WorldWideScience

Sample records for political expected outcome

  1. Expectations about Expectations of the Public. Political Elections and the Segmentation of the Political Public

    OpenAIRE

    Kusche, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the role that expectations about particularistic expectations of the political public play in the relationship between political actors and voters. It questions the systems-theoretical assumption that political elections and public communication about politics create an unknown public and that parties therefore can attract voters only with the help of relatively universalistic programs. Beyond the universalism induced by the mass media parties and politicians utilize opp...

  2. Political Consensus and Fiscal Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houlberg, Kurt; Holm Pedersen, Lene

    2015-01-01

    It is becoming difficult to maintain consensus in a period of economic austerity, and this possibly challenges the ability of democratic institutions to take decisions on tough economic questions. In order to find out how political consensus influences fiscal outcomes, this article sets out...

  3. Political frictions and public policy outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Grechyna, Daryna

    2016-01-01

    We study the role of political frictions in public policy outcomes. We propose a simple model of fiscal policy that combines a lack of commitment by the government, political turnover, and another political friction that can be interpreted either as political polarization or as public rent-seeking. We show that political turnover increases public debt levels, while political polarization or public rent-seeking leads to higher public spending. We evaluate the importance of different political ...

  4. Political conditions and life expectancy in Europe, 1900-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenbach, Johan P

    2013-04-01

    The rise of life expectancy in Europe has been a very uneven process, both in time and space. This paper aims to identify instances in which major political conditions are likely to have influenced the rise of life expectancy, focusing on formation and dissolution of states and supranational blocs and on differences between political regimes (democratic vs. authoritarian non-communist and communist rule). Data on life expectancy, cause-specific mortality and political conditions were compiled from existing data sources. Possible relations between political conditions and life expectancy were studied by direct comparisons of changes in life expectancy in countries with different political conditions but similar starting levels of life expectancy. We found that formation and dissolution of states often went together with convergence and divergence of life expectancy, respectively, and that otherwise similar countries that did or did not become part of the Soviet bloc had distinctly different life expectancy trajectories. Democratically governed states had higher life expectancies than authoritarian states throughout the 20th century. The gap narrowed between 1920 and 1960 due to rapid catching up of infectious disease control in both non-communist and communist authoritarian states. It widened again after 1960 due to earlier and more rapid progress in democratic states against cardiovascular disease, breast cancer, motor vehicle accidents and other causes of death that have become amenable to intervention. We conclude that the history of life expectancy in Europe contains many instances in which political conditions are likely to have had a temporary or more lasting impact on population health. This suggests that there is scope for further in-depth studies of the impact of specific political determinants on the development of population health in Europe. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Expectation Violation in Political Decision Making: A Psychological Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Öllinger

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the early Gestaltists there has been a strong interest in the question of how problem solvers get stuck in a mental impasse. A key idea is that the repeated activation of a successful strategy from the past results in a mental set (‘Einstellung’ which determines and constrains the option space to solve a problem. We propose that this phenomenon, which mostly was tested by fairly restricted experiments in the lab, could also be applied to more complex problem constellations and naturalistic decision making. We aim at scrutinizing and reconstructing how a mental set determines the misinterpretation of facts in the field of political decision making and leads in consequence to wrong expectations and an ill-defined problem representation. We will exemplify this psychological mechanism considering a historical example, namely the unexpected stabilization of the Franco regime at the end of World War II and its survival thereafter. A specific focus will be drawn to the significant observation that erroneous expectations were taken as the basis for decisions. This is congruent with the notion that in case of discrepancy between preconceived notions and new information, the former prevails over the new findings. Based on these findings, we suggest a theoretical model for expectation violation in political decision making and develop novel approaches for cognitive empirical research on the mechanisms of expectation violation and its maintenance in political decision making processes.

  6. Living Up to the Code's Exhortations? Social Workers' Political Knowledge Sources, Expectations, and Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felderhoff, Brandi Jean; Hoefer, Richard; Watson, Larry Dan

    2016-01-01

    The National Association of Social Workers' (NASW's) Code of Ethics urges social workers to engage in political action. However, little recent research has been conducted to examine whether social workers support this admonition and the extent to which they actually engage in politics. The authors gathered data from a survey of social workers in Austin, Texas, to address three questions. First, because keeping informed about government and political news is an important basis for action, the authors asked what sources of knowledge social workers use. Second, they asked what the respondents believe are appropriate political behaviors for other social workers and NASW. Third, they asked for self-reports regarding respondents' own political behaviors. Results indicate that social workers use the Internet and traditional media services to stay informed; expect other social workers and NASW to be active; and are, overall, more active than the general public in many types of political activities. The comparisons made between expectations for others and their own behaviors are interesting in their complex outcomes. Social workers should strive for higher levels of adherence to the code's urgings on political activity. Implications for future work are discussed.

  7. The effect of regional politics on regional life expectancy in Italy (1980-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Marcel F; D'Ippolito, Edoardo; Eikemo, Terje A; Congdon, Peter D; Nante, Nicola; Mackenbach, Johan P; Kamphuis, Carlijn B M

    2017-03-01

    The evidence on the association between politics and health is scarce considering the importance of this topic for population health. Studies that investigated the effect of different political regimes on health outcomes show inconsistent results. Bayesian time-series cross-section analyses are used to examine the overall impact of regional politics on variations in Italian regional life expectancy (LE) at birth during the period 1980-2010. Our analyses control for trends in and unobserved determinants of regional LE, correct for temporal as well as spatial autocorrelation, and employ a flexible specification for the timing of the political effects. In the period from 1980 to 1995, we find no evidence that the communist, left-oriented coalitions and Christian Democratic, centre-oriented coalitions have had an effect on regional LE. In the period from 1995 onwards, after a major reconfiguration of Italy's political regimes and a major healthcare reform, we again find no evidence that the Centre-Left and Centre-Right coalitions have had a significant impact on regional LE. The presented results provide no support for the notion that different regional political regimes in Italy have had a differential effect on regional LE, even though Italian regions have had considerable and increasing autonomy over healthcare and health-related policies and expenditures.

  8. Immigration Ethnic Diversity and Political Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmon, Nikolaj Arpe

    2017-01-01

    I study the impact of immigration and increasing ethnic diversity on political outcomes in immigrant-receiving countries, focusing on immigration and election outcomes in Danish municipalities 1981-2001. A rich set of control variables isolates ethnic diversity effects from those of other immigrant...... characteristics and a novel IV strategy based on historical housing stock data addresses issues of endogenous location choices of immigrants. Increases in local ethnic diversity lead to right-ward shifts in election outcomes by shifting electoral support away from traditional "big government" left-wing parties...... and towards anti-immigrant nationalist parties in particular. These effects appear in both local and national elections....

  9. Heterogeneous inflation expectations, learning, and market outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Madeira, Carlos; Zafar, Basit

    2012-01-01

    Using the panel component of the Michigan Survey of Consumers, we show that individuals, in particular women and ethnic minorities, are highly heterogeneous in their expectations of inflation. We estimate a model of inflation expectations based on learning from experience that also allows for heterogeneity in both private information and updating. Our model vastly outperforms existing models of inflation expectations in explaining the heterogeneity in the data. We find that women, ethnic mino...

  10. Heterogeneus Inflation Expectations Learning and Market Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Madeira; Basit Zafar

    2012-01-01

    Using the panel component of the Michigan Survey of Consumers we estimate a learning model of inflation expectations, allowing for heterogeneous use of both private information and lifetime inflation experience. We find that women, ethnic minorities, and less educated agents have a higher degree of heterogeneity in their private information, and are slower to update their expectations. During the 2000s, consumers believe inflation to be more persistent in the short term, but temporary fluctua...

  11. National independence, women's political participation, and life expectancy in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobles, Jenna; Brown, Ryan; Catalano, Ralph

    2010-05-01

    This study investigates the role of national independence and women's political participation on population health using historical lifespan data from Norway. We use time-series methods to analyze data measuring the actual length of time lived by Norwegian birth cohorts spanning a 61 year period surrounding the political emancipation of Norway from Sweden in 1905 and the establishment of a Norwegian monarchy in 1906. The use of a discrete, historical event improves our ability to interpret the population health effects of national independence and women's political participation as causal. We find a large and significant positive effect on the lifespan of Norwegian females born in the 1906 cohort. Interestingly, the effect does not extend to all living females during the Norwegian drive toward sovereignty. We conclude that the beneficial effects were likely conferred through intrauterine biological transfers and/or neonatal investments specific to the first year of life. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Political Efficacy in Adolescence: Development, Gender Differences, and Outcome Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arens, A. Katrin; Watermann, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    The present study focuses on political efficacy in terms of students' competence self-perceptions related to the domain of politics. The investigation addresses the mean level development and longitudinal relations to outcome variables including gender differences. Drawing on a sample of N = 2,504 German students, political efficacy, along with…

  13. Bilateral Cochlear Implants: Maximizing Expected Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Kate E; Blum, Nathan J; Waryasz, Stephanie A; Augustyn, Marilyn

    Sonia is a 4 years 1 month-year-old girl with Waardenburg syndrome and bilateral sensorineural hearing loss who had bilateral cochlear implants at 2 years 7 months years of age. She is referred to Developmental-Behavioral Pediatrics by her speech/language pathologist because of concerns that her language skills are not progressing as expected after the cochlear implant. At the time of the implant, she communicated using approximately 20 signs and 1 spoken word (mama). At the time of the evaluation (18 months after the implant) she had approximately 70 spoken words (English and Spanish) and innumerable signs that she used to communicate. She could follow 1-step directions in English but had more difficulty after 2-step directions.Sonia was born in Puerto Rico at 40 weeks gestation after an uncomplicated pregnancy. She failed her newborn hearing test and was given hearing aids that did not seem to help.At age 2 years, Sonia, her mother, and younger sister moved to the United States where she was diagnosed with bilateral severe-to-profound hearing loss. Genetic testing led to a diagnosis of Waardenburg syndrome (group of genetic conditions that can cause hearing loss and changes in coloring [pigmentation] of the hair, skin, and eyes). She received bilateral cochlear implants 6 months later.Sonia's mother is primarily Spanish-speaking and mostly communicates with her in Spanish or with gestures but has recently begun to learn American Sign Language (ASL). In a preschool program at a specialized school for the deaf, Sonia is learning both English and ASL. Sonia seems to prefer to use ASL to communicate.Sonia receives speech and language therapy (SLT) 3 times per week (90 minutes total) individually in school and once per week within a group. She is also receiving outpatient SLT once per week. Therapy sessions are completed in English, with the aid of an ASL interpreter. Sonia's language scores remain low, with her receptive skills in the first percentile, and her

  14. Expected long-term outcome after a tibial shaft fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faergemann, C; Frandsen, P A; Röck, N D

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A prospective study of 207 laymen and professionals answered a questionnaire regarding the expectations of the long-term outcome 6 months after a unilateral tibial shaft fracture. The aim was (1) to disclose the expected outcome after unilateral tibial shaft fracture, and (2) to compare...... these expectations with the outcome measured in patients. METHODS: There were five groups of nonpatients: (1) 42 orthopedic surgeons, (2) 36 physiotherapists, (3) 42 students, (4) 49 white collar workers, and (5) 38 blue collar workers. Outcome was measured by Sickness Impact Profile (SIP). The SIP scores were...

  15. Development of the Social Efficacy and Social Outcome Expectations Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Stephen L.; Wright, Dorothy A.; Jenkins-Guarnieri, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    The current study developed an 18-item scale measuring individuals' social expectations in relationships related to their efficacy expectations (Subscale 1) and outcome expectations (Subscale 2) based on Bandura's self-efficacy theory. Results from exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, using an undergraduate sample ("N" = 486),…

  16. Global Positioning System: Political Support, Directions of Development, and Expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Czaplewski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade the Global Positioning System has become a global, multifunctional tool which provides services that are an integral part of U.S. national security as well as the security of other highly developed countries. Economic development, transport security as well as homeland security are important elements of the global economic infrastructure. In 2000 the United States acknowledged the growing significance of GPS for civilian users and stopped intentionally degrading accuracy for non-military signals that are known as “Selective Availability”. Since then, commercial applications of satellite systems have been proliferating even more rapidly, and therefore, their importance in everyday life has greatly increased. Currently, services that depend on information obtained from the Global Positioning System are the driving force behind economic growth, economic development and the improvement in life safety. This economic development would not be possible without the financial and political support of the US government to maintain the operation of the GPS system. Therefore it is important to have knowledge about the intentions of the US government how system GPS will be developed in the future. Decisions taken in the last 3 months are the subject of this article.

  17. Political and social determinants of life expectancy in less developed countries: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Ro-Ting

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to examine the longitudinal contributions of four political and socioeconomic factors to the increase in life expectancy in less developed countries (LDCs between 1970 and 2004. Methods We collected 35 years of annual data for 119 LDCs on life expectancy at birth and on four key socioeconomic indicators: economy, measured by log10 gross domestic product per capita at purchasing power parity; educational environment, measured by the literacy rate of the adult population aged 15 years and over; nutritional status, measured by the proportion of undernourished people in the population; and political regime, measured by the regime score from the Polity IV database. Using linear mixed models, we analyzed the longitudinal effects of these multiple factors on life expectancy at birth with a lag of 0-10 years, adjusting for both time and regional correlations. Results The LDCs' increases in life expectancy over time were associated with all four factors. Political regime had the least influence on increased life expectancy to begin with, but became significant starting in the 3rd year and continued to increase, while the impact of the other socioeconomic factors began strong but continually decreased over time. The combined effects of these four socioeconomic and political determinants contributed 54.74% - 98.16% of the life expectancy gains throughout the lag periods of 0-10 years. Conclusions Though the effect of democratic politics on increasing life expectancy was relatively small in the short term when compared to the effects of the other socioeconomic factors, the long-term impact of democracy should not be underestimated.

  18. The expected-outcome model of two-player games

    CERN Document Server

    Abramson, Bruce

    1990-01-01

    The Expected-Outcome Model of Two-Player Games deals with the expected-outcome model of two-player games, in which the relative merit of game-tree nodes, rather than board positions, is considered. The ambiguity of static evaluation and the problems it generates in the search system are examined and the development of a domain-independent static evaluator is described. Comprised of eight chapters, this book begins with an overview of the rationale for the mathematical study of games, followed by a discussion on some previous artificial intelligence (AI) research efforts on game-trees. The nex

  19. Comparison of outcome expectancies for synthetic cannabinoids and botanical marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauritsen, Kirstin J; Rosenberg, Harold

    2016-07-01

    Although initially developed for medical purposes, synthetic cannabinoids have also been consumed for recreational purposes. To evaluate whether agreement with positive and negative outcome expectancies differed for synthetic cannabinoids versus botanical marijuana, and assess reported reasons for using synthetic cannabinoids. Using a web-based recruitment and data collection procedure, 186 adults who had used both synthetic cannabinoids and botanical marijuana and 181 adults who had used botanical marijuana but not synthetic cannabinoids, completed measures of outcome expectancies and other relevant questionnaires. A significant interaction revealed that participants who had used both synthetic cannabinoids and botanical marijuana indicated lower agreement with positive expectancies for synthetic cannabinoids, and higher agreement with positive expectancies for botanical marijuana, than did those participants who used only botanical marijuana. There was no interaction between type of drug and use history on agreement with negative expectancies, and participants agreed more strongly with negative outcome expectancies for synthetic cannabinoids than for botanical marijuana whether they had used one or both types of these drugs. The most frequently provided reasons for using synthetic cannabinoids included availability, perceived legality, cost, curiosity, and social interaction. Given growing public acceptance of recreational and medical marijuana, coupled with negative perceptions and increasing regulation of synthetic cannabinoid compounds, botanical marijuana is likely to remain more available and more popular than synthetic cannabinoids.

  20. Paradoxical effects of alcohol information on alcohol outcome expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krank, Marvin D; Ames, Susan L; Grenard, Jerry L; Schoenfeld, Tara; Stacy, Alan W

    2010-07-01

    Cognitive associations with alcohol predict both current and future use in youth and young adults. Much cognitive and social cognitive research suggests that exposure to information may have unconscious influences on thinking and behavior. The present study assessed the impact of information statements on the accessibility of alcohol outcome expectancies. The 2 studies reported here investigated the effects of exposure to alcohol statements typical of informational approaches to prevention on the accessibility of alcohol outcome expectancies. High school and university students were presented with information statements about the effects of alcohol and other commercial products. The alcohol statements were taken from expectancy questionnaires. Some of these statements were presented as facts and others as myths. The retention of detailed information about these statements was manipulated by (i) divided attention versus focused attention or (ii) immediate versus delayed testing. Accessibility of personal alcohol outcome expectancies was subsequently measured using an open-ended question about the expected effects of alcohol. Participants reported more alcohol outcomes seen during the information task as personal expectations about the effects of alcohol use than similar unseen items. Paradoxically, myth statements were also more likely to be reported as expectancies than unseen items in all conditions. Additionally, myth statements were generated less often than fact statements only under the condition of immediate testing with strong content processing instructions. These observations are consistent with findings from cognitive research where familiarity in the absence of explicit memory can have an unconscious influence on performance. In particular, the exposure to these items in an informational format increases accessibility of the seen items even when the participants were told that they were myths. The findings have implications for the development of

  1. Quality Assurance in the Political Context: In the Midst of Different Expectations and Conflicting Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerkens, Maarja

    2015-01-01

    Higher education quality assurance systems develop within a complex political environment where national level goals and priorities interact with European and global developments. Furthermore, quality assurance is influenced by broader processes in the public sector that set expectations with respect to accountability, legitimacy and regulatory…

  2. Patients' Preoperative Expectation and Outcome of Cataract Surgery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Patient's satisfaction for a given treatment is an important clinical outcome because a satisfied patient is more likely to comply with treatments, attend follow-ups and advocate the service to others. Therefore, knowing patients' expectations before a planned procedure or treatment and the actual level of ...

  3. Goal Internalization and Outcome Expectancy in Adolescent Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Joanne M.; Moberly, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety has been conceptualized in terms of increased avoidance motivation and higher expectancies of undesirable outcomes. However, anxiety research has hitherto not examined an important qualitative aspect of motivation: the degree to which reasons for goal pursuit are experienced as controlling and originating outside the core self. We asked 70…

  4. Service-Learning in Nonprofit Organizations: Motivations, Expectations, and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basinger, Nancy; Bartholomew, Keith

    2006-01-01

    This article applies theories of giving from philanthropic studies to enhance understanding of service-learning relationships between students and community partners. Focusing on the participation motivations, outcome expectations, and satisfaction levels of community partners who have recently completed work with service-learning students, the…

  5. Alcohol Outcome Expectancies and Drinking to Cope with Social Situations

    OpenAIRE

    Carrigan, Maureen H.; Ham, Lindsay S.; Thomas, Suzanne E.; Randall, Carrie L.

    2008-01-01

    Repeated use of alcohol as a coping strategy to reduce anxiety or discomfort increases one's risk of developing alcohol dependence. Previous studies have found alcohol outcome expectancies (AOE) strongly predict drinking behavior, in general, and also are related to drinking to cope. The purpose of the current study was to examine AOE that may be related to drinking to cope with discomfort in social situations. It was hypothesized that positive AOE, especially related to assertion and tension...

  6. Psychometric evaluations of the efficacy expectations and Outcome Expectations for Exercise Scales in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrock, Carolyn J; Gary, Faye

    2014-01-01

    This secondary analysis tested the reliability and validity of the Self-Efficacy for Exercise (SEE) and the Outcome Expectations for Exercise (OEE) scales in 126 community dwelling, middle aged African American women. Social Cognitive Theory postulates self-efficacy is behavior age, gender and culture specific. Therefore, it is important to determine ifself-efficacy scales developed and tested in older Caucasian female adults are reliable and valid in middle aged, minority women. Cronbach's alpha and construct validity using hypothesis testing and confirmatory factor analysis supported the reliability and validity of the SEE and OEE scales in community dwelling, middle aged African American women.

  7. Alternative outcomes create biased expectations regarding the received outcome: Evidence from event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciano, Déborah; Bentin, Shlomo; Deouell, Leon Y

    2018-05-01

    After choosing between uncertain options, one might get feedback on both the outcome of the chosen option and the outcome of the unchosen option (the alternative). Behavioral research has shown that in such cases people engage in outcome comparison, and that the alternative outcome influences the way one evaluates his own received outcome. Moreover, this influence differs whether one was responsible or not for the choice made. In two studies, we looked for the electrophysiological correlates of outcome comparison. Subjects chose one of two boxes shown on the screen, each box contained a gain or a loss. The alternative outcome was always revealed first, followed by the received outcome. In half of the trials the software picked one box instead of subjects. We tested whether the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and the P3 elicited by the received reflect outcome comparison. As expected, we found that the FRN and P3 were more positive when the received outcome was a gain (vs. a loss). The FRN and P3 were also sensitive to the value of the alternative outcome, but contrary to our predictions, they were more positive when the alternative outcome was a gain (vs. a loss). As the FRN and P3 are sensitive to expectations, we hypothesized that our findings might result from subjects' biased expectations: subjects might have wrongly believed that a good (bad) alternative outcome signaled a bad (good) received outcome. This hypothesis, coined as the Alternative Omen Effect, was confirmed in parallel in a series of behavioral experiments: people see an illusory negative correlation between the uncorrelated outcomes of choice options (reported in Marciano-Romm et al. (2016)). A challenge for future research will be to disentangle the effects of expectation from those of outcome comparison. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Immigration Ethnic Diversity and Political Outcomes: Evidence from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmon, Nikolaj Arpe

    I study the impact of immigration and increasing ethnic diversity on political outcomes in immigrant-receiving countries, focusing on immigration and election outcomes in Danish municipalities 1981-2001. A rich set of control variables isolates ethnic diversity effects from those of other immigrant...... characteristics and a novel IV strategy based on historical housing stock data addresses issues of endogenous location choices of immigrants. Increases in local ethnic diversity lead to right-ward shifts in election outcomes by shifting electoral support away from traditional "big government" left-wing parties...... and towards anti-immigrant nationalist parties in particular. These effects appear in both local and national elections....

  9. Feedback-related negativity codes outcome valence, but not outcome expectancy, during reversal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Borries, A K L; Verkes, R J; Bulten, B H; Cools, R; de Bruijn, E R A

    2013-12-01

    Optimal behavior depends on the ability to assess the predictive value of events and to adjust behavior accordingly. Outcome processing can be studied by using its electrophysiological signatures--that is, the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and the P300. A prominent reinforcement-learning model predicts an FRN on negative prediction errors, as well as implying a role for the FRN in learning and the adaptation of behavior. However, these predictions have recently been challenged. Notably, studies so far have used tasks in which the outcomes have been contingent on the response. In these paradigms, the need to adapt behavioral responses is present only for negative, not for positive feedback. The goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of positive as well as negative violations of expectancy on FRN amplitudes, without the usual confound of behavioral adjustments. A reversal-learning task was employed in which outcome value and outcome expectancy were orthogonalized; that is, both positive and negative outcomes were equally unexpected. The results revealed a double dissociation, with effects of valence but not expectancy on the FRN and, conversely, effects of expectancy but not valence on the P300. While FRN amplitudes were largest for negative-outcome trials, irrespective of outcome expectancy, P300 amplitudes were largest for unexpected-outcome trials, irrespective of outcome valence. These FRN effects were interpreted to reflect an evaluation along a good-bad dimension, rather than reflecting a negative prediction error or a role in behavioral adaptation. By contrast, the P300 reflects the updating of information relevant for behavior in a changing context.

  10. Music education and musicians: Expectations, course and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogunović Blanka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the long-term talent development, from the moment of its recognition to the moment when an adult is confronted with the necessity of integration in the professional music and life streams, we wonder whether education satisfies the needs of talents and provides, in the long run, the necessary knowledge and skills. The aim of this research was to investigate: (1 the initial motivation for learning music and expectations from music education; (2 the course of development of young musicians (the degree of self-actualisation, developmental perspectives, evaluation of music education and (3 outcomes of music education and development of the professional career. The sample (N=487 consisted of five subsamples: music kindergarten pupils, students of primary music schools, students of secondary music schools, university students of music and teachers at music schools and universities. The paper analyses psychological, educational and professional aspects of education of musically gifted pupils and students, as well as music teachers in five successive age groups. The results indicate that with an increase in age there is a considerable increase in the variety and scope of expectations and a higher aspiration towards personal, educational and professional lifelong improvement, while, at the same time, there is a considerable decrease in the level of fulfilment of expectations and the level of assessment of self-actualisation. This is indicative of a continuously present feeling of “hidden underachievement” in the group of (relatively successful young musicians and professionals. Analysis of respondents’ answers points out to the existence of still traditional system of music education, which lacks flexibility and innovation and fails to provide a sufficient level of transferable knowledge and skills. The findings point out to a whole cluster of controversies demanding further reconsideration and (redesigning of the curriculum of (high

  11. The Relationship between Parent Expectations and Postschool Outcomes of Adolescents with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doren, Bonnie; Gau, Jeff M.; Lindstrom, Lauren E.

    2012-01-01

    A secondary analysis was conducted of the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 to examine (a) main effects of parents' school and postschool outcome expectations on the actual outcomes achieved, (b) demographic moderators, and (c) adolescent autonomy as a mediator of parent expectations and outcomes. Parent expectations were found to…

  12. When feeling bad is expected to be good: emotion regulation and outcome expectancies in social conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamir, Maya; Ford, Brett Q

    2012-08-01

    According to the instrumental approach to emotion regulation, people may want to experience even unpleasant emotions to attain instrumental benefits. Building on value-expectancy models of self-regulation, we tested whether people want to feel bad in certain contexts specifically because they expect such feelings to be useful to them. In two studies, participants were more likely to try to increase their anger before a negotiation when motivated to confront (vs. collaborate with) a negotiation partner. Participants motivated to confront (vs. collaborate with) their partner expected anger to be more useful to them, and this expectation in turn, led them to try to increase their anger before negotiating. The subsequent experience of anger, following random assignment to emotion inductions (Study 1) or engagement in self-selected emotion regulation activities (Study 2), led participants to be more successful at getting others to concede to their demands, demonstrating that emotional preferences have important pragmatic implications.

  13. Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    depend on the reader’s own experiences, individual feelings, personal associations or on conventions of reading, interpretive communities and cultural conditions? This volume brings together narrative theory, fictionality theory and speech act theory to address such questions of expectations...

  14. Outcome expectancy and self-efficacy: theoretical implications of an unresolved contradiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David M

    2010-11-01

    According to self-efficacy theory, self-efficacy--defined as perceived capability to perform a behavior--causally influences expected outcomes of behavior, but not vice versa. However, research has shown that expected outcomes causally influence self-efficacy judgments, and some authors have argued that this relationship invalidates self-efficacy theory. Bandura has rebutted those arguments saying that self-efficacy judgments are not invalidated when influenced by expected outcomes. This article focuses on a contradiction in Bandura's rebuttal. Specifically, Bandura has argued (a) expected outcomes cannot causally influence self-efficacy, but (b) self-efficacy judgments remain valid when causally influenced by expected outcomes. While the debate regarding outcome expectancies and self-efficacy has subsided in recent years, the inattention to this contradiction has led to a disproportionate focus on self-efficacy as a causal determinant of behavior at the expense of expected outcomes.

  15. Political psychiatry: a post-Watergate perspective or the revolution of falling expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, B S

    1977-01-01

    , and character and fewer offers to solve difficult problems. In psychiatry, and somewhat in psychology and the other behavioral and social sciences, we see a demand to reduce the role of scope of the profession, particularly in dealing with "social issues," such as poverty and racism, which commentators and critics consider to be outside the proper sphere of competence and propriety. As a political psychiatrist, I am deeply concerned. In order to avoid the pitfalls of over-promising, we are overreacting; we are movinginto a trap that combines anti-intellectualism and anti-idealism. It can be summarized briefly in what I would call "the revolution of falling expectations." This is wrong. I protest. At the risk of being accused of hubris and hutzpah, I feel that nothing less than the best intellectual capacities and abilities and the deepest and widest experience are needed to deal with our problems in both politics and psychiatry...

  16. Political Regime and Learning Outcomes of Stakeholder Participation: Cross-National Study of 81 Biosphere Reserves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Mohedano Roldán

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Stakeholder participation in natural resource management has spread widely, even to nondemocracies, driven by expectations of beneficial outcomes such as multidirectional learning. However, can we expect participation to be equally effective in achieving multidirectional learning in democracies and nondemocracies? Unsurprisingly, previous studies indicate the relevance of power distribution for learning. Higher levels of repression and accumulation of political capital in nondemocracies should limit the distribution of power across stakeholders. Yet, the relationship between political regime, participation, and learning has rarely been studied empirically. I address this gap by analysing multidirectional learning in stakeholder participation in 81 Man and the Biosphere reserves across 35 countries using ordinary least squares regression, Firth logistic regression, and heat maps. The results suggest that the amount of stakeholders sharing knowledge and learning is similar in both regimes. However, a closer analysis reveals differences in the impact different stakeholders have on the learning process. More concretely, local actors share knowledge more often and have a greater impact on stakeholders’ learning in democracies, while state actors display similar behavior across regimes in terms of learning and sharing knowledge. Thus, although there are notable similarities across regimes, multidirectional learning through stakeholder participation is influenced by the political context.

  17. Greater expectations: using hierarchical linear modeling to examine expectancy for treatment outcome as a predictor of treatment response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Matthew; Anderson, Page; Henrich, Christopher C; Rothbaum, Barbara Olasov

    2008-12-01

    A client's expectation that therapy will be beneficial has long been considered an important factor contributing to therapeutic outcomes, but recent empirical work examining this hypothesis has primarily yielded null findings. The present study examined the contribution of expectancies for treatment outcome to actual treatment outcome from the start of therapy through 12-month follow-up in a clinical sample of individuals (n=72) treated for fear of flying with either in vivo exposure or virtual reality exposure therapy. Using a piecewise hierarchical linear model, outcome expectancy predicted treatment gains made during therapy but not during follow-up. Compared to lower levels, higher expectations for treatment outcome yielded stronger rates of symptom reduction from the beginning to the end of treatment on 2 standardized self-report questionnaires on fear of flying. The analytic approach of the current study is one potential reason that findings contrast with prior literature. The advantages of using hierarchical linear modeling to assess interindividual differences in longitudinal data are discussed.

  18. Contamination vs. harm-relevant outcome expectancies and covariation bias in spider phobia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Peter J.; Peters, Madelon L.

    There is increasing evidence that spiders are not feared because of harmful outcome expectancies but because of disgust and contamination-relevant outcome expectancies. This study investigated the relative strength of contamination- and harm-relevant UCS expectancies and covariation bias in spider

  19. Do Alcohol Expectancy Outcomes and Valuations Mediate Peer Influences and Lifetime Alcohol Use among Early Adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamboanga, Byron L.; Schwartz, Seth J.; Ham, Lindsay S.; Jarvis, Lorna Hernandez; Olthuis, Janine V.

    2009-01-01

    Building on the theory of reasoned action (I. Ajzen & M. Fishbein, 1973, 1980; M. Fishbein & I. Ajzen, 1975) and expectancy theory, the authors examined the mediating role of alcohol expectancies in adolescent drinking behaviors by testing whether alcohol expectancy outcomes and valuations (the extent to which these outcomes are perceived…

  20. Expectations from different perspectives on future work outcome of young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, Anja; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R.; Groothoff, Johan W.; van der Klink, Jac J. L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Expectations strongly influence future employment outcomes and social networks seem to mediate employment success of young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The aim of this study is to examine the expectations of young adults with intellectual and developmental

  1. Expectations from Different Perspectives on Future Work Outcome of Young Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, A.; Brouwer, S.; de Boer, M.R.; Groothoff, J.W.; van der Klink, J.J.L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Expectations strongly influence future employment outcomes and social networks seem to mediate employment success of young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The aim of this study is to examine the expectations of young adults with intellectual and developmental

  2. Expectations from Different Perspectives on Future Work Outcome of Young Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, Anja; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R.; Groothoff, Johan W.; van der Klink, Jac J. L.

    Purpose Expectations strongly influence future employment outcomes and social networks seem to mediate employment success of young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The aim of this study is to examine the expectations of young adults with intellectual and developmental

  3. Retail competition in electricity markets. Expectations, outcomes and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littlechild, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    In 'Retail competition in electricity markets' (Energy Policy, 37(2), February 2009, Pages 377-386) it is argued by Defeuilly that the introduction of retail competition into electricity markets gave rise to great expectations that it failed to meet, and that this was primarily the fault of Austrian economic thinking. The main purpose of this note is to explain why both of these propositions are incorrect. A few further comments challenge his subsequent suggestion that the competitive process in electricity is so constrained by the limitations of consumer decision-making and electricity technology as to cast doubt on the policy of opening the retail market to competition

  4. Expectations and outcome skills of a generalist health care administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, V B; Taylor, L C

    1990-01-01

    The question of the degree of technical versus managerial competence to be found in future graduates from health administration programs is not easily resolved. In the HIMSS 1988 survey of CIOs the attributes needed for success are listed in descending rank order as follows: leadership ability, vision/imagination, knowledge of hospital systems, business acumen, decisiveness, and technical competence. CIOs ranked technical competence as less important than other attributes associated with general management success. The expectations for attitudes, knowledge, and skills presented in this article support the greater importance of management abilities relative to pure technical competence. However, it is vital that an appropriate level of technical knowledge and skill be maintained to enable future alumni of health administration programs to function effectively as administrators. Depending on their role in a health care organization, greater or lesser technical knowledge may be needed. Those pursuing a career path toward CIO must, of necessity, have greater technical knowledge and skill. We have discussed necessary and expected attitudes, knowledge, and skills that will be needed by the generalist health administration graduate in the future. It will be important to develop and maintain an attitude that MIS is a strategic tool, that health care technology is a corporate asset, and that information is power. Graduates must recognize the necessity of maintaining and enhancing their knowledge and skills through continuing education. The knowledge base of MIS education should focus on determining information needs to support strategic goals, understanding of general systems theory, principles of systems analysis, design, implementation and maintenance, awareness and exposure to standard application software, and an awareness of external sources of data.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Electrophysiological Correlates of Cue-Related Processing in a Gambling Task: Early Outcome Evaluation or Outcome Expectation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyi Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Several recent studies have suggested that cues that predict outcomes elicit a feedback-related-like negativity (FRN-like negativity reflecting initial appraisals of whether desired outcomes are probable. Some other studies, however, have found that the cues that predict outcomes elicited event-related potentials (ERPs that reflect the expectation to outcomes (e.g., outcome expectations. Given these mixed findings, this study aimed to examine whether the brain activity elicited by predictive cues in a gambling task reflected the initial evaluations of the outcomes, the outcome expectations, or both. We used a gambling task in which the participants were told to guess which of two doors hid a reward. At the beginning of each trial, a cue was presented to inform the participants of how many doors hid a reward. We found that these predictive cues elicited a FRN-like negativity at the frontal sites within around 200–300 ms. However, this negativity did not significantly differ between the cues that fully predicted gains and the cues that fully predicted losses. Furthermore, predictive cues elicited an expectation-related slow wave, and cues that predicted gains with a 50% probability elicited a larger expectation-related slow wave than cues that fully predicted gains or losses. Our results suggest that cues predicting outcomes reflect outcome expectations rather than initial evaluations of the forthcoming outcomes.

  6. Updating expected action outcome in the medial frontal cortex involves an evaluation of error type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Martin E; Steinhauser, Marco

    2013-10-02

    Forming expectations about the outcome of an action is an important prerequisite for action control and reinforcement learning in the human brain. The medial frontal cortex (MFC) has been shown to play an important role in the representation of outcome expectations, particularly when an update of expected outcome becomes necessary because an error is detected. However, error detection alone is not always sufficient to compute expected outcome because errors can occur in various ways and different types of errors may be associated with different outcomes. In the present study, we therefore investigate whether updating expected outcome in the human MFC is based on an evaluation of error type. Our approach was to consider an electrophysiological correlate of MFC activity on errors, the error-related negativity (Ne/ERN), in a task in which two types of errors could occur. Because the two error types were associated with different amounts of monetary loss, updating expected outcomes on error trials required an evaluation of error type. Our data revealed a pattern of Ne/ERN amplitudes that closely mirrored the amount of monetary loss associated with each error type, suggesting that outcome expectations are updated based on an evaluation of error type. We propose that this is achieved by a proactive evaluation process that anticipates error types by continuously monitoring error sources or by dynamically representing possible response-outcome relations.

  7. THE IMPACT OF HOPE IN MEDIATING PSYCHOTHERAPY EXPECTATIONS AND OUTCOMES: A STUDY OF BRAZILIAN CLIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicki L. Aubuchon-Endsley

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Client treatment expectations and hope are robustly associated with treatment outcome. Despite this, no known studies have examined client hope as a mediator to the relationship between expectancies and psychotherapy session outcomes. In addition, recent literature also supports cross-cultural differences in relations between treatment expectancies and outcomes. This article presents a cross-sectional study with a sample of Brazilian psychotherapy clients collected via referral sampling, in which existing clients referred potential participants. Participants were asked about their symptomatology and expectations of psychotherapy. The current study found that, within this Brazilian sample, trait hope partially mediated relations between expectancies and treatment session outcomes. Further studies are needed to investigate these effects and session outcomes in a culturally competent manner.

  8. Depressive symptoms, perceived stress, self-efficacy, and outcome expectations: Predict fitness among adolescents with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulloch, Heather; Heenan, Adam; Sweet, Shane; Goldfield, Gary S; Kenny, Glen P; Alberga, Angela S; Sigal, Ronald J

    2017-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to test if outcome expectancy mediated the relationship between fitness and self-efficacy, perceived stress, and depressive symptoms.Adolescents with obesity ( n = 228) completed measures of perceived stress and depressive symptoms at baseline, self-efficacy and outcome expectancy at baseline and 3 months, and fitness at baseline and 6 months. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data. Results showed that self-efficacy was positively associated with fitness via outcome expectancies. For females, fewer depressive symptoms were linked to fitness via self-efficacy and outcome expectancies. Exercise interventions that enhance exercise self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and reduce depressive symptoms may increase fitness.

  9. Assessing vocational outcome expectancy in individuals with serious mental illness: a factor-analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, Kanako; Umucu, Emre; Wu, Jia-Rung; Yaghmaian, Rana; Lee, Hui-Ling; Fitzgerald, Sandra; Chan, Fong

    2017-07-04

    Self-determination theory (SDT) and self-efficacy theory (SET) can be used to conceptualize self-determined motivation to engage in mental health and vocational rehabilitation (VR) services and to predict recovery. To incorporate SDT and SET as a framework for vocational recovery, developing and validating SDT/SET measures in vocational rehabilitation is warranted. Outcome expectancy is an important SDT/SET variable affecting rehabilitation engagement and recovery. The purpose of this study was to validate the Vocational Outcome Expectancy Scale (VOES) for use within the SDT/SET vocational recovery framework. One hundred and twenty-four individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) participated in this study. Measurement structure of the VOES was evaluated using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Both EFA and CFA results supported a two-factor structure: (a) positive outcome expectancy, and (b) negative outcome expectancy. The internal consistency reliability coefficients for both factors were acceptable. In addition, positive outcome expectancy correlated stronger than negative outcome expectancy with other SDT/SET constructs in the expected directions. The VOES is a brief, reliable and valid instrument for assessing vocational outcome expectancy in individuals with SMI that can be integrated into SDT/SET as a vocational rehabilitation engagement and recovery model in psychiatric rehabilitation.

  10. Outcome Expectations and Osteoarthritis: Association of Perceived Benefits of Exercise With Self-Efficacy and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marszalek, Jolanta; Price, Lori Lyn; Harvey, William F; Driban, Jeffrey B; Wang, Chenchen

    2017-04-01

    Outcome expectancy is recognized as a determinant of exercise engagement and adherence. However, little is known about which factors influence outcome expectations for exercise among people with knee osteoarthritis (OA). This is the first study to examine the association of outcome expectations for exercise with demographic, physical, and psychosocial outcomes in individuals with knee OA. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of the baseline data from a randomized trial of tai chi versus physical therapy in participants with symptomatic knee OA. Knee pain was evaluated using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). Outcome expectations for exercise, self-efficacy, depression, anxiety, stress, and social support were measured using standard instruments. Logistic regression models were utilized to determine associations with outcome expectations. There were 262 participants, with a mean age of 59.8 years and a mean body mass index of 32.1 kg/m 2 ; 69.1% of the participants were female, 51.5% were white, the mean disease duration was 8.6 years, and the mean WOMAC knee pain and function scores were 260.8 and 906.8, respectively. Higher outcome expectations for exercise were associated with greater self-efficacy (odds ratio [OR] 1.25 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.11-1.41]; P = 0.0004), as well as with fewer depressive symptoms (OR 0.84 for each 5-point increase [95% CI 0.73-0.97]; P = 0.01). Outcome expectancy was not significantly associated with sex, race, education, pain, function, radiographic severity, social support, anxiety, or stress. Our results suggest significant associations between outcome expectations for exercise and self-efficacy and depression. Future studies should examine how these relationships longitudinally affect long-term clinical outcomes of exercise-based treatment for knee OA. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  11. Preoperative Expectations and Postoperative Outcomes of Visual Functioning among Cataract Patients in Urban Southern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyan Chen

    Full Text Available To investigate the relationship between preoperative expectations and actual postoperative outcomes of visual function (VF among patients undergoing first eye cataract surgery.A longitudinal study of 182 patients from hospitals in urban Southern China were surveyed prior to surgery and 3 month after cataract surgery regarding their preoperative, expected postoperative and actual postoperative VF for each of the items on the Catquest-9SF and their satisfaction with cataract surgery. In addition, detailed clinical data were collected preoperatively and postoperatively.The majority of cataract patients in urban Southern China had high expectations for VF outcomes after cataract surgery and in most cases postoperative outcomes achieved the expected level of improvement. The mean (standard deviation, SD preoperative Catquest-9SF score was 15.7 (5.86 and the mean (SD expected postoperative score was 26.3 (2.93. The discrepancy between actual and expected improvement was significantly correlated with patients' health literacy, presence of systemic and ocular comorbidity, preoperative visual acuity of the surgery eye, LOCS III nuclear opalescence and cortical cataract grading.Cataract patients in urban Southern China had high expectations for surgery outcomes. Patients with low level of health literacy and the presence of systemic and ocular comorbidity may need a comprehensive counseling to decrease the discrepancy regarding expected and actual outcomes.

  12. Moderated mediation of the relationships between masculinity ideology, outcome expectations, and energy drink use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levant, Ronald F; Parent, Mike C; McCurdy, Eric R; Bradstreet, Tyler C

    2015-11-01

    The consumption of energy drinks is a growing health-risk behavior for young men in the United States. The present study investigated the relationship between masculinity ideology, outcome expectations, energy drink use, and sleep disturbances. The authors recruited 467 adult males from universities and the Internet who provided data on their endorsement of traditional masculinity ideology, outcome expectations for use of energy drinks, use of energy drinks, and sleep disturbances. A theoretical model positing moderated mediation was tested using structural equation modeling and conditional process modeling. The results supported the hypothesized model in which endorsement of traditional masculinity ideology was linked with increased outcome expectations for benefits of energy drinks, which in turn was linked with increased energy drink consumption, and which finally was linked with greater sleep disturbance symptoms. The relationship between masculinity ideology and energy drink outcome expectations was moderated by age (significant for younger men but not for older men), and the relationship between energy drink outcome expectations and energy drink use was moderated by race (significant for White men but not for racial minority men). The present study adds to the literature on potential negative health implications of the endorsement of traditional masculinity ideology by offering a link between predictors of energy drink use (masculinity ideology, outcome expectations) and health outcomes of energy drink use (e.g., sleep disturbance). (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. The Relationships Between Female Adolescents' Media Use, Indoor Tanning Outcome Expectations, and Behavioral Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrick, Jessica Gall; Noar, Seth M; Kelley, Dannielle; Zeitany, Alexandra E

    2017-06-01

    Unlike other types of cancer, skin cancer incidence rates are on the rise and adolescent females are particularly likely to tan indoors, a major risk factor. However, little research has examined the role of media use in encouraging or discouraging this dangerous behavior in this population. To empirically assess the links between media use, indoor tanning-related outcome expectations, and behavioral intentions. A survey of adolescent females ( N = 510) ages 15 to 18 in the Southeastern United States assessed demographics, types of media use, and indoor tanning intentions. Significant correlations between media use and indoor tanning outcome expectations were found. Use of interpersonal and social media (i.e., talking on the phone, texting, and online social media) were positively associated with positive outcome expectations about indoor tanning and negatively associated with negative outcome expectations. A path analysis revealed that interpersonal/social media use had indirect associations with indoor tanning intentions via tanning outcome expectations. Mass media use (e.g., news media, entertainment media, and magazines) was not significantly associated with most indoor tanning outcome expectations but did have a direct negative association with behavioral intentions. There are important relationships between media use, indoor tanning outcome expectations, and behavioral intentions. Interpersonal and social media use may help cultivate outcome expectations that encourage indoor tanning, which in turn may increase intentions to tan, while news media consumption in particular may reduce intentions to tan. These findings highlight the social nature of adolescent females and point to specific intervention channels for reducing indoor tanning among this population.

  14. Expected Utility Illustrated: A Graphical Analysis of Gambles with More than Two Possible Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Frederick H.

    2010-01-01

    The author presents a simple geometric method to graphically illustrate the expected utility from a gamble with more than two possible outcomes. This geometric result gives economics students a simple visual aid for studying expected utility theory and enables them to analyze a richer set of decision problems under uncertainty compared to what…

  15. Expectancy-Value and Cognitive Process Outcomes in Mathematics Learning: A Structural Equation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Huy P.

    2014-01-01

    Existing research has yielded evidence to indicate that the expectancy-value theoretical model predicts students' learning in various achievement contexts. Achievement values and self-efficacy expectations, for example, have been found to exert positive effects on cognitive process and academic achievement outcomes. We tested a conceptual model…

  16. Forecasting Complex Political and Military Events: The Application of Expected Utility to Crisis Situations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kugler, Jacek; Abdollahian, Mark A; Tammen, Ronald L

    2000-01-01

    .... There is a need to create "real time" crisis decision-making environments where players can apply their current information base and manipulate hundreds of variables to achieve optimum outcomes...

  17. Systematic review: Do patient expectations influence treatment outcomes in total knee and total hip arthroplasty?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haanstra Tsjitske M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective This systematic review aims to summarise all the available evidence related to the association between pre-operative patient expectations (outcome expectations, process expectations and self efficacy expectations and 5 different treatment outcomes (overall improvement, pain, function, stiffness and satisfaction in patients with total knee or total hip arthroplasty at three different follow-op periods (>6 weeks; >6 weeks- ≤6 months; >6 months. Methods English and Dutch language articles were identified through PubMed, EMBASE.com, PsycINFO, CINAHL and The Cochrane Library from inception to September 2012. Articles assessing the association between pre-operative patient expectations and treatment outcomes for TKA/THA in either adjusted or unadjusted analysis were included. Two reviewers, working independently, determined eligibility, rated methodological quality and extracted data on study design, population, expectation measurements, outcome measurements and strength of the associations. Methodological quality was rated by the same reviewers on a 19 item scale. The scores on the quality assessment were taken into account when drawing final conclusions. Results The search strategy generated 2252 unique references, 18 articles met inclusion criteria. Scores on the methodological quality assessment ranged between 6% and 79%. Great variety was seen in definitions and measurement methods of expectations. No significant associations were found between patient expectations and overall improvement, satisfaction and stiffness. Both significant positive and non-significant associations were found for the association between expectations and pain and function. Conclusions There was no consistency in the association between patients’ pre-operative expectations and treatment outcomes for TKA and THA indentified in this systematic review. There exists a need for a sound theoretical framework underlying the construct of

  18. Perceived Social Support and Locus of Control as the Predictors of Vocational Outcome Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik, Erkan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of vocational outcome expectation to social support which is an environmental factor and locus of control which is a personal factor. With this purpose, using Social Cognitive Career Theory as the theoretical framework, 263 undergraduate students completed Vocational Outcome Expectations…

  19. Parent Expectations Mediate Outcomes for Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Anne V

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the complex relationships among factors that may predict the outcomes of young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is of utmost importance given the increasing population undergoing and anticipating the transition to adulthood. With a sample of youth with ASD (n = 1170) from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2, structural equation modeling techniques were used to test parent expectations as a mediator of young adult outcomes (i.e., employment, residential independence, social participation) in a longitudinal analysis. The mediation hypothesis was confirmed; family background and functional performance variables significantly predicted parent expectations which significantly predicted outcomes. These findings add context to previous studies examining the role of parent expectations on young adult outcomes and inform directions for family-centered interventions and future research.

