Chou, Chung-I.; Li, Sai-Ping
The Political Districting Problem is to partition a zone into several electoral districts subject to some constraints such as contiguity, population equality, etc. In this paper, we apply statistical physics methods to Political Districting Problem. This political problem is mapped to a q-state Potts model system, and the political constraints are written in the form of an energy function with the interactions between sites or external fields acting on the system. Districting into q voter districts is equivalent to finding the ground state of this q-state Potts model. We illustrate this problem by districting Taipei city and compare it to a computer-generated artificial system.
Chou, C.-I [Department of Physics, Chinese Culture University, Taipei, Taiwan 111 (China)]. E-mail: email@example.com; Li, S.-P. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan 115 (China)
The aim of the Political Districting Problem is to partition a territory into electoral districts subject to some constraints such as contiguity, population equality, etc. In this paper, we apply statistical physics methods to Political Districting Problem. We will show how to transform the political problem to a spin system, and how to write down a q-state Potts model-like energy function in which the political constraints can be written as interactions between sites or external fields acting on the system. Districting into q voter districts is equivalent to finding the ground state of this q-state Potts model. Searching for the ground state becomes an optimization problem, where optimization algorithms such as the simulated annealing method and Genetic Algorithm can be employed here.
Chou, Chung-I.; Li, Sai-Ping
The aim of the Political Districting Problem is to partition a territory into electoral districts subject to some constraints such as contiguity, population equality, etc. In this paper, we apply statistical physics methods to Political Districting Problem. We will show how to transform the political problem to a spin system, and how to write down a q-state Potts model-like energy function in which the political constraints can be written as interactions between sites or external fields acting on the system. Districting into q voter districts is equivalent to finding the ground state of this q-state Potts model. Searching for the ground state becomes an optimization problem, where optimization algorithms such as the simulated annealing method and Genetic Algorithm can be employed here.
The political districting problem is to study how to partition a comparatively large zone into many minor electoral districts. In our previously works, we have mapped this political problem onto a q-state Potts model system by using statistical physics methods. The political constraints (such as contiguity, population equality, etc.) are transformed to an energy function with interactions between sites or external fields acting on the system. Several optimization algorithms such as simulated annealing method and genetic algorithm have been applied to this problem. In this report, we will show how to apply the Knowledge-based Evolution Algorithm (KEA) to the problem. Our test objects include two real cities (Taipei and Kaohsiung) and the simulated cities. The results showed the KEA can reach the same minimum which has been found by using other methods in each test case.
California Department of Resources — This is a series of district layers pertaining to California'spolitical districts, that are derived from the California State Senateand State Assembly information....
California Natural Resource Agency — This is a series of district layers pertaining to California'spolitical districts, that are derived from the California State Senateand State Assembly information....
Full Text Available The author in this work speaks about general problems of political corruption in the world and in Serbia. The author tries to define the phenomenon of political corruption and pays special attention to financing political parties. Ćirić gives the overview of international documents about financing political parties and gives us the overview of MP's salaries in some western countries. At the end it is analyzed the question of trading MP's mandate, as a matter of fact who is the owner of the mandate of one representative - that representative, or his/her political party. That also could be the origin of different manipulations and corruption.
The development in the FRG is portrayed. Illustrated by a particular example, the problems of basic research and of the scientists are presented looking back, looking at the present, and into the future. (WB) [de
McLoone, Eugene P.
All school districts are affected by the stagnant economy, the growing needs of the public sector, the increased burden of transfer payments, and the limited growth of public revenues. Retrenchment is common to all school districts, but it may be more severe in affluent districts. By 1969-70, suburban school systems were the clear-cut expenditure…
McDermott, Kathryn A.; Frankenberg, Erica; Diem, Sarah
Many school districts have recently revised, or tried to revise, their policies for assigning students to schools, because the legal and political status of racial and other kinds of diversity is uncertain, and the districts are facing fiscal austerity. This article presents case studies of politics and student assignment policy in three large…
Trujillo, Tina M.
This qualitative case study extends the literature on urban district instructional policymaking by analyzing the ways in which normative and political pressures shaped district leaders' instructional policy decisions. Drawing on concepts from the politics of education, it shows how teachers and principals repeatedly nullified policies that aimed…
Anna V. Shashkova
The present article is dedicated to the analysis of "corruption" from point of view of political practice and political theory. The present article studies historical examples of corruption: corruption during the era of Alexander the Great, Carthage, Roman Republic. The article gives the evolution of the term "corruption", pointing out current aspects of the term. The article provides positive and negative results of corruption, gives resume. The present article analyses corruption results: e...
Anna V. Shashkova
Full Text Available The present article is dedicated to the analysis of "corruption" from point of view of political practice and political theory. The present article studies historical examples of corruption: corruption during the era of Alexander the Great, Carthage, Roman Republic. The article gives the evolution of the term "corruption", pointing out current aspects of the term. The article provides positive and negative results of corruption, gives resume. The present article analyses corruption results: economical, political and social. Most important economical consequences of corruption are the following: increase of shadow economy, decrease of tax payments, weakening of the state budget, breach of market competition, decrease of market effectiveness, destabilization of the idea of market economy. Most important social consequences of corruption are the following: great distinction between the declared and real values, which creates a "double standard" of the moral and behavior, distraction of great sums from public and humanitarian development, increase of property disproportion, increase of social tension. The present article names most important political consequences of corruption: shift of ideas from public development to the security of power of oligarchy, decrease of trust to the state, decrease of image of the country at the international arena, increase of its economical and political isolation, decrease of political competition. The present article gives one of the resumes that the globalization process increases corruption. Together with globalization most important role is given to corporations and corporate corruption comes to the front raw.
Jochim, Ashley; Yatsko, Sarah; Opalka, Alice
Many who attempt district-charter collaboration point to "politics" as a constraint that affects their work, but little is understood about why some collaborations enjoy broad support while others become mired in conflict. Drawing upon CRPE's multiyear study of district-charter collaborations in dozens of cities as well as research on…
Duffy, Francis M.
The interplay of power, political behavior, and ethics has been the subject of many books and articles about business organizations, but little has been published about using power and political skills in ethical ways to lead whole-system change in school districts. This book does. Readers will learn about the context for change in school…
This study was conducted between November 2010 and April 2011 in 3 districts of Sidama Zone, southern Ethiopia, to estimate the prevalence and identify risk factors influencing occurrences of skin problems in donkeys. A total of randomly selected 384 male donkeys were clinically examined for skin problems.
Food Security Problems in Borabu Division, Nyamira District. ... Finally, the paper highlights some of the major problems associated with land use for instance, labour shortages, lack of credit facilities, type of farm implements used, overutilization of land, limited extension services, and extinction of indigenous crops. Last but ...
Guillermo Salas Carreño
Full Text Available This paper describes and analyses the changes in local politicstaken place in the district of San Marcos (Huari, Ancash associatedwith the arrival of the Canon Minero – a fraction of taxes paid byAntamina mining company to the Peruvian State. Canon Minero hasincreased sudden and spectacularly the municipality’s funds so muchthat currently San Marcos in «ones of the Peruvian richest districts».The paper pays attention to the municipal elections of 2006 and theimplementation of the Plan Piloto de Mantenimiento de la InfraestructuraPública, a program of temporary work for all San Marcos’citizens. The latter was key for launching a novel alliance betweenthe municipality and the rural population, particularly with the ConoSur composed by hamlets which were traditionally unimportantactors in district politics. Hence, district politics had stopped to bedominated by the struggle between two factions of former landlordfamilies and had become articulated by the opposition between therural hamlets and the town of San Marcos with the emergence ofethnic political claims. Also, local politics ceased to revolve aroundAntamina and has become entangled with struggles over the administrationof Canon Minero. Rural communities which have directnegotiations with Antamina remain important political actors whichare independent from the municipality and are even oppose to it.
Markwart, Richard I.
Political campaigns are major, high-budget marketing efforts, but because they are usually managed by people with little training in either marketing or communications, they fail to persuade voters to vote in the desired way. Political targeting can be treated as a segmentation problem, one of identifying and responding to the specific qualities…
Daly, Alan J.; Finnigan, Kara S.; Jordan, Stuart; Moolenaar, Nienke M.; Che, Jing
In the current accountability policy context, access to and use of research evidence are central to district and school improvement. Our study examines the network of relations between central office administrators and principals using a political lens to consider the ways in which the underlying politics in a district may call into question some…
Gómez, A S
In this article the Author considers the modern-day and historical situation as regards the administration of justice in Spain, pausing to make a particularly careful analysis of those crimes whose rate of increase, over the past few years, has been the greatest. He runs back over the various stages of Spain's recent history: from the period preceding Franco's regime, during which a multiplicity of criminological theories were developed by Spanish authors, leading to the creation of a school of jurisprudence, in which theory and practice tended toward seeking a balance between freedom and security; through the period of the dictatorship, in which there was a tightening-up of the preceding trend, with a definite predisposition towards security, whether within the State or external to it (to be noted--the Author observes--is that this security in reality is not a guarantee of the lives and liberties of the citizens, but rather only a safeguarding of the State from attacks on its supremacy and power); to the successive period of the democracy, which came about without cruel and revolutionary upsets, but nonetheless has felt for many years the effects of the preceding political climate; criminality is increasing considerably, but the administration of justice is not able to soundly and accurately evaluate it, it having functioned at only 45% efficiency--or so says the Author--up until 1978: the imbalances in the society that can be seen in its passage through the various political regimes are, therefore, present too in the field of criminality; this, in fact, is apparently decreasing (since crimes against the external and internal security of the State are decreasing, as the number of convictions are decreasing); but in reality this criminality is undergoing a strong evolutionary movement, due more than anything else to the fact that the tendency is to give priority to liberty, and no longer to security, as is true in fact of every democratic regime. Even in 1978, when
Full Text Available Spread of obesity and diseases that it causes brought to justified warnings of an epidemic. Author starts from classical liberal differentiation between self regarding and others regarding acts, and then raises the issue of the possible liberal approach to obesity problem. He presents real causes of the obesity, and proceeds with two different visions of contemporary liberalism: one, abstract, which doesn't pay attention to context in which we have to draw the line between self and others regarding acts, and second, advanced, responsible liberalism of contemporary liberal democratic state which cares a lot about the context, including international one. From the first perspective state would be obliged not to interfere in overweight problems of its citizens. From the second it would be forced to do so for many substantial reasons. Although author justifies right and even duty of the state to deal with obesity problem, he insists that for the time being it is mostly reacting in wrong way: since idea of individual autonomy is not perceived in adequate way, state reacts to the consequences and not to the causes of the problem.
Альберт Илдусович Абдрахманов
Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the study o/f political and legal terms for Public-Private Partnerships (PPP development while PPP becomes the issue of today for Russian political and social-economic life. The article covers particularly the analysis of the effective legislation of PPP at the federal and regional levels and appraisal of the current political trends regarding the development of legal partnership between the government and companies in the connection with the legislation. The author provides research especially of the prospects of the PPP federal Draft Law and reveals key specifics and problems of the legal environment of PPP in districts of the Russian Federation.
For better than ten years there was little public notice of the TRIGA reactor at UC-Berkeley. Then: a) A non-student persuaded the Student and Senate to pass a resolution to request Campus Administration to stop operation of the reactor and remove it from campus. b) Presence of the reactor became a campaign-issue in a City Mayoral election. c) Two local residents reported adverse physical reactions before, during, and after a routine tour of the reactor facility. d) The Berkeley City Council began a study of problems associated with radioactive material within the city. e) Friends Of The Earth formally petitioned the NRC to terminate the reactor's license. Campus personnel have expended many man-hours and many pounds of paper in responding to these happenings. Some of the details are of interest, and may be of use to other reactor facilities. (author)
Peter J. May
Full Text Available This contribution addresses political limits to the processing of policy problems in the United States. Our foci are the forces that limit policymakers' attention to different aspects of problems and how this affects the prospects for problem resolution. We theorize about three sets of forces: interest engagement, linkages among relevant institutions for policymaking, and partisan conflict. We show how the interplay of these forces limits efforts to address complex problems. Based on secondary accounts, we consider these underlying dynamics for ten complex problems. These include the thorny problems of the financial crisis, climate change, and health care; the persistent problems of K-12 education, drug abuse, and food safety; and the looming problems associated with critical infrastructure, the obesity epidemic, ocean health, and terrorism and extreme events. From these accounts we identify different patterns that we label fractured, allied, bureaucratic, and anemic policymaking.
