.54 portions in favor of crossbreeds, at a later age of 7 months. It was noted that for PLW and D × P boars the highest number

  18. Defining Political Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Ormrod, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this working paper is to develop a definition of political marketing that builds on the political rather than commercial marketing literature. This aim is motivated by the need to make explicit our understanding of what political marketing is, a necessary exercise when discussing theory, concepts and empirical methods in political marketing. We first present five existing definitions of political marketing that have been selected to represent advances in research from the origins o...

  19. p63 Transcription Factor Regulates Nuclear Shape and Expression of Nuclear Envelope-Associated Genes in Epidermal Keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapisarda, Valentina; Malashchuk, Igor; Asamaowei, Inemo E; Poterlowicz, Krzysztof; Fessing, Michael Y; Sharov, Andrey A; Karakesisoglou, Iakowos; Botchkarev, Vladimir A; Mardaryev, Andrei

    2017-10-01

    The maintenance of a proper nuclear architecture and three-dimensional organization of the genes, enhancer elements, and transcription machinery plays an essential role in tissue development and regeneration. Here we show that in the developing skin, epidermal progenitor cells of mice lacking p63 transcription factor display alterations in the nuclear shape accompanied by a marked decrease in expression of several nuclear envelope-associated components (Lamin B1, Lamin A/C, Sun1, Nesprin-3, Plectin) compared with controls. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative PCR assay showed enrichment of p63 on Sun1, Syne3, and Plec promoters, suggesting them as p63 targets. Alterations in the nuclei shape and expression of nuclear envelope-associated proteins were accompanied by altered distribution patterns of the repressive histone marks trimethylation on lysine 27 of histone H3, trimethylation on lysine 9 of histone H3, and heterochromatin protein 1-alpha in p63-null keratinocytes. These changes were also accompanied by downregulation of the transcriptional activity and relocation of the keratinocyte-specific gene loci away from the sites of active transcription toward the heterochromatin-enriched repressive nuclear compartments in p63-null cells. These data demonstrate functional links between the nuclear envelope organization, chromatin architecture, and gene expression in keratinocytes and suggest nuclear envelope-associated genes as important targets mediating p63-regulated gene expression program in the epidermis. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Political entrepreneurship and bidding for political monopoly

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Wohlgemuth

    2000-01-01

    An analytical framework for dealing with political entrepreneurship and reform is proposed which is based on some new combinations of Schumpeterian political economy, an extended version of Tullock's model of democracy as franchise-bidding for natural monopoly and some basic elements of New Institutional Economics. It is shown that problems of insufficient award criteria and incomplete contracts which may arise in economic bidding schemes, also - and even more so - characterise political comp...

  1. Russian-Saudian Political Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Kosach

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the development of Russian-Saudi political interaction after the restoration (at that time of Soviet-Saudi relations of bilateral relations in September 1990. The article focuses on the role of the Russian Muslim community in shaping the Russian politics towards Riyadh in the 1990-2000s. The authors state there are both periods of “crises” and detente in the development of Russian-Saudi political interaction that were marked by events in Chechnya and former Yugoslavia in 1994-2000, “Arab Spring” 2011, the post-September 2015 era, the Russian anti-terrorist campaign in Syria. The alternation of these periods is the constant of Russian-Saudi political contacts, despite the similarity in the approaches of both sides to the ways and methods of solving crisis situations in the Middle East region, as well as the Saudi’s pro-Russian position regarding the change in the status of the Crimea and the situation in the east of Ukraine. The general attitude of both sides towards ISIS and Jabha al-Nusra as a source of terrorism, regional instability and the challenge of international security does not remove the two main contradictions that divide Moscow and Riyadh – attitude toward the official Syrian regime and the Iran’s regional policy. The study comes to the conclusion that Russia and Saudi Arabia are interested (albeit for various reasons in diversifying their foreign policy and foreign economic relations.

  2. Citizen science data reveal ecological, historical and evolutionary factors shaping interactions between woody hosts and wood-inhabiting fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann-Clausen, Jacob; Maruyama, Pietro K; Bruun, Hans Henrik; Dimitrov, Dimitar; Laessøe, Thomas; Frøslev, Tobias Guldberg; Dalsgaard, Bo

    2016-12-01

    Woody plants host diverse communities of associated organisms, including wood-inhabiting fungi. In this group, host effects on species richness and interaction network structure are not well understood, especially not at large geographical scales. We investigated ecological, historical and evolutionary determinants of fungal species richness and network modularity, that is, subcommunity structure, across woody hosts in Denmark, using a citizen science data set comprising > 80 000 records of > 1000 fungal species on 91 genera of woody plants. Fungal species richness was positively related to host size, wood pH, and the number of species in the host genus, with limited influence of host frequency and host history, that is, time since host establishment in the area. Modularity patterns were unaffected by host history, but largely reflected host phylogeny. Notably, fungal communities differed substantially between angiosperm and gymnosperm hosts. Host traits and evolutionary history appear to be more important than host frequency and recent history in structuring interactions between hosts and wood-inhabiting fungi. High wood acidity appears to act as a stress factor reducing fungal species richness, while large host size, providing increased niche diversity, enhances it. In some fungal groups that are known to interact with live host cells in the establishment phase, host selectivity is common, causing a modular community structure. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Survivor needs or logistical convenience? Factors shaping decisions to deliver relief to earthquake-affected communities, Pakistan 2005-06.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benini, Aldo; Conley, Charles; Dittemore, Brody; Waksman, Zachary

    2009-03-01

    In Bureaucratizing the Good Samaritan, Waters (2001) argues that bureaucratic rationality distracts humanitarian agencies from the needs of the people they are supposed to assist, in favour of other values that their institutional frameworks dictate. We test his claim by investigating the response to the Pakistan 2005 earthquake. One of us (Dittemore) worked with the United Nations Joint Logistics Centre in the theatre, managing a relief cargo shipment database. The response, known as 'Operation Winter Race', was hampered by extreme logistical challenges, but ultimately succeeded in averting a second disaster resulting from cold and starvation. We use statistical models to probe whether survivor needs significantly guided decisions to deliver relief to affected communities. Needs assessments remained incomplete and incoherent. We measure needs through proxy indicators and integrate them, on a Geographic Information System (GIS) platform, with logistics and relief delivery data. We find that, despite strong logistics effects, needs orientations were significant. However, the strength of decision factors varies between commodity types (food versus clothing and shelter versus reconstruction materials) as well as over the different phases of the response. This study confirms Thomas's observation that logistics databases are rich 'repositories of data that can be analyzed to provide post-event learning' (Thomas, 2003, p. 4). This article is an invitation for others to engage in creative humanitarian data management.

  4. (Un- Political Ethics, (un- Ethical Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolff-Michael Roth

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Ethics and politics are normally con­sidered domains that do not mix, in fact, domains that have little to do with one another. In this article, I provide four factual fictions that show how at the university, research ethics and politics are intertwined. Politics appears to be used for the sole purpose of constructing and maintaining con­trol over the research process and its products. Ultimately, even ethics reviews of proposed research studies are caught up in the politics of power. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0403357

  5. Political party affiliation, political ideology and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabayo, Roman; Kawachi, Ichiro; Muennig, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Ecological and cross-sectional studies have indicated that conservative political ideology is associated with better health. Longitudinal analyses of mortality are needed because subjective assessments of ideology may confound subjective assessments of health, particularly in cross-sectional analyses. Data were derived from the 2008 General Social Survey-National Death Index data set. Cox proportional analysis models were used to determine whether political party affiliation or political ideology was associated with time to death. Also, we attempted to identify whether self-reported happiness and self-rated health acted as mediators between political beliefs and time to death. In this analysis of 32,830 participants and a total follow-up time of 498,845 person-years, we find that political party affiliation and political ideology are associated with mortality. However, with the exception of independents (adjusted HR (AHR)=0.93, 95% CI 0.90 to 0.97), political party differences are explained by the participants' underlying sociodemographic characteristics. With respect to ideology, conservatives (AHR=1.06, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.12) and moderates (AHR=1.06, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.11) are at greater risk for mortality during follow-up than liberals. Political party affiliation and political ideology appear to be different predictors of mortality. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. The Value "Social Responsibility" as a Motivating Factor for Adolescents' Readiness to Participate in Different Types of Political Actions, and Its Socialization in Parent and Peer Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Based on a sample of tetrads (N = 839), including 16 year-old adolescents, their mothers, fathers, and same-sex friends, it was analyzed in which way the value social responsibility is related to adolescents' readiness for different types of political participation. Results showed that social responsibility was positively linked to readiness for…

  7. Chemical, Physical, and Biological Factors Shape Littoral Invertebrate Community Structure in Coal-Mining End-Pit Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luek, Andreas; Rasmussen, Joseph B.

    2017-04-01

    Aquatic invertebrates form the base of the consumer food web in lakes. In coal-mining end-pit lakes, invertebrates are exposed to an environment with potentially challenging physical and chemical features. We hypothesized that the physical and chemical features of end-pit lakes reduce critical littoral habitat and thus reduce invertebrate diversity, thereby limiting the potential for these lakes to be naturalized. We used a multivariate approach using principle component analysis and redundancy analysis to study relationships between invertebrate community structure, habitat features, and water quality in five end-pit lakes and five natural lakes in the Rocky Mountain foothills of west-central Alberta, Canada. Results show a significantly different invertebrate community structure was present in end-pit lakes as compared with reference lakes in the same region, which could be accounted for by water hardness, conductivity, slope of the littoral zone, and phosphorus concentrations. Habitat diversity in end-pit lakes was also limited, cover provided by macrophytes was scarce, and basin slopes were significantly steeper in pit lakes. Although water chemistry is currently the strongest influencing factor on the invertebrate community, physical challenges of habitat homogeneity and steep slopes in the littoral zones were identified as major drivers of invertebrate community structure. The addition of floating wetlands to the littoral zone of existing pit lakes can add habitat complexity without the need for large-scale alterations to basing morphology, while impermeable capping of waste-rock and the inclusion of littoral habitat in the planning process of new pit lakes can improve the success of integrating new pit lakes into the landscape.

  8. What organizations did (and didn't) do: Three factors that shaped conservation responses to California's 2001 'crisis'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janda, Kathryn; Payne, Christopher; Kunkle, Rick; Lutzenhiser, Loren

    2002-08-18

    Beginning in the summer of 2000, California experienced energy supply problems, sharp increases in electricity and natural gas prices, and isolated blackouts. In response, California's state government implemented an unprecedented energy conservation effort to mitigate projected electricity supply shortages during the summer of 2001. Ultimately, significant electricity demand and consumption reductions were achieved. This paper considers the response of commercial and institutional organizations to the California energy situation and offers a description of three factors that shaped these responses: (1) concern about energy problems; (2) operational conditions; and (3) institutional capacity for action. A matrix of possible combinations of concern, conditions, and capacity offers a heuristic for use in exploring how to best tailor and target policy interventions to the circumstances of particular subgroups of organizations.

  9. Exploring the interaction of personal and contextual factors during the induction period of science teachers and how this interaction shapes their enactment of science reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saka, Yavuz

    The first years of teaching are demanding as the novice works to gain a degree of familiarity in her/his professional work. It is during this period that many teachers decide to leave the teaching profession or move away from the reform-minded beliefs and practices acquired during their teacher preparation programs. To understand what happens during induction requires a focus on both the cognitive and contextual issues related to science teaching. The goal of this qualitative, multi-case study was to describe the induction experiences of two reform-minded first year science teachers and the strategies they used to negotiate contradictions embedded the context of schooling. Using the frame of Cultural Historical Activity Theory, in this research I focused on changes in science teachers' personal and professional identities, self-efficacy and pedagogical discontentment, the manner in which these factors shaped science teaching practices, and beliefs and practices shaped and were shaped by the context of the novices' work. Data included a year of participant observations, surveys, open-ended questionnaires, interviews, classroom observations, and mediating artifacts such as lesson plans and assignments. Identities and dispositions of these teachers played significant role their attempts to become competent members of their school communities, attempts that influenced and were influenced by their teaching self-efficacy and pedagogical discontentment. Mild contradictions in the system allowed for the refinement of reform-minded science teaching practices, while extreme contradictions in the system served to change one teacher's goals and prevented his successful enactment of science education reform. Findings indicated that the successful enactment of reform-minded practice depends not just on contextual factors related to schools, or just on individual factors associated with science teaching. Instead, personal and contextual factors interact to shape a novice's first

  10. Measurement of the B0 to pi l nu Form Factor Shape and Branching Fraction, and Determination of |Vub| with a Loose Neutrino Reconstruction Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cote, D

    2006-09-26

    The authors report the results of a study of the exclusive charmless semileptonic B{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup -}{ell}{sup +}{nu} decay undertaken with approximately 227 million B{bar B} pairs collected at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance with the BABAR detector. The analysis uses events in which the signal B mesons are reconstructed with a novel loose neutrino reconstruction technique. We obtain partial branching fractions in 12 bins of q{sup 2}, the {ell}{sup +}{nu} invariant mass squared, from which we extract the f{sup +}(q{sup 2}) form factor shape and the total branching fraction: {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup -}{ell}{sup +}{nu}) = 1.44 {+-} 0.08{sub stat} {+-} 0.10{sub syst} x 10{sup -4}. Based on a recent theoretical calculation of the form factor, we find the magnitude of the CKM matrix element |V{sub ub}| to be (4.1 {+-} 0.2{sub stat} {+-} 0.2{sub syst{sub -0.4}{sup +0.6}}FF) x 10{sup -3}, where the last uncertainty is due to the normalization of the form factor.

  11. The importance of geomorphic and hydrologic factors in shaping the sensitivity of alpine/subalpine lake volumes to shifts in climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, J.; Liefert, D. T.; Shuman, B. N.; Befus, K. M.; Williams, D. G.; Kraushaar, B.