  20. Energy Prices in the International Market between Expectations and Political Reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Z.

    1995-01-01

    The author points out the necessity of complex analyses not only of relevant energy terms, primarily the relationship between supply and demand, but also of other most frequently neglected ones. This regards, first of all, the analyses of economic and political interests of factors engaged in this area, but also the situation and tendencies within the complex sphere of R and D. It is the only way to be able to comprehend the phenomenon of prices which are primarily the consequences and not the cause of numerous influences; naturally, it is impossible to exclude from these analyses a number of back-effects. Mentioning the examples of price projections from which the author derives parity relations not included in original data, he presents his projection of prices for energy products until the year 2010. Due to a limited space, the author does not get into the enumeration and analysis of all relevant guidelines (finding costs, transportation costs, environmental aspects, availability of energy products/sources and their location, ect.). (author). 12 refs., 3 tabs

  1. High intensity exercise or conventional exercise for patients with rheumatoid arthritis? Outcome expectations of patients, rheumatologists, and physiotherapists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munneke, M.; de Jong, Z.; Zwinderman, A. H.; Ronday, H. K.; van den Ende, C. H. M.; Vliet Vlieland, T. P. M.; Hazes, J. M. W.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the outcome expectations of RA patients, rheumatologists, and physiotherapists regarding high intensity exercise programmes compared with conventional exercise programmes. METHODS: An exercise outcome expectations questionnaire was administered to 807 RA patients, 153

  2. Expectations from different perspectives on future work outcome of young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holwerda, Anja; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R; Groothoff, Johan W; van der Klink, Jac J L

    2015-03-01

    Expectations strongly influence future employment outcomes and social networks seem to mediate employment success of young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The aim of this study is to examine the expectations of young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities from special needs education, their parents and their school teachers regarding future work and the extent to which these expectations predict work outcome. Data on 341 young adults with intellectual or developmental disabilities, coming from special needs education, aged 17-20 years, and with an ability to work according to the Social Security Institute were examined. The school teacher's expectation was the only perspective that significantly predicted entering competitive employment, with a complementary effect of the expectation of parents and a small additional effect of the expectation of the young adult. Expectations of school teachers and parents are valuable in predicting work outcome. Therefore, it is important for professionals working with the young adult in the transition from school to work to incorporate the knowledge of school teachers and parents regarding the abilities of the young adult to enter competitive employment as a valuable source of information.

  3. Association between perceived self-efficacy, outcome expectations and outcome evaluation and fruit and vegetables consumption in adolescent girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ramezankhani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Unfortunately just a few number of children and adolescents use sufficient amounts of fruit and vegetables. This study aimed to investigate the association between fruit and vegetables consumption and perceived self-efficacy, outcome expectations and outcome evaluation in adolescent girls in Shahrekord city.This is a descriptive analytic study conducted on 308 high school girls (first grade who were selected by cluster sampling method in Shahrekord, Iran in 2013-2014. A researcher made questionnaire was used to collect the needed data like demographic variables, substructures of perceived self-efficacy, outcome expectations and outcome evaluation. In order to investigate the fruit and vegetables consumption status, the standard questionnaire of FFQ was used. The collected data was analyzed by SPSS 18 software, using descriptive and analytic tests such as one way variance analysis, Pearson and Spearman correlation. The mean scores of fruit and vegetables consumption and vegetables consumption were reported as 1.45±0.68 and 1.47±0.95 respectively as well. There was a direct significant association between adolescents’ perceived self-efficacy and outcome expectations. A direct significant association was also observed between fruit consumption and both outcome evaluation and perceived self-efficacy Regarding the status of fruit and vegetables consumption and the mean scores of outcome evaluation, outcome expectations and perceived self-efficacy in adolescents which was low, and also the importance of promoting healthy diet in the critical period of adolescence, it seems necessary to use efficient patterns and theories of health education and promotion in which the roles of individuals, family and environment has been considered.

  4. Development of the outcome expectancy scale for self-care among periodontal disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakudate, Naoki; Morita, Manabu; Fukuhara, Shunichi; Sugai, Makoto; Nagayama, Masato; Isogai, Emiko; Kawanami, Masamitsu; Chiba, Itsuo

    2011-12-01

    The theory of self-efficacy states that specific efficacy expectations affect behaviour. Two types of efficacy expectations are described within the theory. Self-efficacy expectations are the beliefs in the capacity to perform a specific behaviour. Outcome expectations are the beliefs that carrying out a specific behaviour will lead to a desired outcome. To develop and examine the reliability and validity of an outcome expectancy scale for self-care (OESS) among periodontal disease patients. A 34-item scale was tested on 101 patients at a dental clinic. Accuracy was improved by item analysis, and internal consistency and test-retest stability were investigated. Concurrent validity was tested by examining associations of the OESS score with the self-efficacy scale for self-care (SESS) score and plaque index score. Construct validity was examined by comparing OESS scores between periodontal patients at initial visit (group 1) and those continuing maintenance care (group 2). Item analysis identified 13 items for the OESS. Factor analysis extracted three factors: social-, oral- and self-evaluative outcome expectancy. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the OESS was 0.90. A significant association was observed between test and retest scores, and between the OESS and SESS and plaque index scores. Further, group 2 had a significantly higher mean OESS score than group 1. We developed a 13-item OESS with high reliability and validity which may be used to assess outcome expectancy for self-care. A patient's psychological condition with regard to behaviour and affective status can be accurately evaluated using the OESS with SESS. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Feedback-related negativity codes outcome valence, but not outcome expectancy, during reversal learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borries, A.K.L. von; Verkes, R.J.; Bulten, B.H.; Cools, R.; Bruijn, E.R.A. de

    2013-01-01

    Optimal behavior depends on the ability to assess the predictive value of events and to adjust behavior accordingly. Outcome processing can be studied by using its electrophysiological signatures-that is, the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and the P300. A prominent reinforcement-learning model

  6. Feedback-related negativity codes outcome valence, but not outcome expectancy, during reversal learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borries, A.K.L. von; Verkes, R.J.; Bulten, B.H.; Cools, R.

    2013-01-01

    Optimal behavior depends on the ability to assess the predictive value of events and to adjust behavior accordingly. Outcome processing can be studied by using its electrophysiological signatures--that is, the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and the P300. A prominent reinforcement-learning model

  7. Beyond Political Rhetoric and Discourse: What Type of Educational, Socio-Economic, and Political Change Should Educators Expect of President Barack Obama?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orelus, Pierre W.

    2009-01-01

    This article critically analyzes Obama's singular political victory. The author begins by laying out current racial, socio-economic, educational and political challenges that await President-elect Obama. He goes on to analyze Obama's political discourse and then questions whether or not Obama would be able to meet these challenges. The author…

  8. Students' Outcome Expectation on Spiritual and Religious Competency: A Hierarchical Regression Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Junfei; Woo, Hongryun

    2017-01-01

    In this study, 74 master's-level counseling students from various programs completed a questionnaire inquiring about their perceived program environment in relation to the topics of spirituality and religion (S/R), program emphasis on nine specific S/R competencies, as well as their outcome expectations toward being S/R competent through training.…

  9. Learning More than Expected: The Influence of Teachers' Attitudes on Children's Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Minjong

    2016-01-01

    This study employed the concept of teachers' sense of responsibility for students' learning to examine the extent to which the gap in math learning growth is reduced and whether such attitudes can improve children's learning outcomes to a degree that is above and beyond their expected achievement relative to their initial academic skills. Analysis…

  10. Expectations and outcome: The role of Proposer features in the Ultimatum Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchetti, A.; Castelli, I.; Harlé, K.M.; Sanfey, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    In social decision-making individuals make choices in an interactive context and their decisions may therefore be influenced by information they receive about features of the other player. These features may 'frame' the other player in particular ways and generate expectations about the outcome.

  11. Personality Traits' Effects on Self-Efficacy and Outcome Expectations for High School Major Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Dikla; Cinamon, Rachel Gali

    2016-01-01

    The current study focuses on the contribution of the Big Five personality traits to the development of self-efficacy and outcome expectations regarding selection of a high school major among 368 Israeli adolescents (Mage = 16.07, SD = 0.41). Structural equation analyses showed that higher levels of conscientiousness and extraversion and lower…

  12. The contribution of self-efficacy and outcome expectations in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the effectiveness of Bandura's self-efficacy theory to predict exercise adherence. A sample of new members at a gymnasium was assessed on a Physical Self-Efficacy Scale, an Adherence Efficacy Scale and an Outcome Expectancy Scale. The dependent variable, exercise adherence, was assessed by ...

  13. Connecting High School Physics Experiences, Outcome Expectations, Physics Identity, and Physics Career Choice: A Gender Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazari, Zahra; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.; Shanahan, Marie-Claire

    2010-01-01

    This study explores how students' physics identities are shaped by their experiences in high school physics classes and by their career outcome expectations. The theoretical framework focuses on physics identity and includes the dimensions of student performance, competence, recognition by others, and interest. Drawing data from the Persistence…

  14. The role of expectation in the therapeutic outcomes of alcohol and drug addiction treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnolo, Primavera A; Colloca, Luana; Heilig, Markus

    2015-05-01

    Throughout history, patient-physician relationships have been acknowledged as an important component of the therapeutic effects of any pharmacological treatment. Here, we discuss the role of physicians' expectations in influencing the therapeutic outcomes of alcohol and drug addiction pharmacological treatments. As largely demonstrated, such expectations and attitudes may contribute to produce placebo and nocebo effects that in turn affect the course of the disease and the response to the therapy. This article is aimed at discussing the current insights into expectations, placebo and nocebo mechanisms and their impact on the therapeutic outcomes of alcohol and drug addiction treatments; with the goal of informing physicians and other health care providers about the potentially widespread implications for clinical practice and for a successful treatment regimen. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Medical Council on Alcohol 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  15. Mapping clinical outcomes expectations to treatment decisions: an application to vestibular schwannoma management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Steven W; Aranda, Derick; Driscoll, Colin L W; Parsa, Andrew T

    2010-02-01

    Complex medical decision making obligates tradeoff assessments among treatment outcomes expectations, but an accessible tool to perform the necessary analysis is conspicuously absent. We aimed to demonstrate methodology and feasibility of adapting conjoint analysis for mapping clinical outcomes expectations to treatment decisions in vestibular schwannoma (VS) management. Prospective. Tertiary medical center and US-based otologists/neurotologists. Treatment preference profiles among VS stakeholders-61 younger and 74 older prospective patients, 61 observation patients, and 60 surgeons-were assessed for the synthetic VS case scenario of a 10-mm tumor in association with useful hearing and normal facial function. Treatment attribute utility. Conjoint analysis attribute levels were set in accordance to the results of a meta-analysis. Forty-five case series were disaggregated to formulate microsurgery facial nerve and hearing preservation outcomes expectations models. Attribute utilities were computed and mapped to the realistic treatment choices of translabyrinthine craniotomy, middle fossa craniotomy, and gamma knife radiosurgery. Among the treatment attributes of likelihoods of causing deafness, temporary facial weakness for 2 months, and incurable cancer within 20 years, and recovery time, permanent deafness was less important to tumor surgeons, and temporary facial weakness was more important to tumor surgeons and observation patients (Wilcoxon rank-sum, p knife radiosurgery. Mapping clinical outcomes expectations to treatment decisions for a synthetic clinical scenario revealed inhomogeneous drivers of choice selection among study cohorts. Medical decision engines that analyze personal preferences of outcomes expectations for VS and many other diseases may be developed to promote shared decision making among health care stakeholders and transparency in the informed consent process.

  16. A Qualitative Assessment of the Learning Outcomes of Teaching Introductory American Politics in Comparative Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelbman, Shamira M.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the findings of an ethnographic content analysis of students' written reflections as a means for assessing the learning outcomes of teaching introductory American politics in comparative perspective. It focuses especially on determining whether and how this approach enhanced students' understanding and retention of knowledge…

  17. Great expectations and what comes of it: the effects of unmet expectations on work motivation and outcomes among newcomers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taris, T.W.; Feij, J.A.; Capel, S.

    2006-01-01

    The present research focused on newcomers' socialization process in a three-wave study among 1477 newcomers from seven Western (mainly European) countries. Based on previous research, we expected that unmet expectations regarding selected intrinsic work aspects would have adverse effects on work

  18. Gender, Ethnicity, and Their Intersectionality in the Prediction of Smoking Outcome Expectancies in Regular Cigarette Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Claudia G; Bello, Mariel S; Andrabi, Nafeesa; Pang, Raina D; Hendricks, Peter S; Bluthenthal, Ricky N; Leventhal, Adam M

    2016-01-01

    The current study utilized the intersectionality framework to explore whether smoking outcome expectancies (i.e., cognitions about the anticipated effects of smoking) were predicted by gender and ethnicity, and the gender-by-ethnicity interaction. In a cross-sectional design, daily smokers from the general community (32.2% women; non-Hispanic African American [n = 175], non-Hispanic White [n = 109], or Hispanic [n = 26]) completed self-report measures on smoking expectancies and other co-factors. Results showed that women reported greater negative reinforcement (i.e., anticipated smoking-induced negative affect reduction) and weight control (i.e., anticipated smoking-induced appetite/weight suppression) expectancies than men. Hispanic (vs. African American or White) smokers endorsed greater negative reinforcement expectancies. A gender-by-ethnicity interaction was found for weight control expectancies, such that White women reported greater weight control expectancies than White men, but no gender differences among African American and Hispanic smokers were found. These findings suggest that gender, ethnicity, and their intersectionality should be considered in research on cognitive mechanisms that may contribute to tobacco-related health disparities. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Gender differences in adolescent smoking: mediator and moderator effects of self-generated expected smoking outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Anderson, Cheryl B; Pollak, Kathryn I; Wetter, David W

    2006-01-01

    To examine relations among gender, self-generated smoking-outcome expectancies, and smoking in adolescents. Students from one all-girls' (n=350; 53%) and one all-boys' (n=315; 47%) Catholic high school participated. Analyses included binary and ordinal logistic regression. For boys, smoking behavior was associated with buzz (odds radio [OR] = 1.92, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.31-2.83, p exercise/sport impairment (OR = 2.84, 95% CI: 1.68-4.81, p gender-smoking relationship. Moderators included negative social (beta = -0.45, p = .021) and enhance self-esteem (beta = -1.07, p = .024). Interventions might benefit from tailoring on gender differences in smoking-outcome expectancies.

  20. Caregiving decision making by older mothers and adult children: process and expected outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicirelli, Victor G

    2006-06-01

    Dyadic caregiving decision making was studied in 30 mother-son and 29 mother-daughter pairs (mother's age=65-94 years) who responded to a vignette depicting a caregiving decision situation. The observed decision-making process of mother-child pairs was largely naturalistic, with few alternatives proposed and quick convergence to a decision followed by a postdecision justification; a degree of more rational decision making was seen in some pairs. Among significant findings, adult children, especially sons, dominated the decision process, doing more talking and introducing more alternatives than did their mothers, who played a more subordinate role. Mother-son pairs expected more negative outcomes and greater regrets regarding their decisions than mother-daughter pairs. Closeness of the parent-child relationship influenced the decision-making process, expected outcomes, and regrets. Copyright (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Community attitudes toward a proposed nuclear power generating facility as a function of expected outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundstrom, E.; Lounsbury, J.W.; Schuller, C.R.; Fowler, J.R.; Mattingly, T.J. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The relationship between attitudes toward a proposed nuclear power generating facility and the outcomes expected to accompany it are examined. In a survey of 350 residents of a small rural community, approximately 2/3 expressed favorable attitudes toward the proposed nuclear plant. A principal components factor analysis of the anticipated likelihoods of outcomes of the plant revealed five factors: hazards, economic growth, lower costs, social disruption, and community visibility. Using these factors as predictors, a simple multiple regression equation accounted for 52% of the variation in attitudes toward the plant. The strongest predictor was the perceived likelihood of hazards. These findings are discussed in terms of the relationship between attitudes and expectations, and in relation to decisions regarding public policy

  2. Great expectations, predictable outcomes and the G20's response to the recent global financial crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Ojo, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    The meeting of the Governors and Heads of Supervision on the 12 September 2010, their decisions in relation to the new capital framework known as Basel III, as well as the endorsement of the agreements reached on the 26 July 2010, once again, reflect the typical situation where great expectations with rather unequivocal, and in a sense, disappointing results are delivered. The outcome of various consultations by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, consultations which culminated in the...

  3. Positive Outcome Expectancy Mediates the Relationship Between Peer Influence and Internet Gaming Addiction Among Adolescents in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jo Yung Wei; Ko, Huei-Chen; Wong, Tsui-Yin; Wu, Li-An; Oei, Tian Po

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the role of positive outcome expectancy in the relationship between peer/parental influence and Internet gaming addiction (IGA) among adolescents in Taiwan. Two thousand, one hundred and four junior high students completed the Chen Internet Addiction Scale for IGA, Parental Influence for IGA, peer influence for IGA, and Positive Outcome Expectancy of Internet Gaming Questionnaire. Results showed that the three types of peer influences (positive attitudes toward Internet gaming, frequency of Internet game use, and invitation to play) and positive outcome expectancy were significantly and positively correlated with IGA. Moreover, peer influence was also positively correlated with positive outcome expectancy. On the other hand, positive outcome expectancy and parental influences had a low correlation. Structural equation modeling analysis revealed that positive outcome expectancy did not mediate the relationship between either type of parental influences and IGA, and only the parent's invitation to play Internet games directly predicted IGA severity. However, peers' positive attitude or the frequency of peers' Internet game use positively predicted IGA and was fully mediated through positive outcome expectancy of Internet gaming. In addition, the frequency of peers' invitation to play Internet games directly and indirectly predicted IGA severity through a partial mediation of positive outcome expectancy of Internet gaming. The overall fit of the model was adequate and was able to explain 25.0 percent of the variance. The findings provide evidence in illuminating the role of peer influences and positive outcome expectancy of Internet gaming in the process of why adolescents may develop IGA.

  4. PLANNING AND ESTIMATION OF EXPECTED COMPETENCES LEARNING OUTCOMES FOR FSES HPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Vasilev

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with approach for planning and estimation of competences learning outcomes for Federal State Educational Standard of Higher Professional Education (FSES HPE in the framework of information and educational environment development of the higher education institution, based on the discipline content structuring for formation of the standard competences learning results and the principle of interdisciplinary training. Connection of FSES HPE competences learning outcomes with types and forms of students’ trainings, types and forms of their control in a discipline is analyzed. Techniques of estimation means development for the current, module and intermediate control of expected competences learning outcomes for FSES HPE are considered. Examples of the developed techniques application are given.

  5. Great expectations - and what comes of it: The effects of unmet expectations on work motivation and outcomes among newcomers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taris, T.W.; Feij, J.A.; Capel, S.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose - Examines how the socialization of new employees affects their future work performance, studying the impact of unmet expectations on their later motivation for learning, effort and turnover. Design/methodology/approach - Uses data from the Work Socialization of Youth study, which studied

  6. Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Their Association With Smoking Outcome Expectancies Among Homeless Smokers in Boston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggett, Travis P; Campbell, Eric G; Chang, Yuchiao; Magid, Leah M; Rigotti, Nancy A

    2016-06-01

    Cigarette smoking and traumatic life experiences are each common among homeless adults, but the prevalence and correlates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms among homeless smokers are not known. We assessed symptoms of PTSD and their association with smoking outcome expectancies in a sample of homeless smokers in Boston. We used time-location sampling to conduct an in-person survey of homeless adult smokers using Boston Health Care for the Homeless Program clinical services. We assessed symptoms of PTSD with the PTSD Checklist-Civilian version and considered scores at least 14 as positive. We used the Smoking Effects Questionnaire to assess positive and negative smoking outcome expectancies. We modeled the associations between PTSD screening status and smoking expectancies using design-adjusted linear regression. Eighty-six percent of eligible individuals participated (N = 306). Sixty-eight percent of participants screened positive for PTSD. Screen-positive respondents were younger (P = .001), more likely to report fair/poor health (P = .01), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (P = .02), and past-month hallucinations (P = .004), and had greater drug (P smokers and strongly associated with positive smoking outcome expectancies. Tobacco cessation programs for this population should consider screening for PTSD and fostering a trauma-sensitive treatment environment. In this study of homeless cigarette smokers in Boston, over two-thirds of participants screened positive for PTSD. PTSD screen-positive respondents more strongly endorsed multiple positive smoking outcome expectancies than screen-negative individuals. These findings suggest that the psychological sequelae of trauma may be a pervasive but under-recognized factor impacting the persistence of smoking among homeless people. Tobacco cessation programs for this population should consider screening for PTSD, fostering a trauma-sensitive treatment environment, and incorporating strategies that have

  7. Promoting parent academic expectations predicts improved school outcomes for low-income children entering kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughlin-Presnal, John E; Bierman, Karen L

    2017-06-01

    This study explored patterns of change in the REDI (Research-based Developmentally Informed) Parent program (REDI-P), designed to help parents support child learning at the transition into kindergarten. Participants were 200 prekindergarten children attending Head Start (55% European-American, 26% African American, 19% Latino, 56% male, M age =4.45years, SD=0.29) and their primary caregivers, who were randomized to a 16-session home-visiting intervention (REDI-P) or a control group. Extending beyond a prior study documenting intervention effects on parenting behaviors and child kindergarten outcomes, this study assessed the impact of REDI-P on parent academic expectations, and then explored the degree to which intervention gains in three areas of parenting (parent-child interactive reading, parent-child conversations, parent academic expectations) predicted child outcomes in kindergarten (controlling for baseline values and a set of child and family characteristics). Results showed that REDI-P promoted significant gains in parent academic expectations, which in turn mediated intervention gains in child emergent literacy skills and self-directed learning. Results suggest a need to attend to the beliefs parents hold about their child's academic potential, as well as their behavioral support for child learning, when designing interventions to enhance the school success of children in low-income families. Copyright © 2017 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The neural coding of expected and unexpected monetary performance outcomes: dissociations between active and observational learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellebaum, C; Jokisch, D; Gizewski, E R; Forsting, M; Daum, I

    2012-02-01

    Successful adaptation to the environment requires the learning of stimulus-response-outcome associations. Such associations can be learned actively by trial and error or by observing the behaviour and accompanying outcomes in other persons. The present study investigated similarities and differences in the neural mechanisms of active and observational learning from monetary feedback using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Two groups of 15 subjects each - active and observational learners - participated in the experiment. On every trial, active learners chose between two stimuli and received monetary feedback. Each observational learner observed the choices and outcomes of one active learner. Learning performance as assessed via active test trials without feedback was comparable between groups. Different activation patterns were observed for the processing of unexpected vs. expected monetary feedback in active and observational learners, particularly for positive outcomes. Activity for unexpected vs. expected reward was stronger in the right striatum in active learning, while activity in the hippocampus was bilaterally enhanced in observational and reduced in active learning. Modulation of activity by prediction error (PE) magnitude was observed in the right putamen in both types of learning, whereas PE related activations in the right anterior caudate nucleus and in the medial orbitofrontal cortex were stronger for active learning. The striatum and orbitofrontal cortex thus appear to link reward stimuli to own behavioural reactions and are less strongly involved when the behavioural outcome refers to another person's action. Alternative explanations such as differences in reward value between active and observational learning are also discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Does Political Socialization at Home Boost Adolescents' Expectation of Higher Education? An Analysis of Eighth-Grade Students in 35 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauglo, Jon

    2016-01-01

    This study uses comparative data to examine the impact of political socialization in the home on adolescents' expectations of university participation. The first part of the study is an international partial replication of design and findings of an earlier Norwegian study published in 2011. It examines, in socioculturally diverse countries, the…

  10. The Smoking Outcome Expectation Scale and Anti-Smoking Self-Efficacy Scale for Early Adolescents: Instrument Development and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen-Ju; Yeh, Ming-Chen; Tang, Fu-In; Yu, Shu

    2015-01-01

    Smoking-related outcome expectation and self-efficacy have been found to be associated with adolescent smoking initiation. There is, however, a lack of appropriate instruments to investigate early adolescents' smoking outcome expectations and antismoking self-efficacy. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the Smoking Outcome…

  11. The Relationship between Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy and Vocational Outcome Expectations of Preservice Special Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglama, Basak; Uzunboylu, Huseyin

    2017-01-01

    Social cognitive career theory, which is one of the most studied career approaches, recently proposed that self-efficacy and outcome expectations are important determinants of the career choice process. Career self-efficacy and vocational outcome expectations might both result in avoiding or having greater motivation levels in terms of career…

  12. Self-Efficacy and Outcome Expectancy in Beginning Weight Training Class: Their Relations to Students' Behavioral Intention and Actual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zan; Xiang, Ping; Lee, Amelia M.; Harrison, Louis, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    This study was an initial attempt to investigate the relationships among self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, behavioral intention, and actual behavior over time in a beginning weight training class. A total of 109 participants completed questionnaires assessing their self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and intentions for future weight training.…

  13. In high school and pregnant: the importance of educational and fertility expectations for subsequent outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakusheva, Olga

    2011-01-01

    This study uses the High School and Beyond data (1980–1992) to examine the importance of educational and fertility expectations in explaining the achievement gap of adolescent mothers for over 5,500 young women from different socioeconomic backgrounds. Using a non-parametric local propensity score regression, the study finds that the economic disadvantage associated with having a child in high school is particularly large in poor socioeconomic environments; however, this disadvantage is a result of preexisting differences in the educational and fertility expectations and is not because of a diminished capacity of the socioeconomic environment to mediate the effect of an unplanned childbirth. The findings suggest that childcare assistance and other policies designed to alleviate the burden of child rearing for young mothers of low means may not produce the desired improvement in their subsequent educational and labor market outcomes. A much earlier policy intervention with a focus on fostering young women's outlook for the future is needed.

  14. Outcome expectancy as a predictor of treatment response in cognitive behavioral therapy for public speaking fears within social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Matthew; Anderson, Page L

    2012-06-01

    Outcome expectancy, the extent that clients anticipate benefiting from therapy, is theorized to be an important predictor of treatment response for cognitive-behavioral therapy. However, there is a relatively small body of empirical research on outcome expectancy and the treatment of social anxiety disorder. This literature, which has examined the association mostly in group-based interventions, has yielded mixed findings. The current study sought to further evaluate the effect of outcome expectancy as a predictor of treatment response for public-speaking fears across both individual virtual reality and group-based cognitive-behavioral therapies. The findings supported outcome expectancy as a predictor of the rate of change in public-speaking anxiety during both individual virtual reality exposure therapy and group cognitive-behavioral therapy. Furthermore, there was no evidence to suggest that the impact of outcome expectancy differed across virtual reality or group treatments. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Development and Validation of the EXPECT Questionnaire: Assessing Patient Expectations of Outcomes of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Treatments for Chronic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Salene M W; Lange, Jane; Turner, Judith; Cherkin, Dan; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl; Hsu, Clarissa; Berthoud, Heidi; Sherman, Karen

    2016-11-01

    Patient expectations may be associated with outcomes of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments for chronic pain. However, a psychometrically sound measure of such expectations is needed. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a questionnaire to assess individuals' expectations regarding outcomes of CAM treatments for chronic low back pain (CLBP), as well as a short form of the questionnaire. An 18-item draft questionnaire was developed through literature review, cognitive interviews with individuals with CLBP, CAM practitioners, and expert consultation. Two samples completed the questionnaire: (1) a community sample (n = 141) completed it via an online survey before or soon after starting a CAM treatment for CLBP, and (2) participants (n = 181) in randomized clinical trials evaluating CAM treatments for CLBP or fibromyalgia completed it prior to or shortly after starting treatment. Factor structure, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and criterion validity were examined. Based on factor analyses, 10 items reflecting expectations (used to create a total score) and three items reflecting hopes (not scored) were selected for the questionnaire. The questionnaire had high internal consistency, moderate test-retest reliability, and moderate correlations with other measures of expectations. A three-item short form also had adequate reliability and validity. The Expectations for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Treatments (EXPECT) questionnaire can be used in research to assess individuals' expectations of treatments for chronic pain. It is recommended that the three hope questions are included (but not scored) to help respondents distinguish between hopes and expectations. The short form may be appropriate for clinical settings and when expectation measurement is not a primary focus.

  16. Caffeinated alcohol consumption profiles and associations with use severity and outcome expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Milletich, Robert J; Linden, Ashley N

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that the consumption of caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CAB) may be riskier than alcohol alone. Efforts to identify patterns of CAB use and the correlates of such drinking patterns could further our conceptualization of and intervention for this health issue. Consequently, the current study aimed to (1) identify distinct classes of CAB users, (2) examine differences between classes on measures of alcohol and caffeine problems, and (3) compare distinct classes of CAB users on caffeine and alcohol outcome expectancies. Participants were 583 (31% men) undergraduate students from a psychology research pool. Latent profile analysis models were derived using four indicators: CAB use quantity, CAB use frequency, alcohol use quantity, and alcohol use frequency. Finding revealed four classes of drinkers: High Alcohol/High CAB (6.00%), High Alcohol/Moderate CAB (5.15%), High Alcohol/Low CAB (22.99%), and Low Alcohol/Low CAB (65.87%). The Low Alcohol/Low CAB class reported the lowest relative levels of caffeine dependence symptoms, caffeine withdrawal, alcohol use problems, and heavy episodic drinking frequency. Further, results indicated differential expectancy endorsement based on use profiles. CAB users in the High Alcohol/Low CAB class endorsed more positive alcohol expectancies than the Low Alcohol/Low CAB group. Those in the High Alcohol/High CAB class endorsed stronger withdrawal symptom caffeine expectancies than all other classes. Inclusion of substance-specific expectancies into larger theoretical frameworks in future work of CAB use may be beneficial. Findings may inform intervention efforts for those at greatest risk related to CAB consumption. © 2013.

  17. Outcome Expectancy as a Predictor of Treatment Response in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Public Speaking Fears Within Social Anxiety Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Price, Matthew; Anderson, Page L.

    2011-01-01

    Outcome expectancy, the extent that clients anticipate benefiting from therapy, is theorized to be an important predictor of treatment response for cognitive–behavioral therapy. However, there is a relatively small body of empirical research on outcome expectancy and the treatment of social anxiety disorder. This literature, which has examined the association mostly in group-based interventions, has yielded mixed findings. The current study sought to further evaluate the effect of outcome exp...

  18. Predicting physical activity and outcome expectations in cancer survivors: an application of Self-Determination Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Philip M; Blanchard, Chris M; Nehl, Eric; Baker, Frank

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the contributions of autonomous and controlled motives drawn from Self-Determination Theory (SDT; Intrinsic Motivation and Self-determination in Human Behavior. Plenum Press: New York, 1985; Handbook of Self-determination Research. University of Rochester Press: New York, 2002) towards predicting physical activity behaviours and outcome expectations in adult cancer survivors. Participants were cancer-survivors (N=220) and a non-cancer comparison cohort (N=220) who completed an adapted version of the Treatment Self-Regulation Questionnaire modified for physical activity behaviour (TSRQ-PA), an assessment of the number of minutes engaged in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) weekly, and the anticipated outcomes expected from regular physical activity (OE). Simultaneous multiple regression analyses indicated that autonomous motives was the dominant predictor of OEs across both cancer and non-cancer cohorts (R(2adj)=0.29-0.43), while MVPA was predicted by autonomous (beta's ranged from 0.21 to 0.34) and controlled (beta's ranged from -0.04 to -0.23) motives after controlling for demographic considerations. Cancer status (cancer versus no cancer) did not moderate the motivation-physical activity relationship. Collectively, these findings suggest that the distinction between autonomous and controlled motives is useful and compliments a growing body of evidence supporting SDT as a framework for understanding motivational processes in physical activity contexts with cancer survivors.

  19. Association of Self-Efficacy and Outcome Expectations with Physical Activity in Adults with Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma J. Mielenz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose. The purpose of this study is to determine whether higher baseline levels of (a self-efficacy for physical activity, (b self-efficacy for arthritis self-management, and (c outcome expectations for exercise are associated with higher physical activity levels following an exercise intervention for adults with arthritis. Methods. A secondary analysis of the intervention cohort (n=130 within a randomized controlled trial of the People with Arthritis Can Exercise program was performed. Multiple linear regression evaluated the relationship between physical activity at a time point three months after the completion of an exercise intervention and three main explanatory variables. Results. After controlling for baseline physical activity, neither self-efficacy for arthritis self-management nor outcome expectations for exercise related to three-month physical activity levels. There was a relationship between three-month physical activity and self-efficacy for physical activity. Conclusions. Future research is needed to evaluate the ability of self-efficacy-enhancing programs to increase physical activity in adults with arthritis.

  20. The effect of political cycles on power investment decisions: Expectations over the repeal and reinstatement of carbon policy mechanisms in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ShahNazari, Mahdi; McHugh, Adam; Maybee, Bryan; Whale, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of political cycles quantified in power generation investments. • Expected repeal and reinstatement of carbon policy modelled dynamically. • A survey of experts informed the decision making model. • Expectations over reinstatement of policy dampens the effect of expected repeal. - Abstract: Political uncertainty over global greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation policy is likely to defer investment in cleaner technologies. It may also incentivise short-lived, high-cost interim investments while businesses wait for the uncertainty to subside. The range of possible policy responses to the issue has created uncertainty over the future of national mitigation pathways. Given that the electricity sector, globally, is a major emitter of GHGs, this represents a systematic risk to investment in electricity generation assets. This paper uses a real options analysis framework informed by a survey of experts conducted in Australia – used as a proxy to model the degree of the uncertainty – to investigate the optimal timing for investment in the conversion of a coal plant to a combined cycle gas turbine plant using the American-style option valuation method. The effect of market and political uncertainty is studied for the Clean Energy Act 2011 in Australia. Political uncertainty is addressed bi-modally in terms of: (1) uncertainty over the repeal of the carbon pricing policy, and (2) if it is repealed, uncertainty over the reinstatement of the policy, to represent the effect of electoral cycles and the possibility of more stringent future global mitigation efforts. Results of the analysis show that although political uncertainty with respect to GHG mitigation policy may delay investment in the conversion of the coal plant, expectations over the reinstatement of the carbon pricing reduces the amount of option premium to defer the conversion decision

  1. Evaluating expected outcomes of acid remediation in an intensively mined Appalachian watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew S; Merovich, George T; Petty, J Todd; Gutta, J Brady

    2017-07-01

    Assessments of watershed-based restoration efforts are rare but are essential for the science of stream restoration to advance. We conducted a watershed scale assessment of Abram Creek before and after implementation of a watershed-based plan designed to maximize ecological recovery from acid mine drainage (AMD) impairment. We surveyed water chemistry, physical habitat, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish community structure in three stream types: AMD-impacted (14 streams), AMD-treated (13 streams), and unimpaired reference (4 streams). We used in-stream measurements to quantify ecological loss from AMD, the amount of ecological recovery expected through remediation, and the observed degree of post-treatment recovery. Sites impaired by AMD improved in water quality with AMD treatment. Dissolved metals and acidity declined significantly in treated streams, but sulfate and specific conductance did not. Likewise, sites impaired by AMD improved in bio-condition scores with AMD treatment. EPT genera increased significantly but were lower compared to unimpaired streams. We found fish at nine treated sites that had none before treatment. Community-level analyses indicated improved but altered assemblages with AMD treatment. Analysis of pre-treatment conditions indicated that only 30% of the historic fishery remained. Remediation was expected to recover 66% of the historic fishery value, and assessment of post-treatment conditions indicates that 52% of the historic fishery has been recovered after 3 years. Developing expected endpoints for restoration outcomes provides a tool to objectively evaluate successes and can guide adaptive management strategies.

  2. Positive smoking outcome expectancies mediate the association between negative affect and smoking urge among women during a quit attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; Lam, Cho Y; Chen, Minxing; Adams, Claire E; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Stewart, Diana W; McClure, Jennifer B; Cinciripini, Paul M; Wetter, David W

    2014-08-01

    Ecological momentary assessment was used to examine associations between negative affect, positive smoking outcome expectancies, and smoking urge during the first 7 days of a smoking quit attempt. Participants were 302 female smokers who enrolled in an individually tailored smoking cessation treatment study. Multilevel mediation analysis was used to examine the temporal relationship among the following: (a) the effects of negative affect and positive smoking outcome expectancies at 1 assessment point (e.g., time j) on smoking urge at the subsequent time point (e.g., time j + 1) in Model 1; and, (b) the effects of negative affect and smoking urge at time j on positive smoking outcome expectancies at time j + 1 in Model 2. The results from Model 1 showed a statistically significant effect of negative affect at time j on smoking urge at time j + 1, and this effect was mediated by positive smoking outcome expectancies at time j, both within- and between-participants. In Model 2, the within-participant indirect effect of negative affect at time j on positive smoking outcome expectancies at time j + 1 through smoking urge at time j was nonsignificant. However, a statistically significant indirect between-participants effect was found in Model 2. The findings support the hypothesis that urge and positive smoking outcome expectancies increase as a function of negative affect, and suggest a stronger effect of expectancies on urge as opposed to the effect of urge on expectancies.

  3. Interview with the Hon. Ken Wyatt: improving Indigenous health outcomes from a political viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Wyatt

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2017, Australia celebrates 50 years since the 1967 referendum, when more than 90% of Australians voted to amend the constitution to allow the national government to create laws for Indigenous people and include them in the census. We spoke with the Honourable Ken Wyatt, the Minister for Indigenous Health and the Minister for Aged Care, about what has occurred over the past 50 years in Indigenous health from a political perspective, and what we have learnt to improve health outcomes in the future.

  4. Associations between ADHD symptoms and smoking outcome expectancies in a non-clinical sample of daily cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenson, Nicholas I; Pang, Raina D; Leventhal, Adam M

    2016-03-01

    Smoking outcome expectancies for positive reinforcement (PR: beliefs that smoking produces desirable outcomes) and negative reinforcement (NR: beliefs that smoking alleviates negative affect) are modifiable cognitive manifestations of affect-mediated smoking motivation. Based on prior data and theory, we hypothesized that NR and PR expectancies are associated with ADHD symptom levels in a non-clinical sample of cigarette smokers. (Am J Addict 2016; XX:XX -XX) METHODS: Daily cigarette smokers (N = 256) completed self-report measures of ADHD symptoms and smoking outcome expectancies. Cross-sectional associations of overall ADHD symptomatology and the ADHD symptom dimensions of inattention (IN: difficulty concentrating and distractibility) and hyperactivity impulsivity (HI: poor inhibitory control and motor activity restlessness) with PR and NR smoking outcome expectancies were examined. Higher levels of overall, IN and HI ADHD symptoms were positively associated with NR smoking expectancies after statistically controlling for anxiety, depression, alcohol/drug use problems, nicotine dependence, and other smoking expectancies. Although neither HI nor IN symptom dimensions exhibited empirically unique relations to NR expectancies over and above one another, the collective variance across IN and HI was associated with NR expectancies. PR expectancies were not associated with ADHD symptoms. Although PR and NR expectancies may be important etiological influences in the overall population of smokers, NR outcome expectancies appear to be disproportionately expressed in smokers with elevated ADHD symptoms. Cognitive manifestations of NR motivation, which may be modifiable via intervention, are prominent in smokers with elevated ADHD symptoms. Beliefs that smoking alleviates negative affect may underlie ADHD-smoking comorbidity. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  5. Drinking motives and alcohol outcome expectancies as mediators of the association between negative urgency and alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthenien, Amber M; Lembo, Jordanna; Neighbors, Clayton

    2017-03-01

    To determine whether the effects of negative urgency, a unique facet of impulsivity marked by engaging in potentially unhealthy and rash behaviors in order to cope with anxiety or negative moods, on drinking behavior can be explained by positive and negative alcohol outcome expectancies and specific drinking motives (i.e., coping and enhancement). College students (N=194) completed web-based surveys in exchange for course credit. Students completed measures of negative urgency, comprehensive effects of alcohol, drinking motives, and alcohol use behaviors. Results of path analysis indicated significant indirect effects of negative urgency and alcohol use through both alcohol outcome expectancies and enhancement motives. The effects of enhancement motives on drinking were mediated by positive alcohol outcome expectancies. The effects of coping motives on drinking were not attributable to negative expectancies. Individuals high on negative urgency may consume alcohol in order to ameliorate their emotional distress due to strong desires to increase positive and decrease negative experiences associated with drinking. Emotion-focused impulsivity's influence on drinking outcomes can be ascribed to enhancement motives for drinking as well as positive and negative alcohol outcome expectancies. Prevention efforts should target drinking motives and alcohol outcome expectancies among those higher in negative urgency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Meeting Teacher Expectations in a DL Professional Development Programme--A Case Study for Sustained Applied Competence as Programme Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Cornè Gerda; Van Rensburg, Ona Janse; De Witt, Marike W.

    2016-01-01

    Meeting teacher expectations for a professional development programme (PDP) is expected to strengthen sustainable applied competence as programme outcome since teachers will be more motivated to apply the programme content in practice. A revised distance learning (DL) programme was augmented by a practical component comprising a work-integrated…

  7. Differential UCS expectancy bias in spider fearful individuals : Evidence toward an association between spiders and disgust-relevant outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Overveld, M; de Jong, PJ; Peters, ML

    Recently, differential UCS expectancies were found for high- and low-predatory fear-relevant animals [Davey, G. C. L., Cavanagh, K., & Lamb, A. (2003). Differential aversive outcome expectancies for high- and low-predation fear-relevant animals. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental

  8. Who Are You More Likely to Help? The Effects of Expected Outcomes and Regulatory Focus on Prosocial Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fengqiu; Zheng, Zhiwei; Zhang, Heyi; Xin, Ziqiang; Chen, Yinghe; Li, Yiwei

    2016-01-01

    Prosocial behavior refers to a broad category of actions that benefit other people or the society. Compared with other factors that affect prosocial performance, prosocial outcomes, consisting of prosocial gains and prosocial non-losses have received less attention up to now. In the current research, we explored the influences of different types of expected outcomes and regulatory focus on prosocial performance. Studies 1a and 1b examined the differences in prosocial performance elicited by prosocial gain (e.g., enhancing others’ access to clean water) and prosocial non-loss outcomes (e.g., protecting others from suffering dirty water). We found that the expected prosocial non-loss outcomes induced greater prosocial performance compared with the expected prosocial gain outcomes. Studies 2a and 2b examined the effects of dispositional and situational regulatory focus on prosocial loss aversion. We found that differences in prosocial performance between two expected prosocial outcomes were reduced when promotion focus was primed; whereas a primed prevention focus did not significantly increase this difference. Additionally, participants displayed a greater prosocial loss aversion in the prevention focus condition than in the promotion focus condition. The reason for the non-significant interaction between regulatory focus and expected prosocial outcome was discussed. PMID:27824909

  9. Who Are You More Likely to Help? The Effects of Expected Outcomes and Regulatory Focus on Prosocial Performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengqiu Xiao

    Full Text Available Prosocial behavior refers to a broad category of actions that benefit other people or the society. Compared with other factors that affect prosocial performance, prosocial outcomes, consisting of prosocial gains and prosocial non-losses have received less attention up to now. In the current research, we explored the influences of different types of expected outcomes and regulatory focus on prosocial performance. Studies 1a and 1b examined the differences in prosocial performance elicited by prosocial gain (e.g., enhancing others' access to clean water and prosocial non-loss outcomes (e.g., protecting others from suffering dirty water. We found that the expected prosocial non-loss outcomes induced greater prosocial performance compared with the expected prosocial gain outcomes. Studies 2a and 2b examined the effects of dispositional and situational regulatory focus on prosocial loss aversion. We found that differences in prosocial performance between two expected prosocial outcomes were reduced when promotion focus was primed; whereas a primed prevention focus did not significantly increase this difference. Additionally, participants displayed a greater prosocial loss aversion in the prevention focus condition than in the promotion focus condition. The reason for the non-significant interaction between regulatory focus and expected prosocial outcome was discussed.

  10. Does adherence to treatment mediate the relationship between patients' treatment outcome expectancies and the outcomes of pain intensity and recovery from acute low back pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haanstra, Tsjitske M; Kamper, Steven J; Williams, Christopher M; Spriensma, Alette S; Lin, Chung-Wei Christine; Maher, Christopher G; de Vet, Henrica C W; Ostelo, Raymond W J G

    2015-08-01

    It is believed that patients' expectancies about the effectiveness of treatment influence their treatment outcomes, but the working mechanism is rarely studied in patients with low back pain. Theoretical models suggest that adherence to treatment may be an important pathway. The aim of this study was to assess the mediating role of adherence to treatment in the relationship between expectancies and the outcomes of recovery and pain intensity in patients with acute low back pain. This study used data from a randomized placebo-controlled trial of paracetamol for acute low back pain. Expectancies were measured with the Credibility Expectancy Questionnaire. Adherence was measured with a medication diary. Pain intensity was recorded daily in a diary on a 0 to 10 pain scale, and recovery was defined as the first of 7 consecutive days scoring 0 or 1 on a 6-point pain scale. Cox regression (dependent variable: recovery) and linear mixed-model analyses (dependent variable: daily pain intensity scores) were performed. The "difference in coefficients" approach was used to establish mediation. A total of 1573 participants were included in current analyses. There was a small but highly significant relationship between expectancies and outcomes; 3.3% of the relationship between expectancies and recovery and 14.2% of the relationship between expectancies and pain intensity were mediated by adherence to treatment. This study does not convincingly support the theory that adherence is a key pathway in the relationship between treatment outcome expectancies and recovery and pain intensity in this acute low back pain population.

  11. Illustrated Examples of the Effects of Risk Preferences and Expectations on Bargaining Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, David L.

    2003-01-01

    Describes bargaining examples that use expected utility theory. Provides example results that are intuitive, shown graphically and algebraically, and offer upper-level student samples that illustrate the usefulness of the expected utility theory. (JEH)

  12. Regulatory focus, self-efficacy and outcome expectations as drivers of motivation to consume healthy food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudoran, Ana Alina; Scholderer, Joachim; Brunsø, Karen

    2012-10-01

    In this paper we apply the principle of Regulatory Focus Theory to investigate the interaction between self-efficacy and outcome expectations on individuals' intentions to adopt health behaviors. The participants, 959 individuals (Survey 1) and 2400 individuals (Survey 2), reported self-efficacy beliefs and outcome expectations with regard to the consumption of omega-3 supplements and omega-3-enriched food products. We found that the relationship prevention outcome expectations-intention was significantly attenuated at low levels of self-efficacy and strengthened at high levels of self-efficacy, respectively; whereas, the relationship promotion outcome expectations-intention was unaffected by the perceived levels of self-efficacy. The implications suggest that consumers' motivation to adopt healthy food products, such as omega-3 supplements and omega-3 enriched products, should be encouraged by stimulating promotion outcome expectations. However, when a prevention frame is used, the individuals' motivation should be significantly enhanced by self-efficacy beliefs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Political Parties and Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bischoff, Carina Saxlund; Christiansen, Flemming Juul

    2017-01-01

    parties themselves as well their impact on potentially innovative public decisions. One major expectation is that hierarchical parties with centralized leadership make more efficient decisions but that sustainable innovation outcomes promoted by collaborative efforts are easier to obtain for decentralized...... political parties with participatory internal democratic processes....