Full Text Available Abstract : A fundamental challenge of contemporary political philosophy is how to solve the problem of the legitimacy of political decisions in the context of the deep comprehensive (moral, philosophical, religious, and so on disagreements that affect pluralist democratic societies. How can citizens of a democracy agree on political decisions without abandoning their most fundamental commitments and without excluding those who wish to remain loyal to their principles? This is the problem of deep politics. In this paper I will analyze the theory of dialogical democracy developed by Robert B. Talisse. This theory is based on his view regarding the principles of folk epistemology to which all of us are already implicitly committed and which entail the acceptance of a democratic political and social framework. I will argue that his attempt to offer an epistemic justification to deliberative democracy is vulnerable to the same kind of objections he raises against the alternative deliberative models of democracy and that an aggregative conception is preferable.
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are States (and their political subdivisions... employers? 1002.39 Section 1002.39 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR VETERANS... States (and their political subdivisions), the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and...
The papers presented at this meeting dealt with an international comparison of district heating, the Swiss district heating network, political aspects of nuclear district heating, nuclear and non-nuclear sources for district heating. 17 figs., 6 tabs
The paper deals with the problem of security of supply of electronuclear programs, especially under their political aspects. After a brief summary of the main historical events related to the subject: post-war position, Non Proliferation Treaty signature, London guidelines etc., the author underlines the fact that up to now, four countries only have been completely independent for their supplies. The elements of such independence are recalled as well as the special viewpoints of developing countries on the one hand, industrialized countries on the other hand. The final part analyses the means of reestablishing or reinforcing this security of supply. The classical commercial aspects such as preference for domestic producers, diversification of supplies and stockpiling are dealt with as well as with aspects more specific to nuclear energy, a technical one such as the possibility of developing breeders, and political ones, such as freedom to reexport, freedom to use imported materials in the frame of peaceful uses. (AF)
This article analyzes how Juan José Saer’s noir detective novel, La pesquisa, exposes the fundamental contradictions of Kantian rationalism. The novel, like Kantian theory, realizes a critique of reason by positing its own human, epistemological limits. Of course, the philosophical problems we see in Saer’s novel don’t simply exist in a vacuum, but respond to the politics of rationalism within Argentina, namely the 1976-83 dictatorship. I demonstrate how the contradictions within the ‘rationa...
Daly, Alan J.; Daly, A.J.; Finnigan, Kara S.; Jordan, Stuart; Moolenaar, Nienke; Che, Jing
In the current accountability policy context, access to and use of research evidence are central to district and school improvement. Our study examines the network of relations between central office administrators and principals using a political lens to consider the ways in which the underlying
Daly, Alan J.; Finnigan, Kara S.; Jordan, Stuart; Moolenaar, Nienke M.; Che, Jing
In the current accountability policy context, access to and use of research evidence are central to district and school improvement. Our study examines the network of relations between central office administrators and principals using a political lens to consider the ways in which the underlying
Mirabal, Nancy Raquel
During the 1990s and early 2000s, working-class and poor neighborhoods in San Francisco underwent dramatic economic and racial changes. One of the most heavily gentrified neighborhoods was the Mission District. As a result of local politics, housing and rental policies, real estate speculation, and development, thousands of Latina/o families were displaced. Using oral historical and ethnographic methodologies, print media, archival sources, and policy papers, this article traces the gentrification of the Mission District from the perspective of the Latina/o community. It also examines how gentrification was articulated as a positive turn within the larger public discourse on space and access.
Bertone, Maria Paola; Witter, Sophie
The need for evidence-based practice calls for research focussing not only on the effectiveness of interventions and their translation into policies, but also on implementation processes and the factors influencing them, in particular for complex health system policies. In this paper, we use the lens of one of the health system's 'building blocks', human resources for health (HRH), to examine the implementation of official policies on HRH incentives and the emergence of informal practices in three districts of Sierra Leone. Our mixed-methods research draws mostly from 18 key informant interviews at district level. Data are organised using a political economy framework which focuses on the dynamic interactions between structure (context, historical legacies, institutions) and agency (actors, agendas, power relations) to show how these elements affect the HRH incentive practices in each district. It appears that the official policies are re-shaped both by implementation challenges and by informal practices emerging at local level as the result of the district-level dynamics and negotiations between District Health Management Teams (DHMTs) and nongovernmental organisations (NGOs). Emerging informal practices take the form of selective supervision, salary supplementations and per diems paid to health workers, and aim to ensure a better fit between the actors' agendas and the incentive package. Importantly, the negotiations which shape such practices are characterised by a substantial asymmetry of power between DHMTs and NGOs. In conclusion, our findings reveal the influence of NGOs on the HRH incentive package and highlight the need to empower DHMTs to limit the discrepancy between policies defined at central level and practices in the districts, and to reduce inequalities in health worker remuneration across districts. For Sierra Leone, these findings are now more relevant than ever as new players enter the stage at district level, as part of the Ebola response and
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the consideration and analysis of the main problems, concerning the realization of socially vulnerable groups' of the population potential. The problem of women and youth employment development takes on a special acuteness and actualite in the outlying district with a labour redundant labour market.
Hussain, Ishtiaq; Bashir, Muhammad; ud Din, Muhammad Naseer; Butt, Muhammad Naeem; Akhter, Shagufa; Inamullah, Hafiz
The purpose of the study was to explore the problems faced by physical handicapped students in normal educational institutions and to find solutions to the problems faced by physical handicapped students. All the physical handicapped students studying in educational institutions in District Kohat constituted the population of the study. The study…
Rosmawati, Rosmawati; Harifuddin, Harifuddin; Sudirman, Sudirman
This paper aims to reveal the socio-political reality that is loaded with interest. The interest certainly are mutually-beneficial but often unbalanced political advantage. In this regard, politics always intersect or identical to ‘exchange' and ‘communication'. When interpreted in reverse, that isn't politics if it doesn't contain elements of ‘exchange' which must be preceded by a communication strategy its politicians. Specifi cally, this paper reveals the occurrence of a ‘political exchang...
contemporary discourse especially on issues of power and political leadership. For too long women were perceived in various societies, particularly in the developing world, as second class citizens and objects of developmental and governance process. Women who constitute a greater proportion of the society undertake ...
The study revealed a high prevalence of skin problems in general and sores in particular which suggest profound compromise in welfare and health of the animals and possible neglect by their owners. Efforts should be made to increase the awareness of the community in general and donkey owners in particular towards ...
A description is given of a class project concerned with examining a population problem and making some political decisions to solve it. A list of topics for the students to research as a basis for their decisions is provided. (DT)
Hipgrave, David Barry; Laksmono, Lukman Hendro; Koemarasakti, Gita Maya; Nandy, Robin; Setiawan, Budhi; Hermawan, Lukas; Marbun, Deswanto
District team problem solving (DTPS) was developed by WHO in the 1980s to explicitly engage local stakeholders in decentralized planning and, in later iterations, budgeting of health services. It became WHO's global flagship approach to district-level health priority-setting and planning. DTPS entails multisectoral stakeholders (the team) using local data to prioritize and fund services, and should enhance capacity in management of decentralized healthcare. From the late 1990s, DTPS evolved through several phases in Indonesia. Multiple donors supported its use for planning maternal and child health (MCH) services, with substantive national government input, despite no formal assessment of its sustained uptake or benefits. In the context of new interest to promote DTPS for MCH in Indonesia, we assessed its status there in 2013-14, focussing on its implementation status and on associated MCH data collection (PWS-KIA). We used mixed methods to capture local challenges to and opportunities for DTPS in seven sub-national locations in 6 of Indonesia's 31 provinces. DTPS remained active only in the two locations whose local government ever allocated funds to the process; in the others, it stopped once the initial non-government funding ceased. An official decree establishing DTPS and team membership was only issued in four locations, and it was not evident that the intended multisectoral representation was achieved in any site. Trained DTPS facilitators remained available in only four locations. In all districts, interviewees described PWS-KIA as potentially serving a revived DTPS, but insufficiently robust to underwrite local advocacy for investment in MCH. Although efforts to introduce DTPS as a uniform approach to district MCH planning in Indonesia have not been sustained, strong commitment to evidence-based planning remains. Decentralized health planning processes require quality data, local government buy-in and associated funding, and should link explicitly to
Full Text Available The phenomenon of unemployment and exacerbating demographic situation can be seen as major social problem of nowadays in Poland. The paper is an attempt to compare districts of the Małopolskie voivodeship with respect to chosen features characterizing these phenomena. On the basis of the data from the Central Statistical Offi ce and with the help of taxonomic methods, grouping of districts has been carried out with respect to the level of features under investigation. The procedure allowed for distinguishing 5 groups of signifi - cant inter-group diff erentiation. The application of taxonomic methods resulted in obtaining a general and, at the same time, accurate picture of diff erentiation of the Małopolskie voivodeship with respect to social problems being analysed and distinction of districts with the most diffi cult situation in this area.
Full Text Available Since the 1970s, the Batwa ethnic minority group has been considered as a less superior group of human beings. They were forcefully evicted from the forest around Echuya Forest Reserve in Kisoro and Kabale districts of South-Western Uganda. The Batwa in Uganda are one of the most defenceless (vulnerable, marginalised, voiceless (powerless and endangered ethnic minority group in the districts they live in. In turn, their civic and political rights (the right to vote and the right to be voted in local council (LC elections have been ignored partly because of poor sensitisation to and awareness of the Batwa people by all stakeholders. The purpose of this study was to investigate the civic and political rights of the Batwa people in Uganda. The key questions to be addressed include: 1. Is the Batwa ethnic minority group aware of the right to vote in Local Council 1 elections in the communities? 2. Is the Batwa ethnic minority group aware of the right to be voted for in Local Council 1 elections in their communities?
Guillermo Salas Carreño
This paper describes and analyses the changes in local politicstaken place in the district of San Marcos (Huari, Ancash) associatedwith the arrival of the Canon Minero – a fraction of taxes paid byAntamina mining company to the Peruvian State. Canon Minero hasincreased sudden and spectacularly the municipality’s funds so muchthat currently San Marcos in «ones of the Peruvian richest districts».The paper pays attention to the municipal elections of 2006 and theimplementation of the Plan Piloto...
One of the major problems that have confronted man right from the time of creation for those who believe in the theory of creation and others who do not, is that of trying to secure the right kind of relationship that should exist between the individual and the community. This has been so because the individual is believed
Substantial evidence supports assistive technology and environmental adaptations as key enablers to participation. In order to realise the potential of these interventions, they need to be both recognised in policy, and resourced in practice. This paper uses political theory to understand the complexities of assistive technology (AT) policy reform in Australia. AT research will not be influential in improving AT policy without consideration of political drivers. Theories of policy formation are considered, with Kingdon's (2003) theory of multiple streams identified as a useful lens through which to understand government actions. This theory is applied to the case of current AT policy reformulation in Australia. The convergence model of problem identification, policy formulation and political will is found to be an applicable construct with which to evaluate contemporary policy changes. This paper illustrates the cogency of this theory for the field of AT, in the case of Australia's recent disability and aged care reforms. Political theory provides a way of conceptualising the difficulties of consumers and AT practitioners experience in getting therapeutically valid solutions into public policy, and then getting policies prioritised and funded. It is suggested that AT practitioners must comprehend and consider political factors in working towards effective policies to support their practice. AT practitioners generally lack political awareness or an understanding of the drivers of policy. The effectiveness of AT practitioners at a systemic level will remain limited without consideration of policy drivers. AT practitioners must comprehend and consider political factors in working towards effective policies to support their practice.
