WorldWideScience

Sample records for political economy child

  1. Political Economy, Capability Development, and Fundamental Cause: Integrating Perspectives on Child Health in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekah Burroway

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Several dominant theoretical perspectives attempt to account for health disparities in developing countries, including political economy, the capability approach, and fundamental cause. This study combines the perspectives in a multi-level analysis of child malnutrition and diarrhea in order to gain a more comprehensive understanding of who faces increased health risks and who is shielded from them. Using the Demographic and Health Surveys and World Bank data, I estimate a series of models that predict the likelihood of child malnutrition and diarrhea, based on a set of country- and individual-level explanatory variables. Results suggest that at the individual-level, household wealth and maternal education are the most robust predictors of child health. These social factors are even more important than more proximate factors like clean water or sanitation. At the country-level, gross domestic product (GDP per capita reduces malnutrition, but does not significantly affect incidence of diarrhea. Contrary to the predominant economic development paradigm, health care and education are more important in accounting for the prevalence of diarrhea than GDP. Finally, trade in and of itself is not harmful to well-being in developing countries. It is when countries become too dependent on one or a few commodities that trade starts to have detrimental costs. Thus, a synthesis of theoretical frameworks best illustrates the complex web of social structural factors that manifest as unequal life chances for children.

  2. Essays in political economy

    OpenAIRE

    Mavridis, Christos

    2016-01-01

    This thesis consists of five essays in the field of political economy. The first part of the thesis includes three essays covering various aspects of the political economy of globalization and economic reforms, which are linked in several ways. The second part of the thesis includes two essays on the political economy of development in India. The aim of this introductory section is to give a brief and non-technical overview of the essays, as well as to explain the links between them. The disc...

  3. Economy and energy politic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    This book, divided into four parts, describes, first, energy consumption and national economy growth. In a second part, the irresistible ascent of coal, natural gas and petroleum international markets is studied. In the third part, energy politic is investigated: exchanges releasing, prices deregulation, contestation of power industry monopoly, energy national market and common energetic politic, single market concept. In the last part, global risks and world-wide regulations are given: demand, energy resources, technical changes, comparative evaluations between fossil, nuclear and renewable energies, environment, investments financing and international cooperation. 23 refs., 14 figs., 16 tabs

  4. Culture, political economy and gender marginalisation: a case of girl child in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punalekar, S P

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses female children and the impact of macro- and micro- economic and cultural aspects of gender neglect and marginalization. Although gender marginalization is a widely accepted theoretical concern, the explanations for women's vulnerability vary. One view holds that changes in relations of production and in the system of property relations will automatically resolve gender issues. Another view holds that cultural factors are responsible for entrenched female inequalities. This paper argues that culture is not one-dimensional. Culture affects the material activity of people and their ideas. Feminists over the past two decades have promoted a generalized consciousness about women and their strategic role in production and reproduction, especially female children. Research inadequately addresses issues affecting the female child. In the domestic or household sphere, evidence suggests that the female child experiences greater child mortality, infanticide, and sex-selective abortion, and lower health status. Female children have greater micronutrient deficiencies, growth retardation, and micronutrient deficiencies. In times of natural disasters or crises, girls were found to suffer more from malnutrition than boys. The enrollment and retention of girls in school is lower than boys. Cultural stereotyping and restrictions on movement subject girls to the authority and control of male children and adult males. Girls are socialized differently and are not encouraged to be autonomous or to use initiative. In the public sphere, girls are used by families to serve household and production needs of the family and other relatives. Working wages for girls are very low, and working conditions are oppressive. The economic status of the household determines allocation of work, access to education, and lifestyle.

  5. The political economy of finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.

    2014-01-01

    This survey reviews how recent political economy literature helps to explain variation in governance, competition, funding composition, and access to credit. Evolution in political institutions can account for financial evolution, and, unlike time-invariant legal institutions or cultural traits, is

  6. The political economy of transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellman, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    This article gives an analysis of the political economy of transformation which stresses the major achievements of some countries, the fact that the transformation is not yet over, the existence of both winners and losers, and the limitations of transition orthodoxy. Attention is paid to the

  7. The Transatlantic Political Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Potofsky

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Les relations économiques entre les États‑Unis et la France étaient un enjeu majeur dans le « rêve atlantique » des Lumières et des révolutionnaires français pendant les années 1780. L’espoir était d’approfondir les relations économiques entre les deux nations « régénérées » par le républicanisme d’outre‑atlantique d’une part, et par les réformes menées par la monarchie (pré et post révolutionnaire en France, d’autre part.Cet article examine un facteur négligé dans le récit classique des historiens, celui de l’effondrement des liens idéologiques entre les deux nations à partir de 1787 en raison de la dette américaine envers la France dans le contexte de la prise de conscience du déficit de l’Etat français. De l’annonce de Calonne de l’état catastrophique des finances de l’Etat français jusqu’à « la guerre larvée » de 1798, la dette américaine a joué un rôle croissant dans les déceptions des révolutionnaires français envers la « révolution atlantique ».The economic relations between the United States and France were at the heart of the « Atlantic Dream » of the Enlightenment and of many French Revolutionaries in the 1780s. On both sides of the Atlantic, a desire to deepen economic ties between the two « regenerated » nations was kindled by the ideological potentials of republicanism in the United States and of the « reform monarchy » at the end of the ancien régime and opening years of the Revolution.This article examines an overlooked element in the « master narrative » of historians who have focused on the degradation of the political and economic ties between the two nations after 1787 : the American financial debt toward France grew in significance with the awareness of the proportions of the deficit of the French state. From the announcement by Calonne of the catastrophic state of the French state’s finances until the « Quasi‑War » of

  8. Political economy of population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, S; Mehta, H S

    1987-01-01

    Tracing the origin of political economy as a class-science, this paper focuses on the political economy of population growth. Exposing the limitations of Malthusian ideas and their invalidity even for the capitalist economies, it discusses the subsequent revival of the Malthusian model during the period of de-colonization and the misinterpretation of the relationship between population growth and development in the developing and developed countries. Taking India, China, and Japan as some case studies, the paper examines the relationship between birth rate levels and some correlates. It elaborates on the Indian experience, emphasizing the association of population growth with poverty and unemployment and lays bare some of the hidden causes of these phenomena. The authors examine some interstate variations in India and identify constraints and prospects of the existing population policy. The paper proposes outlines of a democratic population policy as an integral part of India's development strategy which should recognize human beings not simply as consumers but also as producers of material values. It pleads for 1) restructuring of property relations; 2) bringing down the mortality rates and raising of the literacy levels, especially among females; and 3) improving nutritional levels, as prerequisites for bringing down birth rates.

  9. The political economy of development: an assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Adam; Stefan Dercon

    2009-01-01

    Research in the field of economic development is increasingly engaged with questions of political economy, of how political choices, institutional structures, and forms of governance influence the economic choices made by governments and citizens. We summarize recent developments in the field and introduce a set of papers that illustrate key themes and methodological innovations associated with the 'new' political economy of development. Copyright 2009, Oxford University Press.

  10. Expanding Policy Imagination in Political Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard

    2006-01-01

    Much of the literature in political economy seeks to capture an essential insight into the evolution of political and economic systems to provide a foundation for policy advice. This article suggests that attempts to nut out the kernels of change often restrict rather than expand policy imagination...... be implemented. Historical sociology provides a way to generate information about contextual constellations through two "tonics": intentional rationality and social mechanisms. With the assistance of these tonics, historical sociology widens political economy's policy imagination....

  11. Revisiting the Political Economy of Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Garnham

    2014-02-01

    The task of the paper and the seminar was to revisit some of Nicholas Garnham’s ideas, writings and contributions to the study of the Political Economy of Communication and to reflect on the concepts, history, current status and perspectives of this field and the broader study of political economy today. The topics covered include Raymond Williams’ cultural materialism, Pierre Bourdieu’s sociology of culture, the debate between Political Economy and Cultural Studies, information society theory, Karl Marx’s theory and the critique of capitalism.

  12. Agrofuels capitalism: a view from political economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.N.F. White (Benjamin); A. Dasgupta (Anirban)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis article considers the global expansion of agrofuels feedstock production from a political economy perspective. It considers and dismisses the environmental and pro-poor developmental justifications attached to agrofuels. To local populations and direct producers, the specific

  13. Essays on Political Economy of the Media

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Onyi

    2017-01-01

    My research focuses on understanding the political economy of traditional and newmedia. I study these issues by exploiting natural experiments, employing data techniquesborrowed from machine learning and using both observational data from traditional andnew sources.

  14. Why are Market Economies Politically Stable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Olsson, Ola

    at the expense of other groups in society. If the gains from specialization become su¢ ciently large, however, a market economy will emerge. From being essentially noncooperative under self-sufficiency, the political decision making process becomes cooperative in the market economy, as the welfare of individuals...

  15. The Political Economy of Regulatory Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Hansen, Hubert

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to explain the broader evolution of British merger control. To this end it outlines a novel critical political economy perspective on regulation and regulatory change which differs from established political economy approaches, such as the regulatory capitalism/state perspectives......, in three main ways: it places regulatory ideas at the heart of the analysis, it differentiates between different degrees of regulatory change, and it links regulatory change in delineated issue areas with changing power balances between fractions of capital and labor. The application of this perspective...

  16. Expanding Policy Imagination in Political Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard

    2006-01-01

    Much of the literature in political economy seeks to capture an essential insight into the evolution of political and economic systems to provide a foundation for policy advice. This article suggests that attempts to nut out the kernels of change often restrict rather than expand policy imagination...... capacity to see political, social, and economic changes that do not conform to conventional theories, as well as distorting our understanding of how the contemporary world works. What policymakers want, more than prediction or recitation of conventional theories, is context to understand how policy can...... be implemented. Historical sociology provides a way to generate information about contextual constellations through two "tonics": intentional rationality and social mechanisms. With the assistance of these tonics, historical sociology widens political economy's policy imagination....

  17. The Political Economy of North American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John H., Ed.

    This book presents 12 papers that proceed from the idea that Native American history in the United States and Canada is best understood not as an Indian-European cultural conflict but as an economic conflict between communal and capitalist modes of production. Three chapters are of particular educational interest. "Political Economy in…

  18. Political Economy of International Environmental Agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altamirano-Cabrera, J.C.; Wangler, L.; Weikard, H.P.; Kroll, S.

    2013-01-01

    International environmental agreements (IEAs) are treaties negotiated, signed, and ratified by individual nation-states to address transboundary environmental issues. This article provides an overview of the recent state of the art in the domain of the political economy of the formation of IEAs.

  19. Political Economy in Applied Linguistics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, David

    2017-01-01

    This state-of-the-art review is based on the fundamental idea that political economy should be adopted as a frame for research and discussion in applied linguistics as part of a general social turn which has taken hold in the field over the past three decades. It starts with Susan Gal's (1989) early call for such a move in sociolinguistics and…

  20. The political economy of the environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boyce, James K

    2002-01-01

    ... Suite 202 Northampton Massachusetts 01060 USA A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication Data Boyce, James K. The political economy of the environment / James K. Boyce. p. cm. Includes index. 1. Environmental economics. I. Title. HD75.6 .B69 2002 333.7- dc21 ISBN 1 84064 3...

  1. The New Political Economy of Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    would be adopted widely for courses in Asian studies and political economy.’ – Hal Hill, The Australian National University ‘The different parts of the Southeast Asian puzzle fit better together as a consequence of reading this valuable book, which brings history back in to show how regions learn from...... each other and establish an identity.’ – Alice Amsden, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, US This well-researched book examines the dramatic transformation of Southeast Asian countries from agricultural and mining economies to industrial nations. In doing so, it explores the effects of development...

  2. Essays in Labor Economics and Political Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmon, Nikolaj Arpe

    This dissertation consists of three chapters, each representing a self-contained research paper in labor economics and political economy. The first chapter studies the impact of immigration and ethnic diversity on political outcomes in immigrant-receiving countries, focusing on the case...... to learn about the impact of salaries on the behavior and composition of legislators. Increases in salaries cause large increases in the willingness to hold office but do not affect the level of effort exerted while in office. For the composition of legislators, increases in salaries leads to elected...

  3. Political Economies of Health: A Consideration for International Nursing Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A.; Drummond, John S.

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces and explores the concept of political economy. In particular it focuses upon the political economy of health while also considering the implications for international nursing studies in the context of health care more generally. Political economy is not only about budgets, resources and policy. It is also about particular…

  4. The Political Economy of Clean Energy Transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    -scale and locally relevant policy experimentation. The chapters focus on the political economy of clean energy transition with an emphasis on specific issues encountered in both developed and developing countries. Lead authors contribute a broad diversity of experience drawn from all major regions of the world......The 21st Conference of the Parties (CoP21) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) shifted the nature of the political economy challenge associated with achieving a global emissions trajectory that is consistent with a climate. The shifts generated by CoP21 place...... country decision-making and country policies at centre stage. Under moderately optimistic assumptions concerning the vigour with which CoP21 objectives are pursued, nearly every country in the world will set about to design and implement the most promising and locally relevant policies for achieving...

  5. Toward a Carribean cultural political economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimi Sheller

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] The Caribbean Postcolonial: Social Equality, Post-Nationalism and Cultural Hybridity. Shalini Puri. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004. ix + 300 pp. (Paper US$ 24.95 Miraculous Weapons: Revolutionary Ideology in Caribbean Culture. Joy A.I. Mahabir. New York: Peter Lang, 2003. ix + 167 pp. (Cloth US$ 58.95 The relation between cultural production and political struggle, and between the aesthetic and the material as expressions of social relations, are absolutely central themes within Caribbean studies in all of its disciplinary and interdisciplinary guises. A key question for the field as a whole is what role it might play in generating new approaches to “cultural political economy,” which is emerging as an effective bridging concept at the intersections of anthropology, sociology, economics, political theory, and literary and cultural studies.

  6. Climate changes, economy and growth: political relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alex, Bastien

    2017-03-01

    The author addresses the relationships which may exist between climate change and economic growth, by discussing and criticising some common ideas, and the role of the economic parameter in the position of states within negotiations. These common ideas are: the struggle against climate change impedes economic growth, and green economy provides new growth levers. The author also discusses the fact that some countries may feel they have to slow down their growth because emerging countries are facing a strong development and thus have a strong impact on climate changes. He also outlines that political forces which are presently in power, tend to have a critical approach and speech on mitigation measures

  7. The Political Economy of Federally Sponsored Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Ragon

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Librarian involvement in the Open Access (OA movement has traditionally focused on access to scholarly publications. Recent actions by the White House have focused attention on access on the data produced from federally sponsored research. Questions have emerged concerning access to the output of federally sponsored research and whether it is a public or private good. Understanding the political battle over access to federally funded research is closely tied to the ownership of the peer review process in higher education and associated revenue streams, and as a result, interest groups seeking to influence government regulation have politicized the issues. As a major funder of research in higher education, policies from the federal government are likely to drive change in research practices at higher education institutions and impact library services. The political economy of federally sponsored research data will shape research enterprises in higher education inspire a number of new services distributed throughout the research life cycle.

  8. The Political Economy of International Transitional Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grasten, Maj Lervad; Tzouvala, Ntina

    2018-01-01

    This article reconstructs how democratic participation and interference can be fended off by the construction of an international authoritarian political architecture and a strongly legalised and specific form of market economy. We do this by interrogating International Territorial Administration...... (ITA) regulations established to administer post-conflict Kosovo and post-invasion Iraq. In following the regulations and executive decrees of a largely unaccountable international policy-making bureaucracy in reforming the agricultural sector, the article demonstrates how and with what impact...... corporations. Even though the two administrations focused on different aspects of land and agriculture regulation, we argue that significant commonalities exist between their political preferences and interests. Our work draws on the tradition of critical legal studies in International Law (IL) and we posit...

  9. Feminism and Critical Political Economy of Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Pajnik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the study of feminist analysis in the field of political economy of communication. We discuss feminisms that flirt with Marxism, socialist and radical feminism, in the light of the importance of studies in the field of communication. We highlight the relevance of the feminist critique of Marxism, drawing attention to the engendered class and addressing the inequalities of capitalist society, not only in the sphere of production but also with relation to the reproductive labor. We introduce notions of “capitalist patriarchy” and “sex class” in order to emphasize the dialectical relationship between the class stratification and hierarchical structuring of capitalist society. We problematize the decline of the materialist perspectives in feminist critique as a turn to discourse and ideology while marginalizing class as an analytical category. In this article, we introduce an intersectional understanding of gender that contributes to gender de-essencialization and de-homogenization. Attention is also paid to prospects for the feminist political economy of communication today, to how it is constituted and what types of analyses it brings and why it is important for the understanding of contemporary society and the processes of communication.

  10. Agrofuels capitalism: a view from political economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Ben; Dasgupta, Anirban

    2010-01-01

    This article considers the global expansion of agrofuels feedstock production from a political economy perspective. It considers and dismisses the environmental and pro-poor developmental justifications attached to agrofuels. To local populations and direct producers, the specific destination of the crop as fuel, food, cosmetics or other final uses in faraway places is probably of less interest than the forms of (direct or indirect) appropriation of their land and the forms of their insertion or exclusion as producers in global commodity chains. Global demand for both agrofuels and food is stimulating new forms (or the resurgence of old forms) of corporate land grabbing and expropriation, and of incorporation of smallholders in contracted production. Drawing both on recent studies on agrofuels expansion and on the political economy literature on agrarian transition and capitalism in agriculture, this article raises the question whether "agrofuels capitalism" is in any way essentially different from other forms of capitalist agrarian monocrop production, and in turn whether the agrarian transitions involved require new tools of analysis.

  11. Future Legacy of the Russian Revolution. Participatory Political Economies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubec, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 4 (2017), s. 565-580 ISSN 2159-8282 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : revolution * participation * political economy * Russian revolution Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion OBOR OECD: Political science

  12. Unusual Humean issues in materialistic political economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Micocci

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Capitalism as we know it presents typical dialectical features that isolate it from nature, in which real oppositions make evolution revolutionary: A dialectical metaphysics replaces the free flow of events allowing capitalist relationships but preventing the practice of materialism. Some radically sceptical issues in Hume’s Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding, Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion and A Treatise of Human Nature come useful here. A materialistic approach with complete (i.e., non-dialectical ruptures in fact dovetails with Hume’s argument on the unpredictability of nature and the predictability of human social activities. As a consequence, a thus renewed materialistic political economy concerned with the concrete must work out its own categories dynamically, to discard them once they have been proved metaphysical.

  13. Communication & Society: A Critical Political Economy Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horst Holzer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the English translations of one of Horst Holzer’s works on communication and society. Holzer elaborates foundations of a critical sociology of communication(s that studies the relationship of communication and society based on the approach of critical political economy. He shows that such an approach relates communication and production, communication and capitalism; communication, ideology and fetishism; and situates communication in the context of social struggles for alternatives to capitalist social forms. The paper is followed by a postface in which Christian Fuchs contemplates why Holzer’s approach has been largely “forgotten” in the German social sciences and media and communication studies, in turn stressing the continued relevance of Holzer’s theory today.

  14. Oil and the political economy of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matutinovic, Igor [GfK-Center for Market Research, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2009-11-15

    The key issues concerning oil exploitation are still open for discussion: there is no agreement about where we presently stand in the world oil extraction curve, what is its exact shape, and how far can oil price grow before it changes irreversibly the world economy and consumer behavior. The paper proposes an alternative scenario to the Hubbert's bell-shaped model of oil exploitation, based on more realistic assumptions regarding political agendas in oil-exporting countries and consumer behavior dynamics in oil-importing countries. Under this scenario, the joint impact of markets and public policy in oil importing countries together with 'resource pragmatism' policy in oil-exporting countries allows for a less steep oil supply curve with a much fatter tail compared to the Hubbert's model. (author)

  15. Oil and the political economy of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matutinovic, Igor

    2009-01-01

    The key issues concerning oil exploitation are still open for discussion: there is no agreement about where we presently stand in the world oil extraction curve, what is its exact shape, and how far can oil price grow before it changes irreversibly the world economy and consumer behavior. The paper proposes an alternative scenario to the Hubbert's bell-shaped model of oil exploitation, based on more realistic assumptions regarding political agendas in oil-exporting countries and consumer behavior dynamics in oil-importing countries. Under this scenario, the joint impact of markets and public policy in oil importing countries together with 'resource pragmatism' policy in oil-exporting countries allows for a less steep oil supply curve with a much fatter tail compared to the Hubbert's model.

  16. The Political Economy of Crisis and the Crisis of Political Economy: The Challenge of Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Murdock

    2015-10-01

    Recent developments in the organisation of capitalism have given renewed urgency to critical political economy’s core concern with the shifting relations between capital, state and civil society and placed issues around communications and culture at the centre of debate. Successive responses to the crisis of capitalism in the 1970s and the 2008 financial crisis have extended marketization, consolidated corporate control over public culture, displaced and casualised labour, escalated product promotion, placed consumption fuelled by personal debt at the centre of models of growth, and generated rapidly widening inequalities in access and agency. At the same time, the political instabilities following the end of the Cold War have licenced a move from selective to saturation surveillance that has given the major capitalist states unprecedented entry into intimate life. The critical political economy culture and communications has seized the moment and produced powerful accounts and critiques of these shifts and their implications for democratic life. The first part of the paper offers a critical overview of this work. With some notable exceptions however, critical political economies of communications have not fully incorporated the climate crisis into their analyses. Yet communication systems, particularly digital systems, are central to the unfolding climate crisis, not simply as central spaces of public information (and misinformation and debate, but as arrays of infrastructures and machines that consume resources and power and foster patterns of use and disposal that exacerbate problems of waste and pollution and reinforce patterns of inequality, with those least able to cope likely to be the most affected. The second part of the paper expands on this argument The third and final part follows the implications of this analysis through arguing that critical communications policy not only needs to address the problem of curbing corporate and state abuses of control

  17. IFRS adoption in Pacific Island Economies: A political perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pran Boolaky

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new paradigm on the adoption of IFRS in island economies specifically in the pacific region. The adapted Scott (2001 institutional pressure framework on IFRS adoption addresses the political independence and political dependence of pacific island economies at three levels namely high, second and low.

  18. Political pressures and exchange rate stability in emerging market economies

    OpenAIRE

    Ester Faia; Massimo Giuliodori; Michele Ruta

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a political economy model of exchange rate policy. The theory is based on a common agency approach with rational expectations. Financial and exporter lobbies exert political pressures to influence the government’s choice of exchange rate policy, before shocks to the economy are realized. The model shows that political pressures affect exchange rate policy and create an over-commitment to exchange rate stability. This helps to rationalize the empirical evidence on fear of l...

  19. The political economy of warfare in nineteeth century Benin kingdom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines how the interactions of politics and economy influenced the changing perspective on warfare in nineteenth century Benin Kingdom. The study investigates how the combined political and economic behaviour of Benin affected the rebuilding of military power as instrument of political policy in furtherance ...

  20. Sport, biopolitics and critique of political economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milorad Gačević

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this text we tried to point out the relationship between labour and biopolitical mechanisms of power in the context of the current situation in elite sport. In the first part we present developments inside left-oriented theories of sport, especially the need for critical research based on specific aspects of criticism of political economy. We then review brief the current situation in contemporary sport, mainly about parallel evolution of the capitalist commodification of sport and the emergence of the application of biopolitically directed practices, where we have tried to implement a short overview of Foucault’s concepts in the field of sport studies. The third part deals with the connection between Paolo Virno’s biopolitical studies and Marx’s labour power. In conclusion, we raise the possibility of applying Virno’s settings to treat sport practice in the context of its appropriation by capitalism, characterised by the intensification of strategies and techniques for controlling sportsman life. According to Virno’s settings we have tried to show influence to a life of sportsman in the aim of bio-potency, the ability/power to produce a labour force, while this force is treated like labour exchanged in the market in the context of capitalist commodification of modern sport.

  1. Political economies and environmental futures for the sharing economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenken, Koen|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/207145253

    2017-01-01

    The sudden rise of the sharing economy has sparked an intense public debate about its definition, its effects and its future regulation. Here, I attempt to provide analytical guidance by defining the sharing economy as the practice that consumers grant each other temporary access to their

  2. On the Political Economy of Youth:a comment

    OpenAIRE

    Zucaria, Mayssoun; Tannock, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    This article is written as a brief comment on a recent discussion that has taken place in the pages of the Journal of Youth Studies on the question of youth, youth studies and political economy, in a series of articles by Côté [2014. “Towards a New Political Economy of Youth.” Journal of Youth Studies 17 (4): 527–543; Côté, J. 2016. “A New Political Economy of Youth Reprised: Rejoinder to France and Threadgold.” Journal of Youth Studies. doi:10.1080/13676261.2015.1136058] and France and Threa...

  3. The political economy of exchange rate in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Terra, Maria Cristina T.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews part of the political economy literature on exchange rate policy relevant to understanding the political motivations behind the Brazilian exchange rate policy. We shall first examine the distributive role of the exchange rate, and the way it unfolds in terms of the desired political goals. We will follow by analyzing exchange policy as indicative of government effciency prior to elections. Finally, we discuss fiscal policy from the point of view of politic...

  4. The Political Economy of Global Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W. McChesney

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Editorial note McChesney’s contribution was first published as an introductory chapter in the edited volume entitled Capitalism and the Information Age. In this volume, authors (also those basing their research in areas other than critical communication studies provided, amongst other things, a critique of the celebratory ideas about the revolutionary potentials of the Internet, the new information and, communication technologies, and of the information society, which supposedly brought about a complete discontinuity with the past. The volume presented an original and sorely needed critical insight into these debates, which often hailed new technologies and social changes. It is worth pointing out that this volume also features two chapters by Noam Chomsky and Edward Herman. In these they rethink the role of propaganda in society and their own “propaganda model”, which was aggressively (but often baselessly criticized. Herman’s chapter is dedicated in its entirety to providing a weighty answer to these critiques. McChesney’s contribution, on the other hand, gives an insight into the history of the approach of political economy of communication, embeds the approach in the context of global capitalism (when the full realization about its role in the world context only started to emerge, while also touching upon the key dilemmas of its time that remain relevant to this day (e.g., market liberalization and the corporate ownership of media industries, growth of monopolization, digitalization and the Internet. This is a timely contribution that also demonstrates McChesney’s activist approach and shows how difficult it is for social scientists to forecast what exactly the future will bring.

  5. Essays in political economy and resource economic : A macroeconomic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez Acosta, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation consists of four chapters in Political Economy and Resource Economics from a macroeconomic perspective. This collection of works emphasizes the endogenous nature of institutions and their importance for economic development. The four chapters revolve around two central questions:

  6. Political economy of decentralising HIV and AIDS treatment services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Political economy of decentralising HIV and AIDS treatment services to primary healthcare facilities in three Nigerian states. Chinyere Mbachu, Obinna Onwujekwe, Nkoli Ezumah, Olayinka Ajayi, Olusola Sanwo, Benjamin Uzochukwu ...

  7. The Political Economy of Intergenerational Risk Sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollanders, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the political constraints of intergenerational risk sharing. The rst result is that the political process generally does not lead to ex ante optimal insurance. The second result is that in a second best political setting PAYG still contributes to intergenerational risk sharing.

  8. The political economy of tourism development: A critical review

    OpenAIRE

    Bianchi, Raoul

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews varying theoretical approaches in political economy and their application to the analysis of tourism development. It examines the shifting focus of enquiry and traces the evolution of the political economy of tourism from an earlier generation of predominantly technical, empirically-driven analyses of tourism’s contribution to economic development through to the various strands of development theory that have influenced and which continue to shape critical scholarship in th...

  9. Alignment of Labor Skill from the Political Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Marianela Bermejo-Salmon

    2015-01-01

    The general objective of this article is to perform an organizational study the alignments process of the labor skill to the organization of the work from the Political Economy. This research was based on the method of the materialistic conception of history and interview techniques, opinion questionnaires and team work, among others. The main results obtained allowed to demonstrate how; supported by the object (the functions and the method of study of Political Economy), the fundamental cont...

  10. Current Trends in the Political Economy of Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent Mosco

    2008-01-01

    In this paper five major trends in the political economy of communication are addressed: the globalization of the field, the expansion of an enduring emphasis on historical research, the growth of research from alternative standpoints, especially feminism and labour, the shift from an emphasis on old to new media, and the growth of activism connected to the political economy tradition. None of these are brand new tendencies but rather build on existing ones, which were often submerged beneath...

  11. Neoclassical and institutional components of scientific political economy

    OpenAIRE

    V. Holikov

    2000-01-01

    The article deals with scientific political economy development. The author notes lack of respect to the realities of market economy development, and disregard of the dynamism and institutional components of national and world economic development. Also the author pays attention to excessive enthusiasm for abstract economic models as the main disadvantage.

  12. Political economies and environmental futures for the sharing economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenken, Koen

    2017-05-01

    The sudden rise of the sharing economy has sparked an intense public debate about its definition, its effects and its future regulation. Here, I attempt to provide analytical guidance by defining the sharing economy as the practice that consumers grant each other temporary access to their under-utilized physical assets. Using this definition, the rise of the sharing economy can be understood as occurring at the intersection of three salient economic trends: peer-to-peer exchange, access over ownership and circular business models. I shortly discuss some of the environmental impacts of online sharing platforms and then articulate three possible futures of the sharing economy: a capitalist future cumulating in monopolistic super-platforms allowing for seamless services, a state-led future that shifts taxation from labour to capital and redistributes the gains of sharing from winners to losers, and a citizen-led future based on cooperatively owned platforms under democratic control. The nature and size of the social and environmental impacts are expected to differ greatly in each of the three scenarios. This article is part of the themed issue 'Material demand reduction'.

  13. Political economies and environmental futures for the sharing economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The sudden rise of the sharing economy has sparked an intense public debate about its definition, its effects and its future regulation. Here, I attempt to provide analytical guidance by defining the sharing economy as the practice that consumers grant each other temporary access to their under-utilized physical assets. Using this definition, the rise of the sharing economy can be understood as occurring at the intersection of three salient economic trends: peer-to-peer exchange, access over ownership and circular business models. I shortly discuss some of the environmental impacts of online sharing platforms and then articulate three possible futures of the sharing economy: a capitalist future cumulating in monopolistic super-platforms allowing for seamless services, a state-led future that shifts taxation from labour to capital and redistributes the gains of sharing from winners to losers, and a citizen-led future based on cooperatively owned platforms under democratic control. The nature and size of the social and environmental impacts are expected to differ greatly in each of the three scenarios. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Material demand reduction’. PMID:28461431

  14. Political economies and environmental futures for the sharing economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenken, Koen

    2017-06-13

    The sudden rise of the sharing economy has sparked an intense public debate about its definition, its effects and its future regulation. Here, I attempt to provide analytical guidance by defining the sharing economy as the practice that consumers grant each other temporary access to their under-utilized physical assets. Using this definition, the rise of the sharing economy can be understood as occurring at the intersection of three salient economic trends: peer-to-peer exchange, access over ownership and circular business models. I shortly discuss some of the environmental impacts of online sharing platforms and then articulate three possible futures of the sharing economy: a capitalist future cumulating in monopolistic super-platforms allowing for seamless services, a state-led future that shifts taxation from labour to capital and redistributes the gains of sharing from winners to losers, and a citizen-led future based on cooperatively owned platforms under democratic control. The nature and size of the social and environmental impacts are expected to differ greatly in each of the three scenarios.This article is part of the themed issue 'Material demand reduction'. © 2017 The Authors.

  15. Privatization, political risk and stock market development in emerging economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.; van Oijen, P.H.

    1999-01-01

    This paper investigates whether privatization in emerging economies has a significant indirect effect on local stock market development through the resolution of political risk. We argue that a sustained privatization program represents a major political test that gradually resolves uncertainty over

  16. The political economy of international environmental agreements: a survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wangler, L.; Altamirano-Cabrera, J.C.; Weikard, H.P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper surveys the recent literature on the political economy of the formation of international environmental agreements. The survey covers theoretical modelling approaches and empirical studies including experimental work. Central to our survey is the question how the political process impacts

  17. The political economy of railway construction in Nigeria: the Bornu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The political economy of railway construction in Nigeria: the Bornu railway extension. ... One key strategy employed was to side with the faction of the Nigerian petty bourgeoisie whose political, economic and class interests were in agreement with ... The 400-mile extension was eventually constructed and opened in 1964.

  18. Emerging Global Political Economy and Implications for the Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The world has been transformed into a global political economy as a result of the unprecedented level of interconnectedness of political, economic, social and technological forces that permeate the contemporary global system. This paper identifies trade regulations, technology and capitalism as core factors responsible for ...

  19. The Political Economy of Regulatory Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Strausz, Roland

    2009-01-01

    I investigate the argument that, in a two–party system with different regulatory objectives, political uncertainty generates regulatory risk. I show that this risk has a fluctuation effect that hurts both parties and an output–expansion effect that benefits one party. Consequently, at least one party dislikes regulatory risk. Moreover, both political parties gain from eliminating regulatory risk when political divergence is small or the winning probability of the regulatory–risk–averse party ...

  20. The Political Economy of Recent Economic Growth in India

    OpenAIRE

    Raghbendra Jha

    2004-01-01

    The political economy of India’s economic growth is an issue of abiding interest. Higher and sustained economic growth has, all over the world, been the surest and most time tested means of raising living standards and reducing poverty. Further, given that it is a functioning democracy, economic policy in India can often be dictated by political expediency as political parties indulge in competitive populism in the face of improvements in social indicators such as literacy, infant mortality a...

  1. Probabilistic political economy and endogenous money

    OpenAIRE

    Cockshott, W.P.; Cottrell, A.

    2008-01-01

    Since the foundational work of Farjoun and Machover , important contributions to the field of\\ud probabilistic economy have been made. In this context one naturally has conservation of money as a postulate. However\\ud it is questionable whether a capitalist economy could ever work with entirely exogenous money, and it\\ud is interesting to see to what extent probabilistic arguments can illuminate the evolution of the type of\\ud endogenous money system that characterizes contemporary capitalism....

  2. Policy Ideas, Knowledge Regimes and Comparative Political Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, John L.; Pedersen, Ove K.

    2015-01-01

    Despite much attention to how ideas affect policy making, where these ideas come from is a blind spot in comparative political economy. We show that an important source of policy ideas are knowledge regimes—fields of policy research organizations. We show as well that the organization of knowledge...... to restore it by transforming their knowledge regimes, albeit in ways that are still shaped by the surrounding political and economic institutions. The effectiveness of their efforts is not guaranteed. The argument is based on an analysis of the evolution of knowledge regimes since the 1970s in the USA...... regimes is heavily influenced by the organization of their surrounding political economies such that knowledge regimes have particular national characters. Furthermore, when people perceive that the utility of their knowledge regime for the rest of the political economy breaks down, they often try...

  3. The Political Economy of Capital Income and Profit Taxation in a Small Open Economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.; Nielsen, S.B.

    1996-01-01

    This paper considers the political economy of the mix of profit, investment and saving taxation in a small open economy where agents generally differ in their shares of profit and other income.In this setting, capital income taxation can have the dual role of financing government spending and of

  4. The Political Economy of China's Urban Reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Hongyi

    2000-01-01

    Why did China's national authority (the center) allow some provinces to adopt deeper urban reforms than others? This paper evaluates alternative answers found in political-economic literature. My data analyses suggest that the center, in implementing urban reforms in the provinces, primarily tried to increase revenue income. The center also attempted to garner political support from the rural consumers and surplus labor, and generate higher returns from material inputs in the provinces. Inter...

  5. Essays on Political Economy and Economic Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Lyubimov (Ivan)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstractThe spillover of information from more developed economies to the less developed ones is of key importance for sustainable transition towards higher living standards in emerging societies. The amount and type of essential information which is transferred to developing world is far

  6. Professional Networks in the International Political Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lasse Folke; Seabrooke, Leonard

    Who writes the rules for the governance of the world economy? This paper looks beyond the usual suspects of states, NGOs and firms to attempt to map how ideas and skills travel between professional ecologies to solve long-term socioeconomic problems. The paper identifies professional networks...

  7. Nigeria: the political economy of oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.A.

    1994-01-01

    This book is the second in a series of books on the major petroleum exporting nations, most of them part of the developing world. These countries occupy a central position in the global economy given that oil is the energy source most used in the world and the most important primary commodity in international trade. At the same time they find themselves inescapably dependent on a single source of income. Their own economic prospects are closely bound to the future of their oil. It aims to provide a broad description of the oil and gas sectors, highlighting those features which give the country a physiognomy of its own. The analysis is set in the context of history, economic policy and international relations. It also seeks to identify the specific challenges that the exporting country studies will face in developing its wealth to the best advantage of the economy. (author)

  8. Venezuela: the political economy of oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boue, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    This book inaugurates a new series of books on the major petroleum exporting nations, most of them part of the developing world. These countries occupy a central position in the global economy given that oil is the energy source most used in the world and the most important primary commodity in international trade. At the same time they find themselves inescapably dependent on a single source of income. Their own economic prospects are closely bound to the future of their oil. It aims to provide a broad description of the oil and gas sectors, highlighting those features which give the country a physiognomy of its own. The analysis is set in the context of history, economic policy and international relations. It also seeks to identify the specific challenges that the exporting country studies will face in developing its wealth to the best advantage of the economy. (author)

  9. The political economy of emissions trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanoteau, J.

    2004-06-01

    This thesis is a positive analysis of emissions trading systems' implementation. We explain why allowances are generally granted for free even though normative economic analysis recommends their sale. We show empirically that free tradable permits, source of windfall profit, motivate rent seeking behaviours. The study focuses on the US market for SO 2 emissions allowances. The initial allocation rule resulted from parliamentary discussions that looked like a zero sum game. We formalize it as an endogenous sharing rule, function of lobbying effort, and we test it using political (money) contributions.We analyse theoretically the behaviour of an influenced regulator that has chosen to organize a market for permits and that must still decide on two policy variables: the whole quantity of permits and the way to allocate them initially. We formalize this decisions making process with the common agency model of politics.We show that the choice of an initial allocation rule is not neutral in presence of political market failures (lobbying). The decision to sell the permits or to grant them for free modifies the shareholders' incentive, in a polluting industry, to pressure for or against the reduction of legal emissions.Then, we analyse the public arbitration between the two policy variables when several industrial lobbies play a partially cooperative game for the free permits. The regulator chooses in priority to grant the rights for free rather than to manipulate their quantity, and this constitutes an efficient answer to the political influence. (author)

  10. The Political Economy of Capital Reallocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bersem, M.; Perotti, E.; von Thadden, E.L.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we develop a positive theory of capital market frictions. We focus on a political conflict that arises between citizens with different vintages of human capital. Once human capital is sunk in a firm- or sector specific technology, stakeholders will resist the emergence of newer sectors

  11. The political economy of the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, J.

    1981-01-01

    The changing international context, in particular declining estimates of nuclear capacity and a depression in the nuclear reactor market will influence prospects for a nuclear industry in Australia. Effects of the opposition by trade unions and community groups to uranium mining are discussed. The relationship between political decisions and the economics of the nuclear power industry is stressed

  12. On the Political Economy of Adverse Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Hervé Crès; Mich Tvede

    2005-01-01

    We consider a standard insurance economy where consumers are supposed to vote over menus of insurance contracts: A menu of contracts is majority stable if there does not exist another menu which is supported by an appropriate majority of consumers. We compute the smallest level of super majority for which there always exists a stable menu of contracts, and such that all stable menus of contracts are Pareto optimal. Lower super majority voting rules may ensure existence of stable menus if indi...

  13. [Governance and political economy of PHC policies in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Báscolo, Ernesto

    2011-06-01

    The development of implementation processes of PHC policies in Latin America, is a challenge yet to be tackled. It is necessary to acknowledge the political economy related to the implementation processes of PHC policies in Latin America from a governance perspective, characterized by the regulatory strategies used and the political processes. The promotion of social values, organizational policies or the introduction of new financial incentives are components of different forms of governance used in health system reforms. The institutional factors of social protection systems in Latin America are considered. Their potential, redistribution limitations and the political economy disputes of the reform strategies are explained by the conflict between the economic and related interests and values of the actors involved. This dynamic of the political process influences regulatory modes inherent in the processes of implementation of PHC policies. The State's governing capacity and levels of health system segmentation impinge on the effectiveness of reform strategies for resolving the conflicts in the policies implemented.

  14. Recent Economic Perspectives on Political Economy, Part II*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Torun; Shepsle, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years some of the best theoretical work on the political economy of political institutions and processes has begun surfacing outside the political science mainstream in high quality economics journals. This two-part paper surveys these contributions from a recent five-year period. In Part I, the focus is on elections, voting and information aggregation, followed by treatments of parties, candidates, and coalitions. In Part II, papers on economic performance and redistribution, constitutional design, and incentives, institutions, and the quality of political elites are discussed. Part II concludes with a discussion of the methodological bases common to economics and political science, the way economists have used political science research, and some new themes and arbitrage opportunities. PMID:23606754

  15. The Political Economy of Productivity: The Case of Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Patricio Navia; Nicolás Eyzaguirre; Jocelyn Olivari; Ignacio Briones; José Miguel Benavente; Cristóbal Aninat

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the political economy of productivity-related policymaking in Chile following a political transaction cost model (Spiller and Tommasi, 2003; Murillo et al., 2008). The main findings indicate that i) the Chilean policymaking process (PMP) was successful in the 1990s in implementing productivityenhancing policies, but as the country moved to a higher stage of development, the PMP grew less adept at generating the more complex set of policies needed to increase productivity a...

  16. The political economy of transnational oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikdashi, Z.

    1993-01-01

    This paper identifies some of the major policies adopted by the public authorities of both the oil importing and oil exporting countries, as well as the business strategies followed by the major energy corporate groups. The significance of governmental policies and business strategies are often reflected in transnational political or economic relations, market structures and price formation. The focus of this paper is to ascertain the impact of those policies and strategies. 1 ref., 1 fig

  17. Oil boycott and the political economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katouzian, H.

    1988-01-01

    The severe foreign exchange shortage caused by the loss of oil revenues forced Musaddiq's government to adopt the strategy of non-oil economics. This was not a coherent and comprehensive policy framework, but its different strands tended to complement and reinforce each other. Hence by August 1953 the balance of payments was on a steady course, and the domestic economy was under control. This paper gives a brief review of the background of the oil boycott and a discussion of the search for a solution

  18. Socio-economic institutions in classical political economy of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.V. Ushchapovskyy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fragmentary researches of socio-economic institutions by classical political economy are caused by the absence of social components in its methodological «core». The article concentrates on the ideas of institutionalism in the context of classical political economy formation. The author underlines the necessity to adapt the analysis of socio-economic institutions in the heritage of classical political economy in Ukraine of the 19-th century to the creation of an integral conception of genesis and evolution of institutionalism in Ukrainian economic thought. Following the traditions of European economic science, Ukrainian scientists tried to take into account social contradictions, the needs in democratic transformations of social relations in their works. In spite of absence of the category of «standard (rule» among Adam Smith’s followers, and Ukrainian economists paid attention to a social problematic in the context of traditional researches of classical political economy, there is the necessity to examine socio-economic institutions in their heritage and the possibility of its application to the formation of the paradigm of modern institutionalism. Michail Baludyanskiy considered that a state could limit the freedom of an economic activity only on the base of generally accepted standards, but in this case contributing to safety and freedom of an economic activity. National system of economy, its legislative and management systems must conceptually obey economic policy, Anthropocentrism defined the philosophical conception of Tihon Stepanov’s political economy. He followed methodological holism as he concluded the characteristics of an individual on the base of characteristics of institutions (society. Ivan Vernadskiy’s researches concerning behavior of an individual and his trials to characterize value from a consumer’s point of view don’t fully correspond to traditional classical political economy. To improve Adam Smith’s study

  19. Political economy and population health: is Australia exceptional?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxall, Anne-marie; Short, Stephanie D

    2006-06-01

    It is accepted knowledge that social and economic conditions--like education and income--affect population health. What remains uncertain is whether the degree of inequality in these conditions influences population health and if so, how. Some researchers who argue that inequalities are important, say there is a relationship between political economy, inequality and population health. Their evidence comes from comparative studies showing that countries with neo-liberal political economies generally have poorer population health outcomes than those with social or Christian democratic political economies. According to these researchers, neo-liberal political economies adopt labour market and welfare state policies that lead to greater levels of inequality and poorer population health outcomes for us all. Australia has experienced considerable social and economic reforms over the last 20 years, with both major political parties increasingly adopting neo-liberal policies. Despite these reforms, population health outcomes are amongst the best in the world. Australia appears to contest theories suggesting a link between political economy and population health. To progress our understanding, researchers need to concentrate on policy areas outside health--such as welfare, economics and industrial relations. We need to do longitudinal studies on how reforms in these areas affect levels of social and economic inequality, as well population health. We need to draw on social scientific methods, especially concerning case selection, to advance our understanding of casual relationships in policy studies. It is important to find out if, and why, Australia has resisted the affects of neo-liberalism on population health so we ensure our high standards are maintained in the future.

  20. Political economy and population health: is Australia exceptional?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxall, Anne-marie; Short, Stephanie D

    2006-01-01

    Background It is accepted knowledge that social and economic conditions – like education and income – affect population health. What remains uncertain is whether the degree of inequality in these conditions influences population health and if so, how. Some researchers who argue that inequalities are important, say there is a relationship between political economy, inequality and population health. Their evidence comes from comparative studies showing that countries with neo-liberal political economies generally have poorer population health outcomes than those with social or Christian democratic political economies. According to these researchers, neo-liberal political economies adopt labour market and welfare state policies that lead to greater levels of inequality and poorer population health outcomes for us all. Discussion Australia has experienced considerable social and economic reforms over the last 20 years, with both major political parties increasingly adopting neo-liberal policies. Despite these reforms, population health outcomes are amongst the best in the world. Summary Australia appears to contest theories suggesting a link between political economy and population health. To progress our understanding, researchers need to concentrate on policy areas outside health – such as welfare, economics and industrial relations. We need to do longitudinal studies on how reforms in these areas affect levels of social and economic inequality, as well population health. We need to draw on social scientific methods, especially concerning case selection, to advance our understanding of casual relationships in policy studies. It is important to find out if, and why, Australia has resisted the affects of neo-liberalism on population health so we ensure our high standards are maintained in the future. PMID:16737549

  1. The Political Economy of Early Exit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Carina; Starke, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale exit from the labour market began in the 1970s in many OECD countries. The literature indicates that individual early retirement decisions are facilitated by generous and accessible ‘pathways’ into retirement in the public pension system, unemployment insurance or disability benefits....... It is unclear, however, why early exit became so much more prevalent in some countries than in others and why such differences remain, despite a recent shift back towards higher employment rates and ‘active ageing’. We test a logic of sectoral cost-shifting politics involving cross-class alliances...

  2. The political economy of trade liberalization and environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredriksson, P.G.