    2017-12-01

    Alpine and subalpine lakes are important components of the hydrologic cycle in mountain ecosystems. These lakes are also highly sensitive to small shifts in temperature and precipitation. Mountain lake volumes and their contributions to mountain hydrology may change in response to even minor declines in snowpack or increases in temperature. However, it is still not clear to what degree non-climatic factors, such as geomorphic setting and lake geometry, play in shaping the sensitivity of high elevation lakes to climate change. We investigated the importance of lake geometry and groundwater connectivity to mountain lakes in the Snowy Range, Wyoming using a combination of hydrophysical and hydrochemical methods, including stable water isotopes, to better understand the role these factors play in controlling lake volume. Water isotope values in open lakes were less sensitive to evaporation compared to those in closed basin lakes. Lake geometry played an important role, with wider, shallower lakes being more sensitive to evaporation over time. Groundwater contributions appear to play only a minor role in buffering volumetric changes to lakes over the growing season. These results confirm that mountain lakes are sensitive to climate factors, but also highlight a significant amount of variability in that sensitivity. This research has implications for water resource managers concerned with downstream water quantity and quality from mountain ecosystems, biologists interested in maintaining aquatic biodiversity, and paleoclimatologists interested in using lake sedimentary information to infer past climate regimes.

  12. Politicizing science: conceptions of politics in science and technology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mark B

    2015-02-01

    This essay examines five ideal-typical conceptions of politics in science and technology studies. Rather than evaluating these conceptions with reference to a single standard, the essay shows how different conceptions of politics serve distinct purposes: normative critique, two approaches to empirical description, and two views of democracy. I discuss each conception of politics with respect to how well it fulfills its apparent primary purpose, as well as its implications for the purpose of studying a key issue in contemporary democratic societies: the politicization of science. In this respect, the essay goes beyond classifying different conceptions of politics and also recommends the fifth conception as especially conducive to understanding and shaping the processes whereby science becomes a site or object of political activity. The essay also employs several analytical distinctions to help clarify the differences among conceptions of politics: between science as 'political' (adjective) and science as a site of 'politics' (noun), between spatial-conceptions and activity-conceptions of politics, between latent conflicts and actual conflicts, and between politics and power. The essay also makes the methodological argument that the politics of science and technology is best studied with concepts and methods that facilitate dialogue between actors and analysts. The main goal, however, is not to defend a particular view of politics, but to promote conversation on the conceptions of politics that animate research in social studies of science and technology.

  13. Faithless: The politics of new atheism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Kettell

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of ‘new atheism’ during the course of the last decade helped fuel an upsurge of interest in issues around religion. But scholarly analysis of new atheism, particularly its political dimensions, remains embryonic. This paper addresses this lacuna by examining the politics of new atheism across a variety of themes related to politics. These include the causal factors underpinning its emergence and development, its organisational structure and composition, the political strategies pursued by its proponents, and the various internal tensions and conflicts that these dynamics have produced.

  14. Political connectedness, corporate governance, and firm performance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Domadenik, P.; Prašnikar, J.; Švejnar, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 139, č. 2 (2016), s. 411-428 ISSN 0167-4544 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-24642S Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : political connectedness * political corruption * corporate governance Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.354, year: 2016

  15. Cultural legacies and political preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siroky, David S.; Mueller, Sean; Hechter, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The study of secession generally stresses the causal influence of cultural identities, political preferences, or ecological factors. Whereas these different views are often considered to be mutually exclusive, this paper proposes a two-stage model in which they are complementary. We posit that cu...

  16. Exploring Women's Understanding of Politics, Political Contestation ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Exploring Women's Understanding of Politics, Political Contestation and Gender Transformation in the Caribbean. IDRC's Democratic Governance, Women's Rights and Gender Equality initiative is supporting a body of comparative research on whether and how democratic processes and institutions are responding to ...

  17. Civic political culture, participatory governance and political ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study x-rayed the significance of civic political culture on participatory governance and its potentialities on political development. It adopted theoretical postulations in analyzing the subject matter. The analytical model showed a diagrammatic presentation of the relationship among participant culture features, elements ...

  18. Civic Political Culture, Participatory Governance and Political ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    Indexed African Journals Online: www.ajol.info as its potential contribution to political development in Nigeria-as it will be applicable to other developing countries of the world. This study provided theoretical postulations in analysing the notion of participatory governance, and linking the research problem (civic political ...

  19. Identities of the political theory: among science, normativity and history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to present a brief overview of the evolving debates on the problem of the identity of political theory, mainly in the Anglophone academic context since the end of the 1950’s. At least three ways of identifying the nature of political theory have shaped those de-bates: the scientistic, the normative and the historical.

  20. The Politics of Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahne, Joseph

    1996-01-01

    Before analysts can assess self-esteem as a goal for policy and practice, they must consider the ideological orientations of those who use the term and the cultural norms that shape the debate. Explicit attention to the politics surrounding self-esteem is needed to evaluate the use of the term in policy contexts. (Author/SLD)

  1. Political electricity: What future for nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, T.

    1993-01-01

    Political Electricity first reviews the history of nuclear power development in nine countries (USA, France, Japan, UK, West Germany, Sweden, Italy, Switzerland, Australia). Second the book analyses major issues shaping the future of the industry: nuclear power economincs, nuclear hazards, alternative energy economics, and greenhouse gas constraints

  2. Atomic politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skogmar, G.

    1979-01-01

    The authors basic point is that the military and civil sides of atomic energy cannot be separated. The general aim of the book is to analyze both the military and civil branches, and the interdependence between them, of American foreign policy in the atomic field. Atomic policy is seen as one of the most important imstruments of foreign policy which, in turn, is seen against the background of American imperialism in general. Firstly, the book investigates the most important means by which the United States has controlled the development in the nuclear field in other countries. These means include influencing the conditions of access to nuclear resources of various kinds, influencing the flow of technical-economic information and influencing international organizations and treaties bearing on atomic energy. The time period treated is 1945-1973. 1973 is chosen as the end-year of the study mainly because of the new conditions in the whole energy field initiated by the oil crisis in that year. The sources of the empirical work are mainly hearings before the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy of the U.S. Congress and legal material of various kinds. Secondly, the goals of the American policy are analyzed. The goals identified are armament effect, non-proliferation (horizontal), sales, and energy dependence. The relation between the main goals is discussed.The discussion is centered on the interdependence between the military and the civil aspects, conflict and coincidence of various goals, the relation between short-term and long-term goals, and the possibilities of using one goal as pretext for another. Thirdly, some causes of the changes in the atomic policy around 1953 and 1963 are identified. These are the strategic balance, the competitive situation, the capacity (of the American atomic productive apparatus), and the nuclear technological stage. The specific composition of these four factors at the two time-points can explain the changes of policy. (author)

  3. Political Values or the Value of Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simoska, Emilija

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay was motivated by the gap between proclaimed democratic principles and the perceptions of politics which are exhibited by the citizens in transitional countries -more specifically in the Republic of Macedonia. It is based on research data collected in the past few decades, which illustrate that, in their political actions, the citizens are highly motivated by personal benefits and profits, rather than by their internalized values and ideologies. Non-democratic, authoritarian values prevail, while politics is perceived as a value itself, in the most materialistic meaning of the word. It creates a suitable milieu for growth of corruption, nepotism and clientelism. The authors conclude that such a circulus vitsiosus is a corner stone of the Macedonian political regime, and an enormous obstacle for the advancement of the participative, democratic political culture in reality, in spite of its formal acceptance.

  4. Building a Political Settlement: The International Approach to Kenya’s 2008 Post-Election Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karuti Kanyinga

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents findings from an empirical study of the 2008 Kenyan crisis, aimed at exploring the role and effectiveness of the international development and diplomatic communities’ response. This response involved working to ameliorate the fragile political environment that followed the disputed 2007 elections. Thus, this case study was selected as an archetype to demonstrate how international actors can work cooperatively on political settlements. The key objective of this research is to analyse and share lessons about how those international actors present in Kenya engaged with the evolving political settlement to address the conflict. This study draws upon evolving political economy and political settlement debates in its analysis and uses the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development’s (OECD Fragile States Principles as a framework. Adopting such an analytical lens encourages examination of the multiple, context-specific underlying dynamics that influenced the role of international actors during this period of political transition. It also enables a study of the operational factors facing external actors when they attempt to work more politically, and recognition of how carefully these actors need to use the limited role they have in shaping the internal institutional arrangements and dynamics of the countries within which they work. The study’s main findings indicate that in the 2008 post-election period the international development and diplomatic communities collectively commanded substantive influence over the nature and trajectory of Kenya’s evolving political settlement. It argues that these actors enhanced their influence over many important political issues principally as a result of applying good practice in fragile situations: understanding the context, adopting a unified and legitimate stance, coordinating and collaborating closely and acting fast to prevent conflict. They also laid the foundations for

  5. Governance and politics in the upper Limpopo River Basin, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meissner, Richard

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Everyday international political economy (EIPE) offers an opportunity to rethink the role of individuals and citizenry in shaping governance of natural resources. In South Africa, significant progress has been made by government in re-shaping water...

  6. Gaps in Political Interest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robison, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Political interest fundamentally influences political behavior, knowledge, and persuasion (Brady, Verba, & Schlozman, 1995; Delli Carpini & Keeter, 1996; Luskin, 1990; Zukin, Andolina, Keeter, Jenkins, & Delli Carpini, 2006). Since the early 1960s, the American National Election Studies (ANES) ha...

  7. Sustainability : Politics and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinrichs, Harald; Biermann, Frank

    2016-01-01

    he article gives an overview of global sustainability policy and politics. It is shown how international policy making on sustainable development has progressed from environmental policy toward recent approaches of Earth system governance. Key challenges of international sustainability politics are

  8. Employees' Political Skill and Job Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zettler, Ingo; Lang, Jonas W.B.

    2015-01-01

    During the past decade, the construct of political skill has attracted a lot of attention. In particular, its relation to job performance has been examined. With regard to this link, it is typically proposed that political skill affects job performance in a positive linear manner. However......, in this article it is suggested that intermediate levels of employees' political skill yield the highest job performance, implying that this association is in fact represented by an inverted U-shape. Findings from two field studies (N = 178, N = 115 employee-supervisor-colleague triads) that incorporated...... different sample characteristics (early career employees, established employees), job performance dimensions (overall, task, contextual, and adaptive performance), and rating sources (supervisors and colleagues) supported this idea. Across different analyses, employees with intermediate levels of political...

  9. The Fourth Age of Political Communication: Democratic decay or the rise of phronetic political communication?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Aagaard

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The ‘fourth age’ of political communication is emerging. In the fourth age the logics of media and digitization shapes the public sphere, because algorithms and polarized drama increasingly determine what we become aware of in digital and mass media. The result may very well be a less informed public sphere. The emerging class of policy professionals has the opportunity to mix the logics of mediatization and digitization. While such a mix may very well lead to democratic decay, based on elitism, it may also hold fruitful potentials for a more democratic and ethical type of political communication, called phronetic political communication.

  10. Oil: Economics and politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayoub, A.

    1994-01-01

    A review is presented of the evolution of the international petroleum sector since 1973 with a special emphasis on the interdependence between the economic and political factors that influence it. Two issues are focused on: the effects of the nationalization of oil companies on the sharing of oil rents and on changes in the structure of the oil market; and the determination of oil prices. Definitions are presented of oil rents, and the reasons for OPEC nationalization of oil companies are explored. The effects of nationalization on market structures, expansion of free markets, and vertical integration are discussed. The existence of an oil price floor and the reasons for such a floor are examined. It is shown that nationalization induced an internalization of rents by the producing countries, leading to the emergence of a differential rent supported by the politics of the industrialized countries. Nationalization led to the breakup of systems of vertical and horizontal integration, with replacement by a new dual structure with OPEC controlling the upstream activities of the oil sector and oil companies controlling the downstream ones. Prices move between a floor price set by the costs of substitute deposits in the U.S., while the determination of ceiling levels by OPEC rests on successive fragile compromises. Overall oil is still a strategic product, despite the existence of spot markets, forward trading options, etc. 29 refs

  11. Comparing Political Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Pfetsch, Barbara; Esser, Frank

    2012-01-01

    This chapter describes the maturation of comparative political communications as a sub-discipline and defines its conceptual core. It then lays out the concept of “political communication system”. At the macro-level, this model captures the patterns of interaction between media and politics as social systems; at the micro-level it captures the interactions between media and political actors as individuals or organizations. Comparative research in this tradition focuses on the structure of pol...

  12. Emotions, Public Opinion, and U.S. Presidential Approval Rates: A 5-Year Analysis of Online Political Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Bailon, Sandra; Banchs, Rafael E.; Kaltenbrunner, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    This article examines how emotional reactions to political events shape public opinion. We analyze political discussions in which people voluntarily engage online to approximate the public agenda: Online discussions offer a natural approach to the salience of political issues and the means to analyze emotional reactions as political events take…

  13. Western Political Consulting Techniques and Post-Soviet Political Technology in Political Campaigns in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Bērziņa, Ieva

    2012-01-01

    Western Political Consulting Techniques and Post-Soviet Political Technology in Political Campaigns in Latvia Ieva Dmitričenko Keywords: political campaignsm political consulting, political technology, parties, marketing, media Political campaigning is an international phenomenon, because there is a free flow of information, knowledge and human resource among practitioners of political campaigning in various countries. As a result political campaigning techniques that have proven to ...