Full Text Available This is the English translation of a speech Bergson made at Lycée Henri-IV on July 30, 1892. This is an interesting text because it anticipates Bergson’s last book, his The Two Sources of Morality and Religion. Like the distinction in The Two Sources between the open and the closed, “Politeness” defines its subject matter in two ways. There is what Bergson calls “manners” and there is true politeness. For Bergson, both kinds of politeness concern equality. Manners or material politeness amount to the ritualized greetings and formalities by means of which we usually define politeness. Unfortunately and like The Two Sources, Bergson attributes this formalized relation to other human beings with primitive and “inferior races.” Nevertheless, Bergson sees in these formalities an attempt, in the name of equality, to ignore other people’s talents and merits so that one can dominate morally superior people. In contrast, true politeness or “spiritual politeness” consists in “intellectual flexibility.” When one meets a person of superior morality, one is flexible in one’s relation to him or her; one abandons the formalities in order to really live her life and think her thoughts. Here we find equality too: “what defines this very polite person is to prefer each of his friends over the others, and to succeed in this way in loving them equally.” After making a comparison to dance, Bergson defines spiritual politeness as “a grace of the mind.” Since both kinds of politeness concern equality, Bergson associates both with justice. However, beyond these two kinds of politeness and justice there is “politeness of the heart,” which concerns charity. In order to indicate politeness of the heart, Bergson describes the kind of person, a sensitive person, who anxiously awaits a word of praise in order to feel good about herself but who also, when she hears a word of reproach, is thrown into sadness. Although Bergson calls the
Dujardin B, Haelterman E, Van Damme W, Kegels G. The adequacy of one sputum smear for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis. Am J Pubi Hlth 1997; 87: 1234-1235. 16. Narain R, Nair SS, Naganna К, Chandrasekhar P, Ramanatha Rao G, Lai P. Problems in defining a "case" of pulmonary tuberculosis in prevalence ...
Full Text Available Today, debates and discourses developed over the concepts of civil society and political society are usually made through religious discourses or religious identities, and the individual emerges as a problem of emancipation. In his “Jewish Question”, which Marx wrote during his youthful period with Bauer’s thoughts, it is thought that the religious identities and rhetoric accompanied the present debate about the emergence of the emancipation of individuals in social and political contexts. It is thought that this problem, which emerged as the problem of individual liberation or citizenship, and which is regarded as a Jewish problem and emerged in different forms in different geographies, is the result of the fact that the religious identities can not be torn from the religious part of the world. Another reason for the lack of emancipation of the individual is the understanding of colonialism that is at the core of the capitalist system. In today’s society, it wants to keep up with the existence of religions or to keep up with the capitalist system and wants to influence the capitalist system with state policies by making itself active in the political arena. Judaism and Christianity in this context religion, the effects of the formation of capitalist society, will be discussed from the rhetoric of Marx and Bauer. The issue of the citizenship identity of the individual in this study will be addressed through the relationship between civil society and political society. There will also be mentioned here some other thinkers (Hegel, Feuerbach etc. that affect Marx’s ideas about civil society and political society, besides Marx and Bauer. Civil society, citizenship, liberation of religion, political emancipation, the effects of emancipation of individuals such as the state will be handled through the Jewish example. Prior to this assessment, a better understanding of the subject will be addressed to the civil society and state relationship
Aminat Ruslanovna Kappusheva
Full Text Available The article specifies types of investments in human capital: spending on education, health and mobility. The author highlights the key actors invest in human capital development: the state, the corporate sector, households; emphasizes the low activity of the corporate sector and households in the process of investing in human capital. During the analysis of the problems of development of the human capital of the North Caucasian Federal District the author highlighted the interdependence of development of the productive sector of the economy and human capital: the low level of industrialization determines the gap in terms of gross regional product, high unemployment and low incomes, lack of investment in human capital of households. The article also deals with the problems of health and education in the North Caucasian Federal District: the shortage of qualified personnel, insufficient capacity of institutions. The analysis of the structure of regional budget expenditures on human capital development are pointed out. They include the spheres of health, education and culture. There is a direct and close relationship between the amount of budget spending on health, education, culture and the level of development of human capital in the country and the region. In the regions of the North Caucasian Federal District the lower level of educated population engaged in the sphere of economics was revealed. Particular attention is paid to analysis of the quality of human capital state and municipal employees of the North Caucasian Federal District, whose activities in the conditions of underdevelopment of large business, significantly affects the prospects for regional economic growth. The necessity of developing and implementing regional policies to promote health, education and culture, determines the quality of human capital in the economy.
M. R. Musayev
Full Text Available Aim. The aim is to assess the environmental problems in the North Caucasus Federal District of the Russian Federation. Methods. An analysis of the literature and own research at a high anthropogenic pressure on agricultural land through the development of more stringent criteria for assessing the already degraded areas. Results. In the Stavropol region, Andropov district is in the most catastrophic state: of eight ratings five have the highest (fifth catastrophic degree degree of degradation; two the first (low and one rating has the second (middle. On the territory of Kabardino-Balkarian Republic, the highest degree of degradation of agricultural land is assigned to rocky ground, where it has a catastrophic rate of 9.76 points. For agricultural workers on steppe plains, the priority is to fight against deflation, as there is also a high degradation level 6.67 (above catastrophic. Conclusion. It was established that in the North Caucasus Federal District the system of rational use of land should be of environmental and resource-conserving nature and provide for the preservation of the soil, limiting the impact on flora and fauna, geological formations, and other components of the environment.
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyse the social and political capacity of cities affected by cultural tourism. An investigation is carried out into the state of the situation in saturated destinations, the problems this poses to tourist sustainability and the positions of the various different interest groups. In Europe, many cultural cities-cum-tourist hotspots have reached such high levels of socio-political saturation that the resident population’s capacity for carrying tourism has become overstretched. This has led to a state of irritation among the local population. Social movements now include this on their agenda but the various different interest groups (residents, political groups, entrepreneurs, management bodies all react differently. We present data relating to the case of Barcelona, with analyses of residents’ and tourists’ opinions, the actions of social mobilization carried out by pressure groups, media repercussion and the reactions of the business sector and political groups. We examine data collected from surveys and opinions carried in the media. The sustainability and management of interests indicate changes in both the number and the type of tourists, the occupation of public spaces, the distribution of profit among entrepreneurs, residents and the political and economic model of society in the future.
Full Text Available The subject matter of research in this paper is theoretical controversy related to the definition of right-wing extremism. Given the fact that extremism is a variable, amorphous and insufficiently researched phenomenon, largely conditioned by time, space, political and cultural differences, there is a great confusion in the field of political science when defining right-wing extremism. The problem of researching right-wing extremism is additionally complicated by various terms that are being used in the contemporary literature as its synonyms, such as right-wing radicalism, neo-Fascism, ultra-radicalism, etc. In order to provide the most valid theoretical determination of right-wing extremism, the author provides a detailed analysis of all the components constituting this phenomenon and examines their causality. In the political praxis, the term extremism is extensively abused, which additionally complicates its determination. Videlicet, politicians often use term 'extremist' in order to discredit their political opponents. While during the French revolution aristocracy saw the bourgeoisie as extremists, the members of the working class later stated that the bourgeoisie were extremists. The problem lies in the fact that, in politics, extremists are not only the ones who use violence as modus operandi; indeed, it is also used by political opponents who do not belong to the extreme political option. Another aggravating factor in defining right-wing extremism is that many administrative and academic definitions do not make a clear distinction between extremism and related phenomena, such as terrorism, radicalism and populism. Extremism is most often equaled with terrorism, which gives rise to another problem in defining this phenomenon. The relation between extremism and terrorism is the relation of general and specific. Namely, every act of terrorism is concurrently considered to be an act of extremism, but not vice versa, given the fact that
Артем Николаевич Величко
Full Text Available The aim of the given article is the revealing and analysis of monocities in the Russian Federation under circumstances of the modern political process. Author stresses the political and anthropological component. In this research we used general scientific methodology as well as comparative, historical and sociological approaches.As a result of the given politological analysis we revealed the main problems of monocities among which we should note the low social activity and the low security of communities. That is due to depressive socio-economic and political status of researched territories. This is caused by the change of political and economic directions at the end of 20th century as well as the crisis of Russian economy. We raise the issue of elite responsibility for the violation of citizens’ rights and secrecy of recruiting channels. As a result the monocitiy citizens cannot fully self-fulfill.The findings can be applied in the system of public and municipal administration in working out the programs on territorial development, in the activity of parties and non-government organizations and in scientific and training activities.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-2-11
Алексей Алексеевич Клинцов
Full Text Available In the given article the author considers the problem of discourse of political archetypes in international relations of the post Soviet states of the Central Asia. In author's opinion, political archetypes as historically developed fundamental bases of ethnic consciousness render essential influence on modern diplomacy of the countries of the given region. That is why they require serious and profound studying by domestic and foreign political science.
Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescence is a period of transition between childhood and adulthood. It is a phase of life marked by special attributes including rapid physical growth and development; physical, social and psychological maturity. Aims & Objectives: The present cross sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence of psychosocial problems among adolescents in a rural area of District Muzaffarnagar. Materials & Methods: The study subjects were 210 adolescent girls and boys (10-19 years old selected using multistage random sampling technique. The subjects were interviewed & detailed information was collected on a structured and pre-tested questionnaire after taking consent from the subject/ parents. The clinical diagnosis was generated as per the criteria laid down in ICD-10. The data was entered in Epi Info statistical software package Version 3.4.3 and suitable statistical methods were applied. Results: The overall prevalence of psychosocial problems amongst adolescent was found to be 41.43%. Most of them had conduct disorder (40.51% males & 35.88% females followed by depression (30.38% males & 26.72% females. Conclusions: There are significant psychosocial problems amongst the adolescents. So, enough emphasis should be given to this component of adolescent health and thus it is recommended that a holistic approach to the underlying causes of psychosocial problems of adolescents should be undertaken.
Full Text Available Background: District Parigi Moutong, Central Sulawesi Province is one of the Regional District Health Problems. Ranking Public Health Development Index Parigi Moutong to the level of Central Sulawesi was ranked 6 out of 9 districts/cities, while at the national level comes out to 320 of 440 districts/cities in Indonesia. The purpose of this study is to provide a picture of the health problems in Parigi Moutong. In more detail the objectives are observed after the implementation of such interventions and Booster Kalakarya prevention efforts in the area of health problems. Methods: The study is qualitative observational study of participatory design. Samples were taken by using purposive sampling to conduct in-depth interviews and document searches. Results: The results of in-depth interviews obtained information of some constraints inthe implementation of health programs, ie no actions/movements that were signifi cant in the response to the problem. Infant mortality in 2012, registered 7 cases. Substitution head of the health center too fast. This happens because the head of the health center has held PTT doctor working period of one year, which resulted in problems in sustainability programs in health centers. Internal monthly meeting at the Department of Health and the District Health Offi ce with the entire health center no. Effort or movement to address the problems associated Regional Health Problems has not be percieved. Conclusions: Implementation of Regional Booster Kalakarya and Health Troubled make changes to the head of health policy by forming groups Conscious Movement IHC and revitalization partnership TBA and midwives who are increasing numbers toddlersweighing scope and aid delivery by health personnel.
Singh, Harvinder; Sharma, Sumeet; Singh, Sarbjeet; Wazir, Nikhil; Raina, Rajiv
Poor oral health is increasing dramatically among old people especially those living in rural and remote areas. Various factors such as low education background, low income, poor living conditions, unhealthy lifestyle, inadequate oral hygiene and tobacco use lead to poor oral health among older people which in turn lead to risks to their general health. The older people especially from rural areas are apprehensive about seeing a dentist and do not visit them regularly. This may lead to various problems which may have a detrimental influence on their quality of life. To know the problems faced by complete denture wearers in rural areas in Jammu district. Fifty patients from rural area Bishna, initially treated with a complete denture in the maxilla or mandibles were examined. The data were collected with the help of a questionnaire. The results revealed that majority of respondents were in the age - group of 65-70 y. Majority of respondents complained of "difficulty chewing", "sore spots", "painful and swollen gums". Majority of respondents had difficulty in speech, it was difficult for them to interact and communicate with their dentures on. Most of the respondents had lost confidence and had low self esteem. Clinical observations revealed that the commonest condition associated with denture wearing was Oral Stomatitis/ Burning mouth Syndrome, Superimposed infection and Angular cheilitis. Older people should Communicate and visit dentists, regularly, so that the dentists can adjust the treatment and pace according to their needs. Behavioural therapy techniques can make dental visits relatively anxiety and pain-free.