    1999-01-01

    A pressure group model where environmental and industry lobby groups offer political support in return for favorable pollution tax policies is used to explain and predict the equilibrium pollution tax in sectors protected by tariffs. The political economy effects of trade liberalization are investigated. The pollution tax is shown to decrease if the lobbying effort by the environmental lobby decreases more rapidly than by the industry lobby Ceteris paribus. The level of political conflict falls with trade liberalization. Pollution may increase because of a reduction of the pollution tax, and tax revenues may fall simultaneously as pollution increases

  3. Internet Politics in an Information economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Marshall

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available It is argued that models of the "new" Information economy are in many ways incompatible with the more free wheeling modes of exchange which were part of the traditions of online society. The so called "hacker ethic" built around the prestation of open or free software seems to be under challenge, and not, as Pekka Himanen suggests, the forerunner of a new freer society. Knowledge workers may not be particularly powerful, or part of any kind of democratic vanguard. A contestation over types of property is occurring and apparently being won by the corporate sector. Furthermore it seems the "information society" may favour inaccuracies and certainty in information, rather than a kind of problem solving democracy based on factuality. As a result expectations that the Internet may lead to a revitalisation of democracy, or discussion, are probably over optimistic.

  4. Tarzan and the political economy of the name of 'Africa'

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo R. S. Ribeiro

    2009-01-01

    RIBEIRO, Marcelo Rodrigues Souza. Tarzan and the political economy of the name of 'Africa'. In: COUTINHO, Eduardo F.; COCO, Pina. (Org.). Beyond Binarisms: Crossings and Contaminations - Studies in Comparative Literature. Rio de Janeiro: Aeroplano, 2009, v. 2, p. 182-191.

  5. Corruption in the politics and economy of Nigeria: implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corruption in the politics and economy of Nigeria: implications for national development. JO Akinbi. Abstract. No Abstract. The Nigerian Journal of Economic History Vol. 5&6 2003: 122-136. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online.

  6. The Political Economy of Food Dependency in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    Consequently, the paper defines the concept of political economy, food dependency. The paper is explicated with the aid of dependency theory. The authors take a holistic discourse of food dependency in Nigeria. Epitomizing, the paper opines that current economic realities of food dependency in the country is an albatross.

  7. Institutional Support : Institute for Research on Political Economy in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... of the next generation of teachers and researchers in political economy in Bénin and West Africa. IREEP has successfully integrated academic training and research activities. IREEP has been involved in a number of research projects spanning a wide range of topics (democracy, governance, education, health, energy).

  8. The Health of Nations: Towards a New Political Economy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-11-01

    Nov 1, 2013 ... perspectives of neoliberal political economy. He also demonstrates that neoliberalism fosters individualism and inequality, which are bad for health, and shies away from solidarity and social cohesion, which are good for health. There are six parts to the book. Part I, the introduction, deals with neoliberalism ...

  9. The Networks and Niches of International Political Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Young, Kevin L.

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the organizational logics of how social clustering operates within International Political Economy (IPE). Using a variety of new data on IPE publishing, teaching, and conference attendance, we use network analysis and community detection to understand social clustering within the field...

  10. Popularising the "New International Political Economy": The ATTAC Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobulescu, Roxana

    2008-01-01

    Born in France in 1997, the ATTAC (Association for the Taxation of Financial Transactions to Aid Citizens) movement is popularising IPE (international political economy), the interdisciplinary field of study born in the United Kingdom in the 1970s. The affinity between the ideas and main concerns of ATTAC and IPE can be clearly stated. ATTAC is a…

  11. Pull factors in the political economy of international commercial sex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pull factors in the political economy of international commercial sex work in Nigeria. Ifeanyi P Onyeonoru. Abstract. No Abstract. African Sociological Review 2004, 8(2): 115-135. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  12. Institutional Support : Institute for Research on Political Economy in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Institut de recherche empirique en économie politique (IREEP) is an independent nonprofit organization established in 2004 with a view to contributing to the education of the next generation of teachers and researchers in political economy in Bénin and West Africa. IREEP has successfully integrated academic training ...

  13. The Political Economy of Carbon Tax in South Africa | Mbadlanyana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article engages with the discourse on the political economy of climate change, with a particular focus on South Africa, with the aim of assessing the viability of carbon-tax in the South African context. Given the country's specificities, this article argues that carbon tax will affect different segments of South African society ...

  14. Nigeria and the Political Economy of Underdevelopment: Focus on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are several manifestations of underdevelopment in the political economy and, in general, the governance of several countries in Africa. Unlike most parts of Europe, United States of America, Australia that are advanced in development, and even Asia where remarkable economic growth is rapidly paving the way for ...

  15. Ethnic divisions, political institutions and the duration of declines: A political economy theory of delayed recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bluhm, R; Thomsson, K.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the duration of large economic declines and provides a theory of delayed recovery. First, we develop a formal political economy model that illustrates a simple mechanism of how weak constraints on the political executive can lead to longer declines in ethnically heterogeneous

  16. Beyond the current political economy of competence development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2013-01-01

    of learning for work. This opens a new arena of political struggle over the direction of learning processes and the participation of workers in work and society. The socio-economic realities and a new understanding of the interrelationship between knowledge, skills, learning and practice central...... to the competence concept, raises a potential issue about the role of work and the living worker in a capitalist economy. This requires a re-development of the notion of economy based in the value and interest of working people, and enabled by the full development of the competences of the workers themselves....... A notion of the “political economy of working people” is proposed as a framework for investigating the potentials of competence development for enhanced democracy....

  17. The Political Economy of Land and Natural Resources in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Lars; Nystrand, Malin; Pedersen, Rasmus Hundsbæk

    Large-scale investments in natural resources (extractives as well as agriculture) can help transform African economies by accelerating economic growth, creating jobs and strengthening the links between local economies and the global economy more broadly. However, they often end up violating rights......, which in turn may lead to social protests and political instability. This Working Paper develops an analytical framework for analysing the implementation of large-scale investments in natural resources. It focuses on the triangular relations between investors, local populations and ruling elites...... to understand why some investments are implemented more successfully than others, it is necessary to grasp the politics behind an investment. The paper also explores the conditions under which investments can be implemented without violating the rights of local populations. The paper is based on a review...

  18. Forthcoming Issue on Game Theory and Political Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D. Ferguson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Game theory offers a rigorous set of concepts, relationships, and models that invite myriad applications to problems of political economy. Indeed, game theory can serve as a fundamental modeling technique that can bridge microfoundations of political and economic exchanges, with developmental processes and macro implications related to growth and distribution. Applications can range from localized interactions within workplaces, firms, political organizations, and community groups; to intermediate-level market, industry, community, or inter-organizational transactions; to encompassing national, regional, population, or global interactions. At any of these levels, game models can illustrate strategic responses of economic or political actors (individuals or organizations to specifiable conditions concerning any or all of the following: prevailing social context—notably informal institutions (such as social norms and formal institutions (such as mutually understood laws and regulations; available information (complete or not; accessible or strategically manipulated; agents’ motivations (material and/or social; and even levels of rationality—substantive (full cognition or bounded (limited cognition. Applicable models may operate on the basis of given institutional context and preference orientations or may explore associated developmental processes, including adaptive social learning. Of particular interest are representations of one or more of the myriad social dilemmas (or collective-action problems that inhabit political economy, associated exercises or distributions of power, and/or representations of potential resolutions to such dilemmas—perhaps with policy implications. Accordingly, this forthcoming issue of Economies seeks game-theoretic models based on classical, evolutionary, behavioral, or epistemic game theory that can be applied to one or more problems in political economy.

  19. Contradictions of international migration in terms of political economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josifidis Kosta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The political economy approach that entails critical arguments in relation to the processes of migration in neoliberal terms is developed in the paper. Starting with the account that migration covers as broad issues as politics, economics and population dynamic, the authors address the issue of migration in the political economy circuits of neoliberalization. In fact, the main line of argument is connected to the political economy as the relevant discursive frame and explanatory principle for the articulation of the complexity of migration. Critical arguments relating to the processes of migration in the neoliberal context thematize the mechanism of implemented flexibilisation and deregulation of labor. Demographic dynamics is essential in this context, but the authors intend to identify those political economy processes that lead to high precariousness, to various forms of temporary labor which are closely associated with forced labor forms. The category of forced labor is emphasized in the contemporary forms of migration, because this mode of labor facilitates the migration throughout the world. Furthermore, the authors point out the contradictory position of the state in relation to the migration-processes and analyse the authoritarian statism. This argumentation leads to articulation of the contradictory position of neoliberalization. The neoliberal discourses bring out the critical stance concerning the supremacy of the state, but it plays a key role in the regulation of migration. The state exposed to migration is faced with the contradictory demands. The globalization indicates the world without borders but is faced with the same contradictions. It is no coincidence that the intention of the reconceptualizations of globalization are interested in promoting global public goods. The processes of privatization in the sphere of the regulation of migration sharpen the contradictions of migration in the context of neoliberalization. The

  20. The Political Economy of Postwar Economic Development in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna-Perera Welgamage Lalith Prasanna-Perera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Thirty years of civil war in Sri Lanka has affected economic, political, social, cultural and psychological aspects of the society significantly. This paper presents an overview of postwar development strategies in Sri Lanka and compares it with the prewar economy from a political economic perspective. The paper specifically examines the progress of the overall postwar development in the war affected Northern Province of Sri Lanka. Using mixed methodologies data was gathered on critical aspects related to political economy. According to the current study, no clear progress has been made in the areas of economic growth, FDI growth, household income, and poverty and income inequality in the postwar economy of Sri Lanka when compared with the prewar economy. Government fiscal policy targets the postwar reconstruction works while monetary policy enjoys the amalgamation of North and East provinces to country’s aggregate supply apart from introducing very few loan schemes. Security phobia of the government of Sri Lanka limits local, national, regional and international none-government organizations especially in the North and East. There is a considerable amount of progress made in the area of infrastructure development and resettlement of displaced persons. However, primary data from the study indicates these strategies lack conflict sensitivity and public trust. This study emphasizes that postwar economic development strategies should address the critical determinants of sustainable recovery, peace and development aiming at protecting human rights, ensuring rule of law, establishing efficient public service system and finally offering constitutional reforms in Sri Lanka.

  1. The global household: toward a feminist postcapitalist international political economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safri, Maliha; Graham, Julie

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this article is to introduce a new category into international political economy-the global household-and to begin to widen the focus of international political economy to include nonmarket transactions and noncapitalist production. As an economic institution composed of transnational extended families and codwellers (including international migrants and family members left behind in countries of origin), the global household is engaged in coordinating international migration, sending and receiving billions of dollars in remittances, and organizing and conducting market- and non-market-oriented production on an international scale. We first trace the discursive antecedents of the global household concept to theories of the household as a site of noncapitalist production and to feminist ethnographies of transnational families. In order to demonstrate the potential significance and effect of this newly recognized institution, we estimate the aggregate population of global households, the size and distribution of remittances, and the magnitude and sectoral scope of global household production. We then examine the implications of the global household concept for three areas of inquiry: globalization, economic development, and the household politics of economic transformation. Finally, we briefly explore the possibilities for research and activism opened up by a feminist, postcapitalist international political economy centered on the global household.

  2. A Political Economy Analysis of Domestic Resource Mobilization in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anne Mette; Ulriksen, Marianne Sandvad

    This synthesis paper brings together the research findings from four papers prepared by the Uganda team as a part of the UNRISD Politics of Domestic Resource Mobilization for Social Development project, which addresses three broad themes: bargaining and contestation, key relations, and institution......-building with regard to mobilizing resources for social development. In the paper we analyse how political economy factors affect revenue raising and social spending priorities in Uganda. We establish a theoretical framework based on the political settlement theory, within which we explore instances of revenue bargain......, which we understand as political negotiations that shape revenue mobilization, the actual revenue composition, and policy priorities guiding revenue allocation. We focus on three instances of revenue bargains: legislative tax reform, institutional performance of the revenue agencies, and policy...

  3. Alignment of Labor Skill from the Political Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianela Bermejo-Salmon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The general objective of this article is to perform an organizational study the alignments process of the labor skill to the organization of the work from the Political Economy. This research was based on the method of the materialistic conception of history and interview techniques, opinion questionnaires and team work, among others. The main results obtained allowed to demonstrate how; supported by the object (the functions and the method of study of Political Economy, the fundamental contradictions of cultural, centralization and subjectivity, economic and administrative or managerial direction are treated; the ones which can stop the before referenced process, as well as their forms of manifestation and consequences for entities in the current context.

  4. Lessons from the political economy of the New Deal

    OpenAIRE

    John Joseph Wallis

    2010-01-01

    The New Deal produced a fundamental change in the structure of American government. The national government came to play a much larger role in the financing of social welfare programmes, while administration of the programmes was largely located at the states. Both the purely national and the shared 'federal' parts of the welfare system were characterized by impersonal rules. The political economy of how the rules came about and how the New Deal experience may have contributed to Americans ch...

  5. Work, worklessness and the political economy of health inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambra, Clare

    2011-09-01

    This essay argues that work, and the socioeconomic class polarities it creates, plays a fundamental role in determining inequalities in the distribution of morbidity and mortality. This is by means of uneven exposure to physical hazards and psychosocial risks in the workplace, as well as by inequalities in exclusion from the labour market and the absence of paid work. Furthermore, this essay shows that the relationships between work, worklessness and health inequalities are influenced by the broader political and economic context in the form of welfare state regimes. This leads to the development of a model of the political economy of health inequalities, and how different types of public policy interventions can mitigate these relationships. This model is then applied to the case of work and worklessness. The essay concludes by arguing that politics matters in the aetiology of health inequalities.

  6. The political economy of diagnosis-related groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoli, Paola; Grembi, Veronica

    2017-10-01

    A well-established political economic literature has shown as multi-level governance affects the inefficiency of public expenditures. Yet, this expectation has not been empirically tested on health expenditures. We provide a political economy interpretation of the variation in the prices of 6 obstetric DRGs using Italy as a case study. Italy offers a unique institutional setting since its 21 regional governments can decide whether to adopt the national DRG system or to adjust/waive it. We investigate whether the composition and characteristics of regional governments do matter for the average DRG level and, if so, why. To address both questions, we first use a panel fixed effects model exploiting the results of 66 elections between 2000 and 2013 (i.e., 294 obs) to estimate the link between DRGs and the composition and characteristics of regional governments. Second, we investigate these results exploiting the implementation of a budget constraint policy through a difference-in-differences framework. The incidence of physicians in the regional government explains the variation of DRGs with low technological intensity, such as normal newborn, but not of those with high technological intensity, as severely premature newborn. We also observe a decrease in the average levels of DRGs after the budget constraint implementation, but the magnitude of this decrease depends primarily on the presence of physicians among politicians and the political alignment between the regional and the national government. To understand which kind of role the relevance of the political components plays (i.e., waste vs. better defined DRGs), we check whether any of the considered political economy variables have a positive impact on the quality of regional obstetric systems finding no effect. These results are a first evidence that a system of standardized prices, such as the DRGs, is not immune to political pressures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Political economy with affect: on the role of emotions and relationships in political economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winden, F.

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses and provides experimental evidence on the role of emotions and, in particular, the neglected role of endogenous affective relationships (bonding) in three key areas of political economy: (i) appropriation, with compliance or resistance as response; (ii) competition for access to

  8. Food policy and politics. The political economy of the Public Distribution System in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E. Mooij (Jos)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractAbstract This paper discusses the history and political economy of the Public Distribution System (PDS) in India. This food distribution programme, which dates from 1939, is meant to increase food security both at the national and the household level. Since its emergence, it has passed

  9. The Anti-Politics of Development: donor agencies and the political economy of governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Hout (Wil)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAbstract This article discusses the attempt undertaken by several development aid agencies since the turn of the century to integrate political economy assessments into their decision making on development assistance. The article discusses three such attempts: the Drivers of Change

  10. Political economy of climate change, ecological destruction and uneven development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, Phillip Anthony

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze climate change and ecological destruction through the prism of the core general principles of political economy. The paper starts with the principle of historical specificity, and the various waves of climate change through successive cooler and warmer periods on planet Earth, including the most recent climate change escalation through the open circuit associated with the treadmill of production. Then we scrutinize the principle of contradiction associated with the disembedded economy, social costs, entropy and destructive creation. The principle of uneven development is then explored through core-periphery dynamics, ecologically unequal exchange, metabolic rift and asymmetric global (in)justice. The principles of circular and cumulative causation (CCC) and uncertainty are then related to climate change dynamics through non-linear transformations, complex interaction of dominant variables, and threshold effects. Climate change and ecological destruction are impacting on most areas, especially the periphery, earlier and more intensely than previously thought likely. A political economy approach to climate change is able to enrich the analysis of ecological economics and put many critical themes in a broad context. (author)

  11. Connecting political economies of energy in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buescher, Bram [Institute of Social Studies, Kortenaerkade 12, 2518 AX The Hague (Netherlands); Department of Geography, Environmental Management and Energy Studies, University of Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2009-10-15

    The South African energy debate is and will remain a heated one. Given South Africa's history of racial inequality and contemporary concerns around sustainability, much of it rightly focuses on the links between energy, poverty and the environment. Yet, many contributions to the (mainstream) debate seem to have a somewhat one-sided focus that might hamper rather than stimulate the understanding of these links. They either display a strong technical, quantitative bias and/or lean towards rather simplistic ideas about policy processes and dynamics. The article argues that many of these analyses could benefit greatly from a critical focus on the political economy of energy: the political-economic power structures that influence both many energy policies and the issues of energy equality and sustainability. Two major global developments emphasise the importance of this focus: the recent financial crisis and South Africa's role in the increasingly tense geopolitics of energy in Africa. The article concludes with some suggestions on how currently disparate political economies of energy could be better connected. (author)

  12. Auguste Comte’s Critique of Political Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Biscaia

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to present Auguste Comte’s critique of the Political Economy of his time as well as the proposals for social reform flowing from it. The methodological framework is built up on the categories proposed by the History of Ideas, in particular those of M. Bevir and Q. Skinner. What we can refer to as “Comtian economic theory” can be found in his “Social Statics”, in the sections dealing with property and the material elements of society, and in his “Social Dynamics”, where reference is made to the interrelationships between political, social and economic changes throughout history. This economic theory establishes dialogs both with liberals and “communists”, on the one hand defending the need for property and on the other, arguing for the subordination of property to social needs and providing a severe critique of individualism. The theory has both direct and indirect consequences: on the one hand, society cannot be reduced to the “market” and the State cannot neglect economic fluctuations; on the other hand, the most immediate conflicts of interest between proletarians and “patricians” cannot deny the social origin of wealth, requiring moral and legal measures for the regulation and resolution of these conflicts. In this regard, Comte may be seen as a precursor of the Welfare State, or at least a theoretician of social justice. Keywords: Auguste Comte, Positivism, Sociology, critique of Political Economy, holist methodology, social justice.

  13. Connecting political economies of energy in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buescher, Bram

    2009-01-01

    The South African energy debate is and will remain a heated one. Given South Africa's history of racial inequality and contemporary concerns around sustainability, much of it rightly focuses on the links between energy, poverty and the environment. Yet, many contributions to the (mainstream) debate seem to have a somewhat one-sided focus that might hamper rather than stimulate the understanding of these links. They either display a strong technical, quantitative bias and/or lean towards rather simplistic ideas about policy processes and dynamics. The article argues that many of these analyses could benefit greatly from a critical focus on the political economy of energy: the political-economic power structures that influence both many energy policies and the issues of energy equality and sustainability. Two major global developments emphasise the importance of this focus: the recent financial crisis and South Africa's role in the increasingly tense geopolitics of energy in Africa. The article concludes with some suggestions on how currently disparate political economies of energy could be better connected.

  14. The problem of bio-concepts: biopolitics, bio-economy and the political economy of nothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Kean

    2017-12-01

    Scholars in science and technology studies—and no doubt other fields—have increasingly drawn on Michel Foucault's concept of biopolitics to theorize a variety of new `bio-concepts'. While there might be some theoretical value in such exercises, many of these bio-concepts have simply replaced more rigorous—and therefore time-consuming—analytical work. This article provides a (sympathetic) critique of these various bio-concepts, especially as they are applied to the emerging `bio-economy'. In so doing, the article seeks to show that the analysis of the bio-economy could be better framed as a political economy of nothing. This has several implications for science education, which are raised in the article.

  15. The program of electricity production, an instrument of political economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiriet, Lucien

    1981-01-01

    The crisis of the western economies is now entering its 7th year. The structural factors of this depression probably prevail over the conjectural but explanations differ about it. In this article dealing with the progamm of electricity production, an instrument of political economy, the author first mentions what constitutes the present economic landscape in the world, the framework in which is necessarily placed the economical policy of the industrialised countries, among which France. The scrutiny of the way of action of the energetic policies in general, electrical and nuclear in particular, as an instrument of economical policy this depression, will then allow us to quantify and to appreciate this action at the national level [fr

  16. The Political Economy of Carbon Securities and Environmental Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polborn, Sarah

    The costs of the current suboptimal carbon abatement policy are likely in the range of 3 to 6 trillion 2005 US dollars. Using methods from the political economy of environmental policy, the paper develops a new carbon abatement policy instrument, carbon securities. A carbon security entitles its...... owner to a ?xed proportion of ex ante unknown total emissions. This creates an additional group of stakeholders on the side of the issue that has traditionally been underrepresented. The advantages over existing systems include an equilibrium carbon price closer to the social optimum, a more predictable...

  17. Review Article: The New Political Economy of Skill Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhuysse, Pieter

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the emerging literatures on public policies to invest in, and protect, human capital and valuable asset-specific skills. Special attention is given to two recent books on the topic: James Heckman and Alan Krueger's (2003) Inequality in America, and Torben Iversen's (2005...... affordable, high-quality childcare and cognitive as well as behavioral skills in schooling, and to protect valuable asset-specific skill investments. These are important messages for policymakers, and they open up promising avenues for future research on the cognitive, behavioral, and micro-political sources...... of long-term success in the knowledge economy....

  18. Political economy of the US financial crisis 2007-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuk Vuković

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The emphasis of this paper is on the political economy of the subprime mortgage crisis in the United States and how the policy makers contributed to it through their legislation and regulations, made under the rising influence of interest groups and the lobbying activities of the finance industry. The “Great Recession” of 2007-2009 began as a bubble-burst in the mortgage market in the United States that spilled over to the entire financial market of the US, and afterwards to the integrated world financial market. The crisis sprang up over the US real sector and, due to the decline in US aggregate demand, spread consequently to the real economy of the rest of the World. No sound evidence has been given for the publicly proclaimed idea that the causes of the crisis lie within the self-regulating free market. The causes of the crisis lie primarily in the activities of political power, i.e. in the extensive government regulation which has, under the strong influence of interest groups and the lobbying power of financial corporations, led to favouritism in macroeconomic policies and inefficient resource allocation. Regulation was enforced by stimulating affordable housing through government sponsored enterprises, oligopoly of the rating agencies, banking regulation and an increasing connection between government and the finance industry.

  19. Political economy of nuclear power, 1946-1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    This dissertation seeks to explain the pattern of nuclear power development in the United States, treating the subject as a case study of how major infrastructural development choices are made in a modern capitalist economy. The main concept adduced in the thesis to organize nuclear history is that of an Official Technology (OT). The latter enjoys strong state support, the promoted image of the coming technology and capture of critical mass advantages. The dissertation analyzes the incentives key political-economic interests had for promoting nuclear power to OT status 1946-1974 and the mechanisms used by these groups to facilitate nuclear expansion. At OT differential, tallying the microeconomic impact of nuclear's capture of OT status is calculated. Included in the differential are the benefits of scale economies, learning curve cost reductions, federal subsidies and regulatory incentives, misleading information environments, and bureaucratic momentum. Nuclear's decline after 1974 is tied to the erosion of this differential by a political challenge to the technology's OT status

  20. Reform despite politics? The political economy of power sector reform in Fiji, 1996–2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dornan, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Attempts to reform the electricity sector in developing countries have achieved mixed results, despite the implementation of similar reforms in many developed countries, and concerted effort by donors to transfer reform models. In many cases, political obstacles have prevented full and effective implementation of donor-promoted reforms. This paper examines the political economy of power sector reform in Fiji from 1996 to 2013. Reform has been pursued with political motives in a context of clientelism. Policy inconsistency and reversal is explained by the political instability of ethnic-based politics in Fiji. Modest success has been achieved in recent years despite these challenges, with Fiji now considered a model of power sector reform for other Small Islands Developing States (SIDS) in the Pacific. The experience demonstrates that reform is possible within difficult political environments, but it is challenging, takes time and is not guaranteed. The way in which political motives have driven and shaped reform efforts also highlights the need for studies of power sector reform to direct greater attention toward political drivers behind reform. - Highlights: • This is the first study of power sector reform in Fiji or other Small Island Developing States (SIDS) of the Pacific. • The clientelist nature of politics in Fiji is found to have both driven and shaped reform efforts. • There has been modest success in recent years despite these obstacles, with Fiji now considered a model for other SIDS. • The experience demonstrates that reform is possible within difficult political environments, but it is challenging, takes time and is not guaranteed

  1. International political economy (IPE) and the demand for political philosophy in an era of globalisation

    OpenAIRE

    Higgott, Richard A.

    2006-01-01

    Recent years have seen international political economy (IPE) become an increasingly bifurcated field of inquiry. On the one hand deductive, rational choice driven analysis has taken IPE increasingly in the direction of economic analysis toute courte. This has especially been the case in the United States. On the other hand, driven more by the largely inductive tradition in the non-economic social sciences, IPE, especially in a European and 'southern' context has become more, indeed as some wo...

  2. “Against the Politics of Fear: On Deliberation, Inclusion, and the Political Economy of Trust”

    OpenAIRE

    Azmanova, Albena

    2011-01-01

    This is an inquiry into the economic psychology of trust: what model of the political economy of complex liberal democracies is conducive to attitudes allowing difference to be perceived in the terms of ‘significant other’, rather than as a menacing or an irrelevant stranger. As a test case of prevailing perceptions of otherness in European societies, I examine attitudes towards Turkey’s accession to the European Union. The analysis introduces the concept of 'economic xenophobia'.

  3. Political economy of agrarian change: Some key concepts and questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Bernstein

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws on lectures given in recent years at the China Agricultural University, on author’s book Class Dynamics of Agrarian Change [1] and on a recent article [3]. The author supplied as few references as possible to very large literature in English on agrarian change both historical and contemporary; there is an ample bibliography in [1], which is expanded in [2-5]. The paper outlines in schematic fashion some key concepts in the political economy of agrarian change with special reference to capitalism historically and today; some key questions posed by the political economy of agrarian change, and how it seeks to investigate and answer them; two sets of more specific questions about agrarian transition to capitalism and agrarian change within capitalism (internal to the countryside, bringing in rural-urban interconnections, pointing towards the place of agriculture within larger ‘national’ economies, and concerning the character and effects of the capitalist world economy. With the aid of the last group of questions, the author discusses three themes, which they are deployed to investigate: the agrarian origins of capitalism, the distinction between farming and agriculture generated by capitalism, and the fate(s of peasant farmers in the modern world of capitalism. The author believes that one cannot conceive the emergence and functioning of agriculture in modern capitalism without the centrality and configurations of new sets of dynamics linking agriculture and industry, and the rural and urban, and the local, national and global. The three themes all feed into the fourth and final theme, that of investigating the fate(s of the peasantry in capitalism today, which resonates longstanding debates of the ‘disappearance’ or ‘persistence’ of the peasantry, albeit now in the conditions of contemporary ‘globalization’. The author does not deny some of the critique of the contemporary globalization, or at least its effects

  4. Poverty, inequality and a political economy of mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, J K

    2015-04-01

    outcomes requires us to develop a robust, evidence-based 'political economy of mental health.'

  5. The Political Economy of Neoliberalism and Illiberal Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Jacobs

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The unprecedented opportunities missed at the end of the Cold War have come back to haunt and taunt us in the form of misshapen ideologies and misconceived policies. Discredited notions discarded by history once again raise their heads to be finally buried or bury us. Despite the rhetoric of the Washington Consensus, the fall of the Berlin Wall, the collapse of communism and dissolution of Soviet authoritarianism did not mark a final vindication and victory for Western democratic neoliberalism. They only removed the antagonist who had compelled Western ideologues to moderate their actions to counterbalance the obvious humanistic appeal of socialism. Blinded by their own propaganda, theorists, politicians and the general public have embraced a course that threatens the stability and sustainability of Western society. Globalization, financialization, global mergers and acquisitions, shadow banking, international tax havens, the policy bias favoring energy-intensive automation, maximizing share-holder value, state capture, oligarchy and plutocracy have fueled soaring levels of economic inequality and insecurity. More importantly, they have shaken the roots of the social consensus that is the foundation of modern liberal democracies: polarizing and destabilizing society and throwing political processes into chaos. The notion that economics can be divorced and insulated from politics is an illusion. There is no economy without politics and law. A return to unbridled capitalism is threatening the culture of liberal values and the functioning of democratic institutions. Even mature democracies show signs of degenerating into their illiberal namesakes. The historical record confirms that peaceful, prosperous, free and harmonious societies can best be nurtured by the widest possible distribution of all forms of power—political, economic, educational, scientific, technological and social—to the greatest extent to the greatest number. The aspiration

  6. Political Economy of Epidemic Kidney Disease in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asoka Bandarage

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD, taking the lives of thousands in poor farming communities in Sri Lanka, is commonly seen as a problem peculiar to the island’s north central dry zone agricultural region. The prevailing bio-medical focus is on identifying one or more “environmental nephrotoxins.” While delineating important controversies on the etiology of the disease, this article seeks to broaden the discourse on the hitherto neglected political economy of CKD in Sri Lanka. In so doing, it seeks to bring together the bio-medical debate on the impact of widespread and unregulated use of agrochemicals on public health and kidney disease with broader global interdisciplinary perspectives on the industrialization of agriculture and the consolidation of food production by transnational agribusiness corporations. The article concludes pointing out environmentally sustainable and socially equitable development and organic agriculture as the long-term solutions to CKD in Sri Lanka and elsewhere.

  7. The neoliberal political economy and erosion of retirement security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polivka, Larry; Luo, Baozhen

    2015-04-01

    The origins and trajectory of the crisis in the United States retirement security system have slowly become part of the discussion about the social, political, and economic impacts of population aging. Private sources of retirement security have weakened significantly since 1980 as employers have converted defined benefits precisions to defined contribution plans. The Center for Retirement Research (CRR) now estimates that over half of boomer generation retirees will not receive 70-80% of their wages while working. This erosion of the private retirement security system will likely increase reliance on the public system, mainly Social Security and Medicare. These programs, however, have increasingly become the targets of critics who claim that they are not financially sustainable in their current form and must be significantly modified. This article will focus on an analysis of these trends in the erosion of the United States retirement security system and their connection to changes in the United States political economy as neoliberal, promarket ideology, and policies (low taxes, reduced spending, and deregulation) have become dominant in the private and public sectors. The neoliberal priority on reducing labor costs and achieving maximum shareholder value has created an environment inimical to maintain the traditional system of pension and health care benefits in both the private and public sectors. This article explores the implications of these neoliberal trends in the United States economy for the future of retirement security. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. The Collapse of Political Economy and the Advent of Unlearning Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchet, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Just like the Christian societies at the dawn of the science of political economy, today’s societies are face to face with the fact that their modes of organi¬sation and representation are inadequate when confronted with the consequences of their own, earlier, decisions. The economy and politics...

  9. Book Review: John M. Hobson and Leonard Seabrooke (2007) (eds) Everyday Politics of the World Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strange, Michael Stewart

    2009-01-01

    Book Review: John M. Hobson and Leonard Seabrooke (2007) (eds) Everyday Politics of the World Economy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), 254pp. Udgivelsesdato: 2009......Book Review: John M. Hobson and Leonard Seabrooke (2007) (eds) Everyday Politics of the World Economy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), 254pp. Udgivelsesdato: 2009...

  10. Towards a "Critical Cultural Political Economy" Account of the Globalising of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Susan L.; Dale, Roger

    2015-01-01

    This paper outlines the basis of an alternative theoretical approach to the study of the globalisation of "education"--a Critical, Cultural Political Economy of Education (CCPEE) approach. Our purpose here is to bring this body of concepts--critical, cultural, political, economy--into our interrogation of globalising projects and…

  11. Change, continuity and power in the Russian political economy in comparative BRICs perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasileva, A.

    2017-01-01

    This article-based dissertation explores the development of the Russian political economy over the past 25 years in comparative BRICs perspective. The first half of the thesis describes (article 1) and compares (article 2) the evolution of the macro-configuration of Russia's political economy

  12. The political economy of oil and the Niger Delta crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ighodaro, Osaro O.

    This study is about the burgeoning crisis in Nigeria's Oil Producing Niger Delta region. Discerning the intersecting contributive factors to the crisis, this dissertation suggests that the Niger Delta crisis is symptomatic of challenges to development in Nigeria. Due to the insidious colonial/neo-colonial practices of subjugation, and exploitation of the host communities, it is suggested that the extractive, super-profit motive of Shell, the concomitant environmental degradation, corruption of a bellicose state, ethnic conflict and suffering of the masses are outcomes of a long historically debilitating relationship with international capital which causes irreparable retardation to the host communities. From cash crop economy to a mono-oil economy resources are removed from the communities and used to enhance the colonial state and their post-colonial harbingers of misery. Hence, the indigenous people claim that the Niger Delta is in a crisis, and they are willing to confront the triple alliance of multinational oil companies like Shell, the Nigerian State and the local elite so long as these allies of subjugation continue to neglect the goose that lays the proverbial golden egg (oil that is). Theoretically, a hybrid Political Economy approach was adopted as the over-aching framework for the study, while Dependency theory, modified by what I have called African Transformative scholarly perspective, served as the conceptual tool. Primary and secondary sources of data, including personal observation, interviews, official government documents and other publications were utilized for this analysis. In view of recommendations, it is suggested that first, the Nigerian state should assume decisive and unflinching leadership in holding oil companies responsible for their activities in the host communities; second, oil companies (like Shell) should see themselves as an integral part of the host communities; invest in their development by providing employment opportunities

  13. The political economy of international green certificate markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederholm, Patrik

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the political economy of establishing bilateral trade in green certificate markets as one step towards harmonization of European green electricity support systems. We outline some of the economic principles of an integrated bilateral green certificates market, and then discuss a number of issues that are deemed to be critical for the effectiveness, stability and legitimacy of such a market. By drawing on some of the lessons of the fairly recent intentions to integrate a future green certificate market in Norway with the existing Swedish one, we highlight, exemplify and discuss some critical policy implementation and design issues. These include, for instance, the system's connection to climate policy targets, the role of other support schemes and the definition of what green electricity technologies should be included. Furthermore, the establishment of an international market presumes that the benefits of renewable power (e.g., its impacts on the environment, diversification of the power mix, self-sufficiency, etc.) are approached and valued from an international perspective rather than from a national one, thus implying lesser emphasis on, for instance, employment and regional development impacts. A bilateral green certificate system thus faces a number of important policy challenges, but at the same time it could provide important institutional learning effects that can be useful for future attempts aiming at achieving greater policy integration in the European renewable energy sector

  14. Precocious Politics: Preschool Education and Child Protection in China, 1903-1953

    OpenAIRE

    Tillman, Margaret Mih

    2013-01-01

    The dissertation traces the sentimental value of childhood and the economic impact of preschool education from 1903 to 1953. According to state theorists and social reformers, by abolishing child labor and separating childhood from work, preschool education would facilitate the transition from a household to an industrial economy and would allow women to join the workforce. Long-term structural continuities undergird conflicts over the political indoctrination of children and their relationsh...

  15. Mothers in the Informal Economy and Changes in Child Feeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mothers in the Informal Economy and Changes in Child Feeding and caring Roles in Kampala, Uganda. ... Résumé Cet article s'intéresse aux pratiques en cours concernant l'alimentation et les soins assurés par les mères, dans le secteur informel, à Kampala, en Ouganda. L'analyse est basée sur des données qualitatives ...

  16. Redistribution and development? the political economy of the Bolsa Família program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Lessa Kerstenetzky

    Full Text Available The article offers a qualitative evaluation of Brazil's Bolsa Família (Family Grant or Family Stipend Program, viewing it from the perspective of an income redistribution and development policy. Analyzing the program's most striking institutional characteristics -- targeting the poorest and setting conditions such as school enrollment and immunization of the family's children -- the article identifies a major weakness in the program's political economy that could jeopardize its sustainability as a redistributive and development policy. The article suggests that policies with such characteristics in extremely unequal countries like Brazil can make budget limitations endogenous, thus hindering the achievement of the program's own objectives. Two alternative directions are briefly explored: conversion of the program into a hybrid policy, both targeted and universal, and emphasis on the provision of child education services.

  17. The political economy of global finamcial meltdown (Depression ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It submitted that the global economy was indeed in depression. The implication of mono-economy based on crude oil, purchased only by the west whose economy is shrinking is very dire to the Nigeria it observed. It recommended the adaptation of the Keynesian principles of economic management which involved massive ...

  18. Relationships between Institutional Economics of Cooperation and the Political Economy of Trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Hernandéz

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the relationship between institutional economics of cooperation and the political economy of trust. Transactions costs, principal-agent theory, market power, increasing-returns theory and value creation, strategic management: competitive forces, resource-based theory, organisationtal knowledge and learning, strategic choice theory and collective efficiency theory are reviewed. Lastly, the political economy of trust is sustained.

  19. The political economy of dive tourism: precarity at the periphery in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Hampton, Mark P.; Jeyacheya, Julia; Lee, Donna

    2017-01-01

    Using a critical political economy approach and the concept of labour precarity, the international dive tourism industry in Sabah, Malaysia and its workers’ vulnerabilities are interrogated. Fieldwork data highlights dive tourism’s socio-economic impacts and the precarity of labour within the international tourism sector and also critiques it as a development strategy for a peripheral region. The paper challenges the optimistic views of labour precarity found in the existing political economy...

  20. The Political Economy of Trade-Financial Liberalization and Financial Underdevelopment: A perspective from China

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Horatio M.

    2013-01-01

    Although financial development may facilitate economic growth over the long term, financial underdevelopment remains a salient feature of even leading emerging or transition economies. In principle, openness to both international trade and finance may weaken resistance to major financial reforms; however, the apparent failure to consolidate political support for such reforms in practice is not completely understood. This paper develops a simple model of the political economy of trade-financia...

  1. Against wasted politics: a critique of the circular\\ud economy

    OpenAIRE

    Valenzuela, F; Böhm, S

    2017-01-01

    The discourse of zero-waste and the circular economy has been championed by key players, such as the European Commission, management consultancies, NGOs, academics and multinational companies, in recent years. Given the all too obvious social and environmental crises associated with out-of-bounds growth capitalism, the circular\\ud economy has been one of the main references for rebuilding and reforming a political economy of sustainable growth. In this paper we detect a de-politicizing strate...

  2. Oil, migration, and the political economy of HIV/AIDS prevention in Nigeria's Niger Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udoh, Isidore A

    2013-01-01

    In most of sub-Saharan Africa, HIV/AIDS is driven by endemic structural problems such as unemployment, poverty, forced migration, sexual exploitation, and concurrent sexual partnerships. In the Niger Delta of Nigeria, the epidemic is exacerbated by recurring regional conflict and negative environmental externalities resulting from 50 years of oil exploration. This article seeks to identify and analyze potential barriers to HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment from oil pollution and other environmental stressors in Nigeria's Niger Delta. We develop a conceptual framework to understand how oil politics and economic systems affect HIV risks in Nigeria. We then evaluate evidence of how environmental exposures can amplify risks. Using 10 semi-structured interviews, with 85 focus group participants, we test the argument that HIV transmission in the Niger Delta is related to a manipulative "divide and rule" power dynamic that characterizes multinational oil companies' role in shaping conflict contours in oil communities. Oil exploration destroys livelihoods, institutions, and values and forces impoverished and illiterate girls and women to migrate or be trafficked to urban centers as child laborers and sex workers. The elevated HIV/AIDS risk in the Niger Delta brings into focus the political economy of resource extraction, globalization, and indigenous, minority rights and struggles.

  3. The political determinants of executive compensation : Evidence from an emerging economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, Hao; Renneboog, Luc; Li Sun, Sunny

    2015-01-01

    In regulated economies, corporate governance mechanisms such as executive compensation are less driven by market-based forces but more subject to political influence. We study the political determinants of executive compensation for all listed Chinese firms in the context of an exogenous shock that

  4. Anthropology and "Contemporary Issues": Anthropology, Political Economy, and the General Education Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollwagen, Jack R.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the Anthropology Department at SUNY College at Brockport and the orientation of its faculty and students. Advocates a systems approach to education and suggests teaching strategies that incorporate political economic principles in the anthropology curriculum. An eight-page list of sources in political economy useful for teaching is…

  5. Political economies of corruption in fragile and conflict-affected states: Nuancing the picture

    OpenAIRE

    Dominik, Zaum

    2013-01-01

    Addressing corruption in fragile and conflict-affected environments is constrained by the risk that reforms can spark violent resistance. Two different political economies of corruption in fragile states – distinguished by the character of elite politics – affect the way corruption manifests itself. The differences have important implications for anti-corruption programming. Gradualism, changing elite incentives, and creating political space for reforms are approaches to emphasise. Anti-corru...

  6. The political economy of reforms in Central and Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fidrmuc, J.

    1999-01-01

    Politics and economics have become intensely intertwined in the post-communist countries in transition. The collapse of communist regime and the subsequent political liberalization created conditions for the implementation of wide-ranging economic reforms. In turn, the continuation of reforms and

  7. Reconsidering Sustainable Development: Urbanization, Political-Economy, and Deliberative Democracy

    OpenAIRE

    Roman-Alcalá, Antonio M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-five years after it entered the mainstream of global development discourse, “sustainable” remains a vague concept. Adopted by the powerful and the powerless, the term has been used to describe everything from consumer products to entire economic systems. Meanwhile, conciliatory democratic politics have suffered under a heavily money-influenced political process. This paper critiques conventional views on the definition of sustainability, and the proposed solutions that emerge therefrom...

  8. The Political Economy of Trade Relations between India-Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Kishore C. Dash.; Robert K. McCleery.

    2014-01-01

    A growing number of scholarly studies in and outside South Asia suggest the linkage between trade, economic development and peace between India and Pakistan. Despite many tangible political and economic gains of expanded India-Pakistan trade, the level of trade between India and Pakistan has remained anemic over the past six decades. Why hasn’t trade grown between India and Pakistan? What are the prospects of trade expansion between these two countries? Drawing on the growing political econ...

  9. Political Economy, the Internet and FL/OSS Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansell, Robin; Berdou, Evangelia

    Despite the growing amount of research on Free/Libre/Open Source Software (FL/OSS) development, there is little insight into how structural factors associated with institutions influence the patterns of software developer activity in this area. This article examines some of the dynamics of the development of this type of software and the extent to which these dynamics are associated with features of the gift economy as is frequently suggested in the literature. Drawing on an empirical analysis of contributors to the GNOME FL/OSS project, we suggest that greater attention should be given to the emergence of a mixed economy in which features of the exchange economy come to the fore with implications for the power relationships among those contributing to FL/OSS.

  10. Foucault's contributions for understanding power relations in British classical political economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Guizzo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the strategic role played by British classical political economy in constructing new technologies of power. Michel Foucault drew attention to a change that political economists promoted concerning the role of the state, which has been overlooked by historians of economic thought. This paper explores the main arguments provided by the most important British political economists of the 18th and 19th centuries on what concerns population management, State's role and economic dynamics in order to examine Foucault's considerations. Although British classical political economy consolidated the mechanism of markets and economic individuality, thus creating a system of truth that changed economic norms and practices, its discourse also established a political conduct that was responsible for creating mechanisms of control that disseminated new forms of power relations.

  11. Growth and energy nexus in Europe revisited: Evidence from a fixed effects political economy model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menegaki, Angeliki N.; Ozturk, Ilhan

    2013-01-01

    This is an empirical study on the causal relationship between economic growth and energy for 26 European countries in a multivariate panel framework over the period 1975–2009 using a two-way fixed effects model and including greenhouse gas emissions, capital, fossil energy consumption, Herfindahl index (political competition) and number of years the government chief executive stays in office (political stability) as independent variables in the model. Empirical results confirm bidirectional causality between growth and political stability, capital and political stability, capital and fossil energy consumption. Whether political stability favors the implementation of growth or leads to corruption demands further research. - Highlights: • Economic growth and energy for 26 European countries is examined. • Two-way fixed effects model with political economy variables is employed. • Bidirectional causality is observed between growth and political stability

  12. Women's political participation leads to stronger local economies ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-08

    Jun 8, 2016 ... Changes in key laws, such as the Hindu Succession Act, have benefited Hindu women by providing them with access to assets, such as property rights. This has increased their potential to participate in the decision-making process, and encouraged them to participate in the local economy. Reforms have ...

  13. The political economy of local content in African extractives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Lars; Hansen, Michael; Kjær, Mette

    Extractive foreign direct investment (FDI) is heralded as the new development opportunity in Africa. But extractive FDI has a record of producing enclaves in host countries with few linkages to the local economy. Only if it creates local content will extractive FDI become a catalyst of development...

  14. The Political Economy of Local Content in African Extractives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael W.; Buur, Lars; Therkildsen, Ole

    Extractive foreign direct investment (FDI) is heralded as the new development opportunity in Africa. But extractive FDI has a record of producing enclaves in host countries with few linkages to the local economy. Only if it creates local content will extractive FDI become a catalyst of development...

  15. The Changing Political Economy of Migration in the 2000s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neerup, Stine

    faced by migrants and policymakers since the onset of the 2007 global financial crisis. The dissertation applied a socio-political analysis to three net migrant receiving countries: Australia, Denmark and the United States. Parallel to this, it applied a normative approach and reflected on what rights...... political discourse and approach, if we are to experience different outcomes from labour migration in the future. This matters as the ability to attract migrant labour continues to be important, and it matters if global equality is to be enhanced, using migration to foster development...... that inclusionary policies are strongly pathdependent on the immigration history and the welfare policy tradition in the receiving country. It also uncovered an increased rights gap leading to a significant democratic deficit as well as a clear inequality of social and political rights. Finally it identified...

  16. The political economy of churches in Denmark, 1300-2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin; Paldam, Ella

    2017-01-01

    The paper reports new time-series for the numbers and sizes of churches in Denmark over a 715-year period. Per capita, the new series are termed church densities. A pattern emerges in the series that corresponds to the main development in the economy: Until 1750, the economy was in the traditional...... must have been even larger. We argue that this large decline is caused by fall in religiosity that is caused by economic development as measured by the rise in incomes. In parallel with similar transitions in other sectors, e.g., the Agricultural Transition, it is termed the Religious Transition....... steady state, where church densities were high and did not decline substantially. Modern development set in after 1750. Since then, church densities have declined more than five times. Moreover, capacity utilization of church rooms has declined, which means that the reduction in the demand for churches...

  17. The political economy of bank- and market dominance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.; von Thadden, E.-L.