  14. Reform despite politics? The political economy of power sector reform in Fiji, 1996–2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dornan, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Attempts to reform the electricity sector in developing countries have achieved mixed results, despite the implementation of similar reforms in many developed countries, and concerted effort by donors to transfer reform models. In many cases, political obstacles have prevented full and effective implementation of donor-promoted reforms. This paper examines the political economy of power sector reform in Fiji from 1996 to 2013. Reform has been pursued with political motives in a context of clientelism. Policy inconsistency and reversal is explained by the political instability of ethnic-based politics in Fiji. Modest success has been achieved in recent years despite these challenges, with Fiji now considered a model of power sector reform for other Small Islands Developing States (SIDS) in the Pacific. The experience demonstrates that reform is possible within difficult political environments, but it is challenging, takes time and is not guaranteed. The way in which political motives have driven and shaped reform efforts also highlights the need for studies of power sector reform to direct greater attention toward political drivers behind reform. - Highlights: • This is the first study of power sector reform in Fiji or other Small Island Developing States (SIDS) of the Pacific. • The clientelist nature of politics in Fiji is found to have both driven and shaped reform efforts. • There has been modest success in recent years despite these obstacles, with Fiji now considered a model for other SIDS. • The experience demonstrates that reform is possible within difficult political environments, but it is challenging, takes time and is not guaranteed

  15. Shape Factor Modeling and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    and there are only 5, as shown in Fig. 9. Fig. 9. The 5 Platonic solids, from left to right, are tetrahedron, cube or hexahedron, octahe- dron ...hidden surfaces, much like the Icosahe- dron Gage. The black curve is the lognormal fit. The maximum likelihood estimate is µ = 0.537 and σ = 0.297, which

  16. Inclusion as political mobilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anne Mette; Muwanga, Nansozi

    2016-01-01

    Uganda has been successful in broadening access to education. However, this achievement has been undermined by low literacy and numeracy levels and high drop-out rates. A political settlement perspective sheds light on the politics of education reforms. We find that there are weak political drive...

  17. Verbal Behavior and Politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graber, Doris A.

    This book illustrates how and why knowledge of verbal behavior is important to an understanding of politics by analyzing and describing verbal behavior studies pertaining to politics. Chapters in the first part of the book discuss the various characteristics of verbal behavior: the importance of verbal behavior in politics, construction of…

  18. Policy Research and Politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskell, Jane

    1988-01-01

    Explores what it means to do research intended to be relevant for public policy. Argues against perception of policy research as politically neutral technical exercise. Discusses political implications of methodology. Discusses research examples to illustrate point. Discusses implications for how research might be used in political process.…

  19. Teaching Politically Correct Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsehelska, Maryna

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that teaching politically correct language to English learners provides them with important information and opportunities to be exposed to cultural issues. The author offers a brief review of how political correctness became an issue and how being politically correct influences the use of language. The article then presents…

  20. Tracking Politics with POWER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Silvio; Batista, David S.; Carvalho, Paula; Couto, Francisco M.; Silva, Mario J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: POWER is an ontology of political processes and entities. It is designed for tracking politicians, political organizations and elections, both in mainstream and social media. The aim of this paper is to propose a data model to describe political agents and their relations over time. Design/methodology/approach: The authors propose a data…

  1. Political Education in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dag, Nilgun; Sozer, Mehmet Akif; Sel, Burcu

    2015-01-01

    Political education is a term with negative associations and triggering prejudiced approaches and discourses--maybe some paranoid thoughts--like "keep politics away from education!" in the minds of several people. This article deals with "political education" phenomenon almost never discussed and made subject to scientific…

  2. Lobbying and political polarization

    OpenAIRE

    Ursprung, Heinrich W.

    2002-01-01

    Standard spatial models of political competition give rise to equilibria in which the competing political parties or candidates converge to a common position. In this paper I show how political polarization can be generated in models that focus on the nexus between pre-election interest group lobbying and electoral competition.

  3. Minority Political Representation: Muslim Councilors in Newham and Hackney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eren Tatari

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Scholars have long been intrigued by the role of minority elected officials in representing the interests of their communities. There is an on-going debate on whether distinctive minority agendas exist and whether the existence of minority representatives (descriptive representation is a necessary condition to secure the representation of minority interests (substantive representation. This article analyzes original interview data to examine these issues through a case study of Muslim city councilors and the dynamics of local government in the Newham and Hackney Borough Councils of London. It finds that the exceptionally high ethnic diversity of Newham with no dominant ethnic group, the lack of racial or religious divides among neighborhoods, and low racial tensions shapes the political culture of the Council, as well as the Muslim councilors, and yields high responsiveness for all minorities. It also finds that non-Muslim councilors play a significant role in the substantive representation of minority interests, including Muslim interests. In contrast, the case study of the Hackney Council reveals that beyond high party fragmentation, ethnicity and religiosity of the Muslim councilors vary widely and hinder effective representation. In addition, their political incorporation is low, and the leadership positions they hold seem to have symbolic rather than substantive impact. The political behavior and representative styles of Muslim councilors reveal a balancing perspective, whereby they advocate for group interests with a more moderate tone. These factors account for the low government responsiveness to Muslim interests in Hackney.

  4. European welfare regimes: Political orientations versus poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josifidis Kosta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This inquiry analyzes how political orientations shape welfare states and labour market institutions when seeking to reduce poverty. In order to identify effects of these two key variables, we conduct a panel regression analysis that includes two poverty measures: poverty rates before and after social spending. This inquiry considers 14 EU countries, and in the period from 1995 to 2008, which are grouped according to welfare state regimes. We consider Social Democratic, Corporatist, Mediterranean and Liberal welfare state regimes. Panel regression results indicate that political orientation engenders no significant statistically measurable effects on poverty rates before social spending. Effects register, however, as significant when considering poverty rates after social spending. With respect to the first set of results, we advance two key explanations. First, we note a longer period of time is necessary in order to observe actual effects of political orientation on market generated poverty. Second, political parties with their respective programs do not register as influential enough to solve social problems related to income distribution when taken alone. Influences register as indirect and are expressed through changes in employment rates and social spending. The second set of results support the hypothesis that a selected political regime does indeed contribute to poverty reduction. In sum, political orientation and political regime does indeed affect poverty through welfare state institutions, as well as through labour market institutions.

  5. Eastern European Political Socialization Modeling Research: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Florela Voinea

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents empirical modeling research on political socialization of the citizens in the new Eastern European democracies. The political socialization issue offers a comparative perspective over the modeling methodologies in analytical paradigms. Eastern European political culture research has revealed features of the electoral behavior and political participation which can be identified in different degrees in all the new democracies in the area: passivity with respect to political activity of parties, elites and institutions, political apathy or lack of reaction to anti-democratic actions, skepticism or distrust in institutions, scarce participation to social movements. Several authors explain the actual political behavior of the Eastern European citizens’ and their low social and political involvement by the (political culture heritage of the communist regimes in which they lived for a long time, and which keeps shaping their political attitudes towards the state, civil society, government and institutions. Research issues in the analysis of political participation are traditionally based on statistics analyses of empirical evidence coming from public surveys. However, scarcity ofempirical data from the communist periode with regard to (political socialization, values and beliefs represent a major obstacle towards a better understanding of the historical roots of current behaviors and attitudes. Scarcity of observational data might be overcome by computational and simulation modeling.

  6. Means-Tested Public Assistance Programs and Adolescent Political Socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Carolyn Y; Hope, Elan C

    2017-07-01

    In recent years, scholars have pointed to the politically demobilizing effects of means-tested assistance programs on recipients. In this study, we bridge the insights from policy feedback literature and adolescent political socialization research to examine how receiving means-tested programs shapes parent influence on adolescent political participation. We argue that there are differences in pathways to political participation through parent political socialization and youth internal efficacy beliefs for adolescents from households that do or do not receive means-tested assistance. Using data from a nationally representative sample of 536 Black, Latino, and White adolescents (50.8% female), we find that adolescents from means-tested assistance households report less parent political socialization and political participation. For all youth, parent political socialization predicts adolescent political participation. Internal political efficacy is a stronger predictor of political participation for youth from a non-means-tested assistance household than it is for youth from a household receiving means-tested assistance. These findings provide some evidence of differential paths to youth political participation via exposure to means-tested programs.

  7. Political conditions for successful inflation stabilization: comparing Brazil and Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonca Özdemir

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study tries to understand how Brazil and Argentina, two countries with chronically high inflation, achieved permanent stabilization by looking at political factors necessary for stabilization. It suggests that, although state autonomy or political unity may contribute to successful price stabilization, reconciling the interests of different stakeholders and thereby building a broad political support base is more essential for stabilization to succeed. Political skills of the leaders and compensatory policies may help raise such support and they are more crucial where other political conditions are less favorable. Also, rapid improvement in the economy is important for sustained political support, and thus, for successful stabilization.

  8. Bilingual children's long-term outcomes in English as a second language: language environment factors shape individual differences in catching up with monolinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Johanne; Jia, Ruiting

    2017-01-01

    Bilingual children experience more variation in their language environment than monolingual children and this impacts their rate of language development with respect to monolinguals. How long it takes for bilingual children learning English as a second language (L2) to display similar abilities to monolingual age-peers has been estimated to be 4-6 years, but conflicting findings suggest that even 6 years in school is not enough. Most studies on long-term L2 development have focused on just one linguistic sub-domain, vocabulary, and have not included multiple individual difference factors. For the present study, Chinese first language-English L2 children were given standardized measures of vocabulary, grammar and global comprehension every year from 4 ½ to 6 ½ years of English in school (ages 8½ to 10½); language environment factors were obtained through an extensive parent questionnaire. Children converged on monolingual norms differentially according to the test, with the majority of children reaching monolingual levels of performance on the majority of tests by 5 ½ years of English exposure. Individual differences in outcomes were predicted by length of English exposure, mother's education, mother's English fluency, child's use of English in the home, richness/quality of the English input outside school and age of arrival in Canada. In sum, the timeframe for bilinguals to catch up to monolinguals depends on linguistic sub-domain, task difficulty and on individual children's language environment, making 4-6 years an approximate estimate only. This study also shows that language environment factors shape not only early-stage but also late-stage bilingual development. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Problems of political corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirić Jovan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The author in this work speaks about general problems of political corruption in the world and in Serbia. The author tries to define the phenomenon of political corruption and pays special attention to financing political parties. Ćirić gives the overview of international documents about financing political parties and gives us the overview of MP's salaries in some western countries. At the end it is analyzed the question of trading MP's mandate, as a matter of fact who is the owner of the mandate of one representative - that representative, or his/her political party. That also could be the origin of different manipulations and corruption.

  10. Natural and political markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell

    2003-01-01

    factor markets. The paper develops the notion of political markets by drawing upon anempirical case that reconstructs the chain of events related to the transfer of flexible manufacturingsystems (FMS). The case account for the various actors and institutions involved in the technologytransfer, including...... as well as its master - the puretechnological relations. Neither the Natural market, nor Homo economicus can be brought intoexistence without pure technological relations. The existence of the latter is a necessary conditionfor the existence of the two former, as has already been recognized...... relations. Yet, inorder to provide for an explanation of such a successful outcome, it is not enough to account foreconomists among themselves. As has already been suggested by Callon (1998) and the associatedwork on the anthropology of markets, also such material associations as computer basedcalculations...

  11. Political Myth and Achebe's Arrow of God | Aning | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many African states are in dire political distress. During the political struggle for freedom and the immediate aftermath of political independence, leaders were able to mobilize the citizenry on the banner of the myth of the common nation state, a veritable paradise on earth. The stark reality now is that a combination of factors ...

  12. Nigerian political parties and internal democracy | Odigwe | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research has shown that this lack of internal democracy in political parties led to crisis in the past civilian regimes, and a causal factor on which the military anchored its intervention in 1966. Conflicting interests and ramblings in the Nigerian present political parties is attributed to a lack of internal democracy in the political ...

  13. Socialism as an African Social and Political Philosophy: Senghor's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socialism as an African Social and Political Philosophy: Senghor's Paradigm. ... What is the distinguishing factor of African Socialism? What is the direction of African socio-political philosophy? ... Socialism can be applied as a means of economic, social and political advancement in any society. Although situation and ...

  14. On Characterizing Particle Shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, Bryan J.; Rickman, Douglas; Rollins, A. Brent; Ennis, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that particle shape affects flow characteristics of granular materials, as well as a variety of other solids processing issues such as compaction, rheology, filtration and other two-phase flow problems. The impact of shape crosses many diverse and commercially important applications, including pharmaceuticals, civil engineering, metallurgy, health, and food processing. Two applications studied here include the dry solids flow of lunar simulants (e.g. JSC-1, NU-LHT-2M, OB-1), and the flow properties of wet concrete, including final compressive strength. A multi-dimensional generalized, engineering method to quantitatively characterize particle shapes has been developed, applicable to both single particle orientation and multi-particle assemblies. The two-dimension, three dimension inversion problem is also treated, and the application of these methods to DEM model particles will be discussed. In the case of lunar simulants, flow properties of six lunar simulants have been measured, and the impact of particle shape on flowability - as characterized by the shape method developed here -- is discussed, especially in the context of three simulants of similar size range. In the context of concrete processing, concrete construction is a major contributor to greenhouse gas production, of which the major contributor is cement binding loading. Any optimization in concrete rheology and packing that can reduce cement loading and improve strength loading can also reduce currently required construction safety factors. The characterization approach here is also demonstrated for the impact of rock aggregate shape on concrete slump rheology and dry compressive strength.

  15. Indonesian Political Islam: Capitalist Development and the Legacies of the Cold War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedi R. Hadiz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the genesis of Indonesian political Islam and its interactions with the nationalist secular state in the immediate post-colonial era while examining some of the origins of the ‘radical’ stream that has garnered much attention in the current post-authoritarian period. It puts forward the idea that, rather than an outcome of Indonesian democratisation, this stream was in fact the product of authoritarian New Order rule. The article also considers some parallels in the trajectories of political Islam more generally in Indonesia, the Middle East and North Africa, especially as a kind of populist response to the tensions and contradictions of global capitalism. It addresses the city of Surakarta (Solo as a case study and highlights the importance of Cold War politics in moulding political Islam in Indonesia and elsewhere. The approach emphasises historical and sociological factors shaping political Islam that have tended to be relegated to the background in prevalent security-oriented analyses concerned with issues of terrorism and violence.