  14. Expectancies, working alliance, and outcome in transdiagnostic and single diagnosis treatment for anxiety disorders: An investigation of mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer-Zavala, Shannon; Boswell, James F; Bentley, Kate H; Thompson-Hollands, Johanna; Farchione, Todd J; Barlow, David H

    2018-04-01

    Patients' outcome expectancies and the working alliance are two psychotherapy process variables that researchers have found to be associated with treatment outcome, irrespective of treatment approach and problem area. Despite this, little is known about the mechanisms accounting for this association, and whether contextual factors (e.g., psychotherapy type) impact the strength of these relationships. The primary aim of this study was to examine whether patient-rated working alliance quality mediates the relationship between outcome expectancies and pre- to post-treatment change in anxiety symptoms using data from a recent randomized clinical trial comparing a transdiagnostic treatment (the Unified Protocol [UP]; Barlow et al., 2011a; Barlow, Sauer-Zavala, et al., in press) to single diagnosis protocols (SDPs) for patients with a principal heterogeneous anxiety disorder ( n = 179). The second aim was to explore whether cognitive-behavioral treatment condition (UP versus SDP) moderated this indirect relationship. Results from mediation and moderated mediation models indicated that, when collapsing across the two treatment conditions, the relationship between expectancies and outcome was partially mediated by the working alliance ( B = .037, SE = .05, 95% CI [.005, .096]). Interestingly, within-condition analyses showed that this conditional indirect effect was only present for SDP patients, whereas in the UP condition, working alliance did not account for the association between expectancies and outcome. These findings suggest that outcome expectancies and working alliance quality may interact to influence treatment outcomes, and that the nature and strength of the relationships among these constructs may differ as a function of the specific cognitive-behavioral treatment approach utilized.

  15. Influence of political opposition and compromise on conservation outcomes in the Tongass National Forest, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Colin M

    2008-12-01

    To understand how a highly contentious policy process influenced a major conservation effort, I examined the origins, compromises, and outcomes of the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act of 1980 (ANILCA) for the Tongass National Forest. Tongass wilderness designation was among the most controversial issues in the ANILCA debate, and it faced strong opposition from influential lawmakers, land managers, and Alaska residents. To investigate the influence of this opposition on Tongass conservation outcomes, I conducted a gap analysis of Tongass reserves and a policy analysis of the ANILCA debate and traced the influence of specific interests through the amendments, negotiations, and resulting compromises needed to enact ANILCA. Overall, I found that Tongass reserves comprise a broadly representative cross-section of ecosystems and species habitats in southeastern Alaska. Redrawn reserve boundaries, industry subsidies, and special access regulations reflected compromises to minimize the impact of wilderness conservation on mining, timber, and local stakeholder interests, respectively. Fragmentation of the Admiralty Island National Monument-the most ecologically valuable and politically controversial reserve-resulted from compromises with Alaskan Native (indigenous peoples of Alaska) corporations and timber interests. Despite language to accommodate "reasonable access" to wilderness reserves, ongoing access limitations highlight the concerns of Alaska residents that opposed ANILCA several decades ago. More broadly, the Tongass case suggests that early and ambitious conservation action may offset strong political opposition; compromises needed to establish key reserves often exacerbate development impacts in unprotected areas; and efforts to minimize social conflicts are needed to safeguard the long-term viability of conservation measures.

  16. Healthcare provider counseling to quit smoking and patient desire to quit: The role of negative smoking outcome expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Joan S; Stucky, Brian D; Edelen, Maria Orlando; Shadel, William G; Klein, David J

    2018-05-21

    The U.S. Public Health Service Clinical Practice Guideline on treating tobacco use and dependence recommends providing advice to quit to every tobacco user seen in a healthcare setting. However, the mechanism through which counseling encourages patients to quit has not been adequately studied. This study tests whether the association between receiving healthcare provider counseling and desire to quit is accounted for by negative health and psychosocial outcome expectancies of smoking. Data were collected online from 721 adult smokers who had seen a healthcare provider in the past 12 months. Associations between counseling to quit, negative outcome expectancies of smoking, and desire to quit were tested, as well as whether outcome expectancies and desire to quit differed by type of counseling (counseling only vs. counseling plus assistance) and level of smoking. Bivariate associations indicated a stronger desire to quit among patients receiving counseling, particularly when it included healthcare provider assistance to quit. SEM results indicated that the association between counseling and desire to quit was fully accounted for by patients' negative health and psychosocial outcome expectancies for smoking. These associations were found across levels of smoking in the case of health expectancies, but were limited to moderate and heavy smokers in the case of psychosocial expectancies. Results suggest that the time devoted to counseling patients about smoking should include providing some assistance to quit, such as recommending a product, prescription or program. Regardless of smoking level, this counseling should incorporate techniques to elicit patients' negative health and psychosocial expectancies of smoking. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Working Alliance and Stages of Change for Employment: The Intermediary Role of Autonomous Motivation, Outcome Expectancy and Vocational Rehabilitation Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, Kanako; Chan, Fong; Tansey, Timothy N; Strauser, David; Ritter, Ellen; Bishop, Malachy; Brooks, Jessica

    2018-05-30

    Purpose Working alliance is one of the most important common factors for successful counseling/psychotherapy outcomes. Based on the empirical literature about working alliance, it seems that self-determination and self-efficacy theory (SDT/SET) can potentially be used as a motivational model to explain the relationship between working alliance and vocational rehabilitation (VR) outcomes. The purpose of this study is to evaluate three primary SDT/SET constructs, autonomous motivation, expectancy and engagement, as mediators for the relationship between working alliance and stages of change (SOC) for employment. Methods A serial multiple mediation analysis (SMMA) was computed to evaluate autonomy, outcome expectancy, and VR engagement as mediators of the relationship between working alliance and SOC for employment in a sample of 277 people with chronic illness and disability (CID) receiving services from state VR agencies in the United States. Results The SMMA results indicated that working alliance was positively associated with SOC for employment (total effect), while the direct effect between working alliance and SOC for employment was not significant after controlling for the effects of the mediators, indicating significant mediation effects. The mediation effects were estimates of the indirect effects for working alliance on SOC for employment through (a) autonomous motivation, (b) outcome expectancy, (c) VR engagement, and (d) autonomous motivation, outcome expectancy and VR engagement together. Conclusions The results indicated that a strong working alliance has the benefit of helping consumers develop autonomous motivation to work and increasing their vocational outcome expectancy and engagement in VR services, leading to employment.

  18. Hypnotherapy to Reduce Hot Flashes: Examination of Response Expectancies as a Mediator of Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwinski, Jim R.; Elkins, Gary R.

    2017-01-01

    The mechanism of action responsible for hypnotherapy’s effect in reducing hot flashes is not yet known. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of response expectancies as a potential mediator. Hypnotizability was also tested as an effect moderator. Data were collected from a sample of 172 postmenopausal women, who had been randomized to receive either a 5-week hypnosis intervention or structured attention counseling. Measures of response expectancies were analyzed to determine if the relationship between group assignment and hot flashes frequency was mediated by expectancies for treatment efficacy. A series of simple mediation and conditional process analyses did not support mediation of the relationship between treatment condition and hot flash frequency through response expectancy. The effect of hypnotherapy in reducing hot flashes does not appear to be due to placebo effects as determined by response expectancies. Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed. PMID:28528570

  19. Political Ideology, Trust, and Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balliet, Daniel; Tybur, Joshua M.; Wu, Junhui; Antonellis, Christian; Van Lange, Paul A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Theories suggest that political ideology relates to cooperation, with conservatives being more likely to pursue selfish outcomes, and liberals more likely to pursue egalitarian outcomes. In study 1, we examine how political ideology and political party affiliation (Republican vs. Democrat) predict cooperation with a partner who self-identifies as Republican or Democrat in two samples before (n = 362) and after (n = 366) the 2012 US presidential election. Liberals show slightly more concern for their partners’ outcomes compared to conservatives (study 1), and in study 2 this relation is supported by a meta-analysis (r = .15). However, in study 1, political ideology did not relate to cooperation in general. Both Republicans and Democrats extend more cooperation to their in-group relative to the out-group, and this is explained by expectations of cooperation from in-group versus out-group members. We discuss the relation between political ideology and cooperation within and between groups. PMID:29593363

  20. Linking Affective Commitment, Career Self-Efficacy, and Outcome Expectations: A Test of Social Cognitive Career Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Amanda M.; Dahling, Jason J.; Garcia, Pablo A.

    2013-01-01

    The authors tested a model based on the satisfaction model of social cognitive career theory (SCCT) that links college students' affective commitment to their major (the emotional identification that students feel toward their area of study) with career decision self-efficacy (CDSE) and career outcome expectations. Results indicate that CDSE…

  1. When outcome expectations become habitual : explaining vs. predicting new media technology use from a social cognitive perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, O.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the triadic relationship between expected outcomes, habit strength, and media technology use within the model of media attendance (Larose & Eastin, 2004). Mobile phone users (N = 664) were divided into two groups using a stratified random sampling method. Respondents of group one

  2. Young adult e-cigarette use outcome expectancies: Validity of a revised scale and a short scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Lam, Tony H; Pagano, Ian; Kawamoto, Crissy T; Herzog, Thaddeus A

    2018-03-01

    The revised youth e-cigarette outcome expectancies measure adds new items informed by recent qualitative research with young adult e-cigarette users, especially in the domain of positive "smoking" experience. Positive "smoking" experience represents beliefs that use of e-cigarettes provides outcomes associated with a better "smoking" alternative: for example, an alternative that is more socially approved, more suitable for indoor use, and that provides a safer means of enjoying nicotine. In addition, we tested a short, 8-item version of the measure which may be more easily incorporated into surveys. We tested the validity of the revised measure, both long and short versions, in terms of factor structure and associations of the expectancy factors with current e-cigarette use, e-cigarette use susceptibility, and e-cigarette use dependence. Participants were young adults (N=470; 65% women; mean age=20.9, SD=2.1). Results replicated the findings of the previous study as well as highlighted the importance of the added domain of positive "smoking" experience and the validity of the short scale. Furthermore, results showed that positive outcome expectancies are strongly associated with e-cigarette use dependence. The long and short versions of the revised youth e-cigarette outcome expectancies scale appear to be valid and useful for application not only among cigarette smokers and e-cigarette users but also among never smokers and never e-cigarette users. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Working Alliance as a Mediator and Moderator between Expectations for Counseling Success and Counseling Outcome among Korean Clients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Sung-Kyung; Hong, Sehee; Sohn, Nanhee; O'Brien, Karen M.

    2014-01-01

    The study examined client's perceptions of working alliance as a mediator and moderator between client expectations of counseling success and counseling outcome. Participants were 284 adult clients in counseling in university or community counseling centers or private practices in South Korea. Level of functioning at the start of counseling was…

  4. Expectancies Mediate the Relations Among Pain Catastrophizing, Fear of Movement, and Return to Work Outcomes After Whiplash Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriere, Junie S; Thibault, Pascal; Milioto, Maria; Sullivan, Michael J L

    2015-12-01

    Pain catastrophizing and fear of movement have been identified as key predictors of prolonged work disability after whiplash injury. However, little is known about the processes by which pain catastrophizing and fear of movement affect return to work. This study investigated the mediating role of expectancies on the relations between pain catastrophizing and return to work, and between fear of movement and return to work after whiplash injury. The study sample consisted of 154 individuals with whiplash injury who were enrolled in a multidisciplinary pain rehabilitation program. Participants completed measures of pain catastrophizing, fear of movement, and return-to-work expectancies after admission to a rehabilitation program. A follow-up telephone interview was used to assess work status 1 year after discharge. Consistent with previous research, analyses revealed that expectancies, pain catastrophizing, and fear of movement were significant predictors of return to work at 1-year follow-up. Regression analyses (bootstrapping) revealed that expectancies partially mediated the relation between catastrophizing and return to work. Expectancies completely mediated the relation between fear of movement and return to work. The significant predictive and mediating role of expectancies on return to work argues for the inclusion of expectancies as a specific target of intervention for individuals with whiplash injury. The findings suggest that expectancies might be part of the pathways by which pain catastrophizing and fear of movement affect return-to-work outcomes after whiplash injury. The findings argue for greater attention to return-to-work expectancies as a risk factor for problematic recovery outcomes as well as a target of intervention. Copyright © 2015 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Science, society, and flagship species: social and political history as keys to conservation outcomes in the Gulf of California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés M. Cisneros-Montemayor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Socio-political issues are important in environmental policy outcomes but are often overlooked in conservation planning. We analyze the effects of historical social, political, and ecological contexts on conservation policy outcomes as applied to the Upper Gulf of California and Colorado River Delta Biosphere Reserve. A rushed implementation, perhaps necessary for the protection of endangered totoaba (Totoaba macdonaldi and vaquita (Phocoena sinus, occurred with little community consultation, resulting in enduring disgruntlement among stakeholders that undermined its effectiveness. Overfishing and habitat degradation continue both inside and outside the reserve, and totoaba and vaquita remain Critically Endangered, with the latter's population estimated at approximately 90 individuals. Marine reserves can be useful, but when top-down enforcement is unfeasible, effective environmental policy requires full recognition and integration of political history and social structures and needs, and open discussion on trade-offs when win-win situations are not possible.

  6. Adolescents’ Pain Coping Profiles: Expectations for Treatment, Functional Outcomes and Adherence to Psychological Treatment Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn Lewis Claar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To explore how adolescents’ pain coping profiles relate to their expectations regarding psychological treatment recommendations, and to examine patients’ functioning and engagement in psychological treatment three months following a multidisciplinary pain clinic evaluation.

  7. Outcomes of Nordic mental health systems: life expectancy of patients with mental disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlbeck, Kristian; Westman, Jeanette; Nordentoft, Merete

    2011-01-01

    People with mental disorders evince excess mortality due to natural and unnatural deaths. The relative life expectancy of people with mental disorders is a proxy measure of effectiveness of social policy and health service provision.......People with mental disorders evince excess mortality due to natural and unnatural deaths. The relative life expectancy of people with mental disorders is a proxy measure of effectiveness of social policy and health service provision....

  8. Initiation and Maintenance of Weight Loss after Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding. The role of Outcome Expectation and Satisfaction with the Psychosocial Outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, H.; Larsen, J.K.; Ridder, D.T.D. de; Ramshorst, B. van; Geenen, R.

    2009-01-01

    A premise of this study was that different psychological processes would predict the initiation and maintenance of weight loss after surgery for morbid obesity. Our aim was to examine whether more favorable preoperative expectations of psychosocial outcomes predict weight loss in the first year

  9. Consumer Expectations of Online Services in the Insurance Industry: An Exploratory Study of Drivers and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Aparicio, M Dolores; Izquierdo-Yusta, Alicia; Jiménez-Zarco, Ana I

    2017-01-01

    Today, the customer-brand relationship is fundamental to a company's bottom line, especially in the service sector and with services offered via online channels. In order to maximize its effects, organizations need (1) to know which factors influence the formation of an individual's service expectations in an online environment; and (2) to establish the influence of these expectations on customers' likelihood of recommending a service before they have even used it. In accordance with the TAM model (Davis, 1989; Davis et al., 1992), the TRA model (Fishbein and Ajzen, 1975), the extended UTAUT model (Venkatesh et al., 2012), and the approach described by Alloza (2011), this work proposes a theoretical model of the antecedents and consequences of consumer expectations of online services. In order to validate the proposed theoretical model, a sample of individual insurance company customers was analyzed. The results showed, first, the importance of customers' expectations with regard to the intention to recommend the "private area" of the company's website to other customers prior to using it themselves. They also revealed the importance to expectations of the antecedents perceived usefulness, ease of use, frequency of use, reputation, and subjective norm.

  10. Consumer Expectations of Online Services in the Insurance Industry: An Exploratory Study of Drivers and Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dolores Méndez-Aparicio

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Today, the customer-brand relationship is fundamental to a company’s bottom line, especially in the service sector and with services offered via online channels. In order to maximize its effects, organizations need (1 to know which factors influence the formation of an individual’s service expectations in an online environment; and (2 to establish the influence of these expectations on customers’ likelihood of recommending a service before they have even used it. In accordance with the TAM model (Davis, 1989; Davis et al., 1992, the TRA model (Fishbein and Ajzen, 1975, the extended UTAUT model (Venkatesh et al., 2012, and the approach described by Alloza (2011, this work proposes a theoretical model of the antecedents and consequences of consumer expectations of online services. In order to validate the proposed theoretical model, a sample of individual insurance company customers was analyzed. The results showed, first, the importance of customers’ expectations with regard to the intention to recommend the “private area” of the company’s website to other customers prior to using it themselves. They also revealed the importance to expectations of the antecedents perceived usefulness, ease of use, frequency of use, reputation, and subjective norm.

  11. Development of a measure of hypodontia patients' expectations of the process and outcome of combined orthodontic and restorative treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassem, Afnan Ben; Foxton, Richard; Bister, Dirk; Newton, Tim

    2016-12-01

    To devise and assess the psychometric properties of a measure that investigates hypodontia patients' expectations of the process and outcome of combined orthodontic/restorative treatment. Specialised secondary care facility for individuals with hypodontia. Mixed research design with three phases: (a) Thematic analysis of data from individual interviews with 25 hypodontia patients/16 parents to generate the questionnaire items. (b) Questionnaire design, assessment of readability and face/content validity with 10 patients. (c) Survey of 32 new hypodontia patients to determine the internal consistency of the measure. Three main themes related to the treatment process emerged from the qualitative data: 'hypodontia clinic', 'orthodontic treatment' and 'restorative treatment'. Three main themes were also revealed relating to treatment outcome: 'changes in appearance', 'psychosocial changes' and 'functional changes'. A 28 item questionnaire was constructed using a mix of visual analogue scale (VAS) and categorical response format. The Flesch reading ease score of the measure was 78, equivalent to a reading age of 9-10 years. Face and content validity were good. The overall Cronbach's alpha was 0.80 while for the treatment process and treatment outcome subscales it was 0.71 and 0.88 respectively. A patient-based measure of the process and outcome of combined orthodontic/restorative treatment for hypodontia patients has been developed which has good face and construct validity and satisfactory internal consistency. Patient expectations of treatment are important in determining not only their satisfaction with treatment outcomes but also their engagement with the clinical process. This questionnaire is a first step in operationalising the expectations of hypodontia patients through assessment tools that can then determine whether pre-treatment counselling is required and aid the consent and treatment planning process, thus improving the quality of treatment provided by

  12. Impact of Expectancy-Value and Situational Interest Motivation Specificity on Physical Education Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Haiyong; Sun, Haichun; Chen, Ang

    2013-01-01

    To be successful in learning, students need to be motivated to engage and learn. The domain-specificity motivation theory articulates that student motivation is often determined by the content being taught to them. The purpose of this study was to extend the theory by determining domain-specificity of situational interest and expectancy-value…

  13. From outcomes to acts : a non-standard axiomatization of the expected utility principle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peterson, M.B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an axiomatization of the principle of maximizing expected utility that does not rely on the independence axiom or sure-thing principle. Perhaps more importantly the new axiomatization is based on an ex ante approach, instead of the standard ex post approach. An ex post approach

  14. Reframing political violence and mental health outcomes: outlining a research and action agenda for Latin America and the Caribbean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Pedersen

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the number of people exposed to traumatic events has significantly increased as various forms of violence, including war and political upheaval, engulf civilian populations worldwide. In spite of widespread armed conflict, guerrilla warfare and political violence in the Latin American and Caribbean region, insufficient attention had been paid in assessing the medium and long-term psychological impact and additional burden of disease, death, and disability caused by violence and wars amongst civilian populations. Following a review of the literature, a few central questions are raised: What is the short, medium and long-term health impact of extreme and sustained forms of violence in a given population? How political violence is linked to poor mental health outcomes at the individual and collective levels? Are trauma-related disorders, universal outcomes of extreme and sustained violence? These questions lead us to reframe the analysis of political violence and mental health outcomes, and reexamine the notions of trauma, after which a research and action agenda for the region is outlined. In the concluding sections, some basic principles that may prove useful when designing psychosocial interventions in post-conflict situations are reviewed.

  15. Assessment of Scientific Communication Self-Efficacy, Interest, and Outcome Expectations for Career Development in Academic Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Cheryl B.; Lee, Hwa Young; Byars-Winston, Angela; Baldwin, Constance D.; Cameron, Carrie; Chang, Shine

    2015-01-01

    Competency in forms of scientific communication, both written and spoken, is essential for success in academic science. This study examined the psychometric properties of three new measures, based on social cognitive career theory, that are relevant to assessment of skill and perseverance in scientific communication. Pre- and postdoctoral trainees in biomedical science (N = 411) completed online questionnaires assessing self-efficacy in scientific communication, career outcome expectations, and interest in performing tasks in scientific writing, oral presentation, and impromptu scientific discourse. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate factor structures and model relations. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a 22-item, 3-factor measure of self-efficacy, an 11-item, 2-factor measure of outcome expectations, and a 12-item, 3-factor measure of interest in scientific communication activities. Construct validity was further demonstrated by theory-consistent inter-factor relations and relations with typical communications performance behaviors (e.g., writing manuscripts, abstracts, presenting at national meetings). PMID:26924920

  16. Parent Expectations Mediate Outcomes for Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Anne V.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the complex relationships among factors that may predict the outcomes of young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is of utmost importance given the increasing population undergoing and anticipating the transition to adulthood. With a sample of youth with ASD (n = 1170) from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2,…

  17. What Older Adolescents Expect from Physical Activity: Implicit Cognitions Regarding Health and Appearance Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, K.; Berry, T. R.; McHugh, T. F.; Rodgers, W. M.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To explore older adolescents' reflective and impulsive thoughts about health- and social/appearance-related physical activity (PA) outcomes and investigate how those thoughts relate to their PA behavior. Participants: One hundred and forty-four undergraduate students (109 women; 35 men) aged 17-19 years (M = 18.11, SD = 0.65)…

  18. Expect With Me: development and evaluation design for an innovative model of group prenatal care to improve perinatal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Shayna D; Lewis, Jessica B; Thomas, Jordan L; Grilo, Stephanie A; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2017-05-18

    Despite biomedical advances and intervention efforts, rates of preterm birth and other adverse outcomes in the United States have remained relatively intransigent. Evidence suggests that group prenatal care can reduce these risks, with implications for maternal and child health as well as substantial cost savings. However, widespread dissemination presents challenges, in part because training and health systems have not been designed to deliver care in a group setting. This manuscript describes the design and evaluation of Expect With Me, an innovative model of group prenatal care with a strong integrated information technology (IT) platform designed to be scalable nationally. Expect With Me follows clinical guidelines from the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Expect With Me incorporates the best evidence-based features of existing models of group care with a novel integrated IT platform designed to improve patient engagement and support, enhance health behaviors and decision making, connect providers and patients, and improve health service delivery. A multisite prospective longitudinal cohort study is being conducted to examine the impact of Expect With Me on perinatal and postpartum outcomes, and to identify and address barriers to national scalability. Process and outcome evaluation will include quantitative and qualitative data collection at patient, provider, and organizational levels. Mixed-method data collection includes patient surveys, medical record reviews, patient focus groups; provider surveys, session evaluations, provider focus groups and in-depth interviews; an online tracking system; and clinical site visits. A two-to-one matched cohort of women receiving individual care from each site will provide a comparison group (n = 1,000 Expect With Me patients; n = 2,000 individual care patients) for outcome and cost analyses. By bundling prevention and care services into a high-touch, high-tech group prenatal care model

  19. Accuracy gains of adding vote expectation surveys to a combined forecast of US presidential election outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Graefe

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In averaging forecasts within and across four-component methods (i.e. polls, prediction markets, expert judgment and quantitative models, the combined PollyVote provided highly accurate predictions for the US presidential elections from 1992 to 2012. This research note shows that the PollyVote would have also outperformed vote expectation surveys, which prior research identified as the most accurate individual forecasting method during that time period. Adding vote expectations to the PollyVote would have further increased the accuracy of the combined forecast. Across the last 90 days prior to the six elections, a five-component PollyVote (i.e. including vote expectations would have yielded a mean absolute error of 1.08 percentage points, which is 7% lower than the corresponding error of the original four-component PollyVote. This study thus provides empirical evidence in support of two major findings from forecasting research. First, combining forecasts provides highly accurate predictions, which are difficult to beat for even the most accurate individual forecasting method available. Second, the accuracy of a combined forecast can be improved by adding component forecasts that rely on different data and different methods than the forecasts already included in the combination.

  20. Direct and indirect effects of alcohol expectancies through drinking motives on alcohol outcomes among students in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diep, Pham Bich; Schelleman-Offermans, K; Kuntsche, E; De Vries, Nanne; Knibbe, Ronald A

    2016-01-01

    To investigate whether the links between alcohol expectancies (tension reduction; global positive change; improved cognitive and motor abilities; and change in social behavior) and alcohol outcomes (drinking volume, 6+ drinks, alcohol problems, and symptoms of alcohol dependence) are mediated by drinking motives (social, enhancement, conformity, and coping). A multi-stage sampling strategy was used in four Vietnamese provinces, resulting in a final sample of 4756 students (43.2% females) with mean age 20.6 (SD 1.8) years. Structural equation models, including indirect effects, were estimated for women and men separately. Overall, there were many cases of full mediation (indirect effects range from -0.006 to 0.083 and p-values from alcohol outcomes. Among men, enhancement motives and, to a lesser extent, social motives also played a role in mediating the effects of expectancies on alcohol outcomes. Among women, full mediation was found far less often and less consistently. By confirming that, in Vietnam, motives mediate the link between expectancies and drinking behavior, this study supports the cultural robustness of a key assumption of the motivational model (i.e. that drinking motives are more closely associated with alcohol use than expectancies). Enhancement, coping and social motives are most frequently found as mediators among male students whereas coping motive only is most frequently found as a mediator among female students. As most of the effects of expectancies were mediated by motives, drinking motives appear to be a promising factor for interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Peer and cyber aggression in secondary school students: the role of moral disengagement, hostile attribution bias, and outcome expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pornari, Chrisa D; Wood, Jane

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between cognitive mechanisms, applied by people to rationalize and justify harmful acts, and engagement in traditional peer and cyber aggression among school children. We examined the contribution of moral disengagement (MD), hostile attribution bias, and outcome expectancies, and we further explored the individual contribution of each MD mechanism. Our aim was to identify shared and unique cognitive factors of the two forms of aggression. Three hundred and thirty-nine secondary school children completed self-report measures that assessed MD, hostile attribution bias, outcome expectancies, and their roles and involvement in traditional and cyber aggression. We found that the MD total score positively related to both forms of peer-directed aggression. Furthermore, traditional peer aggression positively related to children's moral justification, euphemistic language, displacement of responsibility and outcome expectancies, and negatively associated with hostile attribution bias. Moral justification also related positively to cyber aggression. Cyber aggression and cyber victimization were associated with high levels of traditional peer aggression and victimization, respectively. The results suggest that MD is a common feature of both traditional and cyber peer aggression, but it seems that traditional forms of aggression demand a higher level of rationalization or justification. Moreover, the data suggest that the expectation of positive outcomes from harmful behavior facilitates engagement in traditional peer aggression. The differential contribution of specific cognitive mechanisms indicates the need for future research to elaborate on the current findings, in order to advance theory and inform existing and future school interventions tackling aggression and bullying. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. On poverty, politics and psychology: the socioeconomic gradient of mental healthcare utilisation and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgadillo, Jaime; Asaria, Miqdad; Ali, Shehzad; Gilbody, Simon

    2016-11-01

    Since 2008, the Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) programme has disseminated evidence-based interventions for depression and anxiety problems. In order to maintain quality standards, government policy in England sets the expectation that 50% of treated patients should meet recovery criteria according to validated patient-reported outcome measures. Using national IAPT data, we found evidence suggesting that the prevalence of mental health problems is greater in poorer areas and that these areas had lower average recovery rates. After adjusting benchmarks for local index of multiple deprivation, we found significant differences between unadjusted (72.5%) and adjusted (43.1%) proportions of underperforming clinical commissioning group areas. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  3. An investigation of outcome expectancies as a predictor of treatment response for combat veterans with PTSD: comparison of clinician, self-report, and biological measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Matthew; Maples, Jessica L; Jovanovic, Tanja; Norrholm, Seth D; Heekin, Mary; Rothbaum, Barbara O

    2015-06-01

    Outcome expectancy, or the degree to which a client believes that therapy will result in improvement, is related to improved treatment outcomes for multiple disorders. There is a paucity of research investigating this relation in regards to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Additionally, the bulk of the research on outcome expectancy and treatment outcomes has relied mostly on self-report outcome measures. The relation between outcome expectancy on self-report measures, clinician-rated measures, and two biological indices (fear-potentiated startle and cortisol reactivity) of PTSD symptoms was explored. The sample included combat veterans (N = 116) treated with virtual reality exposure therapy for PTSD. Results supported a negative association between outcome expectancy and both self-report and clinician-rated symptoms at the conclusion of treatment, but outcome expectancy was related to the magnitude of change during treatment for self-report measures only. Outcome expectancy was unrelated to biological measures of treatment response. These findings suggest that outcome expectancy may be related to patient and clinician perceptions of outcomes, but not biological indices of outcome for PTSD. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The response strategy and the place strategy in a plus-maze have different sensitivities to devaluation of expected outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaki, Yutaka; Pearce, John M; McGregor, Anthony

    2018-04-10

    Previous studies have suggested that spatial navigation can be achieved with at least two distinct learning processes, involving either cognitive map-like representations of the local environment, referred to as the "place strategy", or simple stimulus-response (S-R) associations, the "response strategy". A similar distinction between cognitive/behavioral processes has been made in the context of non-spatial, instrumental conditioning, with the definition of two processes concerning the sensitivity of a given behavior to the expected value of its outcome as well as to the response-outcome contingency ("goal-directed action" and "S-R habit"). Here we investigated whether these two versions of dichotomist definitions of learned behavior, one spatial and the other non-spatial, correspond to each other in a formal way. Specifically, we assessed the goal-directed nature of two navigational strategies, using a combination of an outcome devaluation procedure and a spatial probe trial frequently used to dissociate the two navigational strategies. In Experiment 1, rats trained in a dual-solution T-maze task were subjected to an extinction probe trial from the opposite start arm, with or without prefeeding-induced devaluation of the expected outcome. We found that a non-significant preference for the place strategy in the non-devalued condition was completely reversed after devaluation, such that significantly more animals displayed the use of the response strategy. The result suggests that the place strategy is sensitive to the expected value of the outcome, while the response strategy is not. In Experiment 2, rats with hippocampal lesions showed significant reliance on the response strategy, regardless of whether the expected outcome was devalued or not. The result thus offers further evidence that the response strategy conforms to the definition of an outcome-insensitive, habitual form of instrumental behavior. These results together attest a formal correspondence between

  5. Dissociation between judgments and outcome-expectancy measures in covariation learning: a signal detection theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, José C; Catena, Andrés; Shanks, David R; González, José A

    2005-09-01

    A number of studies using trial-by-trial learning tasks have shown that judgments of covariation between a cue c and an outcome o deviate from normative metrics. Parameters based on trial-by-trial predictions were estimated from signal detection theory (SDT) in a standard causal learning task. Results showed that manipulations of P(c) when contingency (deltaP) was held constant did not affect participants' ability to predict the appearance of the outcome (d') but had a significant effect on response criterion (c) and numerical causal judgments. The association between criterion c and judgment was further demonstrated in 2 experiments in which the criterion was directly manipulated by linking payoffs to the predictive responses made by learners. In all cases, the more liberal the criterion c was, the higher judgments were. The results imply that the mechanisms underlying the elaboration of judgments and those involved in the elaboration of predictive responses are partially dissociable.

  6. Dispositional Antecedents and Outcomes of Political Skill in Organizations: A Four-Study Investigation with Convergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongmei; Ferris, Gerald R.; Zinko, Robert; Perrewe, Pamela L.; Weitz, Bart; Xu, Jun

    2007-01-01

    We developed a four-study research plan to examine the dispositional antecedents of political skill and its job performance consequences, and also to incorporate the mediating role of reputation, drawing upon a recent theoretical model of political skill in organizations. Study 1 established the psychometric properties of the two reputation scales…

  7. Minority Political Incorporation and Policy Outcomes in U.S. School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Ana L.

    2017-01-01

    This study examines if gains in ethnic political representation and incorporation on local school boards result in policy responsiveness, as well as improved student achievement in a way that benefits minorities. By applying the political incorporation framework developed by Browning, Marshall, and Tabb (1984) to the education policy arena, gains…

  8. The influence of multicultural counseling competence and anti-Black prejudice on therapists' outcome expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Andrew D; Hoyt, William T

    2014-04-01

    The broad goal of this study was to examine multiple potential predictors of anti-Black bias among counselors. Specifically, in an online survey of 173 trainees and professionals in mental health, this study used 3 measures related to cultural sensitivity as predictors of therapists' expectancies for bond and prognosis with African American clients compared with White clients. The Multicultural Counseling Inventory (MCI; Sodowsky, Taffe, Gutkin, & Wise, 1994) was used to measure global multicultural competence. The Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998) served as a measure of automatic prejudice toward Blacks. Additionally, a new self-report measure of anti-Black clinical prejudice was created specifically for this study. The Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (Paulhus, 1984) was included to control for socially desirable responding. Each predictor of cultural sensitivity uniquely explained variance in anti-Black bias in bond ratings, with the IAT accounting for more variance than the 2 self-reports. Our novel measure of clinical prejudice accounted for anti-Black bias in prognosis ratings, but the MCI and the IAT did not. Researchers studying cultural competence are encouraged to consider the roles of automatic and deliberate prejudice in determining disparities in clinical expectancies and cross-racial therapeutic alliances. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Expectations for Tinnitus Treatment and Outcomes: A Survey Study of Audiologists and Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Fatima T; Gander, Phillip E; Jansen, Jaclyn N; Shen, Sa

    2018-04-01

    Roughly 10-15% of the general population is affected by tinnitus and this percentage is estimated to rise in future. Because there is currently no cure for tinnitus, treatment is limited and is primarily achieved through management of symptoms and counseling. This study compared audiologists' and patients' responses to related survey questions about their expectations regarding tinnitus treatment. Two separate surveys were created, one for patients with tinnitus, and one for practicing audiologists who may treat such patients. The surveys included several related questions, such that comparison of the two could reveal where patients' and audiologists' expectations for tinnitus care were in agreement and areas in which they differed. The surveys for audiologists and adults with tinnitus were 31- and 38-item questionnaires, respectively. Both surveys comprised demographic questions followed by several tinnitus-related questions in either multiple-choice or Likert-scale format. We received 230 completed Patient Surveys and 68 completed Audiologist Surveys. All survey recruitment was completed online. Responses were collected via the Survey Monkey web tool (http://www.surveymonkey.com/). Responses were analyzed within and between surveys and grouped into topical categories (assessment, counseling, current available tinnitus information, satisfaction and expectations, improving tinnitus management). For data within each survey, descriptive statistics and correlation analyses were used. For selected comparisons between surveys, cross-tabulations were used. Hierarchical regression modeling was conducted to further explore (1) the perceived effectiveness of treatment received, and (2) how each group defined treatment success. Differences were noted between the two groups' responses to the question on the definition of treatment success; audiologists reported decreased awareness (77%), stress/anxiety relief (63%), and increased knowledge of tinnitus (63%) most commonly

  10. Maternal and perinatal outcomes during expectant management of 239 severe preeclamptic women between 24 and 33 weeks' gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Bassam; Deis, Stéphanie; Goffinet, François; Paniel, Bernard J; Cabrol, Dominique; Siba, Baha M

    2004-06-01

    This study was undertaken to determine maternal and perinatal outcomes after expectant management of severe preeclampsia between 24 and 33 weeks' gestation. A prospective observational study of 239 women with severe preeclamptic and undelivered after antenatal steroid prophylaxis was performed. Pregnancy prolongation and maternal and perinatal morbidities were analyzed according to the gestational age at time of expectant management: 24 to 28, 29 to 31, and 32 to 33 weeks. Statistical analysis was performed by Student t test and chi(2) test. The days of pregnancy prolongation were significantly higher among those managed at less than 29 weeks (6) compared with the other groups (4). There were 13 perinatal deaths: 12 in those managed at less than 29 weeks and 1 in those managed at 29 to 31 weeks. Neonatal morbidities were significantly higher among those managed at less than 29 weeks compared with the other groups. There were no instances of maternal death or eclampsia. Maternal morbidities were similar among the groups. Expectant management of severe preeclampsia at 24 to 33 weeks in a tertiary care center is associated with good perinatal outcome with a minimal risk for the mother.

  11. Motivational mechanisms and outcome expectancies underlying the approach bias towards addictive substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poppy eWatson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Human behavior can be paradoxical, in that actions can be initiated that are seemingly incongruent with an individual’s explicit desires. This is most commonly observed in drug addiction, where maladaptive behavior (i.e. drug seeking appears to be compulsive, continuing at great personal cost. Approach biases towards addictive substances have been correlated with actual drug-use in a number of studies, suggesting that this measure can, in some cases, index everyday maladaptive tendencies. At present it is unclear whether this bias to drug cues is a Pavlovian conditioned approach response, a habitual response, the result of a Pavlovian-instrumental transfer process or a goal-directed action in the sense that expectancy of the rewarding effects of drugs controls approach. We consider this question by combining the theoretical framework of associative learning with the available evidence from approach bias research. Although research investigating the relative contributions of these mechanisms to the approach bias is to date relatively limited, we review existing studies and also outline avenues for future research.

  12. Motivational Mechanisms and Outcome Expectancies Underlying the Approach Bias toward Addictive Substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, P; de Wit, S; Hommel, Bernhard; Wiers, R W

    2012-01-01

    Human behavior can be paradoxical, in that actions can be initiated that are seemingly incongruent with an individual's explicit desires. This is most commonly observed in drug addiction, where maladaptive behavior (i.e., drug seeking) appears to be compulsive, continuing at great personal cost. Approach biases toward addictive substances have been correlated with actual drug-use in a number of studies, suggesting that this measure can, in some cases, index everyday maladaptive tendencies. At present it is unclear whether this bias to drug cues is a Pavlovian conditioned approach response, a habitual response, the result of a Pavlovian-instrumental transfer process, or a goal-directed action in the sense that expectancy of the rewarding effects of drugs controls approach. We consider this question by combining the theoretical framework of associative learning with the available evidence from approach bias research. Although research investigating the relative contributions of these mechanisms to the approach bias is to date relatively limited, we review existing studies and also outline avenues for future research.

  13. The Politics and Practice of Literacy Pedagogy: Ideology and Outcomes in Two Racially Diverse Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedson, Margaret; Eastman, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    Discussing ideologically opposing views of beginning reading, the authors trace the politics of reading curriculum in two racially diverse New Jersey school districts working to raise the literacy achievement of traditionally underserved students through socially just literacy education.

  14. Bridging the Gaps Between Students’ Prior Knowledge and Skills in Writing and the Expected Thesis Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restu Mufanti

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to seek the light on how the advisors made a use of feedback during supervisory panel and find out how different ways and types of feedback impacted on student-writers’ thesis outcomes. Qualitative study was applied by involving three tenured lecturers at College of Islamic Studies, in Java as the research subjects. Two data collection techniques were applied, such as interview and documentation, to trace evidence on what types of feedback used, how students noticed, and how they impacted on subsequent drafts. This study revealed that indirect feedback using error codes and commentary was the most frequent form used during the advisory session. However, the mere use of feedback could only serve a short-term impact on the development of writing, and even it seemed only to spoon-feed them which could create burdens in writing. It was quite evident that engaging them in such self-regulated and interdependence group works, through problem-solving discussion and peer review, was much worthier as compared to only ask them to process the feedback themselves.

  15. Sexual orientation differences in treatment expectation, alliance, and outcome among patients at risk for suicide in a public psychiatric hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plöderl, Martin; Kunrath, Sabine; Cramer, Robert J; Wang, Jen; Hauer, Larissa; Fartacek, Clemens

    2017-05-15

    Sexual minority (SM) individuals (gay, lesbian, bisexual, or otherwise nonheterosexual) are at increased risk for mental disorders and suicide and adequate mental healthcare may be life-saving. However, SM patients experience barriers in mental healthcare that have been attributed to the lack of SM-specific competencies and heterosexist attitudes and behaviors on the part of mental health professionals. Such barriers could have a negative impact on common treatment factors such as treatment expectancy or therapeutic alliance, culminating in poorer treatment outcomes for SM versus heterosexual patients. Actual empirical data from general psychiatric settings is lacking, however. Thus, comparing the treatment outcome of heterosexual and SM patients at risk for suicide was the primary aim of this study. The secondary aim was to compare treatment expectation and working alliance as two common factors. We report on 633 patients from a suicide prevention inpatient department within a public psychiatric hospital. Most patients were at risk for suicide due to a recent suicide attempt or warning signs for suicide, usually in the context of a severe psychiatric disorder. At least one indicator of SM status was reported by 21% of patients. We assessed the treatment outcome by calculating the quantitative change in suicide ideation, hopelessness, and depression. We also ran related treatment responder analyses. Treatment expectation and working alliance were the assessed common factors. Contrary to the primary hypothesis, SM and heterosexual patients were comparable in their improvement in suicide ideation, hopelessness, or depression, both quantitatively and in treatment responder analysis. Contrary to the secondary hypothesis, there were no significant sexual orientation differences in treatment expectation and working alliance. When adjusting for sociodemographics, diagnosis, and length of stay, some sexual orientation differences became significant, indicating that SM

  16. New perspectives on patient expectations of treatment outcomes: results from qualitative interviews with patients seeking complementary and alternative medicine treatments for chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Clarissa; Sherman, Karen J; Eaves, Emery R; Turner, Judith A; Cherkin, Daniel C; Cromp, DeAnn; Schafer, Lisa; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl

    2014-07-30

    Positive patient expectations are often believed to be associated with greater benefits from complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments. However, clinical studies of CAM treatments for chronic pain have not consistently supported this assumption, possibly because of differences in definitions and measures of expectations. The goal of this qualitative paper is to provide new perspectives on the outcome expectations of patients prior to receiving CAM therapies for chronic low back pain. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 64 individuals receiving massage, chiropractic, acupuncture or yoga for chronic low back pain. Interviews were recorded and transcribed. Transcripts were analyzed by a team of experienced qualitative researchers using an immersion/crystallization approach to coding and analysis. Overall, participants' expectations of treatment outcomes tended to cluster in four key domains: pain relief, improved function (including an increase in ability to engage in meaningful activities), improved physical fitness, and improved overall well-being (including mental well-being). Typically, patients had modest expectations for outcomes from treatment. Furthermore, outcome expectations were complex on several levels. First, the concept of expectations overlapped with several related concepts; in particular, hopes. Participants sometimes used expectations and hopes interchangeably and at other times made clear distinctions between these two terms depending on context. A related finding was that participants were cautious about stating that they expected positive outcomes. Finally, participants articulated strong interrelationships among the four key domains and often discussed how changes in one domain might affect other domains. Overall, these findings contribute to a growing body of literature exploring the role of expectations in patient outcomes. This paper provides important guidance that may help refine the way treatment expectations are

  17. Examining the relationships between posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, positive smoking outcome expectancies, and cigarette smoking in people with substance use disorders: a multiple mediator model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruska, Bryce; Bernier, Jennifer; Kenner, Frank; Kenne, Deric R; Boros, Alec P; Richardson, Christopher J; Delahanty, Douglas L

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is highly prevalent in people with substance use disorders (SUDs) and is associated with significant physical health problems. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is also highly associated with both SUDs and cigarette smoking and may serve as a barrier to smoking cessation efforts. In addition, people with PTSD are more likely to hold positive smoking outcome expectancies (i.e., beliefs that smoking cigarettes results in positive outcomes); these beliefs may contribute to cigarette smoking in people with SUDs experiencing PTSD symptoms. The present study examined the relationship between PTSD symptoms and typical daily cigarette smoking/cigarette dependence symptoms in a sample of 227 trauma-exposed current smokers with SUDs (59.9% male, 89.4% Caucasian) seeking detoxification treatment services. Additionally, the indirect effects of multiple types of positive smoking outcome expectancies on these relationships were examined. Participants completed questionnaires assessing PTSD symptoms, positive smoking outcome expectancies, cigarette consumption, and cigarette dependence symptoms. Results indicated that PTSD symptoms were not directly related to cigarette consumption or cigarette dependence symptoms. However, negative affect reduction outcome expectancies were shown to have a significant indirect effect between PTSD symptoms and cigarette consumption, while negative affect reduction, boredom reduction, and taste-sensorimotor manipulation outcome expectancies were all found to have significant indirect effects between PTSD symptoms and cigarette dependence symptoms. The indirect effect involving negative affect reduction outcome expectancies was statistically larger than that of taste sensorimotor manipulation outcome expectancies, while negative affect reduction and boredom reduction outcome expectancies were comparable in magnitude. These results suggest that expectancies that smoking can manage negative affective experiences are related to

  18. Expect the best, prepare for the worst: surgeon and patient expectation of the outcome of primary total hip and knee replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, M.; Khan, A.; Sochart, D. H.; Andrew, G.

    2003-01-01

    A cross-sectional study of 100 surgeons and 370 patients awaiting primary total hip or knee replacement was carried out. Oxford hip or knee score questionnaires were sent to the surgeons and patients. They were asked to predict the level of symptoms expected 6 months following surgery. The Oxford scores derive a value of 12-60, with a greater score indicating worsening symptoms. The mean pre-operative score was 45.12 for the hip patients and 42.96 for the knee patients, and the patients expected this to drop to 23.70 and 25.66, respectively, 6 months' postoperatively. This was a significant difference for both groups. The surgeons expected the patients to have a mean postoperative score of 20.91 for the hip group and 22.19 for the knee group. The surgeons' scores were significantly lower than those from the patients. There was a significant difference between the patients' and surgeons' expectations of the results of total knee and hip replacement surgery. The surgeons expected better results than the patients. We believe that this is the first study that directly compares surgeon and patient expectations of lower limb arthroplasty. PMID:12831497

  19. Impacts of Professional Development in Integrated STEM Education on Teacher Self-Efficacy, Outcome Expectancy, and Stem Career Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, J. Geoff

    This research analyzed the effects of teacher professional development and lesson implementation in integrated Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) on: 1.) Teacher self-efficacy and their confidence to teach specific STEM subjects; 2.) Teaching outcome expectancy beliefs concerning the impact of actions by teachers on student learning; and 3.) Teacher awareness of STEM careers. High school science and technology education teachers participating in the Teachers and Researchers Advancing Integrated Lessons in STEM (TRAILS) project experimental group attended a ten-day summer professional development institute designed to educate teachers in using an integrated STEM education model to implement integrated STEM lessons. The research design utilized a quasi-experimental nonequivalent comparison group design that incorporated an experimental group and an untreated comparison group with both pretest, posttest, and delayed posttest assessments on non-randomized participants. Teacher self-efficacy has been identified as a key factor in effective teaching and student learning, and teacher awareness of STEM careers impacts students as they consider career choices. The T-STEM Survey for teachers was given for the pretest and posttest assessments to measure attitudes and beliefs toward the specific constructs of this study. Significant effects of the TRAILS professional development were found in the teacher group (experimental or comparison) and teacher subject (technology or science) in pretest and posttest scores using cumulative link models for the constructs of teacher self-efficacy and beliefs to teach STEM subjects, teacher outcome expectancy beliefs, and teacher awareness of STEM careers. Effect sizes ranged from small to large varying by construct and assessment time. Highly significant p-values and effect sizes revealed impacts on science teachers were greater when teacher subject groups were analyzed separately.