Bryson Gwiyani Nkhoma
Full Text Available The paper examines the progress made regarding the development of small irrigation dams in Malawi with the view of establishing their significance in improving rural livelihoods in the country. The paper adopts a political economy theory and a qualitative research approach. Evidence from Mzuzu Agricultural Development Division (ADD, where small reservoirs acquire specific relevance, shows that despite the efforts made, the development of small dams is making little progress. The paper highlights that problems of top-down planning, high investment costs, negligence of national and local interests, over-dependency on donors, and conflicts over the use of dams – which made large-scale dams unpopular in the 1990s – continue to affect the development of small irrigation dams in Malawi. The paper argues that small irrigation dams should not be simplistically seen as a panacea to the problems of large-scale irrigation dams. Like any other projects, small dams are historically and socially constructed through interests of different actors in the local settings, and can only succeed if actors, especially those from formal institutions, develop adaptive learning towards apparent conflicting relations that develop among them in the process of implementation. In the case of Mzuzu ADD, it was the failure of the government to develop this adaptive learning to the contestations and conflicts among these actors that undermined successful implementation of small irrigation dams. The paper recommends the need to consider local circumstances, politics, interests, rights and institutions when investing in small irrigation dams.
Ingle, William Kyle; Johnson, Paul Andrew; Petroff, Ruth Ann
Background: In Ohio, levy campaigns are a burdensome task for district administrators and stakeholders alike. To date, there is little research on the districts' role in crafting school budget referenda campaigns. Purpose: This study asked three research questions: How did the macropolitical contexts shape stakeholders' decision making in terms of…
Strunk, Katharine O.; Grissom, Jason A.
A substantial amount of school district policy is set in the collective bargaining agreements (CBAs) negotiated between teachers' unions and districts. Although previous studies have assumed that CBA provisions bargained by unions are a primary mechanism connecting union strength to outcomes for teachers and students, research has not yet…
M. P. Boyko
Full Text Available The problems of the creation of the basic reasons of Ukrainian nation’s political identity in the context of cultural and political dimension have been revealed in the article. It has been found that Cyril and Methodians understood the reasons of political division, which had historical and spiritual background. It has been shown that members of Cyril and Methodiy’s company tried to determine the variations of directions in the development of national and political unity and to determine the Ukrainian national - cultural priorities. They argued that the Ukrainian mentality had been formed on the basis of the following dominant principles: respect to the family, esthetical love to their native land, rational and ethical attitude and respect to human life. It has been indicated, that Cyril and Methodians had proven the idea about the state of the national culture, which had transformed into the global culture through Russian culture, although Ukrainian and Russian culture had perceived differently the importance of global processes. Big attention has been paid to the fact that free Ukrainian people had the experience of struggling for the affirmation of present national character, they did not want to form unions that would destroy freedom. The achievements of Ukrainian national freedom have been described primarily in the implementation of the “freedom” of the individual. Statements of the human freedom being the need of self-expression inside the individual freedom by means of obtaining a sign of social freedom have been suggested. It can be provided when collectivism has no pressure on the will of the individual and cannot influence its intellectual potential. The emphasis has been referred to the fact that the psychology of self-defense is based on Ukrainian cultural achievements being the part of its national identity. The forms of language development, the construction of temples, traditional rituals of rural life have been developed
After the Civil War (1861-1865), the United States faced a problem of "reconstruction" similar to that confronted by other nations at the time and familiar to the US since at least the Mexican-American War (1846-1848). The problem was one of territorial and political (re)integration: how to take territories that had only recently been…
Full Text Available This study was carried in Banke district with the objective of understanding production and post-harvest activities, marketing and production problem of maize seed producer along with the decision making nature in seed producing households in comparison to non-seed producing households. A total of 65 households were randomly selected as sample which included 36 seed producer and 29 non-seed producing households. The average family size of the study population was 4.64 with 45.4% male and 54.6% female. Adoption of seed production found to be positively related with literacy and extension service. Local market was the largest source (67% of seed implying poor facility from government agencies. Weeding activity and inspection of field by technician appeared to be very poor and seed testing also appeared inadequate. Lack of technical assistance found to be the most important problem of maize seed production with the index score of 0.77. Better technical support, supply of quality inputs and better irrigation facility appeared to be key for encouraging farmers in seed production. The study households showed male dominance in decision making but male dominance level found to be low in seed producer compared to non-seed producer households. Study showed that for encouraging maize seed producers and enhancing their production and profitability, extension program about business activity, input purchase, improved variety and involvement in training and workshops should be targeted more toward male while credit supply and information about efficient labor use should be prepared targeting both male and female.
Özdemir, Özlem; Özdemir, Emrah
Political cartoons demonstrate the Syrian refugee crisis and their influx into bordering and European countries from different perspectives by using both visual and verbal metaphors in a caricaturised way. For this reason, this research aims to reveal how political cartoons represent the perilous journey of Syrian refugees and their families visually and verbally. In this regard, twelve political cartoons were selected randomly from the international political cartoon website cagle.com betwee...
Murphy, Kelly; Fafard, Patrick
Knowledge translation (KT) is a growing movement in clinical and health services research, aimed to help make research more relevant and to move research into practice and policy. This paper examines the conventional model of policy change presented in KT and assesses its applicability for increasing the impact of urban health research on urban health policy. In general, KT conceptualizes research utilization in terms of the technical implementation of scientific findings, on the part of individual decision-makers who can be "targeted" for a KT intervention, in a context that is absent of political interests. However, complex urban health problems and interventions infrequently resemble this single decision, single decision-maker model posited by KT. In order to clarify the conditions under which urban health research is more likely or not to have an influence on public policy development, we propose to supplement the conventional model with three concepts drawn from the social science: policy stages, policy networks, and a discourse analysis approach for theorizing power in policy-making.
Héctor Adolfo Dupuy
Full Text Available This paper intends to study some of the main problems presented, on different scales, by current politics, considering the spatial implications as well as various parameters offered lately by the geographical science. The proposal is supported by the theoretical bases developed from Emmanuel Wallerstein and Peter Taylor's statement about a world system structured as a world economy, based on the capitalist mode of production. Conversely, it attempts to provide a theoretical explanation for the dynamics experienced by the territories upon thee basis of such world system's mechanics. According to these assumptions, an analysis is proposed of some of the main phenomena resulting from the previous analysis and its spatial implications, such as the current power relations in the system, the subsistence of traditional power factors (Nation-states, ethnically based cultural configurations and the appearance of new ones (the forming of transnational blocs and associations, new social movements, new forms of local participation, the importance of hegemonic and counter-hegemonic discourses in the construction of symbolic representations and of the mass media in such processes or the new cultural identity and hybridization chart from population mobility.
Nakkash, R T; Torossian, L; El Hajj, T; Khalil, J; Afifi, R A
Progress in tobacco control policy making has occurred worldwide through advocacy campaigns involving multiple players- civil society groups, activists, academics, media and policymakers. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC)-the first ever global health treaty-outlines evidence-based tobacco control policies. Lebanon ratified the FCTC in 2005, but until 2011, tobacco control policies remained rudimentary and not evidence-based. Beginning in 2009, a concerted advocacy campaign was undertaken by a variety of stakeholders with the aim of accelerating the process of adopting a strong tobacco control policy. The campaign was successful, and Law 174 passed the Lebanese Parliament in August 2011. In this article, we analyse the policy making process that led to the adoption of Law 174 using Kingdon's model. The analysis relies on primary and secondary data sources including historical records of key governmental decisions, documentation of the activities of the concerted advocacy campaign and in-depth interviews with key stakeholders. We describe the opening of a window of opportunity as a result of the alignment of the problem, policy and politics streams. Furthermore, findings revealed that despite the challenge of persistent tobacco industry interference and established power relations between the industry, its allies and policymakers; policy entrepreneurs succeeded in supporting the alignment of the streams, and influencing the passage of the law. Kingdon's multiple stream approach was useful in explaining how tobacco control became an emerging policy issue at the front of the policy agenda in Lebanon.
David E. Lee
Full Text Available Effective school districts maintain superintendent and school board collegiality which can foster success and connectedness among members. Delagardelle and Alsbury (2008 found that superintendents and board members are not consistent in their perceptions about the work the board does, and Glass (2007 found that states do not require boards to undergo evaluation for effectiveness. In the current study, 115 board meetings were observed using the School Board Video Project (SBVP survey, which was created in 2012 by researchers to uncover school board meetings’ effectiveness. MANOVA, Univariate ANOVA, and Pearson Chi-Square test results revealed significant differences between low-, medium-, and high-performing districts’ school board meetings. Evidence indicated that low-performing districts’ board meetings were: less orderly; had less time spent on student achievement; lacked respectful and attentive engagement across speakers; had board meeting members who seemed to advance their own agenda; had less effective working relationships among the governance team; had fewer board members who relied on the superintendent for advice and input; had one member, other than the board president, stand out for taking excessive time during meetings; and did not focus on policy items as much as high- and medium-performing school districts. The research concluded that more school board members from low-performing districts needed training to improve their effectiveness. Furthermore, highly refined and target-enhanced school board training programs might lead to lasting governance success and more effective teaming that could improve district, and ultimately, student achievement.
The study assessed the nutrient intake of children in Early Childhood Development Centres (ECDCs) and the challenges faced by schools in the provision of pre-scholar meals in Gutu Central District, Zimbabwe. The practices were evaluated in relation to pre-scholar dietary needs and the correct ECDC nutritional ...
Moreno Gutierrez, Jaime Alberto
The paper mentions several elements that should be kept in mind in a forestall politics, it also makes reference to the forestall strategies of sustainability and competitiveness to the forestall covering and fixations of atmospheric carbon and it mentions several elements for the design of a forestall politics under environmental conditions
Zhumanova, Aiman Z.; Dosova, Bibigul A.; Imanbetov, Amanbek N.; Zhumashev, Rymbek M.
The research aims at global analysis of language politics in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Using comparative historical method and method of actualization, the authors examine achievements and shortcomings of the language politics of the Soviet state in order to understand the modern language situation in the Republic. The results show that one of…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Peru has impressively reduced its neonatal mortality rate (NMR. We aimed, for the period 2000–2013, to: (a describe national and district NMR variations over time; (b assess NMR trends by wealth quintile and place of residence; (c describe evolution of mortality causes; (d assess completeness of registered mortality; (e assess coverage and equity of NMR-related interventions; and (f explore underlying driving factors. Methods We compared national NMR time trends from different sources. To describe NMR trends by wealth quintiles, place of residence and districts, we pooled data on births and deaths by calendar year for neonates born to women interviewed in multiple surveys. We disaggregated coverage of NMR-related interventions by wealth quintiles and place of residence. To identify success factors, we ran regression analyses and combined desk reviews with qualitative interviews and group discussions. Results NMR fell by 51 % from 2000 to 2013, second only to Brazil in Latin America. Reduction was higher in rural and poorest segments (52 and 58 %. District NMR change varied by source. Regarding cause-specific NMRs, prematurity decreased from 7.0 to 3.2 per 1,000 live births, intra-partum related events from 2.9 to 1.2, congenital abnormalities from 2.4 to 1.8, sepsis from 1.9 to 0.8, pneumonia from 0.9 to 0.4, and other conditions from 1.2 to 0.7. Under-registration of neonatal deaths decreased recently, more in districts with higher development index and lower rural population. Coverage of family planning, antenatal care and skilled birth attendance increased more in rural areas and in the poorest quintile. Regressions did not show consistent associations between mortality and predictors. During the study period social determinants improved substantially, and dramatic out-of-health-sector and health-sector changes occurred. Rural areas and the poorest quintile experienced greater NMR reduction. This progress was driven
Full Text Available Flooding and poverty are the two social problems that have coexisted within the rural communities of Tsholotsho district. As a result, both problems have negatively affected and disrupted the everyday pattern of lives of people living in the district. This study sought to highlight how the two problems combine to impact human societies. The objectives that the study sought to fulfil were to establish the impact of flooding on the development of rural communities, to analyse how poverty manifests itself in rural communities, to analyse the relationship that exists between flooding and poverty and to suggest ways for dealing with the two problems. A qualitative research approach, using interviews and observations, was used to gather data from the research participants. The study findings were that flooding impeded development through shifting of human populations, destruction of crops, shelter and livestock. Floods also affected human capital through causing injuries to members of the community. Poverty manifested itself in three ways – as a development barrier, a vulnerability amplifier and a non-discriminatory agent. The study further found that a strong relationship exists between flooding and poverty because of the fact that flooding causes or worsens poverty, whereas poverty increases flood vulnerability. The study concluded that the poor need government assistance to reconstruct shelter destroyed by floods. Furthermore, programs aimed at improving livelihoods of the poor are an indispensable imperative. This study informs policymakers and offers a methodological significance to development and disaster practitioners. It also adds to the body of literature on flooding and poverty.