  16. Religion and Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandak, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Religion and politics provide an interesting juxtaposition. On the one hand, both may initially come across as rather self-evident categories, with religion dealing with human perceptions and what people hold as sacred, and politics addressing the control and governance of fellow human beings....... Nonetheless, such a simple opposition should only work as a starting point for an interrogation of both terms and how they have come to look and function as empirical and analytical categories. Focusing on the ways that religion is played out in relation to politics reveals different historical and cultural...... constellations and positions, which can be highlighted as variations of religion as politics, religion in politics, religion out of politics, and religion not politics....

  17. Political Budget Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaskoven, Lasse; Lassen, David Dreyer

    2017-01-01

    The political budget cycle—how elections affect government fiscal policy—is one of the most studied subjects in political economy and political science. The key theoretical question is whether incumbent governments can time or structure public finances in ways that improve their chances of reelec......The political budget cycle—how elections affect government fiscal policy—is one of the most studied subjects in political economy and political science. The key theoretical question is whether incumbent governments can time or structure public finances in ways that improve their chances...... on political budget cycles have recently focused on conditions under which such cycles are likely to obtain. Much recent research focuses on subnational settings, allowing comparisons of governments in similar institutional environments, and a consensus on the presences of cycles in public finances...

  18. Putting politics first.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Jacob S

    2008-01-01

    The greatest lesson of the failure of comprehensive health reform in the early 1990s is that politics comes first. Even the best-laid policy plans are worthless if they lack the political support to pass. Putting politics first means avoiding the overarching mistake of the Clinton reformers: envisioning a grand policy compromise rather than hammering out a real political compromise. It also means addressing the inevitable fears of those who believe that they are well protected by our eroding employment-based system. And it means formulating political strategies that are premised on the contemporary realities of the hyperpolarized U.S. political environment, rather than wistfully recalled images of the bipartisan politics of old.

  19. The politics of researching global health politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Simon

    2015-01-01

    In this comment, I build on Shiffman’s call for the global health community to more deeply investigate structural and productive power. I highlight two challenges we must grapple with as social scientists carrying out the types of investigation that Shiffman proposes: the politics of challenging the powerful; and the need to investigate types of expertise that have traditionally been thought of as ‘outside’ global health. In doing so, I argue that moving forward with the agenda Shiffman sets out requires social scientists interested in the global politics of health to be reflexive about our own exercise of structural and productive power and the fact that researching global health politics is itself a political undertaking. PMID:25905482

  20. Political Corruption: An Institutional Aspect

    OpenAIRE

    Наронская, Анна Гегамовна

    2017-01-01

    This article is devoted to corruption’s impact on the functioning of political institutions. In the author’s opinion, political corruption leads to informal institutionalization and degradation of political institutions. The author concludes that public control can prevent political corruption.Key words: the political corruption, conflict of interests, formal and informal institutions, political process.

  1. Civil society and state in the age of modernization: political dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Людмила Александровна Гайнутдинова

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Socio-political practice of state, when it represented only interests of elites becomes unacceptable in the age of modernization which requires larger degrees of freedom. The solution of this conflict opens possibilities of participation in political processes for many social groups by means of political inclusion. That processes defined the shape of modern civil society.

  2. How Context Matters? Mobilization, Political Opportunity Structures and Non-Electoral Political Participation in Old and New Democracies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vráblíková, Kateřina

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 2 (2014), s. 203-229 ISSN 0010-4140 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP408/12/1474 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : Political participation * political opportunity structure * national institutions Subject RIV: AD - Politology ; Political Sciences Impact factor: 2.028, year: 2014

  3. GIS multimedia view of local politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muddam, Sandeep Reddy

    The abstract mainly focuses on describing the prototype of the "GIS Multimedia View of Local Politics" of San Diego County. This project puts the local political information on a website which helps school children to learn about the structure of a political body and how it is organized, how the representatives are elected. It also puts up the statistics of the elections previously held. So for this, past and present election statistics have been collected. The shape files of San Diego county, congressional districts, council districts, supervisor districts have been collected. A sample community college districts is also presented. With these shape files we can show the information in an interactive map application which is based on GIS. Poll Watcher: A candidate, political party or political committee may ask someone to go to a polling place or early voting area and observe. This person is known as a poll watcher. The poll watcher observes the election process to see if any violation of the election laws occurs. If a violation occurs, the poll watcher is to refer the violation to the clerk of the election board.

  4. Simulation study of a geometric shape factor technique for estimating earth-emitted radiant flux densities from wide-field-of-view radiation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, W. L.; Green, R. N.

    1980-01-01

    Geometric shape factors were computed and applied to satellite simulated irradiance measurements to estimate Earth emitted flux densities for global and zonal scales and for areas smaller than the detector field of view (FOV). Wide field of view flat plate detectors were emphasized, but spherical detectors were also studied. The radiation field was modeled after data from the Nimbus 2 and 3 satellites. At a satellite altitude of 600 km, zonal estimates were in error 1.0 to 1.2 percent and global estimates were in error less than 0.2 percent. Estimates with unrestricted field of view (UFOV) detectors were about the same for Lambertian and limb darkening radiation models. The opposite was found for restricted field of view detectors. The UFOV detectors are found to be poor estimators of flux density from the total FOV and are shown to be much better as estimators of flux density from a circle centered at the FOV with an area significantly smaller than that for the total FOV.

  5. Determinants of Political Violence: A Study of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Mider

    2014-01-01

    Political violence is a complex phenomenon that is induced by numerous factors. The article focuses on trying to identify and organize the sources of political violence. Three groups of determinants of political violence can be distinguished on the basis of the examined social science literature. The first group of determinants of political violence ¨C referred to as structural determinants ¨C is examined by researchers within the social structure. Cultural patterns and norms operating within...

  6. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors act at different spatial and temporal scales to shape population structure, distribution and speciation in Italian Barbus (Osteichthyes: Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonerba, Luca; Zaccara, Serena; Delmastro, Giovanni B; Lorenzoni, Massimo; Salzburger, Walter; Gante, Hugo F

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies have given substantial attention to external factors that affect the distribution and diversification of freshwater fish in Europe and North America, in particular Pleistocene and Holocene glacial cycles. In the present paper we examine sequence variation at one mitochondrial and four nuclear loci (over 3 kbp) from populations sampled across several drainages of all species of Barbus known to inhabit Italian freshwaters (introduced B. barbus and native B. balcanicus, B. caninus, B. plebejus and B. tyberinus). By comparing species with distinct ecological preferences (rheophilic and fluvio-lacustrine) and using a fossil-calibrated phylogeny we gained considerable insight about the intrinsic and extrinsic processes shaping barbel distribution, population structure and speciation. We found that timescales of Italian barbel diversification are older than previously thought, starting in the Early Miocene, and involving local and regional tectonism and basin paleo-evolution rather than Pleistocene glacial cycles. Conversely, more recent environmental factors associated with glaciation-deglaciation cycles have influenced species distributions. These events had a more marked impact on fluvio-lacustrine than on rheophilic species by means of river confluence at low sea levels. We show that genetic structure is influenced by species ecology: populations of small rheophilic species inhabiting upper river stretches of large basins are less connected and more differentiated than large fluvio-lacustrine species that inhabit lower river courses. We report the existence of both natural and human-induced interspecific gene flow, which could have great impacts on the evolution and persistence of species involved. In addition, we provide evidence that B. tyberinus is genetically distinguishable from all other Italian taxa and that its morphological similarity to B. plebejus and intermediacy with B. caninus are best explained by recent common ancestry and similar

  7. Shape memory polyurethane nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Feina

    Shape memory polymers are smart materials which can remember their original shapes. However, the low recovery stress and low mechanical strength limit the commercial applications of shape memory polymers. In this study, nanoclays were introduced to shape memory polyurethanes (SMPU) to augment these properties by enhance the network of SMPU. Several factors which influence the shape recovery stress were evaluated, including the nature of polymer chain by using different monomers, type of clay particles, extent of filler dispersion, clay content and deformation conditions. It was found that only reactive clay particles were well dispersed into polyurethane matrix by the tethering between --CH2CH 2OH functional groups in clay surfactants and polyurethane chains. Two different shape memory polyurethanes (Systems I & II) prepared by bulk polymerization were compared. The shape memory effect of System I was triggered by melting of the soft segment crystals, while that of System II was by glass transition of the soft segments. It was seen that the reactive clay particles dispersed well in both polyurethane matrices and augmented the recovery stress, e.g., 20% increase with 1 wt % nanoclay in System I and 40% increase with 5 wt % nanoclay in System II were observed. In System I, clay particles interfered with soft segment crystallization, and promoted phase mixing between the hard and soft segments, thus affecting the fixity and recovery ratio. Nevertheless, the soft segment crystallinity was still enough and in some cases increased due to stretching to exhibit excellent shape fixity and shape recovery ratio. The higher loading of clay particles accelerated the stress relaxation, resulting in reduction of recovery stress. In System II, no significant effect of clay particles in phase separation was observed, so there was no influence of clay on shape fixity and recovery ratio. The recovery stress increased with reactive nanoclay content. It was also found that the recovery

  8. Covering folded shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswin Aichholzer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Can folding a piece of paper flat make it larger? We explore whether a shape S must be scaled to cover a flat-folded copy of itself. We consider both single folds and arbitrary folds (continuous piecewise isometries \\(S\\to\\mathbb{R}^2\\. The underlying problem is motivated by computational origami, and is related to other covering and fixturing problems, such as Lebesgue's universal cover problem and force closure grasps. In addition to considering special shapes (squares, equilateral triangles, polygons and disks, we give upper and lower bounds on scale factors for single folds of convex objects and arbitrary folds of simply connected objects.

  9. School of Political Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Voskresensky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Out of all the departments of political sciences in Russia - the Department at MGIMO-University is probably the oldest one. In fact it is very young. While MGIMO-University is celebrating its 70th anniversary the Department of Political Sciences turns 15. Despite the fact that political analyst is a relatively new profession in Russia, it acquired a legal standing only in the 1990s, the political science school at MGIMO-University is almost as old as the university itself. Unlike many other universities, focused on the training teachers of political science or campaign managers MGIMO-University has developed its own unique political science school of "full cycle", where students grow into political sciences from a zero level up to the highest qualifications as teachers and researchers, and campaign managers, consultants and practitioners. The uniqueness of the school of political science at MGIMO-University allows its institutional incarnation -the Department of Political Science - to offer prospective studentsa training in a wide range of popular specialties and specializations, while ensuring a deep theoretical and practical basis of the training. Studying at MGIMO-University traditionally includes enhanced linguistic component (at least two foreign languages. For students of international relations and political science learning foreign languages is particularly important.It allows not only to communicate, but also to produce expertise and knowledge in foreign languages.

  10. Regiune, regional, regionalizare şi reprezentare politică (Region, regional, regionalisation and political representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoş-Andrei PREUTESCU

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Romania is at a crossroad to shape and redefine its regional territorial-administrative design as an European Union member. A regionalization process is at a controversial point in this moment and is necessarry to see if this process could have a significant impact to develop and consolidate democracy in this country. Following the main aspects of regionalism, regionalization and political discourses amoung politicians, the purpose of this article is to see if their is any kind of connection between regionalization process and the involvement of the citizens in public decisions. More so, the new institutional design could consolidate democracy and increase the public responsabilities from both sides: decision makers and citizens. Doing so could lead to better public policies in accordance with needs, expectations and desires of the citizens. In this way, what is called as „regional identity”, or„ local identity” could have more significance in the public imagination and consciousness. Furthermore the so called „movement” for better and developed communities is being shaped in this direction by political discourses and political ideas. What can create better conditions for shaping these democratic options is to have an important political and civic culture once the regionalization process is implemented. The progression of economy, tourism, political representation, culture, and institutions is a consequence of how much these elements are compatible in the regionalization process.

  11. Effects of physical attractiveness on political beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Rolfe Daus; Palmer, Carl L

    2017-01-01

    Physical attractiveness is an important social factor in our daily interactions. Scholars in social psychology provide evidence that attractiveness stereotypes and the "halo effect" are prominent in affecting the traits we attribute to others. However, the interest in attractiveness has not directly filtered down to questions of political behavior beyond candidates and elites. Utilizing measures of attractiveness across multiple surveys, we examine the relationship between attractiveness and political beliefs. Controlling for socioeconomic status, we find that more attractive individuals are more likely to report higher levels of political efficacy, identify as conservative, and identify as Republican. These findings suggest an additional mechanism for political socialization that has further implications for understanding how the body intertwines with the social nature of politics.

  12. The politics of socioeconomic status: how socioeconomic status may influence political attitudes and engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Iannuzzi, Jazmin L; Lundberg, Kristjen B; McKee, Stephanie

    2017-12-01

    Socioeconomic status is hypothesized to be one factor informing political attitudes and actions. Presumably, this relationship is rooted in economic self-interest, with individuals preferring policies that would benefit them financially. In addition, these economic policy preferences are assumed to translate into political action. However, the relationships between socioeconomic status and political attitudes and behavior, as well as the psychological mechanisms associated with those relationships, are not straightforward. Here, we briefly review the current state of knowledge on the relationships between socioeconomic status and political attitudes and behavior. Overall, the research suggests that while socioeconomic status informs political attitudes toward economic policies, these attitudes may not correlate with complementary political behavior. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Political activities of social workers: addressing perceived barriers to political participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Cynthia; Poe, Bethanie; Thomas, Veliska

    2010-10-01

    This article reviews the literature on political participation of social workers and the variables that promote or impede political advocacy. Early research in the 1980s and 1990s most often reported education, feelings of efficacy, having a macro-type job, and being a member of a national association as factors that determine greater political participation. Since the late 1990s, organizational and legal issues have surfaced more prominently as barriers to political participation by social workers. This article addresses barriers to participation, such as not feeling competent to perform policy-related tasks and perceived legal barriers.It then analyzes the actual restrictions that nonprofit 501(c)(3) organizations and publicly employed social workers face in lobbying and partisan politics. The article summarizes the activities that are legally allowed in these areas and concludes that social workers can be more politically active than they often realize.