  20. Understanding the local socio-political processes affecting conservation management outcomes in Corbett Tiger Reserve, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Archi; Hickey, Gordon M; Badola, Ruchi; Hussain, Syed Ainul

    2014-05-01

    Several measures have been recommended to guarantee a sustainable population of tigers: sufficient inviolate spaces for a viable population, sufficient prey populations, trained and skilled manpower to guard against poaching and intrusion, banning trade in tiger products to reduce poaching, and importantly, the political will to precipitate these recommendations into implementation. Of these, the creation of sufficient inviolate spaces (generally in the form of protected areas) has created the most issues with local resource-dependent communities, often resulting in significant challenges for tiger conservation policy and management. Very little empirical research has, however, been done to understand and contextualize the local-level socio-political interactions that may influence the efficacy of tiger conservation in India. In this paper, we present the results of exploratory research into the ways in which local-stakeholder groups affect the management of Corbett Tiger Reserve (CTR). Using a combined grounded theory-case study research design, and the Institutional Analysis and Development framework for analysis, we identify the socio-political processes through which local-stakeholder groups are able to articulate their issues and elicit desirable actions from the management of CTR. Increasing our awareness of these processes can help inform the design and implementation of more effective tiger conservation management and policy strategies that have the potential to create more supportive coalitions of tiger conservation stakeholders at the local level.

  1. Understanding the Local Socio-political Processes Affecting Conservation Management Outcomes in Corbett Tiger Reserve, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Archi; Hickey, Gordon M.; Badola, Ruchi; Hussain, Syed Ainul

    2014-05-01

    Several measures have been recommended to guarantee a sustainable population of tigers: sufficient inviolate spaces for a viable population, sufficient prey populations, trained and skilled manpower to guard against poaching and intrusion, banning trade in tiger products to reduce poaching, and importantly, the political will to precipitate these recommendations into implementation. Of these, the creation of sufficient inviolate spaces (generally in the form of protected areas) has created the most issues with local resource-dependent communities, often resulting in significant challenges for tiger conservation policy and management. Very little empirical research has, however, been done to understand and contextualize the local-level socio-political interactions that may influence the efficacy of tiger conservation in India. In this paper, we present the results of exploratory research into the ways in which local-stakeholder groups affect the management of Corbett Tiger Reserve (CTR). Using a combined grounded theory-case study research design, and the Institutional Analysis and Development framework for analysis, we identify the socio-political processes through which local-stakeholder groups are able to articulate their issues and elicit desirable actions from the management of CTR. Increasing our awareness of these processes can help inform the design and implementation of more effective tiger conservation management and policy strategies that have the potential to create more supportive coalitions of tiger conservation stakeholders at the local level.

  2. Nutrition knowledge, outcome expectations, self-efficacy, and eating behaviors by calcium intake level in Korean female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Ju; Kim, Kyung Won

    2015-10-01

    Calcium is important but deficient in diets of young adult women. This study aimed to examine if cognitive factors and eating behaviors differ according to calcium intake based on the Social Cognitive Theory. Subjects were female college students in Seoul, Korea. Three hundred students completed the questionnaire regarding calcium intake, nutrition knowledge, outcome expectations, self-efficacy and eating behaviors. Data on 240 students were analyzed using t-test or χ(2)-test. Subjects were categorized into two groups, high calcium intake (HC, ≥ 650 mg/day) and low calcium intake (LC, benefits of consuming calcium-rich foods, including 'taste' (P eating dairy foods for snacks' (P eating dairy foods every day' (P eating calcium-rich side dishes at meals' (P Eating behaviors including more frequent consumption of dairy foods, fruits or fruit juice (P foods (P foods, and eating behaviors are important in explaining calcium intake. Nutrition education needs to address practical benefits, reduce negative expectations of calcium-rich foods, increase self-efficacy, and modify eating behaviors contributing to calcium intake.

  3. Obstetric and perinatal outcome in induction of labor compared with expectant management for prelabor rupture of the membranes at term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaqoob, U.; Mushtaq, R.; Mushtaq, M.

    2015-01-01

    To compare the management outcome of induction of labor with expectant management in patients with term pre labor rupture of membranes (PROM). Study Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted in the department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology; Combined Military Hospital Rawalpindi from 25th July 2010 to 25th January 2011. Methods: A total of 384 patients were selected for this study, which were divided into two groups by lottery method. Patients in group A were induced with tablet prostaglandin E2 and group B patients were managed expectantly for 24 hours. The outcome of mothers and neonates was recorded on a pre-designed proforma. Results: The mean duration between PROM to onset of active labor in group A was significantly less (8.4 ± 2.3 hours) as compared to group B in which it was (9.6±2.1 hours) (p = 0.000). The mean duration between PROM to delivery in group A was significantly less in group A (17.4 ± 2.0) versus group B (22.2 ± 2.0 hours) (p = 0.000). The spontaneous vaginal delivery (SVD) rate was considerably higher (p=0.056) in group A in which 161 (83.8%) patients delivered by SVD and 31 (16.1%) patients by LSCS. In group B, 146 (76.0%) patients delivered by SVD and 46 (23.9%) patients by LSCS. In group A, 8 (4.1%) patients developed chorioamnionitis and 13 (6.7%) patients in group B (p = 0.262). In group A there were 178 (92.7%) neonates with APGAR score of > 5 at 1 minute in contrast to 173 (90.1%) in group B with (p = 0.363). Similarly in group A at 5 minutes, there were 178 (92.7%) neonates with APGAR score of > 7 and 173 (90.1%) in group B (p = 0.460). There were 9 (4.6%) cases of neonatal sepsis in group A, in comparison with 12 (6.2%) patients in group B (p = 0.501). Conclusion: The mean duration of labor in induced patients was less as compared to patients with expectant management. (author)

  4. Midtrimester preterm prelabour rupture of membranes (PPROM): expectant management or amnioinfusion for improving perinatal outcomes (PPROMEXIL – III trial)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Babies born after midtrimester preterm prelabour rupture of membranes (PPROM) are at risk to develop neonatal pulmonary hypoplasia. Perinatal mortality and morbidity after this complication is high. Oligohydramnios in the midtrimester following PPROM is considered to cause a delay in lung development. Repeated transabdominal amnioinfusion with the objective to alleviate oligohydramnios might prevent this complication and might improve neonatal outcome. Methods/Design Women with PPROM and persisting oligohydramnios between 16 and 24 weeks gestational age will be asked to participate in a multi-centre randomised controlled trial. Intervention: random allocation to (repeated) abdominal amnioinfusion (intervention) or expectant management (control). The primary outcome is perinatal mortality. Secondary outcomes are lethal pulmonary hypoplasia, non-lethal pulmonary hypoplasia, survival till discharge from NICU, neonatal mortality, chronic lung disease (CLD), number of days ventilatory support, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), periventricular leucomalacia (PVL) more than grade I, severe intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) more than grade II, proven neonatal sepsis, gestational age at delivery, time to delivery, indication for delivery, successful amnioinfusion, placental abruption, cord prolapse, chorioamnionitis, fetal trauma due to puncture. The study will be evaluated according to intention to treat. To show a decrease in perinatal mortality from 70% to 35%, we need to randomise two groups of 28 women (two sided test, β-error 0.2 and α-error 0.05). Discussion This study will answer the question if (repeated) abdominal amnioinfusion after midtrimester PPROM with associated oligohydramnios improves perinatal survival and prevents pulmonary hypoplasia and other neonatal morbidities. Moreover, it will assess the risks associated with this procedure. Trial registration NTR3492 Dutch Trial Register (http://www.trialregister.nl). PMID:24708702

  5. Midtrimester preterm prelabour rupture of membranes (PPROM): expectant management or amnioinfusion for improving perinatal outcomes (PPROMEXIL - III trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Teeffelen, Augustinus S P; van der Ham, David P; Willekes, Christine; Al Nasiry, Salwan; Nijhuis, Jan G; van Kuijk, Sander; Schuyt, Ewoud; Mulder, Twan L M; Franssen, Maureen T M; Oepkes, Dick; Jansen, Fenna A R; Woiski, Mallory D; Bekker, Mireille N; Bax, Caroline J; Porath, Martina M; de Laat, Monique W M; Mol, Ben W; Pajkrt, Eva

    2014-04-04

    Babies born after midtrimester preterm prelabour rupture of membranes (PPROM) are at risk to develop neonatal pulmonary hypoplasia. Perinatal mortality and morbidity after this complication is high. Oligohydramnios in the midtrimester following PPROM is considered to cause a delay in lung development. Repeated transabdominal amnioinfusion with the objective to alleviate oligohydramnios might prevent this complication and might improve neonatal outcome. Women with PPROM and persisting oligohydramnios between 16 and 24 weeks gestational age will be asked to participate in a multi-centre randomised controlled trial. random allocation to (repeated) abdominal amnioinfusion (intervention) or expectant management (control). The primary outcome is perinatal mortality. Secondary outcomes are lethal pulmonary hypoplasia, non-lethal pulmonary hypoplasia, survival till discharge from NICU, neonatal mortality, chronic lung disease (CLD), number of days ventilatory support, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), periventricular leucomalacia (PVL) more than grade I, severe intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) more than grade II, proven neonatal sepsis, gestational age at delivery, time to delivery, indication for delivery, successful amnioinfusion, placental abruption, cord prolapse, chorioamnionitis, fetal trauma due to puncture. The study will be evaluated according to intention to treat. To show a decrease in perinatal mortality from 70% to 35%, we need to randomise two groups of 28 women (two sided test, β-error 0.2 and α-error 0.05). This study will answer the question if (repeated) abdominal amnioinfusion after midtrimester PPROM with associated oligohydramnios improves perinatal survival and prevents pulmonary hypoplasia and other neonatal morbidities. Moreover, it will assess the risks associated with this procedure. NTR3492 Dutch Trial Register (http://www.trialregister.nl).

  6. The role of positive/negative outcome expectancy and refusal self-efficacy of Internet use on Internet addiction among college students in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Min-Pei; Ko, Huei-Chen; Wu, Jo Yung-Wei

    2008-08-01

    Based on Bandura's social cognitive theory, this study was designed to examine positive and negative outcome expectancy and refusal self-efficacy of Internet use and their contribution to Internet addiction among college students by using hierarchical multiple regression analyses in a cross-sectional study design. Schools were first stratified into technical or nontechnical colleges and then into seven majors. A cluster random sampling by department was further applied to randomly choose participants from each major. A representative sample of 4,456 college students participated in this study. The Outcome Expectancy and Refusal Self-Efficacy of Internet Use Questionnaire and the Chen Internet Addiction Scale were used to assess the cognitive factors and the levels of Internet addiction. Results showed that both positive outcome expectancy and negative outcome expectancy were significantly and positively correlated with Internet addiction, and refusal self-efficacy of Internet use was significantly and negatively related to Internet addiction. Further analyses revealed that refusal self-efficacy of Internet use directly and negatively predicted Internet addiction. Moreover, we discovered that positive outcome expectancy positively predicted Internet addiction via refusal self-efficacy of Internet use; however, surprisingly, negative outcome expectancy had both a direct and indirect positive relationship in predicting Internet addiction via the refusal self-efficacy of Internet use. These results give empirical evidence to verify the theoretical effectiveness of the three cognitive factors to Internet addiction and should be incorporated when designing prevention programs and strategies for Internet addicted college students.

  7. Association of Academic Performance with Outcome Expectations and Its Domains in Nursing and Midwifery Students at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Bakhtiari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Outcome expectation is considered as a basic and significant variable in education. It is a cognitive-motivational component that takes the individual into account as an active and sensible decision-maker. The present study was conducted to investigate the correlation of outcome expectations with academic performance of students of nursing and midwifery in Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, the sample size included 218 nursing and midwifery students selected through convenient random sampling method. The instrument for data collection was the questionnaire of “outcome expectations of career decision-making and discovery targets”, which comprised of 13 questions in three domains of future orientation, job satisfaction and personal expectations. The questionnaires were coded after being completed and the obtained data were fed into SPSS-16 software and analyzed by descriptive statistics, t-test, Kolmogrov-Smirnov, ANOVA and Mann-Whitney tests. Results: The findings indicated no statistically significant difference between place of living (dormitory or home and outcome expectations along with its domains (39.4% and 60-6%. However, a significant correlation was reported between discipline, gender, admittance year and academic performance of the students (p0.05. Conclusion: The findings of this study indicated a positively positive significant relationship between students’ academic performance and outcome expectations along with its domains.

  8. Religion, Poverty, and Politics: Their Impact on Women's Reproductive Health Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Richard; Wissner, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to explore the relationship(s) between U.S. states of selected social determinants of health (SDH) and three women's reproductive health outcomes including abortion, teen births, and infant mortality rates (IMR). The data from multiple population surveys were used to establish on a state-by-state basis, the interactions between selected SDH (religion, voting patterns, child poverty, and GINI) and their policy effects on three women's reproductive health outcomes (abortion, teen births, and IMRs) using publicly available national databases. Child poverty rates and the GINI coefficient were analyzed. Religiosity information was obtained from the Pew Forum's surveys. Voting results were collected from the 2008 congressional and presidential races and were used as proxy measures for conservative- versus liberal-leaning policies and policy makers. Using multiple regression analysis, higher IMRs were associated with higher religiosity scores. Lower abortion rates were associated with voting conservatively and higher income inequality. Higher teen birth rates were associated with higher child poverty rates and voting conservatively. This study shows that selected SDH may have substantial impacts on women's reproductive health outcomes at the state level. Significant inequalities exist between liberal and conservative states that affect women's health outcomes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Electoral reform and public policy outcomes in Thailand: the politics of the 30-Baht health scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selway, Joel Sawat

    2011-01-01

    How do changes in electoral rules affect the nature of public policy outcomes? The current evidence supporting institutional theories that answer this question stems almost entirely from quantitative cross-country studies, the data of which contain very little within-unit variation. Indeed, while there are many country-level accounts of how changes in electoral rules affect such phenomena as the number of parties or voter turnout, there are few studies of how electoral reform affects public policy outcomes. This article contributes to this latter endeavor by providing a detailed analysis of electoral reform and the public policy process in Thailand through an examination of the 1997 electoral reforms. Specifically, the author examines four aspects of policy-making: policy formulation, policy platforms, policy content, and policy outcomes. The article finds that candidates in the pre-1997 era campaigned on broad, generic platforms; parties had no independent means of technical policy expertise; the government targeted health resources to narrow geographic areas; and health was underprovided in Thai society. Conversely, candidates in the post-1997 era relied more on a strong, detailed national health policy; parties created mechanisms to formulate health policy independently; the government allocated health resources broadly to the entire nation through the introduction of a universal health care system, and health outcomes improved. The author attributes these changes in the policy process to the 1997 electoral reform, which increased both constituency breadth (the proportion of the population to which politicians were accountable) and majoritarianism.

  10. The Politics of Hope and Despair: The Effect of Presidential Election Outcomes on Suicide Rates*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classen, Timothy J.; Dunn, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives This article examines the effect of election outcomes on suicide rates by combining the theory of social integration developed by Durkheim with the models of rational choice used in economics. Methods Theory predicts that states with a greater percentage of residents who supported the losing candidate would tend to exhibit a relative increase in suicide rates. However, being around others who also supported the losing candidate may indicate a greater degree of social integration at the local level, thereby lowering relative suicide rates. We therefore use fixed-effects regression of state suicide rates from 1981 to 2005 on state election outcomes during presidential elections to determine which effect is stronger. Results We find that the local effect of social integration is dominant. The suicide rate when a state supports the losing candidate will tend to be lower than if the state had supported the winning candidate—4.6 percent lower for males and 5.3 percent lower for females. Conclusion Social integration works at many levels; it not only affects suicide risk directly, but can mediate other shocks that influence suicide risk. PMID:20645463

  11. Expectativas de resultados frente ao uso de álcool, maconha e tabaco Outcome expectancy considering the use of alcohol, cannabis and tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemeri Siqueira Pedroso

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo teve como objetivo realizar uma revisão teórica acerca do construto expectativas de resultados frente ao uso de álcool, maconha e tabaco. As expectativas de resultados são determinadas a partir do que as pessoas acreditam acerca dos efeitos de determinada droga, sendo uma variável importante no tratamento de dependentes químicos. Foram realizadas buscas de artigos publicados nas bases de dados MEDLINE, PsycINFO, ProQuest, Ovid, LILACS e Cork, usando os descritores belief, expectancy, expectation, drugs, psychoactive e effect. Os resultados demonstraram que as expectativas de resultados frente ao uso dessas substâncias podem surgir de fontes como: exposição a estímulos condicionados, dependência física, crenças pessoais e culturais e fatores situacionais e ambientais. Conclui-se que ainda há necessidade de novas pesquisas quanto às expectativas relacionadas às diferentes substâncias psicoativas e faixas etárias para uma melhor compreensão deste construto.This article aims to perform a theoretical review about the outcome expectancy construct considering the use of alcohol, cannabis and tobacco. Outcome expectancy is determined by people's belief about the effects of a drug. It is an important variable for the treatment of chemically dependent patients. Searches in the electronic databases MEDLINE, PsycINFO, ProQuest, Ovid, LILACS and Cork were carried out, using the following descriptors: belief, expectancy, expectation, drugs, psychoactive, and effect. Results showed that outcome expectancy considering the use of those substances can be generated from: exposure to conditioning stimuli, physical dependence, personal and cultural beliefs, and situational and environmental factors. In conclusion, there is the need of new researches on expectancies related to psychoactive substances and age groups in order to have a better understanding of this construct.

  12. Contribution of Personality to Self-Efficacy and Outcome Expectations in Selecting a High School Major among Adolescents with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Dikla; Cinamon, Rachel Gali

    2016-01-01

    The current study focuses on the contribution of five personality traits to the development of self-efficacy and outcome expectations regarding selecting a high school major among adolescents with learning disabilities (LD). Social cognitive career theory and the Big Five personality traits model served as the theoretical framework. Participants…

  13. Reliability and Validity of the Self-Efficacy for Exercise in Epilepsy and the Outcome Expectations for Exercise in Epilepsy Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustin, Irene; Resnick, Barbara; Galik, Elizabeth; Klinedinst, N Jennifer; Michael, Kathleen; Wiggs, Edythe

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the psychometric properties of the revised Self-Efficacy for Exercise With Epilepsy (SEE-E) and Outcome Expectations for Exercise with Epilepsy (OEE-E) when used with people with epilepsy. The SEE-E and OEE-E were given in face-to-face interviews to 26 persons with epilepsy in an epilepsy clinic. There was some evidence of validity based on Rasch analysis INFIT and OUTFIT statistics. There was some evidence of reliability for the SEE-E and OEE-E based on person and item separation reliability indexes. These measures can be used to identify persons with epilepsy who have low self-efficacy and outcome expectations for exercise and guide design of interventions to strengthen these expectations and thereby improve exercise behavior.

  14. Comparison of expected treatment outcomes, obtained using risk models and international guidelines, with observed treatment outcomes in a Dutch cohort of patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer treated with intravesical chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, Rianne J M; Palou, Joan; Witjes, Wim P J; Janzing-Pastors, Maria H D; Caris, Christien T M; Witjes, J Alfred

    2014-08-01

    To compare the risks according to the American Urological Association (AUA), EAU, European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) and Club Urológico Español de Tratamiento Oncologico (CUETO) classifications with real outcomes in a cohort of patients in the Netherlands, and to confirm that patients who were undertreated according to these risk models have worse outcomes than adequately treated patients. Patients treated with complete transurethral resection of bladder tumour and intravesical chemotherapy were included. Not all patients would have received intravesical chemotherapy had they been treated to current standards, and thus comparison of the observed outcomes in our Dutch cohort vs expected outcomes based on the EORTC risk tables and CUETO scoring model was possible. The cohort was reclassified according to the definitions of five index patients (IPs), as defined by the AUA guidelines, and three risk groups, defined according to the EAU guidelines, to compare the outcomes of undertreated patients with those of adequately treated patients. A total of 1001 patients were available for comparison with the AUA definitions and 728 patients were available for comparison with the EORTC and CUETO models. There was a large overlap between the observed outcomes and expected recurrence and progression probabilities when comparison was made using the EORTC risk tables. The observed recurrence outcomes were in general higher than the expected probabilities according to the CUETO risk classification, especially in the long term. No differences in progression were found when comparing these two models to the Dutch cohort. Patients who were undertreated according to the guidelines showed, in general, a higher risk of developing recurrence and progression. Limitations are i.a. its retrospective nature and the differences in grading system. Comparisons between the observed outcomes in our Dutch cohort and the expected outcomes based on EAU and CUETO risk

  15. Environmental justice, impact assessment and the politics of knowledge: The implications of assessing the social distribution of environmental outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    Claims of environmental injustice have increasingly become part of environmental conflicts, both explicitly through the work of environmental justice campaigning groups and implicitly through the arguments deployed about the rights and wrongs of a given situation. Such claims can centre on different notions of justice, including those concerned with questions of distribution and procedure. This paper focuses on distributional or outcome justice and explores what implications follow when the distributional concerns of environmental justice are included in the practice of impact assessment processes, including through social impact assessment (SIA). The current use of impact assessment methods in the UK is reviewed showing that although practices are evolving there is a little routine assessment of distributional inequalities. It is argued that whilst this should become part of established practice to ensure that inequalities are revealed and matters of justice are given a higher profile, the implications for conflict within decision making processes are not straightforward. On the one hand, there could be scope for conflict to be ameliorated by analysis of inequalities informing the debate between stakeholders, and facilitating the implementation of mitigation and compensation measures for disadvantaged groups. On the other hand, contestation over how evidence is produced and therefore what it shows, and disagreement as to the basis on which justice and injustice are to be determined, means that conflict may also be generated and sustained within what are essentially political and strategic settings.

  16. A prospective study of the association of patient expectations with changes in health-related quality of life outcomes, following total joint replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Saenz de Tejada, Marta; Escobar, Antonio; Bilbao, Amaia; Herrera-Espiñeira, Carmen; García-Perez, Lidia; Aizpuru, Felipe; Sarasqueta, Cristina

    2014-07-23

    Patient expectations regarding surgery may be related to outcomes in total joint replacement (TJR). The aim of this study was to determine the association of patient expectations with health related quality of life (HRQoL) outcomes measured by Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) and Short Form 12 (SF-12) and satisfaction with current symptoms measured on a 4-point Likert scale, one year after surgery, adjusting for Body Mass Index (BMI), age, gender, joint, education, previous intervention and baseline scores. Consecutive patients preparing for TJR of the knee or hip due to primary osteoarthritis (OA) in 15 hospitals in Spain were recruited for the study. Patients completed questionnaires before surgery and 12 months afterwards: five questions about expectations before surgery; an item to measure satisfaction; two HRQoL instruments-WOMAC and SF-12; as well as questions about sociodemographic information. To determine the association of patient expectations at baseline, with changes in HRQoL 12 months after surgery and with satisfaction, general linear models and logistic regression analysis were performed. A total of 892 patients took part in the study. Patients who had higher pain relief or ability to walk expectations improved more in HRQoL at 12 months. Moreover, patients with high daily activity expectations were more satisfied. Patients with higher baseline expectations for TJR, improved more in HRQoL at one year and had more likelihood to be satisfied than patients with lower expectations, adjusted for BMI, age, gender, joint, education, previous intervention and HRQoL baseline scores.

  17. Diagnostic terminology is not associated with contact-sport players' expectations of outcome from mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmed, Shannon L; Sullivan, Karen A

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the influence of the diagnostic terms 'concussion' and 'mild traumatic brain injury' (mTBI) on contact-sport players' injury perceptions and expected symptoms from a sport-related mTBI. It was hypothesized that contact-sport players would hold more negative injury perceptions and expect greater symptom disturbance from a sport-related injury that was diagnosed as an 'mTBI' compared to 'concussion' or an undiagnosed injury. One hundred and twenty-two contact-sport players were randomly allocated to one of three conditions in which they read a sport-related mTBI vignette that varied only according to whether the person depicted in the vignette was diagnosed with concussion (n = 40), mTBI (n = 41) or received no diagnosis (control condition; n = 41). After reading the vignette, participants rated their injury perceptions (perceived undesirability, chronicity and consequences) and expectations of post-concussion syndrome (PCS) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms 6 months post-injury. There were no significant differences in contact-sport players' injury perceptions or symptom expectations from a sport-related mTBI when it was diagnosed as an mTBI, concussion or when no diagnosis was given. Diagnostic terminology does not appear to have a potent influence on symptom expectation and injury perceptions in contact-sport players.

  18. The Context Matters: Outcome Probability and Expectation Mismatch Modulate the Feedback Negativity When Self-Evaluation of Response Correctness Is Possible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leue, Anja; Cano Rodilla, Carmen; Beauducel, André

    2015-01-01

    Individuals typically evaluate whether their performance and the obtained feedback match. Previous research has shown that feedback negativity (FN) depends on outcome probability and feedback valence. It is, however, less clear to what extent previous effects of outcome probability on FN depend on self-evaluations of response correctness. Therefore, we investigated the effects of outcome probability on FN amplitude in a simple go/no-go task that allowed for the self-evaluation of response correctness. We also investigated effects of performance incompatibility and feedback valence. In a sample of N = 22 participants, outcome probability was manipulated by means of precues, feedback valence by means of monetary feedback, and performance incompatibility by means of feedback that induced a match versus mismatch with individuals' performance. We found that the 100% outcome probability condition induced a more negative FN following no-loss than the 50% outcome probability condition. The FN following loss was more negative in the 50% compared to the 100% outcome probability condition. Performance-incompatible loss resulted in a more negative FN than performance-compatible loss. Our results indicate that the self-evaluation of the correctness of responses should be taken into account when the effects of outcome probability and expectation mismatch on FN are investigated.

  19. Changes in Preservice Elementary Teachers' Personal Science Teaching Efficacy and Science Teaching Outcome Expectancies: The Influence of Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechter, Richard P.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated contextual changes in perceptions of science teaching self-efficacy through pre-, post- and retrospective administrations of the Science Teaching Expectancy Belief Instrument (STEBI-B) among preservice elementary teachers when exposed to a science teaching methods course. Findings revealed that the number of postsecondary…

  20. The Predictive Role of Self-efficacy, Outcome Expectancies, Past Behavior and Attitudes on Condom Use in a Sample of Female College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Artistico

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the impact of self-efficacy in relation to condom use. A sample of 87 female college students completed self-report measures related to their sexual history, attitudes towards condoms and past condom use, as well as their outcome expectancy and intention to use condoms in the future. The results showed a positive correlation between self-efficacy and positive attitudes towards condom use, as well as correlations between past behavior, self-efficacy and intention to use condoms in the future. Multiple linear regression models were used to further explore the relationship between self-efficacy, past condom use, outcome expectancy and attitudes toward condoms, with the intention to use condoms in the future. The results demonstrated that both self-efficacy and past condom use are significant predictors of an individual’s intention to use condoms in the future.

  1. Tuning-AHELO Conceptual Framework of Expected and Desired Learning Outcomes in Economics. OECD Education Working Papers No. 59

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Secretariat, at the invitation of the AHELO Group of National Experts, contracted the Tuning Association to undertake initial development work on learning outcomes to be used for valid and reliable assessments of students from diverse institutions and countries. The two disciplines…

  2. Should schools expect poor physical and mental health, social adjustment, and participation outcomes in students with disability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Sharmila; Cordier, Reinie; Falkmer, Marita; Ciccarelli, Marina; Parsons, Richard; McAuliffe, Tomomi; Falkmer, Torbjorn

    2015-01-01

    The literature on whether students with disabilities have worse physical and mental health, social adjustment, and participation outcomes when compared to their peers without disabilities is largely inconclusive. While the majority of case control studies showed significantly worse outcomes for students with disabilities; the proportion of variance accounted for is rarely reported. The current study used a population cross-sectional approach to determine the classification ability of commonly used screening and outcome measures in determining the disability status. Furthermore, the study aimed to identify the variables, if any, that best predicted the presence of disability. Results of univariate discriminant function analyses suggest that across the board, the sensitivity of the outcome/screening tools to correctly identify students with a disability was 31.9% higher than the related Positive Predictive Value (PPV). The lower PPV and Positive Likelihood Ratio (LR+) scores suggest that the included measures had limited discriminant ability (17.6% to 40.3%) in accurately identifying students at-risk for further assessment. Results of multivariate analyses suggested that poor health and hyperactivity increased the odds of having a disability about two to three times, while poor close perceived friendship and academic competences predicted disability with roughly the same magnitude. Overall, the findings of the current study highlight the need for researchers and clinicians to familiarize themselves with the psychometric properties of measures, and be cautious in matching the function of the measures with their research and clinical needs.

  3. Community expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer, L.

    2004-01-01

    Historically, the relationship between the nuclear generator and the local community has been one of stability and co-operation. However in more recent times (2000-2003) the nuclear landscape has had several major issues that directly effect the local nuclear host communities. - The associations mandate is to be supportive of the nuclear industry through ongoing dialogue, mutual cooperation and education, - To strengthen community representation with the nuclear industry and politically through networking with other nuclear host communities. As a result of these issues, the Mayors of a number of communities started having informal meetings to discuss the issues at hand and how they effect their constituents. These meetings led to the official formation of the CANHC with representation from: In Canada it is almost impossible to discuss decommissioning and dismantling of Nuclear Facilities without also discussing Nuclear Waste disposal for reasons that I will soon make clear. Also I would like to briefly touch on how and why expectation of communities may differ by geography and circumstance. (author)

  4. Treatment credibility, expectancy, and preference: Prediction of treatment engagement and outcome in a randomized clinical trial of hatha yoga vs. health education as adjunct treatments for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uebelacker, Lisa A; Weinstock, Lauren M; Battle, Cynthia L; Abrantes, Ana M; Miller, Ivan W

    2018-06-02

    Hatha yoga may be helpful for alleviating depression symptoms. The purpose of this analysis is to determine whether treatment program preference, credibility, or expectancy predict engagement in depression interventions (yoga or a control class) or depression symptom severity over time. This is a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of hatha yoga vs. a health education control group for treatment of depression. Depressed participants (n = 122) attended up to 20 classes over a period of 10 weeks, and then completed additional assessments after 3 and 6 months. We assessed treatment preference prior to randomization, and treatment credibility and expectancy after participants attended their first class. Treatment "concordance" indicated that treatment preference matched assigned treatment. Treatment credibility, expectancy, and concordance were not associated with treatment engagement. Treatment expectancy moderated the association between treatment group and depression. Depression severity over time differed by expectancy level for the yoga group but not for the health education group. Controlling for baseline depression, participants in the yoga group with an average or high expectancy for improvement showed lower depression symptoms across the acute intervention and follow-up period than those with a low expectancy for improvement. There was a trend for a similar pattern for credibility. Concordance was not associated with treatment outcome. This is a secondary, post-hoc analysis and should be considered hypothesis-generating. Results suggest that expectancy improves the likelihood of success only for a intervention thought to actively target depression (yoga) and not a control intervention. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Spinal cord anomalies in patients with anorectal malformations without severe sacral abnormalities or meningomyelocele: outcomes after expectant, conservative management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrklund, Kristiina; Pakarinen, Mikko P; Taskinen, Seppo; Kivisaari, Reetta; Rintala, Risto J

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE The goal of this study was to determine the significance of spinal cord anomalies (SCAs) in patients with anorectal malformations (ARMs) by comparing the outcomes for bowel function, lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), and lower-limb neurological abnormalities to these outcomes in patients with similar ARMs and a normal spinal cord. METHODS The spinal cord MRI records of female patients treated for vestibular and perineal fistula (VF/PF) and male patients with rectourethral fistula (RUF) at a single center between 1983 and 2006 were reviewed. Bowel function and LUTS were assessed by questionnaire. Patients with extensive sacral anomalies or meningomyelocele were excluded. RESULTS Of 89 patients (median age 15 years, range 5-29 years), MRI was available in 90% (n = 80; 40 male patients with RUF), and 80% of patients returned the questionnaire (n = 64; 31 male patients with RUF). Spinal cord anomalies were found in 34%, comprising a filum terminale lipoma in 30%, low conus medullaris in 10%, and thoracolumbar syrinx in 6%. Bowel functional outcomes between patients with SCAs (n = 23) and those with a normal spinal cord (n = 41) were not significantly different for soiling (70% vs 63%), fecal accidents (43% vs 34%), and constipation (57% vs 39%; p = not significant for all). The LUTS, including urge (65% vs 54%), urge incontinence (39% vs 24%), stress incontinence (17% vs 22%), and straining (32% vs 29%) were also comparable between groups (p = not significant for all). No patients developed lower-limb neurological abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS The results suggest that the long-term functional outcomes for patients with SCAs who had VF/PF and RUF may not differ significantly from patients with the same type of ARMs and a normal spinal cord. The results favor a conservative approach to their management in the absence of abnormal neurological findings in the lower limbs.

  6. Parents' self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and self-reported task performance when managing atopic dermatitis in children: instrument reliability and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Amy E; Fraser, Jennifer A

    2011-02-01

    Support and education for parents faced with managing a child with atopic dermatitis is crucial to the success of current treatments. Interventions aiming to improve parent management of this condition are promising. Unfortunately, evaluation is hampered by lack of precise research tools to measure change. To develop a suite of valid and reliable research instruments to appraise parents' self-efficacy for performing atopic dermatitis management tasks; outcome expectations of performing management tasks; and self-reported task performance in a community sample of parents of children with atopic dermatitis. The Parents' Eczema Management Scale (PEMS) and the Parents' Outcome Expectations of Eczema Management Scale (POEEMS) were developed from an existing self-efficacy scale, the Parental Self-Efficacy with Eczema Care Index (PASECI). Each scale was presented in a single self-administered questionnaire, to measure self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and self-reported task performance related to managing child atopic dermatitis. Each was tested with a community sample of parents of children with atopic dermatitis, and psychometric evaluation of the scales' reliability and validity was conducted. A community-based convenience sample of 120 parents of children with atopic dermatitis completed the self-administered questionnaire. Participants were recruited through schools across Australia. Satisfactory internal consistency and test-retest reliability was demonstrated for all three scales. Construct validity was satisfactory, with positive relationships between self-efficacy for managing atopic dermatitis and general perceived self-efficacy; self-efficacy for managing atopic dermatitis and self-reported task performance; and self-efficacy for managing atopic dermatitis and outcome expectations. Factor analyses revealed two-factor structures for PEMS and PASECI alike, with both scales containing factors related to performing routine management tasks, and managing the

  7. The influence of a patient-counseling course on the communication apprehension, outcome expectations, and self-efficacy of first-year pharmacy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Erica R; King, Sean R

    2012-10-12

    To evaluate first-year doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students' communication apprehension, outcome expectations, and self-efficacy for communication over the duration of a 15-week patient-counseling course. First-year PharmD students (n=94) were asked to complete a 47-item, self-administered questionnaire on 3 occasions over the duration of the Nonprescription Drugs/Patient-Counseling course during the fall 2009 and 2010 semesters. Eighty-seven of 94 students completed the survey instrument across data collection periods. There were significant reductions in total communication apprehension scores and in the communication apprehension subscores for meetings and public speaking, and significant increases in self-efficacy over time. No differences were found for outcome expectations of communication scores or the subscores for interpersonal conversations and group discussion. Communication apprehension may be decreased and self-efficacy for communication increased in first-year PharmD students through a 15-week Nonprescription Drugs/Patient-Counseling course using small-group practice sessions, case studies, and role-play exercises in conjunction with classroom lectures.

  8. Rejection as a call to arms: inter-racial hostility and support for political action as outcomes of race-based rejection in majority and minority groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Fiona Kate; Sibley, Chris G; Hornsey, Matthew J

    2012-03-01

    Both majority and minority group members fear race-based rejection, and respond by disparaging the groups that they expect will reject them. It is not clear, however, how this process differs in minority and majority groups. Using large representative samples of White (N= 4,618) and Māori (N= 1,163) New Zealanders, we found that perceptions of race-based rejection predicted outgroup negativity in both groups, but in different ways and for different reasons. For White (but not Māori) New Zealanders, increased intergroup anxiety partially mediated the relationship between cognitions of rejection and outgroup negativity. Māori who expected to be rejected on the basis of their race reported increased ethnic identification and, in part through this, increased support for political action benefiting their own group. This finding supports collective-action models of social change in historically disadvantaged minority groups. © 2011 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Variation in the SLC23A1 gene does not influence cardiometabolic outcomes to the extent expected given its association with l-ascorbic acid1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Kaitlin H; Forouhi, Nita G; Cook, Derek G; Johnson, Paul; McConnachie, Alex; Morris, Richard W; Rodriguez, Santiago; Ye, Zheng; Ebrahim, Shah; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Watt, Graham; Bruckdorfer, K Richard; Wareham, Nick J; Whincup, Peter H; Chanock, Stephen; Sattar, Naveed; Lawlor, Debbie A; Davey Smith, George; Timpson, Nicholas J

    2015-01-01

    Background: Observational studies showed that circulating l-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is inversely associated with cardiometabolic traits. However, these studies were susceptible to confounding and reverse causation. Objectives: We assessed the relation between l-ascorbic acid and 10 cardiometabolic traits by using a single nucleotide polymorphism in the solute carrier family 23 member 1 (SLC23A1) gene (rs33972313) associated with circulating l-ascorbic acid concentrations. The observed association between rs33972313 and cardiometabolic outcomes was compared with that expected given the rs33972313-l-ascorbic acid and l-ascorbic acid–outcome associations. Design: A meta-analysis was performed in the following 5 independent studies: the British Women's Heart and Health Study (n = 1833), the MIDSPAN study (n = 1138), the Ten Towns study (n = 1324), the British Regional Heart Study (n = 2521), and the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (n = 3737). Results: With the use of a meta-analysis of observational estimates, inverse associations were shown between l-ascorbic acid and systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, and the waist-hip ratio [the strongest of which was the waist-hip ratio (−0.13-SD change; 95% CI: −0.20-, −0.07-SD change; P = 0.0001) per SD increase in l-ascorbic acid], and a positive association was shown with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. The variation at rs33972313 was associated with a 0.18-SD (95% CI: 0.10-, 0.25-SD; P = 3.34 × 10−6) increase in l-ascorbic acid per effect allele. There was no evidence of a relation between the variation at rs33972313 and any cardiometabolic outcome. Although observed estimates were not statistically different from expected associations between rs33972313 and cardiometabolic outcomes, estimates for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, and body mass index were in the opposite direction to those expected. Conclusions: The nature of the genetic

  10. Variation in the SLC23A1 gene does not influence cardiometabolic outcomes to the extent expected given its association with L-ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Kaitlin H; Forouhi, Nita G; Cook, Derek G; Johnson, Paul; McConnachie, Alex; Morris, Richard W; Rodriguez, Santiago; Ye, Zheng; Ebrahim, Shah; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Watt, Graham; Bruckdorfer, K Richard; Wareham, Nick J; Whincup, Peter H; Chanock, Stephen; Sattar, Naveed; Lawlor, Debbie A; Davey Smith, George; Timpson, Nicholas J

    2015-01-01

    Observational studies showed that circulating L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is inversely associated with cardiometabolic traits. However, these studies were susceptible to confounding and reverse causation. We assessed the relation between L-ascorbic acid and 10 cardiometabolic traits by using a single nucleotide polymorphism in the solute carrier family 23 member 1 (SLC23A1) gene (rs33972313) associated with circulating L-ascorbic acid concentrations. The observed association between rs33972313 and cardiometabolic outcomes was compared with that expected given the rs33972313-L-ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid-outcome associations. A meta-analysis was performed in the following 5 independent studies: the British Women's Heart and Health Study (n = 1833), the MIDSPAN study (n = 1138), the Ten Towns study (n = 1324), the British Regional Heart Study (n = 2521), and the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (n = 3737). With the use of a meta-analysis of observational estimates, inverse associations were shown between L-ascorbic acid and systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, and the waist-hip ratio [the strongest of which was the waist-hip ratio (-0.13-SD change; 95% CI: -0.20-, -0.07-SD change; P = 0.0001) per SD increase in L-ascorbic acid], and a positive association was shown with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. The variation at rs33972313 was associated with a 0.18-SD (95% CI: 0.10-, 0.25-SD; P = 3.34 × 10⁻⁶) increase in L-ascorbic acid per effect allele. There was no evidence of a relation between the variation at rs33972313 and any cardiometabolic outcome. Although observed estimates were not statistically different from expected associations between rs33972313 and cardiometabolic outcomes, estimates for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, and body mass index were in the opposite direction to those expected. The nature of the genetic association exploited in this study led to limited

  11. Maternal knowledge, outcome expectancies and normative beliefs as determinants of cessation of exclusive breastfeeding: a cross-sectional study in rural Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewa, Constance A; Chepkemboi, Joan

    2016-03-09

    Despite the importance of multiple psychosocial factors on nutrition-related behavior, very few studies have explored beyond the role of mothers' knowledge and perception of child-focused outcomes on the duration of exclusive breastfeeding in Africa. Our objective was to determine the relationships among mothers' knowledge, outcome expectancies, normative beliefs, and cessation of exclusive breastfeeding in rural Kenya. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 400 mothers of children, 0-24 months old, in rural Kenya. Early child-feeding practices, knowledge of breastfeeding recommendations, beliefs associated with impact of exclusive breastfeeding on child- and mother-focused outcomes and perception of acceptability of exclusive breastfeeding by important others were examined. Cox regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between independent variables of interest and cessation of exclusive breastfeeding. Being knowledgeable of breastfeeding-related recommendations, positive beliefs on the impact of exclusive breastfeeding on child- focused outcomes, having a more positive perception of the impact of exclusive breastfeeding on mother-focused outcomes and a more positive perception of acceptability of exclusive breastfeeding by important others were associated with significantly lower risks of premature cessation of exclusive breastfeeding. In addition to knowledge levels, mothers' beliefs play an important role in mothers' decisions to practice exclusive breastfeeding. Mother's beliefs on the impact of exclusive breastfeeding on the mother's health, physical appearance and ability to engage in other activities were shown to have the strongest relationship with premature cessation of exclusive breastfeeding. Addressing these beliefs has the potential to contribute to more effective exclusive breastfeeding promotion efforts in rural Kenya.

  12. Maternal knowledge, outcome expectancies and normative beliefs as determinants of cessation of exclusive breastfeeding: a cross-sectional study in rural Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constance A. Gewa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the importance of multiple psychosocial factors on nutrition-related behavior, very few studies have explored beyond the role of mothers’ knowledge and perception of child-focused outcomes on the duration of exclusive breastfeeding in Africa. Our objective was to determine the relationships among mothers’ knowledge, outcome expectancies, normative beliefs, and cessation of exclusive breastfeeding in rural Kenya. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 400 mothers of children, 0-24 months old, in rural Kenya. Early child-feeding practices, knowledge of breastfeeding recommendations, beliefs associated with impact of exclusive breastfeeding on child- and mother-focused outcomes and perception of acceptability of exclusive breastfeeding by important others were examined. Cox regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between independent variables of interest and cessation of exclusive breastfeeding. Results Being knowledgeable of breastfeeding-related recommendations, positive beliefs on the impact of exclusive breastfeeding on child- focused outcomes, having a more positive perception of the impact of exclusive breastfeeding on mother-focused outcomes and a more positive perception of acceptability of exclusive breastfeeding by important others were associated with significantly lower risks of premature cessation of exclusive breastfeeding. Conclusion In addition to knowledge levels, mothers’ beliefs play an important role in mothers’ decisions to practice exclusive breastfeeding. Mother’s beliefs on the impact of exclusive breastfeeding on the mother’s health, physical appearance and ability to engage in other activities were shown to have the strongest relationship with premature cessation of exclusive breastfeeding. Addressing these beliefs has the potential to contribute to more effective exclusive breastfeeding promotion efforts in rural Kenya.

  13. The Political Consequences of Resource Dependence - How Natural Gas Export Can Affect Policy Outcomes: A Quantitative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øistein Breiland Harsem

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available With the use of a liberal/rational framework as a baseline, this article examines whether economic asymmetric interdependence can yield political influence. More specifically, it examines exogenous gas supply to the EU and develops a theory that provides testable hypotheses aiming to answer whether the export of gas provides political advantages for the sender state. The outlined hypotheses, and more, are tested in a cross sectional time series dataset, where votes in the United Nations (UN Assembly are used as the dependent variable, as a measurement for the policy preferences of states. The empirical findings support the prediction made in the theory section. Gas dependence has a conditional effect on policy behaviour. The sender government has to be a sizeable international power, whilst the recipient government should have low military capabilities and be dependent on foreign support.

  14. General and disease-specific pain trajectories as predictors of social and political outcomes in arthritis and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Richard J E; Walsh, David A; Ferguson, Eamonn

    2018-04-09

    While the heterogeniety of pain progression has been studied in chronic diseases, the extent to which patterns of pain progression among people in general as well as across different diseases affect social, civic and political engagement is unclear. We explore these issues for the first time. Using data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, latent class growth models were used to estimate trajectories of self-reported pain in the entire cohort, and within subsamples reporting diagnoses of arthritis and cancer. These were compared at baseline on physical health (e.g. body mass index, smoking) and over time on social, civic and political engagement. Very similar four-trajectory models fit the whole sample and arthritis subsamples, whereas a three-trajectory model fit the cancer subsample. All samples had a modal group experiencing minimal chronic pain and a group with high chronic pain that showed slight regression (more pronounced in cancer). Biometric indices were more predictive of the most painful trajectory in arthritis than cancer. In both samples the group experiencing the most pain at baseline reported impairments in social, civic and political engagement. The impact of pain differs between individuals and between diseases. Indicators of physical and psychological health differently predicted membership of the trajectories most affected by pain. These trajectories were associated with differences in engagement with social and civic life, which in turn were associated with poorer health and well-being.

  15. Expectancy Theory Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    accomplish the task, (2) the instrumentality of task performance for job outcomes, and (3) the instrumentality of outcomes for need satisfaction . We...in this discussion: effort, performance , outcomes, and needs. In order to present briefly the conventional approach to the Vroom models, another...Presumably, this is the final event in the sequence of effort, performance , outcome, and need satisfaction . The actual research reported in expectancy

  16. Outcomes of Expectant Management in HIV-Infected Pregnancy with Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes at Less Than 34-Week Gestation: A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalat Sompagdee, M.D.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present outcomes of expectant management (EM in HIV-infected pregnancy with preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM at less than 34-week gestation. Case presentation: During January 2008-December 2015, there were 513 HIV-infected pregnant women giving birth at Siriraj Hospital, Thailand. Ten of them presented with PPROM at GA <34 weeks and six women received EM. The deliveries took place at GA 28 2/7 - 33 5/7 weeks. The longest interval of ROM was 15 days and the highest on-admission viral load was 633,000 copies/mL. Three of them had antepartum highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART for at least four weeks prior to the delivery. Mode of delivery included 3 vaginal deliveries and 3 caesarean sections. All infants’ HIV molecular tests were negative at birth. The longest follow-up interval was 12 months and HIV vertical transmission remained negative. Conclusion: Expectant management in HIV-infected women with PPROM at GA <34 weeks may be sensible because complications of prematurity outweigh the risk of vertical HIV transmission.

  17. Continent of pessimism or continent of realism? A multilevel study into the impact of macro-economic outcomes and political institutions on societal pessimism, European Union 2006-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenvoorden, Eefje H; van der Meer, Tom Wg

    2017-06-01

    The often-posed claim that Europe is a pessimistic continent is not unjustified. In 2012, 53 percent of European Union (EU) citizens were pessimistic about their country. Surprisingly, however, societal pessimism has received very little scientific attention. In this article, we examine to what extent political and economic factors drive societal pessimism. In terms of political factors, we expect that supranationalization, political instability, and corruption increase societal pessimism, as they diminish national political power and can inspire collective powerlessness. Economically, we expect that the retrenchment of welfare state provisions and economic decline drive societal pessimism, as these developments contribute to socioeconomic vulnerability. We assess the impact of these political and economic factors on the level of societal pessimism in the EU, both cross-nationally and over time, through multilevel analyses of Eurobarometer data (13 waves between 2006 and 2012 in 23 EU countries). Our findings show that the political factors (changes in government, corruption) primarily explain cross-national differences in societal pessimism, while the macro-economic context (economic growth, unemployment) primarily explains longitudinal trends within countries. These findings demonstrate that, to a large extent, societal pessimism cannot be viewed separately from its political and economic context.