    2004-01-01

    Legislation affects corporate governance and the protection of stakeholders versus investor claims. We allow the preference of a political majority to determine both the governance structure and the extent of stakeholder claims. In a society where median voters have relatively more at stake in the

  18. The political economy of bank- and market dominance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.; von Thadden, E.-L.

    2002-01-01

    Legislation affects corporate governance and the protection of stakeholders versus investor claims. We allow the preference of a political majority to determine both the governance structure and the extent of stakeholder claims. In a society where median voters have relatively more at stake in the

  19. The political economy of bank and equity dominance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.; von Thadden, E.-L.

    2003-01-01

    Legislation affects corporate governance and the return to human and financial capital. We allow the preference of a political majority to determine both the governance structure and the extent of labour rents. In a society where median voters have relatively more at stake in the form of human

  20. The political economy of fiscal transparency and independent fiscal councils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.M.W.J.; Debrun, X.; Sloof, R.

    The global surge in independent fiscal councils (IFCs) raises three related questions: How can IFCs improve the conduct of fiscal policy? Are they simultaneously desirable for voters and elected policymakers? And are they resilient to changes in political conditions? We build a model in which voters

  1. Women's political participation leads to stronger local economies ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Edgard Rodriguez - IDRC. Women attend a self-help group meeting near Hyderabad, India. Keenara Khanderia. Under changes to India's constitution, Indian women are gaining a stronger political voice. Legal reforms are encouraging women to contribute to economic growth and investments in community growth.

  2. Trade as Exploitation: Perspectives on the Political Economy of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a study of the commercial operation of the Royal Niger Company and John Holt and Company in the West Niger Igbo area from 1886 to 1930. The activities of the companies in the area heralded significant political economic development, the penetration of merchant capital, the development of trade in palm product, ...

  3. Essays in the Political Economy of Higher Education Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Benjamin Hasty

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the consequences of political influence on state higher education funding at the committee level. The State of South Carolina has a long history of using a formula to determine the appropriate amount of funding that is to be allocated to its colleges and universities. I use the funding level implied by the South…

  4. Political economy of the West: Populism versus policy wonks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, F.

    2017-01-01

    An attempt is made to understand the political upheaval in the West following the Brexit vote, the election of Donald Trump as President of the United States, and the emergence of populist patriotic parties throughout Europe, and why much of the anger is directed at economists and other experts. One

  5. An Overview Across the New Political Economy Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Murrau

    2006-01-01

    This work presents a review of the literature on political process formation and the role of institutions on economic development. Models of citizen candidacy and candidate choice and equilibria under plurality rule elections are illustrated. Studies of the relation between institutional structure and paths of economic development are also reviewed.

  6. Overcoming the Ulama: Globalizing Iran’s Political Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    leisure and energy to engage, beyond his professional endeavor, in intellectual, political, and social activities leading to all-round development of...personal contact through international trade and tourism . These indicators aside, Iran shows promise on the technology front with increased number of...organizations and treaties, telephone, travel and remittances, and internet usage to determine each country’s final score

  7. The Practices of Happiness : Political Economy, Religion and Wellbeing

    OpenAIRE

    Steedmand , Ian; Atherton, John R.; Graham, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    There is growing evidence that rising levels of prosperity in Western economies since 1945 have not been matched by greater incidences of reported well-being and happiness. Indeed, material affluence is often accompanied instead by greater social and individual distress. A growing literature within the humanities and social sciences is increasingly concerned to chart not only the underlying trends in recorded levels of happiness, but to consider what factors, if any, contribute to positive an...

  8. Ruptures, rights, and repair: the political economy of trauma in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Erica Caple

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzes the unintended consequences of humanitarian and development interventions in Haiti implemented to facilitate its postconflict transition following the period of military rule between 1991 and 1994. International and national governmental and nongovernmental initiatives to provide redress and healing to victims of human rights abuses from this period inadvertently contributed to the growth of a political economy of trauma. I argue that state-sponsored and non-state interventions aimed at truth seeking, acknowledging past ruptures, and reparations have intersected with the politics of local communities in ways that contribute to the commoditization of suffering in the political economy of trauma. The experience of a woman whose bodily integrity and personal sovereignty were violated by members of Haiti's terror apparatus demonstrates the presence of a terror economy. My witnessing of her interactions with the international and national humanitarian and development aid organizations that assisted her in the aftermath of violation revealed the contours of the compassion economy. It is the compassion economy that is the particular focus of this article. I evaluate whether rendering visible or audible the individual and collective suffering of the past truly aid processes of social reconstruction, democratization, and peace building, especially in states plagued with ongoing social, political, and economic insecurity. I argue that the forms of citizenship that these interventions engender are rarely permanent, especially in fragile or failed states, and may exacerbate the societal cleavages that gave rise to conflict.

  9. The Case For A Political Economy Of Accounting: A Critique Of The Arguments

    OpenAIRE

    Woodward, D.; Woodward, Therese

    2000-01-01

    The paper is oriented towards concern with the way in which the concept of political economy has been ?adopted? by academic accountants. However, a number of issues relating to the underlying concept require first to be debated if the main topic is to be viewed in context.\\ud Regarding accountants’ use of the political economy concept, one thread that certainly may be\\ud identified is that which looks upon the subject as providing rationale for an approach\\ud suggesting that developments in t...

  10. Demographic profile of states with human cloning laws: morality policy meets political economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabile, Bonnie

    2007-03-01

    This analysis seeks to identify factors that may shape the policy stance - whether restrictive or permissive - that each state in the United States with a human cloning law in place takes toward human therapeutic cloning. The investigation also considers if cloning policy is more the product of morality politics or political economy. Results show that among states with human cloning policies in place, those with a greater biotechnological capacity, more permissive abortion laws, fewer Evangelical Protestants, and higher political liberalism rankings are more likely to have permissive cloning laws. A higher Roman Catholic population is strongly associated with permissive cloning laws, rather than restrictive cloning laws as originally supposed. Factors with morality policy and economic bases were both found to be associated with cloning policy outcomes. Results suggest that morality policies, though distinct in some ways, do share determinants with public policies based on political economy.

  11. Political institutions as substitute for democracy: a political economy analysis of economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Carlos; Teles, Vladimir Kühl

    2009-01-01

    This manuscript empirically assesses the effects of political institutions on economic growth. It analyzes how political institutions affect economic growth in different stages of democratization and economic development by means of dynamic panel estimation with interaction terms. The new empirical results obtained show that political institutions work as a substitute for democracy promoting economic growth. In other words, political institutions are important for increasing economic growth, ...

  12. The Political Economy of Corruption and the Role of Financial Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Kira Boerner; Christa Hainz

    2004-01-01

    In many developing countries, we observe rather high levels of corruption. This is surprising from a political economy perspective, as the majority of people generally suffers from high corruption levels. We explain why citizens do not exert enough political pressure to reduce corruption if financial institutions are missing. Our model is based on the fact that corrupt officials have to pay entry fees to get lucrative positions. The mode of financing this entry fee determines the distribution...

  13. The political economy of nuclear energy in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nivola, P.S.

    2004-05-01

    A tendency among commentators, even experts like the author of the sentence above, is to regard the complicated story of nuclear energy in the United States as exceptionally troubled and frustrating. The root cause of the troubles and frustrations, moreover, is commonly thought to be more political than economic. The promise of nuclear power in this country is said to have been dimmed primarily by an eccentrically risk-averse public and an unusually hostile regulatory climate. Practically nowhere else, it is said, have political and legal institutions been so uncooperative. Supposedly the central governments of most other advanced countries have lent far more support to their nuclear industries. And because those governments are assumed to be more aggressive in combating pollution, including greenhouse gas emissions from burning fossil fuels, surely 'the rest of the world' has been doing much more than America to level the playing field for the development of nuclear energy. The following paper challenges this conventional picture. (author)

  14. The Changing Political Economy of Migration in the 2000s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neerup, Stine

    that inclusionary policies are strongly pathdependent on the immigration history and the welfare policy tradition in the receiving country. It also uncovered an increased rights gap leading to a significant democratic deficit as well as a clear inequality of social and political rights. Finally it identified...... faced by migrants and policymakers since the onset of the 2007 global financial crisis. The dissertation applied a socio-political analysis to three net migrant receiving countries: Australia, Denmark and the United States. Parallel to this, it applied a normative approach and reflected on what rights...... ruptures in social cohesion in receiving countries. The unfolding economic crisis has augmented many of these issues, and exposed the vulnerability of migrant workers. The dissertation argues that circular migration needs to be reconceptualised, and the emphasis on rights strengthened in the current...

  15. The Role Of The Military In Myanmars Political Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    the hands of chiefs and hereditary rulers.20 Whereas central Myanmar had a history of organized Buddhist organizations (such as the Young Men’s... Buddhist Association, which formed in Rangoon in 1906), the hills areas were less impervious to the influences of Christian missionaries.21 Since the...Burma (CPB).27 In the same year, an alliance called the Freedom Bloc was formed between the Dobama Asiayone, politically active monks , Dr. Ba Maw’s

  16. Economic and Political Governance in Germany's Social Market Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Horst Siebert

    2004-01-01

    Germany's system of economic and political governance strongly relies on group decision-making and consensus to solve economic issues. This approach relates to a wide spectrum of decisions, including the social partners with the trade unions and the employers' associations in wage formation, the trade unions in the governance of firms through codetermination and the workers' councils in the operation of firms, but also to relationship banking and to the steering of the university system by co...

  17. The political economy of aid flows to North Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Harrigan, Jane

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an historical overview of aid flows to North Africa. It assesses the aid allocation process and argues that past aid flows to the region have been heavily influenced by donor political interests. This has reduced the effectiveness of aid which, with the exception of Tunisia, has not been associated with sustained economic growth. The Arab Spring provides an opportunity to reappraise aid flows to North Africa and it is argued that future flows need to support the democratiz...

  18. Political Economy of Agrarian Crisis and Slow Industrialization in India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattacharyya, Sudipta; Abraham, Mathew; D'Costa, Anthony

    This paper uses the structuralist framework of agriculture-industry synergy in an economy to discuss the performance of the agricultural and industrial sectors in India. The industry – agriculture relationship is argued to be integral to economic development as the agriculture sector supplies raw...... development and growth in the two sectors. It concludes that India has not followed the structuralist pattern of sectoral development and poor agricultural growth has not been conducive for demand led industrialization, adversely affecting factor markets for both labour and land....

  19. The Economy of God and the Politics of the Devil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    as acts of evil, incorporated by the devil, who by his interventions postpone the future to the future. The modern form of tourism spanning the globe is tested as an example of both the power and the limits of Luhmannian systems theory, as tourism is a synchronous development emerging throughout the world...... of the limit of Gods eternal economy of grace by the actions of the fallen angel Lucifer, the Christian devil. In conclusion, the paper discusses how the ancient distinction between the Christian God and the Devil still shows its presence in the basic concept of Luhmannian systems theory, and how it in turn...

  20. Towards a political economy of urbanizaton in Third World countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safa H.I. (ed.)

    1981-01-01

    Urbanization has emerged as one of the major issues confronting contemporary developing countries. The essays in this volume bring a new perspective to bear on the urbanization problem in the Third World, particularly on the survival mechanisms of the poor. The authors, who include anthropologists, geographers, economists and sociologists, examine the impact of colonialism on the economies of the Third World countries, their dependence on advanced industrial societies for capital and technology, their urban class structures, and the role of their governments in shaping the urban process.

  1. Data Science and Political Economy: Application to Financial Regulatory Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharyn O'Halloran

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of computational data science techniques in natural language processing and machine learning algorithms to analyze large and complex textual information opens new avenues for studying the interaction between economics and politics. We apply these techniques to analyze the design of financial regulatory structure in the United States since 1950. The analysis focuses on the delegation of discretionary authority to regulatory agencies in promulgating, implementing, and enforcing financial sector laws and overseeing compliance with them. Combining traditional studies with the new machine learning approaches enables us to go beyond the limitations of both methods and offer a more precise interpretation of the determinants of financial regulatory structure.

  2. The postwar political economy of high-energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper looks at the interfaces of politics, economics and particle physics in the period after the second world war. Particle accelerators were expensive to build, so politicians, before voting money to the Atomic Energy Commission, needed reassurance that personnel and the accelerators themselves could be put to immediate military use in the event of war. The creation of CERN in Geneva, a European project using big machines, gave impetus to American proposals for accelerators such as the Cosmotron, Bevatron and alternating-gradient synchrotron. (UK)

  3. Political economy of power liberalization and power transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jung-Min

    2009-12-01

    Since the mid-1980s, power sector liberalization has been embraced at various levels across the world. The dominant rationale underlying such a move is that of efficiency improvement to be purportedly achieved by substituting private for public ownership and markets for regulations. However, the evidence of market-oriented power sector reform has shown environmental unsustainability, economic instability, and centralized technocracy. It is argued here that these problems are due to the continued commitment to the conventional energy paradigm, rather than being the results of operational mismanagement. This dissertation will challenge the adequacy of the efficiency discourse that has been predominant in power sector reform by broadening the scope of the energy discourse to socio-political and environmental dimensions. Instead of power liberalization driven by an energy commodity and centralization paradigm, this dissertation contends that power transformation based on an alternative paradigm of energy commons and decentralization is necessary. Synergistic and neoliberal development of South Korea since the 1960s is critically analyzed using the theoretical framework of energy paradigm. The case study of South Korea attempts to provide an understanding of how the conventional energy paradigm was first established and then expanded, and how it responded to the social, environmental and economic anomalies in a specific political economic context. As an alternative to the power liberalization strategy, this dissertation proposes a local energy regime based on the paradigm of energy commons and decentralization.

  4. Risky business: The political economy of Chinese investment in Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel C. O'Neill

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Kazakhstan lacks the democratic institutions that have been shown to protect foreign investors (Jensen, 2008; Li & Resnick, 2003. Nevertheless, as latecomers to globalization, China's resource-seeking state-owned enterprises (SOEs must go, not only where resources are, but also where they are available. These are often less than ideal investment environments, such as Kazakhstan, where they are confronted by high corruption, weak rule of law, and political risk. Focusing on investments by the China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC, this study analyzes how Chinese foreign economic policies, such as aid and loans, assist Chinese SOEs in securing protection for their investments. They do so by making key members of the Kazakh government stakeholders in the success of the investments. In addition, the study details how Chinese government strategy has evolved from one of simply buying off key members of the Kazakh government in order to gain approval for investments to one of making institutions in the Kazakh state, such as KazMunaiGas, stakeholders in the long-term success of the investment in order to secure protection for investments in a climate of political uncertainty.

  5. Political Economy of Right to Education in Rural China: Unpacking the Black Box of State

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, Y.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation approaches the inequality of basic education between urban and rural China from a human rights perspective and positions this issue in the context of Chinese political economy. It demonstrates the slackness of the Chinese state in the 1990s and its insufficient efforts in the 2000s

  6. Introduction to “the social theories of classical political economy and modern economic policy”

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carl Menger; E. Dekker (Erwin); S. Kolev (Stefan)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThis is the first-ever English translation of an 1891 essay by Carl Menger published in the most important newspaper of the Habsburg Empire, the Neue Freie Presse. Menger writes the piece as a defense of classical political economy in general and of Adam Smith in particular,

  7. The social theories of classical political economy and modern economic policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menger, C. (Carl); E. Dekker (Erwin); S. Kolev (Stefan)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis is the first-ever English translation of an 1891 essay by Carl Menger published in the most important newspaper of the Habsburg Empire, the Neue Freie Presse. Menger writes the piece as a defense of classical political economy in general and of Adam Smith in particular, focusing on

  8. The Political Economy Of Pro-Poor Development: The Case Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Political Economy Of Pro-Poor Development: The Case Of Ghana's Poverty Reduction Strategies. ... The eradication of poverty, and hence also sustainable growth, can only be achieved through the engagement of poor people in the development processes which affect their lives. This makes domestic policy ownership ...

  9. Eclipse of the Sun: The Political Economy of Food Dependency in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consequently, the paper defines the concept of political economy, food dependency. The paper is explicated with the aid of dependency theory. The authors take a holistic discourse of food dependency in Nigeria. Epitomizing, the paper opines that current economic realities of food dependency in the country is an albatross ...

  10. Beyond political skin : convergent paths to an independent national economy in Indonesia and Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Thuy, Pham

    2014-01-01

    This study discusses the transformation from a colonial into a national economy in Indonesia and Vietnam. It focuses on two intertwined processes of economic decolonization and reconstruction in the two countries after the Second World War, paying special attention to political and institutional

  11. Political economy, the ‘US School’, and the manifest destiny of everyone else

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Underhill, G.R.D.; Phillips, N.; Weaver, C.E.

    2011-01-01

    B.J. Cohen's "British school" of theories of international political economy has much broader, classical and European origins and is much broader than he portrays. The "US school" identified by Cohen stands isolated in this regard. Yet these very European and classical roots may hold the key to

  12. the political economy of the middle benue basin before the jihad, c ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the evolution and nature of the political economy of the middle Benue basin before the Jihad. The processes of production in the middle Benue basin developed to a level that made it possible to generate surpluses. The level of surplus appropriation in the tributary mode of production was such that it ...

  13. Literacy Training and the Brazilian Political Economy. An Essay on Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Philip R.

    An annotated bibliography is presented in essay form of sources concerning Brazil's literacy program for adults, MOBRAL (Movimento Brasileiro de Alfabetizacao), and its implications for the country's economy. General sources on literacy training are followed by works concerning Brazil's political system. Descriptions of the MOBRAL program, mostly…

  14. How reliable is pooled analysis in political economy? : the globalization-welfare state nexus revisited.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kittel, B.E.A.; Winner, H.

    2002-01-01

    Panel data analysis has become very popular in comparative political economy. However, in order to draw meaningful inferences from such data, one has to address specification and estimation issues carefully. This paper aims to demonstrate various pitfalls that typically occur in applied empirical

  15. Searching for (un)sustainabilty in pangasius aquaculture: A political economy of quality in European retail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bush, S.R.; Duijf, M.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on a political economy of food quality, this paper investigates the main sources of uncertainty over the environmental sustainability of Vietnamese pangasius catfish in European markets and how retailers subsequently respond to these uncertainties. Based on media survey and interviews with

  16. Political economy models and agricultural policy formation : empirical applicability and relevance for the CAP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der F.A.

    1997-01-01

    This study explores the relevance and applicability of political economy models for the explanation of agricultural policies. Part I (chapters 4-7) takes a general perspective and evaluates the empirical applicability of voting models and interest group models to agricultural policy

  17. Global Citizenship and Marginalisation: Contributions towards a Political Economy of Global Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balarin, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The development of a global form of citizenship stands in a rather tense relation with the realities of vast numbers of marginalised citizens across the globe, to the extent that marginality appears to be the hidden other of global citizenship. The aim of this paper is to contribute to the development of a political economy of global citizenship…

  18. Herman and Chomsky's Propaganda Model: Production of Consent: Political Economy of Mass Media

    OpenAIRE

    Gadimov, Javanshir

    2016-01-01

    Rızanın İmalatı: Kitle Medyasının Ekonomi PolitiğiEdward S. Herman ve Noam ChomskyOrijinal Adı: Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass MediaÇeviri: Dr. Ender Abadoğluİstanbul: bgst Yayınları, 2012, 478 sayfa

  19. Alberta's 2002 Teacher Strike: The Political Economy of Labor Relations in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnetson, Bob

    2010-01-01

    In 2002, approximately two thirds of school teachers in the Canadian province of Alberta went on strike. Drawing on media, government and union documents, this case study reveals some contours of the political economy of labor relations in education that are normally hidden from view. Among these features are that the state can react to worker…

  20. Building a "National Civilization" at Home and Abroad: International Students and Changing U.S. Political Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aw, Fanta

    2011-01-01

    The research study examines the relationship of international students to changing U.S. political economy. The research attempts to move international students from the periphery to the center of understanding the changing U.S. political economy in the twenty-first century. I argue that international students play an important role in building a…

  1. Powerlessness of older people in Hong Kong: a political economy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Ping-kwong

    2003-01-01

    Gerontologists agree that old age can be associated with an increase in powerlessness both in the personal domain and in the social and political fields. This paper is an attempt to understand the concept of powerlessness in old age within a political economy theoretical framework. The paper argues that the powerlessness of older people is not biologically determined. Rather, it is socially constructed. It has its roots in the social, economic, and political structure of society. For this reason, the paper argues that (a) the capitalist economic system discriminates against and marginalizes older people in the labor market. The current unfavorable economic climate will make the economic situation of older people worse. (b) The residual welfare system does not counteract the unfavorable impact of the economic system. Rather, it deprives older people of the necessary financial resources and social service supports that would enable them to lead independent and dignified lives. (c) The authoritarian political system creates adverse conditions that make it very difficult for older people to participate in the decision-making process on issues that affect their lives, as well as on broader political issues that affect the whole of society. It is the interplay among these economic, social, and political forces in Hong Kong that creates the political economy of powerlessness in old age and prevents older people from using their powers to master and control their lives.

  2. The Political Economy of Land and Natural Ressource Investments in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Lars; Nystrand, Malin; Pedersen, Rasmus Hundsbæk

    Large-scale investments in natural resources (extractives as well as agriculture) can help transform African economies by accelerating economic growth, creating jobs and strengthening the links between local economies and the global economy more broadly. However, they often end up violating rights......, which in turn may lead to social protests and political instability. This Working Paper develops an analytical framework for analysing the implementation of large-scale investments in natural resources. It focuses on the triangular relations between investors, local populations and ruling elites...... to understand why some investments are implemented more successfully than others, it is necessary to grasp the politics behind an investment. The paper also explores the conditions under which investments can be implemented without violating the rights of local populations. The paper is based on a review...

  3. School food, politics and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundy, Donald A P; Drake, Lesley J; Burbano, Carmen

    2013-06-01

    An analysis undertaken jointly in 2009 by the UN World Food Programme, The Partnership for Child Development and the World Bank was published as Rethinking School Feeding to provide guidance on how to develop and implement effective school feeding programmes as a productive safety net and as part of the efforts to achieve Education for All. The present paper reflects on how understanding of school feeding has changed since that analysis. Data on school feeding programme outcomes were collected through a literature review. Regression models were used to analyse relationships between school feeding costs (from data that were collected), the per capita costs of primary education and Gross Domestic Product per capita. Data on the transition to national ownership, supply chains and country examples were collected through country case studies. School feeding programmes increase school attendance, cognition and educational achievement, as well as provide a transfer of resources to households with possible benefits to local agricultural production and local market development. Low-income countries exhibit large variations in school feeding costs, with concomitant opportunities for cost containment. Countries are increasingly looking to transition from externally supported projects to national programmes. School feeding is now clearly evident as a major social programme in most countries with a global turnover in excess of $US 100 billion. This argues for a continuing focus on the evidence base with a view to helping countries ensure that their programmes are as cost-effective as possible. Clear policy advice has never been more important.

  4. Technology, power and the political economy of inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guy, Frederick; Skott, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Technology can affect the distribution of income directly via its influence on both the bargaining power of different parties and the marginal product of different factors of production. This paper focuses mainly on the first route. The role of power is transparent in the case of medieval choke...... points but modern network technologies have similar features. There is also substantial evidence --from truckers and retail clerks to CEOs -- that power affects the determination of wages. But power relations inevitably have institutional dimensions; regulatory frameworks influence industry structures...... and the market power of large companies as well as the parameters that determine the earnings of different groups of workers. The institutional framework is arrived at through complex social and political processes; technology, however, may exert some influence on the course of those processes....

  5. Human rights and development - an international political economy perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Lucena

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This research note provides a critical review of the recent literature on the consequences of development and democratization for the protection of human rights. It identifies common lessons and grounds for further research in the field. This literature takes a series of paradoxes that challenge conventional wisdom regarding the relationship between development and democratization as its starting point, on one hand, and the protection of human rights, on the other. To that effect, several unintended adverse consequences of economic development and movements toward democracy for the protection of civil and political rights are identified. The literature focuses on rights to physical integrity, leaving important questions unanswered when it comes to civil liberties and second-generation rights. The article systematizes new knowledge produced by this literature, translates it into recommendations for research and identifies opportunities for new investigations.

  6. Political Economy of Piracy in Somalia: Basis for a Transformative Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Carvalho de Oliveira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the current wave of piracy off the coast of Somalia in light of political economy framework proposed by Michael Pugh and Neil Cooper. According to these authors, three types of economies flourish in protracted conflicts - combat economy, shadow economy, and coping economy - whose aims are, respectively, to finance combat activities, generate personal profits and provide minimum resources to the subsistence of poor and marginalized people. Based on empirical evidences showing that piracy in Somalia performs these three functions, one argues that the current international intervention against piracy is not sustainable because it does not seek to transform the factors and dynamics that make piracy an economically attractive alternative for local populations. For this reason, one proposes a shift on the Somali piracy agenda by adopting a critical perspective where piracy is no longer treated exclusively as a mere disruption of order at sea. Instead, one suggests a transformative approach where piracy is understood in its political economy dimension taking into account not only the local aspects, but also their regional links.

  7. The political economy of electricity dispatch reform in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahrl, Fredrich; Williams, James H.; Hu, Junfeng

    2013-01-01

    The transition to a cleaner and more cost-efficient electricity system in China is political-economic as well as technological. An example is the reform of China's method of dispatching power plants, which potentially affects the economic relationships between consumers and producers, between grid and generating companies, and between central and provincial governments. Historically, coal-fired power plants in China all received roughly the same number of operating hours, regardless of efficiency or cost. In 2007, Chinese government agencies began to pilot “energy efficient dispatch,” which requires that generators be dispatched on the basis of thermal efficiency. Using a case study of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in southern China, we evaluated potential energy and cost savings from a change to energy efficient dispatch. We found that the savings are at best relatively small, because large, efficient generators already account for a significant share of total generation. Moreover, as an administrative policy that does not change economic incentives, energy efficient dispatch exacerbates imbalances and center-provincial tensions in the current system. We argue that incentive-based dispatch reform is likely to produce better outcomes, and that the keys to this reform are empowering an independent regulator with pricing authority and establishing a formal, transparent ratemaking process. - Highlights: ► Savings from China's energy efficient dispatch (EED) policy are at best relatively small. ► EED exacerbates imbalances and center-provincial tensions in China's current power system. ► Incentive-based dispatch reform is likely to produce better outcomes than EED. ► Keys to reform are independent regulation and a formal, transparent ratemaking process. ► Transition to cleaner, cost-efficient electricity system in China is political-economic as well as technological.

  8. The global political economy of REDD+: Engaging social dimensions in the emerging green economy

    OpenAIRE

    Hiraldo, Rocío; Tanner, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Green economy has generally focused on the energy sector, but interest in the role of forests in emissions reduction and in forest carbon markets is growing. This has led to the emergence of the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation, enhancement of carbon stock and sustainable management of forests in developing countries initiative (known collectively as REDD+) as a means through which individuals, projects and communities in developing countries can be financially rew...

  9. Managers and minerals in a monarchy: The political economy of mining in Jordan, 1970-1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piro, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    This study investigates why developing states that profess to follow free market principles continue to intervene in their economies. The study investigates the extent to which the state in Jordan has penetrated its most potentially productive economic sector - the extractive mineral industry (phosphates, potash, fertilizers, cement, and the refining of oil). The study examined Jordan's [open quotes]Big 5[close quotes] companies: the Jordan Cement Factories Company, the Jordan Phosphate Mines Company, the Jordan Petroleum Refinery Company, the Arab Potash Company, and the Jordan Fertilizer Industries Company. This examination sought to reveal the political factors that give rise to an interventionist state and that sustain intervention over time. The study discusses the political nature of building a national economy in a society with limited resources and in which certain groups and classes are favored over others. In Jordan the absence of a real entrepreneurial class or vibrant private sector prompted the state to enter the economy in order to construct its economic infrastructure. This is evidenced in the establishment of Jordan's extractive minerals companies. Through its links to these companies, the state crafted an economy in which the role of labor is weak and economic power is still situated within the organs of the state. Centralized authority within the kingdom and the various policy networks linking the state to industry make it difficult for the state to withdraw from the economy. Regional and international factors reinforce this tendency. A review of these companies' activities from 1970 to 1989 reveals the political contours of state capitalism and demonstrates why the private sector has not taken hold in many small developing nations. This study analyzes the institutional environment in which public officials act. The study concludes that the state's room to maneuver within the political arena and the economy is quite substantial.

  10. The Political Economy of Collective Labour Legislation in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W. Y. Wang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a seminal analysis of collective labour legislation in Taiwan. A chronological review of Taiwan’s legislative process suggests that the context of incorporation, institutional framework, mechanisms for delivering reforms, and sequence of reforms together shape the legislative outcomes of labour reforms at the collective level. While most labour legislation was revised and passed after the preceding sequence of economic transition, the reform of collective labour rights was greatly constrained by the flexible labour-market structure. In order for politicians to form new alliances with labour organizations, legislation of collective labour rights was a strategy to cultivate support during electoral periods. Consequently, the industrial relations changed following the enactment of substantial reform-oriented labour legislation. Theore-tically, the historical analysis of legislative procedure unveils evolutionary reform paths for collective labour rights in new democracies. At the same time, empirically, Taiwan demonstrates an alternative reform path in combination with incremental steps and progressive agendas. For new democracies of small economy, a window of opportunity for the progress in collective labour legislation remains open today, albeit with limitations.

  11. Political economy and price ratio changes: Electric industry under transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Mary E.

    This study began early in 2000, when the electric market was beginning to evolve from a vertical integrated industry to a market-driven, global industry where the generation portion of the industry was being sold to independent market-based companies. The beginnings of acquisitions, restructuring and re-alignments of the transmission and distribution systems were heightened during this period. In addition, as this study was underway, a tumultuous restructuring in California caused some proponents of deregulation to question the changes. The purpose of this study is to investigate price changes at the state level during the last 10 years (1990-2000). The conceptual framework is built on a study released in 1996. This study predicted lower prices as deregulation in the electric industry occurred and consumers had more choices in suppliers. In order to gain additional insight, the study is comprised of a quantitative analysis of price changes over time as well as a qualitative investigation of a certain geographic area. As a result of the quantitative analysis performed, the study has failed to reject the null hypothesis that deregulated states exhibited no difference in price ratios than those states that remain regulated. This was tested at the level of political influence (states with elected versus appointed) commissions. In fact, whether the population is segmented nationally, regionally, politically or by level of deregulation, price ratios have decreased from 1985-1996. National price ratios have been declining since the mid-1980s. A flattening of the trend for the last four years (1997-2000) may be due to the current retrenching as a result of the California deregulation experience. The qualitative section seeks to understand what influences electric prices have on regional economic development efforts. The interview results have determined that lower electric prices help to contribute to successful economic development activities, but they are not the

  12. Rational piety and social reform in Glasgow: the life, philosophy and political economy of James Mylne (1757-1839)

    OpenAIRE

    Cowley, Stephen Graham

    2013-01-01

    The philosopher James Mylne (1757-1839) vindicated the rational powers of humanity against the sceptical and “common sense” philosophies of his Scottish predecessors and earned the trust of his contemporaries for his Whig politics. He and the largely neglected philosophy and political economy classes he taught in Glasgow clearly merited closer study. My thesis thus contains a biography of Mylne and interpretative essays on his lectures on moral philosophy and political economy ...

  13. The political economy of energy use and pollution: the environmental effects of East-European transition to market economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midttun, A.; Chander, I. [Norwegian School of Management, Sandvicka (Norway)

    1998-11-01

    The transition of Eastern Europe to Western-type liberal capitalism has been interpreted as an important step towards a more ecologically sustainable Europe. The main argument has been that the energy efficiency of the West-European economy will be imported to Eastern Europe and lead to lower energy consumption and lower pollution. This line of argumentation seems sound as far as the industrial sector is concerned. However, it does not take into consideration the energy and pollution bill of the lavish lifestyle of modern consumer-oriented societies. A shift away from the moderate private consumption of East-European Communism, towards the Western consumerist lifestyle may diminish or even abolish the positive ecological effects of the East-European transition to a competitive market economy. The article explores energy consumption and pollution patterns of Eastern and Western Europe both as far as industrial and domestic end-user consumption is concerned. The article argues that these patterns are related to basic characteristics of the communist and capitalist systems and that pollution and energy use are fundamentally conditioned by the overall political economy. 18 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab., 1 app.

  14. A Political Economy of Water in Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry A. Swatuk

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Southern Africa is a region characterised by extensive socio-economic underdevelopment. Given water’s key role in social organisation, water allocation, use and management in Southern Africa is embedded in deep historical and structural processes of regional underdevelopment. Gini coefficients of income inequality in several states of the region are the most extreme in the world. Recent data from South Africa shows that Gini coefficients of water inequality vary directly with income inequality. Recent attempts to improve water resources management in the region through IWRM have failed to consider these facts, focusing instead on a mix of institutional, policy and legal reforms. The results of these reforms have been poor. In this essay, I employ a modified version of Allan’s (2003 'water paradigms' framework to locate and assess the positions and interests of actors involved in water resources management in Southern Africa. The essay shows that Southern Africa’s history of underdevelopment has created a dense web of powerful political, economic and social interests linked by a shared technocentric understanding of and approach to water use: i.e. water for 'high modern-style' development, or as labelled by Allen, 'the hydraulic mission'. What is less readily acknowledged is the wide-spread societal support for this mission. For this reason, ecocentric approaches to water management most commonly associated with influential international actors such as the IUCN and World Wide Fund for Nature have limited local support and are of minor relevance to Southern African decision-makers. However, actors supportive of an ecocentric perspective demonstrate considerable ability to inhibit water infrastructure development across the region. In the face of abiding poverty and inequality, and vulnerability to water insecurity, widespread societal support for a technocentric approach to resource use offers a pathway toward broad-based social benefits

  15. Political economy analysis for tobacco control in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bump, Jesse B; Reich, Michael R

    2013-03-01

    Tobacco is already the world's leading cause of preventable death, claiming over 5 million lives annually, and this toll is rising. Even though effective tobacco control policies are well researched and widely disseminated, they remain largely unimplemented in most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). For the most part, control attempts by advocates and government regulators have been frustrated by transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) and their supporters. One reason tobacco is so difficult to control is that its political economy has yet to be adequately understood and addressed. We conducted a review of the literature on tobacco control in LMICs using the databases PubMed, EconLit, PsychInfo and AGRICOLA. Among the over 2500 papers and reports we identified, very few explicitly applied political economy analysis to tobacco control in an LMIC setting. The vast majority of papers characterized important aspects of the tobacco epidemic, including who smokes, the effects of smoking on health, the effectiveness of advertising bans, and the activities of TTCs and their allies. But the political and economic dynamics of policy adoption and implementation were not discussed in any but a handful of papers. To help control advocates better understand and manage the process of policy implementation, we identify how political economy analysis would differ from the traditional public health approaches that dominate the literature. We focus on five important problem areas: information problems and the risks of smoking; the roles of domestic producers; multinational corporations and trade disputes in consumption; smuggling; the barriers to raising taxes and establishing spatial restrictions on smoking; and incentive conflicts between government branches. We conclude by discussing the political economy of tobacco and its implications for control strategies.

  16. Weberian versus Pluralistic Legal Forces in the Global Political Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkmar Gessner

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This picture supports a view that modernization processes lead naturally to legal structures similar to what can be observed in Western societies and that also global structures will emerge on the same model. Together with modernization theory another prominent theory often alluded to as justification for legalization is Institutional Economics where rules and institutions are considered mechanisms for effective transaction costs avoidance. My earlier publications compare these and other approaches for explaining the role of law in the economy. A third theory is Max Weber’s legal rationalization, an evolutionary process running from traditional irrational forms to formal, bureaucratic forms of legal domination. Weber’s view that legal rationalization is our “fate” and informal rules and institutions are necessarily outdated will be reconsidered from a historical perspective and confronted with empirical data gathered in the area of the governance of global business transactions. This article will attempt to show that although Weber’s influential approach still helps to explain much of what occurs in domestic models of capitalism it doesn’t seem to grasp the growing complexities of globalized capitalism. Este análisis apoya la opinión de que los procesos de modernización conducen naturalmente a las estructuras jurídicas similares a lo que se observa en las sociedades occidentales y que también las estructuras globales surgirán en el mismo modelo. Junto con la teoría de la modernización, otra teoría prominente a menudo aludida como justificación para la legalización es la Economía Institucional, donde las reglas y las instituciones se consideran mecanismos para evitar los costos de transacción de efectivo. Las publicaciones anteriores del autor comparan estos y otros enfoques para explicar el papel de la ley en la economía. Una tercera teoría es la racionalización jurídica de Max Weber, un proceso evolutivo que va

  17. Developing a Research Agenda on the Political Economy of Immigrants' Oral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvasina, Paola; Gastaldo, Denise; Quiñonez, Carlos; Muntaner, Carles

    2017-11-03

    Acculturation has been widely used in health research to explain oral health disparities between immigrants and their native born counterparts. However, immigrants' oral health studies have not clearly defined the acculturation construct. Also, a narrow focus on cultural oral health behaviours is likely to be inadequate for explaining immigrants' oral health inequities, which are also rooted in societal, political and economic factors produced across the globe. In this brief report, we discuss the use of the acculturation framework in the dental public health literature, note gaps in this approach, and argue for the need to incorporate the political economy lens to help better understand the complexities of immigrants' oral health.

  18. Worker’s Health: Considerations Based on a Criticism of Political Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Lara

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze worker health, based on a criticism of political economy. It seeks to understand the causes of illnesses and accidents among workers, and to highlight elements to consider the struggles of the working class in the realm of health, principally concerning public policies and union practices. It infers that under contemporary labor relations, workers get ill and have accidents due to the intensified pace of production, whether in activities on the factor...

  19. Women workers and the politics of claims-making in a globalizing economy

    OpenAIRE

    Kabeer, Naila

    2015-01-01

    The paper analyses the evolving politics of claims-making by women workers in the Global South in the context of a globalized economy. It addresses the following questions. What kinds of claims are prioritized in relation to women workers? Who is making these claims? To whom are they addressed? What strategies are pursued to advance these claims? Which claims are heard and acted on - and which go unheard? The paper considers three categories of women workers: those working in global value cha...

  20. The Political Economy of India'€™s Federal System and its Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, M. Govinda; Singh, Nirvikar

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the nature of India’s federal system, and recent and potential reforms in its structure and working. We summarize key federal institutions in India, focusing particularly on the mechanisms for Center-state transfers. These transfers are large, and are the major explicit method for dealing with inequalities across constituent units of the federation. We examine the evidence on how India’s political economy has affected the practical workings of the transfer mechanisms. Th...

  1. Development of the Theory of Capitalist Crises: Political Economy Traditions and Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Timofeyevich Ryazanov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the development history of the theory of economic crises under capitalism conditions. The author believes that economic science is being developed in two directions. The first direction is represented by science schools that deny any objective grounds for crises of overproduction in the market economy and develop new models of crisis-free growth. The opposite direction is supported by science schools acknowledging the existence of objective causes of crises, which is of practical significance for development of effective anti-crisis measures. The study is summarized by the conclusion about actualization of the political economy approach to analysis of the recent global crisis and its consequences. Its implementation anticipates special attention to different versions of overaccumulation of capital which played a key role in the origin of crisis processes in the world economy.

  2. The Political Economy of Sino-Peruvian Relations: A New Dependency?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Gonzalez-Vicente

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews dependency postulates and examines whether they are applicable to explain the political economy of China’s contemporary relations with Peru. It argues that the dichotomy between Peru as a commodity-providing periphery and China as a core manufacturing centre is insufficient to explain the ways in which power is embedded in the international economic system, and particularly inadequate to identify winners and losers in the international division of labour. Thereby, in line with some recent international political economy discussions of power, the article proposes that China should not be understood as a self-contained economic entity, but as a hub where natural resources are mobilized for transnational production. Furthermore, contending that a focus on nation-states fails to capture the complexity of (under-development dynamics, it suggests that notions of internal colonialism, flexible sovereignties and postcolonial analyses of representation provide fresher perspectives from which to understand the distribution of power along the political economy of Sino-Peruvian relations.

  3. Values in the Smart Grid: The co-evolving political economy of smart distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Stephen; Foxon, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Investing in smart grid infrastructure is a key enabler for the transition to low carbon energy systems. Recent work has characterised the costs and benefits of individual “smart” investments. The political economy of the UK electricity system, however, has co-evolved such that there is a mismatch between where benefits accrue and where costs are incurred, leading to a problem of value capture and redeployment. Further, some benefits of smart grids are less easy to price directly and can be classified as public goods, such as energy security and decarbonisation. This paper builds on systemic treatments of energy system transitions to characterise the co-evolution of value capture and structural incentives in the electricity distribution system, drawing on semi-structured interviews and focus groups undertaken with smart grid stakeholders in the UK. This leads to an identification of municipal scale values that may be important for business models for the delivery of smart infrastructure. Municipalities may thus pursue specific economic opportunities through smart grid investment. This supports recent practical interest in an expanded role for municipalities as partners and investors in smart grid infrastructures. - Highlights: • Smart grid investments can benefit municipal economic development. • Drawing on urban political economy we describe these values. • New values alter the smart grid investment problem. • New integration of urban policy and DNOs are proposed by this research. • Socio-technical approaches are enhanced by urban political economy and vice versa

  4. Structuring Knowledge of Subcultural Folk Devils through News Coverage: Social Cognition, Semiotics, and Political Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Patrick Williams

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The folk devil concept has been well used in subcultural studies, yet its importance might be better served by distinguishing among multiple conceptual frames through which it is articulated. In this article, I clarify how folk devils are made possible through the interaction of three concepts used by sociologists to study everyday life. The first is the process of social cognition, where producers and consumers of news construct and propagate a shared definition of who subcultural youths are and why they should be the object of fear. The second are the semiotic structures of genre and narrative, which narrow the interpretive process of producers and receivers alike and sustain discourses that limit how subcultural youths can be understood in the news. The third has to do with political economy, where the ideological features of mass mediated news-making keep the news industry in relative control of meaning making. Social cognition, semiotics, and the political economy dialectically produce the phenomenon of the subcultural folk devil and support its objective effects. I review several studies of market and state-controlled media societies and note that, in both types, the objective effects on youths are similar and significant. In studying how subcultural youths are framed in the media output of transitional states and societies, the conceptual value of social cognition, semiotics, and political economy should be recognised.

  5. Political economy. On the endogeneity of political preferences: evidence from individual experience with democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs-Schündeln, Nicola; Schündeln, Matthias

    2015-03-06

    Democracies depend on the support of the general population, but little is known about the determinants of this support. We investigated whether support for democracy increases with the length of time spent under the system and whether preferences are thus affected by the political system. Relying on 380,000 individual-level observations from 104 countries over the years 1994 to 2013, and exploiting individual-level variation within a country and a given year in the length of time spent under democracy, we find evidence that political preferences are endogenous. For new democracies, our findings imply that popular support needs time to develop. For example, the effect of around 8.5 more years of democratic experience corresponds to the difference in support for democracy between primary and secondary education. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  6. Political economy of China and India: dealing with air pollution in the two booming economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqun Zhu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available China e India son dos economías en auge hoy en día, pero ambos sufren de daños al medio ambiente. Para conseguir un desarrollo sostenible, los dos países tienen que prestar más atención a la protección del medio ambiente. Este artículo examina en primer lugar las causas y consecuencias de los problemas de contaminación grave del aire en China e India. A continuación, se describe cómo China y la India tratan el problema de la contaminación del aire y sugiere formas para mejorar. El autor sostiene que el control de la contaminación del aire y de la protección del medio ambiente en general es un proyecto integral que requiere esfuerzos concertados de los gobiernos en todos los niveles, de la comunidad científica, de empresarios, juristas, grupos no gubernamentales y comunitarios, de la comunidad internacional, y de los ciudadanos como individuos. La educación y la estricta aplicación de la ley siguen siendo la clave del éxito. La experiencia de China e India en el control de la contaminación del aire proporcionan algunas lecciones útiles para otros países en desarrollo._____________ABSTRACT:China and India are two booming economies today, but both are suffering from environmental damages. To achieve sustainable develpment, the two countries have to pay more attention to the protection of environment. This article first examines the causes and consequences of the serious air pollution problems in China and India. It then discusses how China and India are dealing with the air pollution problem and suggests ways for improvement. The author argues that air pollution control and environmental protection in general are a comprehensive project that requires concerted efforts by governments at all levels, the scientific communtity, businesses, legal scholars, non-governmental and grass-roots groups, the international community, and individual citizens. Education and stricter law enforcement remain the key to success. China and India

  7. The political economy of the welfare state in developed capitalist countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, V

    1999-01-01

    The article analyzes the social, economic, and political changes taking place in developed capitalist countries that are affecting their welfare states, in particular the changes in the family, in people's life cycles, in economic and social structures, and, most importantly, in the political contexts. The author shows how these changes take place and how the ways in which various countries respond to them depend mainly on the correlation of forces (of which class forces continue to be of great importance) and their expression in the political space. The dominant theoretical frame (promoted by international agencies and many governments) assumes that all governments, regardless of their political coloration, are forced to follow the same policies because of the need to be competitive in the globalized economy, where international markets (whether financial or commercial) determine what governments can and must do. Questioning this economic determinism, the article recovers the importance of politics, putting politics at the center of the explanation of what is happening in the welfare states of the developed capitalist countries, including the neoliberal aggression against them.

  8. Book Review: Jandl, Thomas, Vietnam in the Global Economy – The Dy-namics of Integration, Decentralization and Contested Politics

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Fforde; Victoria Institute of Strategic Economic Studies, Victoria University, Melbourne

    2015-01-01

    Book Review of the Monograph: Thomas Jandl (2013), Vietnam in the Global Economy – The Dynamics of Integration, Decentralization and Contested Politics. Plymouth: Lexington Books, ISBN 978-0-7391-7786-0, 312 pages

  9. Bridging political economy analysis and critical institutionalism: an approach to help analyse institutional change for rural water services

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen David Jones

    2015-01-01

    This paper argues that approaches to understanding local institutionsfor natural resource management based on “critical institutionalism” (Cleaver2012), which emphasises the importance of improvisation and adaptationacross different scales, can be placed within broader political economy analysisframeworks for assessing challenges in public services delivery from national tolocal levels. The paper uses such an extended political economy analysis approachto understand the role of the internatio...

  10. The hidden cost of consensus: How coordinated market economies insulate politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Ezrow

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has argued that while elections motivate parties to respond to public sentiment, global economic ties reduce this responsiveness by redirecting elites from their electorates and toward market actors. In this study, we extend this work to examine the influence of globalization on party responsiveness across different forms of production-welfare regimes. Coordinated market economies (CMEs accommodate economic interdependence by striking corporatist bargains between political elites, trade union representatives, and organized business. Although these consensual relations facilitate economic stability, they also insulate policymakers from voters. Analyses that pair public opinion and party positions across 18 advanced capitalist democracies from 1977 to 2009 show that while CMEs permit political elites a wide room to maneuver under economic globalization, political parties competing in these organized market economies do not respond to public opinion. This is the case regardless of level of exposure to world markets. In CMEs, party position-taking is uninfluenced by external factors (economic globalization and domestic factors (public opinion alike. By examining the consequences for party behavior, our results raise questions about the virtues of coordinated market capitalism for the health of representative democracy.