  14. The politics of population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, M

    1986-03-01

    This article suggests some of the principal factors behind the decisions by an increasing number of countries deciding that the achievement of their national objectives required a policy for population, and the way that they are likely to work out. By 1983, 35 developing countries had an official policy to reduce their population growth rate, and in 34 others, the government supported family planning activities--usually for reasons of health or as a human right. The number is remarkable given the many compelling reasons that governments have for not attempting anything so difficult as to modify demographic trends. The future results of population programs, in social and economic terms, are very difficult to quantify, thus defying cost-benefit analysis of the desirability of investing resources in this area, rather than in something else. There are also powerful political reasons why a government might well hesitate before embarking on a policy to reduce the nation's fertility. At the very least, it implies government interference in the most private and personal of human relations, an invasion of human rights, and a disturbance of the traditional patterns of society and behavior. For many countries that are pursuing a policy to limit population growth, the decision has been taken only after the grievous consequences of not having such a policy have already become manifest. The critical question is how soon a government will make the connection among political disobedience, economic and social distress, and the population explosion, and adopt a population policy. Although the number of developing countries that have officially proclaimed a strongly pro-natalist population policy is relatively small, many have Marxist governments. Overall, governments have several strategies at their disposal: 1) improving the accessability and the quality of the service; 2) promoting population education and family planning motivation (with the assistance of the media, folk art, and

  15. Politics and health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Vicente; Muntaner, Carles; Borrell, Carme; Benach, Joan; Quiroga, Agueda; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Vergés, Núria; Pasarín, M Isabel

    2006-09-16

    The aim of this study was to examine the complex interactions between political traditions, policies, and public health outcomes, and to find out whether different political traditions have been associated with systematic patterns in population health over time. We analysed a number of political, economic, social, and health variables over a 50-year period, in a set of wealthy countries belonging to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Our findings support the hypothesis that the political ideologies of governing parties affect some indicators of population health. Our analysis makes an empirical link between politics and policy, by showing that political parties with egalitarian ideologies tend to implement redistributive policies. An important finding of our research is that policies aimed at reducing social inequalities, such as welfare state and labour market policies, do seem to have a salutary effect on the selected health indicators, infant mortality and life expectancy at birth.

  16. Political learning among youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solhaug, Trond; Kristensen, Niels Nørgaard

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on students’ first political learning and explores the research question, what dynamic patterns of political learning can be explored among a selection of young, diverse Danish students’ first political interests? The authors use theories of learning in their analytical...... approach to students´ stories. A group of 10 young students who claim a certain political interest and attend a social studies course in Danish upper secondary school were selected to interview. A “life story approach” is used in the interviews and in the analytical approach. Findings: contrary to many...... “single agent studies in the tradition” of political socialization, the authors find that all students display a complex pattern of political influence. The influence from various agents like school, family, media and peers is also rather complex. Students are not passive recipients of influence...

  17. Lithuanian-German political relations

    OpenAIRE

    Prunskienė, Kazimiera Danutė

    2001-01-01

    The liberation of Lithuania and other Baltic states from the Soviet regime and the re-establishment of the statehood coincided with the fall of the Berlin Wall and the unification of Germany. These processes empowered and strengthened each other, and the common favourable environment for such a political transformation was created by “perestroika” initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev in the then Soviet Union. Germany was more objective than Lithuania in its evaluation of the latter factor, i.e. the...

  18. Atmosphere: Power, Critique, Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Niels

    2016-01-01

    This paper hans three interrelated parts. First, atmosphere is approached through the concept of power. Atmospheres 'grip' us directly or mediate power indirectly by manipulating moods and evoking emotions. How does atmosphere relate to different conceptions of power? Second, atmospheric powers may...... be critiqued. Which conception of critique can be involved? Third, critiquing atmospheric powers can generate political conflict. How does atmospheric disputes relate to conceptions of politics and the political?...

  19. Chaos theory in politics

    CERN Document Server

    Erçetin, Şefika; Tekin, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The present work investigates global politics and political implications of social science and management with the aid of the latest complexity and chaos theories. Until now, deterministic chaos and nonlinear analysis have not been a focal point in this area of research. This book remedies this deficiency by utilizing these methods in the analysis of the subject matter. The authors provide the reader a detailed analysis on politics and its associated applications with the help of chaos theory, in a single edited volume.

  20. Defining political community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sladeček Michal M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the concept of political community, its constitution and value. The starting point is that the concept of community is not sufficiently recognized in modern political theories, as well as in contemporary liberal theory. In the last two decades communitarian and republican political theory attempted to revitalize this notion. The first part of the paper elaborates on the polemics between these three theoretical orientations. The concluding part examines the possibilities and prospect for stable political community in conditions of pluralism of particular social communities and ethnocultural heterogeneity.

  1. Envy, Politics, and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Christine R.; Henniger, Nicole E.

    2013-01-01

    In the last 5 years, the phrase “politics of envy” has appeared more than 621 times in English-language newspapers, generally in opinion essays contending that political liberalism reflects and exploits feelings of envy. Oddly, this assertion has not been tested empirically. We did so with a large adult sample (n = 357). Participants completed a Dispositional Envy Scale and questions about political ideology, socioeconomic status, and age. Envy and age were moderately correlated; younger people reported greater envy. Political ideology and envy were weakly correlated; however, this relationship was not significant when controlling for age. PMID:23471177

  2. Gendering transnational party politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantola, Johanna; Rolandsen-Agustín, Lise

    2016-01-01

    research traditions, we build toward an analytical framework to study gender and transnational party politics. Our empirical analysis focuses on two policy issues, the economic crisis and the sexual and reproductive health and rights, analyzing European Parliament reports, debates and voting on the issues......In this article, we analyze transnational party politics in the European Union from a gender perspective. This is a subject that has been neglected both by mainstream European studies on party politics and by gender scholars who work on political parties. Drawing on the insights of these two...... right axis and, at the same time, internal divisions within party groups affect policy output....

  3. Astronomy and Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, John M.

    The relationship between astronomy and politics is a complex but important part of understanding the practice of astronomy throughout history. This chapter explores some of the ways that astronomy, astrology, and politics have interacted, placing particular focus on the way that astronomy and astrology have been used for political purposes by both people in power and people who wish to influence a ruler's policy. Also discussed are the effects that politics has had on the development of astronomy and, in particular, upon the recording and preservation of astronomical knowledge.

  4. Understanding the local context and its possible influences on shaping, implementing and running social accountability initiatives for maternal health services in rural Democratic Republic of the Congo : a contextual factor analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mafuta, E.M.; Hogema, L.M.; Mambu, T.N.M.; de Cock Buning, J.T.; Dieleman, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Social accountability has to be configured according to the context in which it operates. This paper aimed to identify local contextual factors in two health zones in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and discuss their possible influences on shaping, implementing and running social

  5. What’s Political about Solar Electric Technology? The User’s Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea Schelly

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Scholars in science and technology studies have debated the various ways in which technologies are (or are not political. Here, I examine how users themselves understand and articulate the politics of a specific technology—residential solar electric technology—and how understandings of politics interact with motivations to adopt. Based on interviews with 48 individuals in 36 households across the state of Wisconsin who have adopted residential solar electric technology, I consider the user’s perspective on the question: “What’s political about residential solar electric technology use?” These users were asked about the politics of this technology and how their understanding of the technology’s politics shaped their own motivation for adoption. These solar electric technology adopters saw solar electric technology as both imbued with political character based on the current national political scene and as inherently, innately political. They described how solar electric technology interacts with the politics of environmentalism, challenges “politics-as-usual” and can bring about decentralization and redistribution of wealth. In short, to the users of solar electric technology, this technological artifact is, indeed, political; it both interacts with, and offers an alternative to, current American political structures. Further, their perspectives on the politics of solar technology shaped their understandings of motivations for and limitations to adoption of this alternative technology.

  6. What's inside the black box: a case study of allocative politics in the Hill-Burton program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feshbach, D

    1979-01-01

    This paper explores the political and bureaucratic determinants of grant allocations within the Hospital Survey and Construction Act of 1946 (the Hill-Burton Act), which established the major hospital construction subsidy program in the United States. Resource allocation within the Hill-Burton Program was neither purely a function of external political forces impinging on the state nor purely a result of internal organizational factors. Instead, as shown in the analysis which follows, external political forces shaped program structure, operating routines, and rules and regulations at the time of the Program's formation. Rules and regulations depoliticized the grant allocation process while institutionalizing the interests of hospitals and other producers into the program structure. Consumer interests and influence are excluded from program decision making. Once established, the rules and regulations and a set of bureaucratic behaviors play a critical role in determining resource allocation. Rules and regulations facilitate distributing divisible benefits to producer interests in a politically predi-table way. Yet rules and regulations must also regulate the supply of hospital beds in accordance with local and national market conditions. The mode of operations required for distributing benefits in a politically predictable way limited the Program's ability to regulate hospital bed supply. This was a critical factor which led the Hill-Burton Program to subsidize excess capacity in the U.S. hospital system and is a useful way of explaning many similar dysfunctions within allocative programs such as Hill-Burton.

  7. The Prediction of Political Competencies by Political Action and Political Media Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Frank Reichert

    2014-01-01

    Political competencies are often considered a precondition for political action; however, they are not independent of previous political participation, which may also include the frequency and the kind of political media consumption. My research aims at finding out the importance of participation in political activities in the past, as well as taking over civic responsibility in positions at school or university for cognitive political competencies. The focus is on structural political knowle...

  8. Usage of marketing in politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-party political system led to competition between political parties which caused the need for marketing in politics that improves political reputation. Politics, based on rich experience of political practice, used existing, developed methods and techniques of commercial marketing. Political marketing openly admits that politics and politicians are simply goods that are being sold on a political market. Political marketing is a whole way of operation by political parties which ask these questions: how do the voters choose; what affects their preference and how that preference can be influenced. Usage of political marketing in Bosnia and Herzegovina is still not on a satisfactory level but the knowledge about the importance of political marketing is increasing.

  9. Happiness and Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Over the last thirty years, happiness research in psychology, economics and philosophy has been discussing the proper meaning of happiness and its main determinants. Moreover, the idea has spread within academic and political circles that it may be legitimate for institutions to engage in “politics...... of happiness”. This article presents a critique of the project of promoting happiness through public policies....

  10. Polite Interactions with Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benotti, Luciana; Blackburn, Patrick Rowan

    2016-01-01

    We sketch an inference architecture that permits linguistic aspects of politeness to be interpreted; we do so by applying the ideas of politeness theory to the SCARE corpus of task-oriented dialogues, a type of dialogue of particular relevance to robotics. The fragment of the SCARE corpus we...

  11. Political Communication with Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.

    2013-01-01

    In this article I sketch the outlines of a theory of political human-animal conversations, based on ideas about language that I borrow from Ludwig Wittgenstein’s later work, in particular his notion of language-games. I present this theory as a supplement to the political theory of animal rights Sue

  12. Seizing Political Opportunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele; Justesen, Mogens Kamp

    2016-01-01

    Political actors need to be nimble and respond to the opportunity to reform old policies and initiate new ones. The article looks at how the European Commission takes advantage of politically opportune moments (the ‘gridlock interval’) in the European Parliament to put forward new legislation...

  13. Principals' Perceptions of Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooms, Autumn K.; Kretovics, Mark A.; Smialek, Charles A.

    2007-01-01

    This study is an effort to examine principals' perceptions of workplace politics and its influence on their productivity and efficacy. A survey was used to explore the perceptions of current school administrators with regard to workplace politics. The instrument was disseminated to principals serving public schools in one Midwestern state in the…

  14. The Politics of Encyclopaedias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fozooni, Babak

    2012-01-01

    The paper assesses the political credibility of three encyclopaedias (Encyclopaedia Britannica, Encyclopedia of Marxism and Wikipedia) in relation to three chosen topics (Friedrich Engels's biography; the political philosophy of fascism; and, the discipline of social psychology). I was interested in discerning how entries are represented and…

  15. Political Corruption in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Steven R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Provides an overview of political corruption and its place in Japanese culture and society. Discusses recent scandals and efforts at political reform. These efforts are moving Japan from a "boss-patronage" system to a "civic-culture." Includes a table of post-war Japanese prime ministers and corruption scandals. (MJP)

  16. Exploring Women's Understanding of Politics, Political Contestation ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    First, researchers will explore women's political leadership and the extent to which it promotes the will to transform gender relations both within and outside the state. Second, they will assess quota systems for their impact on women's participation and leadership in representative government. Third, they will evaluate the ...

  17. The Effect of Social and Cultural Factors on Ageism: Examination of the Dual-Process Motivational Model of Ideology, Politics, and Prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doron, Israel; Kafka, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    This study seeks to examine the applicability of the Dual-Process Model of Ideology, Politics, and Prejudice (DPM) as a theoretical explanatory frame-work to ageism. The study is based on a secondary analysis of the European Social Survey (ESS), a quantitative project established in 2001 that includes 34 European countries. The sample was a representative random sample of the adult population of eight participating countries, and included a total of 19,073 participants. In general, this study's findings point to the fact that no statistically significant correlation exists between the personality variables, whether authoritative or social dominant, and ageism. It appears that the theoretical framework of the DPM model may not be appropriate as a theoretical and explanatory model of the phenomenon of ageism. This may indicate that ageism possibly differs from similar social phenomena, such as sexism and racism, at least in its DPM model basis. More research is needed in this field to better understand the applicability of the DPM model to ageism.

  18. Affect in electoral politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, J; Salovey, P

    1998-01-01

    Recent U.S. history provides vivid illustrations of the importance of politicians' emotional displays in subsequent judgments of them. Yet, a review of empirical research on the role of affect (emotion, mood, and evaluation) in electoral politics reveals little work that has focused on the impact of candidates' emotional expression on voters' preferences for them. A theoretical framework is proposed to identify psychological mechanisms by which a target's displays of emotion influence judgments of that target. Findings from the emerging literature on emotions and politics challenge the traditional assumption of political science that voters make decisions based solely on the cold consideration of nonaffectively charged information. The affect and politics literature, although somewhat unfocused and broad, represents an interdisciplinary domain of study that contributes to the understanding of both electoral politics and social interaction more generally.