Amangeldiyeva, N.; Yeskermessova, S.
Text dealing with social-politic matters are singled out among other informative materials because in they may feature elements more commonly used in literary text which can not but influence the translator's strategy. More often, however, they are regarded as a kind of newspaper materials
Martino, Wayne; Kehler, Michael
In this paper, we interrogate the call for more male role models within the context of boys' education debates in Australia and North America. We explicate links between failing masculinities and this call for more male teachers, arguing that the debate is driven by a "recuperative masculinity politics" committed to addressing the…
... antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for AIDS-sick people until a cabinet revolt in late 2003 forced her to back down on this too. Since then, the public sector rollout of HAART has gained momentum, but it has been uneven across the provinces and continues to be constrained by a marked absence of political will at high levels.
This paper contains a comment on an article by Professor Lave, recently published in this journal (Transpn Res. 28A, 83-91, 1994). Lave's approach towards analyzing the political feasibility of road pricing is challenged on several grounds. In a simple setting, where individual road users are
Discusses social justice in West Germany within the context of the experience of Nazism, the economic disaster after World War II, and the successful development of the economy and welfare state since 1949. Refers to various textbooks and recent empirical studies on the political attitudes of students in West Germany. (Author/KC)
Maroof, Mohd; Ahmad, Anees; Khalique, Najam; Ansari, M Athar
Locomotor functions decline with the age along with other physiological changes. This results in deterioration of the quality of life with decreased social and economic role in the society, as well as increased dependency, for the health care and other basic services. The demographic transition resulting in increased proportion of elderly may pose a burden to the health system. To find the prevalence of locomotor problems among the elderly population, and related sociodemographic factors. The study was a community-based cross-sectional study done at field practice area of Rural Health Training Centre, JN Medical College, AMU, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India. A sample of 225 was drawn from 1018 elderly population aged 60 years and above using systematic random sampling with probability proportionate to size. Sociodemographic characteristics were obtained using pretested and predesigned questionnaire. Locomotor problems were assessed using the criteria used by National Sample Survey Organization. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Chi-square test was used to test relationship of locomotor problems with sociodemographic factors. P <0.05 was considered statistically significant. The prevalence of locomotor problems among the elderly population was 25.8%. Locomotor problems were significantly associated with age, gender, and working status whereas no significant association with literacy status and marital status was observed. The study concluded that approximately one-fourth of the elderly population suffered from locomotor problems. The sociodemographic factors related to locomotor problems needs to be addressed properly to help them lead an independent and economically productive life.
Ishtiaq, M.; Zehan, N.
The objective was to determine the frequency of musculo-skeleton health problems among the coal miners and to assess the relation of musculo-skeleton with various demographic variables among cherat coal miners of District Nowshera Khyber Pukhtunkhwa Pakistan. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study design was conducted between July and December 2014 at the cherat coal mines of District Nowshera. A sample size of 400 was selected through cluster sampling technique, in which the study area was divided into four clusters and then from each cluster 40% coal miners were selected based on simple random technique. There are approximately 80-90 Cherat coal mines in which around 1000 of coal miners are working. Coal miner's having more than one year of coal mining job were included in the study while those with less than one year or having any pathological problems were excluded from the study population. Field visits were conducted to collect relevant data from the study areas. The structured pretested questionnaire was used to collect data regarding history of musculo-skeleton problems and was evaluated with the selected demographic variables like age, duration of coal mining job, job satisfaction, and previous history of mine injuries. Results: Our study results showed that approximately 61% of coal miners had history of musculo-skeleton problems. Among those coal miners who gave history of musculo-skeleton problems, 76.64% were due to lack of training, 24.59% to early 1-4 years of coal mining job, 60.23% to less than 30 years of coal miner's age, 75.00% to unsatisfied with job, 83.19% to poor/bad knowledge of mine safety measures; 58.87% for not using personnel protective measures; and 67.62% to positive smoking history while the remaining 32.38 were among non-smokers. Conclusion: The frequency of occupational musculo-skeleton problems among coal miners 61% more and had strong relationship with age, duration of coal mining job, smoking behavior, job satisfaction
Full Text Available It is commonplace to think of an island as a discreetly bounded unit. Selected writings on islands by the poststructuralist philosophers Gilles Deleuze and Jacques Derrida reveal the island variously to be both real and imaginary, mythological and scientific, but as most problematic when constituted in political terms as an indivisible, sovereign entity. These two thinkers’ more broadly developed concepts of the virtual and the impossible, respectively, are seen to disrupt any assumptions about the fixity and closure of the island polity. Instead they emphasize its actualization through processual relations that can be difficult yet dynamic and decisive in effecting the move from being to becoming-other. As the possibilities for instituting more ethical as well as different political relations open up, the question of island studies remaining in its currently coherent, familiar form is raised for consideration.
Full Text Available Apilot survey was conducted in 2 districts in Mozambique to determine the most important health problems facing smallholder pig producers. While African swine fever is the most serious disease that affects pigs at all levels of production in Mozambique, it is likely that productivity is reduced by the presence of mange and gastrointestinal parasites, while in traditional systems the conditions are favourable for the development of porcine cysticercosis caused by the pork tapeworm Taenia solium, which poses a health risk to communities. Results of the pilot survey confirmed that, with the exception of African swine fever, ecto- and endoparasites are probably the most important health risks for producers. Porcine cysticercosis is more prevalent among pigs in traditional, free-ranging systems, while mange becomes a serious factor when pigs are permanently confined.
The slogan "taking the problem to the people" nicely summarizes U.S. traffic safety campaigns of the 1950s. It refers to the goal of awareness and self-discipline for drivers through education and law enforcement. A detailed analysis of the campaigns, however, shows a subtler objective of the motor interests that promoted it. They wanted to overcome political indifference through a civic mobilization of drivers as citizens, persuading drivers to lobby for traffic control. The analysis of their efforts leads us to question the role-or lack of role-of politicians in scientific and technological controversies.
ASME's Congressional Fellows program offers engineering and scientific expertise to United States Senators and Representatives. The existence of ASME's Fellows Program implies that decisions made by our elected officials are based on scientific evidence. This paper presents information concerning an issue that raised political questions: the proposal by the Department of Energy to locate a monitored retrievable storage facility for spent nuclear fuel in Tennessee. Evidence of the non-scientific aspect of the opposition is presented by reviewing election campaigns and newspaper headlines
A. G. Smorzhevska
Full Text Available The study is dedicated to modern approaches and policy of the Republic of Indonesia toward the process of regional integration in Southeast Asia. Key aspects and instruments of Indonesia’s increasing contribution in strengthening of the political and security cooperation between members of ASEAN have been explained by the researcher. The aim of the article is to identify the role of Indonesia in conduction of multilateral diplomacy within the framework of ASEAN political and security sphere, forms of its implementation as well as the specifics of limiting factors for such leadership. It has been argued by the author that Indonesia’s commitments to ASEAN and its desire to promote or inhibit the process of regional integration vary depending on policy areas and level of compliance to its national interests. Consequently, Indonesia’s main interests and priorities concerning the ASEAN integration process lie in security and defense sphere. Indonesia’s key role in building of the ASEAN Political and Security Community is to provide ideas and political concepts as well as to shape the regional agenda. Therefore, the country implements the relevant agreements and puts forward a number of regional initiatives in foreign policy and defense. Moreover, assuming the fact that direct regional mechanisms of conflict resolution has not been fully implemented yet, Jakarta works on its development, acting as a mediator and a reliable regional partner. In addition, it is worth to underline that Jakarta makes substantial contribution to regional efforts in counterterrorism. The benefit of this study is that it takes into consideration the specifics of the factors that reveal the limitations for leadership in the security sphere. The core principles of ASEAN functioning determine the degree and nature of Member States’ leadership in the region. The material power resources and implementation on power through coercion gave way to soft instruments of
Full Text Available Health status is one of the important indicators for the welfare of people. People working in unorganized sector are exploited in terms of working hours, low and irregular income, unsatisfactory work conditions, no legal protection and exposed to occupational health hazards. Present study aims to analyze a spatial dimension of occupational health outcomes among the cottage industry workers and their socioeconomic conditions. Based on field survey, the result shows that there is an association between different categories of industries and various health problems which leads respiratory and muscular problem, skin disease, and stress and sleep disturbances. There should be a strong provision for occupational health services, carrying out activities in the work place in the aim of protecting and promoting worker’s safety, health and well-being.
A. S. SHEIKH AND D. V. PARMAR
ABSTRACT: The people of far-flung rural areas still depend to a large extent upon plants and household remedies for curing veterinary ailments. The folk knowledge of ethno-veterinary medicine and its significance has been identified by the traditional communities through a process of experience over hundreds of years. The present paper documented ethno-veterinary practices of tribals related to different medicinal problems in their livestock. The study was conducted in purposively selecte...
Thirty years after the Three-Power Declaration on November 5, 1945, promising effective safeguards on the information exchange on atomic energy, many nations are selling and transferring nuclear materials, equipment, and technology without these ''effective enforceable safeguards.'' Even though there is no actual commercial need to reprocess spent fuel into Pu, France and West Germany are planning to sell reprocessing plants to non-NPT countries. The erosion of faith in and the weakening of the NPT are pointed out. The Canadian decision not to resume nuclear aid to India is commended. The question of how effective and enforceable the international (IAEA/NPT) safeguards are, is addressed. The weaknesses of the London Suppliers' Club position on safeguards are pointed out. Multinational fuel cycle centers would not much help to contain the risks of nuclear proliferation. Additional measures needed for really effective safeguards are listed. The unilateral embargo of nuclear exports by U.S. is proposed. Political measures to discourage nations from acquiring nuclear weapons are also listed. Only a combination of political, psychological, and technical measures can produce an effective nonproliferation regime
This thesis addresses the problem of providing policy and budget oversight of Ukrainian intelligence organizations in accordance with norms and practices developed in contemporary Western democracies...
Full Text Available Abstract Background At diagnosis, 16% of rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients may have foot joint involvement, increasing to 90% as disease duration increases. This can lead to joint instability, difficulties in walking and limitation in functional ability that restricts activities of daily living. The podiatrist plays an important role in the multidisciplinary team approach to the management of foot problems. The aim of this study was to undertake a clinical audit of foot problems in patients with RA treated at Counties Manukau District Health Board. Methods Patients with RA were identified through rheumatological clinics run within CMDHB. 100 patients were eligible for inclusion. Specific foot outcome tools were used to evaluate pain, disability and function. Observation on foot lesions were noted and previous history of foot assessment, footwear/insoles and foot surgery were evaluated. Results The median age of the cohort was 60 (IQR: 51–64 years old with median disease duration of 15 (IQR: 7.3–25 years. Over 85% presented with foot lesions that included corns and callus over the forefoot region and lesser toe deformities. Moderate to high disability was noted. High levels of forefoot structural damage were observed. 76% had not seen a podiatrist and 77% reported no previous formal foot assessment. 40% had been seen at the orthotic centre for specialised footwear and insoles. 27% of RA patients reported previous foot surgery. A large proportion of patients wore inappropriate footwear. Conclusion This clinical audit suggests that the majority of RA patients suffer from foot problems. Future recommendations include the provision of a podiatrist within the current CMDHB multidisciplinary rheumatology team to ensure better services for RA patients with foot problems.
After having briefly evoked the evolution of oil prices until April 2010, the author explains these variations in relationship with a market logics, notably by an unbalanced rate between production and consumption as it has been noticed in different countries and by different institutions, and by a slowing down of the supply rate. In the next part, the author addresses and comments the influence of the geopolitical context, or the political logics of oil price, by discussing the prevailing importance of the Middle-East in terms of oil reserves and production, and the impact of geopolitical tensions and events on oil price since the 1970's. The author finally outlines how lower geopolitical tensions would result in a better energy security
Scholars in science and technology studies—and no doubt other fields—have increasingly drawn on Michel Foucault's concept of biopolitics to theorize a variety of new `bio-concepts'. While there might be some theoretical value in such exercises, many of these bio-concepts have simply replaced more rigorous—and therefore time-consuming—analytical work. This article provides a (sympathetic) critique of these various bio-concepts, especially as they are applied to the emerging `bio-economy'. In so doing, the article seeks to show that the analysis of the bio-economy could be better framed as a political economy of nothing. This has several implications for science education, which are raised in the article.