  11. Human Rights Promotion through Transnational Investment Regimes: An International Political Economy Approach

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    Claire Cutler

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available International investment agreements are foundational instruments in a transnational investment regime that governs how states regulate the foreign-owned assets and the foreign investment activities of private actors. Over 3,000 investment agreements between states govern key governmental powers and form the basis for an emerging transnational investment regime. This transnational regime significantly decentralizes, denationalizes, and privatizes decision-making and policy choices over foreign investment. Investment agreements set limits to state action in a number of areas of vital public concern, including the protection of human and labour rights, the environment, and sustainable development. They determine the distribution of power between foreign investors and host states and their societies. However, the societies in which they operate seldom have any input into the terms or operation of these agreements, raising crucial questions of their democratic legitimacy as mechanisms of governance. This paper draws on political science and law to explore the political economy of international investment agreements and asks whether these agreements are potential vehicles for promoting international human rights. The analysis provides an historical account of the investment regime, while a review of the political economy of international investment agreements identifies what appears to be a paradox at the core of their operation. It then examines contract theory for insight into this apparent paradox and considers whether investment agreements are suitable mechanisms for advancing international human rights.

  12. A political economy of environmental impact assessment in the Mekong region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Wells-Dang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA is an issue of concern to governments, organized civil society groups, as well as business actors in the Mekong region. EIA and related forms of environmental assessments are being carried out throughout the region with varying levels of quality, legal frameworks, monitoring and compliance. Through a political economy approach, we seek to understand the interests and incentives among key stakeholders in each of the five Mekong region countries and propose ways that EIA processes can potentially be improved, with reference to hydropower and other infrastructure and development projects. The analysis is based on a collaborative research process carried out under the auspices of the Mekong Partnership for the Environment, a USAID-funded program implemented by Pact that aims to advance regional cooperation on environmental governance. We find that at present, EIA implementation is limited by numerous political economy constraints, some general across the Mekong region, others specific to one or more country contexts. Certain of these constraints can be addressed through a regional cooperative approach, while others will require longer-term changes in social and political dynamics to encourage uptake and impact and avoid possible blockage from entrenched interest groups.

  13. Political economy of the energy-groundwater nexus in India: exploring issues and assessing policy options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Tushaar; Giordano, Mark; Mukherji, Aditi

    2012-08-01

    Indian agriculture is trapped in a complex nexus of groundwater depletion and energy subsidies. This nexus is the product of past public policy choices that initially offered opportunities to India's small-holder-based irrigation economy but has now generated in its wake myriad economic, social, and environmental distortions. Conventional `getting-the-price-right' solutions to reduce these distortions have consistently been undermined by the invidious political economy that the nexus has created. The historical evolution of the nexus is outlined, the nature and scale of the distortions it has created are explored, and alternative approaches which Indian policy makers can use to limit, if not eliminate, the damaging impacts of the distortions, are analysed.

  14. Costa Rica as a source of emigrants: a reading from a political economy approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Gatica López

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Available data shows an increase in international migration departing from Costa Rica, mainly to the United States. Based on the data obtained from two surveys conducted with potential emigrants and families with members living abroad, this paper is aimed at understanding their reasons for emigrating. In addition, some socio-economic impacts in four suburbs with high rates of emigration are identified. From a political economy approach, the most appropriate framework to better understand these emigration cases is discussed.  Moreover, the transformation of the employment and productive matrix followed by Costa Rica during the last three decades, as well as the country’s form of insertion into the international economy are two structural factors strongly linked to the emigration of the subjects studied in this paper.

  15. Rural health efforts in the urban-dominated political economy: three Third World examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, J M

    1989-06-01

    The theme of this paper is to demonstrate that the urban preference in governmental health delivery programs does exists in capitalist and socialist political economies and that efficient rural health programs exist in capitalist and socialist developing countries. The purpose of the article is to determine strategies to promote accessible rural health care by studying 3 examples. In the State of Kerala, India between 1956-1959, land reforms were carried out, and political parties and agrarian cooperatives involving rural people were organized. rural needs were given top priority in this capitalist economy which resulted in agrarian reform, education, and health delivery. In 1971, food production increased to 5.4 million tons. During this period, the nutritional status rose, the mortality rated declined, and the fertility rates decreased. Thus, the health status for the rural population improved. Bolivia's Montero health program was developed in 1975. This case demonstrates the urban/rural conflict in a capitalist economy with preference given to the urban side. This proposed health program resulted in the urban communities receiving greater resources compared to the rural population. This result is attributed to lack of organization within the rural population. The final case examined was Nicaragua which in 1979 was socialist. The National Unified Health System was established by the Sandinistas and had 4 priorities: revolution defense, economy, education, and health. This movement by the Sandinistas addressed rural health problems and challenged the urban medical organization. Health care workers were trained to deliver more curative and preventative services. The Popular Health Councils in Nicaragua is unique; it provides discussion regarding the urban/rural conflict. A change in the Minister of Health also indicated concern for rural health care delivery. Nicaragua's health status also improved as a result of rural organization. From the 3 cases, it was

  16. The political economy of petroleum investments and land acquisition standards in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Hundsbæk; Kweka, Opportuna

    2017-01-01

    these relations is limited. Based on empirical field research in mainland Tanzania, this article inscribes itself into an emerging body of literature that seeks to unpack land acquisition processes as a way to analyse relations among all the main actors. By focusing on struggles over the standards...... the behaviour of oil companies towards the broader political economy of land and petroleum investments. Whereas many investment processes may have been set in motion by Northern oil companies, they may not be the only actors, let alone the most important ones, influencing how land is acquired....

  17. Worker’s Health: Considerations Based on a Criticism of Political Economy

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    Ricardo Lara

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze worker health, based on a criticism of political economy. It seeks to understand the causes of illnesses and accidents among workers, and to highlight elements to consider the struggles of the working class in the realm of health, principally concerning public policies and union practices. It infers that under contemporary labor relations, workers get ill and have accidents due to the intensified pace of production, whether in activities on the factory floor or in scientific management of labor.

  18. Corruption – The Politic and Bureaucratic Shield of the Underground Economy

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    Silviu Pripoaie

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In a conditional manner, corruption is considered the specific behavior for the entity thatrepresents the state and public authority of using public resources for personal profits. Internationalinstitutions for corruption evaluation (the World Bank or Transparency International generallyqualify the phenomenon as“the abuse of public power for private benefit”.Thus, corruption andunderground economy create the condition for the development of group interests, that, thanks to theirinfluence, do not subordinate the national legislation and control the political and economical nationalsystems, giving a perspective on what is known in the professional literature as“state capture”(Hellman & Kaufmann, 2001.

  19. Brand Aid and the International Political Economy and Sociology of North-South Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    This forum brings together a diverse group of scholars from international relations, international political economy, sociology, geography and development studies, to explore ‘Brand Aid’— a new concept in studies of North-South relations that can be advanced by IPE/IPS scholarship. In Brand Aid...... of the profit or sales is devoted to helping ‘distant others’. Brand Aid reconfigures images and representations of the legitimate role of business, civil society and the state (and their overlaps) in North-South relations in ways that are not easily situated between ‘exploitation’ and ‘development’....

  20. Technology, Political Economy, and Economic Development in the Middle East and North Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brach, Juliane

    2009-01-01

    Comparing the pace and extent of economic development across the developing regions yields that Arab countries have displaced a weak economic performance over the past 20 years, despite their favorable geo-strategic location and a high density of national and international structural adjustment...... allocation of resources is rooted deeply in regional political economy structures. These results challenge the scholarly debate, but can help to understand why international structural adjustment programs that focused on privatization and trade liberalization only showed limited success in the MENA region....

  1. Political economy of marine reserves: Understanding the role of opportunity costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martin D.; Lynham, John; Sanchirico, James N.; Wilson, James A.

    2010-01-01

    The creation of marine reserves is often controversial. For decisionmakers, trying to find compromises, an understanding of the timing, magnitude, and incidence of the costs of a reserve is critical. Understanding the costs, in turn, requires consideration of not just the direct financial costs but also the opportunity costs associated with reserves. We use a discrete choice model of commercial fishermen’s behavior to examine both the short-run and long-run opportunity costs of marine reserves. Our results can help policymakers recognize the factors influencing commercial fishermen’s responses to reserve proposals. More generally, we highlight the potential drivers behind the political economy of marine reserves. PMID:20133732

  2. The Anabolic Steroid Control Act of 2004: a study in the political economy of drug policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denham, Bryan E

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the processes by which the Anabolic Steroid Control Act of 2004, an act that added steroid precursors such as androstenedione to the list of Schedule III Controlled Substances in the United States, came to pass in both the House of Representatives and the Senate. Grounded theoretically in political economy, the article addresses, in the abstract, how the interplay of political pressures and economic influences stands to affect the actions of public officials, and how "tougher" drug policies-those touted to be more substantive and efficacious than existing regulations-often fail to effect change. The article concludes with implications for those involved in the regulation of anabolic steroids and steroid precursors.

  3. The Moral Economy of Lying: Subjectcraft, Narrative Capital, and Uncertainty in the Politics of Asylum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneduce, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Based on narratives of asylum-seekers from sub-Saharan Africa in northern Italy, in this article I analyze the narrative strategies used by immigrants to meet the eligibility criteria established by asylum law. For many of them, this means "arranging" biographical details within what I call "a moral economy of lying." The first question I discuss is what types of experience and 'subject positions' these narrative strategies reveal or generate. I then examine the arbitrariness and the bureaucratic violence of the asylum evaluation process, and the role of these procedures in the making of nation-language and current technologies of citizenship. Finally, I consider the politics of testification, recognition, and memory these discourses and practices combine to shape. I analyze these issues from an historical point of view of the politics of identity, truth, and falsehood as imposed in a recent past by colonizers onto the colonized.

  4. The political economy of misusing income distribution in the electoral process: A biased pluralism approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praščević Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the consequences of distribution of income on election results in conditions of biased pluralism and a small-scale electorate, when the results of the democratic electoral process are compromised due to electoral corruption. The paper discusses the most important concepts of political economy and political theory connected to achieving electoral victory through distribution and misuse of economic resources, focusing on identifying the conditions under which a democratic political system serves organized interest groups and not the majority; i.e., biased pluralism. Despite the formal equality of all voters, there are significant differences in their actual impact on election results. The democratic election process is put into question by the fact that the electorate is small and candidates have access to income that can be used to buy off ‘privileged’ voters through discretionary allocation of funds and the economic results generated by such distribution. Faced with the corrupt practice of the incumbent, the opposition candidate is driven to a similar position to gain the support of ‘privileged’ voters and win the election for the opposition. The economic and political result is that the free vote and political competition are compromised, resulting in a political hybrid, the semiauthoritarian regime. This paper provides a mathematical optimization model in which a hierarchically based organization is used as an approximation of society. In the model, differences in the position of members of the organization are similar to differences between voters in the electorate. The particle swarm optimization (PSO method is used to calculate the amount of electoral bribes. The paper also uses game theory to provide an example of voting for the person who will manage the organization. The formal game between the incumbent and the opposition candidate is presented with a discussion of the various results of the game.

  5. Theorizing Environmental Governance of the World System: Global Political Economy Theory and Some Applications to Stratospheric Ozone Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J. Gareau

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper incorporates world-systems perspectives into an analysis of global environmental politics, thus adjoining a political economic analysis of scale with studies of global environmental policy. It is the ability of some social groups and institutions to jump scale that determines how global environmental policies are shaped. The United States’ carbon-intensive economy is seen to face larger short-term costs from global environmental agreements than many other countries in the core of the world-system, but what remains unexplored in the environmental politics literature is the question of why the United States sees its long-term economic condition hindered by these agreements. This analysis points to the ways industry actors intervene at multiple scales of global environmental negotiations to affect national policy positions as well as larger discourses about science and risk. The article reviews the methyl bromide controversy in the Montreal Protocol to explain why this agreement has recently failed to live up to expectations in removing ozone-depleting substances. The United States is particularly responsible for this impediment: rather than innovate in response to new information and changing international contexts, industry actors have drawn upon US hegemony to enforce their dominant market positions. As the parties to the Montreal Protocol remain polarized over questions of methyl bromide use, this analysis calls for attention to the ways capital, states, and other social institutions are embedded in international environmental agreements and how they use such arrangements to obstruct successful multilateral agreements. I conclude by suggesting that environmental and other social movements might strategize in two ways: 1 by helping support an emergent ‘green hegemony’ (most apparent in Chinese policy as a counterhegemonic alternative, and 2 by developing strategies that account for the ways industry interests overlap with declining

  6. Politics of Desire in the New Economy. From the historical background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rodríguez Granell

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the factors related to affectivity, emotions and desire as key elements in the social production of subjectivity and the actual economic dynamics. Its aim to explore is the correspondence between the early critiques to modernity and the current New Economy model. To this end, it will focus on the political economy of creative industries in which the production of desires is understood to be an asset of productivity and it responds to the last capitalist reform. Special emphasis will be placed on how a critical community emerges able to question the contemporary labour conditions, not only to those who work in the vulnerable field of creative work but including a large range of unprotected workers. This analysis will take the form of multiple significant case studies, which will help to show how to suggest an alternative concept of emotion and desire, and how we can recover methods from past artistic avant-gardes and its engagement with social movements that had worked in this direction to create new communities and new political subjects in the contemporary economic context.

  7. Food Desertification: Situating Choice and Class Relations within an Urban Political Economy of Declining Food Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Bedore

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available While food deserts create whole sets of tangible consequences for people living within them, the problem has yet to be the subject of much normative, in-depth evaluation as an urban political economy of food access. This paper provides a critical analysis of a specific food desert and its responses, drawing on a case study of the low-income, spatially segregated North End of the small city of Kingston, Ontario, Canada. The main thrust of the paper is that the food desert remains a useful yet underexplored phenomenon through which to reveal the complexities and tensions surrounding the treatment of “choice” in a classed society. Understood as an urban political economy of declining food access, the food desert phenomenon reveals capital’s complex role in the promotion or violation of dignity through the urban geographies of acquiring food for oneself, family, or household. Through the data presented here, the article also argues for a collective pause among critical scholars to radicalize, rather than reject, the role of consumer choice in a more just food system, and for further normative engagement with urban landscapes of retail consolidation.

  8. Techno economic systems and excessive consumption: a political economy of 'pathological' gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reith, Gerda

    2013-12-01

    This article argues that gambling is a paradigmatic form of consumption that captures the intensified logic at the heart of late modern capitalist societies. As well as a site of intensified consumption, it claims that gambling has also become the location of what has been described as a new form of 'social pathology' related to excess play. Drawing on Castells' (1996) notion of techno-economic systems, it explores the ways that intersections between technology, capital and states have generated the conditions for this situation, and critiques the unequal distribution of gambling environments that result. It argues that, while the products of these systems are consumed on a global scale, the risks associated with them tend to be articulated in bio-psychological discourses of 'pathology' which are typical of certain types of knowledge that have salience in neo-liberal societies, and which work to conceal wider structural relationships. We argue that a deeper understanding of the political and cultural economy of gambling environments is necessary, and provide a synoptic overview of the conditions upon which gambling expansion is based. This perspective highlights parallels with the wider global economy of finance capital, as well as the significance of intensified consumption, of which gambling is an exemplary instance. It also reveals the existence of a geo-political dispersal of 'harms', conceived as deteriorations of financial, temporal and social relationships, which disproportionately affect vulnerable social groups. From this, we urge an understanding of commercial gambling based on a critique of the wider social body of gambling environments within techno economic systems, rather than the (flawed) individual bodies within them. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2013.

  9. The political economy of institutional change in the electricity supply industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufin, Carlos Ramon

    2000-09-01

    In the first part, a positive political economy model of the behavior of public enterprise, consumer electoral preferences, electoral platform choices of political parties, and side payments by production factors ("suppliers") to political parties, is used to analyze the political economy of choices among three alternative institutional arrangements: competition among private firms, private monopoly, or public enterprise monopoly. The analysis shows that political choices will be biased in favor of public enterprise, because consumers and suppliers benefit from its behavior. Voter and politician ideologies can temper or exacerbate this logic. Competition for economic rents increases the likelihood of public enterprise. Lastly, a weak judiciary can also make public enterprise likelier, but it creates uncertainty about parties' future actions and therefore it lowers the effectiveness of supplier side payments. In Part 2, the model's conclusions are tested for the electricity supply industry (ESI) across a cross-section of more than 80 countries. Coding is used to compute scores for observed outcomes with regard to reliance on competition versus monopoly and on private versus public ownership. Multiple indicators for the hypothesized explanatory variables are aggregated using factor analysis. OLS regressions show that ideology plays an important role in both competition and property outcomes, and to a lesser extent, distributional conflict, while judicial independence does not in general have a clear effect. In the last part, the validity of the same hypotheses is tested by means of a comparison of the process of restructuring of the ESI in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, and Chile. The case studies show that ideology plays a major role in shaping the outcomes of the institutional change process; distributional conflict, or the conflict over the economic rents that can be extracted from the electricity industry, also has a significant influence on institutional change

  10. The socio-political economy of nuclear energy in China and India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Valentine, Scott Victor

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates forms of social, political, and economic organization conducive to nuclear power expansion. We begin by developing a theoretical framework of nuclear socio-political economy based primarily upon the evolution of nuclear energy in France. This framework posits that (1) strong state involvement in guiding economic development, (2) centralization of national energy planning, (3) campaigns to link technological progress to a national revitalization, (4) influence of technocratic ideology on policy decisions, (5) subordination of challenges to political authority, and (6) low levels of civic activism are influential factors in supporting development of nuclear power. Accordingly, we seek to verify the causal properties of these six catalysts for nuclear power expansion in two nations - India and China - that are on the brink of becoming major nuclear powers. We validate our framework by confirming the presence of the six catalysts during the initial nuclear power developmental periods in each country. We also apply our framework as a predictive tool by considering how present conditions in the two nations will impact nuclear power development trends. We conclude by highlighting the emergence of a potential seventh catalyst - the influence of greenhouse gas emission abatement policy on nuclear power development.

  11. FISCAL MANAGEMENT IN INDONESIA: THE PERSPECTIVE OF POLITICAL-ECONOMY INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Darono

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fiscal management is an effort to formulate fiscal policies to be implemented, controlled, and responsible based on the government regulation. For this purpose, fiscal authority undoubtedly needs an adequate support from the country’s financial information. The provision of information for the sake of this fiscal management cannot only be seen as an issue of economic-information which tends to emphasize on the process of information allocation, production, distribution, and consumption as an economic commodity. Using a conceptual framework of political-economy information, the information provision in the context of fiscal management is more of a constellation of various existing economic-information that should be correlated with the involved actors, and comprehensively take into account the surrounding social-political structure. By employing an interpretive policy analysis as the data analysis approach, this study finds that fiscal authority in Indonesia has gradually made a number of efforts to improve the mechanism of the nation’s financial information provision for those who have fiscal management interests, either from income information (tax/non-tax or expenditure information. In some conditions, it is identified that the initiative of information provision for the advantage of fiscal management as well as its implementation requires proper political support.

  12. Political economy of petrodollars: oil and democracy in Venezuela (Volumes I and II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karl, T.L.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis explores the impact of changes in the international petroleum economy upon the development strategy and political process of one oil-producing nation, Venezuela. It contends that sudden great wealth, like scarcity, can be a serious development curse, leading to policy decisions that provoke economic disruption and political decay. This ''paradox of plenty'' can best be explained by the interplay of an internationally-generated crisis of wealth with the skewed socio-economic arrangements and weak states characteristic of late developers. This interaction results in management overload and a subsequent decline in the problem-solving abilities of the state, making the effective utilization of petrodollar surpluses exceedingly difficult. An investigation of the political and economic consequences of the Perez Adminsitration's attempt to build a diversified industrial structure following the quadrupling of oil prices in 1973 illustrates this central theme. President Perez' ''project'' of accelerated modernization, designed to meet the competing demands of party and business interests, led to a contradictory development model which was both populist and entrepreneurial.

  13. Tobacco and the Malays: ethnicity, health and the political economy of tobacco in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraclough, Simon; Morrow, Martha

    2017-04-01

    To identify the historical nexus between Malaysia's largest and politically dominant ethnic group and the political economy of tobacco, and to consider the implications of this connection for tobacco control. Primary and secondary documentary sources in both English and Malay were analysed to illuminate key events and decisions, and the discourse of industry and government. Sources included: speeches by Malaysian political and industry actors; tobacco industry reports, press releases and websites; government documents; World Health Organization (WHO) tobacco control literature; and press reports. Malays have the highest smoking prevalence among Malaysia's major ethnic groups. The tobacco industry has consistently been promoted as furthering Malay economic development. Malays play the major role in growing and curing. Government-owned Malay development trusts have been prominent investors in tobacco corporations, which have cultivated linkages with the Malay elite. The religious element of Malay ethnicity has also been significant. All Malays are Muslim, and the National Fatwa Council has declared smoking to be haram (forbidden); however, the Government has declined to implement this ruling. Exaggerated claims for the socio-economic benefits of tobacco production, government investment and close links between tobacco corporations and sections of the Malay elite have created a conflict of interest in public policy, limited the focus on tobacco as a health policy issue among Malays and retarded tobacco control policy. More recently, ratification of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, regional free trade policies reducing the numbers of growers, concerns about smoking from an Islamic viewpoint, and anxieties about the effects of smoking upon youth have increasingly challenged the dominant discourse that tobacco furthers Malay interests. Nevertheless, the industry remains a formidable political and economic presence in Malaysia that is likely to continue to

  14. Designer ecosystems, capitalism, and boom-bust economic cycles: linking political economy and hydroecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, M. W.; Rigby, J.

    2011-12-01

    responses. For instance, US river flow regimes experienced greatest change in mainstemrivers following centralization of water resource functions in the mid-20th century associated with political response to the Great Depression. More recently in China, emerging data show that the internal migration toward urban, manufacturing centers has changed the national distribution of vegetation, and that reversal of such changes may occur in response to recent economic downturn. Other data on water quality from China's experiment with capitalism within Special Economic Zones, such as Shenzen, indicate hydroecological responses to the global economic recession and/or a classic Kuznet's Curve response to growing affluence. If it is true that particular political structures and/or economies leave environmental fingerprints, then understanding ongoing and future hydroecological changes will require a greater scope in research agenda. Further case studies of particular fingerprints of different political and economic institutions are needed to substantiate our hypothesis. Second, greater collaboration is needed between hydrologists and political scientists to understand broader motivations and trends in political structures and economic conditions.

  15. International political economy of climate negotiations while taking into account the mitigation and adaptation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilasca, Constantin

    2016-01-01

    Our research focuses on the cooperation and climate governance in the post-Copenhagen era. Its main purpose is to observe and define the evolution of the climate regime, based on the positions of the European Union, China and the United States. These three countries can be considered as big emitters, major economies, as well as great powers. Two main drivers are taken into account in our analysis: mitigation and adaptation costs to climate change. The starting point for our research is to be found in the polarized evolution of the climate regime. The most illustrative aspect of this 'metamorphosis' is the shift, in 2009, from the top-down to the bottom-up architecture of the climate regime. Thus, we resort to a hybrid theoretical background, which consists of both international political economy and climate change economy. The joint contribution of the two approaches allows us to analyze international political economy with climate economy as an input, as well as the impact of international relations on the main economic framework of climate change. Our research is based on a specific cooperation model, known as the 'k-group' theory, as developed by Duncan Snidal (1985). Within this framework of mini-lateral cooperation, the thesis that we defend is that it is possible to have a climate k-group which may have a trigger effect in order to obtain an ambitious regime. The starting point for our argument is that this group can be considered as a 'club of the relevant', and that what it needs to achieve in order to constitute a k-group is to establish a 'coalition of the willing'. The capacity and the willingness to act are mainly influenced by the costs they have to bear, that is the costs to mitigate their emissions and to adapt to the climate change consequences. Meanwhile, the group's collective commitment depends on other countries' actions. More precisely, the incentive mechanism is built on the idea that

  16. From political economy to sociology: Francis Galton and the social-scientific origins of eugenics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renwick, Chris

    2011-09-01

    Having coined the word 'eugenics' and inspired leading biologists and statisticians of the early twentieth century, Francis Galton is often studied for his contributions to modern statistical biology. However, whilst documenting this part of his work, historians have frequently neglected crucial aspects of what motivated Galton to establish his eugenics research programme. Arguing that his work was shaped more by social than by biological science, this paper addresses these oversights by tracing the development of Galton's programme, from its roots in a debate about political economy to his appeals for it to be taken up by sociologists. In so doing, the paper not only returns Galton's ideas to their original context but also provides a reason to reflect on the place of the social sciences in history-of-science scholarship.

  17. Post-Soviet gas sector restructuring in the CIS: a political economy approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirschhausen, C. von; Engerer, H. [DIW German Institute for Economic Research, Berlin (Germany). Dept. of International Economics

    1998-12-01

    This paper analyses progress and obstacles to gas sector reform in the most important CIS-Countries (Russia, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan), taking a political economy perspective. This reform process is embedded in a very specific post-Soviet institutional framework stemming from the legacy of socialism. Firstly, we review the evolution of the gas sector for the period 1992-1998. The paper then identifies the post-Soviet specifies of gas sector restructuring, to which any reform strategy and technical assistance have to he adapted. We derive concrete, process-oriented policy conclusions to accelerate the reform process in a market-oriented way. The paper concludes with an evaluation of the perspectives of gas sector restructuring in this geopolitically strategic area of the world. (author)

  18. It's the rents, stupid! The political economy of the resource curse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolstad, Ivar; Wiig, Arne

    2009-01-01

    A number of studies suggest that natural resources can have a negative impact on the developing prospects of countries. Empirical results suggest that political economy models of patronage and rent-seeking are central to understanding why such a resource curse arises. In other words, the resource curse is created by certain resource rents leading to dysfunctional behaviour. This article introduces the term impartiality enhancing institutions to structure policy debates by distinguishing conditions under which negative effects of resources can be mitigated. Moreover, it is argued that viewing institutions as an equilibrium outcome has implications for the analysis of institutional change. Policy initiatives that do not promote the impartiality of institutions, nor attend to the underlying interests and incentives keeping a bad institutional equilibrium in place, will not help lift the resource curse.

  19. It's the rents, stupid. The political economy of the resource curse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolstad, Ivar; Wiig, Arne [Chr. Michelsen Institute, P.O. Box 6033 Postterminalen, N-5892 Bergen (Norway)

    2009-12-15

    A number of studies suggest that natural resources can have a negative impact on the developing prospects of countries. Empirical results suggest that political economy models of patronage and rent-seeking are central to understanding why such a resource curse arises. In other words, the resource curse is created by certain resource rents leading to dysfunctional behaviour. This article introduces the term impartiality enhancing institutions to structure policy debates by distinguishing conditions under which negative effects of resources can be mitigated. Moreover, it is argued that viewing institutions as an equilibrium outcome has implications for the analysis of institutional change. Policy initiatives that do not promote the impartiality of institutions, nor attend to the underlying interests and incentives keeping a bad institutional equilibrium in place, will not help lift the resource curse. (author)

  20. Internal Control in Capitalist Enterprises. A Look from the Perspective of Political Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Domingos-Sapilinha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available All work directly social or collective on a large scale, requires to a greater or lesser extent a direction that establishes a harmonic link between the various individual activities and perform general functions born of the total productive organism. Thus the tasks of management, supervision and control appear as a requirement of the production process organized on the basis of the social division of labor and purely technical activities. Since then control has become a benchmark for various sciences, and internal control in the tool that aims at the effectiveness of business management by transparent operations and make records reliable, being indispensable for all types of business, including The big multinationals. Evaluating the fulfillment of internal control in large capitalist enterprises, approaching it from the perspective of Political Economy, is the objective of this article.

  1. The Great Urban Leap? On the Local Political Economy of Rural Urbanisation in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Meyer-Clement

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides insights into the local political economy of China’s current in situ urbanisation as compared to the 1980s and 1990s, focusing on the role played by county and township governments in shaping urbanisation in their localities. Marked differences were observed in the extent to which local cadres are able to steer the urbanisation process and adapt the relevant policies to local conditions and demands of the population. If leading county and township cadres are able to assert a relatively autonomous position vis-à-vis the superior municipality, a rural urbanisation process that considers both urban and rural interests and integrates local economic initiatives seems to become a potential alternative to the prevailing city-centred urban expansionism.

  2. The Great Urban Leap? On the Local Political Economy of Rural Urbanisation in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Meyer-Clement

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides insights into the local political economy of China’s current in situ urbanisation as compared to the 1980s and 1990s, focusing on the role played by county and township governments in shaping urbanisation in their localities. Marked differences were observed in the extent to which local cadres are able to steer the urbanisation process and adapt the relevant policies to local conditions and demands of the population. If leading county and township cadres are able to assert a relatively autonomous position vis-à-vis the superior municipality, a rural urbanisation process that considers both urban and rural interests and integrates local economic initiatives seems to become a potential alternative to the prevailing city-centred urban expansionism.

  3. Characterological psychology and German political economy in the Weimar period (1919-1933).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meskill, David

    2004-02-01

    In the mid-1920s, applied (and theoretical) psychologists in many countries turned from studying elementary abilities to studying character or personality. This article examines this shift within the offices of the German labor administration, which aimed to place all German youths in appropriate jobs. Contrary to recent works on the history of psychology, which have emphasized the importance of cultural context, this article explains the turn to characterology in terms of German industry's evolving production strategies. As German companies developed a niche in flexible production, they came to value the highly skilled worker, who needed such character qualities as reliability, diligence, and conscientiousness. The article thus argues that historical analyses of applied, and perhaps even theoretical, psychology should also consider political economy as a potentially important context.

  4. Fetishism or Ideology? A Contribution to the Political Economy of Television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noam Yuran

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The dominant approach to the political economy of television argues that television produces "audience commodity" which is sold to advertisers. It situates the economic effects of television in the sphere of subjects and subjectivity. This article presents a different approach, according to which television produces objects. Television advertising produces brands as economic objects possessing qualities that material goods cannot provide. For that purpose, it changes the basis of a critical study of television form ideology, which is primarily an epistemological category, to the ontological category of fetishism. This change entails a shift in the topology of critique of the visual image. Instead of seeing images as inverted representations of reality, in fetishism, according to Marx, things “appear as what they are”. The article argues that broadcast television is the distinctive fetishistic visual medium, in both the Marxian and the psychoanalytic senses of the term.

  5. Global Sushi: The Political Economy of the Mediterranian Bluefin Tuna Fishery in the Modern Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano B. Longo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The bluefin tuna fishery in the Mediterranean has a long history of human interaction. In recent times, this fishery has become the central source of bluefin tuna for core nations, particularly Japan. This process was set off in large part by the growth of global fish markets, driven by the valuable sushi and sashimi market, and overfishing of other bluefin stocks in other parts of the world. The transformation of this fishery from an artisanal trap fishery to a globalized industrial fishery has had a number of social and environmental consequences. Based on in-depth fieldwork and historical research, this paper examines the political economy of the bluefin tuna fishery in the Mediterranean, with a focus on Sicily. It provides a descriptive history of the changing conditions in this fishery, paying special attention to the modern fishery. This research contributes to the discussions regarding the globalization and industrialization of agri-foodsystems and environmental degradation.

  6. Análise Crítica Semiótica e Economia Política Cultural | Critical semiotic analysis and critical political economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Jessop

    2010-09-01

    Abstract This article defends the idea of a Cultural Political Economy – CPE, exploring the constitutive role of semiotics in economic and political activities and in the social order in general. This approach is post-disciplinary: it adopts the "cultural turn" in economic and political research, while not ignoring the articulation between semiotics and the interconnected materialities in economics and politics, within broader social formations. This approach is illustrated in the Knowledge-Based Economy – KBE as a master-discourse in accumulation strategies at different scales, state projects and hegemonic views, and diverse functional systems and professions, as well as in civil society. Keywords semiotics; economy and politics; cultural political economy; knowledge economy; cultural turn

  7. Public health challenges in the political economy of conflict: the case of Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Kasturi; Faisal, Waleed Al

    2015-01-01

    Recent uprisings in the Arab world and a full-scale war in Syria are widely viewed as popular demand for political voice against repressive regimes. However, growing economic inequalities and serious economic dysfunction played a role as trigger for conflict than is commonly accepted. Tunisia, Egypt and Syria all implemented policies of liberalization over the past two decades, leading to the worsening of living standards for the majority. The various forms of liberalization played a significant role in embedding social division and discontent whose outcomes affected other countries of the region with the onset of market reforms in nascent welfare states. Egypt, for example, was viewed by the World Bank as an economic 'best performer', despite regular riots over food prices, job losses and land expropriation for tourism. Tunisia was praised by donors just prior to the uprising (in 2010), for 'weathering well' the global economic downturn through 'sound macroeconomic management'. In Syria, the market economy made its mark over the 90s, but macroeconomic adjustment policies were implemented in a bilateral agreement with the European Union and approved by the International Monetary Fund in 2003. The economic stabilization programme that followed had limited concern for social impacts such as jobs losses, price rises and national debt, which ultimately caused immense hardship for the population at large, acting as a trigger for the initial uprising in 2011, prior to its transformation into a fully blown conflict. This article focuses on reforms implemented in the health sector and sets these in the context of the current political economy of Syria. It suggests that a protective approach to public health services during and in the aftermath of conflict may increase the possibilities of reconstruction and reconciliation between warring sides. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. The Political Economy of Health Co-Benefits: Embedding Health in the Climate Change Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Annabelle; Blashki, Grant; Bowen, Kathryn J; Karoly, David J; Wiseman, John

    2018-04-04

    A complex, whole-of-economy issue such as climate change demands an interdisciplinary, multi-sectoral response. However, evidence suggests that human health has remained elusive in its influence on the development of ambitious climate change mitigation policies for many national governments, despite a recognition that the combustion of fossil fuels results in pervasive short- and long-term health consequences. We use insights from literature on the political economy of health and climate change, the science–policy interface and power in policy-making, to identify additional barriers to the meaningful incorporation of health co-benefits into climate change mitigation policy development. Specifically, we identify four key interrelated areas where barriers may exist in relation to health co-benefits: discourse, efficiency, vested interests and structural challenges. With these insights in mind, we argue that the current politico-economic paradigm in which climate change is situated and the processes used to develop climate change mitigation policies do not adequately support accounting for health co-benefits. We present approaches for enhancing the role of health co-benefits in the development of climate change mitigation policies to ensure that health is embedded in the broader climate change agenda.

  9. The Political Economy of Health Co-Benefits: Embedding Health in the Climate Change Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabelle Workman

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A complex, whole-of-economy issue such as climate change demands an interdisciplinary, multi-sectoral response. However, evidence suggests that human health has remained elusive in its influence on the development of ambitious climate change mitigation policies for many national governments, despite a recognition that the combustion of fossil fuels results in pervasive short- and long-term health consequences. We use insights from literature on the political economy of health and climate change, the science–policy interface and power in policy-making, to identify additional barriers to the meaningful incorporation of health co-benefits into climate change mitigation policy development. Specifically, we identify four key interrelated areas where barriers may exist in relation to health co-benefits: discourse, efficiency, vested interests and structural challenges. With these insights in mind, we argue that the current politico-economic paradigm in which climate change is situated and the processes used to develop climate change mitigation policies do not adequately support accounting for health co-benefits. We present approaches for enhancing the role of health co-benefits in the development of climate change mitigation policies to ensure that health is embedded in the broader climate change agenda.

  10. Matter, Space, Energy, and Political Economy: The Amazon in the World-System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen G. Bunker

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many authors have attempted co-incorporate the local into the global. World-systems analysis, though, is rooted in processes of production, and all production remains profoundly local. Understanding the expansion and intensification of the social and material relations of capitalism that have created and sustain the dynamic growth of the world-system from the local to the global requires analysis of material processes of natural and social production in space as differentiated by topography, hydrology, climate, and absolute distance betweenplaces. In this article, I consider some of the spatio-material configurations chat have struc-tured local effects on global formations within a single region, the Amazon Basin. I first detail and criticize the tendency in world system and globalization analysis, and in the modern social sciences generally, to use spatial metaphors without examining how space affects the material processes around which social actors organize economy and policy. I next examine thework of some earlier social scientists who analyzed specific materio-spatial configurations as these structured human social, economic, and political activities and organization, searching for possible theoretical or methodological tools for building from local to global analysis. I then review some recent analyses of spatio-material determinants of social and economic organiza-tion in the Amazon Basin. Finally, I show that the 400-year-long sequence of extractive econ-omies in the Amazon reflected the changing demands of expanded industrial production in the core, and how such processes can best be understood by focusing our analysis on spatio-material configurations of local extraction, transport, and production. The Amazon is but one of the specific environments that have supplied raw materials to changing global markets, but close consideration of how its material and spatial attributes shaped the global economy provides insights into the ways

  11. Private finance initiative hospital architecture: towards a political economy of the Royal Liverpool University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Paul

    2018-02-01

    Sociological analysis has done much to illuminate the architectural contexts in which social life takes place. Research on care environments suggests that the built environment should not be understood as a passive backdrop to healthcare, but rather that care is conditioned by the architecture in which it happens. This article argues for the importance of going beyond the hospital walls to include the politics that underwrite the design and construction of hospital buildings. The article assesses the case of the yet-to-be-realised Liverpool Royal University Hospital, and the private finance initiative (PFI) funding that underpins the scheme, which is suggested as a salient 'external' context for understanding architecture's role in the provision of healthcare of many kinds for many years to come. PFI has major implications for democratic accountability and local economy, as well as for the architecture of the hospital as a site of care. Critical studies can illuminate these paradoxically visible-but-opaque hospital spaces by going beyond that which is immediately empirically evident, so as to reveal the ways in which hospital architecture is conditioned by political and economic forces. © 2018 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  12. The Political Economy of Cross-Scale Networks in Resource Co-Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Neil Adger

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate linkages between stakeholders in resource management that occur at different spatial and institutional levels and identify the winners and losers in such interactions. So-called cross-scale interactions emerge because of the benefits to individual stakeholder groups in undertaking them or the high costs of not undertaking them. Hence there are uneven gains from cross-scale interactions that are themselves an integral part of social-ecological system governance. The political economy framework outlined here suggests that the determinants of the emergence of cross-scale interactions are the exercise of relative power between stakeholders and their costs of accessing and creating linkages. Cross-scale interactions by powerful stakeholders have the potential to undermine trust in resource management arrangements. If government regulators, for example, mobilize information and resources from cross-level interactions to reinforce their authority, this often disempowers other stakeholders such as resource users. Offsetting such impacts, some cross-scale interactions can be empowering for local level user groups in creating social and political capital. These issues are illustrated with observations on resource management in a marine protected area in Tobago in the Caribbean. The case study demonstrates that the structure of the cross-scale interplay, in terms of relative winners and losers, determines its contribution to the resilience of social-ecological systems.

  13. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MEDIA OWNERSHIP AND NEWS PROCESS IN TURKEY FROM THE POLITICAL ECONOMY PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selda Bulut

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore how directly or indirectly control policies of Turkish political government towards media besides the ownership relations of the media affect the newsmaking process. After 1980, Turkey experienced media concentration and media commercialism as a result of neoliberal policies. Though media concentration is a global phenomenon, the process has its own characteristics in Turkey. Free market is not supposed to have given rise to the birth of a free press. Intervention in relations and clientelism between the government and the media in history have merged with a rapid commercialism. This study examines the newsmaking process with the political economy approach on the basis of the ownership structure and the relations between the media and the government. The study covers an analysis of 14 digital news portals based on their headlines between the dates 20-26 January 2015 and the hours 8:00 am. -11:00 pm.  The data obtained indicate a similarity between the news portals in terms of topics agendas, and news discourse.

  14. Nennu and Shunu: gender, body politics, and the beauty economy in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie

    2011-01-01

    This essay analyzes recent discourse on two emerging representations of women in China, "tender" women (nennu) and "ripe" women (shunu), in order to examine the relationships among gender, body politics, and consumerism. The discourse of nennu and shunu suggests that older, ripe women become younger and more tender by consuming fashions, cosmetic surgery technologies, and beauty and health care products and services because tender women represent the ideal active consumership that celebrates beauty, sexuality, and individuality. This discourse serves to enhance consumers' desire for beauty and health and to ensure the continued growth of China's beauty economy and consumer capitalism. Highlighting the role of the female body, feminine beauty, and feminine youth in developing consumerism, this discourse downplays the contributions of millions of beauty and health care providers (predominantly laid-off female workers and rural migrant women) and new forms of gender exploitation. Such an overemphasis on gender masks intensified class division. This essay suggests that women and their bodies become new terrains from which post-Mao China can draw its power and enact consumerism. Gender constitutes both an economic multiplier to boost China's consumer capitalism and a biopolitical strategy to regulate and remold women and their bodies into subjects that are identified with the state's political and economic objectives. Since consumerism has been incorporated into China's nation-building project, gender thus becomes a vital resource for both consumer capitalist development and nation building. This essay shows that both gender and the body are useful analytic categories for the study of postsocialism.

  15. Law, Contestation, and Power in the Global Political Economy: An Introduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward S. Cohen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The papers included in this collection are part of concerted project to develop a political economy of law in the contemporary global system. Over the past two decades, scholars have noted the expanding role of law, legal institutions, and legal agents that have been part of the process of “globalization,” and have employed a number of frameworks to make sense of this process of legalization. A central theme of our project is that none of these frameworks has provided an adequate political economic analysis of the creation, diffusion, and use of law, and we present an alternative approach to advance the understanding of the turn to law across the many dimensions and sectors of the global system. The papers advance the analysis behind this approach and explore the various ways in which law matters in a variety of areas, including global finance, corporate governance, copyright, diplomacy, and the provision of security. Their goal is to advance our understanding of how law intersects with the mobilization of power in the construction of the contemporary political economy. Los trabajos incluidos en esta colección son parte de un proyecto conjunto para desarrollar una economía política de la ley en el sistema mundial contemporáneo. En las últimas dos décadas, los expertos han señalado el creciente papel de la ley, las instituciones legales, y los agentes judiciales que han sido parte del proceso de "globalización", y han empleado una serie de marcos para dar sentido a este proceso de legalización. Un tema central de nuestro proyecto es que ninguno de estos marcos ha proporcionado un adecuado análisis económico político de la creación, difusión y uso de la ley, y se presenta un enfoque alternativo para avanzar en la comprensión de la vuelta a la ley a través de las muchas dimensiones y sectores del sistema global. Los trabajos avanzan el análisis de este enfoque y exploran las diversas formas en que la ley importa en una variedad

  16. Niger Republic, mineral planning (part one)-Mining industries in socio-political and national economy framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Julien

    1982-01-01

    This document focus on Niger Republic mineral industries related points that are: socio-political and economical context; specific characters such as administrative, juridical and fiscal environment; citizens employment and training; actual situation and energy projects; transport; existing mining companies, construction materials enterprises and projects presentation; effect of mining sector and construction material on national economy and prior major problems to be solved [fr

  17. From Infantile Citizens to Infantile Institutions: The Metaphoric Transformation of Political Economy in the 2008 Housing Market Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Megan

    2012-01-01

    The logic of political economy depends on a domestic metaphor, using the "oikos" or household as a model for the "polis." Historically, this metaphor has imagined citizens as the children of a paternal state. However during the 2008 housing crisis, this metaphor was turned upside down, depicting citizens as the parents of infantile state…

  18. A Liberal Actor in a Realist World: The European Union Regulatory State and the Global Political Economy of Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willemien du Plessis

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This contribution reviews the book entitled "A Liberal Actor in a Realist World The European Union Regulatory State and the Global Political Economy of Energy" authored by Andreas Goldthau and Nick Sitter. It was published by Routledge in 2015.

  19. Political economy constraints on carbon pricing policies: What are the implications for economic efficiency, environmental efficacy, and climate policy design?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, Jesse D.