  19. Political Competition and Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    This paper considers political competition and the consequences of political polarization when parties are better informed about how the economy functions than voters are. Specifically, parties know the cost producing a public good, voters do not. An incumbent's choice of policy acts like a signa...... for costs before an upcoming election. It is shown that the more polarized the political parties the more distorted the incumbent's policy choice.......This paper considers political competition and the consequences of political polarization when parties are better informed about how the economy functions than voters are. Specifically, parties know the cost producing a public good, voters do not. An incumbent's choice of policy acts like a signal...

  20. The Politics of Dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cockburn, Patrick Joseph

    The central claim of this book is that thinking about ‘dependence’ should be at the core of political theory principally because it helps us to think about issues of economic justice. Unlike political theories that either condemn or celebrate dependence, the book argues that dependence...... is an inescapable fact of social life, neither good nor bad in itself. The real political issues are about how we as a society organise and judge various forms of dependence. And this is, in fact, what much political debate is about if we dig beneath the surface. On the one hand, we disagree about how we should...... organise vulnerability; on the other hand, we disagree about who we should condemn as parasitical. Vulnerability and parasitism are thus key concepts for understanding political debate about forms of dependence. Showing the tension between these two sides to the problem of economic dependence...

  1. Socrates: Platonic Political Ideal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher P. Long

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay articulates the differences and suggests the similarities between the practices of Socratic political speaking and those of Platonic political writing. The essay delineates Socratic speaking and Platonic writing as both erotically oriented toward ideals capable of transforming the lives of individuals and their relationships with one another. Besides it shows that in the Protagoras the practices of Socratic political speaking are concerned less with Protagoras than with the individual young man, Hippocrates. In the Phaedo, this ideal of a Socrates is amplified in such a way that Platonic writing itself emerges as capable of doing with readers what Socratic speaking did with those he encountered. Socrates is the Platonic political ideal. The result is a picture of the transformative political power of Socratic speaking and Platonic writing both.

  2. Political Power and Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Mitu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Political violence plays a huge role in public affairs and people's behavior, requiring both knowledge and rigorous research in many of its occurrences and its consequences for the proper management, organization and functioning of a society as a whole. Although political violence is a problem of a particular importance in our social life it is not analyzed and investigated in the scientific literature. Political violence it is a subject that usually passes into oblivion. This study presents some ideas and themes about the role and functions of political power, displaying the types of political violence and their consequences for the management and functioning of a society, which can be subject to wider debates and researchs.

  3. Corporate philanthropy, political influence, and health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fooks, Gary J; Gilmore, Anna B

    2013-01-01

    The Framework Convention of Tobacco Control (FCTC) provides a basis for nation states to limit the political effects of tobacco industry philanthropy, yet progress in this area is limited. This paper aims to integrate the findings of previous studies on tobacco industry philanthropy with a new analysis of British American Tobacco's (BAT) record of charitable giving to develop a general model of corporate political philanthropy that can be used to facilitate implementation of the FCTC. Analysis of previously confidential industry documents, BAT social and stakeholder dialogue reports, and existing tobacco industry document studies on philanthropy. The analysis identified six broad ways in which tobacco companies have used philanthropy politically: developing constituencies to build support for policy positions and generate third party advocacy; weakening opposing political constituencies; facilitating access and building relationships with policymakers; creating direct leverage with policymakers by providing financial subsidies to specific projects; enhancing the donor's status as a source of credible information; and shaping the tobacco control agenda by shifting thinking on the importance of regulating the market environment for tobacco and the relative risks of smoking for population health. Contemporary BAT social and stakeholder reports contain numerous examples of charitable donations that are likely to be designed to shape the tobacco control agenda, secure access and build constituencies. Tobacco companies' political use of charitable donations underlines the need for tobacco industry philanthropy to be restricted via full implementation of Articles 5.3 and 13 of the FCTC. The model of tobacco industry philanthropy developed in this study can be used by public health advocates to press for implementation of the FCTC and provides a basis for analysing the political effects of charitable giving in other industry sectors which have an impact on public health

  4. Corporate philanthropy, political influence, and health policy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary J Fooks

    Full Text Available The Framework Convention of Tobacco Control (FCTC provides a basis for nation states to limit the political effects of tobacco industry philanthropy, yet progress in this area is limited. This paper aims to integrate the findings of previous studies on tobacco industry philanthropy with a new analysis of British American Tobacco's (BAT record of charitable giving to develop a general model of corporate political philanthropy that can be used to facilitate implementation of the FCTC.Analysis of previously confidential industry documents, BAT social and stakeholder dialogue reports, and existing tobacco industry document studies on philanthropy.The analysis identified six broad ways in which tobacco companies have used philanthropy politically: developing constituencies to build support for policy positions and generate third party advocacy; weakening opposing political constituencies; facilitating access and building relationships with policymakers; creating direct leverage with policymakers by providing financial subsidies to specific projects; enhancing the donor's status as a source of credible information; and shaping the tobacco control agenda by shifting thinking on the importance of regulating the market environment for tobacco and the relative risks of smoking for population health. Contemporary BAT social and stakeholder reports contain numerous examples of charitable donations that are likely to be designed to shape the tobacco control agenda, secure access and build constituencies.Tobacco companies' political use of charitable donations underlines the need for tobacco industry philanthropy to be restricted via full implementation of Articles 5.3 and 13 of the FCTC. The model of tobacco industry philanthropy developed in this study can be used by public health advocates to press for implementation of the FCTC and provides a basis for analysing the political effects of charitable giving in other industry sectors which have an impact on

  5. Small-p politics: how pleasurable, convivial and pragmatic political ideals influence engagement in eat-local initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Emily Huddart; Johnston, Josée; Parkins, John R

    2017-08-30

    Non-confrontational engagement practices like ethical consumption are a popular form of everyday politics. Existing research into these practices offers positive evaluations (highlighting the value of everyday engagement in public life) and critical perspectives (questioning whether myriad small acts can address structural barriers to equity and sustainability). Meanwhile, less emphasis has been placed on understanding the underlying ideals and motivations for political action that seeks to avoid traditional politics. In order to advance such understanding, this case study uses participant observation and semi-structured interviews with 57 individuals whose daily paid or unpaid leadership roles shape eat-local initiatives. We find that in the local food realm, participants idealize pleasurable, convivial and pragmatic engagement and these ideals culminate in a particular form of everyday action we term 'small-p politics'. The paper offers a theoretically and empirically informed investigation of non-traditional political engagement in eat-local movements, concluding that it emerges from a site where: (a) cultural change is prioritized above contentious politics; (b) rejecting traditional political activity is linked with achieving tangible outcomes; and (c) consumers are deemed the ideal agents of change. Non-traditional politics play a prominent role in the landscape of contemporary civic engagement. This research advances our existing knowledge of such practices by providing a thick description of the political ideals that endorse consumption-based approaches to change in the realm of local food. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  6. The international politics of geoengineering:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf

    2017-01-01

    the politics of climate change dramatically, yet in evaluating whether they might ultimately reduce climate risks, their political and security implications have so far not been given adequate prominence. This article puts forward what it calls the ‘security hazard’ and argues that this could be a crucial......Geoengineering technologies aim to make large-scale and deliberate interventions in the climate system possible. A typical framing is that researchers are exploring a ‘Plan B’ in case mitigation fails to avert dangerous climate change. Some options are thought to have the potential to alter...... factor in determining whether a technology is able, ultimately, to reduce climate risks. Ideas about global governance of geoengineering rely on heroic assumptions about state rationality and a generally pacific international system. Moreover, if in a climate engineered world weather events become...

  7. Policy, politics, and water management in the Guadalquivir River Basin, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Anjali; Blomquist, William

    2004-08-01

    Among countries with river basin organizations to manage their water resources, Spain's experience is one of the longest. One of the first basin agencies established in Spain was for the Guadalquivir River in the south. A case study of that river basin and its management indicates how basin management is shaped by political economy factors such as the historical path of the agency's evolution, the basin agency's relationships with central government and with regional or local governments, the patterns of water user representation within the agency, and developments in water law and policy external to the basin agency. The case raises questions about whether and how integrated water resources management at the river basin scale is implemented, even in locations where basin agencies already exist. It also suggests that the politics of management at the river basin level will affect the implementation of national water policies intended to promote integrated management.

  8. The Prediction of Political Competencies by Political Action and Political Media Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Political competencies are often considered a precondition for political action; however, they are not independent of previous political participation, which may also include the frequency and the kind of political media consumption. My research aims at finding out the importance of participation in political activities in the past, as well as…

  9. OIL AS POLITICAL WEAPON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana, BUICAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil (called by some black gold has not always been as coveted and used, but only in the last hundred years has established itself as a highly sought after as an indispensable proper functioning of modern economic activity that an important factor in international politics. International oil regime has changed in the last decades. In 1960, oil regime was a private oligopol which had links with governments main consuming countries. By then the price of a barrel of oil was two U.S. dollars and seven major transnational oil companies decided the amount of oil that will be produced. Meanwhile the world region with the largest oil exports were more strongly expressed nationalism and decolonization. Result, it was so in the late 60s in the region occur independent states. They have created an organization aim of this resource to their advantage - OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Thus since 1973 there have been changes in the international regime governing oil field, namely producing countries were fixed production rate and price. After this time the oil weapon has become increasingly important in the management of international relations. Oil influenced the great powers to Middle East conflicts that occurred in the last century, but their attitude about the emergence of new sources of oil outside OPEC. In the late 90's, Russia has become a major supplier of oil to the West.

  10. A comprehensive shape factor analysis using transportation of MoS2-SiO2/H2O inside an isothermal semi vertical inverted cone with porous boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.N. Maraj

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Current article gives a comprehensive shape factor analysis of MoS2-SiO2 water based hybrid nanofluid in a semi vertical inverted porous cone along with the influence of transverse magnetic field, viscous dissipation and thermal radiation. Significances: Mathematical investigation is carried out in Cartesian coordinates. Physical flow problem has been tackeled numerically by means of shooting algorithm. Effect of significant emerging parameters is displayed and examined through graphs and tables. Conclusions: It is concluded that the presence of magnetic field resist the fluid flow and boundary layer thickness decreases. Fluid decelerates with an increase in λand this decrease in fluid flow is more in case of nanofluid when compared with hybrid nanofluid. Velocity decreases with an increase in S>0. Moreover, it is noticed that the fluid flow decelerates more for SiO2/water nanofluid as compare to hybrid nanofluid. For both types of nanofluids temperature distribution upsurges with an increase in Eckert number Ec, volumetric fractions ϕ1 and ϕ2 in case of nanofluid and hybrid nanofluid, N as well as λ. Moreover, it is evident that the rise of temperature is significantly more for SiO2/water nanofluid. Furthermore, maximum temperature is achieved for blade shaped nanoparticles suspended in SiO2/water nanofluid whereas, lowest temperature measurements are observed in case of brick shaped nanoparticles suspended in MoS2-SiO2/water hybrid nanofluid. Skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number increases with an increase in nanoparticles volumetric fractions ϕ1 and ϕ2 for nano as well as hybrid nanofluid, respectively. Moreover, skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number are of maximum magnitude in case of hybrid nanofluid having blade shaped nanoparticles and minimum magnitude is witnessed for brick shaped nano particles suspended in nanofluid. Keywords: Isothermal cone, MHD, MoS2-SiO2 hybrid nanofluid, Shape

  11. Student life - Making politics matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Siobhan

    2014-12-02

    'What has politics got to do with nursing?' This is a question I hear often as a lecturer in nursing with a specialist interest in politics, as is the comment: 'I did not come into nursing to learn about politics.'

  12. Linear shaped charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, David; Stofleth, Jerome H.; Saul, Venner W.

    2017-07-11

    Linear shaped charges are described herein. In a general embodiment, the linear shaped charge has an explosive with an elongated arrowhead-shaped profile. The linear shaped charge also has and an elongated v-shaped liner that is inset into a recess of the explosive. Another linear shaped charge includes an explosive that is shaped as a star-shaped prism. Liners are inset into crevices of the explosive, where the explosive acts as a tamper.

  13. Dissection of Genetic Factors underlying Wheat Kernel Shape and Size in an Elite × Nonadapted Cross using a High Density SNP Linkage Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Wheat kernel shape and size has been under selection since early domestication. Kernel morphology is a major consideration in wheat breeding, as it impacts grain yield and quality. A population of 160 recombinant inbred lines (RIL, developed using an elite (ND 705 and a nonadapted genotype (PI 414566, was extensively phenotyped in replicated field trials and genotyped using Infinium iSelect 90K assay to gain insight into the genetic architecture of kernel shape and size. A high density genetic map consisting of 10,172 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers, with an average marker density of 0.39 cM/marker, identified a total of 29 genomic regions associated with six grain shape and size traits; ∼80% of these regions were associated with multiple traits. The analyses showed that kernel length (KL and width (KW are genetically independent, while a large number (∼59% of the quantitative trait loci (QTL for kernel shape traits were in common with genomic regions associated with kernel size traits. The most significant QTL was identified on chromosome 4B, and could be an ortholog of major rice grain size and shape gene or . Major and stable loci also were identified on the homeologous regions of Group 5 chromosomes, and in the regions of (6A and (7A genes. Both parental genotypes contributed equivalent positive QTL alleles, suggesting that the nonadapted germplasm has a great potential for enhancing the gene pool for grain shape and size. This study provides new knowledge on the genetic dissection of kernel morphology, with a much higher resolution, which may aid further improvement in wheat yield and quality using genomic tools.