  18. Comparing Political Journalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comparing Political Journalism is a systematic, in-depth study of the factors that shape and influence political news coverage today. Using techniques drawn from the growing field of comparative political communication, an international group of contributors analyse political news content drawn...... Comparing Political Journalism offers an unparalleled scope in assessing the implications for the ongoing transformation of Western media systems, and addresses core concepts of central importance to students and scholars of political communication world-wide....... from newspapers, television news, and news websites from 16 countries, to assess what kinds of media systems are most conducive to producing quality journalism. Underpinned by key conceptual themes, such as the role that the media are expected to play in democracies and quality of coverage...

  19. Reassessment of Allied Health Professionals' Level of Self-Efficacy in, Outcome Expectancy in, and Use of Evidence-Based Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Shelley A; Hills, Andrew P; Street, Steven J; Hinchliffe, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) is fundamental to improving patient outcomes. Factors affecting EBP capabilities are linked with institutional culture and barriers, personal self-belief, and individual ability. To effect change in capabilities, interventions must target barriers and be informed by behaviour change theory. This study measured the effect of training and organisational change on EBP measures amongst allied health professionals. All allied health staff (n=196) employed across the Mater Health Services (Brisbane, Queensland) were invited to complete a survey assessing EBP self-efficacy, outcome expectancy and use, as well as EBP training undertaken. Data were compared with those of surveys from 2010 and 2011. Response rate was 70.9% (n=139/196); 32 staff completed all surveys. Significant improvements were observed in staff undertaking training (EBP, p=0.008; research design and analysis, p=0.003) since the first survey. The significant increase in EBP self-efficacy that occurred from T1 to T2 remained at T3 (p=0.008). Fewer between-department differences were observed over time. This study identified sustained EBP self-efficacy improvements in this cohort and found that between-department differences have virtually disappeared. Ongoing interventions are required to sustain and improve staff's belief in their ability to deliver EBP.

  20. Chinese students' great expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Stig

    2013-01-01

    The article focuses on Chinese students' hopes and expectations before leaving to study abroad. The national political environment for their decision to go abroad is shaped by an official narrative of China's transition to a more creative and innovative economy. Students draw on this narrative to...... system, they think of themselves as having a role in the transformation of Chinese attitudes to education and parent-child relations....

  1. The Qualitative Expectations Hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydman, Roman; Johansen, Søren; Rahbek, Anders

    2017-01-01

    We introduce the Qualitative Expectations Hypothesis (QEH) as a new approach to modeling macroeconomic and financial outcomes. Building on John Muth's seminal insight underpinning the Rational Expectations Hypothesis (REH), QEH represents the market's forecasts to be consistent with the predictions...... of an economistís model. However, by assuming that outcomes lie within stochastic intervals, QEH, unlike REH, recognizes the ambiguity faced by an economist and market participants alike. Moreover, QEH leaves the model open to ambiguity by not specifying a mechanism determining specific values that outcomes take...

  2. The Qualitative Expectations Hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydman, Roman; Johansen, Søren; Rahbek, Anders

    We introduce the Qualitative Expectations Hypothesis (QEH) as a new approach to modeling macroeconomic and financial outcomes. Building on John Muth's seminal insight underpinning the Rational Expectations Hypothesis (REH), QEH represents the market's forecasts to be consistent with the predictions...... of an economist's model. However, by assuming that outcomes lie within stochastic intervals, QEH, unlike REH, recognizes the ambiguity faced by an economist and market participants alike. Moreover, QEH leaves the model open to ambiguity by not specifying a mechanism determining specific values that outcomes take...

  3. The association of parent's outcome expectations for child TV viewing with parenting practices and child TV viewing: an examination using path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lauren; Chen, Tzu-An; Hughes, Sheryl O; O'Connor, Teresia M

    2015-05-28

    Television (TV) viewing has been associated with many undesirable outcomes for children, such as increased risk of obesity, but TV viewing can also have benefits. Although restrictive parenting practices are effective in reducing children's TV viewing, not all parents use them and it is currently unclear why. The current study examined parenting practices related to TV viewing in the context of social- cognitive theory. Specifically, we hypothesized that positive and negative Parental Outcome Expectations for child's TV Viewing (POETV) would be associated with social co-viewing and restrictive parenting practices, and that POETV and parenting practices influence the amount of TV viewed by child. Data were collected from an internet survey of 287 multi-ethnic parents and their 6-12 year old children on participants' sociodemographic information, parenting practices related to TV use, POETV, and parent and child TV viewing. Path analysis was used to examine the relationship amongst variables in separate models for weekday and weekend TV viewing. controlling for child age, household education, and parental TV viewing. The results provided partial support for the hypotheses, with notable differences between weekday and weekend viewing. The models explained 13.6% and 23.4% of the variance in children's TV viewing on weekdays and weekends respectively. Neither positive nor negative POETV were associated with restrictive TV parenting in either model. One subscale each from positive and negative POETV were associated with social co-viewing parenting on both weekends and weekdays in the expected direction. Restrictive parenting practices were directly negatively associated with children's TV viewing on weekdays, but not weekends. Social co-viewing parenting was directly positively associated with children's TV viewing on weekends, but not weekdays. The strongest influence on children's TV viewing was having a TV in the child's bedroom. Negative POETV was weakly associated

  4. Evolutionary Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nash, Ulrik William

    2014-01-01

    , they are correlated among people who share environments because these individuals satisfice within their cognitive bounds by using cues in order of validity, as opposed to using cues arbitrarily. Any difference in expectations thereby arise from differences in cognitive ability, because two individuals with identical...... cognitive bounds will perceive business opportunities identically. In addition, because cues provide information about latent causal structures of the environment, changes in causality must be accompanied by changes in cognitive representations if adaptation is to be maintained. The concept of evolutionary......The concept of evolutionary expectations descends from cue learning psychology, synthesizing ideas on rational expectations with ideas on bounded rationality, to provide support for these ideas simultaneously. Evolutionary expectations are rational, but within cognitive bounds. Moreover...

  5. Unequal Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    the role of causal inference in social science; and it discusses the potential of the findings of the dissertation to inform educational policy. In Chapters II and III, constituting the substantive contribution of the dissertation, I examine the process through which students form expectations...... of the relation between the self and educational prospects; evaluations that are socially bounded in that students take their family's social position into consideration when forming their educational expectations. One important consequence of this learning process is that equally talented students tend to make...... for their educational futures. Focusing on the causes rather than the consequences of educational expectations, I argue that students shape their expectations in response to the signals about their academic performance they receive from institutionalized performance indicators in schools. Chapter II considers...

  6. The Czech National Action Plan on Combating Terrorism: Political and Legal Point of Outcome in Responding to CBRNE-Terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matousek, J.

    2007-01-01

    After the events of September 2001 starting new era in the global terrorism, pursuant to the UN Security Council Resolutions 1368, 1373, and 1377 (2001), new security threats were identified and needs to fight against international terrorism were stressed. In the Czech Republic, a complex approach and broad institutional co-operation including inputs of scientific research (including authors involvement) to analyse endangered critical infrastructures and respective countermeasures had led to strengthening national measures in implementing respective international agreements dealing with WMD non-proliferation under deepening the co-operation within EU and NATO. The concrete complex programme of harmonised effort of all state organs in combating international terrorism resulted in the Czech National Action Plan on Combating Terrorism (2002). This (yearly updated) binding political document (issued by the Czech Government) identifies threats to all sectors of society and contains agreed harmonised active measures to be undertaken by involved organisations and institutions in all aspects of prevention, repression, protection, rescue and recovery for cases of terrorist attacks. The contents and respective measures are presented and discussed in detail with special emphasis on the aspects of CBRNE terrorism and role of Integrated Rescue System.(author)

  7. The influence of self-efficacy and outcome expectations on the relationship between perceived environment and physical activity in the workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plotnikoff Ronald C

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent research and commentary contends that ecological approaches may be particularly useful for understanding and promoting physical activity participation in various settings including the workplace. Yet within the physical activity domain there is a lack of understanding of how ecological environment factors influence behaviour. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between perceived environment, social-cognitive variables, and physical activity behaviour. Methods Participants (N = 897 were employees from three large worksites who completed self-report inventories containing measures of self-efficacy, outcome expectations, perceptions of the workplace environment (PWES, and physical activity behaviour during both leisure-time and incorporated throughout the workday. Results Results of both bivariate and multiple regression analyses indicated the global PWES scores had a limited association with leisure-time physical activity (R2adj =.01. Sequential regression analyses supported a weak association between physical activity incorporated in the workplace and PWES (R2adj = .04 and the partial mediation of self-efficacy on the relationship between PWES and workplace physical activity (variance accounted for reduced to R2adj = .02 when self-efficacy was controlled. Conclusion Overall, the results of the present investigation indicate that self-efficacy acted as a partial mediator of the relationship between perceived environment and workplace physical activity participation. Implications of the findings for physical activity promotion using ecological-based approaches, and future directions for research from this perspective in worksite settings are discussed.

  8. The American School in the Political Socialization Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehman, Lee H.

    1980-01-01

    Studies on the effects of schooling on the political socialization of American youth are reviewed. School-level and classroom-level attributes are related to four political socialization outcomes: political knowledge; political attitudes and values; attitudes toward political participation; and participation in political or quasi-political…

  9. Great Expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickens, Charles

    2005-01-01

    One of Dickens's most renowned and enjoyable novels, Great Expectations tells the story of Pip, an orphan boy who wishes to transcend his humble origins and finds himself unexpectedly given the opportunity to live a life of wealth and respectability. Over the course of the tale, in which Pip

  10. Political innovations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva

    2017-01-01

    are mainly interested in assessing and promoting innovations in public service delivery, but have paid little or no attention to the need for innovations in polity, politics and policy. This article develops a research agenda for studying innovations in political institutions, in the political process...... and in policy outputs. It proposes a number of research themes related to political innovations that call for scholarly attention, and identifies push and pull factors influencing the likelihood that these themes will be addressed in future research....

  11. Experiments expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Gorini, B; Meschi, E

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the expectations and the constraints of the experiments relatively to the commissioning procedure and the running conditions for the 2015 data taking period. The views about the various beam parameters for the p-p period, like beam energy, maximum pileup, bunch spacing and luminosity limitation in IP2 and IP8, are discussed. The goals and the constraints of the 2015 physics program are also presented, including the heavy ions period as well as the special...

  12. Moral politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapp, Carolin; Traunmüller, Richard; Freitag, Markus

    2014-01-01

    This article combines the research strands of moral politics and political behavior by focusing on the effect of individual and contextual religiosity on individual vote decisions in popular initiatives and public referenda concerning morally charged issues. We rely on a total of 13 surveys with 1...... American research on moral politics, direct democracies, and the public role of religion....

  13. Office Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Paula; Kelly, Robert; deVries, Susann

    2008-01-01

    People and organizations are inherently political. Library workplace environments have zones of tension and dynamics just like any corporation, often leading to the formation of political camps. These different cliques influence productivity and work-related issues and, at worst, give meetings the feel of the Camp David negotiations. Politics are…

  14. Political Ideology, Trust, and Cooperation: In-group Favoritism among Republicans and Democrats during a US National Election.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balliet, Daniel; Tybur, Joshua M; Wu, Junhui; Antonellis, Christian; Van Lange, Paul A M

    2018-04-01

    Theories suggest that political ideology relates to cooperation, with conservatives being more likely to pursue selfish outcomes, and liberals more likely to pursue egalitarian outcomes. In study 1, we examine how political ideology and political party affiliation (Republican vs. Democrat) predict cooperation with a partner who self-identifies as Republican or Democrat in two samples before ( n = 362) and after ( n = 366) the 2012 US presidential election. Liberals show slightly more concern for their partners' outcomes compared to conservatives (study 1), and in study 2 this relation is supported by a meta-analysis ( r = .15). However, in study 1, political ideology did not relate to cooperation in general. Both Republicans and Democrats extend more cooperation to their in-group relative to the out-group, and this is explained by expectations of cooperation from in-group versus out-group members. We discuss the relation between political ideology and cooperation within and between groups.

  15. Space, politics, and the political

    OpenAIRE

    dikec , mustafa

    1987-01-01

    International audience; Introduction Geography and politics'', Gottmann wrote in 1980, ``have long been in search of each other'' (page 11). Debates in the literature suggest not only that they have found each other, but also that the encounter has instigated, notably in the last decade or so, a body of literature seeking to think space politically, and to think politics spatially. This is not to suggest that previous work on space was apolitical, nor to suggest that previous work on politics...

  16. Performing Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy R. E. Paddock

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Walter Benjamin’s observation that fascism turns politics into aesthetics is, by now, a well-worn idea. This article argues that Benjamin’s critique of politics can apply just as much to the modern democratic politics of the United States. Borrowing from Benjamin, Jürgen Habermas, and Carl Schmitt, this article suggests that modern political discourse in the United States does not follow the classical liberal ideal of rational discourse in the marketplace of ideas within the public sphere. Instead, contemporary politics has become spectacle where images and slogans replace thought and debate in a 24/7 news cycle and political infotainment programs. The result is that progressives and conservatives have their own political “ecospheres” which enable them to have their own perspective reinforced, and debate is replaced by straw man arguments and personal attacks.

  17. Political Consciousness but Not Political Engagement: Results from a Service-Learning Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harker, Dave

    2016-01-01

    How does participation in a service-learning program impact the way students think about politics and political engagement? There are reasons to expect that service-learning can contribute to the development of a political consciousness and the skills necessary for political participation. The author uses participant observation, in-depth…

  18. Caesarean section rates and adverse neonatal outcomes after induction of labour versus expectant management in women with an unripe cervix : a secondary analysis of the HYPITAT and DIGITAT trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernardes, T. P.; Broekhuijsen, K.; Koopmans, C. M.; Boers, K. E.; van Wyk, L.; Tajik, P.; van Pampus, M. G.; Scherjon, S. A.; Mol, B. W.; Franssen, M. T.; Berg, van den P. P.; Groen, Henk

    Objective To evaluate caesarean section and adverse neonatal outcome rates after induction of labour or expectant management in women with an unripe cervix at or near term. Design Secondary analysis of data from two randomised clinical trials. Setting Data were collected in two nationwide Dutch

  19. [Political psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.

  20. Expectation versus Reality: The Impact of Utility on Emotional Outcomes after Returning Individualized Genetic Research Results in Pediatric Rare Disease Research, a Qualitative Interview Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacioppo, Cara N; Chandler, Ariel E; Towne, Meghan C; Beggs, Alan H; Holm, Ingrid A

    2016-01-01

    Much information on parental perspectives on the return of individual research results (IRR) in pediatric genomic research is based on hypothetical rather than actual IRR. Our aim was to understand how the expected utility to parents who received IRR on their child from a genetic research study compared to the actual utility of the IRR received. We conducted individual telephone interviews with parents who received IRR on their child through participation in the Manton Center for Orphan Disease Research Gene Discovery Core (GDC) at Boston Children's Hospital (BCH). Five themes emerged around the utility that parents expected and actually received from IRR: predictability, management, family planning, finding answers, and helping science and/or families. Parents expressing negative or mixed emotions after IRR return were those who did not receive the utility they expected from the IRR. Conversely, parents who expressed positive emotions were those who received as much or greater utility than expected. Discrepancies between expected and actual utility of IRR affect the experiences of parents and families enrolled in genetic research studies. An informed consent process that fosters realistic expectations between researchers and participants may help to minimize any negative impact on parents and families.

  1. Political Campaigns

    OpenAIRE

    Lilleker, Darren

    2017-01-01

    Political campaigns are orchestrated attempts by political organizations to garner public support through persuasive communication in order to influence public policy in their favor. This broad definition encapsulates all forms of campaigns from those of neighborhood organizations seeking to influence local politicians to the campaigns of political parties and candidates who seek election to office in order to shape policy themselves. In pluralist democracies, campaigns are crucial for repres...

  2. Political CSR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Søren; Morsing, Mette

    We engage a discussion of political CSR in SMEs in an African context. Based on critical observations on Western MNC CSR action in emerging economies that holds counterproductive implications for social development, political economists have argued that business profit far more than society...... development in local African communities. Our findings extend political CSR research by directing attention to how the corporate influence in developing economies does not only emerge from MNCs but is also established and retained by SMEs CSR work....

  3. Performance monitoring in the anterior cingulate is not all error related: expectancy deviation and the representation of action-outcome associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Flavio T P; McDonald, John J; Goodman, David

    2007-12-01

    Several converging lines of evidence suggest that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is selectively involved in error detection or evaluation of poor performance. Here we challenge this notion by presenting event-related potential (ERP) evidence that the feedback-elicited error-related negativity, an ERP component attributed to the ACC, can be elicited by positive feedback when a person is expecting negative feedback and vice versa. These results suggest that performance monitoring in the ACC is not limited to error processing. We propose that the ACC acts as part of a more general performance-monitoring system that is activated by violations in expectancy. Further, we propose that the common observation of increased ACC activity elicited by negative events could be explained by an overoptimistic bias in generating expectations of performance. These results could shed light into neurobehavioral disorders, such as depression and mania, associated with alterations in performance monitoring and also in judgments of self-related events.

  4. Capital flight and political risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, R; Hermes, N; Murinde, [No Value

    This paper provides the first serious attempt to examine the relationship between political risk and capital flight for a large set of developing countries. The outcomes of the analysis show that in most cases political risk variables do have a statistically robust relationship to capital flight

  5. Political psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Susanna; Johnson, Kate M; Beall, Erica; Meindl, Peter; Smith, Benjamin; Graham, Jesse

    2014-07-01

    Political psychology is a dynamic field of research that offers a unique blend of approaches and methods in the social and cognitive sciences. Political psychologists explore the interactions between macrolevel political structures and microlevel factors such as decision-making processes, motivations, and perceptions. In this article, we provide a broad overview of the field, beginning with a brief history of political psychology research and a summary of the primary methodological approaches in the field. We then give a more detailed account of research on ideology and social justice, two topics experiencing a resurgence of interest in current political psychology. Finally, we cover research on political persuasion and voting behavior. By summarizing these major areas of political psychology research, we hope to highlight the wide variety of theoretical and methodological approaches of cognitive scientists working at the intersection of psychology and political science. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:373-385. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1293 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. 'Grounded' Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Garbi

    2012-01-01

    play within one particular neighbourhood: Nørrebro in the Danish capital, Copenhagen. The article introduces the concept of grounded politics to analyse how groups of Muslim immigrants in Nørrebro use the space, relationships and history of the neighbourhood for identity political statements....... The article further describes how national political debates over the Muslim presence in Denmark affect identity political manifestations within Nørrebro. By using Duncan Bell’s concept of mythscape (Bell, 2003), the article shows how some political actors idealize Nørrebro’s past to contest the present...... ethnic and religious diversity of the neighbourhood and, further, to frame what they see as the deterioration of genuine Danish identity....

  7. The transition from medical student to doctor: perceptions of final year students and preregistration house officers related to expected learning outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempp, H; Seabrook, M; Cochrane, M; Rees, J

    2005-03-01

    In this prospective qualitative study over 12 months, we evaluated the educational and clinical effectiveness of a new final year undergraduate programme in a London medical school (Guy's, King's and St Thomas'). A stratified sample of 17/360 final year students were interviewed four times, and the content was assessed against 32 amalgamated learning outcomes identified in 1997 in The New Doctor. At the beginning of the preregistration year, eight of the learning outcomes were already met, 10 partly, eight remained to be attained and for six, insufficient evidence existed. Preregistration house officers who have been through the final year student house officer programme expressed competence in many of the outcomes of the General Medical Council's New Doctor. The study identified areas such as prescribing where further developments are needed and will help in planning the new foundation programme.

  8. Political News and Political Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schertges, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with mass media in modern democratic societies, using the example of Israeli news reports in German television (TV) news. Central to this interest are processes of mediating politics: political socialisation and education; that is to say, empowering citizens via TV news to participate in democratic processes. The article…

  9. The Human Anatomy Teacher-Scholar: Meeting the Expectations of Educational Outcomes Research, Course Content Innovation, and Textbook Innovation for Educational Scholarship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckel, Christine Marie

    2009-01-01

    A human anatomy teacher-scholar is a scholar whose area of expertise includes content knowledge of the anatomical sciences (gross anatomy, histology, embryology, and/or neuroanatomy) and whose research interests and focus are centered in medical educational outcomes. The projects described in this dissertation represent endeavors I engaged in to…

  10. Expectancies and Self-Efficacy Mediate the Effects of Impulsivity on Marijuana Use Outcomes: An Application of the Acquired Preparedness Model

    OpenAIRE

    Hayaki, Jumi; Herman, Debra S.; Hagerty, Claire E.; de Dios, Marcel A.; Anderson, Bradley J.; Stein, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    This study tests the acquired preparedness model (APM) to explain associations among trait impulsivity, social learning principles, and marijuana use outcomes in a community sample of female marijuana users. The APM states that individuals with high-risk dispositions are more likely to acquire certain types of learning that, in turn, instigate problematic substance use behaviors. In this study, three domains of psychosocial learning were tested: positive and negative marijuana use expectancie...

  11. The association of parent?s outcome expectations for child TV viewing with parenting practices and child TV viewing: an examination using path analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Lauren; Chen, Tzu-An; Hughes, Sheryl O; O?Connor, Teresia M

    2015-01-01

    Background Television (TV) viewing has been associated with many undesirable outcomes for children, such as increased risk of obesity, but TV viewing can also have benefits. Although restrictive parenting practices are effective in reducing children?s TV viewing, not all parents use them and it is currently unclear why. The current study examined parenting practices related to TV viewing in the context of social- cognitive theory. Specifically, we hypothesized that positive and negative Paren...

  12. The Political Dynamics of Higher Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Luciana

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a framework informed by spatial models of politics to explain the dynamics of political competition in higher education policy and, in particular, the observed instability in the relationship between political variables and policy outcomes. To this end, I explore competing hypotheses for the relationship between government…

  13. Spiritual Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Rambeau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available According to Foucault, the uprising of the Iranian people in the seventies reveals how much the political force of Islam is due precisely to the fact that it is not principally located in the field of politics, but in that of ethics. Religion (Shiite Islam appears as the guarantee of real change in the very mode of existence. This spiritual politics is marginalized by Marxism, where it is understood as a discontinuity in relation to proper politics, given that the latter is necessarily linked to a strategic rationalization. By indicating, at this juncture of what is intolerable, the living source and the critical impulse of the Foucauldian ethics, this spiritual politics also leads to recognize in the concept of “subjectivation” a dimension that might escape the circle of freedom as determined by a total immanence to power. This conceptual possibility is highly present in the aporias of the Foucauldian concept of the “relation to oneself”, both as a first condition of governmentality and the ultimate point of resistance against any governmentality. It thus reveals the difficulties in relating political to ethical subjectivation.

  14. Reformas eleitorais na América Latina: grandes expectativas, poucos casos, resultados perversos Electoral reforms in Latin America: great expectations, few cases, perverse outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Marenco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este texto pretende realizar um balanço de reformas eleitorais nas regras para a escolha de cadeiras legislativas na América Latina a partir da terceira onda da democracia. Na primeira parte, é feita uma revisão dos estudos sobre sistemas eleitorais, considerando, em particular, os efeitos políticos provocados pelas regras de conversão de votos em mandatos eletivos e os fatores que contribuem para a realização de reformas eleitorais. Na segunda parte, são examinadas as reformas eleitorais promovidas na América Latina, buscando identificar fatores que tenham contribuído para sua realização. Na terceira seção, foram analisadas as consequências provocadas pelas mudanças nos sistemas eleitorais, especialmente aquelas relacionadas ao grau de competição partidária, volatilidade eleitoral e a desestruturação dos sistemas partidários após a implementação das reformas.This article seeks to compare electoral reforms aimed at changing the rules for the choice of legislative seats in Latin America, since the third wave of democracy. In the first section, it is presented a literature review on electoral systems studies, considering especially the political effects of the rules on how seats are distributed according to votes, and the factors that contribute to induce electoral reforms as well. In the second section, the electoral reforms promoted in Latin America are analyzed with the purpose of identifying the factors that contributed to produce such reforms. In the third section, the consequences of changes in the electoral systems are analyzed, focusing those associated to the degree of party competition and electoral volatility.

  15. Political symbols and political transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrero de Miñón, Miguel

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Politics, Law and Psychology are fields that come together in the symbolic. This text takes evidence from those three areas to develop an analysis of political symbols and political transitions. The development of the analysis goes through three stages. The first succinctly describes the concept of transition and its meaning. The second closely examines the notion of the symbol, in terms of its definition, to explain aspects that allow us to understand it, characterise it and make its functions clear. Finally, from the author's experience as a witness and as an actor, I suggest three ways of understanding symbols in the processes of political transition: as symbols of change, as symbols of acknowledgment, and as symbols of support.

  16. Pharmacological and Expectancy Effects of a Low Amount of Alcohol Drinking on Outcome Valuation and Risk Perception in Males and Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurugizawa, Tomokazu; Tokuda, Shinsuke; Harada, Tokiko; Takahashi, Taiki; Sadato, Norihiro

    2016-01-01

    The high-dose, alcohol-induced influences on risk perception and loss aversion depend on sex. On the other hand, low-dose alcohol has less effect on risky behavior. However, the effect of low-dose alcohol on subjective valuation of gain or loss and also the effect of placebo (expectancy of alcohol) on risk perception have not been fully investigated. We investigated the effects of low-dose alcohol (0.02 g/100 ml blood alcohol concentration) and placebo effects on subjective risk perception and subjective valuation of uncertain gain and loss in females and males. Participants in the control group and the placebo group were served alcohol-free, wine-flavored beverage and participants of alcohol group were served wine (14% alcohol). The placebo group was not informed that the drink was not alcohol but the control group was informed. Then paper–pencil tasks for subjective risk perception and valuation of gain or loss were performed 45 min after drinking the beverage. The participants were asked to draw the line on a 180 mm scale for each question. The placebo effects as well as the low-dose alcohol effects were observed in subjective valuations of gain or loss. Except for effect of beverages, a gender difference was also observed for subjective likelihood. The females estimated a low-probability loss as more likely and estimated a high-probability gain as less likely than did the males. From the Stevens’ law fitting analysis, the placebo, not alcohol, significantly induced the psychophysical effect of the subjective valuation of gain or loss. These results indicate that the psychological effects of expectancy of alcohol (placebo) could be a major factor in changing the subjective valuation of gain or loss over the pharmacological effects of a small amount of alcohol (like a glass of wine). Furthermore, these results also indicate that gender differences should be taken into account when investigating pharmacological or psychological effect on decision-making. PMID

  17. Education and Political Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massialas, Byron G.

    1977-01-01

    Considers how education is related to politics with the focus on political socialization, political recruitment, i.e., the selection and training of political elites, and political integration or nation building of groups of people. (Author/RK)

  18. Pharmacological and Expectancy Effects of a Low Amount of Alcohol Drinking on Outcome Valuation and Risk Perception in Males and Females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomokazu Tsurugizawa

    Full Text Available The high-dose, alcohol-induced influences on risk perception and loss aversion depend on sex. On the other hand, low-dose alcohol has less effect on risky behavior. However, the effect of low-dose alcohol on subjective valuation of gain or loss and also the effect of placebo (expectancy of alcohol on risk perception have not been fully investigated. We investigated the effects of low-dose alcohol (0.02 g/100 ml blood alcohol concentration and placebo effects on subjective risk perception and subjective valuation of uncertain gain and loss in females and males. Participants in the control group and the placebo group were served alcohol-free, wine-flavored beverage and participants of alcohol group were served wine (14% alcohol. The placebo group was not informed that the drink was not alcohol but the control group was informed. Then paper-pencil tasks for subjective risk perception and valuation of gain or loss were performed 45 min after drinking the beverage. The participants were asked to draw the line on a 180 mm scale for each question. The placebo effects as well as the low-dose alcohol effects were observed in subjective valuations of gain or loss. Except for effect of beverages, a gender difference was also observed for subjective likelihood. The females estimated a low-probability loss as more likely and estimated a high-probability gain as less likely than did the males. From the Stevens' law fitting analysis, the placebo, not alcohol, significantly induced the psychophysical effect of the subjective valuation of gain or loss. These results indicate that the psychological effects of expectancy of alcohol (placebo could be a major factor in changing the subjective valuation of gain or loss over the pharmacological effects of a small amount of alcohol (like a glass of wine. Furthermore, these results also indicate that gender differences should be taken into account when investigating pharmacological or psychological effect on decision-making.

  19. Predicting Problem Behaviors with Multiple Expectancies: Expanding Expectancy-Value Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borders, Ashley; Earleywine, Mitchell; Huey, Stanley J.

    2004-01-01

    Expectancy-value theory emphasizes the importance of outcome expectancies for behavioral decisions, but most tests of the theory focus on a single behavior and a single expectancy. However, the matching law suggests that individuals consider expected outcomes for both the target behavior and alternative behaviors when making decisions. In this…

  20. Political ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohm, H.

    1979-01-01

    Using facts and examples, this didactically structures textbook gives an insight into the extent and consequences of the damage to the environment, with the subjects - fundamentals of ecology; - population and food problems; - the energy problem; - economic growth; scarcity of resources, recycling; - ground, water, and air pollution, - city and traffic problems; - work protection and medical care; - political alternatives and 'soft technologies'. The analysis of the political and economic reasons is combined with social and technical alternatives from which demands to be made and measures to be taken can be derived for individuals, citizens' interest groups, political groups and trade unions. Teaching models intend to help teachers to work on specific problems of ecology. (orig.) [de

  1. Political priorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng

    2016-01-01

    …THE POLITICAL LEADERS of the local government of Chongqing, China, vigorously promote a low-carbon economy and sustainable development to mitigate environmental pollution. Accordingly, research grants focused on this issue were supported by the government, and our group obtained a grant for a pr......…THE POLITICAL LEADERS of the local government of Chongqing, China, vigorously promote a low-carbon economy and sustainable development to mitigate environmental pollution. Accordingly, research grants focused on this issue were supported by the government, and our group obtained a grant...... for a project about industrial park planning and design.…In my view, political priorities based on correct decision-making and market requirements are beneficial for researchers....

  2. Predator Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Louisa Cappelli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Edward Abbey’s Desert Solitaire and Barbara Kingsolver’s Prodigal Summer urges readers to see coyotes as crucial members of the natural community whose predation is essential for the maintenance of biodiversity and ecological stability. Their cultural production provides a human story of ecocritical engagement for understanding the cascading effects of removing top predators from their ecosystems. By envisioning biocentric possibilities within place-based and scientific contexts, Edward Abbey and Barbara Kingsolver share a common theme of political ecology: political processes shape ecological conditions. A close reading of Edward Abbey’s Desert Solitaire and Barbara Kingsolver’s Prodigal Summer provides a literary entryway to connect research, arguments, and discourse across disciplines tasking readers to engage in political discussions of environmental sustainability and to consider viable solutions to preserve the ecological diversity of our predator populations and ecosystems.

  3. Trade, Development, and the Political Economy of Public Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Swinnen, Johan F.M.; Vandemoortele, Thijs

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a political economy model of public standards in an open economy model. We use the model to derive the political optimum and to analyze different factors that have an influence on this political equilibrium. The paper discusses how the level of development influences the political equilibrium. We also analyze the relation between trade and the political equilibrium and compare this political outcome with the social optimum to identify under which cases ‘under-standardizati...

  4. European Union: Gender and politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žunić Natalija

    2014-01-01

    to provide for an adequate representation of women's needs and interests. The legal standards on political equality of men and women have been incorporated into the international and regional legal frameworks. Yet, the international conventions, declarations, optional protocols, strategies, action plans and recommendations for policy-makers at different levels have not generated a significant change in the general attitude to political equality of men and women. Why is it so? Women are underrepresented whenever the number of women in the elected bodies of authority is unproportional to the total number of women in the general population; such exclusion of women from politics is unjust because it diminishes the quality of political debate and undermines the essence of democratic legitimacy. For the past ten years, the academic community has been involved in a debate on different aspects of women's political representation. Within the framework of feminist research on gender, politics and state, the discussions have focused on the following issues: what are the benefits of increasing the number of women in politics; will the increase of female MPs in parliament change the nature of politics (given that it may be a chance to articulate women's perspective and discuss women's problems and interests; do women MPs make a difference in political life (and, if so, in what circumstances; and what kind of changes may be expected from their participation in politics? Most discussions have focused on establishing and analyzing the mutual relations between the descriptive and substantive women's representation in politics, primarily concerning the issue whether the increase in the number of female MPs contributes to increasing their interest in representing women's political interests. The quota system, which has been applied in the EU counties as a response to the problem of women's underrepresentation in politics, and the introduction of women's policy agencies (aimed at

  5. How Internal Political Efficacy Translates Political Knowledge Into Political Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This study presents evidence for the mediation effect of political knowledge through political self-efficacy (i.e. internal political efficacy) in the prediction of political participation. It employs an action theoretic approach—by and large grounded on the Theory of Planned Behaviour—and uses data from the German Longitudinal Election Study to examine whether political knowledge has distinct direct effects on voting, conventional, and/or unconventional political participation. It argues that political knowledge raises internal political efficacy and thereby indirectly increases the chance that a citizen will participate in politics. The results of mediated multiple regression analyses yield evidence that political knowledge indeed translates into internal political efficacy, thus it affects political participation of various kinds indirectly. However, internal political efficacy and intentions to participate politically yield simultaneous direct effects only on conventional political participation. Sequentially mediated effects appear for voting and conventional political participation, with political knowledge being mediated by internal political efficacy and subsequently also by behavioural intentions. The mediation patterns for unconventional political participation are less clear though. The discussion accounts for restrictions of this study and points to questions for answer by future research. PMID:27298633

  6. Agreeing on expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian; Bentsen, Martin Juul

    Commitment and trust are often mentioned as important aspects of creating a perception of reliability between counterparts. In the context of university-industry collaborations (UICs), agreeing on ambitions and expectations are adamant to achieving outcomes that are equally valuable to all parties...... involved. Despite this, our initial probing indicated that such covenants rarely exist. As such, this paper draws on project management theory and proposes the possibility of structuring assessments of potential partners before university-industry collaborations are brought to life. Our analysis suggests...

  7. The ontology of "political" in political consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Niels Nolsøe; Stenger, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to create a more complex and holistic understanding of the value system of the political consumer. A case study was undertaken were the unit of analysis constituted 12 high users of organic food products. The empirical data was analysed by utilizing Reynolds and Gutman’s ...... or services will enable companies to better understand consumers need and expectations. The latter being a necessity if confirmation of expectations, satisfaction, retention of customers and customer loyalty are goals of importance for the selling company.......The aim of this paper is to create a more complex and holistic understanding of the value system of the political consumer. A case study was undertaken were the unit of analysis constituted 12 high users of organic food products. The empirical data was analysed by utilizing Reynolds and Gutman......’s laddering technique. The results revealed that the purposive selected informants activate different cognitive structures when buycotting organic food. In other words, the informants activate different values for similar attributes and consequences. This means that consumption of organic food is related...

  8. Political Socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelweit, Hilde T.

    1983-01-01

    Described are two longitudinal studies, one British, the other American, which examined the influences of varied socializing agents--e.g., family, school, peer groups--on voting behavior. The studies emphasized the hitherto unappreciated importance of the political, social, and economic climate of society and its changes on socialization. (CS)

  9. Politics 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Abraham

    1977-01-01

    This article expresses some last thoughts from Abraham Maslow on his vision of humanistic psychology. He suggests that the two main problems of creating the good person and the good society are interwoven inextricably. He gives some social and political mechanisms which would enhance desirable personal growth and considers the main tasks of…

  10. Implementation Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegland, Troels Jacob; Raakjær, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    level are supplemented or even replaced by national priorities. The chapter concludes that in order to capture the domestic politics associated with CFP implementation in Denmark, it is important to understand the policy process as a synergistic interaction between dominant interests, policy alliances...

  11. Political Rationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solhaug, Trond; Kristensen, Niels Nørgaard

    The very idea about democracies is public participation in elections, decision-making and/or public engagement. The democratic participation distributes power among ordinary people and serve to legitimize decisions in public affairs and is a vital characteristic of a political culture.”The term...

  12. Framing politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lecheler, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation supplies a number of research findings that add to a theory of news framing effects, and also to the understanding of the role media effects play in political communication. We show that researchers must think more about what actually constitutes a framing effect, and that a

  13. ``Political'' Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzak Hopkins, Laura

    2013-03-01

    Politics and policy affect all of us, both as scientists and as citizens, and issues ranging from laboratory budgets to arms control treaties clearly require research problem-solving skills and technical expertise. There is a critical role for scientists in each aspect of the political system, and in fact, we as a society need more scientists to take part in politics. Furthermore, the research we pursue has important societal applications and is fascinating! We have a right and a responsibility to share our scientific knowledge not only with each other, but with the general public as well. So, why are we as a community of scientists reticent in the public arena, hesitant to enter politics, and even at times unsupportive of our peers who transition into governmental roles? In this time of fiscal constraint, when difficult research funding (and de-funding) choices are regularly being made, we as scientists must step up to the plate, reach across the aisle, and explain why what we do is fascinating, inspiring, and important, not just to us, but to society as a whole. A range of policy-relevant roles exists inside and outside the laboratory, such as Congressional Fellowships. Each year the Congressional Fellowships program brings together approximately thirty scientists at all stages of their careers to serve as scientific advisors in a variety of offices in the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives. Although the jump from lab to lobbying meetings can be frustrating, the transition can also be intriguing. Firsthand experience with the ``how'' and ``why'' (or lack thereof) of politics and policy is invaluable and provides a unique opportunity to expand and broaden one's background. The opportunity to work on Capitol Hill is unparalleled, particularly because our nation has a definite need for scientists with the inclination and interest to inform and develop policy. But, whatever role you decide to take, from contributing scientific news to local publications to

  14. Exploring Women's Understanding of Politics, Political Contestation ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Exploring Women's Understanding of Politics, Political Contestation and Gender ... First, researchers will explore women's political leadership and the extent to ... Sign up now for IDRC news and views sent directly to your inbox each month.

  15. Underground Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galis, Vasilis; Summerton, Jane

    Public spaces are often contested sites involving the political use of sociomaterial arrangements to check, control and filter the flow of people (see Virilio 1977, 1996). Such arrangements can include configurations of state-of-the-art policing technologies for delineating and demarcating borders...... status updates on identity checks at the metro stations in Stockholm and reports on locations and time of ticket controls for warning travelers. Thus the attempts by authorities to exert control over the (spatial) arena of the underground is circumvented by the effective developing of an alternative...... infrastructural "underground" consisting of assemblages of technologies, activists, immigrants without papers, texts and emails, homes, smart phones and computers. Investigating the embedded politics of contested spatial arrangements as characteristic of specific societies one can discover not only the uses...

  16. Political Epistemology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, David Budtz

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation is intended to establish a framework for a revised picture of the loci of epistemic preferences in our complex knowledge-based society. In what ways do institutions, policies and regulations determine the conditions under which knowledge is produced and justified? This dissertat......? This dissertation argues that we can identify multiple epistemic preferences in the institutional and political settings that govern the production and distribution of knowledge....

  17. The political spectacle phenomenon on the political scene of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučetić Vuk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper will examine the phenomenon of political spectacle in BiH. Our goal is to recognize the structure of political spectacle in BiH political scene and point out the functions and objectives of this relatively new term in the media and the political sphere. In this regard, we have observed a political spectacle as a method of political communication of the rulers to the ruled. A very important element of the political spectacle is the media. With the media promotion of this method of political communication achieves its full capacity. The final outcome of the political spectacle is reflected in manipulating the public. In this way the politicians try to remain in power as long as they can.

  18. Political Warfare and Contentious Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    the DC and PSLI Overt, Indirect • US forming a coalition with France and Britain to return Trieste to Italy control • US Urged French and British...efforts to alter Chile’s social construct by calling for the end to the Allende government, pointing out the failures of Marxism , encouraging a...political or social change. Frances Piven and Richard Cloward describe three attributes associated with group consciousness and cognitive

  19. Restoring Politics to Political History

    OpenAIRE

    Kousser, J. Morgan

    1982-01-01

    If history ever was simply the study of past politics, it is no longer. Dissatisfied with narratives of Great Men, more interested in analyzing the impact of larger forces and in tracing out patterns of the lives of the masses of people, skeptical that a recounting of election campaigns and a counting of votes reveals much about social thought or action, strongly affected by currents of opinion which have long run deep in France, American historians have turned increas...

  20. Macroeconomic Expectations of Households and Professional Forecasters

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher D Carroll

    2002-01-01

    Economists have long emphasized the importance of expectations in determining macroeconomic outcomes Yet there has been almost no recent effort to model actual empirical expectations data; instead macroeconomists usually simply assume expectations are rational This paper shows that while empirical household expectations are not rational in the usual sense expectational dynamics are well captured by a model in which households' views derive from news reports of the views of professional foreca...

  1. Flexible Expectations of Learning Outcomes in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binstead, Ayla; Campbell, Kirsty; Guasch, Susana Fraile; Sullivan, Claire; Williams, Lydia

    2014-01-01

    In this article five trainee teachers specialising in science at the University of Winchester describe their experience teaching science for three consecutive Fridays within a 2 year class (ages 6-7). They were given the task of teaching food and nutrition through the class topic of "turrets and tiaras," a medieval history focus. Their…

  2. From Expectations to Outcomes in Education Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Roger

    1981-01-01

    Correspondence theories imply that the social relations of education correspond to the social relations of dominance and subordination in the economic sphere. One limitation of the criticisms of this principle is that they are restricted to the relationship between school and work and do not investigate the link between education and the wider…

  3. Policy Responsiveness and Political Accountability in City Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony M. Sayers

    2017-03-01

    coverage of daily council business, leaves most voters inclined to rely on something other than political signals when they decide who to support. Inevitably, a candidate’s personal character and length of experience take on a larger priority in the voting decision. So, the longer a councillor serves, the longer he or she might be likely to keep serving. The natural outcome of this phenomenon is that city councils are less likely to become polarized as councillors have an incentive to seek consensus by limiting obvious policy distinctions between themselves and their fellow representatives, contributing to a dynamic where city council works more like a corporate body and less like a partisan legislature. As long as citizens remain largely unperturbed by the overall actions of their city council, they might judge the risk of replacing them at election time as unnecessarily high compared to sticking with the status quo. This behaviour challenges much of the prevailing theory about how political processes improve political responsiveness and accountability. This is occurring at a time when cities are emerging as important and increasingly powerful nodes in the modern global economy. That the very nature of how they are governed is diverging so markedly from the norm that Canadians have come to expect from other levels of government is not something to be considered lightly.

  4. Media competition and electoral politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piolatto, A.; Schütt, F.

    2015-01-01

    We build a framework linking competition in the media market to political participation. Media outlets report on the ability of candidates running for office and compete for audience through their choice of slant. Citizens consume news only if the expected utility of being informed about candidates'

  5. Political electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Terence.

    1990-01-01

    This book is a non-technical exploration of the political and policy issues that have influenced the development of nuclear power. Part One describes the successes, failures, horse-trading, and infighting that make up nuclear power's history, taking nine counties as examples. Part Two reviews the main problems that now confront us, as seen in mid-June 1990; like all contemporary accounts, the book is unavoidably incomplete. However, by then it was possible to make provisional judgements about two very important recent influences: the political consequences of Chernobyl, and concerns about the greenhouse effect. The story that emerges is of a nuclear industry that has rarely been guilty of dereliction of duty, though it was undeniably complacent in not addressing sooner the causes of the public's entirely reasonable anxieties. The anti-nuclear lobby has been skilled in debate, and sometimes extraordinarily percipient; but less than fair in failing to acknowledge the industry's achievements and its willingness to learn from past mistakes. As for the politicians, the book contains many examples that show how the flames of controversy can be deliberately fanned when there are votes to be gained. The story has few heroes, but within the industry fewer villains than the public has been led to believe. (author)

  6. Street Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Shapiro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available I write from Prague, where, unlike in most urban formations, the main city street plays an iconic role; it references a history of political protest. However, before elaborating on the protest iconography of the Prague street, Vaclavske nam, I want to locate the ways in which the design of urban space is actualized in everyday life in the cities of the world. Three functions stand out; the first involves dwelling, the second seeing, and the third moving. With respect to the first function – dwelling – the design partitions and coordinates residential, commercial and leisure functions. At times these are organized to segregate different classes (Robert Moses’ redesign of much of New York stands out with respect to the segregation function. With respect to the second function – seeing – the design of urban space is allegiance-inspiring; it involves sight lines that afford urban dwellers and visitors views of iconic buildings and statues, which reference key founding moments in the past and/or authoritative political functions in the present (Here, L’Enfants design for Washington DC stands out as exemplary. Its manifest intention was to make the buildings housing executive, legislative and judicial functions visible from many vantage points. Rarely are the streets themselves iconic. Their dominant role is involved with the effectuation of movement. As for this third function: As Lewis Mumford famously points out, streets were once part of an asterisk design, radiating out from an exemplary, often spiritual center...

  7. Politically Induced Regulatory Risk and Independent Regulatory Agencies

    OpenAIRE

    Strausz, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainty in election outcomes generates politically induced regulatory risk. Political parties' risk attitudes towards such risk depend on a fluctuation effect that hurts both parties and an output--expansion effect that benefits at least one party. Notwithstanding the parties' risk attitudes, political parties have incentives to negotiate away all regulatory risk by pre-electoral bargaining. Efficient pre-electoral bargaining outcomes fully eliminate politically induced regulatory risk. P...

  8. Expected utility with lower probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendon, Ebbe; Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen; Sloth, Birgitte

    1994-01-01

    An uncertain and not just risky situation may be modeled using so-called belief functions assigning lower probabilities to subsets of outcomes. In this article we extend the von Neumann-Morgenstern expected utility theory from probability measures to belief functions. We use this theory...

  9. If Schools Are for Learning, the Study of the Politics of Education Is Just Beginning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Willis D.

    This chapter argues that political scientists have been more interested in studying political processes than in studying who receives what benefits from the political process. To illustrate his thesis that few political scientists have linked the political process to policy outcomes, the author briefly discusses four general categories of public…

  10. Political Crowdfunding as concept of political technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria GOLKA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Political crowdfunding is analyzed as a new concept of political science. The justification of use of crowdfunding technologies not only in business but also in the political sphere is argued. The efficiency, availability, low cost of the new forms of political investment through the development of information and communication technologies are noted. The typology of political crowdfunding is proposed. Political projects promoting domestic crowdfunding platforms are analyzed. Attention is drawn to the problem of legal gaps in the regulation of crowdfunding is studied. The foreign experience of organizing public support (mikroinvestment political projects. It is emphasized that in terms of political theory crowdfunding is based on solidarity. The crowdfunding properties of transforming social capital accumulated by social networks into financial capital are mentioned.

  11. Political Awakenings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Franziska Brühwiler

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Le Complot contre l’Amérique de Philip Roth décrit l’initiation politique de ses deux protagonistes, le narrateur Philip et son frère aîné, Sanford. Tandis que ce dernier passe par un processus initiatique quasi classique — il se déroule conformément au schéma tripartite de van Gennep — l’apogée de l’initiation de Philip est marquée par douleur et blessure. Toutefois, tous les deux connaissent seulement une initiation partielle, car le premier doit d’abord admettre ses erreurs tandis que le second va devoir apprendre, non seulement à remettre en cause l’autorité, mais également à développer ses idées de façon indépendante.Philip Roth’s The Plot Against America traces the political awakening of its two child protagonists, the narrator Philip and his elder brother Sanford. While the latter undergoes an initiation process nearly in accordance with the classical tripartite scheme as coined by van Gennep, the height of Philip’s initiation process is marked by physical pain and injury. However, both experience only a partial initiation, since the elder brother will have to recognize his errors and the younger one will first have to learn how to go beyond the mere questioning of authority.