    2014-01-01

    Economists traditionally view a Pigouvian fee on carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions, either via carbon taxes or emissions caps and permit trading (“cap-and-trade”), as the economically optimal or “first-best” policy to address climate change-related externalities. Yet several political economy factors can severely constrain the implementation of these carbon pricing policies, including opposition of industrial sectors with a concentration of assets that would lose considerable value under such policies; the collective action nature of climate mitigation efforts; principal agent failures; and a low willingness-to-pay for climate mitigation by citizens. Real-world implementations of carbon pricing policies can thus fall short of the economically optimal outcomes envisioned in theory. Consistent with the general theory of the second-best, the presence of binding political economy constraints opens a significant “opportunity space” for the design of creative climate policy instruments with superior political feasibility, economic efficiency, and environmental efficacy relative to the constrained implementation of carbon pricing policies. This paper presents theoretical political economy frameworks relevant to climate policy design and provides corroborating evidence from the United States context. It concludes with a series of implications for climate policy making and argues for the creative pursuit of a mix of second-best policy instruments. - Highlights: • Political economy constraints can bind carbon pricing policies. • These constraints can prevent implementation of theoretically optimal carbon prices. • U.S. household willingness-to-pay for climate policy likely falls in the range of $80–$200 per year. • U.S. carbon prices may be politically constrained to as low as $2–$8 per ton of CO 2 . • An opportunity space exists for improvements in climate policy design and outcomes

  20. Tinker, Tory, Wobbler, why? The political economy of electricity restructuring in Ontario, 1995--2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Charles Francis James

    The Ontario Tories' 42-year hegemony in government (1943-1985) was wrought through clever policies which often utilized Crown institutions to promote prosperity or to oblige or mollify vying interests. Ousted in 1985, though, they used their time in opposition to revise the Tory doctrine. In the 1995 election, the Tories emerged a tougher, more truculent group quite unlike their predecessors. Campaigning on their Common Sense Revolution (CSR) platform, they promised to eliminate red tape and vowed to obliterate all ostensible economic barriers which were impeding commerce in the province. In the CSR, the Tories identified Ontario Hydro (OH), the province's lauded publicly-owned power monopoly, as a troublesome and inefficient Crown entity which required fundamental reform. Portions of OH, they hinted, would likely be sold. Once elected, the Tories worked hurriedly to demolish OH and destroy public power in Ontario. For nearly 100 years, OH proved a pivotal component within the province's political economy for its provision of affordable, reliable power and its function as a policy tool to incite and direct development. A Tory government fought to instigate public power in the early 1900s and, in the late 1900s, a Tory government was fighting vigorously to rescind it. Why would they now renounce Crown power? It is the intent of this thesis to elucidate the Tory government's involvement in the transformation of Ontario's electricity industry from 1995 to 2003. Distinguishing electricity as a special, strategic staple, this thesis uses a pro-state, pro-staples industry political economy approach to discern how and why the Tory government sought to restructure the electricity sector. Essentially, it posits that the onslaught of neoliberalism, the emergence of novel generating technology, and the faltering of OH's nuclear wing all had a huge part to play in provoking the Tory government to initiate its reforms. Their reforms, though, proved too hasty, haughty, and

  1. The Political Economy of Sunni-Shi’ah Conflict in Sampang Madura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masdar Hilmy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Many overlooked the fact that politico-economic factors played an important role behind the 2011 and 2012 Sunni-Shi’ah conflict in Sampang Madura. Some, however, argue that the Sunni-Shi’ah conflict was merely driven by theological factors. The major roots of the conflict thus were therefore the internal dimensions of religious beliefs as contained in its doctrines. As a result, the conflict can only be explained in terms of religious and theological framework. This assumption is commonly shared by the majority of Madurese Muslims by arguing that the island of Madura cannot host the believers of non-Sunni. In the aftermath of the conflict, the community of Shi’ah has been forced to seek refuge outside of the land of Madura. By doing so, many observers and the Madurese Muslims tends to have treated political and economic factors as peripheral that exacerbated the escalation of conflict. This article, however, argues vice-versa that it is not theology, but politics and economy, which mainly steered the conflict. Theology played a role in exacerbating the escalation of conflict. During the conflict, religious and theological arguments were deployed as a mobilizing force in order to justify the conflict. Furthermore, the existence of Shi’ah community in Sampang is regarded by the mainstream Sunni community as a threat to their long domination over the socio-political structure in that region. The paper, thus, perceives the conflict as the way the local elites maintain the established mode of production. This paper is qualitative research that employs political-economy as its main approach in analyzing the data. [Para pengamat banyak tidak melihat aktor politik dan ekonomi di balik konflik Sunni dan Syiah 2011 dan 2012 di Sampang Madura. Para peneliti bahkan beranggapan bahwa konflik Sunni-Syiah itu dilatari oleh faktor teologis. Ini artinya bahwa tiap kelompok memegang sistem kepercayaan yang berbeda. Akar utama dari konflik itu pada

  2. Budgeting for Exploration: the History and Political Economy of Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Jason

    2013-10-01

    The availability of financial resources continues to be one of the greatest limiting factors to NASA’s planetary science agenda. Historians and members of the space science community have offered many explanations for the scientific, political, and economic actions that combine to form NASA’s planetary science efforts, and this essay will use budgetary and historical analysis to examine how each of these factors have impacted the funding of U.S. exploration of the solar system. This approach will present new insights into how the shifting fortunes of the nation’s economy or the changing priorities of political leadership have affected government investment in science broadly, and space science specifically. This paper required the construction of a historical NASA budget data set displaying layered fiscal information that could be compared equivalently over time. This data set was constructed with information collected from documents located in NASA’s archives, the Library of Congress, and at the Office of Management and Budget at the White House. The essay will examine the effects of the national gross domestic product, Federal debt levels, the budgets of other Federal agencies engaged in science and engineering research, and party affiliation of leadership in Congress and the White House on the NASA budget. It will also compare historic funding levels of NASA’s astrophysics, heliophysics, and Earth science efforts to planetary science funding. By examining the history of NASA’s planetary science efforts through the lens of the budget, this essay will provide a clearer view of how effectively the planetary science community has been able to align its goals with national science priorities.

  3. Lessons for REDD+ from Cameroon's past forestry law reform: a political economy analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Patrice Dkamela

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and enhancing forest carbon stocks (REDD+ is gaining traction in Cameroon. However, given the deep-rooted trans-sectoral drivers of forest loss, enforcing REDD+ policies will require major policy change and reform both within and beyond the forestry sector. In this paper, we view the REDD+ policy arena in Cameroon within a political economy framework and conduct policy network analysis to explore the factors that will enable or hinder efforts to implement the broad policy change required to realize REDD+. As the REDD+ context is shaped by the history of Cameroon's forestry sector, we draw lessons for REDD+ from the forestry law reform undertaken in 1994. We focus our analysis on three factors considered necessary for REDD+ success: (i autonomy of the nation state from interests behind deforestation and forest degradation, (ii national ownership over reform processes, and (iii inclusiveness of policy processes. We find that the REDD+ policy process in Cameroon is repeating the weaknesses of the earlier forestry law reform, as seen in the minimal ownership of REDD+ by national actor groups and low inclusiveness among domestic actors at both national and local levels, as well as the absence of a national coalition for REDD+. Furthermore, politics and private agendas are compromising state agencies' autonomy in making decisions about forest resources. Our findings suggest that responses to these weaknesses, as well as to inconsistencies between sectoral policies and to competition over forest resources, will determine whether REDD+ can induce change within and beyond Cameroon's forestry sector.

  4. Whither the TPP? Political Economy of Ratification and Effect on Trade Architecture in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-il Choi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the race for establishing trading architecture consistent with new landscape of the global economy, the US is ahead of the game by concluding the Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement with 11 countries. To make it reality, the ratification is essential. In the battle for ratification in the US, declining globalism confronts rising protectionism. This paper models the ratification process as contest between globalism and protectionism, and analyzes the optimal timing for ratification. Based on this framework, various ratification scenarios are analyzed. The paper argues less likelihood for the lame-duck session passage and more likelihood for prolonged and protracted delay, due to changing political dynamics and declining intellectual support for globalism. Hence, the future of Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement may prove different, compared to the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Korea-US Free Trade Agreement, both of which were renegotiated and ratified eventually. Then, the US would lose the first move advantage. The paper also discusses strategic implications of delayed ratification on the evolution of trading architecture in East Asia.

  5. Perchance to Dream: Pathology, Pharmacology, and Politics in a 24-Hour Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassington, Iain

    2018-04-01

    The lack of sleep is a significant problem in the modern world. The structure of the economy means that 24 hour working is required from some of us, sometimes because we are expected to be able to respond to share-price fluctuations on the other side of the planet, sometimes because we are expected to serve kebabs to people leaving nightclubs, and sometimes because lives depend on it. The immediate effect is that we feel groggy; but there may be much more sinister long-term effects of persistent sleep deprivation and disruption, the evidence for which is significant, and worth taking seriously. If sleeplessness has a serious impact on health, it represents a notable public health problem. In this article, I sketch that problem, and look at how exploiting the pharmacopoeia (or a possible future pharmacopoeia) might allow us to tackle it. I also suggest that using drugs to mitigate or militate against sleeplessness is potentially morally and politically fraught, with implications for social justice. Hence, whatever reasons we have to use drugs to deal with the problems of sleeplessness, we ought to be careful.

  6. Political economy, labor migration, and the AIDS epidemic in rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtika, Mike Mathambo

    2007-06-01

    This study examines how livelihood struggles push rural Malawians into AIDS-risky sexual behavior. The study involved in-depth interviews of 59 household guardians, four key informant group discussions, and after work observations and interviews of 19 people working, traveling, or running businesses. Findings reveal that circular migration has become a livelihood practice for adults aged 20-49 in rural Malawi through which they contract AIDS. This migration springs from the fragile political economy brought about by development strategies that did not build up and deploy human capital in rural communities. Doing so would advance local economic enterprise that would reduce prime age adults' involvement in circular migration and improve their opportunities for self-determination thus increasing the adoption of AIDS prevention interventions in rural Malawi. The abstinence, being faithful, and condom use (ABC) interventions in controlling AIDS need to be complemented by developing human capital and using it to unlock the economic growth and problem-solving potential in rural communities.

  7. The Political Economy of Desire in Ritual and Activism in SriLanka (abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Van Daele

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Amidst the complexity of the development-religion nexus, this chapter examines desire and its varying expressions as fundamental concerns of many religions motivating both development and alternatives to development. In Sri Lanka, as people deal with social change, the neoliberal and globalised development is understood and re-interpreted through local idioms and formations of desire. The neoliberal economy cultivates desire and, as such, leads to a perceived increase in the presence of pretas (greedy, hungry ghosts that occasionally emerge when people die. The hungry ghosts, as fetishised formations of desire, resonate with consumers and entrepreneurs, who exhibit an insatiable hunger for ever more material wealth. Hence, the ritual appeasement of hungry ghosts and the social activism of groups such as the Movement for National Land and Agricultural Reform are clearly linked by their mutual concern with the existential insecurity of fellow human and non-human beings caused by excessive and unbalanced desire. However, the explicit articulation of specific concerns regarding desire diverges between ritual action and social activism. Ritual materialises and condenses the anxiety related to desire, whereas social activism describes the fetishisation of desire in more abstract economic, political and scientific terms.

  8. The Power of Economic Ideas: A Constructivist Political Economy of EU Trade Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Siles-Brügge

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The European Union’s (EU’s 2006 Global Europe communication established an offensive Free Trade Agreement (FTA agenda premised on serving the interests of the EU’s upmarket exporters at the expense of the EU’s remaining “pockets of protection”. This has remained in place with the advent of the 2010 Trade, Growth and World Affairs strategy. Such a development defies both rationalist International Political Economy (IPE explanations – which emphasise the protectionist bias of societal mobilisation – and accounts stressing the institutional insulation of policy-makers from societal pressures because the recent economic crisis and the increased politicisation of EU trade policy by the European Parliament have coexisted without leading to greater protectionism. Adopting a constructivist approach, we show that this turn of events can be explained by the neoliberal ideas internalised by policy-makers in the European Commission’s Directorate-General (DG for Trade. We then deploy a novel heuristic to illustrate how DG Trade acted upon these ideas to strategically construct a powerful discursive imperative for liberalisation.

  9. Political keys to a solar energy economy--A European view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheer, H.

    1993-01-01

    The concept of ''keys to a solar energy economy'' is not representative of European politics. In Europe, and in Germany too, solar energy is still marginalized in practice. Many so-called ''energy specialists'' play down the importance of renewable energies as ''additive energies'' beside nuclear and fossil energies, the latter considered to be the main energy sources. The author presents four strategies to achieve the replacement of non-renewable and ecologically detrimental energy sources by renewable, natural energy sources. First, energy efficiency of conventional energies must be combined with increased energy prices due to taxation if total consumption is to be reduced. Secondly, global afforestation of 10 million square kilometers would bind 10 million tons of carbon dioxide for a period of nearly 50 years. The third strategy would be an industrial break-through program to finance renewable energy programs. Public administrators would replace state armament projects step-by-step with production of solar technology. The last strategy is the introduction of solar technology in developing countries through technology transfer

  10. International Political Economy and the Crises of the 1970s: The Real 'Transatlantic Divide'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Germann

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen a renewed interest in the intellectual history of InternationalPolitical Economy (IPE. However, framed in terms of a growing divergence between an‘American’ and a ‘British’ school, the debate has done little more than rehash well-knownontological, epistemological, and methodological differences between problem-solvingand critical theory. This essay contends that situating the emergence of the field in thecontext of the crisis of the 1970s can do more to advance a critical review of the discipline.Conceived in a moment of crisis, IPE set out to address the fundamental question of howfar global capitalism could be collectively managed. Looking back to the 1930s, however,IPE failed to explain how the crisis of the 1970s would lead to the acceleration, ratherthan disruption, of capitalist globalisation. I argue that the neglect of this foundationalpuzzle undermines the ability of IPE to offer an integrated analysis of internationalcooperation and conflict. In light of the current crisis, this essay concludes, there is a moresignificant ‘transatlantic divide’ to pursue than the obvious epistemic divisions betweenAmerican and British IPE: namely, the strategic tensions between the United States andits European allies that emerged during the crisis years of the 1970s, and set the capitalistheartland on a path of deepening integration and multilaterally coordinated expansion.

  11. Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Haring, Ben

    2009-01-01

    The economy of ancient Egypt is a difficult area of study due to the lack of preservation of much data (especially quantitative data); it is also a controversial subject on which widely divergent views have been expressed. It is certain, however, that the principal production and revenues of Egyptian society as a whole and of its individual members was agrarian, and as such, dependent on the yearly rising and receding of the Nile. Most agricultural producers were probably self-sufficient tena...

  12. The political economy of emissions trading; L'economie politique des marches de permis d'emissions negociables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanoteau, J

    2004-06-15

    This thesis is a positive analysis of emissions trading systems' implementation. We explain why allowances are generally granted for free even though normative economic analysis recommends their sale. We show empirically that free tradable permits, source of windfall profit, motivate rent seeking behaviours. The study focuses on the US market for SO{sub 2} emissions allowances. The initial allocation rule resulted from parliamentary discussions that looked like a zero sum game. We formalize it as an endogenous sharing rule, function of lobbying effort, and we test it using political (money) contributions.We analyse theoretically the behaviour of an influenced regulator that has chosen to organize a market for permits and that must still decide on two policy variables: the whole quantity of permits and the way to allocate them initially. We formalize this decisions making process with the common agency model of politics.We show that the choice of an initial allocation rule is not neutral in presence of political market failures (lobbying). The decision to sell the permits or to grant them for free modifies the shareholders' incentive, in a polluting industry, to pressure for or against the reduction of legal emissions.Then, we analyse the public arbitration between the two policy variables when several industrial lobbies play a partially cooperative game for the free permits. The regulator chooses in priority to grant the rights for free rather than to manipulate their quantity, and this constitutes an efficient answer to the political influence. (author)

  13. The political economy of dignity: monitoring the advancement of socio-economic human rights in a globalized economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biermans, M.

    2005-01-01

    The dichotomy between political and socio-economic rights has been subject to criticism ever since the proclamation of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, almost sixty years ago. The declaration itself leaves little doubt regarding the interconnectedness between both types of human rights.

  14. Essays on the political economy of trade and regulation: biotechnology and conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shao, Qianqian

    2017-01-01

    Economics and politics interact. Political and economic forces influence the choices of policy instruments, the distribution of economic rent, and the distribution of political power. Politicians balance the interaction of economic rents and political interests in the policy-making process. Some

  15. Essays on the political economy of trade and regulation: biotechnology and conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shao, Qianqian

    2017-01-01

    Economics and politics interact. Political and economic forces influence the choices of policy instruments, the distribution of economic rent, and the distribution of political power. Politicians balance the interaction of economic rents and political interests in the policy-making process. Some

  16. Kin investment in wage-labor economies : Effects on child and marriage market outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Mary K

    2005-03-01

    Various human groups, from food foragers to inner-city urban Americans, have used widespread sharing of resources through kin networks as a means of buffering themselves against fluctuations in resource availability in their environments. This paper addresses the effects of progressive incorporation into a wage-labor economy on the benefits of traditional kin networks for two social classes in urban South India. Predictions regarding the effects of kin network wealth, education, and size on child and spouse characteristics and methods of financing marriages are tested using various regression techniques. Despite the rapid growth of participation in a wage-labor economy, it is found that kin network characteristics still have an important impact on investment behavior among families in Bangalore in both social classes. Network wealth is found to have a positive effect on child and spouse characteristics, and large networks are found to act as significant drains on family resources. However, the results for education are broadly consistent with an interpretation of increasing family autonomy as parents' education has a far stronger influence on child and spouse characteristics across categories than network education does. Finally, professional-class parents are found to prefer financing marriages using formal mechanisms such as savings and bank loans while working-class parents preferentially finance marriages using credit from relatives and friends.

  17. The Nigerian Economy in the Face of Socio-Political Challenges: A Retrospective View and Ways Forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomola M Obamuyi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the Nigerian economy and the tendency for its growth in the face of several socio-political challenges facing the country, which have hampered the rate of economic development in spite of the tremendous human and material resources inherent. The paper identifies the socio-political challenges to include corruption, poverty, unemployment, insecurity, politics and governance, among others. The central argument of the paper is that steady economic growth can be achieved and financial crisis mitigated in Nigeria, if the effects of socio-political challenges, which are the key factors that have contributed to the high poverty, unemployment and economic instability in the country, are minimised. To ensure economic growth and move the country forward politically and economically, government must be more accountable in managing the nation’s resources in order to avoid wastage, poverty and unemployment. Close attention should be given to those socio-political challenges in the formulation of policies that aimed at maintaining economic growth at a level commensurate with the country’s growth rate. This study put forward that government must be proactive in all issues relating to the socio-political challenges to prevent resource mismanagement, poverty, unemployment, insecurity and slow economic growth in future.

  18. Genetics as a modernization program: biological research at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institutes and the political economy of the Nazi State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gausemeier, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    During the Third Reich, the biological institutes of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society (KWG, Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft) underwent a substantial reorganization and modernization. This paper discusses the development of projects in the fields of biochemical genetics, virus research, radiation genetics, and plant genetics that were initiated in those years. These cases exemplify, on the one hand, the political conditions for biological research in the Nazi state. They highlight how leading scientists advanced their projects by building close ties with politicians and science-funding organizations and companies. On the other hand, the study examines how the contents of research were shaped by, and how they contributed to, the aims and needs of the political economy of the Nazi system. This paper therefore aims not only to highlight basic aspects of scientific development under Nazism, but also to provide general insights into the structure of the Third Reich and the dynamics of its war economy.

  19. Testing a social ecological model for relations between political violence and child adjustment in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E Mark; Merrilees, Christine E; Schermerhorn, Alice C; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2010-05-01

    Relations between political violence and child adjustment are matters of international concern. Past research demonstrates the significance of community, family, and child psychological processes in child adjustment, supporting study of interrelations between multiple social ecological factors and child adjustment in contexts of political violence. Testing a social ecological model, 300 mothers and their children (M = 12.28 years, SD = 1.77) from Catholic and Protestant working class neighborhoods in Belfast, Northern Ireland, completed measures of community discord, family relations, and children's regulatory processes (i.e., emotional security) and outcomes. Historical political violence in neighborhoods based on objective records (i.e., politically motivated deaths) were related to family members' reports of current sectarian antisocial behavior and nonsectarian antisocial behavior. Interparental conflict and parental monitoring and children's emotional security about both the community and family contributed to explanatory pathways for relations between sectarian antisocial behavior in communities and children's adjustment problems. The discussion evaluates support for social ecological models for relations between political violence and child adjustment and its implications for understanding relations in other parts of the world.

  20. Political-Security, Economy, and Culture within the Dynamics of Geopolitics and Migration: On Philippine Territory and the Filipino People

    OpenAIRE

    John X. LAMBINO

    2015-01-01

    The paper considers the interaction of the dual elements of the nation-state: territory and people. Particularly, it discusses the interaction of geopolitics and migration, i.e. the non-mobile territory and the mobile people, from the perspectives of political-security, economy, and culture, and how the interactions influence government policy focusing on the case of the Philippines.The paper ferrets-out the major factors in the geopolitical transformation of the Philippine Is-lands into the ...

  1. Towards a Global Comprehensive Context-driven and Decision-focused Theory and Method for a New Political Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winston P. Nagan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There is currently significant dissatisfaction with conventional economic theory. The unreliability of conventional theory as a predictor of future economic possibilities of catastrophes emphasizes the need for a new paradigm of political economy. This paper provides a capsule of some of the important limitations and consequences of the “old” paradigm. It proposes the necessary elements of a new paradigm and it seeks to locate the new paradigm of political economy in terms of its global reach. This requires a richer contextual approach, with the tools of contextual mapping. It has as well a focus on the global process of effective power and the emerging rule of law based constitutive processes. This is a key to the role of decision and the architecture of decision-making in political economy. We conclude with the global to local implications of the Vicos Experiment in Peru. Finally, we stress the wider lens of focus to identify the real and not the illusory generation of value. The implications here facilitate real global democratization.

  2. Political Economy of Tradeable Permits. Competitiveness, Co-operation and Market Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Convery, F.J.; Dunne, L.; Redmond, L.; Ryan, L.B.

    2003-01-01

    There is a consistent pre-occupation in the research literature on emissions trading with what configurations of trading arrangements are likely to be economically efficient both statically and dynamically, and - to a lesser extent - what is likely to be fair - who are the winners and the losers. Issues of environmental effectiveness are also addressed in this context. Conversely, amongst the policy practitioners, there is little overt interest in economic efficiency, and not much treatment of fairness. There is a strong interest in implementability, and in environmental effectiveness. The presentations at the workshops reflected these parallel pre-occupations, and attempts were made by some to make a bridge between them. In this paper we review some of the papers and associated other literature that address these issues in political economy, with a particular emphasis on insights emerging as regards competitiveness, co-operation and market power. Much of the relevant research emerging at the workshops was animated by either ex post analysis of existing programmes, or an ex ante analysis of 'new' emissions trading proposals, such as the proposal by the European Commission for a European Union (EU) wide scheme. At our first workshop in Venice, in December 2001, Zapfel and Vainio (2001) presented a paper - 'Pathways to European Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading' - which mapped the at times surprising evolution of the emissions trading idea in Europe, the misconceptions that in the past and still to this day complicate progress, and conclude with a presentation of a coherent case for the creation of an EU wide greenhouse gas emissions trading scheme. They both work with the European Commission in DG Environment, and continue to be heavily involved in moving the emissions trading agenda forward. The Commission had released its proposals just two months earlier, in October 2001, following an intensive consultation process. This co-incidence of occurrence of the initiation

  3. The Use of Token Economy and a Math Manipulative for a Child with Moderate Intellectual Disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Tisha Millersmtih; Kimberly P. Weber; T. F. McLaughlin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this case report was to increase a child's skills inadding basic facts to ten using a math manipulative, and a token economy. The participant was an 11-year-old girl with intellectual disabilities. This study took place in the child’s self-contained special education classroom located in an elementary school in the Pacific Northwest. The dependent variables were the student’s ability to accurately count the targeted numeral amount using a manipulative. The second was rote count...

  4. Institutionalised Exclusion: The Political Economy of Benefit Sharing and Intellectual Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon West

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and Benefit Sharing (Protocol has been hailed as providing unprecedented legal support for indigenous and community control over genetic resources and associated knowledge by ensuring that such groups benefit more equitably from the use and subsequent proceeds of biological resources. This paper will analyse this claim critically, situating access and benefit sharing (ABS regimes within the broader political economy of intellectual property articulated in the negotiations of the TRIPS Council monitoring the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS and the Conference of the Parties (COP to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD. While the CBD principle of sovereignty over natural resources allows biodiverse developing state parties to regulate access to intellectual and genetic resources subject to national laws and the aims of the CBD, the concept of ‘facilitated access’ used to fulfil this right attaches itself purely to state parties and does not necessarily improve the lot of local and indigenous peoples. Indeed, the implementation of state level access regimes together with the principle of downstream benefit-sharing effectively excludes local people from exercising any autonomous legal rights over resources and rather creates a state of legal dependency among knowledge and resource rich communities on dominant and exclusionary IPR structures. Therefore while the material interests of local and indigenous communities may have been addressed in a limited manner by the Protocol – for instance in terms of strengthening provider state obligation to implement benefit-sharing schemes – ABS regimes inherently preclude secure legal recognition for local and indigenous control over intellectual and genetic resources. Moreover the general lack of legalisation achieved by the Protocol stakes even these limited ‘gains’ upon further negotiations designed

  5. The political economy of a public health case management program's transition into medical homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Rebecca; Cilenti, Dorothy; Issel, L Michele

    2015-11-01

    Throughout the United States, public health leaders are experimenting with how best to integrate services for individuals with complex needs. To that end, North Carolina implemented a policy incorporating both local public health departments and other providers into medical homes for low income pregnant women and young children at risk of developmental delays. To understand how this transition occurred within local communities, a pre-post comparative case study was conducted. A total of 42 people in four local health departments across the state were interviewed immediately before the 2011 policy change and six months later: 32 professionals (24 twice) and 10 pregnant women receiving case management at the time of the policy implementation. We used constant comparative analysis of interview and supplemental data to identify three key consequences of the policy implementation. One, having medical homes increased the centrality of other providers relative to local health departments. Two, a shift from focusing on personal relationships toward medical efficiency diverged in some respects from both case managers' and mothers' goals. Three, health department staff re-interpreted state policies to fit their public health values. Using a political economy perspective, these changes are interpreted as reflecting shifts in public health's broader ideological environment. To a large extent, the state successfully induced more connection between health department-based case managers and external providers. However, limited provider engagement may constrain the implementation of the envisioned medical homes. The increased focus on medical risk may also undermine health departments' role in supporting health over time by attenuating staff relationships with mothers. This study helps clarify how state public health policy innovations unfold at local levels, and why front line practice may in some respects diverge from policy intent. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Understanding women's experience of violence and the political economy of gender in conflict: the case of Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaba, Khuloud; Kapilashrami, Anuj

    2016-05-01

    Political conflicts create significant risks for women, as new forms and pathways of violence emerge, and existing patterns of violence may get amplified and intensified. The systematic use of sexual violence as a tactic of war is well-documented. Emergent narratives from the Middle East also highlight increasing risk and incidence of violence among displaced populations in refugee camps in countries bordering states affected by conflict. However, much less is known about the changing nature of violence and associated risks and lived experiences of women across a continuum of violence faced within the country and across national borders. Discussion on violence against women (VAW) in conflict settings is often stripped of an understanding of the changing political economy of the state and how it structures gender relations, before, during and after a conflict, creating particular risks of violence and shaping women's experiences. Drawing on a review of grey and published literature and authors' experiences, this paper examines this underexplored dimension of VAW in political conflicts, by identifying risk environments and lived realities of violence experienced by women in the Syrian conflict, a context that is itself poorly understood. We argue for multi-level analysis of women's experiences of violence, taking into account the impact of the political economy of the wider region as shaping the lived realities of violence and women's response, as well as their access to resources for resistance and recovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Book Review: Jandl, Thomas, Vietnam in the Global Economy – The Dy-namics of Integration, Decentralization and Contested Politics

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Fforde

    2014-01-01

    Book Review of the Monograph: Thomas Jandl (2013), Vietnam in the Global Economy – The Dynamics of Integration, Decentralization and Contested Politics. Plymouth: Lexington Books, ISBN 978-0-7391-7786-0, 312 pages

  8. Book Review: Jandl, Thomas, Vietnam in the Global Economy – The Dy-namics of Integration, Decentralization and Contested Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Fforde

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Book Review of the Monograph: Thomas Jandl (2013, Vietnam in the Global Economy – The Dynamics of Integration, Decentralization and Contested Politics. Plymouth: Lexington Books, ISBN 978-0-7391-7786-0, 312 pages

  9. Essays on the political economy of trade and regulation: biotechnology and conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Qianqian

    2017-01-01

    Economics and politics interact. Political and economic forces influence the choices of policy instruments, the distribution of economic rent, and the distribution of political power. Politicians balance the interaction of economic rents and political interests in the policy-making process. Some policies aim to correct market failures, others aim to pursue politicians’ own interests, some are a combination. I discuss two policies in this thesis, the regulation of genetically modified (G...

  10. Xabier Itçaina, Antoine Roger, Andy Smith, 2016, Varietals of Capitalism: A Political Economy of the Changing Wine Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Book review of Varietals of Capitalism: A Political Economy of the Changing Wine Industry by Xabier Itçaina, Antoine Roger, Andy Smith (2016). Ithaca and London, Cornell University Press, 266 p.......Book review of Varietals of Capitalism: A Political Economy of the Changing Wine Industry by Xabier Itçaina, Antoine Roger, Andy Smith (2016). Ithaca and London, Cornell University Press, 266 p....

  11. The Relevance of Political Stability on FDI: A VAR Analysis and ARDL Models for Selected Small, Developed, and Instability Threatened Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Kurecic

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the relevance of political stability on foreign direct investment (FDI and the relevance of FDI on economic growth, in three panels. The first panel contains 11 very small economies; the second contains five well-developed and politically stable economies with highly positive FDI net inflows, while the third is a panel with economies that are prone to political violence or targeted by the terrorist attacks. We employ a Granger causality test and implement a vector autoregressive (VAR framework within the panel setting. In order to test the sensitivity of the results and avoid robust errors, we employ an ARDL model for each of the countries within every panel. Based upon our results, we conclude that there is a long-term relationship between political stability and FDI for the panel of small economies, while we find no empiric evidence of such a relationship for both panels of larger and more developed economies. Similarly to the original hypothesis of Lucas (1990, we find that FDI outflows tend to go towards politically less stable countries. On the other hand, the empiric methodology employed did not find such conclusive evidence in the panels of politically more developed countries or in the small economies that this paper observes.

  12. Conference on the political economy of Cameroon, historical perspectives = Colloque sur l'‚conomie politique du Cameroun, perspectives historiques : proceedings/contributions Part II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geschiere, P.L.; Konings, P.J.J.

    1989-01-01

    This collection comprises the papers, opening speeches, and discussants' notes presented at the conference 'The political economy of Cameroon - historical perspectives', which was held at Leiden from 1-4 June, 1988. The 34 papers were presented in ten sessions, dealing respectively with: The economy

  13. English as a Medium of Instruction in East Asia's Higher Education Sector: A Critical Realist Cultural Political Economy Analysis of Underlying Logics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedzierski, Matt

    2016-01-01

    As discourses of globalisation and the knowledge-based economy become increasingly influential in both policy-making and in public debates about education, employability and national competitiveness--the choice of language in the classroom takes on a strategic importance. The paper employs a critical realist Cultural Political Economy lens to…

  14. Electronics and telecommunications in Poland, issues and perspectives: Part III. Innovativeness, applications, economy, development scenarios, politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modelski, Józef; Romaniuk, Ryszard

    2010-09-01

    important role of ET is combined with the existence in the society of an adequate infrastructure which recreates the full development cycle of high technology embracing: people, institutions, finances and logistics, in this also science, higher education, education, continuous training, dissemination and outreach, professional social environment, legal basis, political support and lobbying, innovation structures, applications, industry and economy. The digest of chosen development tendencies in ET was made here from the academic perspective, in a wider scale and on this background the national one, trying to situate this branch in the society, determine its changing role to build a new technical infrastructure of a society based on knowledge, a role of builder of many practical gadgets facilitating life, a role of a big future integrator of today's single bricks into certain more useful unity. This digest does not have a character of a systematic analysis of ET. It is a kind of an arbitrary utterance of the authors inside their field of competence. The aim of this paper is to take an active part in the discussion of the academic community in this country on the development strategy of ET, choice of priorities for cyclically rebuilding economy, in competitive environments. The review paper was initiated by the Committee of Electronics and Telecommunications of Polish Academy of Sciences and was published in Polish as introductory chapter of a dedicated expertise, printed in a book format. This version makes the included opinions available for a wider community.

  15. Ebola viral disease in West Africa: a threat to global health, economy and political stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semeeh Akinwale Omoleke

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The West African sub-continent is currently experiencing its first, and ironically, the largest and longest Ebola viral diseases (EVD outbreak ever documented in modern medical history. The current outbreak is significant in several ways, including longevity, magnitude of morbidity and mortality, occurrence outside the traditional niches, rapid spread and potential of becoming a global health tragedy. The authors provided explicit insights into the current and historical background, drivers of the epidemic, societal impacts, status of vaccines and drugs development and proffered recommendations to halt and prevent future occurrences. The authors reviewed mainly five databases and a hand search of key relevant literature. We reviewed 51 articles that were relevant up until the 18th of August 2014. The authors supplemented the search with reference list of relevant articles and grey literature as well as relevant Internet websites. Article searches were limited to those published either in English or French. There are strong indications that the EVD may have been triggered by increased human activities and encroachment into the forest ecosystem spurred by increasing population and povertydriven forest-dependent local economy. Containment efforts are being hampered by weak and fragile health systems, including public health surveillance and weak governance, certain socio-anthropological factors, fast travels (improved transport systems and globalization. The societal impacts of the EBV outbreak are grave, including economic shutdown, weakening of socio-political systems, psychological distress, and unprecedented consumption of scarce health resources. The research and development (R&D pipeline for product against EBV seems grossly insufficient. The outbreak of Ebola and the seeming difficulty to contain the epidemic is simply a reflection of the weak health system, poor surveillance and emergency preparedness/ response, poverty and disconnect

  16. Ebola Viral Disease in West Africa: A Threat to Global Health, Economy and Political Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoleke, Semeeh Akinwale; Mohammed, Ibrahim; Saidu, Yauba

    2016-08-17

    The West African sub-continent is currently experiencing its first, and ironically, the largest and longest Ebola viral diseases (EVD) outbreak ever documented in modern medical history. The current outbreak is significant in several ways, including longevity, magnitude of morbidity and mortality, occurrence outside the traditional niches, rapid spread and potential of becoming a global health tragedy. The authors provided explicit insights into the current and historical background, drivers of the epidemic, societal impacts, status of vaccines and drugs development and proffered recommendations to halt and prevent future occurrences. The authors reviewed mainly five databases and a hand search of key relevant literature. We reviewed 51 articles that were relevant up until the 18 th of August 2014. The authors supplemented the search with reference list of relevant articles and grey literature as well as relevant Internet websites. Article searches were limited to those published either in English or French. There are strong indications that the EVD may have been triggered by increased human activities and encroachment into the forest ecosystem spurred by increasing population and poverty-driven forest-dependent local economy. Containment efforts are being hampered by weak and fragile health systems, including public health surveillance and weak governance, certain socio-anthropological factors, fast travels (improved transport systems) and globalization. The societal impacts of the EBV outbreak are grave, including economic shutdown, weakening of socio-political systems, psychological distress, and unprecedented consumption of scarce health resources. The research and development (R&D) pipeline for product against EBV seems grossly insufficient. The outbreak of Ebola and the seeming difficulty to contain the epidemic is simply a reflection of the weak health system, poor surveillance and emergency preparedness/response, poverty and disconnect between the

  17. Ebola Viral Disease in West Africa: A Threat to Global Health, Economy and Political Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Ibrahim; Saidu, Yauba

    2016-01-01

    The West African sub-continent is currently experiencing its first, and ironically, the largest and longest Ebola viral diseases (EVD) outbreak ever documented in modern medical history. The current outbreak is significant in several ways, including longevity, magnitude of morbidity and mortality, occurrence outside the traditional niches, rapid spread and potential of becoming a global health tragedy. The authors provided explicit insights into the current and historical background, drivers of the epidemic, societal impacts, status of vaccines and drugs development and proffered recommendations to halt and prevent future occurrences. The authors reviewed mainly five databases and a hand search of key relevant literature. We reviewed 51 articles that were relevant up until the 18th of August 2014. The authors supplemented the search with reference list of relevant articles and grey literature as well as relevant Internet websites. Article searches were limited to those published either in English or French. There are strong indications that the EVD may have been triggered by increased human activities and encroachment into the forest ecosystem spurred by increasing population and poverty-driven forest-dependent local economy. Containment efforts are being hampered by weak and fragile health systems, including public health surveillance and weak governance, certain socio-anthropological factors, fast travels (improved transport systems) and globalization. The societal impacts of the EBV outbreak are grave, including economic shutdown, weakening of socio-political systems, psychological distress, and unprecedented consumption of scarce health resources. The research and development (R&D) pipeline for product against EBV seems grossly insufficient. The outbreak of Ebola and the seeming difficulty to contain the epidemic is simply a reflection of the weak health system, poor surveillance and emergency preparedness/response, poverty and disconnect between the government

  18. Public opinion on renewable energy: The nexus of climate, politics, and economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson-Hazboun, Shawn K.

    Increased use of renewable energy sources in the generation of electricity is a crucial component of transitioning to a less polluting energy system in the United States. Technologies like solar photovoltaic cells and wind turbines are being deployed at a rapid rate around the country, which means that an increasing portion of the public is becoming aware of renewable energy systems. The construction of these new industrial facilities has resulted in a variety of public reactions, positive and negative. Citizen opposition has been widely observed toward a variety of renewable energy facilities, and citizen groups can influence policy-making at the national, state, and local levels. Further research is needed to understand under what circumstances the public may take oppositional stances. To examine this topic, I analyze public perceptions of renewable energy using three different datasets. First, I used data from a survey conducted in 2014 in five communities in Utah, Wyoming, and Idaho experiencing renewable energy development (n=906). This dataset allowed me to untangle what factors help explain both individual as well as community-level variation in support for renewable energy. Second, I employed nationally representative survey data (n=13, 322) collected from 2008 to 2015 to examine the influence of a number of factors hypothesized to shape individuals' level of support for renewable energy policies including socio-demographic characteristics, political beliefs, belief in anthropogenic climate change, and nearby extractive industry activities. Last, I analyzed discourse about renewable energy in sixty-one semi-structured interviews with individuals representing various community sectors in three energy-producing rural communities in Utah. My research findings, on a whole, suggest that several place-based factors are significant in shaping public opinion about renewable energy, including community experience with renewable energy and local economic reliance on

  19. Political Violence and Child Adjustment: Longitudinal Tests of Sectarian Antisocial Behavior, Family Conflict, and Insecurity as Explanatory Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Edward M.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the impact of political violence on child maladjustment is a matter of international concern. Recent research has advanced a social ecological explanation for relations between political violence and child adjustment. However, conclusions are qualified by the lack of longitudinal tests. Toward examining pathways longitudinally,…

  20. The transnationalisation of the Indian coal economy and the Australian political economy: The fusion of regimes of accumulation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosewarne, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    The Indian government's economic development program is predicated on increasing electricity generating capacity. Coal fired power and removal of obstacles to private corporations investing in generating capacity are core elements in this program. With difficulties in boosting national coal production, the state-owned Coal India Limited and energy corporations have spearheaded a range of global coal sourcing endeavours, including investing in offshore deposits. Energy security has become reflected in engineering global supply chains, securing control of coal, with two of the largest projects involving Adani and GVK proposing to develop mines in the Galilee Basin in Queensland, Australia. These investments become the institutional and organisational architecture that locks in demand, a global demand which helps to explain successive Australian governments support for and approval of the projects. Notwithstanding considerable environmental opposition, and questions about the economic merits and commercial viability of the projects, Australian governments are wedded to the conviction that expanded development of the economy is tied to extracting and exporting fossil fuels, to consolidating Australia as an ‘energy superpower’. - Highlights: • Expansion of India's electricity generation capacity is contingent on coal imports. • Exporting coal is critical to Australia's ambitions as an energy superpower. • The moral case for exporting coal is made in terms of poverty alleviation. • Continued expansion of coal mining will compromise global climate change ambitions.

  1. The Mobilization of Using Cultures and Local Government’s Political-Economy Goals in Post-Reformation Banyuwangi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikwan Setiawan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with an ethnic identity-based-power through the mobilization of Using cultures in Banyuwangi under local government policies in post-Reformation. By juxtaposing Foucauldian discourse, Gramscian hegemony, and political economy perspective, we discuss some cultural projects conducted by two Banyuwangi regents in post-Reformation periods, Samsul Hadi (2000-2005 and Abdullah Azwar Anas (2010-2015 and re-elected for 2016-2021 period. With different emphasized aspects, both of them created programs, which incorporated and mobilized Using cultures for accomplishing their political economy goals. Samsul legalized Using cultural expression, such as a local dance and language, as the way to strengthen the dominant-ethnic identity and reach consensus for his political authority. In more sparkling activities, Anas has transformed Using identity into various carnival programs, which, in one side, have supported tourism industry and, in other side, have helped him in gaining consensus for his hegemonic position. However, in the context of real cultural empowerment, those programs have not given positive effect for the cultural worker in the grass root.

  2. Political Correctness, Social Work, and the Breakdown of the Child Abuse System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karger, Howard Jacob; Stoesz, David

    1995-01-01

    Examines the relationship between political correctness, social work, and breakdown of the child abuse system. Examines groups that stand to gain from perpetuating the myth of classlessness. Investigates high turnover rates among social workers, declassification of public welfare jobs, and problems in screening and provision of services to…

  3. The Political Economy of Financial Systems : Evidence from Suffrage Reforms in the Last Two Centuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, H.A.; Lambert, T.; Schwienbacher, A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Initially, voting rights were limited to wealthy elites providing political support for stock markets. The franchise expansion induces the median voter to provide political support for banking development as this new electorate has lower financial holdings and benefits less from the

  4. The Political Economy of Education in the Sahel. Efficiency Indicators Activity. IEES Project Monograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fass, Simon M.; And Others

    The role of the political class in the debate on how to improve education in the Sahelian countries is examined in this monograph. Although cultural backwardness and faulty inquiry impede educational quality, the major problem is the absence of political forms through which all people can participate in educational reform. A review of the…

  5. Building an Innovation-based Economy in Russia: Political claims versus objective reality

    OpenAIRE

    Tatichek, Gleb

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to evaluate Russia’s President Dmitry Medvedev plan to build an innovation-based economy in Russia. The study has established a logical chain ‘innovation-based growth – entrepreneurship – innovations – business environment’. This perspective helped to reveal the foundation for an innovation-based economy – a favorable business environment. It is argued that without a sophisticated business climate, there cannot be successful entrepreneurship and innovations and h...

  6. The rise and fall of the medical gaze: the political economy of immigrant medical inspection in modern America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Amy L

    2006-09-01

    In this paper I examine the mass medical inspections of immigrants to the United States from the 1890s through the 1920s. I show how, framed as it was not only by nativism and eugenics but also by national industrial imperatives and priorities, scientific medicine served dual purposes. On the one hand, the medical exam was a tool for managing cultural and biological threats to the nation. There were regional variations in medical inspections that reflected the politics of race. On the other hand, the medical exam played an important role in the process of building an unskilled, highly mobile labor force. The industrial demands of the nation provided a rationale for drawing and absorbing millions of European immigrants into the labor force. It was thus a distinct product of the political economy of immigration. It was this second function that characterized the exam for the majority of immigrants entering the nation.

  7. The political economy of rationing health care in England and the US: the 'accidental logics' of political settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan, Gwyn; Brown, Lawrence D

    2014-07-01

    This article considers how the 'accidental logics' of political settlements for the English National Health Service (NHS) and the Medicare and Medicaid programmes in the United States have resulted in different institutional arrangements and different implicit social contracts for rationing, which we define to be the denial of health care that is beneficial but is deemed to be too costly. This article argues that rationing is designed into the English NHS and designed out of US Medicare; and compares rationing for the elderly in the United States and in England for acute care, care at the end of life, and chronic care.

  8. The Interplay between Social and Environmental Degradation in the Development of the International Political Economy*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Biel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article considers capitalism as a dissipative system, developing at the expense of exporting disorder into two sorts of ‘environment’: the physical ecosystem; and a subordinate area of society which serves to nourish mainstream order without experiencing its benefits. Particularly significant is the relationship between the two forms of dissipation. The paper begins by assessing the dangers of translating systems theory into social relations, concluding that the project is nevertheless worthwhile, provided that exploitation and struggle are constantly borne in mind. Exploring the concepts of ‘core’ and ‘periphery,’ the paper highlights the contradictory nature of an attribute of chaos which is both ascribed to the out-group, and also really exported to it. If the core’s growth merely destroyed peripheral order, the entropy of capitalism would be starkly exposed in the form of an exhaustion of future room for maneuver. This problem can be kept at bay by maintaining a self-reproducing ‘low’ order within the subordinate social system; however the fundamental entropy is still there, and will sooner or later manifest itself in the shape of threats to the sustainability of that subordinate system. At the level of the international political economy (IPE, this dialectic unfolds against the background of a ‘lumpy’ development whereby (following structural crises order can be reconstituted, but at a cost which must be absorbed somewhere. In the case of the post-World War II reordering, this cost was massively exported to the physical environment. Since a high level of ecological depletion now appears permanently embedded within the capitalist IPE, future major efforts of order-building cannot rely on this dimension to the same degree, and must instead access some new forms of dissipative relationship with the social environment. The paper argues that this is the fundamental significance of the ‘sustainable development’ discourse: it

  9. The political economy of reforms: Empirical evidence from post- communist transition in the 1990s

    OpenAIRE

    Byung-Yeon Kim; Jukka Pirttilä

    2003-01-01

    Using a novel data set from post-communist countries in the 1990s, this paper examines linkages between political constraints, economic reforms and growth. A dynamic panel analysis suggests public support for reform is negatively associated with income inequality and unemployment. Both the ex post and ex ante political constraints of public support affect progress in economic reform, which in turn influences economic growth. The findings highlight that while economic reforms are needed to fos...

  10. The Political Economy of Post-Conflict Development: A Comparative Assessment of Burundi and Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Burundi’s transition from conflict to peace, political elite dynamics, and center-periphery relationships are key in explaining the divergence in their...to peace, political elite dynamics, and center-periphery relationships are key in explaining the divergence in their post-conflict economic outcomes...To reduce unemployment, Rwanda grew its services sector by expanding tourism, transport, telecommunications, finance and insurance industries

  11. Bridging political economy analysis and critical institutionalism: an approach to help analyse institutional change for rural water services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen David Jones

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that approaches to understanding local institutionsfor natural resource management based on “critical institutionalism” (Cleaver2012, which emphasises the importance of improvisation and adaptationacross different scales, can be placed within broader political economy analysisframeworks for assessing challenges in public services delivery from national tolocal levels. The paper uses such an extended political economy analysis approachto understand the role of the international NGO WaterAid and its partners in Mali inrelation to institutions for financing rural water services, drawing on collaborativeresearch undertaken in 2010 and 2011. The case study shows that WaterAid’sapproach can be understood through elements of both mainstream and criticalinstitutionalist thinking. At local government level, WaterAid primarily promotesformal institutional arrangements, which exhibit the challenge of “reforms assignals” (Andrews 2013, where institutional reforms appear to happen but lackthe intended function. However, the work of WaterAid’s partners at communitylevel supports processes of “institutional bricolage” through which they try togradually work with local actors to find ways of ‘best fit’ for financing rural waterservices which adapt existing local practices into new arrangements.

  12. Forests, food, and fuel in the tropics: the uneven social and ecological consequences of the emerging political economy of biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauvergne, Peter; Neville, Kate J

    2010-01-01

    The global political economy of biofuels emerging since 2007 appears set to intensify inequalities among the countries and rural peoples of the global South. Looking through a global political economy lens, this paper analyses the consequences of proliferating biofuel alliances among multinational corporations, governments, and domestic producers. Since many major biofuel feedstocks - such as sugar, oil palm, and soy - are already entrenched in industrial agricultural and forestry production systems, the authors extrapolate from patterns of production for these crops to bolster their argument that state capacities, the timing of market entry, existing institutions, and historical state-society land tenure relations will particularly affect the potential consequences of further biofuel development. Although the impacts of biofuels vary by region and feedstock, and although some agrarian communities in some countries of the global South are poised to benefit, the analysis suggests that already-vulnerable people and communities will bear a disproportionate share of the costs of biofuel development, particularly for biofuels from crops already embedded in industrial production systems. A core reason, this paper argues, is that the emerging biofuel alliances are reinforcing processes and structures that increase pressures on the ecological integrity of tropical forests and further wrest control of resources from subsistence farmers, indigenous peoples, and people with insecure land rights. Even the development of so-called 'sustainable' biofuels looks set to displace livelihoods and reinforce and extend previous waves of hardship for such marginalised peoples.

  13. The social, political, and legal construction of the concept of child pornography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkin, Harris

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the construction of the concept of child pornography, developed in several Supreme Court decisions. New York v. Ferber (1982) separated child pornography from adult obscenity, and soon thereafter almost all pictures of nude children became illegal. These images had been common in art and usually signified innocence, although they often had an erotic component. The assumption that images of nude youths can only be viewed erotically is a significant change. The justification-that children were hurt in producing child pornography, and that distribution (even no-cost distribution) and private possession contributed to that harm-does not hold up under analysis. It is statistically flawed and inconsistent with other Court decisions. Justice Kennedy's decision in Ashcroft v. The Free Speech Coalition supports the argument that the images are forbidden because they challenge the ideology of the innocent child. Since erotic images of adults are common, understanding the different treatment of youths is important for understanding contemporary sexual politics.