  14. It's complicated: Facebook users' political participation in the 2008 election.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitak, Jessica; Zube, Paul; Smock, Andrew; Carr, Caleb T; Ellison, Nicole; Lampe, Cliff

    2011-03-01

    In the 2008 U.S. presidential election, social network sites such as Facebook allowed users to share their political beliefs, support specific candidates, and interact with others on political issues. But do political activities on Facebook affect political participation among young voters, a group traditionally perceived as apathetic in regard to civic engagement? Or do these activities represent another example of feel-good participation that has little real-world impact, a concept often referred to as "slacktivism"? Results from a survey of undergraduate students (N = 683) at a large public university in the Midwestern United States conducted in the month prior to the election found that students tend to engage in lightweight political participation both on Facebook and in other venues. Furthermore, two OLS regressions found that political activity on Facebook (e.g., posting a politically oriented status update, becoming a "fan" of a candidate) is a significant predictor of other forms of political participation (e.g., volunteering for an organizing, signing a paper or online petition), and that a number of factors--including intensity of Facebook use and the political activity users see their friends performing on the site--predict political activity on Facebook. Students' perceptions regarding the appropriateness of political activity on Facebook, as well as the specific kinds of political activities they engaged in and witnessed within the site, were also explored.

  15. Origin of political conflict in Arctic wilderness areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    James N. Gladden

    2002-01-01

    There are several important factors related to political conflict associated with arctic wilderness areas: scientific studies, economic interests, ethnic identities, geographic differences, and national histories. How groups with an interest in these wilderness areas inject their values into these factors stimulates political debate with each other and with stewarding...

  16. Investigating the origins of political views: biases in explanation predict conservative attitudes in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussak, Larisa J; Cimpian, Andrei

    2017-07-18

    We tested the hypothesis that political attitudes are influenced by an information-processing factor - namely, a bias in the content of everyday explanations. Because many societal phenomena are enormously complex, people's understanding of them often relies on heuristic shortcuts. For instance, when generating explanations for such phenomena (e.g., why does this group have low status?), people often rely on facts that they can retrieve easily from memory - facts that are skewed toward inherent or intrinsic features (e.g., this group is unintelligent). We hypothesized that this bias in the content of heuristic explanations leads to a tendency to (1) view socioeconomic stratification as acceptable and (2) prefer current societal arrangements to alternative ones, two hallmarks of conservative ideology. Moreover, since the inherence bias in explanation is present across development, we expected it to shape children's proto-political judgments as well. Three studies with adults and 4- to 8-year-old children (N = 784) provided support for these predictions: Not only did individual differences in reliance on inherent explanations uniquely predict endorsement of conservative views (particularly the stratification-supporting component; Study 1), but manipulations of this explanatory bias also had downstream consequences for political attitudes in both children and adults (Studies 2 and 3). This work contributes to our understanding of the origins of political attitudes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Hospitality, Tourism, and Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen W. Litvin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Government policy has a significant impact on the hospitality and tourism industry, but it is unclear if political leaders fully understand this economic sector when crafting policies. This article offers new research about the direct involvement of industry practitioners in the political process, by analyzing the backgrounds of legislators in the six New England states. The data indicate that only 3% of these legislators have current or former careers related to hospitality and tourism. The author suggests that practitioners should seek election to political office, to better influence government policy.

  18. A Political Innovator?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yi; Lin, Yu; Andersen, Torben Juul

    2016-01-01

    Political networking is frequently used in transition economies to gain superior performance. This study draws on upper echelons theory (UET) and the resource-based view (RBV) to analyze the relationship between political networking and firm innovation moderated by the core self-evaluation (CSE......) of the CEO. Based on a sample of 381 manufacturing firms extracted from the Entrepreneurs Survey System of Chinese CEOs with 2014 data from the Jiangsu province, the study finds that political networking is positively related to explorative and exploitative innovation but negatively moderated by the CSE...

  19. Essays in political economy

    OpenAIRE

    Mavridis, Christos

    2016-01-01

    This thesis consists of five essays in the field of political economy. The first part of the thesis includes three essays covering various aspects of the political economy of globalization and economic reforms, which are linked in several ways. The second part of the thesis includes two essays on the political economy of development in India. The aim of this introductory section is to give a brief and non-technical overview of the essays, as well as to explain the links between them. The disc...

  20. Shape language - How people describe shapes and shape operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegers, T.; Langeveld, L.H.; Vergeest, J.S.M.

    2001-01-01

    Many designers do not use CAD tools for shape ideation. They consider CAD systems not appropriate for the ideation phase. This research investigates how designers ideate shape, in particular which terms they use to exteriorize shape. The goal is to be able to propose digital tools that are useful

  1. The Prediction of Political Competencies by Political Action and Political Media Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Reichert

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Political competencies are often considered a precondition for political action; however, they are not independent of previous political participation, which may also include the frequency and the kind of political media consumption. My research aims at finding out the importance of participation in political activities in the past, as well as taking over civic responsibility in positions at school or university for cognitive political competencies. The focus is on structural political knowledge of the polity, symbolic political knowledge about political figures and actors, and political reasoning. The main hypothesis reads that the media primarily influence symbolic political knowledge, while structural political knowledge is mainly achieved by active political participation. The ability of political reasoning is assumed to be equally influenced by both, media consumption and political participation. By using a small, homogeneous sample of university students, these hypotheses are examined by taking into consideration socio-demographic control variables and political interest in statistical analyses and by considering differential effects of various political activities and different forms of political media consumption. The results are primarily discussed with respect to potential future research and by considering political education in modern societies.

  2. The political economy of tourism development: A critical review

    OpenAIRE

    Bianchi, Raoul

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews varying theoretical approaches in political economy and their application to the analysis of tourism development. It examines the shifting focus of enquiry and traces the evolution of the political economy of tourism from an earlier generation of predominantly technical, empirically-driven analyses of tourism’s contribution to economic development through to the various strands of development theory that have influenced and which continue to shape critical scholarship in th...

  3. Political Integration of Hezbollah into Lebanese Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    southern interior. 14 Once displaced, the new Shi’a areas of concentration were, “in the infertile zones of the Jebel Amil in the south and the Bekaa...valley.”22 The fact that they were pushed to rugged, infertile and arid lands denote a pattern of economic dislocation that continued over the...political and social subjugation of the Lebanese Shi’a culminated to form a powerfully resonant psychological “frame” upon which Hezbollah could build a

  4. Remapping the "Landscape of Choice": Patterns of Social Class Convergence in the Psycho-Social Factors Shaping the Higher Education Choice Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettley, Nigel Charles; Whitehead, Joan M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a critique of recent Bourdieusian research into the higher education (HE) choice process. Specifically, Ball et al. (2002) maintain that class-related differences in students' psycho-social dispositions in Years 12 and 13, the "landscape of choice", shape their intentions or "decisions" to participate in HE and their selection…

  5. Political Aspects of Nuclear Energy Market Development in the Countries of South Asia. NSG Factor in Promoting Nuclear Energy in the Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyko Aleksandr Aleksandrovich

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available South Asian geopolitical face-off of Delhi and Islamabad revealed breaches of the nuclear nonproliferation. This encouraged the greatest nuclear powers to create a mechanism for additional regulation of the nuclear technology and materials export, which is now known as “Nuclear Suppliers’ Group”. This mechanism aims to impose restrictions for the nuclear technology and materials export to the countries that are not members of NPT. These are nuclear programs of India and Pakistan that are pressing challenge on the agenda. India has been a very attractive market for nuclear suppliers, especially the United States, so the restrictions were lifted from Delhi in 2008. However, they remained valid for Pakistan, which wasn’t an appealing market for the American nuclear exporters. As a result, China, which has been a member of NSG since 2004, has initiated building new NPPs in Pakistan getting mixed reaction of the international community. Despite the clearly contradicting Guidelines, the members of NSG haven’t reached common ground on how to restore its supporting role in maintaining the non-proliferation regime. Thus, the Asian nuclear market develops mostly spontaneously, and its future is shaped primarily by the international relations between importers and exporters. Russia isn’t able to influence all the NSG members to change the position, however it can take advantage of the situation for developing nuclear cooperation with the Asian countries to support sustainable development of the South Asian energy market.

  6. Lesotho: the politics of survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lye, W F

    1982-01-01

    contributed 30,000 men to the mines and railway construction. The population has continued to increase, the agricultural base constantly deteriorates, and the people have become more and more dependent upon migrant labor for their survival at the cost of social deterioration and a compromised political situation. The economics of migrant labor results in reciprocal dependency. The vulnerability of Lesotho's economy to political factors beyond its control is further exacerbated by the equally temporary and unstable element of foreign aid. At current levels of involvement about 20% of the gross national income derives from these projects.

  7. Understanding political market orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan C.

    influences of such behavior. The study includes structural equation modeling to investigate several propositions. While the results show that political parties need to focus on several different aspects of market-oriented behavior, especially using an internal and external orientation as cultural antecedents......This article develops a conceptual framework and measurement model of political market orientation that consists of attitudinal and behavioural constructs. The article reports on perceived relationships among different behavioral aspects of political market orientation and the attitudinal......, a more surprising result is the inconclusive effect of a voter orientation on market-oriented behaviours. The article discusses the findings in the context of the existing literature in political marketing and commercial market orientation....

  8. Terrorism and Political Parties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourne, Angela

    against established authorities. I adopt a ‘discursive institutionalist’ approach and argue that decisions to ban the political parties linked to the IRA and ETA can be explained at least in part by the dominance of a ‘discourse of intolerance’ in which proscription is seen predominantly as a problem......In the paper I address the empirical puzzle arising from different responses by political authorities in Spain and the UK to the existence of political parties integrated in the terrorist groups Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA, Basque Homeland and Freedom) and the Irish Republican Army (IRA). More...... specifically I address the question of why the radical Basque nationalist political party Herri Batasuna and its successors, and the republican parties Sinn Féin and the Republican Clubs, enjoyed periods of legality and illegality during periods in which they all were involved in (separate) violent campaigns...

  9. The Politics of Universalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Karen-Margrethe

    2013-01-01

    ’ of globalization. Historically speaking, human rights are closely connected with globalization, but at the same time, they raise a question about the foundation of globalization: is there a universal community or only economic and political power-relations? The article argues that the political use of human rights...... discourses is split down the middle: it serves both as a critique of power and as an extension of power, and the disclosure of this split helps us understand the inner politics of human rights. The article discusses the trial in Valladolid in 1550 when the rights of the barbarian Indians of America were put......This article investigates the political function of human rights in the 16th Century in Spain just after the conquest of America. It claims that the study of this period of early globalization is relevant for the understanding of the function of human rights discourses to day, at the ‘end...

  10. IDEOLOGY BEHIND POLITENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IGAG Sosiowati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Politicians are considered to be the ones whose honesty is doubtful. This is proven by the fact that there are a lot of negative perception about them. Most of the people know that their ideology is power. In public discussion they often violate or apply politeness with the purpose to get as much power as possible. How polite they are in using the language will be measured by the combination of Grice’s maxims of cooperative principles (1975 and Leech’s mxims of politeness principle. Through analysing the language used by politicians in the talk show Today;s Dialogue, it was found that there were violation and application of politeness in their effort to realize their ideology, which is power.

  11. The Politics of Weeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Hope N.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews the literature that deals with the political ramifications of weeding material from academic library collections and the need to involve users and other libraries within the institution in the decision process. (14 references) (CLB)

  12. Political State Boundary (National)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — State boundaries with political limit - boundaries extending into the ocean (NTAD). The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an...

  13. Political communication research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    2014-01-01

    The rise of new media and the broader set of social changes they are part of present political communication research with new challenges and new opportunities at a time when many think the field is at an intellectual impasse (e.g., Bennett & Iyengar, 2008). In this article, I argue that parts...... of the field’s problems are rooted in the way in which political communication research has developed since the 1960s. In this period, the field has moved from being interdisciplinary and mixed-methods to being more homogenous and narrowly focused, based primarily on ideas developed in social psychology...... of political communication processes and questions concerning the symbolic, institutional, and technological nature of these processes—especially during a time of often rapid change. To overcome this problem, I argue that the field of political communication research should re-engage with the rest of media...

  14. Political conversations on Facebook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads P.

    2016-01-01

    Political conversations are according to theories on deliberative democracy essential to well-functioning democracies. Traditionally these conversations have taken place in face-to-face settings, in e.g. party meetings and town meetings. However, social media such as Facebook and Twitter offers new...... possibilities for online political conversations between citizens and politicians. This paper examines the presence on Facebook and Twitter of Members of the Danish national Parliament, the Folketing, and focusses on a quantitative mapping of the political conversation activities taking place in the threads...... following Facebook posts from Danish Members of Parliament (MPs). The paper shows that, in comparison with previous findings from other countries, Danish MPs have a relatively high degree of engagement in political conversations with citizens on Facebook – and that a large number of citizens follow MPs...

  15. [Medical politics. Graffiti].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugelli, P

    1991-03-20

    If doctors want to play a role in future health promotion, they have to leave their citadel, and come closer to life and society. Modern preventive medicine cannot be dissociated from basic political, cultural and religious values and processes. Genetic counseling and engineering, influencing lifestyle, community intervention and changing the health culture among patients and doctors all require ethical and political competence rather than traditional medical skills. The author advocates the development of a new discipline, medical politics, with two major commitments: -To define basic health rights -To study the public health consequences of political systems and decisions. In a polemic and provocative style the article enlightens the potentials and dangers associated with an expanded concept of preventive medicine.

  16. GLOBALIZATION, CONSUMPTION PATTERNS AND POLITICAL STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Malinowski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rapid changes in technology and economy that we observe nowadays are accompanied by rapid changes in traditional values and attitudes. In the contemporary world, a permanent proximity of internet, computer, television or smartphone makes us all citizens of the globalised, virtual world rather than a physical, geographical, real one. But even if people consider themselves to be citizens of the “global village”, a political architecture of the real world has remained based on the nation-state. One of the main characteristics of a nation-state is its territory defined by its borders. Recognition and respect of nation-state borders is considered to be a principle of national sovereignty, national interest and territorial independence, which shape international relations. Historically, rulers always usurped the right to control what happens on their territory, but there were some areas that had escaped their supervision. The first one is the sphere of science and more broadly – ideas. Whether it was religion, superstition or steam engine, ideas were unstoppable even for isolated countries. Second area is a realm of trade. Rulers were usually rather kind for merchants, therefore borders were always wide open for business people. It is worth mentioning that both ideas and trade are significant driving forces in the history of world. Their influence is sometimes stronger and sometimes weaker but it is always meaningful. Yet the very hypothesis of this article states that in contemporary, globalised world a third important factor has arrived. It was always present but until the economy hasn’t become globalized, its impact wasn’t noticeable. This third factor can be described as universalisation of western consumption patterns and it plays an important role particularly in developing countries.