  12. The evolution of the health system outcomes in Central and Eastern Europe and their association with social, economic and political factors: an analysis of 25 years of transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaniuk, Piotr; Szromek, Adam R

    2016-03-17

    After the fall of communism, the countries of Central and Eastern Europe started the process of political, economic, and social transformation. In health system the reform directions were often similar, despite differences in transition dynamics and the degree of government determination to implement reforms. Nonetheless, for most post-communist countries, there is a gap in evidence regarding the effectiveness of implemented reforms and their impact on health system performance. The presented study attempts to analyse and evaluate the results of health reforms in CEE countries with regard to their influence on health system outcomes. We also analysed the external and internal health system environments during the transition period to determine the factors affecting the effectiveness of health reforms. We compared the indicators of population health status, lifestyle, occupational safety issues and health system resources in 21 post-communist countries between sub-periods across the entire transition period at the aggregate level. The dynamics of change in health system outcomes in individual countries, as well as between countries, was also compared. Finally, we analysed the correlations between health system outcomes gathered into one synthetic measure and factors considered as potential determinants affecting the effectiveness of health reforms. The analyses were performed based on one-dimensional, two-dimensional and multidimensional statistical methods. The data were retrieved from the international databases, such as WHO, World Bank, International Labour Organization, World Value Survey and the European Social Survey. Among the factors positively stimulating improvements in health system outcomes were the total expenditure on health and a lower financial burden on patients, but primarily they were determined by the broader economic context of the country. Another finding was that better initial position positively determined health system outcomes at later

  13. Predicting problem behaviors with multiple expectancies: expanding expectancy-value theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borders, Ashley; Earleywine, Mitchell; Huey, Stanley J

    2004-01-01

    Expectancy-value theory emphasizes the importance of outcome expectancies for behavioral decisions, but most tests of the theory focus on a single behavior and a single expectancy. However, the matching law suggests that individuals consider expected outcomes for both the target behavior and alternative behaviors when making decisions. In this study, we expanded expectancy-value theory to evaluate the contributions of two competing expectancies to adolescent behavior problems. One hundred twenty-one high school students completed measures of behavior problems, expectancies for both acting out and academic effort, and perceived academic competence. Students' self-reported behavior problems covaried mostly with perceived competence and academic expectancies and only nominally with problem behavior expectancies. We suggest that behavior problems may result from students perceiving a lack of valued or feasible alternative behaviors, such as studying. We discuss implications for interventions and suggest that future research continue to investigate the contribution of alternative expectancies to behavioral decisions.

  14. Effects of Political Knowledge on Political Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, John Powell

    2018-01-01

    Sexual orientation continues to be an explosive issue in American classrooms. Increasing the political knowledge of students can reduce the volatility of this explosive issue by increasing tolerance toward the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender community. This relationship between political knowledge and political tolerance has been…

  15. About green political parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlović Slobodan P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the author refers to some legal and political questions in connection with green political parties. Those questions cover: the ideology of green political parties, their number and influence, both in general and in Serbia. The first part of work is generally speaking about political parties - their definition, ideology, role and action. Main thesis in this work is that green political parties, by their appearance, were something new on the political scene. But quickly, because of objective and subjective reasons, they were changing original ideas and were beginning to resemble to all other political parties. In this way, they lost their vanguard and political alternativeness.

  16. Ethnicization in Welfare State Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Frederik Georg

    , but also why it is more likely for some issues (such as European integration or crime) than others (such as welfare). The dissertation includes four stand-alone articles illustrating the influence of group identities in political cognition. Compared to the existing literature, they suggest...... is to a significant extent shaped by studies of American public opinion, where public opinion on some issues is widely considered 'racialized', i.e. in part based on attitudes toward racial outgroups. The dissertation examines whether by the same token, political attitudes in universal welfare states can become...... 'ethnicized', i.e. in part based on attitudes toward ethnic outgroups. The existing literature has tended to focus on the issue of welfare, where the expectation is that ethnic diversity will diminish public support. I outline a theoretical framework which explains why political attitudes can be ethnicized...

  17. Personal use of countermeasures seen in a coping perspective. Could the development of expedient countermeasures as a repertoire in the population, optimise coping and promote positive outcome expectancies, when exposed to a contamination threat?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toennessen, A.; Skuterud, L.; Strand, P.; Panova, J.; Travnikova, I.G.; Balonov, M.I.

    1996-01-01

    The appraisal and use of countermeasures in a rural district of Russia with quite high deposition after the Chernobyl accident is studied from a coping perspective. The field work was done during the summer of 1994, in the Bryansk region. There are important methodological shortages in the study, the sample of respondents is not a random sample and therefore not necessarily representative for the villages covered, and in some parts of the questionnaire the frequency of 'don't know/missing' responses is too high. With these limitations in mind the current study tries to expand the knowledge about reactions to diffuse environmental threats by studying populations as they continue their daily lives living in a contaminated area. The data from interviews with the final net sample of 163 respondents shows that about one in four were users of countermeasures such as, refraining from consumption of natural foods, or radiometric inspection of the food. Of the different countermeasures that were included in the questionnaire, the renunciation of natural products was most frequently employed. Findings indicate that the respondents who used countermeasures had lower levels of radiocaesium content in their bodies, they felt more able to influence possible health effects of the accident, and at the same time answered that they were more afraid of possible health effects than the non-users of countermeasures. This higher emotional concern is seen in a perspective of 'realistic anxiety', and the use of countermeasures is related to perceived control and outcome expectancies. (author)

  18. Politics Backstage - Television Documentaries, Politics and Politicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ib Bondebjerg

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with "the transformation of visibility" in political discourse on and representation of politics and politicians in resent Dansih television documentaries. Drawing on the theories of Habermas, Meyrowitz and John B. Thompson, it is argued that the political persona on television is moved closer to the individual citizen, creating a sort "mediated quasi-inter- action" giving mediated communication a stronger element of face-to-face interaction. Together with the more pervasive "live" coverage of politics and politicians, this expands media coverage to both the backstage of political processes and the private and personal backstage of politicians, changing the form of democracy and public debate.

  19. Defining Political Marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.

    ’ and ‘narrow’ interpretations of political marketing, the nature of the political marketing exchange, political relationship marketing and how one can integrate the stakeholder concept into an understanding of political marketing. Finally, we propose a definition of political marketing that differs from......The aim of this working paper is to develop a definition of political marketing that builds on the political rather than commercial marketing literature. This aim is motivated by the need to make explicit our understanding of what political marketing is, a necessary exercise when discussing theory......, concepts and empirical methods in political marketing. We first present five existing definitions of political marketing that have been selected to represent advances in research from the origins of academic research into political marketing in the mid-1970’s to the present day. After this we discuss ‘wide...

  20. Politics and population health: Testing the impact of electoral democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Andrew C; Veenstra, Gerry

    2016-07-01

    This study addresses questions of whether and why electoral democracies have better health than other nations. After devising a replicable approach to missing data, we compare political, economic, and health-related data for 168 nations collected annually from 1960 through 2010. Regression models estimate that electoral democracies have 11 years of longer life expectancy on average and 62.5% lower rates of infant mortality. The association with life expectancy reduces markedly after controlling for GDP, while a combination of factors may explain the democratic advantage in infant health. Results suggest that income inequality associates independently with both health outcomes but does not mediate their associations with democracy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Expectations for a scientific collaboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    2003-01-01

    In the past decade, a number of scientific collaboratories have emerged, yet adoption of scientific collaboratories remains limited. Meeting expectations is one factor that influences adoption of innovations, including scientific collaboratories. This paper investigates expectations scientists have...... with respect to scientific collaboratories. Interviews were conducted with 17 scientists who work in a variety of settings and have a range of experience conducting and managing scientific research. Results indicate that scientists expect a collaboratory to: support their strategic plans; facilitate management...... of the scientific process; have a positive or neutral impact on scientific outcomes; provide advantages and disadvantages for scientific task execution; and provide personal conveniences when collaborating across distances. These results both confirm existing knowledge and raise new issues for the design...

  2. Does Studying Political Science Affect Civic Attitudes?: A Panel Comparison of Students of Politics, Law, and Mass Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esaiasson, Peter; Persson, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    The article evaluates the civic implications of studying political science. Previous research has argued that learning rational choice models of political behavior could be detrimental to civic outcomes. However, results from our two panel surveys of students at Swedish universities show the opposite: studying political science has positive…

  3. Exploring Political Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denhardt, Robert B.

    1975-01-01

    The author distinguishes between the concepts of political socialization and political education. He argues that political socialization has come to dominate both our thinking and our teaching in the area of civic education. Suggestions for promoting political education are included. (DE)

  4. Language and Politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimombo, Moira

    1999-01-01

    Surveys the interrelationship between language and politics. Touches on the context of political discourse, or political culture and ideology in new and old democracies and the reemerging manifestations of totalitarianism, censorship, and linguistic imperialism; then examines selected linguistic features of political discourse and their…

  5. Expecting the unexpected

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mcneill, Ilona M.; Dunlop, Patrick D.; Heath, Jonathan B.

    2013-01-01

    People who live in wildfire-prone communities tend to form their own hazard-related expectations, which may influence their willingness to prepare for a fire. Past research has already identified two important expectancy-based factors associated with people's intentions to prepare for a natural......) and measured actual rather than intended preparedness. In addition, we tested the relation between preparedness and two additional threat-related expectations: the expectation that one can rely on an official warning and the expectation of encountering obstacles (e.g., the loss of utilities) during a fire...

  6. Best Practice Life Expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medford, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    been reported previously by various authors. Though remarkable, this is simply an empirical observation. Objective: We examine best-practice life expectancy more formally by using extreme value theory. Methods: Extreme value distributions are fit to the time series (1900 to 2012) of maximum life......Background: Whereas the rise in human life expectancy has been extensively studied, the evolution of maximum life expectancies, i.e., the rise in best-practice life expectancy in a group of populations, has not been examined to the same extent. The linear rise in best-practice life expectancy has...... expectancies at birth and age 65, for both sexes, using data from the Human Mortality Database and the United Nations. Conclusions: Generalized extreme value distributions offer a theoretically justified way to model best-practice life expectancies. Using this framework one can straightforwardly obtain...

  7. PISA as a Political Tool in Spain: Assessment Instrument, Academic Discourse and Political Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega Gil, Leoncio; Hernández Beltrán, Juan Carlos; García Redondo, Eva

    2016-01-01

    This study examines to what extent there is a sort of "political appropiation" by political parties when they seek to set a discourse about the Spanish PISA outcomes. We have consistently found that programs for assessing the competencies of students, especially PISA, have become tools of rationalization and the legitimization of…

  8. THE CHALLENGES POLITICAL LEADERSHIP FACES IN THE MODERN WORLD

    OpenAIRE

    T. N. Samsonova; E. S. Shpuga

    2016-01-01

    Political leadership is a concept central to understanding political processes and outcomes, yet its definition is elusive. The study of political leadership has a long history. Many disciplines have contributed to this study, including history, philosophy, political theory, psychology etc. Leadership is a process in which leaders and followers interact dynamically in a particular situation or context. Leaders must be able to connect with followers to understand their mood and their initiativ...

  9. Strategic political postures and political market orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan C.

    2010-01-01

    by developing an integrated concept of political marketing strategy using two complementary frameworks, namely Strategic Political Postures (SPP) and Political Market Orientation (PMO). We introduce the two main concepts and derive for each of the strategic posture-specific PMO profiles as well as inter......Recently, the areas of strategic political marketing and political market orientation have been the subject of several conceptual articles which have provided the theoretical foundations for further empirical work. However, despite the close conceptual relatedness of the proposed concepts......, these have yet to be integrated to provide a more nuanced framework which both researchers and political marketing practitioners can utilise in the development of strategies and offerings with which to achieve their organizational goals. The aim of this conceptual paper is to address this deficit...

  10. What to expect from Obamacare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Overall it appears that the ACA will have minimal impact on its goals of expanding care to the poor, reducing costs or improving care for the foreseeable future. It will likely continue to cost shift reimbursement away from physicians while costs continue to rise. Almost certainly it will be entangled in political bickering, eligibility challenges and lawsuits reducing many of the benefits of the law. However, we can probably be assured that CMS will continue to rely on inaccurately reported data, quickly declare their programs successful and stay their course, despite the programs doing little to nothing for patients. When their programs focus on outcomes such as mortality, morbidity, length of stay and readmission rates, real progress can be made in improving patient care rather than “spinning” dubious results.

  11. Politics Backstage - Television Documentaries, Politics and Politicians

    OpenAIRE

    Ib Bondebjerg

    2006-01-01

    This article deals with "the transformation of visibility" in political discourse on and representation of politics and politicians in resent Dansih television documentaries. Drawing on the theories of Habermas, Meyrowitz and John B. Thompson, it is argued that the political persona on television is moved closer to the individual citizen, creating a sort "mediated quasi-inter- action" giving mediated communication a stronger element of face-to-face interaction. Together...

  12. Political entrepreneurship and bidding for political monopoly

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Wohlgemuth

    2000-01-01

    An analytical framework for dealing with political entrepreneurship and reform is proposed which is based on some new combinations of Schumpeterian political economy, an extended version of Tullock's model of democracy as franchise-bidding for natural monopoly and some basic elements of New Institutional Economics. It is shown that problems of insufficient award criteria and incomplete contracts which may arise in economic bidding schemes, also - and even more so - characterise political comp...

  13. Resource Windfalls, Political Regimes, and Political Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Caselli; Andrea Tesei

    2011-01-01

    We study theoretically and empirically whether natural resource windfalls affect political regimes. We document the following regularities. Natural resource windfalls have no effect on the political system when they occur in democracies. However, windfalls have significant political consequences in autocracies. In particular, when an autocratic country receives a positive shock to its flow of resource rents it responds by becoming even more autocratic. Furthermore, there is heterogeneity in t...

  14. The Role of the Military in Building Political Community: The Case of the Two German States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    community is represented primarily by three vital intervening outcomes of the political socialization process: a distinct political culture, a separate...case-study attempts to first identify any conscious political socialization processes implemented by the two militaries, and then tries to link these processes to the two distinct German political communities....rapidly engineer political change in these cases, the resurrection and maintenance of a military may especially contribute to the process of political

  15. Political party affiliation, political ideology and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabayo, Roman; Kawachi, Ichiro; Muennig, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Ecological and cross-sectional studies have indicated that conservative political ideology is associated with better health. Longitudinal analyses of mortality are needed because subjective assessments of ideology may confound subjective assessments of health, particularly in cross-sectional analyses. Data were derived from the 2008 General Social Survey-National Death Index data set. Cox proportional analysis models were used to determine whether political party affiliation or political ideology was associated with time to death. Also, we attempted to identify whether self-reported happiness and self-rated health acted as mediators between political beliefs and time to death. In this analysis of 32,830 participants and a total follow-up time of 498,845 person-years, we find that political party affiliation and political ideology are associated with mortality. However, with the exception of independents (adjusted HR (AHR)=0.93, 95% CI 0.90 to 0.97), political party differences are explained by the participants' underlying sociodemographic characteristics. With respect to ideology, conservatives (AHR=1.06, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.12) and moderates (AHR=1.06, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.11) are at greater risk for mortality during follow-up than liberals. Political party affiliation and political ideology appear to be different predictors of mortality. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Expectation of recovery from low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Alice; Vach, Werner; Axø, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Study Design. A prospective cohort study conducted in general practice (GP) and chiropractic practice (CP).Objectives. To explore which patient characteristics were associated with recovery expectations in low back pain (LBP) patients, whether expectations predicted 3-month outcome, and to what...

  17. Partisan Optimism and Political Bargaining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Madum, Andreas

    Partisan voters are optimistic about electoral outcomes: their estimates of the probability of electoral success for their party or candidate are substantially higher than the average among the electorate. This has large potential implications for political bargaining. Optimism about future...... electoral outcomes can make costly bargaining delay look more favorable, which may induce partisans to punish their party for agreeing to a compromise rather than waiting, for example by not turning out to vote. Therefore, party decision makers should take optimism among partisans into account when...... bargaining. In this paper we use game theoretic modeling to explore the implications of partisan optimism for political bargaining. We show that increased optimism among a partisan group leads to a stronger bargaining position for their party, but may hurt its electoral prospects. Another main finding...

  18. Determining health expectancies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robine, Jean-Marie

    2003-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jean-Marie Robine 9 1 Increase in Life Expectancy and Concentration of Ages at Death . . . . France Mesle´ and Jacques Vallin 13 2 Compression of Morbidity...

  19. Regulatory Expectations for Safety Culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Su Jin; Oh, Jang Jin; Choi, Young Sung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The oversight of licensee's safety culture becomes an important issue that attracts great public and political concerns recently in Korea. Beginning from the intended violation of rules, a series of corruptions, documents forgery and disclosure of wrong-doings made the public think that the whole mindset of nuclear workers has been inadequate. Thus, they are demanding that safety culture shall be improved and that regulatory body shall play more roles and responsibilities for the improvements and oversight for them. This paper introduces, as an effort of regulatory side, recent changes in the role of regulators in safety culture, regulatory expectations on the desired status of licensee's safety culture, the pilot inspection program for safety culture and research activity for the development of oversight system. After the Fukushima accident in Japan 2011, many critics has searched for cultural factors that caused the unacceptable negligence pervaded in Japan nuclear society and the renewed emphasis has been placed on rebuilding safety culture by operators, regulators, and relevant institutions globally. Significant progress has been made in how to approach safety culture and led to a new perspective different from the existing normative assessment method both in operators and regulatory side. Regulatory expectations and oversight of them are based on such a new holistic concept for human, organizational and cultural elements to maintain and strengthen the integrity of defense in depth and consequently nuclear safety.

  20. Regulatory Expectations for Safety Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Su Jin; Oh, Jang Jin; Choi, Young Sung

    2014-01-01

    The oversight of licensee's safety culture becomes an important issue that attracts great public and political concerns recently in Korea. Beginning from the intended violation of rules, a series of corruptions, documents forgery and disclosure of wrong-doings made the public think that the whole mindset of nuclear workers has been inadequate. Thus, they are demanding that safety culture shall be improved and that regulatory body shall play more roles and responsibilities for the improvements and oversight for them. This paper introduces, as an effort of regulatory side, recent changes in the role of regulators in safety culture, regulatory expectations on the desired status of licensee's safety culture, the pilot inspection program for safety culture and research activity for the development of oversight system. After the Fukushima accident in Japan 2011, many critics has searched for cultural factors that caused the unacceptable negligence pervaded in Japan nuclear society and the renewed emphasis has been placed on rebuilding safety culture by operators, regulators, and relevant institutions globally. Significant progress has been made in how to approach safety culture and led to a new perspective different from the existing normative assessment method both in operators and regulatory side. Regulatory expectations and oversight of them are based on such a new holistic concept for human, organizational and cultural elements to maintain and strengthen the integrity of defense in depth and consequently nuclear safety

  1. Political learning among youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solhaug, Trond; Kristensen, Niels Nørgaard

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on students’ first political learning and explores the research question, what dynamic patterns of political learning can be explored among a selection of young, diverse Danish students’ first political interests? The authors use theories of learning in their analytical......, but are active constructors of their political life. Their emotions and social environment are highly important for their political orientation. It is recommended that further research focus on dynamic learning and on arenas for political learning rather than on “single agent studies.” Recommendations...

  2. Performance appraisal of expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russkikh G.A.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available this article provides basic concepts for teachers to estimate and reach planned students’ expectations, describes functions and elements of expectations; nature of external and internal estimate, technology to estimate the results, gives recommendations how to create diagnostic assignments.

  3. Spiking the expectancy profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels Chr.; Loui, Psyche; Vuust, Peter

    Melodic expectations are generated with different degrees of certainty. Given distributions of expectedness ratings for multiple continuations of each context, as obtained with the probe-tone paradigm, this certainty can be quantified in terms of Shannon entropy. Because expectations arise from s...

  4. Perceived Organisational Politics, Political Behaviour and Employee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    facing both private and public sector organisations (Nidhi & Prerna, 2015;. Gotsis & Kortezi ... These studies suggest that organisational politics often interfere with normal ..... Rawls's (1971) theory of justice provides a theoretical foundation for the relationship between ..... Ethical considerations in organisational politics: ...

  5. Celebrity politics: the politics of late modernity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsh, D.; t Hart, P.; Tindall, K.

    2010-01-01

    The academic literature on celebrity politics is rarely systematic; more often it is superficial and anecdotal. In addition, most of the literature focuses either upon classifying different types/categories of celebrity politicians and their roles in politics, or upon the question of whether the

  6. Exploring Women's Understanding of Politics, Political Contestation ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Exploring Women's Understanding of Politics, Political Contestation and Gender Transformation in the Caribbean. IDRC's Democratic Governance, Women's Rights and Gender Equality initiative is supporting a body of comparative research on whether and how democratic processes and institutions are responding to ...

  7. Political Values or the Value of Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simoska, Emilija

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay was motivated by the gap between proclaimed democratic principles and the perceptions of politics which are exhibited by the citizens in transitional countries -more specifically in the Republic of Macedonia. It is based on research data collected in the past few decades, which illustrate that, in their political actions, the citizens are highly motivated by personal benefits and profits, rather than by their internalized values and ideologies. Non-democratic, authoritarian values prevail, while politics is perceived as a value itself, in the most materialistic meaning of the word. It creates a suitable milieu for growth of corruption, nepotism and clientelism. The authors conclude that such a circulus vitsiosus is a corner stone of the Macedonian political regime, and an enormous obstacle for the advancement of the participative, democratic political culture in reality, in spite of its formal acceptance.

  8. Sustainability : Politics and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinrichs, Harald; Biermann, Frank

    2016-01-01

    he article gives an overview of global sustainability policy and politics. It is shown how international policy making on sustainable development has progressed from environmental policy toward recent approaches of Earth system governance. Key challenges of international sustainability politics are

  9. Political Economy of Finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.

    2013-01-01

    This survey reviews how a recent political economy literature helps explaining variation in governance, competition, funding composition and access to credit. Evolution in political institutions can account for financial evolution, and appear critical to explain rapid changes in financial structure,

  10. Politics, Security, Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæver, Ole

    2011-01-01

    theory is found to ‘act politically’ through three structural features that systematically shape the political effects of using the theory. The article further discusses – on the basis of the preceding articles in the special issue – three emerging debates around securitization theory: ethics......This article outlines three ways of analysing the ‘politics of securitization’, emphasizing an often-overlooked form of politics practised through theory design. The structure and nature of a theory can have systematic political implications. Analysis of this ‘politics of securitization......’ is distinct from both the study of political practices of securitization and explorations of competing concepts of politics among security theories. It means tracking what kinds of analysis the theory can produce and whether such analysis systematically impacts real-life political struggles. Securitization...

  11. Public Service Provision in Clientelistic Political Settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay; Hirvi, Marja

    2015-01-01

    The politics of public-service delivery continues to be neglected under the supposedly more context-sensitive post-Washington Consensus. Using interviews and documentary evidence from Ghana, this article provides an account of the networks of political interference and informal practices in Ghana......'s public water utility. It argues that, in order to understand why private-sector participation succeeds or fails and why similar arrangements have different outcomes across developing countries, we need to examine the effects of the informal institutional context, particularly the country......-specific political settlement in which public-service provision operates....

  12. Comparing Political Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Pfetsch, Barbara; Esser, Frank

    2012-01-01

    This chapter describes the maturation of comparative political communications as a sub-discipline and defines its conceptual core. It then lays out the concept of “political communication system”. At the macro-level, this model captures the patterns of interaction between media and politics as social systems; at the micro-level it captures the interactions between media and political actors as individuals or organizations. Comparative research in this tradition focuses on the structure of pol...

  13. Expectancies as core features of mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rief, Winfried; Glombiewski, Julia A; Gollwitzer, Mario; Schubö, Anna; Schwarting, Rainer; Thorwart, Anna

    2015-09-01

    Expectancies are core features of mental disorders, and change in expectations is therefore one of the core mechanisms of treatment in psychiatry. We aim to improve our understanding of expectancies by summarizing factors that contribute to their development, persistence, and modification. We pay particular attention to the issue of persistence of expectancies despite experiences that contradict them. Based on recent research findings, we propose a new model for expectation persistence and expectation change. When expectations are established, effects are evident in neural and other biological systems, for example, via anticipatory reactions, different biological reactions to expected versus unexpected stimuli, etc. Psychological 'immunization' and 'assimilation', implicit self-confirming processes, and stability of biological processes help us to better understand why expectancies persist even in the presence of expectation violations. Learning theory, attentional processes, social influences, and biological determinants contribute to the development, persistence, and modification of expectancies. Psychological interventions should focus on optimizing expectation violation to achieve optimal treatment outcome and to avoid treatment failures.

  14. Western Political Consulting Techniques and Post-Soviet Political Technology in Political Campaigns in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Bērziņa, Ieva

    2012-01-01

    Western Political Consulting Techniques and Post-Soviet Political Technology in Political Campaigns in Latvia Ieva Dmitričenko Keywords: political campaignsm political consulting, political technology, parties, marketing, media Political campaigning is an international phenomenon, because there is a free flow of information, knowledge and human resource among practitioners of political campaigning in various countries. As a result political campaigning techniques that have proven to ...

  15. Analyzing Political Television Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burson, George

    1992-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan to help students understand that political advertisements often mislead, lie, or appeal to emotion. Suggests that the lesson will enable students to examine political advertisements analytically. Includes a worksheet to be used by students to analyze individual political advertisements. (DK)

  16. Political institutions since 1820

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foldvari, Peter; Buzasi, Katalin

    2014-01-01

    Political institutions determine the degree of freedom people enjoy and their capacity to influence their social and political environment. This chapter provides historical evidence on the evolution of political institutions drawing upon two major research projects: the PolityIV dataset and the

  17. Political Education in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dag, Nilgun; Sozer, Mehmet Akif; Sel, Burcu

    2015-01-01

    Political education is a term with negative associations and triggering prejudiced approaches and discourses--maybe some paranoid thoughts--like "keep politics away from education!" in the minds of several people. This article deals with "political education" phenomenon almost never discussed and made subject to scientific…

  18. What is Political Psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Morton

    1983-01-01

    Political psychology is the study of the bidirectional interaction of political and psychological processes. This academic discipline was founded after the First World War by Harold D. Lasswell. The content of political psychology is discussed and illustrative studies of the field are briefly summarized. (CS)

  19. Tracking Politics with POWER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Silvio; Batista, David S.; Carvalho, Paula; Couto, Francisco M.; Silva, Mario J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: POWER is an ontology of political processes and entities. It is designed for tracking politicians, political organizations and elections, both in mainstream and social media. The aim of this paper is to propose a data model to describe political agents and their relations over time. Design/methodology/approach: The authors propose a data…

  20. Kentucky physicians and politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VonderHaar, W P; Monnig, W B

    1998-09-01

    Approximately 19% of Kentucky Physicians are KEMPAC members or contribute to state legislative and Gubernatorial candidates. This limited study of political activity indicates that a small percentage of physicians participate in the political process. Despite the small number of contributors to state legislative candidates, KMA's legislative and lobbying effort is highly effective and members receive high quality service and representation in the political arena.

  1. Politically Active Home Economists: Their Socialization to Politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, Connie J.

    1980-01-01

    A nationwide study identified a pattern of political socialization for home economists who were politically active. The most outstanding feature of the politically active subjects was their perception that political activity is a professional role. (SK)

  2. Life expectancy and education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Casper Worm; Strulik, Holger

    2017-01-01

    , we find that US states with higher mortality rates from cardiovascular disease prior to the 1970s experienced greater increases in adult life expectancy and higher education enrollment. Our estimates suggest that a one-standard deviation higher treatment intensity is associated with an increase...... in adult life expectancy of 0.37 years and 0.07–0.15 more years of higher education....

  3. Expected Classification Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence M. Rudner

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Every time we make a classification based on a test score, we should expect some number..of misclassifications. Some examinees whose true ability is within a score range will have..observed scores outside of that range. A procedure for providing a classification table of..true and expected scores is developed for polytomously scored items under item response..theory and applied to state assessment data. A simplified procedure for estimating the..table entries is also presented.

  4. Expected utility without utility

    OpenAIRE

    Castagnoli, E.; Licalzi, M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper advances an interpretation of Von Neumann–Morgenstern’s expected utility model for preferences over lotteries which does not require the notion of a cardinal utility over prizes and can be phrased entirely in the language of probability. According to it, the expected utility of a lottery can be read as the probability that this lottery outperforms another given independent lottery. The implications of this interpretation for some topics and models in decision theory are considered....

  5. Political budget cycles and election outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, Jeroen; de Haan, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses two empirical questions. Is fiscal policy affected by upcoming elections? If so, do election-motivated fiscal policies enhance the probability of re-election of the incumbent? Employing data for 65 democratic countries over 1975-2005 in a semi-pooled panel model, we find that in

  6. Electoral Politics and Election Outcomes in Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    2006-09-16

    Sep 16, 2006 ... section of the presidential and National Assembly Elections Act. The change .... of its functions, such as registering voters and supervising the conduct of ..... civil rights as well as civic duties, including the need to contest ...

  7. Political Science and Political Geography: Neglected Areas, Areas for Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laponce, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    Since at least the 1950s, political scientists have tended to ignore the possible contributions of political geography to political science because of a move away from considering spatial factors on political structure. Political scientists need to use more information from geography to enhance their understanding of political power and conflict.…

  8. How Do Business Interest Groups Respond to Political Challenges?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paster, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    adaptation. The paper illustrates these two response strategies with four episodes of political conflict in the political-economic history of Germany: (i) the adoption of social insurance under Bismarck, (ii) the adoption of unemployment insurance in the 1920s, (iii) the adoption of board...... their interests, using four episodes of political conflict in Germany. The paper elaborates a model of response strategies and their likely impact on political outcomes. The model suggests that business interest groups can respond to political challenges in two ways: by seeking confrontation or by pursuing...

  9. International Contexts for Political Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harber, Clive

    1991-01-01

    Uses international examples of the ways in which political learning takes place--indoctrination, political socialization, and political education--to suggest that open and democratic political education is not common, even in democracies. (SK)

  10. Putting politics first.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Jacob S

    2008-01-01

    The greatest lesson of the failure of comprehensive health reform in the early 1990s is that politics comes first. Even the best-laid policy plans are worthless if they lack the political support to pass. Putting politics first means avoiding the overarching mistake of the Clinton reformers: envisioning a grand policy compromise rather than hammering out a real political compromise. It also means addressing the inevitable fears of those who believe that they are well protected by our eroding employment-based system. And it means formulating political strategies that are premised on the contemporary realities of the hyperpolarized U.S. political environment, rather than wistfully recalled images of the bipartisan politics of old.

  11. Religion and Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandak, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Religion and politics provide an interesting juxtaposition. On the one hand, both may initially come across as rather self-evident categories, with religion dealing with human perceptions and what people hold as sacred, and politics addressing the control and governance of fellow human beings....... Nonetheless, such a simple opposition should only work as a starting point for an interrogation of both terms and how they have come to look and function as empirical and analytical categories. Focusing on the ways that religion is played out in relation to politics reveals different historical and cultural...... constellations and positions, which can be highlighted as variations of religion as politics, religion in politics, religion out of politics, and religion not politics....

  12. Political Budget Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaskoven, Lasse; Lassen, David Dreyer

    2017-01-01

    The political budget cycle—how elections affect government fiscal policy—is one of the most studied subjects in political economy and political science. The key theoretical question is whether incumbent governments can time or structure public finances in ways that improve their chances of reelec......The political budget cycle—how elections affect government fiscal policy—is one of the most studied subjects in political economy and political science. The key theoretical question is whether incumbent governments can time or structure public finances in ways that improve their chances...... on political budget cycles have recently focused on conditions under which such cycles are likely to obtain. Much recent research focuses on subnational settings, allowing comparisons of governments in similar institutional environments, and a consensus on the presences of cycles in public finances...

  13. The politics of researching global health politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Simon

    2015-01-01

    In this comment, I build on Shiffman’s call for the global health community to more deeply investigate structural and productive power. I highlight two challenges we must grapple with as social scientists carrying out the types of investigation that Shiffman proposes: the politics of challenging the powerful; and the need to investigate types of expertise that have traditionally been thought of as ‘outside’ global health. In doing so, I argue that moving forward with the agenda Shiffman sets out requires social scientists interested in the global politics of health to be reflexive about our own exercise of structural and productive power and the fact that researching global health politics is itself a political undertaking. PMID:25905482

  14. Redistributive Politics in a Political Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele; Justesen, Mogens Kamp

    One of the main functions of centralized budgets in federal and political unions is to act as an equalizing mechanism to support economic cohesion. This is also the case with the European Union’s budget, which operates as a redistributive mechanism that counteracts the cross-national and cross...... remarkably over the last decades. In this paper, we investigate how and why the net fiscal position of each member state towards the rest of the EU changes over time. Using a novel panel dataset (1979-2014), we study how some key national and EU-level political and economic variables affect the EU...... find that the political orientation of national governments does not per se influence redistributive politics with in the EU. However, when the unemployment rate is rising, right-wing governments are able to extract significantly larger budgetary benefits....

  15. Sex and life expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifarth, Joshua E; McGowan, Cheri L; Milne, Kevin J

    2012-12-01

    A sexual dimorphism in human life expectancy has existed in almost every country for as long as records have been kept. Although human life expectancy has increased each year, females still live longer, on average, than males. Undoubtedly, the reasons for the sex gap in life expectancy are multifaceted, and it has been discussed from both sociological and biological perspectives. However, even if biological factors make up only a small percentage of the determinants of the sex difference in this phenomenon, parity in average life expectancy should not be anticipated. The aim of this review is to highlight biological mechanisms that may underlie the sexual dimorphism in life expectancy. Using PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Google Scholar, as well as cited and citing reference histories of articles through August 2012, English-language articles were identified, read, and synthesized into categories that could account for biological sex differences in human life expectancy. The examination of biological mechanisms accounting for the female-based advantage in human life expectancy has been an active area of inquiry; however, it is still difficult to prove the relative importance of any 1 factor. Nonetheless, biological differences between the sexes do exist and include differences in genetic and physiological factors such as progressive skewing of X chromosome inactivation, telomere attrition, mitochondrial inheritance, hormonal and cellular responses to stress, immune function, and metabolic substrate handling among others. These factors may account for at least a part of the female advantage in human life expectancy. Despite noted gaps in sex equality, higher body fat percentages and lower physical activity levels globally at all ages, a sex-based gap in life expectancy exists in nearly every country for which data exist. There are several biological mechanisms that may contribute to explaining why females live longer than men on average, but the complexity of the

  16. Anomalous vacuum expectation values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, H.

    1986-01-01

    The anomalous vacuum expectation value is defined as the expectation value of a quantity that vanishes by means of the field equations. Although this value is expected to vanish in quantum systems, regularization in general produces a finite value of this quantity. Calculation of this anomalous vacuum expectation value can be carried out in the general framework of field theory. The result is derived by subtraction of divergences and by zeta-function regularization. Various anomalies are included in these anomalous vacuum expectation values. This method is useful for deriving not only the conformal, chiral, and gravitational anomalies but also the supercurrent anomaly. The supercurrent anomaly is obtained in the case of N = 1 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in four, six, and ten dimensions. The original form of the energy-momentum tensor and the supercurrent have anomalies in their conservation laws. But the modification of these quantities to be equivalent to the original one on-shell causes no anomaly in their conservation laws and gives rise to anomalous traces

  17. Policing Challenged and People’s Expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakur Mohan Shrestha

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Peace, security, rule of law, and sustainable development are driving principles in a democratic notion of developing country like Nepal. "3Is': Injustice, Insecurity and Imbalance have been reflecting in the post transitional Nepal. The study came with the objectives of investigating the peoples' perceptions on the adaptation of policing, the challenges and expectation. The information was collected from 1111(N respondents all over the country from different ways of life, applying mixed method questionnaire survey and interview. The research show the need of system based policing like 'intelligence-led'; 'police public partnership', and 'proactive' respectively. The influence of politicization, political instability, external influence, lack of role model leadership, open border, rampant corruption, nepotism-favoritism, lack of research are the major challenges in the security organizations. Furthermore, most educated and high profile personalities have less interest to encourage their generation in police services. People are expecting proficient and accountable police forces. Keywords: Policing, Challenges, People's Expectation

  18. Social cognitive determinants of nutrition and physical activity among web-health users enrolling in an online intervention: the influence of social support, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Bill, Eileen Smith; Winett, Richard A; Wojcik, Janet R

    2011-03-17

    had good self-efficacy and outcome expectations for health behavior change; however, they perceived little social support for making these changes and engaged in few self-regulatory behaviors. Consistent with SCT, theoretical models provided good fit to Web-users' data (root mean square error of the approximation [RMSEA] social support and use of self-regulatory behaviors were strong predictors of physical activity and nutrition behavior. Web users' self-efficacy was also a good predictor of healthier levels of physical activity and dietary fat but not of fiber, fruits, and vegetables. Social support and self-efficacy indirectly predicted behavior through self-regulation, and social support had indirect effects through self-efficacy. Results suggest Web-health users visiting and ultimately participating in online health interventions may likely be middle-aged, well-educated, upper middle class women whose detrimental health behaviors put them at risk of obesity, heart disease, some cancers, and diabetes. The success of Internet physical activity and nutrition interventions may depend on the extent to which they lead users to develop self-efficacy for behavior change, but perhaps as important, the extent to which these interventions help them garner social-support for making changes. Success of these interventions may also depend on the extent to which they provide a platform for setting goals, planning, tracking, and providing feedback on targeted behaviors.

  19. Expectations in patients with total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Burcu; Unver, Bayram; Karatosun, Vasfi

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is to decrease pain and restore functional knee joint. Current hypotheses indicate higher knee flexion is required in terms of life style, culture and expectations in Eastern communities. Therefore, society-specific features related to life style and cultural habits are needed. The objective of this study was to investigate the expectations of patients undergoing TKA. The study included 131 patients (18 male, 113 female; mean age: 66.2 ± 8.3 years) who underwent cemented TKA due to knee osteoarthritis. All patients were operated by the same surgeon using the same implant and surgical technique. Patients were evaluated using the Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) knee score, a 15-item clinical knee assessment questionnaire and the HSS knee arthroplasty expectation questionnaire. Mean HSS score for the right knee was 89.2 ± 10.5 and for the left knee was 89.6 ± 9.4. The two most expected outcomes were improvements in pain (99.2%) and gait (96.2%) and the two least expected outcomes were improvements in psychological well-being (22.9%) and communicative skills (35.1%). Expectations were not affected by education and working conditions. Patients' most expected outcomes were improvement in pain and restoration of function (gait, climbing stairs and no need of assistive devices), similar to Western and American communities.

  20. Political pressures and exchange rate stability in emerging market economies

    OpenAIRE

    Ester Faia; Massimo Giuliodori; Michele Ruta

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a political economy model of exchange rate policy. The theory is based on a common agency approach with rational expectations. Financial and exporter lobbies exert political pressures to influence the government’s choice of exchange rate policy, before shocks to the economy are realized. The model shows that political pressures affect exchange rate policy and create an over-commitment to exchange rate stability. This helps to rationalize the empirical evidence on fear of l...

  1. Price expectations and petroleum development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollio, G.; Marian, W.S.

    1991-01-01

    In the first section of this paper, the authors present a highly stylized model of the world oil market that explicitly incorporates both expectative and financial effects. The model generates the extremely interesting result that actual future price outcomes are inversely related to prevailing price expectations, owing to fluctuation in the level and timing of industry investment expenditure. Given the importance of price expectations, it is surprising that the topic has received such scant attention. The authors therefore present in the second section of selective survey of the various measures that have been proposed and used in the literature, as well as an assessment of the value of potentially new indices and market prices for existing hydrocarbon reserves, for example. In the final section of the paper, we discuss the extent to which financial innovation, in the form of commodity-linked products-such as swaps, caps, collars, and so forth-are transforming the oil market, enabling all market segments to manage price uncertainty far more effectively than was ever possible in the past

  2. Performance expectation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, P.E.

    1998-09-04

    This document outlines the significant accomplishments of fiscal year 1998 for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) team. Opportunities for improvement to better meet some performance expectations have been identified. The PHMC has performed at an excellent level in administration of leadership, planning, and technical direction. The contractor has met and made notable improvement of attaining customer satisfaction in mission execution. This document includes the team`s recommendation that the PHMC TWRS Performance Expectation Plan evaluation rating for fiscal year 1998 be an Excellent.

  3. School of Political Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Voskresensky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Out of all the departments of political sciences in Russia - the Department at MGIMO-University is probably the oldest one. In fact it is very young. While MGIMO-University is celebrating its 70th anniversary the Department of Political Sciences turns 15. Despite the fact that political analyst is a relatively new profession in Russia, it acquired a legal standing only in the 1990s, the political science school at MGIMO-University is almost as old as the university itself. Unlike many other universities, focused on the training teachers of political science or campaign managers MGIMO-University has developed its own unique political science school of "full cycle", where students grow into political sciences from a zero level up to the highest qualifications as teachers and researchers, and campaign managers, consultants and practitioners. The uniqueness of the school of political science at MGIMO-University allows its institutional incarnation -the Department of Political Science - to offer prospective studentsa training in a wide range of popular specialties and specializations, while ensuring a deep theoretical and practical basis of the training. Studying at MGIMO-University traditionally includes enhanced linguistic component (at least two foreign languages. For students of international relations and political science learning foreign languages is particularly important.It allows not only to communicate, but also to produce expertise and knowledge in foreign languages.

  4. Sexism in Political Thought and Its Refutation: A Schematic Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Siegrun F.

    The document examines Western political thought in terms of women's and men's expected spheres of concern, the proper male and female nature, and the sex-specific allocation of social values. In addition, the author applies her conclusions to contemporary political issues in the United States. Aristotle, Cicero, Aquinas, Rousseau, and Hegel made a…

  5. Strategies of institutional minimization of the impact of political familism on the political process in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Sambros

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the typical effects of the impact of political familizm on the political process in Ukraine. It is concluded that in general the essence of this phenomenon is negative. Therefore, in order to highlight examples of effective anti-familistic strategiesthe paper studies the existing international experience – from public documents such UN Convention against corruption to examples of specific states. The subject of the current research is the policy of states, which are considered as global (Singapore and regional (Georgia samples of the anti-familistic movement. We analyze the historical path of these countries – from the critical development of political familizm to the successful anti-familistic reforms with their subsequent consolidation of the institutional body of state. Accordingly, the research defines the possibility and the expected effectiveness of implementation of existing examples of institutional minimizationof political familizm in Ukrainian political realities basing on the advantages and disadvantages of current anti-familistic methods. The paperalso analyzes the expected impact of the Law of Ukraine regarding the public funding of political parties as one of the possible means of minimization of political familizm.

  6. Behavior, Expectations and Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Jr, Murray; Rashotte, Lisa Slattery

    2010-01-01

    We predict effects of behavior patterns and status on performance expectations and group inequality using an integrated theory developed by Fisek, Berger and Norman (1991). We next test those predictions using new experimental techniques we developed to control behavior patterns as independent variables. In a 10-condition experiment, predictions…

  7. Life Expectancy in 2040

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; DuGoff, Eva H; Wu, Albert W.

    2016-01-01

    We use expert clinical and public health opinion to estimate likely changes in the prevention and treatment of important disease conditions and how they will affect future life expectancy. Focus groups were held including clinical and public health faculty with expertise in the six leading causes...

  8. Telaah Kritis Expectancy Theory Victor Harold Vroom

    OpenAIRE

    Anatan, Lina

    2010-01-01

    Expectancy theory has emerge as the dominant process theory of motivation, originally developed by Vroom is a theory explaining the process individual use to make decision on a various behavioral alternatives. The motivational force for a behavior, action, or task is a function of three distinctive perceptions: expectancy, instrumentality, and valance. The theory contains of two models: for the precition of valance of an outcome, and the other for the prediction of force toward behavior. It p...

  9. Converting customer expectations into achievable results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, G A

    1999-11-01

    It is not enough in today's environment to just meet customers' expectations--we must exceed them. Therefore, one must learn what constitutes expectations. These needs have expanded during the past few years from just manufacturing the product and looking at the outcome from a provincial standpoint. Now we must understand and satisfy the entire supply chain. To manage this process and satisfy the customer, the process now involves the supplier, the manufacturer, and the entire distribution system.

  10. Establishing Political Deliberation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; Sæbø, Øystein

    2008-01-01

    The extension and transformation of political participation is dependent on widespread deliberation supported by information and communication technologies.  The most commonly found examples of these eParticipation systems are political discussion forums.  Though much of the discussion...... of these technologies is conducted in the eGovernment and (particularly) the eDemocracy literature, political discussion forums present a distinct set of design and management challenges which relate directly to IS concerns. In this article we analyze problems in establishing political deliberation systems under five...... headings: stakeholder engagement, web platform design, web platform management, political process re-shaping and evaluation and improvement. We review the existing literature and present a longitudinal case study of a political discussion forum: the Norwegian DemokratiTorget (Democracy Square).  We define...

  11. Chaos theory in politics

    CERN Document Server

    Erçetin, Şefika; Tekin, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The present work investigates global politics and political implications of social science and management with the aid of the latest complexity and chaos theories. Until now, deterministic chaos and nonlinear analysis have not been a focal point in this area of research. This book remedies this deficiency by utilizing these methods in the analysis of the subject matter. The authors provide the reader a detailed analysis on politics and its associated applications with the help of chaos theory, in a single edited volume.

  12. The Politics of Dissent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak Jørgensen, Martin; Agustin, Oscar Garcia

    2015-01-01

    In Politics of Dissent the framework for analysing politics of dissent is outlined. The outlined framework problematizes the conventional understandings of dissent as something characterising individual historical figures. The chapter provides both a theoretical underpinning of dissent as well...... as an approach to investigate the current contestations taking place on a global level. Politics of dissent entails the questioning of consensus. It conceptualises dissent as a collective process taking place on everyday level. It conceptualises moments of dissent. Finally it investigates the emergent...

  13. Does sociability predict civic involvement and political participation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foschi, Renato; Lauriola, Marco

    2014-02-01

    In contemporary history as well as in political science, a strong associational life known as sociability is thought to explain the roots of modern democracy by establishing a link between the increasing availability of free time to the middle classes, increasing willingness to gather with others in circles or associations, and increasing social capital. In personality psychology, sociability is related to prosocial behavior (i.e., the need for affiliation, agreeableness, openness, and extraversion), whose importance in different political behaviors is increasingly recognized. In the present article, we carried out 5 studies (N = 1,429) that showed that political and associative sociability (a) can be reliably assessed, can have cross-cultural validity, and are properly associated with general social interest measures and personality domains and facets in the five-factor model; (b) do not overlap with similar concepts used in political psychology to account for political participation (political expertise, political interest, political self-efficacy); and (c) predicted political and nonpolitical group membership as well as observable choices in decision-making tasks with political and nonpolitical outcomes. The results are discussed, taking into consideration the extent to which specific facets of sociability can mediate between general personality traits and measures of civic involvement and political participation in a holistic model of political behavior. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Spiking the expectancy profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels Chr.; Loui, Psyche; Vuust, Peter

    Melodic expectations have long been quantified using expectedness ratings. Motivated by statistical learning and sharper key profiles in musicians, we model musical learning as a process of reducing the relative entropy between listeners' prior expectancy profiles and probability distributions...... of a given musical style or of stimuli used in short-term experiments. Five previous probe-tone experiments with musicians and non-musicians are revisited. Exp. 1-2 used jazz, classical and hymn melodies. Exp. 3-5 collected ratings before and after exposure to 5, 15 or 400 novel melodies generated from...... a finite-state grammar using the Bohlen-Pierce scale. We find group differences in entropy corresponding to degree and relevance of musical training and within-participant decreases after short-term exposure. Thus, whereas inexperienced listeners make high-entropy predictions by default, statistical...