  14. The political economy of maize production and poverty reduction in Zambia: analysis of the last 50 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanjra, Munir A; Culas, Richard J

    2011-01-01

    Poverty and food security are endemic issues in much of sub-Saharan Africa. To eradicate extreme poverty and hunger in the region remains a key Millennium Development Goal. Many African governments have pursued economic reforms and agricultural policy interventions in order to accelerate economic growth that reduces poverty faster. Agricultural policy regimes in Zambia in the last 50 years (1964–2008) are examined here to better understand their likely impact on food security and poverty, with an emphasis on the political economy of maize subsidy policies. The empirical work draws on secondary sources and an evaluation of farm household data from three villages in the Kasama District of Zambia from 1986/87 and 1992/93 to estimate a two-period econometric model to examine the impact on household welfare in a pre- and post-reform period. The analysis shows that past interventions had mixed effects on enhancing the production of food crops such as maize. While such reforms were politically popular, it did not necessarily translate into household-level productivity or welfare gains in the short term. The political economy of reforms needs to respond to the inherent diversity among the poor rural and urban households. The potential of agriculture to generate a more pro-poor growth process depends on the creation of new market opportunities that most benefit the rural poor. The state should encourage private sector investments for addressing infrastructure constraints to improve market access and accelerate more pro-poor growth through renewed investments in agriculture, rural infrastructure, gender inclusion, smarter subsidies and regional food trade. However, the financing of such investments poses significant challenges. There is a need to address impediments to the effective participation of public private investors to generate more effective poverty reduction and hunger eradication programmes. This article also explores the opportunities for new public

  15. Redealing the cards: How an eco-industry modifies the political economy of environmental taxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canton, Joan

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a combined economic-political model of environmental taxation setting. The model introduces a third lobby group - the lobby of an eco-industry - in addition to the traditional lobbies of polluting firms and environmentalists. Pressure groups interact to influence the environmental tax chosen by a regulator maximizing its chances of being reelected. The eco-industry lobby adds a new political contribution toward a higher environmental tax. The imperfectly competitive structure of the eco-industry also modifies the incentives of the usual lobbies. When the foreign environmental policy is constant, environmentalists can be in favor of a decrease in the local tax in order to reduce foreign pollution. We also discuss the formation of alliances between the eco-industry and one of the other lobbies and their potential impact. In general, the impact of lobbying activities on the politically optimal tax is ambiguous and depends on the relative concentration of each pressure group. (author)

  16. Understanding the conviction of Binayak Sen: Neocolonialism, political violence and the political economy of health in the central Indian tribal belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Jonathan J; King, Lawrence P

    2011-05-01

    The health of adivasis' (Scheduled Tribes or indigenous peoples) is far worse than the general Indian population. Binayak Sen, a renowned Indian public health practitioner, has worked with adivasis in central India for over thirty years. On Christmas Eve 2010 Sen was convicted of involvement with Maoist insurgents and sentenced to life in prison. Sen's conviction has been condemned by Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch, and medical journals such as The Lancet and the British Medical Journal are campaigning for his release. This short report addresses the apparently vexing question of how such a miscarriage of justice could happen to a well-reputed physician in a country that is widely referred to as 'the world's largest democracy'. Both Sen's conviction and the health crisis among adivasis in central India are symptoms of what Paul Farmer (2005) refers to as 'deeper pathologies of power'; specifically, the neocolonial political economy in which the state is very active in dispossessing adivasis but inactive in providing benevolent functions. Thus, the case demonstrates the manner in which public health is intimately related to social, economic and political processes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The political economy of publication: marketing, commodification, and qualitative scholarly work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Yvonna S

    2012-11-01

    The globalized economy, fueled by late capitalism, has pressed forward its necessity for accumulation and expanding growth into the information and knowledge economy. One result has been the privatization of essentially public knowledge, knowledge produced at public universities, often with public, federal dollars. Both the "mania for ranking academic institutions," where universities compete for students, tuition dollars, and external funding, and the incessant creep of the managerial "audit culture" contribute to this situation. Although there is little individual scholars can do to resist globalization and capitalist forces, understanding the context into which their research is circulated can suggest opportunities for sharing research results between the "center" and "periphery" that counter some of the privatization trends.

  18. Politics, Economy, and Ideology in Iraqi Kurdistan since 2003: Enduring Trends and Novel Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leezenberg, M.

    2015-01-01

    Since the 2003 war, the Kurdistan Region of Iraq has followed a distinct trajectory, the roots of which lie in its emergence as a de facto autonomous entity in the wake of the 1991 Gulf War. This paper traces the development between 2003 and 2013 of the main political, economic, and ideological

  19. Growing apart : the comparative political economy of income inequality and social policy development in affluent countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thewissen, Stefan Hubert

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades, most OECD countries witnessed a widening of the income distribution. This doctoral thesis collects five studies that provide insight into determinants and political and economic consequences of income inequality and social policy development in affluent countries. The

  20. In Defense of Language Rights: Rethinking the Rights Orientation from a Political Economy Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses language rights as a legitimate political tool for language policy scholarship and activism. The article begins by engaging several critiques of language rights. It analyzes Ruiz's language-as-right orientation to language policy, and then reviews recent scholarship challenging language rights from poststructural and…

  1. Political Economy of Higher Education: Comparing South Africa to Trends in the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Meenal; Shrivastava, Sanjiv

    2014-01-01

    Education is one of the major linchpins of economic, social and political development of any nation. Recent evidence suggests that higher education can produce both public and private benefits. Thus, the role of the state in making education policy, and funding education is indeed critical, and cannot be left to be determined by market forces…

  2. The Political Economy of Boomerang Aid in China’s Tibet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Fischer (Andrew Martín)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis article examines how rapid growth in the Tibetan areas of West China since the mid-1990s has been a key factor exacerbating the unresolved contestations of Chinese rule in these areas. Amidst the continued political disempowerment of Tibetan locals, Beijing has used recent

  3. Windows on Empire: Perspectives from History, Culture and Political Economy (roundtable discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Colas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available At the start of the new century notions of Empire and imperialism had all but disappeared from the lexicon of western humanities. Washington’s ‘war on terror’ and the accompanying invasion ofAfghanistan and Iraq, coupled with the publishing sensation that was Hardt and Negri’s Empire suddenly reversed this neglect. Questions of political hierarchy, military competition and socioeconomicdomination which had apparently disappeared from the world stage with the end of the Cold War have returned with a vengeance. In recent years, the most innovative scholarship and trenchant political interventions in the humanities have arguably emerged from engagements with such questions, offering a fresh range of concepts, analyses and interpretations on the place of Empire and imperialism in our world today. Sanjay Seth is Professor in the department of politics at Goldsmiths, University of London. Leo Panitch is Distinguished Research Professor of Political Science at York University. Saskia Sassen is Professor of Sociology at Columbia University and the London School of Economics. She is also a member of the Committee on Global Thought. Christian Marazzi is Professor and Director of Socio-Economic Research at the Scuola Universitaria della Svizzera Italiana. The roundtable is chaired by Alex Colás, who is Senior Lecturer in International Relations at Birkbeck, University of London.

  4. The political economy of urban climate adaptation and development planning in Surat, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chu, E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper argues for a political economic approach to understanding climate change adaptation and development planning in an urban context. Based on field research conducted in Surat, India, across a period of two years, I illustrate how climate adaptation is rooted in preexisting and contextually

  5. The Political Economy of Open-Source Software in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettell, Steven

    2008-01-01

    The debate about the impact of information and communication technology has tended to focus on either its economic or its political aspects. The growing centrality of this technology to life in the 21st century, however, raises important questions about social ownership and control that necessitate a broader and more holistic analysis. Central to…

  6. Policy-Making Structures and Their Biases Towards Political Economy and Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauber, Volkmar

    The author suggests that the ecology movement in Western Europe has reached the limits of reactive politics and cannot achieve more unless it adopts a different strategy. Surveys and referenda show that the public has an overwhelmingly good opinion of the ecology movement but that few will vote on it in elections. Thus, the movement has had little…

  7. Does inequality cause inflation? The political economy of inflation, taxation and government debt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.M.W.J.; van der Ploeg, F.

    1992-01-01

    A democratic society in which the distribution of wealth is unequal elects political parties which tend to represent the interests of the poor. The clientele of such governments favor unanticipated inflation taxes to erode the real value of debt service and redistribute income from the rich to the

  8. The political economy of the harmonisation of the Nguni and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The author believes that it is essential to revisit the issue of the harmonisation of the African languages of South Africa. He maintains that most people who have been writing on the subject locally have not understood the kernel of the original Nhlapo-Alexander proposal and restates the economic and political arguments for ...

  9. Preferential Resource Spending under an Employment Guarantee : The Political Economy of MGNREGS in Andhra Pradesh

    OpenAIRE

    Sheahan, Megan; Liu, Yanyan; Barrett, Christopher B.; Narayanan, Sudha

    2016-01-01

    Are ostensibly demand-driven public works programs with high levels of safeguards nonetheless susceptible to political influence? This conjecture is investigated using expenditure data at the local level from India's National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme. Focusing on one state where accountability and transparency mechanisms have been employed and implementation efforts have been wide...

  10. Countering the Resource Curse: A Comparative Analysis of Political Economy for Chile and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    curse due to protectionist policy causing 24 Fuentes , J. Rodrigo, “Managing Natural Resources Revenue...oxcarrerp201040.pdf. 25 Fuentes , “Managing Natural Resources Revenue, Chile,” 3. 26 Wright, Gavin, and Jesse Czelusta, “Why economies slow: the myth of the...democracy, University of Michigan Press, 2002, 13. 52 Orihuela, How do Mineral States Learn? 143. 53 Ibid., 143. 54 Fuentes , Managing Natural Resources

  11. Corruption – The Politic and Bureaucratic Shield of the Underground Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Silviu Pripoaie; Rodica Pripoaie

    2011-01-01

    In a conditional manner, corruption is considered the specific behavior for the entity thatrepresents the state and public authority of using public resources for personal profits. Internationalinstitutions for corruption evaluation (the World Bank or Transparency International) generallyqualify the phenomenon as“the abuse of public power for private benefit”.Thus, corruption andunderground economy create the condition for the development of group interests, that, thanks to theirinfluence, do...

  12. Energy Security and Climate Change Policy in the OECD: The Political Economy of Carbon-Energy Taxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachapelle, Erick

    Why do countries tax the same fuels at widely different rates, even among similarly situated countries in the global political economy? Given the potentially destabilizing effects of climate change, and the political and economic risks associated with a reliance on geographically concentrated, finite fossil fuels, International Organizations and economists of all political stripes have consistently called for increasing tax rates on fossil-based energy. Despite much enthusiasm among policy experts, however, politicians concerned with distributional consequences, economic performance and competitiveness impacts continue to be wary of raising taxes on carbon-based fuels. In this context, this thesis investigates the political economy of tax rates affecting the price of fossil fuels in advanced capitalist democracies. Through an examination of the political limits of government capacity to implement stricter carbon-energy policy, as well as the identification of the correlates of higher carbon-based energy taxes, it throws new light on the conditions under which carbon-energy tax reform becomes politically possible. Based on recent data collected from the OECD, EEA and IEA, I develop an estimate of the relative size of implicit carbon taxes across OECD member countries on six carbon-based fuels and across the household and industrial sectors. I exploit large cross-national differences in these carbon-energy tax rates in order to identify the correlates of, and constraints on, carbon-energy tax reform. Applying multiple regression analysis to both cross-section and time-series cross-sectional (TSCS) data, this thesis leverages considerable empirical evidence to demonstrate how and why electoral systems matter for energy and environmental tax policy outcomes. In particular, I find considerable empirical evidence to support the claim that systems of proportional representation (PR), in addition to the partisan preferences of the electorate, work together to explain

  13. Competitive effects and instruments of power sector reforms. International reform concepts blockade structures, risk distribution. A political economy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebchen, Armin

    2014-01-01

    Power sectors with weak or inadequate competition structures are the rule, despite numerous attempts at reform. But can afford modern economies this defect for a long time? Why can the implementation of competition are blocked so effectively? The author studied international reform experiences and opens up interesting insights that can also reflect on problems of the German energy turnaround: The difficulty of timing and coordination of the reform components, the development of resistance levels of individual interest groups, breach of contract as a rational alternative, causes unwanted price effects, shifting interest situations of major stakeholders, change dynamics impending regulatory risks, pending financing risks, stranded cost-conflict situations for power stations disconnected from the grid and facilities and instruments of a political and regulatory risk management for reforms. With numerous examples, background analyzes and instruments to reform analysis, this book is aimed at investors, policy planners and analysts. [de

  14. To the last drop. About oil's political economy; Til siste draape. Om oljens politiske oekonomi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryggvik, Helge

    2009-07-01

    This book sets the last few years dramatic oil news into a context which until now has been missing in the Norwegian debate. The starting point is an analysis of what the classical economists - from Smith and Ricardo to Marx and George - would have called the oil companies special political economy. The book shows that which is good for the new Statoil, nearly never will be good for Norway and the rest of the world. It shows how a small elite has secured a good grip on straws into the great oil wealth, how the foundation, in international context presented as a successful Norwegian oil policy, is about to break down and how the great internationalization project which lay behind, will change Norway's relationship to the world - forever. (AG)

  15. POLITICAL ECONOMY OF RELIGIOUS AND CULTURAL SYMBOLS IN THE SOAP OPERA OF TUKANG BUBUR NAIK HAJI AT RCTI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Television is a very influential media and important tool in capital accumulation. This study aims to reveal the use of Islamic and Betawi ethnic symbols, workers, and also the audiences of Tukang Bubur Naik Haji (TBNH soap opera at RCTI. This research used a political economy of communication perspective. The data were collected by using interview, observation, documentation, and literature study. The result shows that the religious symbols of Islam and Betawi culture have been exploited as comodity to be traded. Those symbols have been commercialized dan manipulated through the use of sensational, provocative, and hyperbole words or sentences to entertain audiences and to attract the advertisers. The hyper-comercialization and politicization of symbols caused the soap opera workers and Moslem audiences have been exploited.

  16. Social goal-objective formation, democracy and national interest a theory of political economy under fuzzy rationality

    CERN Document Server

    Dompere, Kofi Kissi

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the development of a theory of social goal-objective formation and its relationship to national interest and social vision under a democratic decision-choice system with imperfect information structure. It provides a framework for the application of fuzzy logic and its mathematics to the analysis in resolving conflicts in individual preferences in the collective decision-choice space without violence. The book demonstrates how to use fuzzy logic and its mathematics in the study of economics, social sciences and other complex systems. It also presents the use of collaborative tools of opposites, duality, polarity, continuum in fuzzy paradigm with its logic, laws of thought and mathematics in developing a new approach to the theory of political economy in order to enhance the constructs of social decision-choice theory.

  17. Time for behavioral political economy? An analysis of articles in behavioral economics

    OpenAIRE

    Berggren, Niclas

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes leading research in behavioral economics to see whether it contains advocacy of paternalism and whether it addresses the potential cognitive limitations and biases of the policymakers who are going to implement paternalist policies. The findings reveal that 20.7% of the studied articles in behavioral economics propose paternalist policy action and that 95.5% of these do not contain any analysis of the cognitive ability of policymakers. This suggests that behavioral politic...

  18. The Impact of the Black Death on the Golden Horde: Politics, Economy, Society, Civilization

    OpenAIRE

    Uli Schamiloglu

    2017-01-01

    Research objectives and materials: This essay offers an overview of the political, economic, social, and cultural consequences of the Black Death (the epidemic of bubonic plague cause by the bacteria Yersinia pestis) in the territories of the Golden Horde in the 14th–15th centuries. It considers the framework which has been developed for medieval Europe and the Middle East. It considers whether there was a medieval growth in population in the Golden Horde prior to the arrival of the Black Dea...

  19. The Political Economy of India’s Fiscal Federal System and its Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, M. Govinda; Singh, Nirvikar

    2006-01-01

    This article examines recent and potential reforms in India's fiscal federal system. We summarize key federal institutions in India, including tax and expenditure assignments, and mechanisms for Center-state transfers. We discuss the institutional process by which reforms can and do take place, including the role of academics, political influences, and especially institutions such as the Finance Commission. In contrast to the past, recent commissions have played a greater role in articulating...

  20. The socio-political economy of nuclear power development in Japan and South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentine, Scott Victor; Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the socio-cultural, political and economic conditions prevalent during the inception of nuclear power programs in Japan and South Korea in order to identify commonalities which support nuclear power program expansion. The study identifies six factors as having a clear influence on supporting nuclear power development: (1) strong state involvement in guiding economic development; (2) centralization of national energy policymaking and planning; (3) campaigns to link technological progress with national revitalization; (4) influence of technocratic ideology on policy decisions; (5) subordination of challenges to political authority, and (6) low levels of civic activism. The paper postulates that insights from this study can be used to assess the propensity of nations which have the emergent capacity to support nuclear power development to actually embark on such programs. - Research highlights: → The study identifies six factors as having a clear influence on supporting nuclear power development in Japan and South Korea: (1) strong state involvement in guiding economic development; (2) centralization of national energy policymaking and planning; (3) campaigns to link technological progress with national revitalization; (4) influence of technocratic ideology on policy decisions; (5) subordination of challenges to political authority.

  1. 2007 Winter meeting - nuclear power in a relationship of tension between politics, society, and the economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2007-01-01

    Some 300 interested representatives of the power industry, industry at large, politics, administration, science and research met in Berlin on February 7 and 8, 2007 by invitation of the Deutsches Atomforum e.V. to exchange ideas and experience at the '2007 Winter Meeting'. This year's event was dedicated to the basic conditions underlying the use of nuclear power in Germany, Europe and worldwide. Seven contributions and statements by representatives from politics, industry, and society reflected a broad spectrum of divergent aspects and opinions about the topic of the meeting. Hans-Ulrich Joerges (stern, Berlin) chaired a discussion among Baerbel Hoehn (MP, Alliance 90/The Greens), Dr. Gerd Jaeger (RWE Power AG, Essen), Herbert Reul (MEP, energy policy spokesman of the CDU/CSU group of the European Parliament), and Prof. Dr.-Ing. Ulrich Wagner (Munich Technical University) about current and future aspects of power supply with or without nuclear energy. At the beginning of the year, the '2007 Winter Meeting' offered an interesting start of the debates accompanying this year's climate discussions, the problems associated with gas and oil deliveries from Russia, and the goal to adopt politically a sustainable energy program in the course of the year. (orig.)

  2. Understanding the political economy and key drivers of energy access in addressing national energy access priorities and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, I.H.; Kar, Abhishek; Banerjee, Manjushree; Kumar, Preeth; Shardul, Martand; Mohanty, Jeevan; Hossain, Ijaz

    2012-01-01

    Globally, 1.5 billion people lack access to electricity and nearly 3 billion lack access to modern cooking energy options. Of the world’s “energy poor”, 95% are in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. Within Asia, almost 80% of electricity-deprived and 86% of biomass-dependent populations are in the “Big 5” countries: Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, and Pakistan. In this paper, we discuss the broad contours of the political economy of energy access in these countries. The political economy is assessed through an examination of three sustainability objectives: accessibility of physical infrastructure; energy service delivery; and conformance to social goals. The key areas of concern include emphasis on supply-driven grid electricity; vested power dynamics favouring affluent and urban areas; unreliability of energy service provision; and misdirected and misappropriated subsidies. The above-mentioned issues are responsible for limiting accelerated achievement of universal energy access in the “Big 5” countries and need to be addressed through innovative approaches. The paper emphasizes the need for firm commitments, policy convergence, and the implementation of 'pro-poor' equitable energy policies through a broad-based energy framework of bench-marked, technology-neutral energy provisioning that ensures reliability and equity. It highlights the need for reorienting of the subsidy regime and incorporating energy service delivery indicators in monitoring and reporting mechanisms. - Highlights: ► Limited emphasis on improved cooking programmes relative to electrification schemes. ► Strong disparity between rural and urban electrification and LPG access. ► Grid extension and subsidy on cooking fuels has limited success. ► Electricity access does not indicate transition to better cooking options. ► Technology neutrality in choosing suitable alternatives may led to improved access. ► There is need to re-orient energy subsidies and incentives.

  3. The Political Economy of World Heavyweight Boxing during the Great Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad ROŞCA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to show how boxing managed to remain an affordable and consumable good for the USAmerican citizens in the times of the Great Depression of 1929-1933, when industrial production was closing. Moreover, while other economic activities faced problems, boxing continued to produce money. The research analyzes the economic market of professional heavyweight boxing, presenting some of the tools that helped promoters produce and sell the fight shows to the consumers – like price discrimination and cartel agreements, for example, and, thus, helped generating incomes and assured money circulation in the economy.

  4. Malthus and the Philanthropists, 1764–1859: The Cultural Circulation of Political Economy, Botany, and Natural Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Marc MacDonald

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modernity does not possess a monopoly on mass incarceration, population fears, forced migration, famine, or climatic change. Indeed, contemporary and early modern concerns over these matters have extended interests in Thomas Malthus. Yet, despite extensive research on population issues, little work explicates the genesis of population knowledge production or how the process of intellectual transfer occurred during the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. This paper examines the Delessert network’s instrumental role in cultivating, curating, and circulating knowledge that popularized Malthusian population theory, including the theory’s constitutive elements of political economy, philanthropy, industry, agriculture, and botany. I show how deviant, nonconformist groups suffered forced migration for their political philosophy, particularly during the revolutionary 1790s, resulting in their imprisonment and migration to America. A consequence of these social shifts was the diffusion and dissemination of population theory—as a pursuit of scientific knowledge and exploration—across both sides of the Atlantic. By focusing on the Delesserts and their social network, I find that a byproduct of inter and intra continental migration among European elites was a knowledge exchange that stimulated Malthus’s thesis on population and Genevan Augustin Pyramus Candolle’s research on botany, ultimately culminating in Charles Darwin’s theory of natural selection and human evolution.

  5. Smoke screen? The globalization of production, transnational lobbying and the international political economy of plain tobacco packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Louise; Eckhardt, Jappe

    2017-01-01

    In 2012 Australia became the first country in the world to introduce plain tobacco packaging in an effort to reduce tobacco consumption. This move was vehemently opposed by the tobacco industry, which challenged it on several levels: nationally, bilaterally and multilaterally at the World Trade Organization (WTO). The political behavior of the tobacco companies in this case is puzzling both in terms of scale, operating at multiple levels at the same time and in terms of the countries mobilized in their defence. WTO litigation is typically the result of Multi National Enterprises (MNEs) lobbying their own government, but here third countries were mobilized. Lobbying in third country contexts, with the objective of accessing multilateral dispute settlement systems, has been little studied. We thus know very little about the driving factors behind such activities, how target governments are selected and what lobbying strategies are used. This paper draws on emerging research on transnational lobbying and a case study of the PP case to explore these issues in detail and, by doing so, aims to further our theoretical understanding of the political economy of international trade in the context of increasing regime complexity and globalization of production.

  6. The Political Economy of the Harmonisation of the Nguni and the Sotho Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neville Alexander

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The author believes that it is essential to revisit the issue of the harmonisation of the African languages of South Africa. He maintains that most people who have been writing on the subject locally have not understood the kernel of the original Nhlapo-Alexander proposal and restates the economic and political arguments for it. Because there are no "linguistic" barriers to the realisation of this proposal, he concludes that the main obstacle is the lack of political will and appeals to the relevant academics and political/cultural leadership of the country to reconsider the issue against the background of a similar movement in the rest of the continent.

     

    Die polities-ekonomiese aspekte van die harmonisering van die Nguni- en die Sothotale

    Die outeur is van mening dat dit noodsaaklik is om weer te kyk na die harmonisering van die Afrikatale van Suid-Afrika. Hy beweer dat die meeste mense wat plaaslik oor hierdie onderwerp geskryf het, nie die kern van die oorspronklike Nhlapo-Alexander-voorstel verstaan het nie, en hy stel weer die ekonomiese en politieke argumente ten gunste daarvan. Aangesien daar geen "taalkundige" grense is vir die daarstelling van hierdie voorstel nie, kom hy tot die gevolgtrekking dat die hoofstruikelblok die gebrek aan politieke wilskrag is. Hy beroep hom op die relevante akademici en politieke/kulturele leiers van die land om hierdie saak te heroorweeg teen die agtergrond van 'n soortgelyke beweging in die res van die kontinent.

     

  7. The Political Economy of Funding Agricultural R&D in Papua New Guinea: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Omuru, Eric; Kingwell, Ross S.

    2002-01-01

    Adequate and reliable funding of agricultural R&D is critical for sustaining research activities. A breakdown in funding arrangements can be detrimental to the long-term existence of R&D organisation/systems. This paper first, reviews the trends in funding arrangements for agricultural R&D in Papua New Guinea (PNG) in recent years. Second, the paper explores the extent to which political influence affects funding arrangements for agricultural R&D in PNG in terms of a case study. Third, with i...

  8. The political economy of financing children's rights through extractive industries in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Jewellord T. Nem; Grugel, Jean B.; Hatcher, Pascale

    2016-01-01

    The surging investments in the extractive industries (EI) that began in the 1980s, as well as the commodity boom between 2002 and 2011, have increased the significance of the sector in national economic development. This paper takes the Philippines as a case study and provides a detailed analysis of two key aspects of mining governance: first, the political challenges in realizing a more positive role for EI in social development, particularly in promoting children´s rights and children´s wel...

  9. The political economy of the fisheries sector in Uganda: ruling elites, implementation costs and industry interests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anne Mette; Muhumuza, Fred; Mwebaze, Tom

    to support the establishment of effective hygiene and testing procedures. This helped the fishing industry succeed to an extent that helped create interests in the status quo. Fishermen, their dependents, and the fish processors all wanted to maintain a high level of fish catches. It was politically costly...... for ruling elites to enforce fisheries management because strict enforcement was unpopular with fishermen, as well as with many fishermen and security agents who benefitted from illegal fishing. Therefore, the success was not maintained: a pocket of efficiency was established with regard to hygiene...

  10. WHY THE SUDDEN CHANGE OF THE POLITICAL REGIME IS DETERMINING RISK IN ECONOMY AND SOCIETY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Lucian MEHEDINTI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article the authors aim to gather an in-depth understanding of the evolution of manking throughout the history and its political regimes, and in the same time are analizing and determining the components of the social function that exercised a great influence on the stability and dynamics of the production and consumption, pointing out that any social organization that wants to remain rational should have as a primary objective the happiness of the people, that so called,“general happiness”, that could only be achieved through education, culture, raising people's moral and intellectual knowledge. Since any political system does not seek the general good, but the one of some persons or a specific group of people, there is only very little communion between them and the people or is entirely missing and for these reasons their reign won’t be long, because the people are always wanting a political change. This "social problem" occurred because of some significant social movements, socialist doctrines whose effects still persist in present times. The efforts of the profound thinkers and mankind throughout the history, with all the positive developments did not materialize in achieving a society in which wealth is equitably distributed, where the contributions of the people in getting them is equally shared that could satisfy the requirements and the needs of the majority members of the society. In all the transformations and society changes or the political regime of the state, the human being represented the base, with its unlimited evolution and thinking, and all of these were achieved in time and were given by a certain social environment. The human being can not be separated from its social environment. He is born to live in the society, but the freedom can not be unlimited of course. The history has shown that all the hasty attempts suffered the same fate and the only sustainable progress made by the people were those who came out

  11. What money does: An inquiry into the backbone of capitalist political economy

    OpenAIRE

    Koddenbrock, Kai

    2017-01-01

    The theory and critique of capitalism is back at the center of scholarly debate. With it comes a growing awareness of the analytical and political importance of money and money creation. Moving from the more systemic reflections of Karl Marx to more recent work on money theory by Geoffrey Ingham and in financial economics, the paper focuses on three of money’s “deeds.” As a social structure and process, it makes moneymaking through capital permeate all our societies. As a public-private partn...

  12. Jane Kelsey, Serving Whose Interests? The Political Economy of Trade in Services Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Irish

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Serving Whose Interests is an examination of the General Agreement on Trade in Services [GATS] since its inception in 1995, with several case studies that discuss services trade in specific applications around the world. The scholarship i s extensive and detailed. Jane Kelsey, law professor at the University of Auckland, has criticized the pro-market services trade regime i n her role as a political activist. In this book, her goals are to make the technicalities of trade rules accessible and to show their effects on people and communities.

  13. Political Economy of Development and Underdevelopment Re-Visiting Dependence Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HIDALGO-CAPITÁN, Antonio Luis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we have tried to answer to the question ‘why some economies are developed and othereconomies are underdeveloped?’ For this, we have enacted an explanation which is inspired on the ideasof Dependence Theory authors and which is based on three premises: both phenomena have commoncauses; both phenomena have opposite and symmetric causes; and both phenomena are the result ofhistoric process which arrive to ours days.Then we have identified like underdevelopment causes: the colonial exploitation; the trade exploitation;the financial exploitation; the plenty curse; the heritage dual social structure; the no-permanentpresence of Social Rule of Law; and the global apartheid. And the development causes will be: the colonialexploitation; the trade exploitation; the financial exploitation; the scant resources distribution; the pluralsocial structure; the permanent presence of Social Rule of Law; and the global apartheid.

  14. The classic political economy and the cyberculture. The chat market as exchange of goods and services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Marilyn Ortiz Sánchez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is an important part of the doctoral thesis topics “Configuration of the semiotics of the chat: a multimodal view”, in which the reflection on the media and the means of production ownership is proposed, from the relationship between the users of electronic devices and the virtual – real ownership consequences, bearing in mind that the cloud production relation and the electronic interaction bring about a series of epistemological implications characterized by the virtuality whose market and process of interaction is the web. This interaction allows a straight relationship with the research about the chat in a cyberculture world and specifically the chat as an emergent language, since the relationship between the language and the culture, the language and the knowledge and the most relevant one, the language and the economy, from a production system point of view, are a way to understand the symbolic products of the current society

  15. Trade, Tarsands and Treaties: The Political Economy Context of Community Energy in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie L. MacArthur

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Governments today are increasingly looking to non-state and bottom up community actors to help achieve climate change mitigation targets. Canada is a resource rich state with one of the highest per capita greenhouse gas footprints in the world. It is also a state where issues of political will, geographic scale and incumbent industries contribute to a challenging context for broad community participation. Despite this, a long history of co-operative and municipal activity exists in the energy sector, exhibited in diverse ways across its provinces and territories. Provincial variation in energy sources and actors illustrates a far more nuanced picture than exists at the national level, providing a case rich with both promising and cautionary tales for the community energy sector. This article examines the emergence of community energy in the context of broader energy sector moves towards increasingly powerful trade agreements, privatization, and conflicts over Indigenous rights in Canada. It argues that significant potential exists to strengthen the role of local actors in Canadian energy governance, but that macro-level political and economic developments have also created significant challenges for widespread community energy transitions.

  16. Can we Plan. The political economy of commercial nuclear energy policy in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.L. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The dissertation is an analysis of the commercial nuclear energy sector's decline in the United States. The research attempts to reconcile the debate between Weberian-institutional and Marxist political theory about the state's inability to successfully plan industrial development in advanced capitalist countries. Synthesizing these views, the central hypothesis guiding the research is that the greater the state's relative autonomy from political and economic constraints in an institutional sense, i.e., the greater its insulation from the contradictions of capitalism and democracy, the greater its planning capacity and the more successful it will be in directing industrial performance. The research examines one industrial sector, commercial nuclear energy, and draws two major comparison. First, the French and US nuclear industries are compared, since the state's relative autonomy is much greater in the former than in the latter. This comparison is developed to identify policy areas where nuclear planning has succeeded in France but failed in America. Four areas are identified: reactor standardization, waste management, reactor safety, and financing. Second, looking particularly at the US, the policy areas are compared to analyze the development of policy and its effects on the sector's performance and to determine the degree to which planning was undermined by the structural constraints characteristic of a state with low relative autonomy

  17. Political economy of transnational water pollution: what do the LMB data (1985-2000) say?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rongxing; Yang, Kaizhong

    2003-10-01

    On the basis of the cross-section and time-series data of the Lower Mekong Basin (LMB)--including large sections of Thailand, Lao PDR, Vietnam, and Cambodia, we find little evidence in support of the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis. Instead, our regressions support the general views that water pollution had been positively related to income level and that, as a result of the end of the Cold War era, it had been significantly reduced in the 1990s vis-à-vis the 1980s. In most circumstances, water resources were more seriously polluted in the transnational border areas than in the other areas. Specifically, the estimated coefficients on the political boundary dummies show that political influence on transnational water pollution was more significant in areas near "the international border along which the river runs" (denoted by BORDER2) than in places near "the international border across which the river runs" (denoted by BORDER1). The estimated coefficients on the ASEAN dummy present some information about the positive role of the Association for Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) membership in the reduction of transnational water pollution. Finally, the country-specific dummies are found to present conflicting information about the transnational differences of water pollution, although Thailand is found to have the least water pollution in the LMB.

  18. Three essays on political economy of oil revenues in the African states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omgba, Luc Desire

    2010-01-01

    The vision of the role of natural resources in the development process has changed over the last thirty years. The optimistic views of the beginning became more moderate, even pessimistic. This thesis focuses on the role of oil in the political, institutional, and economic performances of African countries, some of which are richly endowed. It revolves around three empirical essays. Chapter 2 focuses on the duration of political regimes in Africa and shows from a duration model that revenues from oil exploitation play an important role. Chapter 3 examines the high indebtedness of oil-producing countries. A collateral effect of oil resources is highlighted, it dominates an instability effect. Chapter 4 includes, in a dynamic computable general equilibrium model, the permanent income hypothesis presented in the literature as the answer to the fiscal management of oil revenues. It concludes that a relevant rule of oil revenues management in African countries should not reduce only the impact of volatility on public finances, but it should also address the development needs of African oil producing countries. (author)

  19. Guild traditions, economic development and the formation of national political economies in Germany, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands in the 19th and early 20th centuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, M.J.M.; Kissane, C.; Prak, M.R.; Wallis, P.; Minns, C.

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades historians, sociologists and political scientists have attempted to explain why in the late 19th and early 20th centuries some Western countries adopted national corporatist structures while others transformed into liberal market economies. One of the explanatory factors often

  20. The political economy of redistribution in the U.S. in the aftermath of World War II and the delayed impacts of the Great Depression - Evidence and theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.; Cukierman, A.; Giuliodori, M.

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents evidence of an upward ratchet in transfers and taxes in the U.S. around World-War II. This finding is explained within a political-economy framework involving an executive who sets defense spending and the median voter in the population who interacts with a (richer) agenda setter

  1. The political economy of redistribution in the US in the aftermath of World War II and the delayed impacts of the Great Depression: evidence and theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.M.W.J.; Cukierman, A.; Giuliodori, M.

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents evidence of an substantial upward ratchet in transfers and taxes in the U.S. around World-War II. This finding is explained within a political-economy framework involving an executive who sets defense spending and the median voter in the population who interacts with a (richer)

  2. Review: Derek R. Peterson, Kodzo Gavua, and Ciraj Rassool (eds, The Politics of Heritage in Africa: Economies, Histories, and Infrastructures (2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhart Kößler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of the edited volume:Derek R. Peterson, Kodzo Gavua, and Ciraj Rassool (eds, The Politics of Heritage in Africa: Economies, Histories, and Infrastructures, London: International African Institute; New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2015, ISBN 9781107094857, 291 pages

  3. Media Coverage of Alcohol Issues: A Critical Political Economy Framework-A Case Study from Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercille, Julien

    2017-06-16

    There is a growing literature on news media representations of alcohol-related issues. However, current scholarship has neglected critical political economic frameworks to interpret media coverage of alcohol. This paper presents such a framework that conceives of news organisations as corporations that share the values and interests of political and economic elites. The media are thus expected to present viewpoints that are more aligned with the alcohol industry than the scientific consensus on public health policy would warrant. The media are also expected, but to a lesser extent, to present a certain amount of support for public health perspectives because these are supported by a few socioeconomic elite groups (the medical professions, progressive politicians). The case of Ireland from 2012 to 2017 illustrates the framework empirically. Four main newspapers' coverage of the Public Health (Alcohol) Bill and related policies is examined. Results show that, overall, 44.0% of articles support public health measures and 56.0% are opposed or remain neutral. It is argued that the media are not strong proponents of public health for multiple reasons: there are more articles opposed to or neutral toward public health measures than supporting them; the number of supportive articles remains relatively small and there are still many pieces presenting drinks industry views; there are virtually no calls in the media for stronger measures; supportive coverage is partially explained by the pub owners lobby's support for minimum unit pricing; the media often downplay or ignore the negative consequences of alcohol, such as its role in accidents; many news articles normalise drinking and promote events sponsored by the industry; there is not a single Irish journalist covering alcohol issues systematically; and other policy issues that are prioritised by elites receive multiple times more media coverage than public health measures. In short, the media reflect the views of the

  4. Media Coverage of Alcohol Issues: A Critical Political Economy Framework—A Case Study from Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercille, Julien

    2017-01-01

    There is a growing literature on news media representations of alcohol-related issues. However, current scholarship has neglected critical political economic frameworks to interpret media coverage of alcohol. This paper presents such a framework that conceives of news organisations as corporations that share the values and interests of political and economic elites. The media are thus expected to present viewpoints that are more aligned with the alcohol industry than the scientific consensus on public health policy would warrant. The media are also expected, but to a lesser extent, to present a certain amount of support for public health perspectives because these are supported by a few socioeconomic elite groups (the medical professions, progressive politicians). The case of Ireland from 2012 to 2017 illustrates the framework empirically. Four main newspapers’ coverage of the Public Health (Alcohol) Bill and related policies is examined. Results show that, overall, 44.0% of articles support public health measures and 56.0% are opposed or remain neutral. It is argued that the media are not strong proponents of public health for multiple reasons: there are more articles opposed to or neutral toward public health measures than supporting them; the number of supportive articles remains relatively small and there are still many pieces presenting drinks industry views; there are virtually no calls in the media for stronger measures; supportive coverage is partially explained by the pub owners lobby’s support for minimum unit pricing; the media often downplay or ignore the negative consequences of alcohol, such as its role in accidents; many news articles normalise drinking and promote events sponsored by the industry; there is not a single Irish journalist covering alcohol issues systematically; and other policy issues that are prioritised by elites receive multiple times more media coverage than public health measures. In short, the media reflect the views of the

  5. The political economy of the assessment of value of new health technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnon, Jonathan; Edney, Laura; Afzali, Hossein

    2018-04-01

    Health technology assessment provides a common framework for evaluating the costs and benefits of new health technologies to inform decisions on the public funding of new pharmaceuticals and other health technologies. In Australia and England, empirical analyses of the opportunity costs of government spending on new health technologies suggest more quality adjusted life years are being forgone than are being gained by a non-trivial proportion of funded health technologies. This essay considers the relevance of available empirical estimates of opportunity costs and explores the relationship between the public funding of health technologies and broader political and economic factors. We conclude that the benefits of a general reduction in the prices paid by governments for new technologies outweigh the costs, but evidence of informed public acceptance of reduced access to new health technologies may be required to shift the current approach to assessing the value of new health technologies.

  6. Failing Adolescents: Social Control, Political Economy & Human Development in post-war Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarala Emmanuel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In post-war societies adolescents occupy liminal spaces – where social, political, economic, spatial and biological boundaries are still fluid and undetermined – and present a particular challenge for post-war communities as well as service providers.  Drawing on a study from two war-affected villages in Sri Lanka, this paper examines the multi-faceted challenges that adolescents face in communities attempting to retain and redefine boundaries, identities, and social and moral regulation in a post-war context. It explores the dynamics of post-war change, especially in the social and moral regulation of sexuality, and its implications for adolescent girls and boys grappling with biological and social transformation—from internalizing gender norms to taking on adult economic roles. A second key concern of this paper is to underline how the post-war political economic context within which their communities are embedded shapes adolescents’ negotiation with personal and social transformation. A third key concern is to highlight the legacies of war in the form of surveillance, silences and complex psychosocial problems that adolescents are confronted in post-war contexts and the risk of cycles of inter-generational violence. Finally, the paper examines the role and relevance of formal services in areas such as education, reproductive health, community mobilization, or psychosocial support in the lives of adolescents.  It also considers the often overlooked but fundamental support from families and communities in bolstering the resilience of adolescents as they go through this challenging life phase in difficult and complex circumstances.

  7. Energy market and investment - political economy of supply security in the market of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leban, R.

    2005-01-01

    A market structure that appears to be adapted to achieving a supply security purpose in the sectors of oil power and gas, is an organisation where upstream energy markets include industrial players of adequate sizes involved downstream and where futures exchanges prevail at prices translating anticipations on 'basics' since spot markets are more of adjustment markets. Policy weighs hugely on those markets. The extra competition lately instilled in the electrical and gas markets in developed countries results in no decrease, as complicated exchange rules need to be thought up and the market power needs to be monitored. Political intervention is also carried out in the name of environmental policies, in a strong interaction with the operation of the said markets and therefore with a not insignificant risk of disruption. The oil market is a highly political one, since the key to exchanges, i.e. access to primary resources, is played between producing countries and huge oil and gas companies close to consuming countries. There is a strong temptation in the electrical sector, to add security policies in order to prevail over the market. Gas, which is oil upstream and electrical downstream, requires, in consuming countries, a delicate balance of policies to support operators as buyers and to control the same operators as players of the gas- gas competition. The prognosis on the market's ability to provide safe supply efficiently to citizens if security policies are implemented is rather good in areas where demand is moderately growing and networks are developed. It is however not as good in areas where there are high needs for production and transport investments, i.e. in countries that are developing now, and will be...in Europe soon. (author)

  8. A political economy analysis of decision-making on natural disaster preparedness in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen C. Rono-Bett

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Most deaths from natural disasters occur in low- or middle-income countries; among them, countries in the Horn of Africa – where Kenya lies. Between September 2015 and September 2016, 23.4 million people in this region faced food insecurity because of the 2015 El Niño, characterised by floods and droughts. The importance of effective government decision-making on preparedness and response are critical to saving lives during such disasters. But this decision-making process occurs in a political context which is marred by uncertainty with other factors at play. Yet, good practice requires making investments on a ‘no-regrets’ basis. This article looks at the factors influencing Kenya’s decision-making process for natural disasters, the preparedness for the 2015 El Niño as a case study. I explored what stakeholders understand by ‘no-regrets investments’ and its application. I assessed financial allocations by government and donors to disaster preparedness. Based on key informant interviews, focus group discussions and financial analyses, this article presents evidence at national and subnational levels. The findings indicate that in making decisions relating to preparedness, the government seeks information primarily from sources it trusts – other government departments, its communities and the media. With no existing legal frameworks guiding Kenya’s disaster preparedness, the coordination of preparedness is not strong. It appears that there is a lack of political will to prioritise these frameworks. The no-regrets approach is applied predominantly by non-state actors. Because there have been ‘non-events’ in the past, government has become overcautious in committing resources on a no-regrets basis. Government allocation to preparedness exceeds donor funding by almost tenfold.

  9. The Impact of the Black Death on the Golden Horde: Politics, Economy, Society, Civilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uli Schamiloglu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Research objectives and materials: This essay offers an overview of the political, economic, social, and cultural consequences of the Black Death (the epidemic of bubonic plague cause by the bacteria Yersinia pestis in the territories of the Golden Horde in the 14th–15th centuries. It considers the framework which has been developed for medieval Europe and the Middle East. It considers whether there was a medieval growth in population in the Golden Horde prior to the arrival of the Black Death in the mid-14th century. It considers the level of depopulation and how it led to political instability. It notes how bubonic plague was used as a weapon by the Mongol armies. It considers economic consequences such as the decline in certain professions and crafts, the threat to the food supply, and the rising cost of labor which led to inflation. It also considers the social crisis brought about by the sudden death of substantial portions of the population. Results and novelty of the research: The rise in urbanization in the 13th to mid-14th century was followed by a collapse in the population and decline in urban centers beginning in the second half of the 14th century. The Black Death also led to population pressure as most sedentary centers declined, while at the same time certain sedentary areas escaped the plague, as could many nomadic populations who were less susceptible to disease. It also examines the decline in literary languages and the growth in religiosity. Finally, it considers the recovery in the population beginning in the mid-15th century.

  10. A New Economic and Political State of Play in the Energy Sector: On Jean-Pierre Hansen and Jacques Percebois, Energy. Economy and politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesourne, J.

    2011-01-01

    If there is one sector in which the state of play has changed radically over a few decades, it is the energy sector. It has been affected simultaneously by the prospect that the main fossil fuels will become exhausted, by the impact on our planet's climate of the consumption of this fossil energy (implying increased recourse to renewable sources) and by the rapid economic development of large nations consuming increasing quantities of energy. Energy-related policies (particularly economic and technological policies) are, in fact, being developed in an increasingly complex and international context, which is, at times, very difficult to grasp. Fortunately, two specialists in energy matters, Jean-Pierre Hansen and Jacques Percebois, have published a very comprehensive survey of this new economic and political state of play in the energy field: 'Energie. Economie et politiques' [Energy: Economics and Policies] (Brussels: De Boeck, 2010). It clearly is not possible here to go into all the questions they confront, but in this review Jacques Lesourne, who has read the book for Futuribles, clearly demonstrates its importance and presents the reader with the main facets of the work that make it a reference tool for all involved in this sector, including the most highly specialized. (author)

  11. The Political Economy of the Water Footprint: A Cross-National Analysis of Ecologically Unequal Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared B. Fitzgerald

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity is an important social and ecological issue that is becoming increasingly problematic with the onset of climate change. This study explores the extent to which water resources in developing countries are affected by the vertical flow of exports to high-income countries. In examining this question, the authors engage the sociological theory of ecologically unequal exchange, which argues that high-income countries are able to partially externalize the environmental costs of their consumption to lower-income countries. The authors use a relatively new and underutilized measure of water usage, the water footprint, which quantifies the amount of water used in the entire production process. Ordinary least squares (OLS and robust regression techniques are employed in the cross-national analysis of 138 countries. The results provide partial support of the propositions of ecologically unequal exchange theory. In particular, the results highlight the importance of structural position in the global economy for understanding the effects of trade on water resources.