Razavi, Shahra; Jenichen, Anne
This article explores how religion as a political force shapes and deflects the struggle for gender equality in contexts marked by different histories of nation building and challenges of ethnic diversity, different state-society relations (from the more authoritarian to the more democratic), and different relations between state power and religion (especially in the domain of marriage, family and personal laws). It shows how 'private' issues, related to the family, sexuality and reproduction, have become sites of intense public contestation between conservative religious actors wishing to regulate them based on some transcendent moral principle, and feminist and other human rights advocates basing their claims on pluralist and time- and context-specific solutions. Not only are claims of 'divine truth' justifying discriminatory practices against women hard to challenge, but the struggle for gender equality is further complicated by the manner in which it is closely tied up with, and inseparable from, struggles for social and economic justice, ethnic/racial recognition, and national self-determination vis--vis imperial/global domination.
This article describes the author's experience using SCAMPER, a creativity-building technique, in a creative problem-solving session that was conducted in an environmental conflict course to generate ideas for managing postconflict stability. SCAMPER relies on cues to help students connect ideas from different domains of knowledge, explore random…
Daly, Paula S.; White, Marion M.; Zisk, Daniel S.; Cavazos, David E.
This article draws from the current literature to examine problem-based learning (PBL) as a management education tool, and provides an example of how to incorporate PBL into an undergraduate international management course. Also included are an explanation of, and specific guidelines for, a PBL exercise focused on the analysis of "country risk"…
Background/Context: In discussions about democratic education, there is a strong tendency to see the role of education as that of the preparation of children and young people for their future participation in democratic life. A major problem with this view is that it relies on the idea that the guarantee for democracy lies in the existence of a…
Full Text Available This article analyzes results of an unique experience of the Dao Wai historic district renovation project in Harbin of the 2010th. It includes an interpretation of the stylistic features of the Dao Wai building. Also, there was made a presumptive conclusion about the origins of the “Chinese Baroque”, which is now famous Dao Wai, combining European order architecture and far Eastern decorative tradition. Presumptive conclusion was based on the construction area observing in 2011-2016 and on the Chinese sources. As a result of renovation, there was formed a new public space with high tourism potential. Social value and status of the Dao Wai has significantly grown. The significant cost increase of real estate and provided services is an essential consequence of the gentrification method. There are were noted increased problems of the native people forced to move from the center to the outskirts of the city. Also, this article analyzes the current stage of the second phase design of Dao Wai renovation project and the perspectives for its implementation.
Full Text Available The Lao PDR (Laos is one of the least developed countries in Asia with an estimated 25% of the population living in poverty. It is the habitat of some highly venomous snakes and the majority of the population earns their living from agricultural activities. Under these circumstances the incidence of snakebites is expected to be high.Two cross-sectional, community-based surveys were performed in Champone and Phin district, Savannakhet province, Lao PDR to estimate snakebite incidence. Multistage random sampling was used. In the first stage approximately 40% of all villages in each district were randomly selected. In the second stage 33% of all households in each village were randomly chosen. Members of the selected households were interviewed about snakebites during the previous 12 months.Thirty-five of 9856 interviewees reported a snakebite in a 12 month period in Champone district and 79 of 7150 interviewees in Phin district. The estimated incidence is 355 snakebites per 100,000 persons per year and 1105 per 100,000 in Champone and Phin district respectively. All snakebite victims received treatment by traditional healers or self-treatment at home and nobody went to a hospital. Incidence of snakebites, calculated on the basis of hospital records of 14 district hospitals and Savannakhet provincial hospital, ranged from 3 to 14 cases per 100,000 persons per year between 2012 and 2014.Incidence of snakebites is high in rural communities in Laos with significant regional differences. Poverty most likely contributes significantly to the higher number of snakebites in Phin district. Hospital statistics profoundly underestimates snakebite incidence, because the majority of snakebite victims receive only treatment by traditional healers or self-treatment in their village. There is an urgent need to train medical staff and students in management of snakebite patients and make snake antivenom available to cope effectively with this important public
Using facts and examples, this didactically structures textbook gives an insight into the extent and consequences of the damage to the environment, with the subjects - fundamentals of ecology; - population and food problems; - the energy problem; - economic growth; scarcity of resources, recycling; - ground, water, and air pollution, - city and traffic problems; - work protection and medical care; - political alternatives and 'soft technologies'. The analysis of the political and economic reasons is combined with social and technical alternatives from which demands to be made and measures to be taken can be derived for individuals, citizens' interest groups, political groups and trade unions. Teaching models intend to help teachers to work on specific problems of ecology. (orig.) [de
Adhikari, Partha Pradip; Talukdar, Simi; Borah, Ananta
Reproductive problems are becoming the most predominant health care problems in many countries. World Health Organization (WHO), in 2012, also exemplified maternal illnesses, for instance, birth asphyxia and post birth difficulties are rising at an alarming rate. In addition, not all abnormalities of the human reproductive system have the same origin; the effects of reproductive problems would likely been affected by both male and female. For easy accessibility and affordability, medicinal plants are playing crucial role in primary healthcare services in India and their use is moreover, an integral part of the cultural heritage. However, our growing understanding of the human reproductive problems are segregated and scanty for herbal medications. To document the local name of the medicinal plants used by both male and female from indigenous knowledge for the treatment of reproductive ailments and to explore their biological and pharmacological confirmation and to address the class of secondary metabolites present therein. The results stem in September 2015-April 2016 from an array of informations that were collected by direct interviews of the traditional medicinal practitioners in three villages, viz. Jaha, Niz-Bahjani and Madhupur of the southern Nalbari district, Assam. Both semi-structured and open-ended interview schedule was carried out with purposively selected individuals and focus group discussion (FGD) in the three selected sites for this study. Systematic analysis of fidelity level percentage (FL %), preference ranking percentage (PR %) and formulation scoring (FS) were calculated. Electronic databases such as Google, Google Scholar, and ScienceDirect were also been used to search existing pharmacological citations. Finally, qualitative chemical profiling were executed for the plants whose PR % scores ≥ 65. A total of 71 plant species belonging to 48 families and 64 genera are reported to be used for the treatment of several reproductive problems such
Lucas, W. R.
Certain decisions, problems, and successes are selected to recall the great impact of the 1950s on the history of rocketry, and particularly the inauguration of the space age. In reviewing the history of the Redstone, Juno, and Jupiter, some of the largest stepping stones to space, problems stand out in three areas: technical or engineering, management, and political.
This paper discusses various water management issues facing federal, state, and local agencies charged with managing the water resources of the Rio Grande River Basin and its major tributaries. The Rio Grande - 3,058 km (=1,900 mi) long - is the fourth longest river in the United States. The river's basin is 870,236 km2 (=336,000 mi2) and for roughly two-thirds of its length it forms the United States-Mexican border. It is a major recreational resource providing world class trout fishing near its headwaters in Colorado's San Juan Mountains and shoreline, angling, and boating opportunities near the Colorado-New Mexico border. The Rio Grande is the principal tourist attraction of Big Bend National Park and flows through downtown Albuquerque and El Paso. Many reaches are wide and broad, but almost all are relatively shallow and not navigable by commercial ships. Nevertheless, it is one of the most important renewable water resources of the southwestern United States and North America. The issue of the "manageability" of the river in the face of social forces and disparate administrative jurisdictions that adversely impact Rio Grande flows is a thread linking various sections of the paper together. The length of the river; the fact that major reaches lie in Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas; and its unique role as an international boundary pose complex management problems. The allocation status quo formed by the complex nexus of existing river laws make it difficult to reshape Rio Grande management. ?? 2009 ASCE.
Pepinsky, Thomas B.
This paper examines how political business relations have shaped country vulnerability to financial crises during periods of international financial contagion. While close relations between political and business elites in island Southeast Asia deepened vulnerability during the Asian Financial Crisis, the same does not hold during the global crisis of 2008-09—neither the countries where political business relations have changed (Indonesia) nor the countries where they are the same (Malaysia, ...
This article expresses some last thoughts from Abraham Maslow on his vision of humanistic psychology. He suggests that the two main problems of creating the good person and the good society are interwoven inextricably. He gives some social and political mechanisms which would enhance desirable personal growth and considers the main tasks of…
Dotts, Brian W.
Public school curriculum battles offer great examples for illustrating how politics saturates education policy, particularly in the State of Texas. However, Arizona has emerged as another peculiar contender in contemporary battles to control high school curricula. Curriculum battles have deep historical roots in Arizona and elsewhere that go…
Full Text Available Political crowdfunding is analyzed as a new concept of political science. The justification of use of crowdfunding technologies not only in business but also in the political sphere is argued. The efficiency, availability, low cost of the new forms of political investment through the development of information and communication technologies are noted. The typology of political crowdfunding is proposed. Political projects promoting domestic crowdfunding platforms are analyzed. Attention is drawn to the problem of legal gaps in the regulation of crowdfunding is studied. The foreign experience of organizing public support (mikroinvestment political projects. It is emphasized that in terms of political theory crowdfunding is based on solidarity. The crowdfunding properties of transforming social capital accumulated by social networks into financial capital are mentioned.
Town of Cary, North Carolina — View the location of the Town of Cary’s four Town Council districts.Please note that one district, District A, is split into two geo-spatial areas. One area is in...
Caskey, John; Kuperberg, Mark
This article describes the budget crisis that the School District of Philadelphia has faced for the past few years. Three specific events triggered the 2012 crisis: an abrupt reduction in federal and state funding, the inability of the district to cut many of its costs, and political pressures on the district to spend available revenues in a given…
An analytical framework for dealing with political entrepreneurship and reform is proposed which is based on some new combinations of Schumpeterian political economy, an extended version of Tullock's model of democracy as franchise-bidding for natural monopoly and some basic elements of New Institutional Economics. It is shown that problems of insufficient award criteria and incomplete contracts which may arise in economic bidding schemes, also - and even more so - characterise political comp...
Cheah, Y C; Kadir, A B; Jeyarajah, S
This is a cross sectional community study in Johor Bahru District. The aim of this study is to estimate the overall prevalence of emotional and behavioural deviance among the school children in three different geographical areas, and to identify their correlates. This paper presents the findings of phase one of a two-stage procedure involving a total of 589 children aged 10-12 years. Using the cut-off point validated locally, the prevalence of deviance on the parental scale was 40% in the rural school, 30.2% in the agricultural resettlement (Felda) school and 32.3% in the urban school. On the teachers' assessment, the prevalence of deviance was 40.8% in the rural school, 10.8% in the Felda School and 8.9% in the urban school. There was significantly higher prevalence of deviance in the rural school on the teachers' scale. In the rural school, significantly higher prevalence of deviance was found among boys.
Indexed African Journals Online: www.ajol.info as its potential contribution to political development in Nigeria-as it will be applicable to other developing countries of the world. This study provided theoretical postulations in analysing the notion of participatory governance, and linking the research problem (civic political ...
By request of the Dutch Lower House the Netherlands Court of Audit examined the profitability or loss-making of district heating projects between 2001 and 2003. District heating supplies heat to consumers for heating their houses and providing warm tap water. The heat is supplied via warm water that runs through a network of pipes. In the Netherlands, about 250,000 households use district heating. The request by the Dutch Lower House to conduct research on district heating coheres with the initiative District Heating Bill. The bill aims to legally guarantee the supply and affordability of heat for consumers of district heating. [mk] [nl
Nozari, Ali Yazdanpanah; Siamian, Hasan
Nowadays, regarding the learners' needs and social conditions, it is obviously needed to revise and reconsider the traditional methods and approaches in teaching. The problem solving approach is one of the new ways in Teaching and learning process. This study aimed at studying and examining the effect of "problem-solving" approach on creative thinking of high school female students. An experimental method is used for this research. In this research, 342 out of 3047 female-students from Sari high schools were randomly selected. These 342 students were divided into two groups (experimental and control) in which there were seven classrooms. The total number of students in every group was about 171. After testing them with Jamal Abedi creativity test, it was revealed that two groups were equal in creativity score. The tests were done through Requirements. The experimental group was taught by problem solving method for three months while the control group was taught by traditional method. The research results showed that using descriptive indices and t-test for the two independent sample groups in which problem solving teaching method was used in teaching processes had an effect on creativity level in comparison with traditional method used in the control group. Considering the results of this study, the application of problem-solving teaching methods increased the creativity and its components (fluidity, expansion, originality and flexibility) in learners, therefore, it is recommended that students be encouraged to take classes on frequent responses on various topics (variability) and draw attention on different issues, and expand their analysis on elements in particular courses like art (expansion). To enhance the learner's mental flexibility and attention to various aspects, they are encouraged to provide a variety of responses.