  15. Astronomy and Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, John M.

    The relationship between astronomy and politics is a complex but important part of understanding the practice of astronomy throughout history. This chapter explores some of the ways that astronomy, astrology, and politics have interacted, placing particular focus on the way that astronomy and astrology have been used for political purposes by both people in power and people who wish to influence a ruler's policy. Also discussed are the effects that politics has had on the development of astronomy and, in particular, upon the recording and preservation of astronomical knowledge.

  16. Defining political community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sladeček Michal M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the concept of political community, its constitution and value. The starting point is that the concept of community is not sufficiently recognized in modern political theories, as well as in contemporary liberal theory. In the last two decades communitarian and republican political theory attempted to revitalize this notion. The first part of the paper elaborates on the polemics between these three theoretical orientations. The concluding part examines the possibilities and prospect for stable political community in conditions of pluralism of particular social communities and ethnocultural heterogeneity.

  17. Cosmopolitan political science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Edgar

    2006-03-01

    Until recently, the term cosmopolitism could rarely be found in modern political science literature. It was only in the 1990s that the term was rediscovered by political scientists in the critical discourse on globalization. In this article, I will explore the full potential of cosmopolitism as an analytical concept for empirical political science. I will argue that the concept of cosmopolitism should not be restricted to the analysis of global politics. Indeed, cosmopolitism has much more to offer for political scientists. Properly understood, it enables--and necessitates--a re-invention of political science in the age of globalization, comparable to the behavioural revolution in political science in the 1950s. Such a paradigmatic shift should be based on a twofold transformation of existing disciplinary boundaries: A removal of the boundary between national (and comparative) and international politics on the one hand; and a re-definition of the boundaries between empirical and normative approaches on the other. As a result, cosmopolitism may serve as a new, critical theory of politics based on the integration of hitherto separated fields and sub-fields.

  18. Expectations from the child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Atabek

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Transition from agricultural society to industry society, from industrial society to science society has taken place. In all these societies, expectations from children also vary. In the agricultural community, human labor is based on arm power. For this reason, expectation from children is to increase work power. Having more children is the basis for the expectations in this community to see that the boy is valuable because he has increased his work power. In the industrial society, the power of the arm changed its place with the machine power. The knowledgeable person is not a family grown-up but a foreman. Childhood was distinguished during this period. It has been investigated that the child has a separate development.  In the information society, communication and information has never been as fast as it is in this period.  The widespread use of the Internet, and the use of social networks such as Facebook and Twitter are in this period. In this society, families are panicked to prepare a future in their own heads for their children. Because the parents thought of their children, they decided about the child's life instead of the child making these decisions. This has had a negative impact on children's sense of autonomy and their ability to take responsibility. To change this, parents should train their children in auto control and develop children's impulse control skills. The children should be able to understand their emotions and make decisions by reasoning and reasoning.

  19. Political accountability and autonomous weapons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Igoe Walsh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous weapons would have the capacity to select and attack targets without direct human input. One important objection to the introduction of such weapons is that they will make it more difficult to identify and hold accountable those responsible for undesirable outcomes such as mission failures and civilian casualties. I hypothesize that individuals can modify their attribution of responsibility in predicable ways to accommodate this new technology. The results of a survey experiment are consistent with this; subjects continue to find responsible and hold accountable political and military leaders when autonomous weapons are used, but also attribute responsibility to the designers and programmers of such weapons.

  20. Political Differences in Past, Present, and Future Life Satisfaction: Republicans Are More Sensitive than Democrats to Political Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, David R.; Omorogbe, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Previous research finds that Republicans report being happier or more satisfied with their lives than Democrats. Using representative American samples from 2002, 2005, 2007, 2009, and 2010, we tested a Person × Situation interactionist account in which political affiliation (Democrat, Republican) and political climate (favorable when the president in office is of the same party) are proposed to affect past, present, and anticipated future life satisfaction. Meta-analyses of related tests of key hypotheses confirmed that (a) life satisfaction was greater when the political climate was favorable rather than unfavorable and (b) Republicans were more sensitive to political climate than Democrats. As predicted, Republicans also were more politically polarized than Democrats. Taken together, the findings indicate that, compared to Democrats, Republicans are more apt to self-identify in political terms, and core aspects of their subjective well-being are more easily affected by the outcome of political events. PMID:24901253

  1. Legal, political, and institutional implications of the seabed assessment program for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deese, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    Sub-seabed disposal of high-level radioactive waste is discussed. The following conclusions are drawn: The outcome will be determined largely by the national political stances taken toward a sub-seabed disposal program. Political and diplomatic responses from individual countries should be expected to be heavily influenced by the number, type, and timing of options available for high-level waste disposal. The budgetary and institutional support Washington gives to the sub-seabed program will have a crucial influence on the progress of sub-seabed science and technology over the next three to five years. Despite the growing need of nations, such as Japan and Britain, for a high-level waste disposal option, a sub-seabed program will probably not be employed if it is not strongly funded and supported by the United States. Clearly, there are enough level and political obstacles to destroy or delay a sub-seabed disposal program. The nontechnical hurdles to seabed disposal at least equal the scientific and technical ones. But, on the other hand, there are important potential social and political benefits to be gained from any serious attempt to mount a successful sub-seabed program. These lie principally in international cooperation on waste management, environmental protection, nonproliferation of nuclear weapons, and governing the deep seabed

  2. Usage of marketing in politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-party political system led to competition between political parties which caused the need for marketing in politics that improves political reputation. Politics, based on rich experience of political practice, used existing, developed methods and techniques of commercial marketing. Political marketing openly admits that politics and politicians are simply goods that are being sold on a political market. Political marketing is a whole way of operation by political parties which ask these questions: how do the voters choose; what affects their preference and how that preference can be influenced. Usage of political marketing in Bosnia and Herzegovina is still not on a satisfactory level but the knowledge about the importance of political marketing is increasing.

  3. Expected Term Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buraschi, Andrea; Piatti, Ilaria; Whelan, Paul

    We construct and study the cross-sectional properties of survey-based bond risk premia and compare them to their traditional statistical counterparts. We document large heterogeneity in skill, identify top forecasters, and learn about the importance of subjective risk premia in long-term bonds...... dynamics. The consensus is not a sufficient statistics of the cross-section of expectations and we propose an alternative real-time aggregate measure of risk premia consistent with Friedmans market selection hypothesis. We then use this measure to evaluate structural models and find support...

  4. Referral expectations of radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, W.L.; Altmaier, E.; Berberoglu, L.; Morris, K.

    1989-01-01

    The expectation of the referring physician are key to developing a successful practice in radiology. Structured interviews with 17 clinicians in both community care and academic practice documented that accuracy of the radiologic report was the single most important factor in clinician satisfaction. Data intercorrelation showed that accuracy of report correlated with frequency of referral (r = .49). Overall satisfaction of the referring physician with radiology correlated with accuracy (r = .69), patient satisfaction (r = .36), and efficiency in archiving (r = .42). These data may be weighted by departmental managers to allocate resources for improving referring physician satisfaction

  5. Centre for Political and

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    and definitions will be published and the data translated into the official ... The Centre provides a terminological and subject-related service to lecturers and ... postgraduate students in international politics, political studies and .... obtain financial contributions (cf. .... making of authoritative and enforceable rules (laws) for.

  6. Seizing Political Opportunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele; Justesen, Mogens Kamp

    2016-01-01

    Political actors need to be nimble and respond to the opportunity to reform old policies and initiate new ones. The article looks at how the European Commission takes advantage of politically opportune moments (the ‘gridlock interval’) in the European Parliament to put forward new legislation...

  7. ICTs and Political Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbin, Alice; Courtright, Christina; Davis, Leah

    2004-01-01

    Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to information and communications technologies (ICTs): (1) theories of ICTs and how they frame political life; (2) normative democratic theory and concepts; (3) e-political life; and (4) research on e-government, e-governance, and e-democracy; (Contains 276 references.) (MES)

  8. Principals' Perceptions of Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooms, Autumn K.; Kretovics, Mark A.; Smialek, Charles A.

    2007-01-01

    This study is an effort to examine principals' perceptions of workplace politics and its influence on their productivity and efficacy. A survey was used to explore the perceptions of current school administrators with regard to workplace politics. The instrument was disseminated to principals serving public schools in one Midwestern state in the…

  9. Happiness and Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Over the last thirty years, happiness research in psychology, economics and philosophy has been discussing the proper meaning of happiness and its main determinants. Moreover, the idea has spread within academic and political circles that it may be legitimate for institutions to engage in “politics...... of happiness”. This article presents a critique of the project of promoting happiness through public policies....

  10. Political Communication with Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.

    2013-01-01

    In this article I sketch the outlines of a theory of political human-animal conversations, based on ideas about language that I borrow from Ludwig Wittgenstein’s later work, in particular his notion of language-games. I present this theory as a supplement to the political theory of animal rights Sue

  11. The Politics of Encyclopaedias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fozooni, Babak

    2012-01-01

    The paper assesses the political credibility of three encyclopaedias (Encyclopaedia Britannica, Encyclopedia of Marxism and Wikipedia) in relation to three chosen topics (Friedrich Engels's biography; the political philosophy of fascism; and, the discipline of social psychology). I was interested in discerning how entries are represented and…

  12. Comparative Political Communication Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vreese, C.H.; Kenski, K.; Jamieson, K.H.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of comparative political communication research (CPCR). CPCR is a growing field since there is wide acknowledgement that many questions are not answered satisfactorily with single case studies. The chapter explains why political communication researchers should care

  13. Political Animals: The Paradox of Ecofeminist Politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandilands, Catriona

    1994-01-01

    Analyzes the paradox between the careful work of rigorous political analysis and philosophy and a desire for mystery and the experience of awe and wildness that demands putting aside careful reasoning and the sensing of nature in an altogether different way. (LZ)

  14. Civic Political Culture, Participatory Governance and Political ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    This study x-rayed the significance of civic political culture on participatory governance and its .... The literature on participatory governance theory assumes that deliberation is key to effective .... factors and capture all considerations involved in making certain that citizen interests .... vital element in any organization.

  15. The multidimensional politics of inequality: taking stock of identity politics in the U.S. Presidential election of 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Leslie; Orloff, Ann Shola

    2017-11-01

    Many Democrats hoped that a particular kind of identity politics - women's - would help Hillary Clinton win the White House. In the aftermath of the election, some commentators bemoaned the fact that a majority of white women had voted for Trump, and called it a kind of betrayal, underlining their expectation that women would naturally, on the basis of their gender identity, support a woman with women-friendly politics. Indeed, this kind of thinking about identity politics has been widespread with reference to a number of demographic groups. Meanwhile, identity politics is lamented from the right and left by those who favour a greater emphasis on class-based inequalities, or a greater national identity, some of whom blame identity politics for spawning or justifying a backlash of right-leaning populism in the US. We argue for a turn to a more robust definition of identity as multidimensional and politically mediated for understanding political alignments over the past several decades. The multidimensionality of inequality - intersectionality or complex inequality - is widely accepted in the study of gender and race across the social science disciplines but has yet to be as successfully integrated into studies of electoral politics. Thinking about women's positioning in systems of complex inequality, and how the political parties have or have not articulated the concerns of different groups of women, helps us to understand the 2016 election, as well as past and potentially future political developments. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  16. Socrates: Platonic Political Ideal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher P. Long

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay articulates the differences and suggests the similarities between the practices of Socratic political speaking and those of Platonic political writing. The essay delineates Socratic speaking and Platonic writing as both erotically oriented toward ideals capable of transforming the lives of individuals and their relationships with one another. Besides it shows that in the Protagoras the practices of Socratic political speaking are concerned less with Protagoras than with the individual young man, Hippocrates. In the Phaedo, this ideal of a Socrates is amplified in such a way that Platonic writing itself emerges as capable of doing with readers what Socratic speaking did with those he encountered. Socrates is the Platonic political ideal. The result is a picture of the transformative political power of Socratic speaking and Platonic writing both.

  17. The Politics of Dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cockburn, Patrick Joseph

    The central claim of this book is that thinking about ‘dependence’ should be at the core of political theory principally because it helps us to think about issues of economic justice. Unlike political theories that either condemn or celebrate dependence, the book argues that dependence...... is an inescapable fact of social life, neither good nor bad in itself. The real political issues are about how we as a society organise and judge various forms of dependence. And this is, in fact, what much political debate is about if we dig beneath the surface. On the one hand, we disagree about how we should...... organise vulnerability; on the other hand, we disagree about who we should condemn as parasitical. Vulnerability and parasitism are thus key concepts for understanding political debate about forms of dependence. Showing the tension between these two sides to the problem of economic dependence...

  18. Probability via expectation

    CERN Document Server

    Whittle, Peter

    1992-01-01

    This book is a complete revision of the earlier work Probability which ap­ peared in 1970. While revised so radically and incorporating so much new material as to amount to a new text, it preserves both the aim and the approach of the original. That aim was stated as the provision of a 'first text in probability, de­ manding a reasonable but not extensive knowledge of mathematics, and taking the reader to what one might describe as a good intermediate level'. In doing so it attempted to break away from stereotyped applications, and consider applications of a more novel and significant character. The particular novelty of the approach was that expectation was taken as the prime concept, and the concept of expectation axiomatized rather than that of a probability measure. In the preface to the original text of 1970 (reproduced below, together with that to the Russian edition of 1982) I listed what I saw as the advantages of the approach in as unlaboured a fashion as I could. I also took the view that the text...

  19. Gender Roles and Expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana A. Eisenchlas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available One consequence of the advent of cyber communication is that increasing numbers of people go online to ask for, obtain, and presumably act upon advice dispensed by unknown peers. Just as advice seekers may not have access to information about the identities, ideologies, and other personal characteristics of advice givers, advice givers are equally ignorant about their interlocutors except for the bits of demographic information that the latter may offer freely. In the present study, that information concerns sex. As the sex of the advice seeker may be the only, or the predominant, contextual variable at hand, it is expected that that identifier will guide advice givers in formulating their advice. The aim of this project is to investigate whether and how the sex of advice givers and receivers affects the type of advice, through the empirical analysis of a corpus of web-based Spanish language forums on personal relationship difficulties. The data revealed that, in the absence of individuating information beyond that implicit in the advice request, internalized gender expectations along the lines of agency and communality are the sources from which advice givers draw to guide their counsel. This is despite the trend in discursive practices used in formulating advice, suggesting greater language convergence across sexes.

  20. ATLAS: Exceeding all expectations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    “One year ago it would have been impossible for us to guess that the machine and the experiments could achieve so much so quickly”, says Fabiola Gianotti, ATLAS spokesperson. The whole chain – from collision to data analysis – has worked remarkably well in ATLAS.   The first LHC proton run undoubtedly exceeded expectations for the ATLAS experiment. “ATLAS has worked very well since the beginning. Its overall data-taking efficiency is greater than 90%”, says Fabiola Gianotti. “The quality and maturity of the reconstruction and simulation software turned out to be better than we expected for this initial stage of the experiment. The Grid is a great success, and right from the beginning it has allowed members of the collaboration all over the world to participate in the data analysis in an effective and timely manner, and to deliver physics results very quickly”. In just a few months of data taking, ATLAS has observed t...

  1. Satisfactory functional and radiological outcomes can be expected in young patients under 45 years old after open wedge high tibial osteotomy in a long-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantes, Michael E; Natsaridis, Prodromos; Koutalos, Antonios A; Ono, Yohei; Doxariotis, Nikolaos; Malizos, Konstantinos N

    2017-11-30

    To report the long-term outcomes of medial open wedge high tibial osteotomy (MOWHTO) for the treatment of medial compartment knee osteoarthritis in patients younger than 45 years old. It was hypothesized that the correction of knee alignment would result in preservation of knee function in a long-term follow-up. Patients under 45 years old, who underwent MOWHTO for symptomatic medial compartment knee osteoarthritis between 2001 and 2005 were retrospectively reviewed after a minimum of 10 years. The osteotomy was performed utilizing a locking plate without the use of bone graft. Patients were evaluated pre- and postoperatively using the International Knee Documentation Committee Score, the Oxford Knee Score, the Knee injury Osteoarthritis Outcome Score and the Short Form-12 Score. Standardized standing whole-limb radiographs were also obtained to assess mechanical tibiofemoral angle (mTFA) and the grade of osteoarthritis. A total of 20 patients (18 males, 2 females, mean age 35.4 years) with a mean follow-up of 12.3 years were included in the study. During the follow-up period, one patient required conversion to total knee replacement (95% survival rate). All clinical outcome scores (IKDC, KOOS, OKS, and SF-12) significantly improved postoperatively (p satisfactory and the survival rate is 95%, 12 years after the procedure. Level IV therapeutic, retrospective, cohort study.

  2. Training Therapists about Client Expectations of Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soley, Georgia; Marshall, Renee; Chambliss, Catherine

    Research has indicated that premature termination of therapy is sometimes due to a conflict in goal and outcome expectations between therapists and family members of clients. The present study requested both therapists and parents of child clients to complete questionnaires to determine if there is congruence between therapist and parental…

  3. Harnessing placebo effects by targeting expectancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peerdeman, K.J.

    2018-01-01

    Placebo effects are health improvements, for example pain reduction, due to an inert treatment. These effects are typically ascribed to a person’s expectations about the beneficial outcomes of the placebo. The literature and experimental research in the current dissertation shows that

  4. Polity size and political trust: A natural experiment using jurisdictional consolidations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sune Welling

    The paper investigates the relationship between polity size and a central aspect of democracy: Political trust. Two schools of thought (Ostrom, 1972) offer competing expectations for this relationship: The reform theory posits a positive relationship while the political economy theory posits...... the expectation from the political economy theory that political trust tends to be lower in smaller municipalities and higher in larger ones.......-reported citizen evaluations of the political community in their municipality. The empirical analysis treats the merger reform as a natural experiment and utilizes a difference-in-difference research design. The data consists of a repeated survey of 900 respondents conducted in 2001 and again in 2009. The analysis...

  5. The Prediction of Political Competencies by Political Action and Political Media Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Political competencies are often considered a precondition for political action; however, they are not independent of previous political participation, which may also include the frequency and the kind of political media consumption. My research aims at finding out the importance of participation in political activities in the past, as well as…

  6. Money, morality, and politics in the slums of Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Wilkis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Studies on the political life of the poor in Latin American have rarely focused on money, although there have been works focused on the survival strategies of the poor; political clientelism; and collective mobilizations. In this article, I analyze political life in the poor neighborhoods of Greater Buenos Aires through the lens of money that circulates within the Peronist networks. I conducted ethnography fieldwork between 2006 and 2010. Does money have a legitimate role in politics? Has the monetization of political activities dissolved values, commitments, and loyalties among the poor? Is this corruption, or is this an ethical exchange among people who lack cash but possess moral capital? Here, I analyze how money becomes necessary to strengthen commitments, loyalties, obligations, expectations, and plans for both leaders and activists. Reconstructing this process can provide a foundation for the revision of place of money in political life.

  7. Education for All: High Expectations or False Hopes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallak, Jacques

    Although the World Conference on Education for All, held in March 1990 in Jomtien, Thailand, fostered international consensus on educational goals and raised expectations, obstacles to successful achievement of education for all (EFA) must be identified. This paper describes the five most important obstacles--political factors, economic/financial…

  8. The Effect of Empowerment and Self-Determination on Health Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garces-Ozanne, Arlene; Kalu, Edna Ikechi; Audas, Richard

    2016-12-01

    There remains a persistent gap in health outcomes between wealthy and poor countries. Basic measures such as life expectancy and infant and under-five mortality remain divergent, with preventable deaths being unacceptably high, despite significant efforts to reduce these disparities. We examine the impact of empowerment, measured by Freedom House's ratings of country's political rights and civil liberties, while controlling for per capita gross domestic product, secondary school enrollment, and income inequality, on national health outcomes. Using data from 1970 to 2013 across 149 countries, our results suggest, quite strongly, that higher levels of empowerment have a significant positive association with life expectancy, particularly for females, and lower rates of infant and under-five mortality. Our results point to the need for efforts to stimulate economic growth be accompanied with reforms to increase the levels empowerment through increasing political rights and civil liberties. © 2016 Society for Public Health Education.

  9. Energy providers: customer expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pridham, N.F.

    1997-01-01

    The deregulation of the gas and electric power industries, and how it will impact on customer service and pricing rates was discussed. This paper described the present situation, reviewed core competencies, and outlined future expectations. The bottom line is that major energy consumers are very conscious of energy costs and go to great lengths to keep them under control. At the same time, solutions proposed to reduce energy costs must benefit all classes of consumers, be they industrial, commercial, institutional or residential. Deregulation and competition at an accelerated pace is the most likely answer. This may be forced by external forces such as foreign energy providers who are eager to enter the Canadian energy market. It is also likely that the competition and convergence between gas and electricity is just the beginning, and may well be overshadowed by other deregulated industries as they determine their core competencies

  10. Customer experiences and expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, C. R.

    1997-01-01

    Customer experiences and expectations from competition and cogeneration in the power industry were reviewed by Charles Morton, Director of Energy at CPC International, by describing Casco's decision to get into cogeneration in the early 1990s in three small corn milling plants in Cardinal, London and Port Colborne, Ontario, mainly as result of the threat of a 40 per cent increase in power prices. He stressed that cost competitiveness of cogeneration is entirely site-specific, but it is generally more attractive in larger facilities that operate 24 hours a day, where grid power is expensive or unreliable. Because it is reliable, cogeneration holds out the prospect of increased production-up time, as well as offering a hedge against higher energy costs, reducing the company's variable costs when incoming revenues fall short of costs, and providing an additional tool in head-to-head competition

  11. Student life - Making politics matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Siobhan

    2014-12-02

    'What has politics got to do with nursing?' This is a question I hear often as a lecturer in nursing with a specialist interest in politics, as is the comment: 'I did not come into nursing to learn about politics.'

  12. Mass Media’s Impact on Confidence in Political Institutions: The Moderating Role of Political Preferences. A Preferences-Perceptions Model of Media Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Floss, Daniela

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on mass media’s impact on citizens’ confidence in political institutions. Drawing on research within the field of political science that builds on the discrepancy theory from cognitive psychology, the paper argues that citizens’ preferences of how political institutions should work and the outcomes they should produce moderate mass media’s impact. Building on research of media framing effects on political attitudes an preference-perception model of media effects is develope...

  13. Macro Expectations, Aggregate Uncertainty, and Expected Term Premia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick, Christian D.; Schmeling, Maik; Schrimpf, Andreas

    Based on individual expectations from the Survey of Professional Forecasters, we construct a realtime proxy for expected term premium changes on long-term bonds. We empirically investigate the relation of these bond term premium expectations with expectations about key macroeconomic variables as ...

  14. A comparative study of expectant parents ' childbirth expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Bi-Chin; Gau, Meei-Ling; Wu, Shian-Feng; Kuo, Bih-Jaw; Lee, Tsorng-Yeh

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand childbirth expectations and differences in childbirth expectations among expectant parents. For convenience sampling, 200 couples willing to participate in this study were chosen from two hospitals in central Taiwan. Inclusion criteria were at least 36 weeks of gestation, aged 18 and above, no prenatal complications, and willing to consent to participate in this study. Instruments used to collect data included basic demographic data and the Childbirth Expectations Questionnaire. Findings of the study revealed that (1) five factors were identified by expectant parents regarding childbirth expectations including the caregiving environment, expectation of labor pain, spousal support, control and participation, and medical and nursing support; (2) no general differences were identified in the childbirth expectations between expectant fathers and expectant mothers; and (3) expectant fathers with a higher socioeconomic status and who had received prenatal (childbirth) education had higher childbirth expectations, whereas mothers displayed no differences in demographic characteristics. The study results may help clinical healthcare providers better understand differences in expectations during labor and birth and childbirth expectations by expectant parents in order to improve the medical and nursing system and promote positive childbirth experiences and satisfaction for expectant parents.

  15. The Specific of Political Fundraising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Евгений Викторович Смолянинов

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The following study is dedicated to the process of political fundraising as a subject of political science. Through the article one can find the definition of political fundraising and American political scientists' approaches to the analysis of this process. Comparative analysis of political fundraising in the U.S.A. and Russian Federation demonstrates that its' transparency has an important impact on public's control of lobby groups and other shadow political entities.

  16. Polite Interactions with Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benotti, Luciana; Blackburn, Patrick Rowan

    2016-01-01

    We sketch an inference architecture that permits linguistic aspects of politeness to be interpreted; we do so by applying the ideas of politeness theory to the SCARE corpus of task-oriented dialogues, a type of dialogue of particular relevance to robotics. The fragment of the SCARE corpus we...... analyzed contains 77 uses of politeness strategies: our inference architecture covers 58 of them using classical AI planning techniques; the remainder require other forms of means-ends inference. So by the end of the paper we will have discussed in some detail how to interpret automatically different forms...

  17. A Political Innovator?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yi; Lin, Yu; Andersen, Torben Juul

    2016-01-01

    ) of the CEO. Based on a sample of 381 manufacturing firms extracted from the Entrepreneurs Survey System of Chinese CEOs with 2014 data from the Jiangsu province, the study finds that political networking is positively related to explorative and exploitative innovation but negatively moderated by the CSE......Political networking is frequently used in transition economies to gain superior performance. This study draws on upper echelons theory (UET) and the resource-based view (RBV) to analyze the relationship between political networking and firm innovation moderated by the core self-evaluation (CSE...... of the CEOs....

  18. Hospitality, Tourism, and Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen W. Litvin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Government policy has a significant impact on the hospitality and tourism industry, but it is unclear if political leaders fully understand this economic sector when crafting policies. This article offers new research about the direct involvement of industry practitioners in the political process, by analyzing the backgrounds of legislators in the six New England states. The data indicate that only 3% of these legislators have current or former careers related to hospitality and tourism. The author suggests that practitioners should seek election to political office, to better influence government policy.

  19. Private political archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Chorążyczewski

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available "Private political archives" are understood by me as all acts collected intently by a private person. These acts are connected with the person's participation in political life and gathered in order to be used in public activity as the source of argumentation and information about factors and mechanisms of political processes. Private political archives of the first half of the XVI century were mainly created by royal servants, often with reference to their job duties. These duties could inspire to collect political acts for private purposes. During the reign of Sigismund Augustus, archives of gentry activists were developed to small extent and they mainly focused on parliamentary life. Private political archives were created outside the executionist movement, namely in the community gathered around the royal court. After 1572, Crown and Lithuanian magnates greatly influenced the creation of political archives. Archives of lesser gentry, scarce and poor, did not disappear completely. However, they became difficult for identification. Therefore, developmental process concerned exclusively documentary "treasure troves" created by magnates. They had the financial means and possibilities to create truly valuable political archives. The same as in the previous period the dynamisms of executionist movement was reflected in political archival documentation, now the creation of patronage system and clientele, or traditionally understood magnate oligarchy, (depending on the point of view corresponded best to archives development. The heritage of previous generations was the treasure trove of patterns and solutions. However, this trove was used selectively, on one hand giving up patterns and rights that were uncomfortable, and, on the other, giving the value of precedence to unexpected acts that gained more importance or even new content in changed political conditions. The application of interpretation principle raised interest in old acts and patterns

  20. Christianity and Political Thought

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn; Forlenza, Rosario

    2016-01-01

    This article engages with the thought of Augusto Del Noce (1910-1989), the most important Italian Catholic philosopher and political thinker of the twentieth century. The focus is on how Del Noce came to elaborate a Catholic ‘modernity,’ bridging a positive encounter between Catholicism, democracy......, and freedom. This philosophical project had a considerable impact on modern Italian culture and politics. At the theoretical level, the argument is embedded within a larger aim to recognize attempts within Catholic philosophy to articulate an Italian political trajectory that does not simply accept the tale...

  1. Multimodality, politics and ideology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machin, David; Van Leeuwen, T.

    2016-01-01

    This journal's editorial statement is clear that political discourse should be studied not only as regards parliamentary type politics. In this introduction we argue precisely for the need to pay increasing attention to the way that political ideologies are infused into culture more widely...... of power, requires meanings and identities which can hold them in place. We explain the processes by which critical multimodal discourse analysis can best draw out this ideology as it is realized through different semiotics resources. © John Benjamins Publishing Company....

  2. Wrestling with Expectations: An Examination of How Asian American College Students Negotiate Personal, Parental, and Societal Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samura, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    This research draws on a broader study that situates Asian American college students within larger sociohistorical and political contexts. I examined Asian American college students' experiences and what it means to be "Asian American" in and through these experiences. Two types of expectations emerged from the data: students' internal…

  3. Politics out of the History of Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Sartori

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Wendy Brown’s approach in Politics out of History is characterized by an attempt to analyze the presence of the past which can be read not only under the light of Nietzsche’s legacy, but also through a comparison with Hannah Arendt’s conception of the gap between the past and the future. Like Arendt, Brown aims to look at the present as the site of politics and freedom, even though the former conceives the break with tradition as the unavoidable starting point, while the latter assumes that that break is not fully accomplished because it was not recognized. Rather, it produces Wounded Attachments whose effect is that of limiting the possibility of left criticism. Moving from this parallel, Brown’s analysis is compared to the Italian philosophy of sexual difference, stressing their common interest in thinking freedom beyond a female identity built on a presumed common oppression.

  4. Privatization and Political Power in Representative Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Balle

    One of the main endeavors within ”New Public Management” (NPM) since the 1980s has been to encourage various forms of privatization in the public sector. In recent years, the involvement of private players in the provision of services in Danish municipalities has thus been increased, which makes...... it important to study the consequences of this development. In the present article, privatization is understood as the use of private service providers to provide services and focus is on what privatization means for the power of local political players. The point of departure is an expectation that a high...... degree of privatization can have far-reaching consequences for the distribution of local political power. This is illustrated empirically by a questionnaire survey of 896 municipal leaders. The main findings are that the local political actors generally have less power in municipalities with high degrees...

  5. Managing Political Information: A Malaysian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamilah Ahmad

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the development of democratization and the expression of civil and political rights of Malaysian citizens, the pattern of control developed by the regime that is currently in power (Barisan Nasional for the last 50 years in the mass media began to reap the resistance and tend to be ineffective. Malaysian citizens began to demand the Malaysian government to change the pattern of political information management. In addition, the mass media alone is expected to play a more significant role as an intermediary agent in supporting the process of transparency and accountability of government policy. This article shows that the openness of public information is a prerequisite for political democracy in Malaysia to help the government minimize the mis-management of governance policies, especially in finance and resource management.

  6. Politics of energy and the NEP: a framework and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toner, G B

    1984-01-01

    This dissertation examines the nature and evolution of Canadian energy politics, with the focus on the 1973-1983 period and on the oil and gas aspects of energy. The conceptual basis for undertaking the analysis is development and application of an integrated framework for the study of energy politics in Canada. The introduction of the National Energy Program (NEP) by the federal Liberal government in October, 1980, marked a significant conjuncture in the development of Canadian energy politics. The NEP was intended to be a signal of a revitalized central government as well as bargaining stance in the ongoing price and revenue sharing negotiations. Thus, the NEP must be understood as first and foremost a political act. This research suggests that energy politics must be understood as the outcome of conflict and consensus within the government industry and intergovernmental relationships of power, over the ability to influence and control energy developments. To attempt to explain energy politics as essentially the outcome of interaction between government and industry with intergovernmental relations simply reflecting intra-industry competition, or conversely, to explain energy politics as merely the toing and froing of competing governments, is to present a fundamentally flawed portrayed of Canadian energy politics. That is, the dynamic force driving energy politics in Canada is a three-sided set of competitive relations between governments and the industry.

  7. Reliability and concurrent validity of the Dutch hip and knee replacement expectations surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Akker-Scheek, Inge; van Raay, Jos J. A. M.; Reininga, Inge H. F.; Bulstra, Sjoerd K.; Zijlstra, Wiebren; Stevens, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Background: Preoperative expectations of outcome of total hip and knee arthroplasty are important determinants of patients' satisfaction and functional outcome. Aims of the study were (1) to translate the Hospital for Special Surgery Hip Replacement Expectations Survey and Knee Replacement

  8. The World's New Political Economy Is Politicizing Educational Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, James W.

    1991-01-01

    Contemporary education reform efforts are moving the focus of educational evaluation from professional relations to increasing consideration of managerial expectations in an increasingly politicized environment. Means of restoring an equilibrium between conventional evaluation norms/procedures and evolving expectations of the political system…

  9. Expectations from ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, P.

    2008-01-01

    Prof. Patricia Fleming, centred her presentation on ethical expectations in regulating safety for future generations. The challenge is to find a just solution, one that provides for a defensible approach to inter-generational equity. The question on equity is about whether we are permitted to treat generations differently and to still meet the demands of justice. And the question must be asked regarding these differences: 'in what ways do they make a moral difference?' She asked the question regarding the exact meaning of the ethical principle 'Radioactive waste shall be managed in such a way that predicted impacts on the health of future generations will not be greater than relevant levels of impact that are acceptable today'. Some countries have proposed different standards for different time periods, either implicitly or explicitly. In doing so, have they preserved our standards of justice or have they abandoned them? Prof. Fleming identified six points to provide with some moral maps which might be used to negotiate our way to a just solution to the disposal of nuclear waste. (author)

  10. Political Ideology, Trust, and Cooperation: In-group Favoritism among Republicans and Democrats during a US National Election

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balliet, Daniel; Tybur, Joshua M.; Wu, Junhui; Antonellis, Christian; Van Lange, Paul A.M.

    2018-01-01

    Theories suggest that political ideology relates to cooperation, with conservatives being more likely to pursue selfish outcomes, and liberals more likely to pursue egalitarian outcomes. In study 1, we examine how political ideology and political party affiliation (Republican vs. Democrat) predict

  11. Political Economies Come Home: On the Political Economies of Housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, Catherine; Bruun, Maja Hojer; Koch, Insa

    2018-01-01

    The concept of moral economies of housing centres and links the Introduction and contributions to the Special issue. A number of themes emerge. First, a variety of moral communities exist, sometimes rivalrous, sometimes internally riven, sometimes with expectations of reciprocal obligations. We...... obligations at multiple levels. Second, several actors appear, or are invoked as authorities to be appealed or performed to for satisfaction of rights, from state bodies and individuals to banks, third sector and collective organisations and social movements. Third there is often lack of clarity over how...... to assert rights or engage with authorities. Two final characteristics are the loss of a perceived moral right to a secure home and a sense of betrayal. In some places, housing conflicts lead to protests and resistance as people perform this sense that political and economic elites have violated or reneged...

  12. Political tug of war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morhart, Alexander

    2011-07-01

    Rapid expansion of the European power grid is essential for the further development of wind and solar energy. The most significant obstacles are not technical, but rather of a political nature. (orig.)

  13. Political communication research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    2014-01-01

    The rise of new media and the broader set of social changes they are part of present political communication research with new challenges and new opportunities at a time when many think the field is at an intellectual impasse (e.g., Bennett & Iyengar, 2008). In this article, I argue that parts...... of the field’s problems are rooted in the way in which political communication research has developed since the 1960s. In this period, the field has moved from being interdisciplinary and mixed-methods to being more homogenous and narrowly focused, based primarily on ideas developed in social psychology......, certain strands of political science, and the effects-tradition of mass communication research. This dominant paradigm has contributed much to our understanding of some aspects of political communication. But it is struggling to make sense of many others, including questions concerning people’s experience...

  14. Glosa about political ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćorić Dragana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Debates about political ethics aren't new. They have been present since ancient Greek philosophers. Machiavelli set some new principles, regarding amoral behavior of the prince, which could be quite legitimate and legal. He didn't invented anything new, he just admitted that, that was the reality. Some modern authors think that ethics and politics should be departed always, some other think that they should cooperate. In the end of the day, the voters are those who must face with amoral behavior of politicians, because it seems that politicians don't recognize ethics at all? Or is it just look like? In this paper, we will try in short to tell something about origins of political ethics, its burning issues, and about possible ways of implementation of political ethics and its development.

  15. Political State Boundary (National)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — State boundaries with political limit - boundaries extending into the ocean (NTAD). The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an...

  16. Gendering transnational party politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantola, Johanna; Rolandsen-Agustín, Lise

    2016-01-01

    research traditions, we build toward an analytical framework to study gender and transnational party politics. Our empirical analysis focuses on two policy issues, the economic crisis and the sexual and reproductive health and rights, analyzing European Parliament reports, debates and voting on the issues...... from 2009 to 2014. By focusing on gender equality constructions and the way in which consensus and contestation are built around them within and between party groups, we argue that shared constructions about gender equality are issue specific and change over time. Consensus breaks down along the left......In this article, we analyze transnational party politics in the European Union from a gender perspective. This is a subject that has been neglected both by mainstream European studies on party politics and by gender scholars who work on political parties. Drawing on the insights of these two...

  17. Protest Demonstrations, Political Partici

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR Nneka

    2015-04-14

    Apr 14, 2015 ... the Era of Terrorism: Nigeria's Public Order Act and the ... Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights and other international laws. But owing to the .... little sense to limit analysis of political participation to voting and electoral.

  18. Understanding political market orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan C.

    influences of such behavior. The study includes structural equation modeling to investigate several propositions. While the results show that political parties need to focus on several different aspects of market-oriented behavior, especially using an internal and external orientation as cultural antecedents......This article develops a conceptual framework and measurement model of political market orientation that consists of attitudinal and behavioural constructs. The article reports on perceived relationships among different behavioral aspects of political market orientation and the attitudinal......, a more surprising result is the inconclusive effect of a voter orientation on market-oriented behaviours. The article discusses the findings in the context of the existing literature in political marketing and commercial market orientation....

  19. Political communication in referendums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vreese, C.H.; Schuck, A.R.T.; Reinemann, C.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews research on political communication in referendums that have become increasingly popular in democracies worldwide. The authors define key characteristics of referendums, touch upon participation in and popular support for referendums, and highlight the differences between them

  20. Political conversations on Facebook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads P.

    2016-01-01

    Political conversations are according to theories on deliberative democracy essential to well-functioning democracies. Traditionally these conversations have taken place in face-to-face settings, in e.g. party meetings and town meetings. However, social media such as Facebook and Twitter offers new...... possibilities for online political conversations between citizens and politicians. This paper examines the presence on Facebook and Twitter of Members of the Danish national Parliament, the Folketing, and focusses on a quantitative mapping of the political conversation activities taking place in the threads...... following Facebook posts from Danish Members of Parliament (MPs). The paper shows that, in comparison with previous findings from other countries, Danish MPs have a relatively high degree of engagement in political conversations with citizens on Facebook – and that a large number of citizens follow MPs...

  1. Gaps in Political Interest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robison, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Political interest fundamentally influences political behavior, knowledge, and persuasion (Brady, Verba, & Schlozman, 1995; Delli Carpini & Keeter, 1996; Luskin, 1990; Zukin, Andolina, Keeter, Jenkins, & Delli Carpini, 2006). Since the early 1960s, the American National Election Studies (ANES) has...... sought to measure respondents’ general interest in politics by asking them how often they follow public affairs. In this article, we uncover novel sources of measurement error concerning this question. We first show that other nationally representative surveys that frequently use this item deliver...... drastically higher estimates of mass interest. We then use a survey experiment included on a wave of the ANES’ Evaluating Government and Society Surveys (EGSS) to explore the influence of question order in explaining this systemic gap in survey results. We show that placing batteries of political...

  2. Mixing politics and crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munksgaard, Rasmus; Demant, Jakob Johan

    2016-01-01

    Background Dread Pirate Roberts, founder of the first cryptomarket for illicit drugs named Silk Road, articulated libertarian political motives for his ventures. Previous research argues that there is a significant political component present or involved in cryptomarket drug dealing which...... is specifically libertarian. The aim of the paper is to investigate the prevalence of political discourses within discussions of cryptomarket drug dealing, and further to research the potential changes of these over the timespan of the study. Methods We develop a novel operationalization of discourse analytic...... concepts which we combine with topic modelling enabling us to study how politics are articulated on cryptomarket forums. We apply the Structural Topic Model on a corpus extracted from crawls of cryptomarket forums encompassing posts dating from 2011 to 2015. Results The topics discussed on cryptomarket...

  3. Politics or Technocracy – What Next for Global Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kickbusch, Ilona

    2016-01-01

    Politics play a central part in determining health and development outcomes as Gorik Ooms highlights in his recent commentary. As health becomes more global and more politicized the need grows to better understand the inherently political processes at all levels of governance, such as ideological positions, ideas, value judgments, and power. I agree that global health research should strengthen its contribution to generating such knowledge by drawing more on political science, such research is gaining ground. Even more important is – as Ooms indicates – that global health scholars better understand their own role in the political process. It is time to acknowledge that expert-based technocratic approaches are no less political. We will need to reflect and analyse the role of experts in global health governance to a greater extent and in that context explore the links between politics, expertise and democracy. PMID:26927593

  4. Is political behavior a viable coping strategy to perceived organizational politics? Unveiling the underlying resource dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shuhua; Chen, Huaizhong

    2017-10-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 102(10) of Journal of Applied Psychology (see record 2017-34254-001). In the article, Table 1 contained a formatting error. Correlation coefficient values in the last four cells of column 6 were misplaced with correlation coefficient values in the last four cells of column 7. All versions of this article have been corrected.] We conduct a theory-driven empirical investigation on whether political behavior, as a coping strategy to perceived organizational politics, creates resource trade-offs in moderating the relationship between perceived organizational politics and task performance. Drawing on conservation of resources theory, we hypothesize that political behavior mitigates the adverse effect of perceived organizational politics on task performance via psychological empowerment, yet exacerbates its adverse effect on task performance via emotional exhaustion. Three-wave multisource data from a sample of 222 employees and their 75 supervisors were collected for hypothesis testing. Findings supported our hypotheses. Our study enhances understandings of the complex resource dynamics of using political behavior to cope with perceived organizational politics and highlights the need to move stress-coping research from a focus on the stress-buffering effect of coping on outcomes to a focus on the underlying competing resource dynamics. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Politics of Inclusion and Empowerment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, John; Siim, Birte

    2004-01-01

    identities. Politics of empowerment has to do with the agency and mobilisation dimension of social and political change. The title of the book "Politics of Inclusion and Empowerment" address the leitmotiv: namely to discuss plussumgame between politics of inclusion and politics of empowerment......The objective of the book is to analyse different politics of inclusion and empowerment and the different paradigms of inclusion/exclusion in order to underline the close link between politics of scoial equality and politics of recognition of ciultural difference. Politics of inclusion is thus...... theproductive/innovative linkage of politics of redistributuin and politics og resognition, whnich over a longer time span creates sustainable paths of democratic and social development, which increases the capacity to handle both conflicts about economic resources and life-chances and conflicts about...

  6. Scientific and political equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stronberg, J.B.

    1978-01-01

    The conflict between technological and political decisions concerning a spent fuel policy is again proclaimed. It is pointed out that this must be a decision at the national level and that new studies on areas already studied is a method of avoiding decisions. The author states that he doubts that ''a policy, capable of implementation within a reasonable time frame,'' can be developed if restrictions are not placed ''upon the political as well as the technical community.''

  7. Redefining the political moment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Arvanitakis

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available On 16 February 2003, more than half a million people gathered in Sydney, Australia, as part of a global anti-war protest aimed at stopping the impending invasion of Iraq by the then US Administration. It is difficult to estimate how many millions marched on the coordinated protest, but it was by far the largest mobilization of a generation. Walking and chanting on the streets of Sydney that day, it seemed that a political moment was upon us. In a culture that rarely embraces large scale activism, millions around Australian demanded to be heard. The message was clear: if you do not hear us, we would be willing to bring down a government. The invasion went ahead, however, with the then Australian government, under the leadership of John Howard, being one of the loudest and staunchest supporters of the Bush Administrations drive to war. Within 18 months, anti-war activists struggled to have a few hundred participants take part in anti-Iraq war rallies, and the Howard Government was comfortably re-elected for another term. The political moment had come and gone, with both social commentators and many members of the public looking for a reason. While the conservative media was often the focus of analysis, this paper argues that in a time of late capitalism, the political moment is hollowed out by ‘Politics’ itself. That is to say, that formal political processes (or ‘Politics’ undermine the political practices that people participate in everyday (or ‘politics’. Drawing on an ongoing research project focusing on democracy and young people, I discuss how the concept of ’politics‘ has been destabilised and subsequently, the political moment has been displaced. This displacement has led to a re-definition of ‘political action’ and, I argue, the emergence of a different type of everyday politics.

  8. Military and Political Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Alexey I. Podberyozkin

    2014-01-01

    Military-political issues is an important area of research work at MGIMO. The difference in this direction from the classical international specialization is that it is at the intersection of several disciplines: military science, military-technical and military-industrial as well as International Relations. A specialist in military and political issues should not only be an expert in the field of international relations and diplomacy, but also have a deep knowledge of military-technical issu...

  9. Political Education as a Means of Political Socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabe, Weronika; Knobelsdorf, Wodzimierz

    1980-01-01

    This essay describes the dimensions of political socialization with systematic political education as a major component. Both promote individual acceptance of political norms--particularly where government and school systems are tightly linked. The authors argue that political socialization should promote effective citizenship rather than simply…

  10. Political Socialization and Political Interest: The Role of School Reassessed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskimaa, Vesa; Rapeli, Lauri

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing concern about the lack of political interest and engagement among Western youth. This has led to a revival of political socialization studies. One recent finding is that (late) adolescence is key to understanding the development of interest for politics. This study builds on this finding by examining political interest among…

  11. Lifelong Political Socialization, Consciousness and Political Agency in Israel Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Dirk

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with the nexus between biographical experiences in political extraordinary times of crisis, disaster and terror and their influence on political orientations. At the centre of interest is the reconstruction of political orientations related to two different historical-political groups of Jewish Germans who had immigrated or…

  12. The Political Parties and Political Participation in Rivers State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Political Parties and Political Participation in Rivers State, Nigeria: A Case Study of 2015 General Elections. Goddey Wilson. Abstract. The study reviewed the activities of the political parties and its impact on voters' participation in the political activities in Rivers State. In pursuit of this objective, the study generated ...

  13. The Effects of Majoring in Political Science on Political Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Casey B. K.; Smith, Keith W.; Williams, J. Michael

    2017-01-01

    This study tests, and finds support, for the hypotheses that a student who majors in political science will have stronger feelings of political competence and will be more willing to engage in hypothetical political actions than two peer groups: (a) those who major in other fields and (b) those who show an interest in politics but have not studied…

  14. The Pragmatics of Political Apology in Ghana's Contemporary Politics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discusses political apology in the 4th republic of Ghanaian contemporary politics from 2013 to 2015. It taps its data from apologetic speeches by political officials and from apologies rendered to politicians. The paper discusses the semantics and pragmatics of political apology. It examines the use of the language ...