  12. Scurvy on sea and land: political economy and natural history,c. 1780-c. 1850.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Mark

    2013-05-16

    From the late eighteenth century, the ways in which scurvy was understood changed in consequence of the abandonment of humoral pathology and the adoption of a new causal framework informed by nervous physiology. Although there was some narrowing of the etiological framework around dietary deficiency in the wake of the navy's success with the issue of citrus juices, this was rarely to the exclusion of predisposing causes such as fatigue, weather and flagging spirits. Within the navy, the persistence of a multi-factoral framework was relatively unproblematic, for the standard issue of citrus juices and improvements in victualling occurred at the same time as other important reforms in naval health. But outside the navy it was a different matter. In other institutional settings, the continuing belief in the importance of factors other than diet created tensions between medical officers and administrators who found such inclusive views politically inconvenient. After a brief survey of the principal changes in the physiology of scurvy, this article examines how the problem of scurvy was understood, not only in the navy but also in the armies of the East India Company and in British prisons. These were not the only contexts in which scurvy caused concern, but they serve to illustrate the fact that it remained a complex and controversial disease. The article shows how different medical cultures and institutional imperatives took the natural history of scurvy in different directions.

  13. FILTERED VIOLENCE: PROPAGANDA MODEL AND POLITICAL ECONOMY OF THE INDIAN FILM INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmat Rasul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Production, distribution, and consumption of cinematic violence raises several questions of academic import. Despite a plethora of research studies exploring the nature of screen violence and its effects on viewers, a serious debate on the influence of state machinery on the production of sanitized violence in movies is still wanting. Likewise, Bollywood’s role in advancing the Indian government’s agenda in war and peace times has been paid petite attention in academic discourses dealing with media-state interconnection. This article explores the relevance of Herman and Chomsky’s propaganda model as a framework for analysis and analyzes Bollywood’s movies based on stories of violence in war and peace times. The article discusses the connections with the Indian state apparatus that influences production processes in the Indian film industry by providing financial assistance and applying multifarious political, social, economic, and ideological pressures (filters. The findings suggest that the Bollywood movies support diplomatic initiatives of the Indian government through cinematic narratives of sanitized violence.

  14. The Crisis of the Existing Global Paradigm of Governance and Political Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winston P. Nagan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to underline the central challenges to world order that are outcomes of our current system of global, social, power and constitutional processes. The article outlines these major problems which it is suggested represent a crisis for the future trajectory of human survival and well-being. The paper then uses the problem of the emergence of transnational criminal activity in order to underline the limits of the current global paradigm of governance. In effect, in the criminal law context the jurisdiction of sovereign states to attack the problem of transnational crime is hedged with severe limitations. The most important of these limitations is the fact that the jurisdiction over crimes by sovereigns is limited by the territorial character of the definition of sovereignty. Thus a sovereign has a limited capacity to control and police criminal activity whose main locus of operation is generated outside of the territorial reach of the sovereign state. This essentially means that the element of global governance generates a juridical vacuum which permits organized crime to flourish outside of the boundaries of the state but at the same time, having the capacity to penetrate and corrupt the social, political and juridical processes of the sovereign state. The article explores the effort of the UN to provide some form of response to this crisis in the form of an international agreement.

  15. Political Economy of the Public Forest Certification in the Gunungkidul Regency, DIY Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistyaningsih

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Public forests, particularly the ones in Java island, were developed in the 1930s by Dutch colonial government although the government’s policy did not fully recognize and legitimate them as state forests. Nevertheless, the contribution of the forests to local communities cannot be denied, because the existence of community forest can be lifesaving. That public forest after deforestation becomes an alternative solution can be seen in changes in the timber industry, in that demand for wood is increasing. The change resulted could be seen in the cultural change of this industry on the management of public forest in Java, especially in Gunungkidul Yogyakarta. The demand and pressure of international market that set requirements on the wood sold to be of high quality and accompanied with legal documents of public forets is an absolute condition to have the logs be accepted, recognized and marketed in international market. In political economical context, forest certification in Gunungkidul regency needs the intervention of the State to protect the marketing of timber from public forests.

  16. The political economy of grid-connected distributed power generation systems in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongsopit, Sopitsuda

    For nearly two decades, distributed generation (DG) has been touted as a disruptive technology that could revolutionize the way electricity is produced and delivered. Whether this vision will be realized depends upon how this new technology, the existing technological system, i.e., the electric power grid, and the regulatory structure governing these systems co-evolve. My dissertation examines the interface between distributed generation and the electric power grid in California. Drawing upon published materials and interviews with members of the electric utility industry, I analyze technical, economic, and property rights conflicts between the two technological systems that together constitute what I hereby call the problem of interconnection. In attempting to understand the problem of interconnection, I seek answers to the following questions: (1) How and why are key decisions regarding interconnections made in California? (2) How do existing institutions adapt to the changing environment of more DG utilization? (3) To what extent are the DG-grid interactions shaped by technical, economic, and political factors? It is found that the California approach toward DG-grid interconnection is only one among many possible approaches and not necessarily the most technically or economically efficient. DG is integrated such that it becomes a passive extension to the centralized, hierarchical grid. This technical approach has been standardized while excluding possibilities that had historically seemed possible. The dissertation then poses the problem of interconnection in the context of evolving property rights to the U.S. power grid. California's distribution sector has been exposed to the same kinds of pressures that have diluted and diffused utilities' rights to generation and transmission control. But unlike the latter two sectors, the institutional recognition of distribution monopolies is still dominant. As a result, local distribution monopolies have been able to

  17. Multinational corporations, the politics of the world economy, and their effects on women's health in the developing world: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippert, Christine

    2002-12-01

    Presently, globalization and the world economy maintain power relations that hamper the economic integrity and the political autonomy of the developing world. My paper addresses specific economic conditions that perpetuate poverty and poor health. I examine multinational corporations and their effects on women's health, particularly in Mexico and parts of Asia. The advent of multinational corporate business in Mexico, Malaysia, Philippines, India, and Indonesia has led to increased poverty and human rights abuses. Women bear the brunt of this because of specific international economic arrangements and their low social status, both locally and globally. As a result, their physical, mental, and emotional health is suffering. Solutions to these health problems have been proposed on multiple levels: international top-down approaches (i.e., employing international protectionist regulatory standards, exposing multinationals who infringe on their workers' human rights), as well as local grassroots organizational campaigns (i.e., conducting informational human rights workshops for factory workers). Ultimately, the answers lie in holding corporations accountable to their laborers while developing countries maintain their comparative advantage; this is the only way women's health will improve and the developing world can entice corporate investment.

  18. What governs the transition to a sustainable hydrogen economy? Articulating the relationship between technologies and political institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hisschemoeller, Matthijs; Bode, Ries; Kerkhof, Marleen van de

    2006-01-01

    There is a lack of integrated knowledge on the transition to a sustainable energy system. The paper focuses on the relationship between technologies and institutions in the field of hydrogen from the perspective of political theory. The paper unfolds four paradigms of governance: 'Governance by policy networking', Governance by government', 'Governance by corporate business', and 'Governance by challenge', and looks into the major line of argument in support of these paradigms and into their possible bias with respect to hydrogen options. Each of these paradigms reveals an institutional bias in that it articulates specific opportunities for collaboration and competition in order to stimulate the transition to a sustainable hydrogen economy. The paper makes the observation that there is a compelling need to reframe fashionable discourse such as the necessary shift from government to governance or from government to market. Instead, specific questions with respect to the impact of guiding policy frameworks on innovation will highlight that neither 'neutral' nor 'optimal' frameworks for policy making exist, where competing hydrogen options are at stake. The identification of paradigms of governance maybe considered a methodological device for (participator) policy analysis

  19. Hegemons, Leaders and Followers: A Game-Theoretic Approach to the Postwar Dynamics of International Political Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjell Hausken

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces the concept of hegemony to leadership theory, which has developed mainly as a critique of hegemonic stability theory. We argue that it makes sense to combine the two theories by introducing the concept of 'size' into neoliberal thinking about International Political Economy. We accept the neo-institutional hypothesis that a hegemon is not needed to provide public goods, and demonstrate with non-cooperative games how multiple leaders may jointly provide public goods. A game-theoretic model is developed illustrating with Nash equilibria the conditions under which a hegemon rationally switches from hegemony to leadership. It also shows why followers rationally switch from free-riding in their consumption of the public goods to taking part in leading, in the sense of contributing to covering the cost of the production of the public goods. The emergence of joint leadership leads to multiple equilibria in the sense of allowing for multiple stable leadership constellations. The actors are in a mixed-motive or coordination game where they have different preferences for the equilibria, and thus different preferences for which strategies to choose, and for who is to take part in covering the cost of the production of the public goods. Two aspects of joint leadership 'after hegemony' are treated, namely coercive and benevolent leadership on the one hand, and collective action in the sense of joint leadership on the other hand. Finally, future leadership constellations and the quest for international order are discussed.

  20. Effect of political decentralization and female leadership on institutional births and child mortality in rural Bihar, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santosh; Prakash, Nishith

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we investigate the impacts of political decentralization and women reservation in local governance on institutional births and child mortality in the state of Bihar, India. Using the difference-in-differences methodology, we find a significant positive association between political decentralization and institutional births. We also find that the increased participation of women at local governance led to an increased survival rate of children belonging to richer households. We argue that our results are consistent with female leaders having policy preference for women and child well-being. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Fuzziness, democracy, control and collective decision-choice system a theory on political economy of rent-seeking and profit-harvesting

    CERN Document Server

    Dompere, Kofi Kissi

    2014-01-01

    This volume presents an analysis of the problems and solutions of the market mockery of the democratic collective decision-choice system with imperfect information structure composed of defective and deceptive structures using methods of fuzzy rationality. The book is devoted to the political economy of rent-seeking, rent-protection and rent-harvesting to enhance profits under democratic collective decision-choice systems. The toolbox used in the monograph consists of methods of fuzzy decision, approximate reasoning, negotiation games and fuzzy mathematics. The monograph further discusses the rent-seeking phenomenon in the Schumpeterian and Marxian political economies where the rent-seeking activities transform the qualitative character of the general capitalism into oligarchic socialism and making the democratic collective decision-choice system as an ideology rather than social calculus for resolving conflicts in preferences in the collective decision-choice space without violence.    

  2. The human dimensions of climate change: A micro-level assessment of views from the ecological modernization, political economy and human ecology perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adua, Lazarus; York, Richard; Schuelke-Leech, Beth-Anne

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the manifold human and physical dimensions of climate change has become an area of great interest to researchers in recent decades. Using a U.S. nationally-representative data set and drawing on the ecological modernization, political economy, and human ecology perspectives, this study examines the impacts of energy efficiency technologies, affluence, household demographics, and biophysical characteristics on residential CO2 emissions. Overall, the study provides mixed support for the ecological modernization perspective. While several findings are consistent with the theory's expectation that modern societies can harness technology to mitigate human impacts on the environment, others directly contradict it. Also, the theory's prediction of an inverted U-shaped relationship between affluence and environmental impacts is contradicted. The evidence is somewhat more supportive of the political economy and human ecology perspectives, with affluence, some indicators of technology, household demographics, and biophysical characteristics emerging as important drivers of residential CO2 emissions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Are the Guerrillas Gone?: a historical political economy and social analysis of the rise and demise of the Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias Columbianas (FARC), 1964-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Castano, Arturo Herrera; Tarrant, Shane L.

    2009-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This thesis looks at how the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) was able to survive and control significant parts of Colombia until relatively recently. It also explains the decline of the FARC as a significant insurgency (and as one of the last, if not the last significant guerrilla organization in the region). While a historical political economy and social analysis of the rise and demise of the Fuerzas Armadas Revolucio...

  4. Kamu Özel Sektör Ortaklıklarının Ekonomi Politiği(Political Economy of Public Private Partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alparslan UĞUR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many scholars think that Public Private Partnerships (PPP provide major advantages when compared with traditional procurement processes. Are all these benefits leveraging of public funds, better management and alllocation of risk, alternative revenue sources, improving effectiveness and service quality are actually real or not? What are the mistakes that are known absolutely true in PPP processes. In our study political economy of PPPs are analysed with critical perspective.

  5. Professor Janet Wasko: An Interview with the President of the IAMCR and one of the Key Representatives of the Political Economy of Communication Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Amon Prodnik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an interview with Janet Wasko. She is a Professor and Knight Chair in Communication Research at the University of Oregon’s School of Journalism and Communication and widely considered as one of the key authors working in the tradition of the political economy of communication. Currently she is serving as the President of the International Association for Media and Communication Research (IAMCR, one of the key international associations in the field of media and communication studies. She previously held several other positions in the IAMCR and served as the head of the Political Economy-section, which she also helped to establish. Professor Wasko published several influential books on the film industry, especially on Hollywood and the Disney Corporation. We talked especially about the influences on her approach, about her position in the IAMCR, her understanding of how the cultural and media industries work, the political economy approach in media and communication studies, and issues related to the film industry, which she mostly tackles in her own research.

  6. Climate protection and sustainable economy. For a new development political mission statement; Klimaschutz und nachhaltiges Wirtschaften. Fuer ein neues entwicklungspolitisches Leitbild

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofler, Baerbel; Netzer, Nina (eds.)

    2011-11-15

    The book under consideration is devoted to climate protection and sustainable economy. It consists of the following contributions: (1) Climate protection and development policy - New allies in the fight against poverty? (B. Kofler); (2) In preparation for a wormer world - Adjustment to the climatic change using local resources (A. Schroeder); (3) Sustainable economy today - a development political consideration (H.-J. Luhmann); (4) The Clean Development Mechanism - No-Win instead of Win-Win for developing countries?; (5) New market based mechanisms for improving the climate protection in developing countries (K. Wentrup); (6) Global emission trading: market-economy instruments for a development-oriented climate policy? (S. Fischer); (7) The policy is needed - Central strategies for combating climatic change (R. Guenther); (8) Technology transfer: Political controversies, successes and problems of implementation (C. Gerstetter); (9) REDDplus - Forest protection as a chance for development and poverty reduction (K. Gerber); (10) What is climate justice? From the principle to political practice (T. Hirsch); (11) How much are 100 Billion Us-Dollar? Financing of climate protection between adequacy and creative bookkeeping (W. Sterk); (12) No money, no fun - Climate change financing has to be made more concrete (F. Schwabe); (13) Human rights - Common struggle against the climatic change (T. Rathgeber); (14) Climate change adaptation - Handling extreme events and damages: 'Loss and damage' (T. Hirsch); (15) Rio 2012 and the reform of the international environment governance (N. Simon).

  7. Politeness

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    Henri Bergson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This is the English translation of a speech Bergson made at Lycée Henri-IV on July 30, 1892. This is an interesting text because it anticipates Bergson’s last book, his The Two Sources of Morality and Religion. Like the distinction in The Two Sources between the open and the closed, “Politeness” defines its subject matter in two ways. There is what Bergson calls “manners” and there is true politeness. For Bergson, both kinds of politeness concern equality. Manners or material politeness amount to the ritualized greetings and formalities by means of which we usually define politeness. Unfortunately and like The Two Sources, Bergson attributes this formalized relation to other human beings with primitive and “inferior races.” Nevertheless, Bergson sees in these formalities an attempt, in the name of equality, to ignore other people’s talents and merits so that one can dominate morally superior people. In contrast, true politeness or “spiritual politeness” consists in “intellectual flexibility.” When one meets a person of superior morality, one is flexible in one’s relation to him or her; one abandons the formalities in order to really live her life and think her thoughts. Here we find equality too: “what defines this very polite person is to prefer each of his friends over the others, and to succeed in this way in loving them equally.” After making a comparison to dance, Bergson defines spiritual politeness as “a grace of the mind.” Since both kinds of politeness concern equality, Bergson associates both with justice. However, beyond these two kinds of politeness and justice there is “politeness of the heart,” which concerns charity. In order to indicate politeness of the heart, Bergson describes the kind of person, a sensitive person, who anxiously awaits a word of praise in order to feel good about herself but who also, when she hears a word of reproach, is thrown into sadness. Although Bergson calls the

  8. An exploration of the political economy dynamics shaping health worker incentives in three districts in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertone, Maria Paola; Witter, Sophie

    2015-09-01

    The need for evidence-based practice calls for research focussing not only on the effectiveness of interventions and their translation into policies, but also on implementation processes and the factors influencing them, in particular for complex health system policies. In this paper, we use the lens of one of the health system's 'building blocks', human resources for health (HRH), to examine the implementation of official policies on HRH incentives and the emergence of informal practices in three districts of Sierra Leone. Our mixed-methods research draws mostly from 18 key informant interviews at district level. Data are organised using a political economy framework which focuses on the dynamic interactions between structure (context, historical legacies, institutions) and agency (actors, agendas, power relations) to show how these elements affect the HRH incentive practices in each district. It appears that the official policies are re-shaped both by implementation challenges and by informal practices emerging at local level as the result of the district-level dynamics and negotiations between District Health Management Teams (DHMTs) and nongovernmental organisations (NGOs). Emerging informal practices take the form of selective supervision, salary supplementations and per diems paid to health workers, and aim to ensure a better fit between the actors' agendas and the incentive package. Importantly, the negotiations which shape such practices are characterised by a substantial asymmetry of power between DHMTs and NGOs. In conclusion, our findings reveal the influence of NGOs on the HRH incentive package and highlight the need to empower DHMTs to limit the discrepancy between policies defined at central level and practices in the districts, and to reduce inequalities in health worker remuneration across districts. For Sierra Leone, these findings are now more relevant than ever as new players enter the stage at district level, as part of the Ebola response and

  9. Political economy of hope as a cultural facet of biomedicalization: A qualitative examination of constraints to hospice utilization among U.S. end-stage cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrig, Emily Hammad; Spencer, Karen Lutfey

    2018-03-01

    A growing body of social science literature is devoted to describing processes of biomedicalization. The issue of biomedicalization is especially relevant for individuals suffering from end-stage cancer and hoping that aggressive end-of-life interventions, which are riddled with uncertainty around quantity or quality of life, will produce a 'cure'. To examine hospice underutilization among end-stage cancer patients, we apply the anthropological concept 'political economy of hope,' which describes how personal and collective 'hope' is associated with the political and economic structures that produce biomedicalization processes. Previous studies have examined hospice underutilization among end-stage cancer patients and have identified barriers stemming from patient and physician characteristics or health insurance reimbursement policies. Yet, these studies do not provide an organized synthesis of how barriers articulate, how they are part of the longitudinal decision-making process, or describe the sociocultural context surrounding hospice care enrollment decisions. This paper focuses on US-specific mechanisms and is based on qualitative, in-depth, interviews with physicians at an academic hospital (N = 24). We find that hospice underutilization results from a web of interconnected constraints surrounding end-stage cancer patients. Our research reveals how hospice care contradicts the political and economic structures associated with end-stage cancer care and illustrates how end-stage cancer patients are transformed into a form of biovalue, a fundamental commodity sustaining the political economy of hope. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Transatlantic Political Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Potofsky, Allan

    2006-01-01

    Les relations économiques entre les États‑Unis et la France étaient un enjeu majeur dans le « rêve atlantique » des Lumières et des révolutionnaires français pendant les années 1780. L’espoir était d’approfondir les relations économiques entre les deux nations « régénérées » par le républicanisme d’outre‑atlantique d’une part, et par les réformes menées par la monarchie (pré et post révolutionnaire) en France, d’autre part.Cet article examine un facteur négligé dans le récit classique des his...

  11. The cases of observance and violation of politeness maxims by communicants in the ego-state of natural Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Гульнара Фанзиловна Гизатова

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the study of human communication is of great importance in linguistics and psychology. In order to achieve smooth and conflict-free interaction it is necessary not only to respect the rules of politeness, but also to take into account the position of the speaker and the addressee. This explains the need to study many psychological factors in communication. This paper studies the ego-state of Natural Child in speech communication. Investigating the behavior of communicants in the ego-state of Natural Child, we rely on the theory of transactional analysis (E. Bern 1961 . According to this theory, the behavior of the speaker and the addressee in the ego-states of Natural Child varies from curious, inspiring, dreamy, and natural to the selfish, spiteful, shameless and impatient. The material for investigation is the dialogs from British and American fiction of XIX-XXI centuries. The dialogs contain the speaker and addressee’s replicas, meeting the essential requirements of the Principle of Politeness (G. Leech 1983 and the theory of transactional analysis. In our work we have applied hypothetical-deductive method, and methods of definitional and contextual analysis. The anylisis of our material demonstrates that communicants in the ego-state of Natural Child observe the maxims of generosity, tact and agreement, and violate the maxims of approbation, modesty and tact. Thus, the implementation of politeness maxims by communicants in ego-state of Natural Child depends entirely on their behavior.

  12. Education and Training for Development in East Asia: The Political Economy of Skill Formation in East Asian Newly Industrialised Economies. ESRC Pacific Asia Programme [Series].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, David; Green, Francis; James, Donna; Sung, Johnny

    This book provides a detailed analysis of the development of education and training systems in Asia and the relationship with the process of economic growth. Focus is on four impoverished agrarian economies--Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan--that were transformed in little more than a generation into East Asian "tigers":…

  13. Longitudinal pathways between political violence and child adjustment: the role of emotional security about the community in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E Mark; Merrilees, Christine E; Schermerhorn, Alice C; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2011-02-01

    Links between political violence and children's adjustment problems are well-documented. However, the mechanisms by which political tension and sectarian violence relate to children's well-being and development are little understood. This study longitudinally examined children's emotional security about community violence as a possible regulatory process in relations between community discord and children's adjustment problems. Families were selected from 18 working class neighborhoods in Belfast, Northern Ireland. Participants (695 mothers and children, M = 12.17, SD = 1.82) were interviewed in their homes over three consecutive years. Findings supported the notion that politically-motivated community violence has distinctive effects on children's externalizing and internalizing problems through the mechanism of increasing children's emotional insecurity about community. Implications are considered for understanding relations between political violence and child adjustment from a social ecological perspective.

  14. Emotional insecurity about the community: A dynamic, within-person mediator of child adjustment in contexts of political violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E Mark; Merrilees, Christine; Taylor, Laura K; Goeke-Morey, Marcie; Shirlow, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Over 1 billion children worldwide are exposed to political violence and armed conflict. The current conclusions are qualified by limited longitudinal research testing sophisticated process-oriented explanatory models for child adjustment outcomes. In this study, consistent with a developmental psychopathology perspective emphasizing the value of process-oriented longitudinal study of child adjustment in developmental and social-ecological contexts, we tested emotional insecurity about the community as a dynamic, within-person mediating process for relations between sectarian community violence and child adjustment. Specifically, this study explored children's emotional insecurity at a person-oriented level of analysis assessed over 5 consecutive years, with child gender examined as a moderator of indirect effects between sectarian community violence and child adjustment. In the context of a five-wave longitudinal research design, participants included 928 mother-child dyads in Belfast (453 boys, 475 girls) drawn from socially deprived, ethnically homogenous areas that had experienced political violence. Youth ranged in age from 10 to 20 years and were 13.24 (SD = 1.83) years old on average at the initial time point. Greater insecurity about the community measured over multiple time points mediated relations between sectarian community violence and youth's total adjustment problems. The pathway from sectarian community violence to emotional insecurity about the community was moderated by child gender, with relations to emotional insecurity about the community stronger for girls than for boys. The results suggest that ameliorating children's insecurity about community in contexts of political violence is an important goal toward improving adolescents' well-being and adjustment. These results are discussed in terms of their translational research implications, consistent with a developmental psychopathology model for the interface between basic and intervention

  15. Political CSR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Søren; Morsing, Mette

    We engage a discussion of political CSR in SMEs in an African context. Based on critical observations on Western MNC CSR action in emerging economies that holds counterproductive implications for social development, political economists have argued that business profit far more than society...... development in local African communities. Our findings extend political CSR research by directing attention to how the corporate influence in developing economies does not only emerge from MNCs but is also established and retained by SMEs CSR work....

  16. Reflexes sobre a economia poltica da comunicao e da cultura no sculo XXI Reflections about the Communications political and cultural economy on 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de Marchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reunindo textos de autores referenciais de diferentes escolas da economia poltica da comunicao e da cultura (EPCC, esta coletnea apresenta um conjunto de reflexes que visa projetar a EPCC no sculo XXI. Tratando de temas como o conceito de indstrias criativas e dos dilogos tericos e metodolgicos entre a economia poltica e os estudos culturais. Busca-se desenvolver uma renovada agenda poltico-tecnolgica que d conta dos novos desafios para a produo, distribuio e consumo de informao e de bens culturais no capitalismo contemporneo.By gathering texts from referential authors of different schools of political economy of Communication and culture (PECC, this collection presents a set of ideas aimed at projecting the PECC into the 21th century. Addressing issues such as the concept of creative industries, theoretical and methodological dialogue between political economy and cultural studies, the book seeks to develop a renewed political and technological agenda that takes into account the new challenges for the production, circulation and consumption of information and cultural goods in contemporary capitalism.

  17. A Proposal for the Political Economy of Green Criminology: Capitalism and the Case of the Alberta Tar Sands

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch, Michael; Stretesky, Paul; Long, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Green criminology was proposed in 1990 to broaden the discipline and illustrate how environmental crime, deviance, and inequality can be interpreted through a critical lens influenced by political economic theory. Green criminology has yet to fulfill that theoretical promise. Instead, the political economic perspective on green criminology remains underdeveloped. The purpose of this work is to contribute to further development of a political economic green criminology by laying out the connec...

  18. Piketty’s Capital. The Revival of Political Philosophy, Political Economy and Social Sciences in the Light of the Declaration of Human and Citizens’ Rights in the French Revolution of 1789

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øjvind Larsen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Piketty’s Capital in Twenty-First Century has posed a totally new platform for the discussion of the economy and capitalism. Piketty has reinvented the classical political economy founded by Adam Smith in his 1776 Wealth of Nations. Piketty has shown via massive historical research how growth and inequality have developed since 1793. Piketty’s conclusion is that the French Revolution did not change the existing inequality either in the medium or in the long term. Piketty’s prediction is that a new form of global capitalism will arise, patrimonial capitalism, in which inequality will develop further and the 1% of the World population will control 95% of all wealth in the World.

  19. Child health and nutrition in Peru within an antipoverty political agenda: a Countdown to 2015 country case study

    OpenAIRE

    Huicho, L.; Segura, E.R.; Huayanay-Espinoza, C.A.; Niño de Guzman, J.; Restrepo-Méndez, M.C.; Tam, Y.; Barros, A.J.D.; Victora, C.G.; Hernández-Peña, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Peru is an upper-middle-income country with wide social and regional disparities. In recent years, sustained multisectoral antipoverty programmes involving governments, political parties, and civil society have included explicit health and nutrition goals and spending increased sharply. We did a country case study with the aim of documenting Peru's progress in reproductive, maternal, neonatal, and child health from 2000–13, and explored the potential determinants. Methods We examin...

  20. The Political Economy of Information Management : A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis of Decision Making regarding Interorganizational Information Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.M.F. Homburg (Vincent)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractDesigning and using interorganizational information systems requires cooperation and coordination among organizations that are, to a certain degree, competitors. This thesis analyzes the design and use of interorganizational information systems from the points of view of political

  1. Political economy of African uranium and its role in international markets. Final report. International energy studies program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, M.C.; Neff, T.L.

    1982-03-01

    The history of uranium development in Africa is briefly summarized. Today there are 4 major uranium producing countries in Africa: Gabon, Niger, Namibia, and South Africa. These nations have the possibility of political instability. In addition, the uranium market has undergone a series of radical changes over the past decade. How these African nations have responded to this changing market, and how their roles in the international market relate to domestic political and economic factors are the topics of this report

  2. The economy, the health sector and child health in Zimbabwe since independence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, D; Davies, R

    1988-01-01

    This paper examines the changes in the economic environment which have taken place in Zimbabwe since independence in April 1980, concentrating on those which are relevant to health. It also describes the post-independence restructuring of the health sector itself. Finally, it considers some changes which have taken place in the health status of children. Despite a prolonged drought, economic recession and the imposition of economic stabilisation measures, there is evidence of a sharp improvement in infant and young child mortality. This has resulted almost certainly from an energetic expansion and reorientation of health care provision, and particularly from greatly improved access to immunisation and oral rehydration therapy. The adverse effects of drought and stabilisation measures have been partially offset by aid-supported relief feeding and particular health programmes. However, the economic crisis has resulted in a decline in real incomes for a large number of households since the immediate post-independence boom. This is reflected in high levels of childhood undernutrition which seem to have remained static despite the health care drive. This emerging divergence between death rates and quality of life as reflected by nutrition levels is reflective on the one hand of rapid expansion in effective health care provision, and on the other of little change in socio-economic conditions for the majority of the population.

  3. Specification of Scientific Tasks in Collaboration between Science, Industry and State, and Impact of Political Factors on Managerial Levers and Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondarenko Tetiana M.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The issue of collaboration between science, industry and state is of relevance in domestic and international practice. In leading countries of the world and in Ukraine compatible production and scientific complexes are created; collaboration between research institutions and state is established, in particular the theory and practice of collaboration between science, industry and state on the basis of Triple Helix Model is widespread in the world; in scientific papers objects of research of economic processes, subjects of research of the economic theory are considered. However, there are no works where the objects and tasks of economic researches are studied on the basis of macroeconomic environment, and a distinct principle to distinguish research objects relating to different economies and types of production is laid out; scientific and practical problems of economy in the field of collaboration between state, science and industry are clearly defined. According to the purpose of the article (to specify scientific and practical tasks to rationalize scientific research, the experience gained is systematized and a scheme-matrix of scientific and practical problems is proposed. In scientific practice there are works highlighting principles of scientific research work, research tasks in the field of economy, scientific problems of economy but there are no works considering both principles and tasks of collaboration of academic economists with state and industry in order to provide scientists with recommendations on optimization of economic processes to improve the economic efficiency. Taking into account the experience gained, principles of collaboration of academic economists with the state and industry are identified. On the basis of the developed matrix of scientific and practical tasks, the principle of impact of political factors on managerial levers, the level of Gross Domestic Product and Gross Social Product is demonstrated.

  4. The Political Economy of Higher Education in the Era of Neoliberal Globalization: Latin America in Comparative Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Carlos A.; Schugurensky, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Asserts that current changes in Latin American higher education cannot be examined in isolation from larger political and economic changes in the region, which are in turn related to the dynamics of globalization and the rise of neoliberalism. Explores the context of university change and the main features of university restructuring. (EV)

  5. Knowledge Economy and Research Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastalich, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    The "knowledge economy" has been received with considerable scepticism by scholars within the fields of political economy, social and political philosophy, and higher education. Key arguments within this literature are reviewed in this article to suggest that, despite policy claims, "knowledge economy" does not describe a "new" mode of economic…

  6. Japonya (1991 ve ABD (2007-2009 Finans Krizlerinin Politik İktisat Perspektifinden Bir Değerlendirmesi = A Comparative Assessment of the Japanese (1991 and US (2007-2009 Financial Crises From a Political Economy Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ali AKKEMİK

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares from a political economy perspective the financial crisis that broke out in Japan after 1991 and in the US during 2007-2009. Common features of both crises are the initial deregulation in the financial sector and the burst of the consequent asset price bubble. The institutional structure shaped by government interventions in Japan was unable to overcome the crisis and the subsequent long recession while the US government responded relatively quickly to the crisis. This paper comparatively evaluates the causes of the crises from the political economy perspective.

  7. The political economy of regulation: Investigation of the relationship between design and performance standards in surface coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, K.R.

    1991-01-01

    Research concerning political and economic regulatory policy was conducted on 15 randomly selected surface coal mines in Tennessee. Data on violations were collected over a 6-year period from 1979 through 1984. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the approaches of the Carter and Reagan administrations concerning the implementation of design and performance regulations of Public Law 95-87. The study concluded that: (1) A change in political administration affects regulatory policy concerning enforcement practices. (2) Regulatory policy is altered in the direction of economic activity believed by an administration to be desirable to society and its constituents. (3) Elaborate rule making activity constrains market activity. (4) The coupling of design and performance standards should be retained. No difference was found in the number of violations for design and associated performance standards. Findings support the theory that it is the administration that affects change in regulatory policy, and not the regulatory construct for compliance with a mandate

  8. Political violence and child adjustment in Northern Ireland: Testing pathways in a social-ecological model including single-and two-parent families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E Mark; Schermerhorn, Alice C; Merrilees, Christine E; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2010-07-01

    Moving beyond simply documenting that political violence negatively impacts children, we tested a social-ecological hypothesis for relations between political violence and child outcomes. Participants were 700 mother-child (M = 12.1 years, SD = 1.8) dyads from 18 working-class, socially deprived areas in Belfast, Northern Ireland, including single- and two-parent families. Sectarian community violence was associated with elevated family conflict and children's reduced security about multiple aspects of their social environment (i.e., family, parent-child relations, and community), with links to child adjustment problems and reductions in prosocial behavior. By comparison, and consistent with expectations, links with negative family processes, child regulatory problems, and child outcomes were less consistent for nonsectarian community violence. Support was found for a social-ecological model for relations between political violence and child outcomes among both single- and two-parent families, with evidence that emotional security and adjustment problems were more negatively affected in single-parent families. The implications for understanding social ecologies of political violence and children's functioning are discussed.

  9. Political violence and child adjustment in Northern Ireland: Testing pathways in a social ecological model including single and two-parent families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E. Mark; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2013-01-01

    Moving beyond simply documenting that political violence negatively impacts children, a social ecological hypothesis for relations between political violence and child outcomes was tested. Participants were 700 mother-child (M=12.1years, SD=1.8) dyads from 18 working class, socially deprived areas in Belfast, Northern Ireland, including single- and two-parent families. Sectarian community violence was associated with elevated family conflict and children’s reduced security about multiple aspects of their social environment (i.e., family, parent-child relations, and community), with links to child adjustment problems and reductions in prosocial behavior. By comparison, and consistent with expectations, links with negative family processes, child regulatory problems and child outcomes were less consistent for nonsectarian community violence. Support was found for a social ecological model for relations between political violence and child outcomes among both single and two parent families, with evidence that emotional security and adjustment problems were more negatively affected in single-parent families. The implications for understanding social ecologies of political violence and children’s functioning are discussed. PMID:20604605

  10. The political economy of the public-private mix in heath expenditure: an empirical review of thirteen OECD countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Haizhen

    2013-12-01

    This study investigates the factors that may have influenced the public-private mix of health expenditure in 13 OECD countries from 1981 to 2007. The degree to which health services are socialized is regarded as the product of a trade-off between the desire to redistribute income through the fiscal system and the losses some citizens will incur when the public health care system expands. The estimation results show that, greater income inequality and population aging are associated with a smaller share of public health expenditure in total health expenditure. The more ideologically left-leaning the electorate is, the larger the share of public health expenditure. Private health insurance tends to erode the political support for the public health care systems in countries with private duplicate health insurance, but not in countries with private primary health insurance. The findings suggest that the role of private sources of funding for health care is likely to grow in developed countries. The expansion of public coverage to include pharmaceuticals and long-term care in some countries may (theoretically) encounter less opposition if the current insurance holders have no duplicate coverage, if the voters as a whole share more left-leaning political ideology, and if low-income voters are more politically mobilized. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Political or dental power in private and public service provision: a study of municipal expenditures for child dental care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L. B.; Bech, M.; Lauridsen, J.

    2012-01-01

    Both professionals and politicians may affect expenditures for highly professional services provided in the public and private sector. We investigated Danish publicly financed child dental care with a special focus on the influence of politicians and dentists on the expenditure level. By studying......, dentists appear to be the most important actors for the spatial spillover effects, and these effects are especially strong for municipalities situated in the same county that use private dental clinics. There is no evidence of political spatial spillover effects between municipalities....

  12. Family politics and the parent-child relationship | Maré ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Furthermore, fundamental rights can influence the decision making process differently in respectively the common law parent-child relationship and the customary law parent-child relationship. Central to the latter situation is the fact that fundamental rights recognise individual rights, while customary law is founded in ...

  13. The East India Company, the Company’s Museum, and the Political Economy of Natural History in the Early Nineteenth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliff, Jessica

    2016-09-01

    At the turn of the nineteenth century, at its headquarters in the City of London, the Honourable East India Company established a new museum and library. By midcentury this museum would contain one of Europe’s most extensive collections of the natural history, arts, and sciences of Asia. This essay uses the early history of the company’s museum, focusing in particular on its natural history collections, to explore the material relationship between scientific practice and the imperial political economy. Much of the collections had been gathered in the wake of military campaigns, trade missions, or administrative surveys. Once specimens and reports arrived in Leadenhall Street and passed through the museum storage areas, this plunder would become the stuff of science, going on to feed the growth of disciplines, societies, and projects in Britain and beyond. In this way, the East India Company was integral to the information and communication infrastructures within which many sciences then operated. Collections-based disciplines and societies flourished in this period; their growth, it is argued, was coextensive with administrative and political economic change at institutions like the East India Company. The essay first explores the company’s practices and patterns of collecting and then considers the consequences of this accumulation for aspects of scientific practice—particularly the growth of scientific societies—in both London and Calcutta.

  14. Political Ecology

    OpenAIRE

    DeFriez, Joshua; Larsen, Justine; Hilton, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Environmental legislation is commonly accepted as an altruistic approach to land management. A closer examination however, reveals that political incentives and flawed arguments consistently shape U.S. environmental policy at high public costs. As student fellows at the Institute of Political Economy at Utah State University, we have had the opportunity to research this subject under the direction of Professor Randy Simmons. Political Ecology is his upcoming book that explores a variety of en...

  15. Political CSR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Søren; Morsing, Mette

    We engage a discussion of political CSR in SMEs in an African context. Based on critical observations on Western MNC CSR action in emerging economies that holds counterproductive implications for social development, political economists have argued that business profit far more than society...... development in local African communities. Our findings extend political CSR research by directing attention to how the corporate influence in developing economies does not only emerge from MNCs but is also established and retained by SMEs CSR work....... in developing economies from CSR. In this paper we argue that local SMEs CSR work have strong influence in developing economies, that also includes counterproductive influence for social development. Based on empirical findings from African countries, we conceptualize how CSR in African SMEs differ from...

  16. The Danish Negotiated Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ove K.

    2012-01-01

    Denmark is characterised by a number of distinct traits: a small and open economy, a stable democratic political system, a high proportion of organised wage earners covered by collective agreements, a political culture marked by social partnership, and a long tradition of institutionalised class...... cooperation. In this sense, Denmark has not only developed from a market to a mixed economy, but from a mixed to a negotiated economy. Because of its political history, the institutional structure in Denmark is hybrid. Market power and state authority are mixed in corporate bodies. Public authority...

  17. New prospects in the political economy of inner-Caspian hydrocarbons and western energy corridor through Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilgin, Mert

    2007-01-01

    This paper makes a new conceptualization on Caspian energy system and the transit routes that pass through Turkey. Firstly, it puts forward the term of 'inner-Caspian', comprising Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan. Secondly, it identifies sub-systems of 'western energy corridor through Turkey' (WECT) by diversifying: (1) 'WECT inner-Caspian', which includes hydrocarbon transportation from Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan; (2) 'WECT Russia', which is currently composed of Blue Stream gas pipeline and oil transportation by tankers through Turkish straits; and (3) 'WECT Middle East', which refers to Iranian, Iraqi and Egyptian hydrocarbons. Thirdly, this paper makes a comparative analysis on WECT systems through selected economic (reserves, supply/demand, production and transportation costs), geo-political (e.g. moves of the concerned actors), political (e.g. recent developments in government structures) and security (especially in terms of transport) indicators which bring out that 'it is more reasonable for the EU to first embrace WECT inner-Caspian, then develop WECT Middle-East in order to diversify its energy supply'

  18. Cheat Electricity? The Political Economy of Green Electricity Delivery on the Dutch Market for Households and Small Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. M. Hufen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The European Commission’s renewable energy directive introduced a market-based Guarantees of Origin (GO-trade system that gives consumers the choice of buying “real” green energy. This has been successful, as the market share of Dutch households that buy green energy grew to 64% in 2015. However, societal organizations are dissatisfied with the green energy offered, categorizing it as “cheat” electricity. This article aims to solve this riddle of a successful product created under the GO-trade system but also heavily criticized. Research reveals a lively marketplace with buyers eager to buy green energy and energy producers offering a wide range of labels. Marketplace mechanisms are strongly influenced by political choices, and financial support for energy suppliers makes green energy a credible option. Societal groups, however, argue that the information provided is incomplete and misleading, that buying green energy does not impact positively on greenhouse gas reduction, and that better information and structural reform are required. The GO-trade system is strongly influenced by member states’ national energy politics. Societal organizations have helped to optimize the implementation of the GO-trade system in the Netherlands, but they are not expected to be able to support the creation of a level playing field in which an optimal GO-trade system will flourish.

  19. A Himalayan Border Trilogy: The Political Economies of Transport Infrastructure and Disaster Relief between China and Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galen Murton

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This photo essay illustrates and contrasts the infrastructure and operations of three international border posts between China and Nepal. Located at Zhangmu-Kodari, Kyirong-Rasuwa, and Likse-Neychung borders, these posts function as the only motorable China-Nepal border crossings and represent half of the six official, open borders recognized by Kathmandu and Beijing. In addition to China’s new position as Nepal’s number-one source of foreign direct investment, bilateral trade, humanitarian aid, and tourism traffic between the two countries continue to expand annually. As infrastructure development facilitates new political-economic dynamics between China and Nepal, these three border posts are becoming increasingly potent symbols of ongoing evolutions in Sino-Nepal relations. Because each crossing is also located at Nepal’s border with the Tibet Autonomous Region, each site exhibits a complex politics of identity, citizenship, and mobility with respect to the movement and control of local traders, Tibetan exiles, the Nepali Army, and the Chinese State Police, among other actors.

  20. New prospects in the political economy of inner-Caspian hydrocarbons and western energy corridor through Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilgin, Mert [TOBB ETU, International Relations, Ankara (Turkey)

    2007-12-15

    This paper makes a new conceptualization on Caspian energy system and the transit routes that pass through Turkey. Firstly, it puts forward the term of ''inner-Caspian'', comprising Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan. Secondly, it identifies sub-systems of ''western energy corridor through Turkey'' (WECT) by diversifying: (1) ''WECT inner-Caspian'', which includes hydrocarbon transportation from Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan; (2) ''WECT Russia'', which is currently composed of Blue Stream gas pipeline and oil transportation by tankers through Turkish straits; and (3) ''WECT Middle East'', which refers to Iranian, Iraqi and Egyptian hydrocarbons. Thirdly, this paper makes a comparative analysis on WECT systems through selected economic (reserves, supply/demand, production and transportation costs), geo-political (e.g. moves of the concerned actors), political (e.g. recent developments in government structures) and security (especially in terms of transport) indicators which bring out that ''it is more reasonable for the EU to first embrace WECT inner-Caspian, then develop WECT Middle-East in order to diversify its energy supply''. (author)

  1. The good, the bad and the confusing: the political economy of social care expansion in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ito

    2011-01-01

    Recent social policy reforms in South Korea indicate a progressive shift by a conservative government to modify the familialistic male breadwinner model that informs its welfare regime. The Korean government has demonstrated support for women through an increase in the provision, regulation and coordination of childcare and workplace support programmes for working parents. At the same time, labour market reforms have also created more pressures on women to seek and maintain paid work outside the home. Conflicting social and economic policy objectives have resulted in a confusing mix of policies, advancing and impeding gender equality at the same time. This contribution examines the recent family–work reconciliation policy reforms in Korea and discusses why these reforms may be good politics but a bad deal for women.

  2. 2007 Winter meeting - opening Address: nuclear power in a relationship of tension between politics, society, and the economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohlefelder, Walter

    2007-01-01

    Even more so than last year, energy policy is at the very top of the political agenda. The European Commission presented its strategy paper on 'One Energy Policy for Europe', and another energy summit will be held in Germany to pave the way for an energy concept. As far as nuclear power is concerned, the EU Commission clearly and soberly emphasized today's contribution of nuclear power in the EU and, above all, the chances of further expanding the use of nuclear power in the interest of CO 2 avoidance, security of supply, and competitiveness. This makes a reassessment of nuclear power also a matter of national interest. The repository problem can be solved in Germany, provided there is the political will to do so. The sequence of steps leading to a solution is outlined precisely in the so-called Understanding on Nuclear Power of 2001. According to a ruling by the Lueneburg higher administrative court, Konrad, the repository for low-level radioactive waste, can now be expanded and commissioned. There are no objections to the further exploration of the Gorleben salt dome as a repository for high-level radioactive waste. In the course of the energy summit, an open, unbiased discussion about the reassessment of nuclear power must be started. No facts must be created prematurely, such as shutdowns of nuclear power plants. Applications for transfers of electricity quotas for older nuclear power plants are legitimate and correct. The German Atomic Energy Act contains express provisions for this possibility. There is no way past a basic reassessment of nuclear power. It has to be conducted now. (orig.)

  3. Towards a Nordic child care policy – the political processes and agendas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Tine; Eydal, Gudny

    2012-01-01

    This chapter will address the question of why childcare policies have been shaped in the way that it has. In other words, the chapter examines the underlying political processes and the agendas of the various political parties. In the literature about the driving forces of welfare state development......, two types of approaches have dominated the theoretical debate: functionalism, stressing the importance of structures and whole systems, and conflict theories, stressing institutions and actors (Borchorst & Siim 2009; Esping-Andersen 1991). This chapter will adopt a conflict-theory perspective....

  4. THWARTING THE "MERCHANTS OF DEATH" ACCUSATION: THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF MILITARY PROCUREMENT IN INDUSTRIAL DEMOCRACIES DURING THE INTERWAR PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jari Eloranta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article charts the interwar military procurement practices of several democratic states, concentrating on the United States, the United Kingdom, Sweden, and Finland. In addition to comparing some of the foundations of the Allies' successful industrial mobilization in World War II, this article concludes that interwar procurement practices in some of the most liberal democracies were surprisingly resistant to capture by business interests. This finding suggests that in describing this era, we should be cautious about ascribing causal power to trans-historical economic behaviors such as rent-seeking and collusion, without taking into account the institutional setting in which such activities took place. The record of the interwar period suggests that democracies can use bureaucratic administration and public enterprise to establish robust barriers to rent-seeking and corruption in the military economy. During the interwar period, these administrative barriers were erected in conjunction with intense public concern about military profiteering. Whether they would be less effective in different ideological environments deserves further investigation.

  5. The inequalities of medical pluralism: Hierarchies of health, the politics of tradition and the economies of care in Indian oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Alex; Doron, Assa; Tovey, Philip

    2009-09-01

    India has an eclectic health system that incorporates biomedical as well as traditional, complementary and alternative medicine (TCAM). Our understanding of the co-existence of these therapeutic modalities in this diverse, postcolonial and developing nation is extremely limited, and in the context of cancer care, to our knowledge no sociological work has been carried out. Contemporary Indian oncology represents a fascinating site for examining the interplay and articulation of forms of tradition/modernity, economic progress/structural constraint and individual beliefs/cultural norms. In a context of an increase in the prevalence and impact of cancer in an ageing Indian population, this paper reports on a qualitative investigation of a group of oncology clinicians' accounts of 'pluralism' in India. The results illustrate the embeddedness of patient disease and therapeutic trajectories in vast social inequalities and, indeed, the intermingling of therapeutic pluralism and the politics of social value. We conclude that notions of pluralism, so often espoused by global health organisations, may conceal important forms of social inequality and cultural divides, and that sociologists should play a critical role in highlighting these issues.