  17. Local Politics and Religion in Papua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idrus Al Hamid

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Local political conflicts become an integral part of Indonesia. Various cause roots are assumed come from a religious dimension, in addition to ethnicity. In cases of Jayapura, Papua, local political dimensions of the conflict was obviously display as factors that religion should be integrating factor, but in fact religion become disintegrating factor. The various power of groups interconnect with a religious impulse that local political tensions grew louder and spread. The aim of this study is to describe analytically about the emergence of a strain on the local level in Jayapura Papua in the field of religion. To elaborate the analysis in this article, the excavation data through in-depth interviews, focus group discussion, and literature studies or documents on issues that occur on local level.

  18. Political Attitudes Develop Independently of Personality Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatemi, Peter K.; Verhulst, Brad

    2015-01-01

    The primary assumption within the recent personality and political orientations literature is that personality traits cause people to develop political attitudes. In contrast, research relying on traditional psychological and developmental theories suggests the relationship between most personality dimensions and political orientations are either not significant or weak. Research from behavioral genetics suggests the covariance between personality and political preferences is not causal, but due to a common, latent genetic factor that mutually influences both. The contradictory assumptions and findings from these research streams have yet to be resolved. This is in part due to the reliance on cross-sectional data and the lack of longitudinal genetically informative data. Here, using two independent longitudinal genetically informative samples, we examine the joint development of personality traits and attitude dimensions to explore the underlying causal mechanisms that drive the relationship between these features and provide a first step in resolving the causal question. We find change in personality over a ten-year period does not predict change in political attitudes, which does not support a causal relationship between personality traits and political attitudes as is frequently assumed. Rather, political attitudes are often more stable than the key personality traits assumed to be predicting them. Finally, the results from our genetic models find that no additional variance is accounted for by the causal pathway from personality traits to political attitudes. Our findings remain consistent with the original construction of the five-factor model of personality and developmental theories on attitude formation, but challenge recent work in this area. PMID:25734580

  19. Political attitudes develop independently of personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatemi, Peter K; Verhulst, Brad

    2015-01-01

    The primary assumption within the recent personality and political orientations literature is that personality traits cause people to develop political attitudes. In contrast, research relying on traditional psychological and developmental theories suggests the relationship between most personality dimensions and political orientations are either not significant or weak. Research from behavioral genetics suggests the covariance between personality and political preferences is not causal, but due to a common, latent genetic factor that mutually influences both. The contradictory assumptions and findings from these research streams have yet to be resolved. This is in part due to the reliance on cross-sectional data and the lack of longitudinal genetically informative data. Here, using two independent longitudinal genetically informative samples, we examine the joint development of personality traits and attitude dimensions to explore the underlying causal mechanisms that drive the relationship between these features and provide a first step in resolving the causal question. We find change in personality over a ten-year period does not predict change in political attitudes, which does not support a causal relationship between personality traits and political attitudes as is frequently assumed. Rather, political attitudes are often more stable than the key personality traits assumed to be predicting them. Finally, the results from our genetic models find that no additional variance is accounted for by the causal pathway from personality traits to political attitudes. Our findings remain consistent with the original construction of the five-factor model of personality and developmental theories on attitude formation, but challenge recent work in this area.

  20. Interplay of environmental and socio-political factors in the downfall of the Eastern Türk Empire in 630 CE

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Di Cosmo, N.; Oppenheimer, C.; Büntgen, Ulf

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 145, 3-4 (2017), s. 383-395 ISSN 0165-0009 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : Asian history * Paleoclimatology * Tree rings * Volcanism Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology OBOR OECD: Meteorology and atmospheric sciences Impact factor: 3.496, year: 2016

  1. The Persistence of Gender Differences in Political Interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TÀNIA VERGE MESTRE

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the role of individual resources, situational factors, and the socialization process in the persistence of a gender gap in political dispositions, principally in political interest. We pay special attention to situational factors, especially those related to the time devoted to housework and caring responsibilities. Despite the growing participation of women in the labor market and increasingly comparable levels of male and female educational attainment, the enduring unequal sexual division of household tasks reduces women?s time availability as well as the pool of skills, resources and social networks which could foster their political engagement, thus helping to sustain the gender gap in political interest.

  2. Size and Political Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, David Dreyer; Serritzlew, Søren

    This paper uses a novel research design to re-examine the causal effect of jurisdiction size on political participation. Two waves of municipal consolidation in Denmark, in 1970 and in 2005, provide exogenous variation in jurisdiction size.......This paper uses a novel research design to re-examine the causal effect of jurisdiction size on political participation. Two waves of municipal consolidation in Denmark, in 1970 and in 2005, provide exogenous variation in jurisdiction size....

  3. Persuasion in Politics

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin M. Murphy; Andrei Shleifer

    2004-01-01

    We present a model of the creation of social networks, such as political parties, trade unions, religious coalitions, or political action committees, through discussion and mutual persuasion among their members. The key idea is that people are influenced by those inside their network, but not by those outside. Once created, networks can be “rented out” to politicians who seek votes and support for their initiatives and ideas, which may have little to do with network members' core beliefs. In ...

  4. Building the Body Politic

    OpenAIRE

    Steffen Hertog

    2004-01-01

    Steffen Hertog’s article argues that Saudi Arabian regime has embarked upon the modernization of its authoritarian rule by attempting to institutionalize important aspects of the political debate. The way this is being done, he proposes, is best captured with the time-honoured concept of corporatism. It helps to bring the kingdom back into the framework of comparative politics, testing and giving new nuances to familiar concepts.

  5. Hospitality, Tourism, and Politics

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen W. Litvin

    2012-01-01

    Government policy has a significant impact on the hospitality and tourism industry, but it is unclear if political leaders fully understand this economic sector when crafting policies. This article offers new research about the direct involvement of industry practitioners in the political process, by analyzing the backgrounds of legislators in the six New England states. The data indicate that only 3% of these legislators have current or former careers related to hospitality and tourism. The ...

  6. Globalization and political structure

    OpenAIRE

    Gancia, Gino A.; Ponzetto, Giacomo A. M.; Ventura, Jaume

    2017-01-01

    The first wave of globalization (1830-1914) witnessed a decline in the number of countries from 125 to 54. Political consolidation was often achieved through war and conquest. The second wave of globalization (1950-present) has led instead to an increase in the number of countries to a record high of more than 190. Political fragmentation has been accompanied by the creation of peaceful structures of supranational governance. This paper develops a theoretical model of the interaction between ...

  7. The Political Parties and Political Participation in Rivers State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Political Parties and Political Participation in Rivers State, Nigeria: A Case Study of 2015 General Elections. Goddey Wilson. Abstract. The study reviewed the activities of the political parties and its impact on voters' participation in the political activities in Rivers State. In pursuit of this objective, the study generated ...

  8. The Effects of Majoring in Political Science on Political Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Casey B. K.; Smith, Keith W.; Williams, J. Michael

    2017-01-01

    This study tests, and finds support, for the hypotheses that a student who majors in political science will have stronger feelings of political competence and will be more willing to engage in hypothetical political actions than two peer groups: (a) those who major in other fields and (b) those who show an interest in politics but have not studied…

  9. Perspectives on Politics, Production and Public Administration in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The essays in this collection in honour of Ole Therkildsen analyse attempts to create development in Africa over the last half century. They have been written by specialists in development and African politics who have all interacted with Ole Therkildsen as researchers or development practitioners....... The essays cover issues related to foreign aid, local government, public administration, taxation, agriculture and political systems, these being the central sites where development efforts are ordinarily undertaken. The thread running through the essays is a common concern with politics, how it should...... be understood and how it shapes development. In Africa, as elsewhere in the world, politics is decisive for change, but poorly understood, sometimes neglected, and often depicted using rigid models. The book seeks to dig below the surface and do justice to the complexity of the politics of production and public...

  10. Political journalism in comparative perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albæk, E.; van Dalen, A.; Jebril, N.; de Vreese, C.H.

    2014-01-01

    Political journalism is often under fire. Conventional wisdom and much scholarly research suggest that journalists are cynics and political pundits. Political news is void of substance and overly focused on strategy and persons. Citizens do not learn from the news, are politically cynical, and are

  11. Has Political Science Ignored Religion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettell, Steven

    2012-01-01

    A common complaint from political scientists involved in the study of religion is that religious issues have been largely overlooked by political science. Through a content analysis of leading political science and sociology journals from 2000 to 2010, this article considers the extent of this claim. The results show that political science…

  12. AXIOLOGICAL POTENTIAL OF POLITICAL NICKNAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHUSTOVA IRINA NIKOLAEVNA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of axiological possibilities of political nicknames. Political nicknames are very expressive. They can be personal and impersonal. Some nicknames lose their primary meaning to become a part of evaluative political lexis. In the language of politics nicknames often serve not only as means of assessment, but also as ideological weapon.

  13. Politics of inclusion and empowerment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, John; Siim, Birte

    The book examines the political and academic debates about the interplay between political, civil and social citizenship in US and Europe......The book examines the political and academic debates about the interplay between political, civil and social citizenship in US and Europe...

  14. Research into minorities: between science and politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Ingilæ Landsem

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the interplay between science and politics in minority research in the period 1979 to mid-1980s at the University of Tromsø. Research was influenced by different conditions at the time, such as political events and policy priorities and ideological of streams in academia. Three factors influenced the choice of theme, priorities and approaches to minority research in North Norway. The first factor was the damming of the Alta-Kautokeino river, followed by Sami rights struggle and political changes towards the Sami population in Norway. What consequences did the political case for the research for the academic environment in the Northern Norway? The second factor was the research program run by the Norwegian general scientific Research (NAVF. An analysis on the relevant themes and focus areas within minority research is undertaken on basis of the research program. Finally I will use the methodological and research political discussions on emic and etic research positions that took place in the 1980s. Was it the Sami themselves, or also the researchers belonging to the majority that had the right to pursue research on the Sami? Sources consist of internal documents, reports, research papers and oral sources from the UiT.

  15. Social Media Use and Online Political Participation Among College Students During the US Election 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei “Chris” Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 4,556 US college students were surveyed immediately after Election 2012 to investigate what social media–related psychological and behavioral factors predicted their online political participation. Structural equation modeling and hierarchical multiple regression results showed that online social capital, political self-efficacy, and Facebook group participation were positive predictors of online political participation, while social trust did not directly influence online political participation. General political use of Facebook and Twitter was a positive predictor of online political participation; however, extensive Facebook and Twitter use was a negative predictor. Implications for research and political practice are discussed.

  16. The ontology of "political" in political consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Niels Nolsøe; Stenger, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to create a more complex and holistic understanding of the value system of the political consumer. A case study was undertaken were the unit of analysis constituted 12 high users of organic food products. The empirical data was analysed by utilizing Reynolds and Gutman’s ...... or services will enable companies to better understand consumers need and expectations. The latter being a necessity if confirmation of expectations, satisfaction, retention of customers and customer loyalty are goals of importance for the selling company....

  17. The Political Opposition: notes for a theoretical discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Barrientos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Opposition is a role that, in democracies, is usually played by political parties. Its importance is that it is the controlling factor of the governments in turn and they are the alternative for the formation of new governments. But the opposition gets wider connotations depending on the position that particular groups take across the political system. This paper presents an analytical model to distinguish the opposition types in political systems with special attention to Western democracies.

  18. Proactive Management, Reactive Management, and Perceived Political Support

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Young-Joo; Ryu, Sangyub

    2013-01-01

    Starting from the assumption that political support is essential for public managers to manage their organizations, this study investigates factors that enhance political leaders' support toward top executives in public organizations. Based on the literature of proactive behaviors, this study tests hypothesis that proactive managers are more likely to acquire political support. Analyses on more than 500 cases in Texas school districts find that superintendents perceive more support from their...

  19. Pronouns, Address Forms and Politeness Strategies in Odia

    OpenAIRE

    Kalyanamalini SAHOO

    2013-01-01

    This study discusses how various politeness strategies are implemented linguistically and how linguistic usage is related to social and contextual factors in the Indic language Odia. The study extends the validity of politeness theory (Brown & Levinson, 1978) with reference to Odia speech-patterns and shows that Odia usage of politeness would be more differentiated according to the social relationship and gender than the content of the message.  In Brown and Levinson’s model, individual speec...

  20. Space Politics and Policy: An Evolutionary Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Eligar

    2002-01-01

    This paper offers an evolutionary perspective of space policy. It is argued that (1) space policy is evolutionary in that it has responded to dramatic political events, such as the launching of Sputnik and the Cold War, and has undergone dynamic and evolutionary policy changes over the course of the past fifty years of the space-age; and that (2) space policy is an integral part of and interacts with public policy processes in the United States and abroad. To this end, the paper analyzes space policy at several levels of analysis. This includes: (1) historical context, political actors and institutions, political processes, and policy outcomes; (2) the symbiotic relationships between policy and space technology; and (3) future space policy trends and developments likely to occur in the 21st century. A "Space Politics and Policy Framework" is developed in this paper to represent the evolution of space policy. Space policy involves both the process of policy formation and policy change over time (e.g., emergence of commercialization) and the courses of action taken to achieve political (and technological) determined outcomes. The evolution of space policy over time takes place through policy change. On this basis, public policy processes over the course of the space-age have involved the mobilization of governmental resources, actors, and institutions. Concomitantly, nongovernmental actors, such as private corporations and commercial enterprises, increasingly play a role in space. As a result, market factors in addition to political forces influence space policy.