  15. Expectations from Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blowers, A.

    2008-01-01

    Prof. A. Blowers observed that the social context within which radioactive waste management is considered has evolved over time. The early period where radioactive waste was a non-issue was succeeded by a period of intense conflict over solutions. The contemporary context is more consensual, in which solutions are sought that are both technically sound and socially acceptable. Among the major issues is that of inter-generational equity embraced in the question: how long can or should our responsibility to the future extend? He pointed out the differences in timescales. On the one hand, geo-scientific timescales are very long term, emphasizing the issue of how far into the future it is possible to make predictions about repository safety. By contrast, socio cultural timescales are much shorter, focusing on the foreseeable future of one or two generations and raising the issue of how far into the future we should be concerned. He listed. the primary expectations from society which are: safety and security to alleviate undue burdens to future generations and flexibility in order to enable the future generations to have a stake in decision making. The need to reconcile the two had led to a contemporary emphasis on phased geological disposal incorporating retrievability. However, the long timescales for implementation of disposal provided for sufficient flexibility without the need for retrievability. Future generations would inevitably have sold stake in decision making. Prof. A.. Blowers pointed out that society is also concerned with participation in decision making for implementation. The key elements for success are: openness and transparency, staged process, participation, partnership, benefits to enhance the well being of communities and a democratic framework for decision making, including the ratification of key decisions and the right for communities to withdraw from the process up to a predetermined point. This approach for decision making may also have

  16. Expected years ever married

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryohei Mogi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the second half of the 20th century, remarkable marriage changes were seen: a great proportion of never married population, high average age at first marriage, and large variance in first marriage timing. Although it is theoretically possible to separate these three elements, disentangling them analytically remains a challenge. Objective: This study's goal is to answer the following questions: Which of the three effects, nonmarriage, delayed marriage, or expansion, has the most impact on nuptiality changes? How does the most influential factor differ by time periods, birth cohorts, and countries? Methods: To quantify nuptiality changes over time, we define the measure 'expected years ever married' (EYEM. We illustrate the use of EYEM, looking at time trends in 15 countries (six countries for cohort analysis and decompose these trends into three components: scale (the changes in the proportion of never married - nonmarriage, location (the changes in timing of first marriage - delayed marriage, and variance (the changes in the standard deviation of first marriage age - expansion. We used population counts by sex, age, and marital status from national statistical offices and the United Nations database. Results: Results show that delayed marriage is the most influential factor on period EYEM's changes, while nonmarriage has recently begun to contribute to the change in North and West Europe and Canada. Period and cohort analysis complement each other. Conclusions: This study introduces a new index of nuptiality and decomposes its change into the contribution of three components: scale, location, and variance. The decomposition steps presented here offer an open possibility for more elaborate parametric marriage models.

  17. Political violence and child adjustment in Northern Ireland: Testing pathways in a social-ecological model including single-and two-parent families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E Mark; Schermerhorn, Alice C; Merrilees, Christine E; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2010-07-01

    Moving beyond simply documenting that political violence negatively impacts children, we tested a social-ecological hypothesis for relations between political violence and child outcomes. Participants were 700 mother-child (M = 12.1 years, SD = 1.8) dyads from 18 working-class, socially deprived areas in Belfast, Northern Ireland, including single- and two-parent families. Sectarian community violence was associated with elevated family conflict and children's reduced security about multiple aspects of their social environment (i.e., family, parent-child relations, and community), with links to child adjustment problems and reductions in prosocial behavior. By comparison, and consistent with expectations, links with negative family processes, child regulatory problems, and child outcomes were less consistent for nonsectarian community violence. Support was found for a social-ecological model for relations between political violence and child outcomes among both single- and two-parent families, with evidence that emotional security and adjustment problems were more negatively affected in single-parent families. The implications for understanding social ecologies of political violence and children's functioning are discussed.

  18. Political violence and child adjustment in Northern Ireland: Testing pathways in a social ecological model including single and two-parent families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E. Mark; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2013-01-01

    Moving beyond simply documenting that political violence negatively impacts children, a social ecological hypothesis for relations between political violence and child outcomes was tested. Participants were 700 mother-child (M=12.1years, SD=1.8) dyads from 18 working class, socially deprived areas in Belfast, Northern Ireland, including single- and two-parent families. Sectarian community violence was associated with elevated family conflict and children’s reduced security about multiple aspects of their social environment (i.e., family, parent-child relations, and community), with links to child adjustment problems and reductions in prosocial behavior. By comparison, and consistent with expectations, links with negative family processes, child regulatory problems and child outcomes were less consistent for nonsectarian community violence. Support was found for a social ecological model for relations between political violence and child outcomes among both single and two parent families, with evidence that emotional security and adjustment problems were more negatively affected in single-parent families. The implications for understanding social ecologies of political violence and children’s functioning are discussed. PMID:20604605

  19. Expectations from implementers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biurrun, E.; Zuidema, P.

    2008-01-01

    Enrique Biurrun (DBE) presented the expectations from the implementer. He explained that the implementer needs a framework to successfully develop a repository which means the definition of requirements and guidance (for repository system development, analysis, licences, etc.) as well as the decision-making process (stepwise approach, roles of different players, etc.). He also needs a reasonable stability of the regulatory system. The regulatory framework should be developed in a clear, reasonable and consistent manner. In the context of the long duration of the project (100 years) there will be technological progress. In that context E. Biurrun asked what is the meaning of best practice. How can one deal with judgmental issues in a step-wise approach? Regulatory criteria and guidance must deal with the repository system for which an iterative process is necessary where dialogue is needed with the regulator despite the need to maintain his independence. The safety case, which is a periodic documentation of the status of the project, must provide a synthesis of the underlying scientific understanding and evidence and becomes part of the design process through feedback. E. Biurrun pointed out that safety is not calculated or assessed, but designed and built into the repository system (by geological and engineered barriers). He stressed the importance of the operational aspects since the implementer has to build and operate the repository safely. He asked the question: is it 'Ethical' to buy 'peace of mind' of some stakeholders with casualties of the implementer's staff because of mining accidents if the repository is left open during a phase of reversibility. The implementer needs dependable criteria, legal security and investment security. He interpreted the 'Precautionary principle' as meaning 'do it now'. Long-lasting solutions are very uncertain. Will we heave the money and the technology to do it later? He made some reflections regarding the ethical need to

  20. Political Culture and the Nature of Political Participation in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    political socialization . Political-cultural values are gradually internalized within the society and political behavior is largely reflective of...the extent to which the regime used education as a means of political socialization : Socialism is articulated as a Muslim theory of socialism. The head... political socialization except for a brief period during the mobilization program of Ali Sabri. Egypt’s party system has been more relevant for

  1. Political Diversity in Social and Personality Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inbar, Yoel; Lammers, Joris

    2012-09-01

    A lack of political diversity in psychology is said to lead to a number of pernicious outcomes, including biased research and active discrimination against conservatives. We surveyed a large number (combined N = 800) of social and personality psychologists and discovered several interesting facts. First, although only 6% described themselves as conservative "overall," there was more diversity of political opinion on economic issues and foreign policy. Second, respondents significantly underestimated the proportion of conservatives among their colleagues. Third, conservatives fear negative consequences of revealing their political beliefs to their colleagues. Finally, they are right to do so: In decisions ranging from paper reviews to hiring, many social and personality psychologists said that they would discriminate against openly conservative colleagues. The more liberal respondents were, the more they said they would discriminate. © The Author(s) 2012.

  2. Geopolitics of energy versus geoenergy of politics

    OpenAIRE

    VIDAKIS IOANNIS; Baltos Georgios; Balodis Janis

    2018-01-01

    This study focuses on the significance of energy resources, supply networks and security, recognizing their key role in the analysis and interpretation of national and international politics and economics. Furthermore, the pursuit of ensuring guaranteed availability of oil and natural gas in the desirable quantities is gradually expected to play a pivotal role in the foreign policies and priorities of all the countries on the planet, especially those of the 'Great Powers' having increased dep...

  3. Geopolitics of energy versus geoenergy of politics

    OpenAIRE

    VIDAKIS, Ioannis; BALTOS, Georgios; BALODIS, Janis

    2017-01-01

    Published version PDF deposited in Cadmus for personal research purposes only. This study focuses on the significance of energy resources, supply networks and security, recognizing their key role in the analysis and interpretation of national and international politics and economics. Furthermore, the pursuit of ensuring guaranteed availability of oil and natural gas in the desirable quantities is gradually expected to play a pivotal role in the foreign policies and priorities of all the co...

  4. Has Political Science Ignored Religion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettell, Steven

    2012-01-01

    A common complaint from political scientists involved in the study of religion is that religious issues have been largely overlooked by political science. Through a content analysis of leading political science and sociology journals from 2000 to 2010, this article considers the extent of this claim. The results show that political science…

  5. AXIOLOGICAL POTENTIAL OF POLITICAL NICKNAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHUSTOVA IRINA NIKOLAEVNA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of axiological possibilities of political nicknames. Political nicknames are very expressive. They can be personal and impersonal. Some nicknames lose their primary meaning to become a part of evaluative political lexis. In the language of politics nicknames often serve not only as means of assessment, but also as ideological weapon.

  6. Politics of inclusion and empowerment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, John; Siim, Birte

    The book examines the political and academic debates about the interplay between political, civil and social citizenship in US and Europe......The book examines the political and academic debates about the interplay between political, civil and social citizenship in US and Europe...

  7. Social gradient in life expectancy and health expectancy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Andersen, Otto; Kjøller, Mette

    2004-01-01

    Health status of a population can be evaluated by health expectancy expressed as average lifetime in various states of health. The purpose of the study was to compare health expectancy in population groups at high, medium and low educational levels.......Health status of a population can be evaluated by health expectancy expressed as average lifetime in various states of health. The purpose of the study was to compare health expectancy in population groups at high, medium and low educational levels....

  8. A review of expectancy theory and alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B T; Corbin, W; Fromme, K

    2001-01-01

    Research is reviewed on the association between alcohol outcome expectancies and consumption which has led many to argue that manipulating expectancies might be a route to manipulating consumption for problem prevention and treatment. Studies indirectly and directly evaluating this latter position are reviewed. Expectancies predicting treatment outcome: two studies have shown that the more positive expectancies held at treatment, the poorer is treatment outcome, but five other studies have failed to find this. Three related studies have shown that the more negative expectancies held at treatment, the better the treatment outcome. This evaluation provides evidence inconsistent with the main position for positive expectancy and limited support for negative. Expectancy manipulations and ad libitum consumption: three studies in the laboratory have shown that increasing positive expectancies through word priming increases subsequent consumption and two studies have shown that increasing negative expectancies decreases it. A single study in the field showed a similar relationship. This evaluation provides evidence consistent with the main position but is limited by measuring consumption changes over only 1-2 hours. Prevention programmes with expectancy components: seven projects are reviewed in which positive expectancies were targeted, but only two report an expectancy change analysis and in both cases the expectancy change did not relate to subsequent consumption. This evaluation provides evidence inconsistent with the main position. Expectancy challenge: two related studies are reviewed in which positive expectancy challenges reduce subsequent consumption but changes in expectancy were not evaluated as predictors of consumption change. Two studies are reviewed which found a reduction in positive expectancy following expectancy challenge but no reduction in consumption. One study is reviewed in which when negative expectancy was increased in treatment there was a

  9. [Heath and political regimes: presidential or parliamentary government for Colombia?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrovo, Alvaro J

    2007-01-01

    Changing the presidential regime for a parliamentarian one is currently be-ing discussed in Colombia. This preliminary study explores the potential effects on health of both presidential and parliamentary regimes by using world-wide data. An ecological study was undertaken using countries from which comparable information concerning life-expectancy at birth, political regime, economic development, inequality in income, social capital (as measured by general-ised trust or Corruption Perceptions Index), political rights, civil freedom and cultural diversity could be obtained. Life-expectancy at birth and macro-determinants were compared between both political regimes. The co-relationship between these macro-determinants was estimated and the relationship between political regimen and life-expectancy at birth was estimated using robust regression. Crude analysis revealed that parliamentary countries have greater life-expectancy at birth than countries having a presidential regime. Significant co-relationships between all macro-determinants were observed. No differential effects were observed between both political regimes regarding life-expectancy at birth in multiple robust regressions. There is no evidence that presidential or parliamentary regimes provide greater levels of health for the population. It is suggested that public health policies be focused on other macro-determinants having more known effects on health, such as income inequality.

  10. Political Economy: Success or Failure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno S. Frey

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Political Economy and Public Choice approaches have promoted the study of interactions between the economy and the polity for over 60 years now. The present paper endeavours to provide a critical discussion of this literature and its achievements. In particular, it begins with the different approaches based on empirically tested or politometric models and it then proceeds to discuss different studies of the effects that particular rules of the game have on politico-economic outcomes. The third section of the paper will address studies that take institutions to be endogenous and aims to explain why particular institutions emerge. Finally, the question of whether Political Economy has been a success or a failure will be tackled. While the success in terms of the position it has gained in economic research and teaching is undeniable, a look at one of the most thriving recent areas of economics, happiness research, will reveal that some of its fundamental lessons are all too often disregarded.

  11. Military and Political Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey I. Podberyozkin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Military-political issues is an important area of research work at MGIMO. The difference in this direction from the classical international specialization is that it is at the intersection of several disciplines: military science, military-technical and military-industrial as well as International Relations. A specialist in military and political issues should not only be an expert in the field of international relations and diplomacy, but also have a deep knowledge of military-technical issues to understand the basic trends in the development of scientific and technological progress and its impact on the balance of forces in the world. Global changes in the balance of power and the nature of the conflict, the emergence of new types of weapons are changing the basic methods and approaches to the art of war, which requires a science-based perspective on problem solving and multi-disciplinary approach in achieving the goals. Military and political studies allow us to understand how the development of military technology and military organization of the state affected by the political situation in the world, the national security of the country and its place in the system of international relations. Military-political research has been developing at MGIMO for a few decades. It laid down the basis for a scientific school of political-military studies. Its founding fathers were such prominent scholars of international affairs, as I.G. Usachyov, A.D. Nikonov, A.G. Arbatov, V.G. Baranovsky, V.M. Kulagin, A.N. Nikitin and other well-known experts. Their work covers a wide range of military and political issues, including the topics of arms control and disarmament, international, and especially European security, military policy, NATO, the Western military-political doctrines and their practical application. Now the lead in the development of this research at MGIMO has taken Center for Military-Political Studies, which became a concentration of relevant

  12. The political downside of dual identity: group identifications and religious political mobilization of Muslim minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinovic, Borja; Verkuyten, Maykel

    2014-12-01

    Research on the political mobilization of ethnic minorities has shown that dual ethno-national identification facilitates involvement in political action on behalf of the ethnic group. This study extends this research by proposing that a dual identity can impede political mobilization on behalf of another relevant in-group--the religious community - especially if this in-group is not accepted by the wider society. Using a sample of 641 Muslims of Turkish origin living in Germany and the Netherlands, dual ethno-national identity (Turkish-German/Turkish-Dutch) was examined in relation to religious Muslim identification and religious political mobilization. Dual identity was expected to be indirectly related to lower mobilization via decreased religious group identification. Further, this mediating process was predicted to be stronger for Turkish Muslims who perceived relatively high religious group discrimination. In both countries we found support for the mediating hypothesis, however, the moderating role of discrimination was confirmed only for the Netherlands. Turkish-Dutch identification was associated with lower support for religious political mobilization because of lower Muslim identification only for Turkish-Dutch participants who perceived high levels of discrimination. These findings indicate that a strong dual (ethno-national) identity can undermine minority members' support for political rights and actions on behalf of a third relevant in-group, and therefore qualify the social psychological benefits of the dual identity model. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  13. Political analysis using R

    CERN Document Server

    Monogan III, James E

    2015-01-01

    Political Analysis Using R can serve as a textbook for undergraduate or graduate students as well as a manual for independent researchers. It is unique among competitor books in its usage of 21 example datasets that are all drawn from political research. All of the data and example code is available from the Springer website, as well as from Dataverse (http://dx.doi.org/10.7910/DVN/ARKOTI). The book provides a narrative of how R can be useful for addressing problems common to the analysis of public administration, public policy, and political science data specifically, in addition to the social sciences more broadly. While the book uses data drawn from political science, public administration, and policy analyses, it is written so that students and researchers in other fields should find it accessible and useful as well. Political Analysis Using R is perfect for the first-time R user who has no prior knowledge about the program. By working through the first seven chapters of this book, an entry-level user sho...

  14. Women and political representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, P B

    1999-01-01

    A remarkable progress in women's participation in politics throughout the world was witnessed in the final decade of the 20th century. According to the Inter-Parliamentary Union report, there were only eight countries with no women in their legislatures in 1998. The number of women ministers at the cabinet level worldwide doubled in a decade, and the number of countries without any women ministers dropped from 93 to 48 during 1987-96. However, this progress is far from satisfactory. Political representation of women, minorities, and other social groups is still inadequate. This may be due to a complex combination of socioeconomic, cultural, and institutional factors. The view that women's political participation increases with social and economic development is supported by data from the Nordic countries, where there are higher proportions of women legislators than in less developed countries. While better levels of socioeconomic development, having a women-friendly political culture, and higher literacy are considered favorable factors for women's increased political representation, adopting one of the proportional representation systems (such as a party-list system, a single transferable vote system, or a mixed proportional system with multi-member constituencies) is the single factor most responsible for the higher representation of women.

  15. Auctioning access to networks: evidence and expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDaniel, T.

    2003-01-01

    Under very strict assumptions the outcomes that make common auction designs theoretically attractive can be expected to emerge: goods will go to those who value them most and the allocation will maximize revenue for the auctioneer. In network industries such as electricity, gas, telecommunications, rail, and airlines where agents are of different sizes and incumbency these assumptions do not always apply for a number of reasons. For example, the auctioned product may be an intermediate good, bidders are not symmetric with respect to values and information, markets are mixed, and property rights are hard to define. We discuss why it is not straightforward to make theoretical predictions about expected outcomes for these industries and use the British gas industry to discuss the importance of competition and scarcity for auctions of network capacity. (Author)

  16. In the grip of betrayed expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarić Isidora

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the position of young people in Serbia today, as can be inferred from the evidence collected in the study "Politics and everyday life - three years later". Starting from the typology she developed in her 2002 analysis of young people’s interviews (when four basic ways of self-positioning within the social context were identified: "B92 generation", "provincials", "fundamentalists", and "guests", the author traces the changes that have intervened over the past three years in the attitudes of these same respondents concerning politics, personal engagement, views of the future and of their own selves. The fact that the expectations, awakened by the events of 5 October 2000, have been betrayed, has brought strong disappointment, and it is the context in which young people in Serbia once again are losing faith that they will ever find their place in their own society. Against the background of a basic tension in relation to politics - between excessive interest and disgust - there basic strategies of young people in 2005 are formed. "Withdrawal", as the most common strategy, indicates a return of the young to their narrow personal, private, imaginary world, after a short exit into reality and active participation in creating the conditions of their own social existence. The increasingly frequent strategy of "aggression and imposition of one’s own worldview" points to the rising radicalization of the young generation. Finally, it is only the "planning strategy", espoused by just a handful of respondents, that retains traces of faith in future improvement of social conditions.

  17. Essays in Labor Economics and Political Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmon, Nikolaj Arpe

    This dissertation consists of three chapters, each representing a self-contained research paper in labor economics and political economy. The first chapter studies the impact of immigration and ethnic diversity on political outcomes in immigrant-receiving countries, focusing on the case of immigr......This dissertation consists of three chapters, each representing a self-contained research paper in labor economics and political economy. The first chapter studies the impact of immigration and ethnic diversity on political outcomes in immigrant-receiving countries, focusing on the case...... in particular. The effects appear present both in municipal and national elections, despite the very different issues decided at the two levels of government. The second chapter (co-authored with Raymond Fisman, Emir Kamenica and Inger Munk) studies the effect of a salary reform in the European Parliament...... to learn about the impact of salaries on the behavior and composition of legislators. Increases in salaries cause large increases in the willingness to hold office but do not affect the level of effort exerted while in office. For the composition of legislators, increases in salaries leads to elected...

  18. Politics as Culture: Contribution of Political Science to Democratic Maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Padjen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the contribution of Croatian political science to the development of democracy in Croatia. The focus of the analysis is the concept of culture which author talks about in five steps. In the first step it is understood in the modern key, in the second step as different for nature and in the third as different from society. In the fourth step author differentiates political culture from political economy and political institutions, but in the fifth part there is an attempt to show culture as a fundamental part of politics, policy and polity. On the basis of these insights author shows that the matrix of Croatian political science is more and more devoted to scientific investigation of politics as culture as both study of political culture and as a source of development as politics as culture.

  19. Color-Coding Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Gross

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available During the 2000 Presidential election between George H. W. Bush and Al Gore, journalists often used the terms blue states and red states to describe the political landscape within the United States. This article studies the framing of these terms during the years 2004 through 2007. Using latent and manifest qualitative content analyses, six different news media frames were found in a sample of 337 newspaper articles. Two hypotheses were also tested indicating that framing patterns varied slightly by time period and article types. However, the argument that increased levels of political polarization in the United States have been created by predominantly conflict-oriented coverage may not be true. Instead, these terms became journalistic heuristics that were used to organize how people think about politics in a way that fit with contemporary media practices, and there is no single agreed upon interpretation of these terms within this reporting.

  20. The political attack ad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palma Peña-Jiménez, Ph.D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During election campaigns the political spot has a clear objective: to win votes. This message is communicated to the electorate through television and Internet, and usually presents a negative approach, which includes a direct critical message against the opponent, rather than an exposition of proposals. This article is focused on the analysis of the campaign attack video ad purposely created to encourage the disapproval of the political opponent among voters. These ads focus on discrediting the opponent, many times, through the transmission of ad hominem messages, instead of disseminating the potential of the political party and the virtues and manifesto of its candidate. The article reviews the development of the attack ad since its first appearance, which in Spain dates back to 1996, when the famous Doberman ad was broadcast, and examines the most memorable campaign attack ads.

  1. Politics of Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    Uranium is the most political of all the elements, the material for the production of both the large amounts of electricity and the most destructive weapons in the world. The problems that its dual potential creates are only now beginning to become evident. Author Norman Moss looks at this situation and sheds light on many of the questions that emerge. The nuclear issue always comes back to how much uranium there is, what can be done with it, and which countries have it. Starting with a concise history of uranium and explaining its technology in terms the nonspecialist can understand, The Politics of Uranium considers the political issues that technical arguments obscure. It tells the little-known story of the international uranium cartel, explains the entanglements of governments with the uranium trade, and describes the consequences of wrong decisions and blunders-especially the problems of nuclear waste. It also examines the intellectual and emotional roots of the anti-nuclear movement

  2. Inclusion as political mobilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anne Mette; Muwanga, Nansozi

    2016-01-01

    constituencies. Finally, there is relatively weak pressure to push through education quality-enhancing reforms, be it from civil society in general, powerful interest groups, or parliament. At the local level, we find that how a school is situated within local elite networks is important in explaining local...... to implement qualityenhancing policies, first, because the formal and informal governance arrangements allow for a system of decentralised rent management that serves to appease lower level factions. Secondly, the NRM government is caught in the rhetoric of allowing free education in an appeal to rural......Uganda has been successful in broadening access to education. However, this achievement has been undermined by low literacy and numeracy levels and high drop-out rates. A political settlement perspective sheds light on the politics of education reforms. We find that there are weak political drives...

  3. Education and the political

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Morten Timmermann

    This paper presents the controversial separation of education from the realm of the political as proposed by Hannah Arendt. For the sake of children and the future of the world, we must, according to Arendt, separate education from the political. If we do not do so, we not only expose our children...... to claim that this separation is based on a psychological misunderstanding and that it renders children incapable of political action. I propose here that, by considering the separation instead to be a question of protection, not only can we heed the two essences of education that Arendt articulates...... in The Crisis in Education, namely natality and conservation, but we can also form a clearer understanding of the separation and of her educational thinking more broadly....

  4. Politics at the interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kannabiran, Gobinaath; Petersen, Marianne Graves

    2010-01-01

    At the birth of participatory design, there was a strong political consciousness surrounding the design of new technology, the design process in particular, establishing a rich set of methods and tools for user-centered design. Today, the term design has extended its scope of concern beyond...... the process of design and into how users interact with the designed product on a day-to-day basis. This paper is an attempt to call to attention the need for a new set of methods, attitudes and approaches, along with the existing, to discuss, analyze and reflect upon the politics at the interface....... By presenting a critical analysis of two design cases, we elicit the importance of such an agenda and the implications for design in doing so. We use the Foucauldian notion of power to analyze the power relationships in these two cases and to articulate the politics at the interface. We conclude by emphasizing...

  5. Education and the political

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Morten Timmermann

    This paper presents the controversial separation of education from the realm of the political as proposed by Hannah Arendt. For the sake of children and the future of the world, we must, according to Arendt, separate education from the political. If we do not do so, we not only expose our children...... to the blinding light of public existence before they are prepared for such exposure but also risk imposing on them our beliefs and prejudices, thus robbing them of the opportunity to create something new. By reading Arendt’s argumentation for the separation as developmental and temporal, Gert Biesta is able...... to claim that this separation is based on a psychological misunderstanding and that it renders children incapable of political action. I propose here that, by considering the separation instead to be a question of protection, not only can we heed the two essences of education that Arendt articulates...

  6. Multiple chronic conditions and life expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DuGoff, Eva H; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Buttorff, Christine

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The number of people living with multiple chronic conditions is increasing, but we know little about the impact of multimorbidity on life expectancy. OBJECTIVE: We analyze life expectancy in Medicare beneficiaries by number of chronic conditions. RESEARCH DESIGN: A retrospective cohort...... study using single-decrement period life tables. SUBJECTS: Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries (N=1,372,272) aged 67 and older as of January 1, 2008. MEASURES: Our primary outcome measure is life expectancy. We categorize study subjects by sex, race, selected chronic conditions (heart disease, cancer...... and increasing numbers of comorbid conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Social Security and Medicare actuaries should account for the growing number of beneficiaries with multiple chronic conditions when determining population projections and trust fund solvency....

  7. Destructiveness in Political Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Яна Александровна Волкова

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Destructiveness is among the fundamental discourse categories that play a significant role in the organization of communicative interaction and define the pragmatics of discourse; its study helps to understand some mechanisms and principles of communication, identify strategies and tactics used by a destructive communicative personality. The relevance of this study is determined by the increasing aggressiveness in various types of discourse, and, accordingly, by the need to extend the knowledge of destructive behavior of a communicative personality. The study is based on the theory of discourse-analysis and theory of destructiveness (Z. Harris, T. van Dijk, A. Buss, E. Fromm, D. Ponton, K. Hacker, R. Wodak. N. Arutyunova, V. Karasik, M. Makarov, E. Sheigal et al. Developing the theory of destructiveness and relying on Erich Fromm’s research (1973, we specify the concept of “destructiveness” in relation to the political discourse and compare it with the related concept of aggressiveness. The paper analyses the category of destructiveness in modern US political discourse, using excerpts from the speeches of the candidates for presidency of 2016. Particular attention is paid to the dominant destructive intention - to harm the reputation of the opponent and reduce his political chances, as well as to the functions of verbal aggression: on the one hand - to discredit the opponent, bring accusations, on the other hand - to poison the audience mind against him/her and arouse the feeling of danger posed by a political opponent. The analysis of verbal and nonverbal means of destructiveness in the US political discourse is carried out. The article concludes that abusive remarks of politicians do not result from spontaneous emotional outburst, but from an elaborated destructive strategy where the agonistic nature of political discourse stipulates the use of instrumental aggression (Buss, 1971 for the sake of the conquest of power, lowering the

  8. How politicians make decisions under risk: a political choice experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique Fatás; Tibor Neugebauer; Pilar Tamborero

    2004-01-01

    We report on an experimental study with real-world politicians. These political experts face political choice problems under risk and probability. Thus, we test the frequently observed violations of rational choice theory -the reference point effect, loss aversion, framing effects, and the common ratio effect- with experts from the field. Their choices violate expected utility theory. Nevertheless, they appear to be more rational and less risk averse (loving) in the domain of gains (losses) t...

  9. Divided politics and economic growth in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Batalla, Eric Vincent C.

    2016-01-01

    As the 2016 elections drew near and the prospects of a Rodrigo Duterte presidency became stronger, there were concerns that the economy might be adversely affected by the expected political volatility under the new regime. Since the start of the campaign season, Duterte had been rocking the establishment through controversial pronouncements and outbursts, attracting the enmity of leaders of the Catholic Church, the United States, and the United Nations. Based on a review of recent political a...

  10. The Politics of Whitelisting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leander, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This article looks closely at the politics of whitelists in commercial security. It argues that whitelists are essential for the current transformations in regulatory politics in which Codes of Conduct, Best Practices, Benchmarks and Standards are replacing more conventional, legally binding forms...... of regulation. The article traces how whitelists are tied to these transformations. The account is organized around how the practical, pragmatic and poetic character of lists (Umberto Eco) fashion the work and topological imprint (Manuel DeLanda) of whitelists in commercial security specifically. The article...

  11. Environmental groups in politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, P.; Goyder, J.

    1983-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introduction; (Part I) the environmental movement (environmental groups and the attentive public; the episodic development of the environmental movement; the underlying values of environmentalism; the roots of environmental concern; the social limits to growth; elite manipulation of values); the organisation of environmental groups; environmental groups in national politics; environmental groups in local politics; (Part II) the Henley Society; Friends of the Earth; the National Trust; the Royal Society for Nature Conservation; the European Environmental Bureau. (U.K.)

  12. Economy and energy politic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    This book, divided into four parts, describes, first, energy consumption and national economy growth. In a second part, the irresistible ascent of coal, natural gas and petroleum international markets is studied. In the third part, energy politic is investigated: exchanges releasing, prices deregulation, contestation of power industry monopoly, energy national market and common energetic politic, single market concept. In the last part, global risks and world-wide regulations are given: demand, energy resources, technical changes, comparative evaluations between fossil, nuclear and renewable energies, environment, investments financing and international cooperation. 23 refs., 14 figs., 16 tabs

  13. Epistemological or Political?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Dorte

    2018-01-01

    in a consolidated field. It is argued that if we envisage a consolidated field of IDS, there is a need to develop common ground which calls for scholars of ID to be more explicit about the meanings they ascribe to ID than we see today when the sliding between the epistemological and political dimensions...... of the field may go unnoticed. It is suggested that whereas ambiguity may be unwanted in the epistemological dimension, it may be quite useful in the political dimension. A systematic comparison of opposite positions offers a common frame of reference for a more productive dialogue between different positions...

  14. Poetry, philosophy, political

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Pucheu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Considering how persistently a certain amount of specialized critics work to diminish contemporary Brazilian poetry, this essay seeks to conceive an articulation among poetry, philosophy and politics. We atempt to do that, on the one hand, through the philosophical concepts of aporia and wonder (thaumazein, and, on the another hand, by considering what Giorgio Agamben refers to as “an insurmontable disjunction between whatever singularity and the State organization”. Among the many poets that could be approached in this context, we chose to close the text with an interpretation some of Tarso de Melo's remarkably and explicitly political poems.

  15. Foucault's Political Challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    If one reads Michel Foucault "backward," so to speak, one can sense the contours of a "big narrative" of "the political" which is founded on the claim that "Where there is obedience there cannot be parrhesia" (Foucault, 2011, p. 336). What Foucault is doing with this sentence is breaking the circle...... from showing how obedience is incompatible with a politics of truth. The unity created by centralized domination, he holds, is democratically "false," however legitimate it may be. There can be no real democracy where laypeople are commanded to hand over their capacity and right to govern themselves...

  16. Internationalist Political Thought

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, J. C.

    2017-01-01

    One rather striking description of what lies behind the various phenomena we now refer to with the term "globalisation" comes to us from the chairman of Magna International, a Canadian-owned auto-parts manufacturer whose production lines are located in Mexico. "To be in business," he states, "your first mandate is to make money, and money has no heart, soul, conscience, homeland" (Henwood, 1997, 113). If this is the world of business and money, might politics be its obverse? To be sure, polit...

  17. Terrorism and Political Parties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourne, Angela

    In the paper I address the empirical puzzle arising from different responses by political authorities in Spain and the UK to the existence of political parties integrated in the terrorist groups Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA, Basque Homeland and Freedom) and the Irish Republican Army (IRA). More...... for realization of free speech rights and representation is also emphasized, and where proscription is seen as inimical to resolution of conflict underpinning violence. In the context of party competition, a winning coalition is required for one discourse to predominate. However, I also argued that both ideas...

  18. The politics of digits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Asmus Leth

    2013-01-01

    -endings data. Second, nine-ending and other higher-end decimals are found to be over-represented which echoes odd pricing research. It suggests that incumbents take voters’ biases into account and apply odd taxes to minimize the political costs of taxation while maximizing revenue. Attention should be given......From the concept of odd pricing, i.e., setting rightmost price digits below a whole number, this paper advances the political counterpart of odd taxation using a panel of Danish municipal taxes. First, the distribution of tax decimals is non-uniform and resembles the distribution of price...

  19. Politics of environmental regulation: acid rain in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogarth Wood, G P

    1984-01-01

    This study looks at the case of the Ontario government and Inco Limited in order to explain political responses to the acid rain issue and to generalize about the dynamics of environmental regulation. Existing accounts of the acid rain situation neglect a systematic explanation of the political processes that guide the selection of policy. This reflects a tendency in Canadian public policy analysis generally. Most literature in this field is both apolitical and atheoretical. In addition, most models of public policy focus attention on a narrow range of policy determinants, making the models inappropriate as exclusive guides for public policy analysis. This study follows an approach that assumes that no variable can, a priori, be viewed as the primary determinant of a policy choice. Instead, relevant features of the economic, social, and political environment surrounding the policy process have to be examined in addition to that process itself. Accordingly, a number of potential influences on the acid rain policy outcome in Ontario are explored: the economic structure of Ontario, political-geographic factors, the role of science and technology, political power in the province, political values and attitudes, the institutional structure of Ontario politics, and finally, the policy process itself. This exercise points to the overriding influence of the political system environment, particularly the economic structure of the province, in explaining the policy choice. The findings of this study can be extended to explain regulatory responses to the issue in other political jurisdictions.

  20. Political pressure on nuclear - responsibility or business?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrech, Rastislav; Holy, Robert

    2001-01-01

    respectively). Without this compromise of the Slovak Government we would not be invited to talks on joining the European Union. There is a similar situation in Bulgaria and Lithuania. The governments of the countries were forced to a compromise solutions and promised that Kozloduy or Ignalina NPP's respectively would be shut down in a close future, to be invited to talks about joining the EU. Another example is Sweden. Based on the pressure of greens to shut down NPP's, the unit 1 of Barsebaeck was shut down (in 1999 - with no technical justification) for a huge governmental compensation to the operator. This resulted in increased electricity imports from Danish and German coal-fired plants - causing indirect rise in CO 2 emission by 4 million tons per year (8 % of the total Swedish emissions). This is probably why 78% of the Swedish disagree with nuclear power phaseout. It is confirmed that the plans of premature shutdown of Barsebaeck-2 is postponed from the originally suggested date (1st July 2001). In Germany also more than 60 % of the population believes that step-by-step shut down of NPP's is not realistic in short-term. There are indices from other countries with well-developed nuclear power industry, such as USA, France, and Finland, that nuclear power renaissance can be expected in the future. The fresh examples of the Czech Temelin NPP and Mochovce (Slovakia) are very similar: halt of construction due to financial reasons, replacement of some plant systems, completion under a strong opposition and political pressure of greens supported by Austrian Government, the same accusations and complaints, etc. The opponents also have similar scenarios in both cases. The Austrian and greens started massive campaigns prior to initial fuel loading and were trying very hard to postpone the commissioning process. Austria lost the nuclear war in Slovakia and so will they lose in the Czech Republic. The compromise promised by the Czech Prime Minister - development of a new

  1. Political participation of registered nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenhouten, Christine L; Malakar, Crystalmichelle L; Kubsch, Sylvia; Block, Derryl E; Gallagher-Lepak, Susan

    2011-08-01

    Level of political participation and factors contributing to participation were measured among Midwest RNs (n = 468) via an online survey (Cronbach's α = .95). Respondents reported engaging in primarily "low cost" activities (e.g., voting, discussing politics, and contacting elected officials), with fewer reporting speaking at public gatherings, participating in demonstrations, and membership in nursing organizations. Psychological engagement was most predictive (p political participation with the dimensions of political interest, political efficacy, and political information/knowledge highly significant (p political participation (p political content and did not prepare them for political participation. Findings showed that nurse educators and leaders of professional nursing organizations need to model and cultivate greater psychological engagement among students and nurses.

  2. Enhancing Political Participation in Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloyd George Waller

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Youth participation through political talk appears to be shifting to the online public sphere in many parts of the world. Many attribute this shift to online social networks such as Facebook. Emerging research seem to suggest that this may be a cure for the problem of political apathy among the youth. This study explores such a possibility in Jamaica. In all, 752 youth ages 15 to 24 were surveyed to ascertain whether Facebook encourages political talk among this age cohort, and what if any are the primary factors that discourage this practice. The findings suggest that (a Facebook is an extension of offline political talk among the civically engaged and politically charged youth of Jamaica; (b Facebook does not substantively encourage political talk among the politically apathetic Jamaican youth; and (c fear of political victimization is the primary factor that discourages many Jamaican youth to engage in political talk on Facebook.

  3. Climate Change Beliefs Count: Relationships With Voting Outcomes at the 2010 Australian Federal Election

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rod McCrea

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is a political as well as an environmental issue. Climate change beliefs are commonly associated with voting behaviour, but are they associated with swings in voting behaviour? The latter are arguably more important for election outcomes. This paper investigates the predictive power of these beliefs on voting swings at the 2010 Australian federal election after controlling for a range of other related factors (demographic characteristics of voters, different worldviews about nature and the role of government, and the perceived opportunity cost of addressing climate change. Drawing on data from two nationally representative surveys of voters and data from the Australian Electoral Commission, this paper investigates relationships between climate change beliefs and voting swings at both the individual and electorate levels. At an individual level, a hypothetical 10% change in climate change beliefs was associated with a 2.6% swing from a conservative Coalition and a 2.0% swing toward Labor and 1.7% toward the Greens party, both left on the political spectrum. At the electorate level, this equates to a shift of 21 seats between the two main political parties (the Coalition and Labor in Australia’s 150 seat parliament, after allocating Green preferences. Given many seats are marginal, even modest shifts in climate change beliefs can be associated with changes in electoral outcomes. Thus, climate change is expected to remain a politically contested issue in countries like Australia where political parties seek to distinguish themselves, in part, by their responses to climate change.

  4. “I Can Share Politics But I Don’t Discuss It”: Everyday Practices of Political Talk on Facebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Mascheroni

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article explores how a group of young people in Germany, Italy, and the United Kingdom experience and manage informal political talk on Facebook. Based on 60 interviews with 14- to 25-year-olds with diverse interest and participation in politics, it understands political talk as a social achievement dependent on the situational definition, shaped by the perceived imagined audiences, shared expectations, and technological affordances. Results show that young people construct different interactional contexts on Facebook depending on their political experiences, but also on their understanding of the affordances of networked publics as shaped by the social norms of their peer groups. Many youth define Facebook as an unsafe social setting for informal political discussions, thus adhering to a form of “publicness” aimed at neutralizing conflicts. Others, instead, develop different forms of “publicness” based on emergent communicative skills that help them manage the uncertainty of social media as interactional contexts.

  5. Political Transmigrants: Rethinking Hmong Political Activism in America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nengher N. Vang, Ph.D

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the initial resettlement of the Hmong in the United States in the mid-1970s, they have maintained strong political and military relationships with the Lao People‘s Democratic Republic (LPDR. Yet, there is little research on that relationship and the involvement of the Hmong in the United States in political developments in Laos. Most works on Hmong political activism have focused on the electoral participation and representation of Hmong Americans in relation to American domestic politics. In this article, using archival, ethnographic, and interview data that I have collected between 2006 and 2009 in Laos, Thailand, and the United States, I describe and analyze the non-domestic or transnational form of Hmong American political expression and participation. I argue that Hmong political activism in America not only was transnational from the outset, but that their transnational involvement in political developments in Laos and their relations with the Lao PDR government also had a significant impact on their ethnic politics. Many Hmong political activists made their entry into ethnic politics through the door of transnational politics, and many were motivated by transnational political issues to participate in domestic American politics. By exploring their transnational involvement in political developments in Laos and their relations with the Lao PDR government, we get a more complete and dynamic understanding of Hmong political activism in the United States than is possible by focusing exclusively on domestic and electoral participation. Examining their transnational politics also allows us to see the transnationality of not only their culture, identity, and community but also that of their political activities and aspirations.

  6. Patient (customer) expectations in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostan, Sedat; Acuner, Taner; Yilmaz, Gökhan

    2007-06-01

    The expectations of patient are one of the determining factors of healthcare service. The purpose of this study is to measure the Patients' Expectations, based on Patient's Rights. This study was done with Likert-Survey in Trabzon population. The analyses showed that the level of the expectations of the patient was high on the factor of receiving information and at an acceptable level on the other factors. Statistical meaningfulness was determined between age, sex, education, health insurance, and the income of the family and the expectations of the patients (pstudy, the current legal regulations have higher standards than the expectations of the patients. The reason that the satisfaction of the patients high level is interpreted due to the fact that the level of the expectation is low. It is suggested that the educational and public awareness studies on the patients' rights must be done in order to increase the expectations of the patients.

  7. Expectations and Experiences of Information Literacy Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saga Pohjola-Ahlin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In May 2016, 48 third semester undergraduate students enrolled in the physiotherapy program at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden were given three sets of questionnaires; before the information literacy instruction (ILI started, at the end of the first session, and a week after, at the end of the second and last session. The aim of this small-scale pilot study was to shed some light on students’ motivation to attend ILI, how they value the sessions afterwards and how they assess their learning outcome. Furthermore, it was an attempt to do a "students’ user experience study” in a pedagogical setting, with the intention to evaluate and improve teaching in ILI to meet student expectations. The average response rate for the three questionnaires was 92%. The results show that students’ expectations were similar to the actual content of ILI, and that the students were satisfied with their own learning outcome. Both motivation and the sense of relevance got higher scores after students attended ILI. Motivation rose from 7,4 to 8,12 out of 10. This is positive because a high level of motivation often improves the learning outcome (Schunk, 2012. When asked which areas most needed improvement in order to further enhance their learning outcome, the most common responses were “the pedagogy” and “my own achievement”. It would be interesting to start collaborating with a group of students in order to explore new methods and learning activities.

  8. Macro Expectations, Aggregate Uncertainty, and Expected Term Premia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick, Christian D.; Schmeling, Maik; Schrimpf, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    as well as aggregate macroeconomic uncertainty at the level of individual forecasters. We find that expected term premia are (i) time-varying and reasonably persistent, (ii) strongly related to expectations about future output growth, and (iii) positively affected by uncertainty about future output growth...... and in ation rates. Expectations about real macroeconomic variables seem to matter more than expectations about nominal factors. Additional findings on term structure factors suggest that the level and slope factor capture information related to uncertainty about real and nominal macroeconomic prospects...

  9. When politics prevails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Dagnis; Snaith, Holly

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses Britain’s quest to negotiate its future membership of the European Union (EU) through the lens of Liberal intergovernmentalism. The article demonstrates that despite the significant economic consequences of a potential Brexit, party political factors have hitherto proven more...

  10. Political Education Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    League of United Latin American Citizens, Washington, DC.

    Written to help Hispanics understand the electoral process more thoroughly and to encourage them to participate more actively in the political arena, this manual begins by describing the present status of the Hispanic electorate and then explains how laws are made, how Hispanics can influence legislation, and how to organize a voter registration…

  11. Conscience and Politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Richard G.

    1984-01-01

    The meaning and understanding of conscience in political thought are examined. The problem of distinguishing apparent and real conscience and private and public judgment is illustrated by contrasting the acts of conscience of Socrates and Thomas More with the rejection of private judgment against the state in Hobbes and Locke. (RM)

  12. Inequality and Political Clientelism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas

    on the basis of party affiliation may arise. Operationally, party-based clientelism is defined as a bias of public policy in favour of members of the governing political party. In a sample of local governments in India, party-based clientelism is shown to exist in two out of four states and to be strongly...

  13. The politics of insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvi, Carola; Cristofori, Irene; Grafman, Jordan; Beeman, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies showed that liberals and conservatives differ in cognitive style. Liberals are more flexible, and tolerant of complexity and novelty, whereas conservatives are more rigid, are more resistant to change, and prefer clear answers. We administered a set of compound remote associate problems, a task extensively used to differentiate problem-solving styles (via insight or analysis). Using this task, several researches have proven that self-reports, which differentiate between insight and analytic problem-solving, are reliable and are associated with two different neural circuits. In our research we found that participants self-identifying with distinct political orientations demonstrated differences in problem-solving strategy. Liberals solved significantly more problems via insight instead of in a step-by-step analytic fashion. Our findings extend previous observations that self-identified political orientations reflect differences in cognitive styles. More specifically, we show that type of political orientation is associated with problem-solving strategy. The data converge with previous neurobehavioural and cognitive studies indicating a link between cognitive style and the psychological mechanisms that mediate political beliefs.

  14. Perceptions of political leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Schmitz, J; Murray, Gregg R

    2017-01-01

    Partisan identification is a fundamental force in individual and mass political behavior around the world. Informed by scholarship on human sociality, coalitional psychology, and group behavior, this research argues that partisan identification, like many other group-based behaviors, is influenced by forces of evolution. If correct, then party identifiers should exhibit adaptive behaviors when making group-related political decisions. The authors test this assertion with citizen assessments of the relative physical formidability of competing leaders, an important adaptive factor in leader evaluations. Using original and novel data collected during the contextually different 2008 and 2012 U.S. presidential elections, as well as two distinct measures obtained during both elections, this article presents evidence that partisans overestimate the physical stature of the presidential candidate of their own party compared with the stature of the candidate of the opposition party. These findings suggest that the power of party identification on political behavior may be attributable to the fact that modern political parties address problems similar to the problems groups faced in human ancestral times.

  15. Politics of aviation fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivent, Jacques

    1922-01-01

    In short, the "politics of aviation" lies in a few propositions: the need of having as large a number of fields as possible and of sufficient area; the utilization of the larger part of the existing military fields; the selection of uncultivated or unproductive fields, whenever technical conditions permit; ability to disregard (save in exceptional cases) objections of an agricultural nature.

  16. Reflection on Political Representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusche, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    This article compares how Members of Parliament in the United Kingdom and Ireland reflect on constituency service as an aspect of political representation. It differs from existing research on the constituency role of MPs in two regards. First, it approaches the question from a sociological viewp...

  17. The politics of insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvi, Carola; Cristofori, Irene; Grafman, Jordan; Beeman, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies showed that liberals and conservatives differ in cognitive style. Liberals are more flexible, and tolerant of complexity and novelty, whereas conservatives are more rigid, are more resistant to change, and prefer clear answers. We administered a set of compound remote associate problems, a task extensively used to differentiate problem-solving styles (via insight or analysis). Using this task, several researches have proven that self-reports, which differentiate between insight and analytic problem-solving, are reliable and are associated with two different neural circuits. In our research we found that participants self-identifying with distinct political orientations demonstrated differences in problem-solving strategy. Liberals solved significantly more problems via insight instead of in a step-by-step analytic fashion. Our findings extend previous observations that self-identified political orientations reflect differences in cognitive styles. More specifically, we show that type of political orientation is associated with problem-solving strategy. The data converge with previous neurobehavioural and cognitive studies indicating a link between cognitive style and the psychological mechanisms that mediate political beliefs. PMID:26810954

  18. Experiments as politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spears, R; Smith, HJ

    The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the political nature of laboratory experiments. Such experiments can be construed as paradigms of power, open to construction and debate, where different agents and interests are involved in a process of struggle over both (re)presentation and substance.

  19. The Politics of Trade

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Chapter Four The Case of Argentine Research in Building Regional Integration .... Each of the case studies in this book looks at the various contextual factors that play a ..... Economic and political networking allows them to control the channels by ...... Cities such as Toronto, for example, have a comparative advantage in the ...

  20. Situated, embodied, and political

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2013-01-01

    is developed. The article discusses ways in which professional journalism is positioned in relation to engaging subjectivity of citizen journalism – as convergence media, as well as independent forms of knowledge and information sharing. The often political affectivity of citizen journalism is discussed...