  6. When worlds collide. Social science, politics, and the Rind et al. (1998). Child sexual abuse meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienfeld, Scott O

    2002-03-01

    A 1998 meta-analysis by B. Rind, P. Tromovitch, and R. Bauserman in Psychological Bulletin indicated that the relations between child sexual abuse and later psychopathology were weak in magnitude. Shortly thereafter, this article was condemned by media personality Dr. Laura Schlessinger and numerous conservative organizations and was denounced by the United States Congress. In addition, the American Psychological Association (APA) distanced itself from the authors' conclusions. This incident raises questions regarding (a) authors' responsibilities concerning the reporting of politically controversial findings, (b) academic and scientific freedom, (c) the role of the APA in disabusing the public and media of logical errors and fallacies, and (d) the substantial gap between popular and academic psychology and the responsibility of the APA to narrow that gap.

  7. Child health and nutrition in Peru within an antipoverty political agenda: a Countdown to 2015 country case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huicho, Luis; Segura, Eddy R; Huayanay-Espinoza, Carlos A; de Guzman, Jessica Niño; Restrepo-Méndez, Maria Clara; Tam, Yvonne; Barros, Aluisio J D; Victora, Cesar G

    2016-06-01

    Peru is an upper-middle-income country with wide social and regional disparities. In recent years, sustained multisectoral antipoverty programmes involving governments, political parties, and civil society have included explicit health and nutrition goals and spending increased sharply. We did a country case study with the aim of documenting Peru's progress in reproductive, maternal, neonatal, and child health from 2000-13, and explored the potential determinants. We examined the outcomes of health interventions coverage, under-5 mortality, neonatal mortality, and prevalence of under-5 stunting. We obtained data from interviews with key informants, a literature review of published and unpublished data, national censuses, and governmental reports. We obtained information on social determinants of health, including economic growth, poverty, unmet basic needs, urbanisation, women's education, water supply, fertility rates, and child nutrition from the annual national households surveys and the Peruvian Demographic and Health Surveys. We obtained national mortality data from the Interagency Group for Child Mortality Estimation, and calculated subnational rates from 11 surveys. Analyses were stratified by region, wealth quintiles, and urban or rural residence. We calculated coverage indicators for the years 2000-13, and we used the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) to estimate the effect of changes in intervention coverage and in nutritional status on mortality. From 2000 to 2013, under-5 mortality fell by 58% from 39·8 deaths per 1000 livebirths to 16·7. LiST, which was used to predict the decline in mortality arising from changes in fertility rates, water and sanitation, undernutrition, and coverage of indicators of reproductive, maternal, neonatal, and child health predicted that the under-5 mortality rate would fall from 39·8 to 28·4 per 1000 livebirths, accounting for 49·2% of the reported reduction. Neonatal mortality fell by 51% from 16·2 deaths per 1000 livebirths

  8. The Political Economy of the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD; Taking Individual and Community Ownership in the Prevention and Control of EVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titilola T. Obilade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The outbreak of an emerging infectious disease of zoonotic origin has exposed the weaknesses in the health systems of the nations affected. The purpose of this paper was to explore the political economy of the existing outcome of the management strategies. In addition, it proposed a new strategy in the management of the current Ebola virus disease (EVD outbreak. This paper admits that the current management strategy which is a top to bottom approach has not worked in reducing the spread of the disease. Instead of waiting for the disease before treatment is commenced, this paper suggests aggressively preventing infection from the EVD. It presents a bottom to top approach where there is individual ownership and community ownership in the prevention and control of the EVD outbreak. In addition, the paper presents the socio-economic situation of the three most affected countries including the ecology and stigmatization of EVD. It highlights the need for cross border surveillance across the West African nations to prevent importation of the disease as occurred in Nigeria and Senegal. It points out the need for aggressive international cooperation, an aggressive prevention and a sustainable control strategy.

  9. Orientalism and the geoculture of the World System: Discursive othering, political economy and the cameralist division of labor in Habsburg Central Europe (1713-1815

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klemens Kaps

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the question of to what degree the concept of geoculture can be brought in line with research on Orientalist stereotypes and imaginary. Following Said’s original definition of orientalism discourses of the 18th-century political economy are reassessed by focusing on their perception of spatial hierarchies in Eastern Europe. This article reconsiders these discourses as an active factor in the struggle for power and a tool in the hands of the geopolitical interests of absolutist monarchs in Prussia, the Habsburg Monarchy, and Russia in the age of mercantilism, as demonstrated by the Partitions of Poland-Lithuania. By focusing on the Habsburg Monarchy between the Spanish War of Succession and the Congress of Vienna, it is demonstrated here that, territorial landlocked empires within Europe used a similar language as colonial maritime empires in order to justify their geopolitical expansion and territorial domination of Eastern Europe. In a second step, it is shown that this discourse was part of the geopolitical culture of the World System and was instrumental in setting ideological conditions for cameralist-driven institutional transformations in favor of the core regions within the Habsburg dominions in Central Europe.

  10. If diversification is good, why don't countries diversify more? The political economy of diversification in resource-rich countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiig, Arne; Kolstad, Ivar

    2012-01-01

    For resource-rich countries, diversification is claimed to represent a strategy for reducing resource curse problems. This, however, depends on whether diversification has a positive effect on the country's institutions. While there is a lot of evidence that exports of oil have a negative impact on institutions, we know much less about the extent to which diversification leads to better institutions. This article applies recent political economy theory to the phenomenon of diversification. Theoretical arguments suggest that it is the pattern of industrial activity rather than diversification per se, which affects institutions like democracy. In other words, not all forms of diversification lead to better institutions. Furthermore, where diversification has a positive impact on institutions, diversification may be difficult to attain when it threatens the power base of the ruling elite. A possible implication of these arguments is that policies for diversification should focus on international regulation affecting elite incentives, rather than domestic industrial policy. - Highlights: ► Diversification can be a strategy for reducing resource curse problems in oil-rich countries. ► But this requires that diversification has a positive effect on the institutions of a country. ► It is the pattern of industrial activity rather than diversification per se, which affects institutions like democracy. ► Diversification may be difficult to attain when it threatens the power basis of the ruling elite. ► Policies for diversification should focus on international ruling affect elite incentives, rather than home industrial policy.

  11. International migration of health professionals and the marketization and privatization of health education in India: from push-pull to global political economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton-Roberts, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Health worker migration theories have tended to focus on labour market conditions as principal push or pull factors. The role of education systems in producing internationally oriented health workers has been less explored. In place of the traditional conceptual approaches to understanding health worker, especially nurse, migration, I advocate global political economy (GPE) as a perspective that can highlight how educational investment and global migration tendencies are increasing interlinked. The Indian case illustrates the globally oriented nature of health care training, and informs a broader understanding of both the process of health worker migration, and how it reflects wider marketization tendencies evident in India's education and health systems. The Indian case also demonstrates how the global orientation of education systems in source regions is increasingly central to comprehending the place of health workers in the global and Asian rise in migration. The paper concludes that Indian corporate health care training systems are increasingly aligned with the production of professionals orientated to globally integrated health human resource labour markets, and our conceptual analysis of such processes must effectively reflect these tendencies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Who bears the cost of 'informal mhealth'? Health-workers' mobile phone practices and associated political-moral economies of care in Ghana and Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampshire, Kate; Porter, Gina; Mariwah, Simon; Munthali, Alister; Robson, Elsbeth; Owusu, Samuel Asiedu; Abane, Albert; Milner, James

    2017-02-01

    Africa's recent communications 'revolution' has generated optimism that using mobile phones for health (mhealth) can help bridge healthcare gaps, particularly for rural, hard-to-reach populations. However, while scale-up of mhealth pilots remains limited, health-workers across the continent possess mobile phones. This article draws on interviews from Ghana and Malawi to ask whether/how health-workers are using their phones informally and with what consequences. Health-workers were found to use personal mobile phones for a wide range of purposes: obtaining help in emergencies; communicating with patients/colleagues; facilitating community-based care, patient monitoring and medication adherence; obtaining clinical advice/information and managing logistics. However, the costs were being borne by the health-workers themselves, particularly by those at the lower echelons, in rural communities, often on minimal stipends/salaries, who are required to 'care' even at substantial personal cost. Although there is significant potential for 'informal mhealth' to improve (rural) healthcare, there is a risk that the associated moral and political economies of care will reinforce existing socioeconomic and geographic inequalities. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.

  13. WOMEN’S SUFFRAGE, POLITICAL RESPONSIVENESS, AND CHILD SURVIVAL IN AMERICAN HISTORY*

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Grant

    2008-01-01

    Women’s choices appear to emphasize child welfare more than those of men. This paper presents new evidence on how suffrage rights for American women helped children to benefit from the scientific breakthroughs of the bacteriological revolution. Consistent with standard models of electoral competition, suffrage laws were followed by immediate shifts in legislative behavior and large, sudden increases in local public health spending. This growth in public health spending fueled large-scale door...

  14. Political role models, child marriage, and women's autonomy over marriage in India

    OpenAIRE

    Castilla, Carolina

    2017-01-01

    Drawing data from the India Human Development Survey 2011 and the year of the first election with reserved seats for women pradhans, I estimate the effect of the Panchayati Raj institutions on age and autonomy over marriage. Results indicate that women in local government decrease the likelihood of child marriage, and increase the age at first marriage and gauna. The effects seem to be driven by changes in gender and cultural norms, because there is a reduction in the prevalence of arranged m...

  15. Process evaluation of the Living Green, Healthy and Thrifty (LiGHT) web-based child obesity management program: combining health promotion with ecology and economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jogova, Maria; Song, Joshua Eun-Soo; Campbell, Audrey Clare; Warbuton, Darren; Warshawski, Tom; Chanoine, Jean-Pierre

    2013-04-01

    To conduct a process evaluation of the Living Green, Healthy and Thrifty (LiGHT) program, a novel virtual child obesity management program that combines health promotion with ecology and economy (Phase 1). We carried out a mixed methods process evaluation involving qualitative and quantitative data collection in 3 phases: among 3 child-parent units, (group 1) that informed program development; 9 child-parent units (group 2) that tested the draft program and further aided program refinement; and 17 child-parent units (group 3) for a 4-week pilot of the program. In the program pilot, we assessed participants' knowledge and readiness to change pre- and postintervention and explored perceptions of the program. Participants generally felt that the online format for program delivery was convenient and accessible, the content was practical, and the integration of health-environment-economy was well received. Many parents also appreciated the involvement of the family. However, the lack of visual appeal and overabundance of text was identified as a challenge, and children/youth in particular requested assurance that their personal information (e.g. weight) was not seen by their parents. The online method of program delivery holds the unique challenge of requiring special efforts to create a sense of personal connection and community. The presence of a "Way-finder" to assist participants and discussion boards/forums are potential solutions. The LiGHT online weight management program offers an accessible, convenient weight management resource that children and families appreciate for its availability, broader educational scope, and practicality. Outcome evaluation of LiGHT will be carried out in Phase 2 of the project. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. American Exceptionalism Revisited: Tax Relief, Poverty Reduction, and the Politics of Child Tax Credits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua T.McCabe

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the 1990s, several liberal welfare regimes (LWRs introduced child tax credits (CTCs aimed at reducing child poverty. While in other countries these tax credits were refundable, the United States alone introduced a nonrefundable CTC. As a result, the United States was the only country in which poor and working-class families were paradoxically excluded from these new benefits. A comparative analysis of Canada and the United States shows that American exceptionalism resulted from the cultural legacy of distinct public policies. We argue that policy changes in the 1940s institutionalized different “logics of appropriateness” that later constrained policymakers in the 1990s. Specifically, the introduction of family allowances in Canada and other LWR countries naturalized a logic of income supplementation in which families could legitimately receive cash benefits without the stigma of “welfare.” Lacking this policy legacy, American attempts to introduce a refundable CTC were quickly derailed by policymakers who saw it as equivalent to welfare. Instead, they introduced a narrow, nonrefundable CTC under the alternative logic of “tax relief,” even though this meant excluding the lowest-income families. The cultural legacy of past policies can explain American exceptionalism not only with regard to CTCs but to other social policies as well.

  17. The anti-politics of health reform: household power relations and child health in rural Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Ellen E

    2009-04-01

    This article employs ethnographic evidence from rural Senegal to explore two dimensions of health sector reform. First, it makes the case that health reforms intersect with and exacerbate existing social, political, and economic inequalities. Current equity analysis draws attention to the ways that liberal and utilitarian frameworks for health reform fail to achieve distributive justice. The author's data suggest that horizontal power relations within households and small communities are equally important for understanding health disparities and the effects of health reform. Second, the article explores how liberal discourses of health reform, particularly calls for 'state-citizen partnerships' and 'responsiblization', promote depoliticised understandings of health. Discourses associated with health reform paradoxically highlight individual responsibility for health while masking the ways that individual health practice is constrained by structural inequalities.

  18. Political Economies Come Home: On the Political Economies of Housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, Catherine; Bruun, Maja Hojer; Koch, Insa

    2018-01-01

    obligations at multiple levels. Second, several actors appear, or are invoked as authorities to be appealed or performed to for satisfaction of rights, from state bodies and individuals to banks, third sector and collective organisations and social movements. Third there is often lack of clarity over how...

  19. Foundations of a Marxist Theory of the Political Economy of Information: Trade Secrets and Intellectual Property, and the Production of Relative Surplus Value and the Extraction of Rent-Tribute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Rigi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to sketch a preliminary outline of a Marxist theory of the political economy of information. It defines information as a symbolic form that can be digitally copied. This definition is purely formal and disregards epistemological, ideological, and functional aspects. The article argues that the value of information defined in this sense tends to zero and therefore the price of information is rent. However, information plays a central role in the production of relative surplus value on the one hand, and the distribution of the total social surplus value in forms of surplus profits and rents, on the other. Thus, the hegemony of information technologies in contemporary productive forces has not made Marx’s theory of value irrelevant. On the contrary, the political economy of information can only be understood in the light of this theory. The article demonstrates that the capitalist production and distribution of surplus value at the global level forms the foundation of the political economy of information.

  20. A economia entre crises: economia política e finanças na Universidade de Buenos Aires (1870-1900 The economy between crises: political economy and finance at the University of Buenos Aires (1870-1900

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Ben Plotkin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa os momentos iniciais do ensino de economia na Argentina, a partir de um exame dos materiais ligados às cátedras de economia política e de finanças, que se constituíram por ocasião do surgimento da carreira de direito na Universidade de Buenos Aires. O recorte temporal diz respeito ao período definido pelas crises econômicas de 1873-1875 e a de 1890, já que tais conjunturas críticas são consideradas o elemento criador de uma demanda por saberes especializados, o que, por sua vez, contribui com a institucionalização e a legitimação desses saberes. Analisar o tipo de economia que se ensinava na Faculdade leva ao estudo da recepção de trabalhos produzidos em outros contextos nacionais e que foram, na Argentina, utilizados como referência legitimadora. Argumenta-se que, embora na Argentina de fins do século XIX o liberalismo econômico possa ser entendido como parâmetro de autoridade amplamente aceito, a recepção das obras canônicas da época, especialmente no caso daquelas provenientes da escola liberal francesa, foi um processo criativo que serviu para validar opiniões muitas vezes diversas em relação àquelas que os próprios autores franceses sustentavam.This article analyzes the inaugural period of teaching economics in Argentina, examining material linked to the chairs of political economy and finance created around the time of the institution of the legal career at the University of Buenos Aires. The time period under study is defined by the economic crises of 1873-1875 and 1890, since these critical phases are generally held to be responsible for creating the demand for specialized knowledge, which in turn contributed to the institutionalization and legitimization of these specialities. Analyzing the type of economics taught at the Faculty leads into a study of how works produced in other national contexts were absorbed and deployed in Argentina as legitimizing points of reference. The text argues

  1. Political Economy of Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith W. Leavitt

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Launching Global Health: The Caribbean Odyssey of the Rockefeller Foundation. Steven Palmer. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2010. xi + 301 pp. (Cloth US$ 70.00 Partner to the Poor: A Paul Farmer Reader. Paul Farmer, edited by Haun Saussy. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2010. xii + 660 pp. (Paper US$ 27.50

  2. Political or dental power in private and public service provision: a study of municipal expenditures for child dental care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Bech, Mickael; Lauridsen, Jørgen

    2012-07-01

    Both professionals and politicians may affect expenditures for highly professional services provided in the public and private sector. We investigated Danish publicly financed child dental care with a special focus on the influence of politicians and dentists on the expenditure level. By studying spatial patterns in expenditure levels across municipalities, we are able to test the influences of these two main actors and the networks through which learning is achieved. Four hypotheses on the existence of different spatial spillover effects are tested. The empirical analysis is based on annual data from 1996 to 2001 for 226 Danish municipalities, thus allowing for the control for heterogeneity between municipalities and for intra-municipal correlations across time. The results point to differences in expenditures between municipalities with privately and publicly produced dental care. Furthermore, dentists appear to be the most important actors for the spatial spillover effects, and these effects are especially strong for municipalities situated in the same county that use private dental clinics. There is no evidence of political spatial spillover effects between municipalities.

  3. Political priorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng

    2016-01-01

    …THE POLITICAL LEADERS of the local government of Chongqing, China, vigorously promote a low-carbon economy and sustainable development to mitigate environmental pollution. Accordingly, research grants focused on this issue were supported by the government, and our group obtained a grant for a pr...... for a project about industrial park planning and design.…In my view, political priorities based on correct decision-making and market requirements are beneficial for researchers.......…THE POLITICAL LEADERS of the local government of Chongqing, China, vigorously promote a low-carbon economy and sustainable development to mitigate environmental pollution. Accordingly, research grants focused on this issue were supported by the government, and our group obtained a grant...

  4. Implementing the 1989 United Nations' Convention on the Rights of the Child in sub-Saharan Africa: the overlooked socioeconomic and political dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulinge, Munyae M

    2002-11-01

    The aim of this article is to identify and profile some often overlooked socioeconomic and political factors that render the protection of the rights of the child, as guaranteed through the 1989 United Nations' Convention on the Rights of the Child, a distant dream in most African countries. It is argued that, in most African countries, there are other major impediments to the protection of the child's rights in addition to the frequently cited lack of adequate legislation and of political will. The paper is a review essay and utilizes existing literature from varied sources to advance its main arguments. It draws from such documents to profile the socioeconomic and political barriers to the protection of children's rights in Africa both at the family and at the national levels. CORE ARGUMENT: The ratification of the United Nation's 1989 Convention and the passing of supportive legislation by most state governments, has not resulted in major improvements in the well-being of children. This is as a result of prevailing socioeconomic and political conditions such as social transformations within the family unit, poverty, and rampant corruption. The emergence of HIV/AIDS, civil wars and armed conflicts is a major impediment to the protection of children's rights across most of Africa. The effective implementation of the 1989 United Nations' Convention by African governments requires more than the ratification of the Convention. Governments require the political will to implement its prescriptions by passing supportive legislation. To create the necessary enabling environments, equal emphasis should be placed on the eradication of poverty, corruption and disease; and to ending armed conflicts where they exist.

  5. A New Economic and Political State of Play in the Energy Sector: On Jean-Pierre Hansen and Jacques Percebois, Energy. Economy and politics; Energie: nouvelle donne economique et politique. A propos du livre de Jean-Pierre Hansen et Jacques Percebois, Energie. Economie et politiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesourne, J. [Association Futuribles International, 75 - Paris (France)

    2011-04-15

    If there is one sector in which the state of play has changed radically over a few decades, it is the energy sector. It has been affected simultaneously by the prospect that the main fossil fuels will become exhausted, by the impact on our planet's climate of the consumption of this fossil energy (implying increased recourse to renewable sources) and by the rapid economic development of large nations consuming increasing quantities of energy. Energy-related policies (particularly economic and technological policies) are, in fact, being developed in an increasingly complex and international context, which is, at times, very difficult to grasp. Fortunately, two specialists in energy matters, Jean-Pierre Hansen and Jacques Percebois, have published a very comprehensive survey of this new economic and political state of play in the energy field: 'Energie. Economie et politiques' [Energy: Economics and Policies] (Brussels: De Boeck, 2010). It clearly is not possible here to go into all the questions they confront, but in this review Jacques Lesourne, who has read the book for Futuribles, clearly demonstrates its importance and presents the reader with the main facets of the work that make it a reference tool for all involved in this sector, including the most highly specialized. (author)

  6. Dinámicas estructuralesversus agentes renuentes: El Oriente Medio en el cambio de la economía política mundial Structural Dynamics versus Reluctant Agents: The Middle East in a Changing Global Political Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SadÜk Ünay

    2011-06-01

    volume of acute military, political and religious conflicts raging within its borders. Meanwhile, writings on international/ comparative political economy and development generally tended to focus on alternate regions such as East Asia that were characterized by strong economic growth potential and internal coherence dynamics. This study aims to make a contribution to the comparative/international political economy literature by conducting a theoretically informed political economy analysis on the differential impact of economic-political globalization on the leading countries of the MENA region since the 1980s, while highlighting the historical backdrop between colonialism and the era of global integration. Meanwhile, the following issues will be evaluated to acquire a sound understanding of current regional dynamics: the political, economic and social legacy of colonialism on the region, the role of oil as a strategic resource, structural changes in the global economy since the 1970s, pressures for politico-economic reform in the MENA, and divergent paths of reform adopted by political elites in the wake of intensifying global economic integration.

  7. ECONOMY AND SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg BOGOMOLOV

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Market reforms in the post-socialist countries have brought into sharp focus the problem of interconnection and interaction between the economy and the social environment. The economy is inseparable from politics and the operation of the political system, from the state of the social consciousness, the moral and cultural level of the population and from many other aspects of human life and behavior, in short, from everything that can be described by the concept of social environment. Society in every country is a single organism with closely interconnected and interacting parts and systems. Their conjugation and mutual influence are not always apparent and are often overlooked. It is quite easy to see how changes in policy affect the economy and then trace the feedback effect of the economy on policy. It is more difficult to discern the direct and feedback relationship of the economy with administrative relations, with the state of culture, science, morals and public opinion. Meanwhile, an underestimation of these mutual influences is a frequent cause of failures in socio-economic transformation. It is to be regretted that the reforms in Russia were accompanied by a dangerous disruption not only of the economy, but also of the entire system of social relations. What was primary here and what was secondary? In order to answer this question the paper takes a theoretical look at the problem of interaction between the economy and the social environment.

  8. Political entrepreneurship and bidding for political monopoly

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Wohlgemuth

    2000-01-01

    An analytical framework for dealing with political entrepreneurship and reform is proposed which is based on some new combinations of Schumpeterian political economy, an extended version of Tullock's model of democracy as franchise-bidding for natural monopoly and some basic elements of New Institutional Economics. It is shown that problems of insufficient award criteria and incomplete contracts which may arise in economic bidding schemes, also - and even more so - characterise political comp...

  9. From ‘Good’ to ‘Growth-Enhancing’ Governance: Emerging Research Agendas on Africaʼs Political-Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Kjaer, Anne Mette

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the nature of the governance debate in African politics. It offers an overview of key debates since the governance concept first emerged in development circles. Through a review of the critique of the ‘good governance’ agenda, the paper demonstrates the futility of a rigid application of pre-defined good governance institutions in African states. Rather, it argues that there is a need for understanding the political feasibility of possible alternative growth-enhancing gove...

  10. Longitudinal Pathways between Political Violence and Child Adjustment: The Role of Emotional Security about the Community in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E. Mark; Merrilees, Christine E.; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2011-01-01

    Links between political violence and children's adjustment problems are well-documented. However, the mechanisms by which political tension and sectarian violence relate to children's well-being and development are little understood. This study longitudinally examined children's emotional security about community violence as a possible regulatory…

  11. Political Budget Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaskoven, Lasse; Lassen, David Dreyer

    2017-01-01

    The political budget cycle—how elections affect government fiscal policy—is one of the most studied subjects in political economy and political science. The key theoretical question is whether incumbent governments can time or structure public finances in ways that improve their chances of reelec......The political budget cycle—how elections affect government fiscal policy—is one of the most studied subjects in political economy and political science. The key theoretical question is whether incumbent governments can time or structure public finances in ways that improve their chances...... on political budget cycles have recently focused on conditions under which such cycles are likely to obtain. Much recent research focuses on subnational settings, allowing comparisons of governments in similar institutional environments, and a consensus on the presences of cycles in public finances...

  12. Relations between Political Violence and Child Adjustment: A Four-Wave Test of the Role of Emotional Insecurity about Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E. Mark; Taylor, Laura K.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2013-01-01

    This study further explored the impact of sectarian violence and children's emotional insecurity about community on child maladjustment using a 4-wave longitudinal design. The study included 999 mother-child dyads in Belfast, Northern Ireland (482 boys, 517 girls). Across the 4 waves, child mean age was 12.19 (SD = 1.82), 13.24 (SD = 1.83), 13.61…

  13. From ‘Good’ to ‘Growth-Enhancing’ Governance: Emerging Research Agendas on Africaʼs Political-Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anne Mette

    2014-01-01

    application of pre-defined good governance institutions in African states. Rather, it argues that there is a need for understanding the political feasibility of possible alternative growth-enhancing governance initiatives. The paper argues that growth-enhancing governance will always be context dependent...... and that there is a need for more research into potential political incentives that might lead ruling elites to adopt policies for growth-enhancing governance. To this end, it is necessary to improve our understanding of the particular features of ruling coalitions that enable growth-enhancing governance. To do this we......This paper explores the nature of the governance debate in African politics. It offers an overview of key debates since the governance concept first emerged in development circles. Through a review of the critique of the ‘good governance’ agenda, the paper demonstrates the futility of a rigid...

  14. Child health and nutrition in Peru within an antipoverty political agenda: a Countdown to 2015 country case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huicho, L.; Segura, E.R.; Huayanay-Espinoza, C.A.; Niño de Guzman, J.; Restrepo-Méndez, M.C.; Tam, Y.; Barros, A.J.D.; Victora, C.G.; Hernández-Peña, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Peru is an upper-middle-income country with wide social and regional disparities. In recent years, sustained multisectoral antipoverty programmes involving governments, political parties, and civil society have included explicit health and nutrition goals and spending increased sharply.

  15. From ‘Good’ to ‘Growth-Enhancing’ Governance: Emerging Research Agendas on Africaʼs Political-Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anne Mette

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the nature of the governance debate in African politics. It offers an overview of key debates since the governance concept first emerged in development circles. Through a review of the critique of the ‘good governance’ agenda, the paper demonstrates the futility of a rigid app...

  16. Gobernanza y economía política de las políticas de APS en América Latina Governance and political economy of PHC policies in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Báscolo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo de los procesos de implementación de las políticas de APS en América Latina sigue siendo un desafío pendiente. Es necesario reconocer la economía política de los procesos de implementación de las políticas de APS desde una perspectiva de gobernanza, caracterizada por las estrategias de regulación promovidas y los procesos políticos. La promoción de valores sociales, normas organizacionales o la introducción de nuevos incentivos económicos serán componentes de diferentes modos de gobernanza promovidos en las reformas de los sistemas de salud. Se consideran los factores institucionales de los sistemas de protección social en AL, sus capacidades, limitaciones redistributivas y las disputas de economía política presentes en las estrategias de reforma, explicadas por la conflictividad entre los intereses (económicos y necesidades y valores presentes en los actores involucrados. La forma en cómo se dirimen este proceso político influye sobre los modos de regulación instalados en los procesos de implementación de las políticas de APS. La capacidad de rectoría del Estado y los niveles de segmentación de los sistemas de salud condicionan la efectividad de las estrategias de reforma para dirimir la conflictividad de las políticas implementadas.The development of implementation processes of PHC policies in Latin America, is a challenge yet to be tackled. It is necessary to acknowledge the political economy related to the implementation processes of PHC policies in Latin America from a governance perspective, characterized by the regulatory strategies used and the political processes. The promotion of social values, organizational policies or the introduction of new financial incentives are components of different forms of governance used in health system reforms. The institutional factors of social protection systems in Latin America are considered. Their potential, redistribution limitations and the political

  17. Public Economy versus Planned Economy. Current Approaches and Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Matei

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available he present paper proposes a review of the current object and problems facing the public economy. For the past decade and a half, public economy has clearly come back in the attention of the research interests of specialists from the Central and Eastern European countries. Among these, the scientific research encompassed by the public economy area interrelates with the international trends. At a closer look, public economy appears to be a science, particularly interdisciplinary, with sociological, political, econometrical or systemic approaches possible to prevail. To continue, the author makes reference to four pillars of the public economy: optimum, welfare, social choice and economic justice that allow different approaches to develop. A science branch, equally theoretical and practical, public economy will stress its connections with the economic and mathematic modeling, systemic analysis or sociological and political research. Still, seve¬ral problems in public economy remain open. These concentrate on the public interest, intervention and decision. Conceptualization, understanding and description of the mechanisms that allow the operationalisation may form the basis for further developments on both theoretical and practical level. A clear distinction in order to justify the title of this article needs to be made. Public economy is not to be confused with planning economy. The state remains but one of the producers and delivery agents of public goods and services.

  18. Public Economy versus Planned Economy. Current Approaches and Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Matei

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper proposes a review of the current object and problems facing the public economy. For the past decade and a half, public economy has clearly come back in the attention of the research interests of specialists from the Central and Eastern European countries. Among these, the scientific research encompassed by the public economy area interrelates with the international trends. At a closer look, public economy appears to be a science, particularly interdisciplinary, with sociological, political, econometrical or systemic approaches possible to prevail. To continue, the author makes reference to four pillars of the public economy: optimum, welfare, social choice and economic justice that allow different approaches to develop. A science branch, equally theoretical and practical, public economy will stress its connections with the economic and mathematic modeling, systemic analysis or sociological and political research. Still, seve¬ral problems in public economy remain open. These concentrate on the public interest, intervention and decision. Conceptualization, understanding and description of the mechanisms that allow the operationalisation may form the basis for further developments on both theoretical and practical level. A clear distinction in order to justify the title of this article needs to be made. Public economy is not to be confused with planning economy. The state remains but one of the producers and delivery agents of public goods and services.

  19. Discourse, ideas and power in global health policy networks: political attention for maternal and child health in the millennium development goal era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Lori

    2016-05-18

    Maternal and child health issues have gained global political attention and resources in the past 10 years, due in part to their prominence on the Millennium Development Goal agenda and the use of evidence-based advocacy by policy networks. This paper identifies key factors for this achievement, and raises questions about prospective challenges for sustaining attention in the transition to the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals, far broader in scope than the Millennium Development Goals. This paper relies on participant observation methods and document analysis to develop a case study of the behaviours of global maternal and child health advocacy networks during 2005-2015. The development of coordinated networks of heterogeneous actors facilitated the rise in attention to maternal and child health during the past 10 years. The strategic use of epidemiological and economic evidence by these networks enabled policy attention and promoted network cohesion. The time-bound opportunity of reaching the 2015 Millennium Development Goals created a window of opportunity for joint action. As the new post-2015 goals emerge, networks seek to sustain attention by repositioning their framing of issues, network structures, and external alliances, including with networks that lay both inside and outside of the health domain. Issues rise on global policy agendas because of how ideas are constructed, portrayed and positioned by actors within given contexts. Policy networks play a critical role by uniting stakeholders to promote persuasive ideas about policy problems and solutions. The behaviours of networks in issue-framing, member-alignment, and strategic outreach can force open windows of opportunity for political attention -- or prevent them from closing.

  20. Political economy of renewable energy policy in Germany. A consideration of the policy making process in the electricity market under the influence of interest groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Tom

    2015-01-01

    In the research, it is argued that the targeted promotion of renewables leads to a change in the technological path dependency on the electricity market or led. The historically market depending portfolio of products in the conventional power industry will be replaced by an increasingly strong dependence on the product portfolio of Renewable Energy Sector according to this argumentation. The present work is devoted to the political explanation of the change and transition process in the electricity market. The process of policy formation in this market (especially support policies for renewable energies) will be discussed. It is examined from a public choice perspective, which political actors and instances in the past were responsible for the development and maintenance of individual policy elements. In particular, in this analysis the different private sector stakeholders in the electricity market move to center of attention. [de

  1. Uscire dalla crisi finanziaria statunitense: la politica domina l’economia nella Nuova Economia Politica.(Resolving the US Financial Crisis: Politics Dominates Economics in the New Political Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kregel

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Most economists expected that the “Great Recession” produced by the financial meltdown of 2008 would usher in a resurgence of traditional Keynesian economics and a decline of what has come to be called “market fundamentalism”. By contrast, also due to the inadequate size of the 2009 stimulus package, the resurgence of support for Keynesian expenditure policies has been extremely short lived. However, the negative popular and political reaction should not have come as a surprise, at least for three reasons: the design of the Obama stimulus plan and its difference from the expenditure policies of the Roosevelt Administration; the political environment that has eviscerated fiscal policy and placed monetary policy at the centre of economic policy and produced “debt driven” growth; the difference between policies appropriate to treating an income deflation and a debt deflation.   JEL: G01, B50, N12, H12

  2. Collaborative Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    that are emerging from them, and how governments are responding to these new challenges. In doing so, the book provides both theoretical and practical insights into the future of tourism in a world that is, paradoxically, becoming both increasingly collaborative and individualized. Table of Contents Preface 1.The...... collaborative economy and tourism Dianne Dredge and Szilvia Gyimóthy PART I - Theoretical explorations 2.Definitions and mapping the landscape in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy and Dianne Dredge 3.Business models of the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 4.Responsibility and care...... in the collaborative economy Dianne Dredge 5.Networked cultures in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 6.Policy and regulatory perspectives in the collaborative economy Dianne Dredge PART II - Disruptions, innovations and transformations 7.Regulating innovation in the collaborative economy: An examination...

  3. Collaborative Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    collaborative economy and tourism Dianne Dredge and Szilvia Gyimóthy PART I - Theoretical explorations 2.Definitions and mapping the landscape in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy and Dianne Dredge 3.Business models of the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 4.Responsibility and care...... in the collaborative economy Dianne Dredge 5.Networked cultures in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 6.Policy and regulatory perspectives in the collaborative economy Dianne Dredge PART II - Disruptions, innovations and transformations 7.Regulating innovation in the collaborative economy: An examination...... of Airbnb’s early legal issues Daniel Guttentag 8.Free walking tour enterprises in Europe: An evolutionary economic approach Maria del Pilar Leal and L. Xavier Medina, 9.Cultural capitalism: Manipulation and control in Airbnb’s intersection with tourism Michael O' Reganand Jaeyeon Choe 10.Sharing the new...

  4. Migration within China and from China to the USA: the effects of migration networks, selectivity, and the rural political economy in Fujian Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zai; Chunyu, Miao David

    2013-07-01

    This paper tests a new strategy for simultaneously studying internal migration within, and international migration from, China. Our theoretical discussion draws on ideas from migration-networks theory and studies of the transition to a market-oriented economy. Data collection is modelled on the Mexican Migration Project. We find that education is more important in initiating internal migration than international migration. Second, although the role of migration networks at a community level seems similar to that for Mexico-USA migration, the networks at a family level show a different pattern. Third, there is evidence that internal and international migration are competing options. Finally, we find that individuals with cadres (public officials) in the family are less likely to undertake internal migration, but more likely to participate in international migration, a finding that highlights the continuing significance of the cadres in coastal rural China.

  5. Ensuring power and raw materials supply. A challenge to politics and economy?; Sichere Energie- und Rohstoffversorgung. Herausforderung fuer Politik und Wirtschaft?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardt, H.

    2008-07-01

    In recent years the booming Chinese economy and the expected additional demand from India have led to a significant increase in the need for raw materials. This increase has been accompanied by rising prices for energy feedstocks and mineral resources and a reduction in the availability of certain products. At the same time, there are limits to the expansion of supply, since natural resources are essentially finite. These developments have led to a lively debate among industrialists and politicians on the strategies to be adopted to secure supplies of raw materials. Here, two steps are essential. First, production and consumption must be adapted to higher prices. Secondly, a policy must be developed to combat the protectionism currently prevalent in the international commodity markets, which is in many cases pushing up prices and reducing prosperity. (orig.)

  6. Moral Economies of Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Pierce, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Nigeria is famous for "419" emails asking recipients for bank account information and for scandals involving the disappearance of billions of dollars from government coffers. Corruption permeates even minor official interactions, from traffic control to university admissions. In Moral Economies of Corruption Steven Pierce provides a cultural history of the last 150 years of corruption in Nigeria as a case study for considering how corruption plays an important role in the processes of politic...

  7. The political economy of austerity and healthcare: cross-national analysis of expenditure changes in 27 European nations 1995-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Aaron; McKee, Martin; Basu, Sanjay; Stuckler, David

    2014-03-01

    Why have patterns of healthcare spending varied during the Great Recession? Using cross-national, harmonised data for 27 EU countries from 1995 to 2011, we evaluated political, economic, and health system determinants of recent changes to healthcare expenditure. Data from EuroStat, the IMF, and World Bank (2013 editions) were evaluated using multivariate random- and fixed-effects models, correcting for pre-existing time-trends. Reductions in government health expenditure were not significantly associated with magnitude of economic recessions (annual change in GDP, p=0.31, or cumulative decline, p=0.40 or debt crises (measured by public debt as a percentage of GDP, p=0.38 or per capita, p=0.83)). Nor did ideology of governing parties have an effect. In contrast, each $100 reduction in tax revenue was associated with a $2.72 drop in health spending (95% CI: $1.03-4.41). IMF borrowers were significantly more likely to reduce healthcare budgets than non-IMF borrowers (OR=3.88, 95% CI: 1.95 -7.74), even after correcting for potential confounding by indication. Exposure to lending from international financial institutions, tax revenue falls, and decisions to implement cuts correlate more closely than underlying economic conditions or orientation of political parties with healthcare expenditure change in EU member states. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Political Competition and Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    This paper considers political competition and the consequences of political polarization when parties are better informed about how the economy functions than voters are. Specifically, parties know the cost producing a public good, voters do not. An incumbent's choice of policy acts like a signa...... for costs before an upcoming election. It is shown that the more polarized the political parties the more distorted the incumbent's policy choice.......This paper considers political competition and the consequences of political polarization when parties are better informed about how the economy functions than voters are. Specifically, parties know the cost producing a public good, voters do not. An incumbent's choice of policy acts like a signal...

  9. Nuclides Economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Evgeny; Subbotin, Stanislav

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally the subject of discussion about the nuclear technology development is focused on the conditions that facilitate the nuclear power deployment. The main objective of this work is seeking of methodological basis for analysis of the coupling consequences of nuclear development. Nuclide economy is the term, which defines a new kind of society relations, dependent on nuclear technology development. It is rather closed to the setting of problems then to the solving of them. Last year Dr. Jonathan Tennenbaum published in Executive Intelligence Review Vol. 33 no 40 the article entitled as 'The Isotope Economy' where main interconnections for nuclear energy technologies and their infrastructure had been explained on the popular level. There he has given several answers and, therefore, just here we will try to expand this concept. We were interested by this publication because of similarity of our vision of resource base of technologies development. The main paradigm of 'Isotope economy' was expresses by Lyndon H. LaRouche: 'Instead of viewing the relevant resources of the planet as if they were a fixed totality, we must now assume responsibility of man's creating the new resources which will be more than adequate to sustain a growing world population at a constantly improved standard of physical per-capita output, and personal consumption'. We also consider the needed resources as a dynamic category. Nuclide economy and nuclide logistics both are needed for identifying of the future development of nuclear power as far we follow the holistic analysis approach 'from cave to grave'. Thus here we try to reasoning of decision making procedures and factors required for it in frame of innovative proposals development and deployment. The nuclear power development is needed in humanitarian scientific support with maximally deep consideration of all inter-disciplinary aspects of the nuclear power and nuclear technologies implementation. The main objectives for such

  10. Knowledge Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, Aphra; O Riain, Sean

    2009-01-01

    We examine a number of key questions regarding this knowledge economy. First, we look at the origin of the concept as well as early attempts to define and map the knowledge economy empirically. Second, we examine a variety of perspectives on the socio-spatial organisation of the knowledge economy and approaches which link techno-economic change and social-spatial organisation. Building on a critique of these perspectives, we then go on to develop a view of a knowledge economy that is conteste...

  11. The Nordic Approach to the Experience Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Trine

    . In the Nordic countries the experience economy has been developed in a political context and it is apparently a popular development policy for local government authorities and regions. This paper discusses the Nordic definition of experience economy and questions if it makes any sense. The definition...... of experiences is not clear, and the definition of the word "economy" has different interpretations as well. In a narrow interpretation the term economy is related to market economic value, which is used in the political terminology. The paper shows that the experience economy can follow three different routes......This paper discusses the concept of the experience economy in a Nordic context and shows how the Nordic version of the concept has come about from a mix of three different approaches and theories. Besides, the Nordic definition links the experience economy closely with cultural activities...

  12. THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC POLICY GUIDELINES FOR CUBA’S COMMUNIST PARTY 6TH CONGRESS. A VIEW FROM THE POLITICAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente E. Escandell-Sosa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our goal with this paper is to make a critical review to the Social and Economic Policy Guidelines for Cuba’s Communist Party 6th Congress. It is true these guidelines try to improve Cuban economy by eliminating unbearable charges in the current scenario and to amend grave voluntaryist errors of the past. In truth, there is a great deal of expectation among the population with these guidelines, and it could be catalogued as a present day vision from different sectors of the State towards an "upgrading of the country’s economic model» which constitutes the official traditional conception of our social regime, introducing at the same time, new supplementary aspects like the introduction of some forms of property, liberalization of some private small business, cooperatives etc. a flexibleness on business management among others. However the application of such Guidelines could bring about many an impact which has to be foreseen before they turn into problems contrary to the State goals. 

  13. MARGINAL LINGUISTIC SYSTEMS (ANIMAL CALLS, CHILD-DIRECTED LANGUAGE AND POLITICAL FOLKLORE IN LEBANON: TWO CASE STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Płonka

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper takes a sociolinguistic approach to the analysis of the informal usage of two words common in modern Lebanese political discourse; ħarf at-tanbīh (the warning interjection “hā,” used in Arabic inter alia in calls to animals, and the hypocoristic forename “Roro,” borrowed from the French. The paper also demonstrates how these lexical characteristics of the Lebanese dialect reveal similarities to what Ferguson termed marginal systems within languages. The paper is supplemented by graphical representations and other extra-linguistic data.

  14. The (APolitical Economy of Bitcoin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilis Kostakis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The still raging financial crisis of 2007–2008 has enabled the emergence of several alternative practices concerning the production, circulation and use of money. This essay explores the political economy of the Bitcoin ecosystem. Specifically, we examine the context in which this digital currency is emerging as well as its nature, dynamics, advantages, and disadvantages. We conclude that Bitcoin, a truly interesting experiment, exemplifies "distributed capitalism" and should be mostly seen as a technological innovation. Rather than providing pragmatic answers and solutions to the current views on the financial crisis, Bitcoin provides some useful and timely questions about the principles and bases of the dominant political economy.

  15. A economia política do novo-desenvolvimentismo e do social desenvolvimentismo The political economy of new developmentalism and social developmentalism in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Paulo Zahluth Bastos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo propõe uma classificação das duas visões básicas a propósito da estratégia de desenvolvimento capitalista depois da crise do neoliberalismo, no Brasil: o desenvolvimentismo exportador do setor privado ("novo-desenvolvimentismo" e o desenvolvimentismo distributivo orientado pelo Estado ("social-desenvolvimentismo". Ambos resgatam o papel do Estado na orientação do modelo de desenvolvimento, mas com modos diferentes de relação com o mercado. Depois de uma breve introdução, as duas visões são discutidas, concluindo-se com uma discussão de suas possibilidades políticas.The article proposes a classification of two basic views on the strategy of capitalist development after the neoliberalism crisis in Brazil: the private sector's export-oriented developmentalism ("newdevelopmentalism", and state-led distributive developmentalism. Both views bring back the state's role in guiding the development model, but with different ways of relating to the market. After a brief introduction, the two views are discussed, and the article concludes with a discussion of their political prospects.

  16. The Political Economy of Clean Air Legislation. An Analysis of Voting in the U.S. Senate on Amendments to the 1990 Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkey, M.L.; Durden, G.C.

    1998-01-01

    Much research in political science and economics has attempted to explain voting patterns among members of legislative bodies. In this paper we extend the existing analysis in three ways. First, we address the subject of voting on air quality regulation by the U.S. Senate. A subject of great importance and significance, such votes have not previously been the focus of much empirical investigation. Second, we develop an arguably more correct and effective methodology for measuring and understanding the ideological preferences of individual Senators, as revealed by their voting patterns on 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act. Third, we apply the minimum chi-square methodology for estimating the determinants of Senator voting patterns on the issue. In Section 2, the economic theory of regulation is elaborated as it is specifically related to 1990 senate voting on amendments to the Clean Air Act. In Section 3, we provide a brief literature review, focusing on the principal-agent model and how voting patterns are influenced by campaign contributions, constituent socio-economic characteristics, and individual legislator ideology. In Section 4 we present a very simple model of the principal-agent relationship which underlies legislative voting behavior. In this section (supplemented by information in an appendix) we introduce a new methodology for creating a proxy variable to represent legislator ideology, comparing the new method with those previously used. Section 5 provides a chronological background on clean air legislation, and Section 6 discusses the data and proxy variables used for the empirical estimations. Section 7 contains a presentation and evaluation of three empirical techniques, including one not previously used, the minimum chi-square method which, we argue, is both appropriate and easily interpretable. This claim is based upon the fact that the dependent variable, SCORE, is neither continuous nor dichotomous, but ordered and categorical, constructed

  17. Moneyless Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Subhendu

    2012-01-01

    Moneyless economy (MLE) does not have any money in the economy. All products and services are free for all people. This means everybody must work, work for free, and get everything they want for free also. Any work that a society needs is considered legitimate. MLE is not socialism. MLE has the ability to provide a lifestyle that anyone wants. We show that it is possible to run the exact same economy that we have now, in the exact same way, and without money. Any government of any country can...

  18. Iran's Economy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ilias, Shayerah

    2008-01-01

    .... To the extent that U.S. sanctions and other efforts to change Iranian state policy target aspects of Iran ssssssss economy as a means of influence, it is important to evaluate Iran's economic structure, strengths, and vulnerabilities...

  19. Iran's Economy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ilias, Shayerah

    2008-01-01

    .... To the extent that U.S. sanctions and other efforts to change Iranian state policy target aspects of Iran's economy as a means of influence, it is important to evaluate Iran's economic structure, strengths, and vulnerabilities...

  20. Mobile economy

    OpenAIRE

    Pousttchi, Key

    2004-01-01

    Mobile economy : Transaktionen, Prozesse, Anwendungen und Dienste ; 4. Workshop Mobile Commerce, 02.-03. Februar 2004, Univ. Augsburg / K. Turowski ... (Hrsg.). - Bonn : Ges. für Informatik, 2004. - 189 S. : Ill., graph. Darst. - (GI-Edition : Proceedings ; 42)