José Moura Gonçalves Filho
Full Text Available Este artigo opera com resultados de uma pesquisa de psicologia social desenvolvida em regime participante e envolvendo mulheres que na Vila Joanisa - SP assumiram comunitariamente o trabalho de Centros de Juventude. Dedicamo-nos aqui ao exame de um problema político e psicológico, a humilhação social, uma modalidade de angústia disparada pelo impacto traumático da desigualdade de classes: para assim caracterizá-lo, recorremos à investigação marxista e à psicanálise.This paper is based upon participant research carried out in Vila Joanisa, a desinfranchised and poor district of São Paulo. As a social psychologist, the author has worked in Youth Centers, community-based groups both organized and coordinated by women. The aim of this paper is to discribe and discuss social humiliation, defined as a singular kind of anguish triggered by class inequality trauma. The psychological and political concepts of social humiliation were integrated into a theoretical framework informed by marxism and psychoanalisis.
textabstractProf.dr. Jodi Dean, hoogleraar politieke filosofie aan Hobart and William Smith Colleges (Geneva, New York), sprak donderdag 19 februari 2009 haar inaugurele rede uit, getiteld "Politics without politics". Dean is dit jaar Erasmus Professor op de Erasmus Chair of Humanities in de Faculteit der Wijsbegeerte. De Erasmus Wisselleerstoel is ingesteld door de G. Ph. Verhagen Stichting. V In haar oratie gaat Dean in op het thema democratie in relatie tot linkse politiek. Enkele politiek...
Hoang Van Minh
data were largely lacking. The district lacked a disease early-warning system. 6 Medical products and technology: Emergency treatment protocols were not available in every studied health facility. Conclusions: The primary care system capacity in rural Vietnam is inadequate for responding to storm and flood-related health problems in terms of preventive and treatment healthcare. Developing clear facility preparedness plans, which detail standard operating procedures during floods and identify specific job descriptions, would strengthen responses to future floods. Health facilities should have contingency funds available for emergency response in the event of storms and floods. Health facilities should ensure that standard protocols exist in order to improve responses in the event of floods. Introduction of a computerized health information system would accelerate information and data processing. National and local policies need to be strengthened and developed in a way that transfers into action in local rural communities.
Van Minh, Hoang; Tuan Anh, Tran; Rocklöv, Joacim; Bao Giang, Kim; Trang, Le Quynh; Sahlen, Klas-Göran; Nilsson, Maria; Weinehall, Lars
lacking. The district lacked a disease early-warning system. 6) Medical products and technology: Emergency treatment protocols were not available in every studied health facility. Conclusions The primary care system capacity in rural Vietnam is inadequate for responding to storm and flood-related health problems in terms of preventive and treatment healthcare. Developing clear facility preparedness plans, which detail standard operating procedures during floods and identify specific job descriptions, would strengthen responses to future floods. Health facilities should have contingency funds available for emergency response in the event of storms and floods. Health facilities should ensure that standard protocols exist in order to improve responses in the event of floods. Introduction of a computerized health information system would accelerate information and data processing. National and local policies need to be strengthened and developed in a way that transfers into action in local rural communities. PMID:25511879
Van Minh, Hoang; Tuan Anh, Tran; Rocklöv, Joacim; Bao Giang, Kim; Trang, Le Quynh; Sahlen, Klas-Göran; Nilsson, Maria; Weinehall, Lars
As a tropical depression in the East Sea, Vietnam is greatly affected by climate change and natural disasters. Knowledge of the current capacity of the primary healthcare system in Vietnam to respond to health issues associated with storms and floods is very important for policy making in the country. However, there has been little scientific research in this area. This research was to assess primary healthcare system capacities in a rural district in central Vietnam to respond to such health issues. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study using quantitative and qualitative approaches. Quantitative methods used self-administered questionnaires. Qualitative methods (in-depth interviews and focus groups discussions) were used to broaden understanding of the quantitative material and to get additional information on actions taken. 1) Service delivery: Medical emergency services, especially surgical operations and referral systems, were not always available during the storm and flood seasons. 2) Governance: District emergency plans focus largely on disaster response rather than prevention. The plans did not clearly define the role of primary healthcare and had no clear information on the coordination mechanism among different sectors and organizations. 3) Financing: The budget for prevention and control of flood and storm activities was limited and had no specific items for healthcare activities. Only a little additional funding was available, but the procedures to get this funding were usually time-consuming. 4) Human resources: Medical rescue teams were established, but there were no epidemiologists or environmental health specialists to take care of epidemiological issues. Training on prevention and control of climate change and disaster-related health issues did not meet actual needs. 5) Information and research: Data that can be used for planning and management (including population and epidemiological data) were largely lacking. The district lacked a disease
Premkumar, Ashish; Salem, Karma; Akhtar, Sarah; Deeb, Mary E; Messersmith, Lisa J
The role of confessionalism in the Lebanese healthcare sector, especially since the resolution of the Lebanese civil war (1975-1990), has yet to discussed at length in reproductive health research. Using biopolitical and structural violence models to describe how community leaders in two low-income neighbourhoods in Beirut describe reproductive healthcare - specifically through judgments of perceived sect size vis-à-vis perceived use of birth control measures - this paper attempts to provide critical analysis of the state of reproductive health in this setting. By using a theoretical model of analysis, which we refer to as the political anatomy of reproduction, we hope to unmask how confessionalism is perpetuated through discussions of reproductive health and how public health and medical communities can challenge this technique of power.
Full Text Available Background: India accounted for one third of the global export market for cashew kernels. Unhealthy sitting posture, working near furnaces and contact with the cashew nut shell liquid may make the workers in the cashew sector vulnerable to many health issues Aims & Objectives: To identify the health related problems among female workers of cashew processing industries in Kollam district, southern Kerala, Setting and Design: A cross sectional study was conducted in selected cashew units of Kollam, Kerala. Material & Methods: An interviewer administered and structured questionnaire was used to collect health related issues from 301 female cashew processing workers. Statistical analysis: Descriptive statistics using frequencies was done and chi square test was used to detect difference between proportions. Results: Low back pain was the predominant problem (48.8% followed by hand and wrist pain (46.6%, knee pain (37.8% and neck pain (32.5%. Among the workers engaged in roasting, 86.6% had experienced a burn (p < 0.001. Workers engaged in roasting (53.3% and shelling (43.7% had blackish staining of their palms and fingers. Conclusion: Health related issues pertaining to musculoskeletal system, respiratory system, and skin conditions are highly prevalent among women engaged in cashew processing industry. A comprehensive programme to prevent health related issues may be considered to promote health of women engaged in cashew processing industries
The proceedings of the 7th International District Heating Conference contain the full texts of the 89 presented papers of which 11 fall under the INIS Subject Scope. The conference met in seven sessions and dealt with the following problem areas: design and optimization of systems of district heating, integration of the power system and the district heating systems, cooperation of nuclear and fossil burning sources in district heating systems, the use of specific nuclear power plants for heating purposes, questions of the control of systems of district heating, the development of components of heating networks, the reliability and design of heat supply pipes. (Z.M.)
Valery S. Misakov
Full Text Available In this article, the problems of territorial alignment asymmetry of the depressive republics in the North Caucasus are considered. It is proved that while making the integrated assessment for the involvement efficiency of factors into the conditions of the market relations and economic development of the region for providing set social results, it is possible to consider the level of social and economic development of the region of the Russian Federation. For these purposes it is expedient to use two complex indicators reflecting key aspects of territorial development: economic development level of the territory; social development level of the territory.
Rose, Jeremy; Sæbø, Øystein
The extension and transformation of political participation is dependent on widespread deliberation supported by information and communication technologies. The most commonly found examples of these eParticipation systems are political discussion forums. Though much of the discussion...... of these technologies is conducted in the eGovernment and (particularly) the eDemocracy literature, political discussion forums present a distinct set of design and management challenges which relate directly to IS concerns. In this article we analyze problems in establishing political deliberation systems under five...... headings: stakeholder engagement, web platform design, web platform management, political process re-shaping and evaluation and improvement. We review the existing literature and present a longitudinal case study of a political discussion forum: the Norwegian DemokratiTorget (Democracy Square). We define...
Hasan Vladimirovich Dzutsev
Full Text Available This article is based on the large-scale survey “the problem of drug addiction among the youth in the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania of the RF North Caucasian Federal District”. In April-May North Ossetian Center of Social Research of the Institute of Socio-Political Research RAS together with North Ossetian State University after K.L. Khetagurov conducted a monitoring aimed at evaluating the drug abuse situation in the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania and identifying the causes of drug abuse among young citizens of the republic. It studied the system of beliefs, habits and aspirations of young people. The research focused on the sociological assessment of the drug abuse situation in the Republic of North Ossetia and it was based on the study of systems of beliefs, habits and preferences of the residents, as well as on the identification of the reasons for the spread of drug addiction among the population. The achievement of this goal required solution of the following tasks: • to evaluate beliefs, value systems, life plans, the state of health of the North Ossetia-Alania citizens, learn their opinion on the possibility of rational leisure time and recreation by means of monitoring; • to assess bad habits of the republic citizens, estimate the society’s relation to the problems of drug addiction and drug addicts, analyze the reasons for the emergence and existence of this phenomenon in the society; • to evaluate effectiveness of the measures to combat drug addiction; • to identify reasons for drug addiction, most frequently used types of drugs, the cost of a single dose, a market place and consumers’ access to drugs; • to assess practical activities aimed at improving the drug abuse situation in the republic. The sample size was 600 people
Full Text Available BACKGROUND - In the early 1900s, the industrialization of cigarette production rapidly created the first major expansion in tobacco consumption in modern times. AIMS - This article focuses on the “tobacco problem” as it was understood, debated and sought governed in Norway around the time of the First World War. I identify various attempts to define tobacco as a problem, including arguments put forward by the anti-tobacco movement, the medical profession and politicians. How were health, moral-aesthetic and economic conditions articulated and integrated in these arguments? What (if any addictive elements of smoking were in focus? I also discuss the association between perceptions of the tobacco problem and political attempts to regulate it. There were repeated calls for a state tobacco monopoly to be introduced and municipal licensing system for the sale of cigarettes. DATA - The data are sourced from the journals Tobakskampen (The Tobacco Fight, the journal of the norwegian medical association and parliamentary documents. FINDINGS - The findings suggest that a to the extent tobacco was perceived as a social problem, it was a moral one (vice, not a behavioural and dependency problem, which alcohol was perceived to be at the time; b proposals to establish a tobacco monopoly were based on economic arguments only, and lacked any firm connection to social issues, health and morality; and c the anti-tobacco movement was socially marginal and their commitment to the municipal licensing idea resulted in large regional variations in public support, too large in fact for the idea to be effective. Although the government did not introduce regulations in the 1920s, the industrialization of cigarettes and subsequent developments in advertising caused a “moral panic” among tobacco opponents and created the modern climate of opinion regarding tobacco.
This book is a non-technical exploration of the political and policy issues that have influenced the development of nuclear power. Part One describes the successes, failures, horse-trading, and infighting that make up nuclear power's history, taking nine counties as examples. Part Two reviews the main problems that now confront us, as seen in mid-June 1990; like all contemporary accounts, the book is unavoidably incomplete. However, by then it was possible to make provisional judgements about two very important recent influences: the political consequences of Chernobyl, and concerns about the greenhouse effect. The story that emerges is of a nuclear industry that has rarely been guilty of dereliction of duty, though it was undeniably complacent in not addressing sooner the causes of the public's entirely reasonable anxieties. The anti-nuclear lobby has been skilled in debate, and sometimes extraordinarily percipient; but less than fair in failing to acknowledge the industry's achievements and its willingness to learn from past mistakes. As for the politicians, the book contains many examples that show how the flames of controversy can be deliberately fanned when there are votes to be gained. The story has few heroes, but within the industry fewer villains than the public has been led to believe. (author)
Gallagher, C F
The 2 most important factors which will influence Mexico's future economic development are the country's overpopulation problem and the manner in which the country's oil reserves are exploited. This document describes the historical development of Mexico's oil industry and the current struggle of the government to ensure that the oil resources contribute toward the sound economic development of the country. The government expropriated foreign oil companies in 1938 and today most of the oil operations in Mexico are conducted by the state controlled Pemex Company. In recent years extensive oil reserves were discovered in Mexico and the country is now in the position of having large oil reserves at a time when oil prices are increasing. Known crude oil reserves are estimated at 31 billion barrels; however, an unconfirmed report by Pemex in 1980 placed the known reserves at 50 billion barrels. In the past the management of Pemex was corrupt and inefficient and many top positions in the company were filled by retired politicians. The recent appointment of Jose Andres de Oteyza as Chairman of the Board and of Jorge Diaz Serrano as the Director-General should greatly improve Pemex operations. In developing the country's oil industry the government wants 1) to keep production low enough to offset inflation and to preserve the resource but 2) to produce enough oil so that the country has sufficient funds for investment and for operating needed social programs. The government may not be able to keep oil production down to acceptable levels. It may be forced to increase oil exports to compensate for its growing reliance on imported food and other imported products. In recent years Mexico's industrial productivity and its agricultural production declined. The government wants to avoid being placed in the position where it will be forced to trade large quantities of oil for needed food. The current government is promoting investment in agriculture and industrial development in
Lloyd George Waller
Full Text Available Youth participation through political talk appears to be shifting to the online public sphere in many parts of the world. Many attribute this shift to online social networks such as Facebook. Emerging research seem to suggest that this may be a cure for the problem of political apathy among the youth. This study explores such a possibility in Jamaica. In all, 752 youth ages 15 to 24 were surveyed to ascertain whether Facebook encourages political talk among this age cohort, and what if any are the primary factors that discourage this practice. The findings suggest that (a Facebook is an extension of offline political talk among the civically engaged and politically charged youth of Jamaica; (b Facebook does not substantively encourage political talk among the politically apathetic Jamaican youth; and (c fear of political victimization is the primary factor that discourages many Jamaican youth to engage in political talk on Facebook.
Political polarization has been shown to significantly influence a country's economic performance. However, little is known about the drivers of political polarization. In this article, we aim to identify the main determinants of political polarization using Bayesian Model Averaging to overcome the problem of model uncertainty. We find that the level of trust within a country and the degree of income inequality are the most robust determinants of political polarization.
Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Forestry Districts layer is part of a dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. This is a layer file which...
Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset is a representation overlay of warden (areas of responsibility). The Vermont Warden Districts layer is part of a dataset that contains administrative...
Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Wildlife Districts layer is part of a larger dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes feature...
Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Wastewater districts layer is part of a larger dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...
Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Parks Districts layer is part of a dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes feature classes for...
Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Fisheries districts data layer is part of a larger dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset...
are mainly interested in assessing and promoting innovations in public service delivery, but have paid little or no attention to the need for innovations in polity, politics and policy. This article develops a research agenda for studying innovations in political institutions, in the political process...... and in policy outputs. It proposes a number of research themes related to political innovations that call for scholarly attention, and identifies push and pull factors influencing the likelihood that these themes will be addressed in future research....
Storm, Paula; Kelly, Robert; deVries, Susann
People and organizations are inherently political. Library workplace environments have zones of tension and dynamics just like any corporation, often leading to the formation of political camps. These different cliques influence productivity and work-related issues and, at worst, give meetings the feel of the Camp David negotiations. Politics are…
Rapp, Carolin; Traunmüller, Richard; Freitag, Markus
This article combines the research strands of moral politics and political behavior by focusing on the effect of individual and contextual religiosity on individual vote decisions in popular initiatives and public referenda concerning morally charged issues. We rely on a total of 13 surveys with 1...... American research on moral politics, direct democracies, and the public role of religion....
Cockburn, Patrick Joseph
The central claim of this book is that thinking about ‘dependence’ should be at the core of political theory principally because it helps us to think about issues of economic justice. Unlike political theories that either condemn or celebrate dependence, the book argues that dependence...... is an inescapable fact of social life, neither good nor bad in itself. The real political issues are about how we as a society organise and judge various forms of dependence. And this is, in fact, what much political debate is about if we dig beneath the surface. On the one hand, we disagree about how we should...... organise vulnerability; on the other hand, we disagree about who we should condemn as parasitical. Vulnerability and parasitism are thus key concepts for understanding political debate about forms of dependence. Showing the tension between these two sides to the problem of economic dependence...
Full Text Available Political violence plays a huge role in public affairs and people's behavior, requiring both knowledge and rigorous research in many of its occurrences and its consequences for the proper management, organization and functioning of a society as a whole. Although political violence is a problem of a particular importance in our social life it is not analyzed and investigated in the scientific literature. Political violence it is a subject that usually passes into oblivion. This study presents some ideas and themes about the role and functions of political power, displaying the types of political violence and their consequences for the management and functioning of a society, which can be subject to wider debates and researchs.
Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis
The rise of new media and the broader set of social changes they are part of present political communication research with new challenges and new opportunities at a time when many think the field is at an intellectual impasse (e.g., Bennett & Iyengar, 2008). In this article, I argue that parts...... of the field’s problems are rooted in the way in which political communication research has developed since the 1960s. In this period, the field has moved from being interdisciplinary and mixed-methods to being more homogenous and narrowly focused, based primarily on ideas developed in social psychology...... of political communication processes and questions concerning the symbolic, institutional, and technological nature of these processes—especially during a time of often rapid change. To overcome this problem, I argue that the field of political communication research should re-engage with the rest of media...
International audience; Introduction Geography and politics'', Gottmann wrote in 1980, ``have long been in search of each other'' (page 11). Debates in the literature suggest not only that they have found each other, but also that the encounter has instigated, notably in the last decade or so, a body of literature seeking to think space politically, and to think politics spatially. This is not to suggest that previous work on space was apolitical, nor to suggest that previous work on politics...
Troy R. E. Paddock
Full Text Available Walter Benjamin’s observation that fascism turns politics into aesthetics is, by now, a well-worn idea. This article argues that Benjamin’s critique of politics can apply just as much to the modern democratic politics of the United States. Borrowing from Benjamin, Jürgen Habermas, and Carl Schmitt, this article suggests that modern political discourse in the United States does not follow the classical liberal ideal of rational discourse in the marketplace of ideas within the public sphere. Instead, contemporary politics has become spectacle where images and slogans replace thought and debate in a 24/7 news cycle and political infotainment programs. The result is that progressives and conservatives have their own political “ecospheres” which enable them to have their own perspective reinforced, and debate is replaced by straw man arguments and personal attacks.
Discusses how to bring political issues into the classroom, highlighting the influence of local context and noting conservative and liberal criticisms of political correctness. Suggests the need for a different idea of how to teach politically from the advocacy pedagogy advanced by recent critical educators, explaining that bringing students into…
Turper, Sedef; Aarts, Kees
Political trust is an important indicator of political legitimacy. Hence, seemingly decreasing levels of political trust in Western democracies have stimulated a growing body of research on the causes and consequences of political trust. However, the neglect of potential measurement problems of
Isacoff, Jonathan B.
This article argues for a political science discipline and teaching framework predicated empirically on the study of "real-world problems" and normatively on promoting civic engagement among political science students. I argue for a rethinking of political science and political science education in view of the pragmatist thought of John…
Petersen, Michael Bang; Aarøe, Lene
As evidenced by research in evolutionary psychology, humans have evolved sophisticated psychological mechanisms tailored to solve enduring adaptive problems of social life. Many of these social problems are political in nature and relate to the distribution of costs and benefits within and between groups. In that sense, evolutionary psychology suggests that humans are, by nature, political animals. By implication, a straightforward application of evolutionary psychology to the study of public opinion seems to entail that modern individuals find politics intrinsically interesting. Yet, as documented by more than fifty years of research in political science, people lack knowledge of basic features of the political process and the ability to form consistent political attitudes. By reviewing and integrating research in evolutionary psychology and public opinion, we describe (1) why modern mass politics often fail to activate evolved mechanisms and (2) the conditions in which these mechanisms are in fact triggered.
Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás
In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.
L. Y. Uhryn
Full Text Available The sociopolitical and intellectual preconditions of the «political identity» concept’s categorical construction in the 20th century, as well as its historic and political origins have been defined in the article. It has been proved by the author that the «political identity» concept had replaced certain concepts, traditional for the Western classic philosophy discourse, such as «oneness», «selfness» and «self-awareness». Moreover, it was actualized by the cultural and sociopolitical context of late Modern and by the situation of transition from traditional society towards the post-traditional one, which was characterized by the increasing complexity of the social structure and expansion of political participation’s possibilities for citizens and groups. More relevant reflection of the social and communication dimensions of identity were provided, grounded by the psychoanalytical and sociological traditions of its interpretations and were further developed by the representatives of the symbolic interactionism and social constructivism. The conceptualization of the political identity began in the first half of the 20th century within the electoral studies, during which it was equated with party, ideological and class identification. Its broader interpretation was developed within the theories of modernization, transitology, new social movements, social and political systems, which emphasized the institutional and behavioral dimensions of political identity, as well as its integrative functions. It has been established in the study that the division into individual and collective (social identities facilitated the differentiation of the identity research in political and social sphere and its subject identification. As a result, the collective identities most fully integrated into the subject field of political science, as they were interpreted as a reflection of common expectations, goals being as a factor of collective action
Jeppesen, Søren; Morsing, Mette
We engage a discussion of political CSR in SMEs in an African context. Based on critical observations on Western MNC CSR action in emerging economies that holds counterproductive implications for social development, political economists have argued that business profit far more than society...... development in local African communities. Our findings extend political CSR research by directing attention to how the corporate influence in developing economies does not only emerge from MNCs but is also established and retained by SMEs CSR work....
Casey B. Mulligan; Kevin K. Tsui
Political competitiveness - which many interpret as the degree of democracy - can be modeled as a monopolistic competition. All regimes are constrained by the threat of "entry," and thereby seek some combination of popular support and political entry barriers. This simple model predicts that many public policies are unrelated to political competitiveness, and that even unchallenged nondemocratic regimes should tax far short of their Laffer curve maximum. Economic sanctions, odious debt repudi...
DeFriez, Joshua; Larsen, Justine; Hilton, Nicholas
Environmental legislation is commonly accepted as an altruistic approach to land management. A closer examination however, reveals that political incentives and flawed arguments consistently shape U.S. environmental policy at high public costs. As student fellows at the Institute of Political Economy at Utah State University, we have had the opportunity to research this subject under the direction of Professor Randy Simmons. Political Ecology is his upcoming book that explores a variety of en...
Political campaigns are orchestrated attempts by political organizations to garner public support through persuasive communication in order to influence public policy in their favor. This broad definition encapsulates all forms of campaigns from those of neighborhood organizations seeking to influence local politicians to the campaigns of political parties and candidates who seek election to office in order to shape policy themselves. In pluralist democracies, campaigns are crucial for repres...
Åkerstrøm Andersen, Niels
One of the major discussions of the 1990s has been about the relation between politics and administration. The themes of the discussions have been many and varied. It has been suggested that the level of politics should concentrate on the general political outlining and entrust the remaining to the administration. It has been criticised that politicians make their decisions on the basis of single cases, which ought to be an administrative matter entirely. It has been a theme that efficient op...
Purpose: to analyze the state and level of the human resources development in the studied municipal region. The method of involved observation, structural and system analysis of statistical data on the state of human resources of the municipal region administration and adjacent structures was used in the research. In accordance with the research results, a strategic plan of the municipal district administration human resources and the system of monitoring of the scheduled measures aimed at th...
Full Text Available Agro Ecosystem analysis using the Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA techniques of an adaptive village (Jainpur of New Alluvial Zone of Murshidabad-Jiaganj block in Murshidabad district, West Bengal revealed that the village basically has rice and jute based farming system. The cropping intensity of the village is 233%. Out of 363 household 80% is engaged in Agriculture, Animal Husbandry and other allied activities. The land availability per household is 0.40 ha. The villagers are mostly scheduled caste. By snow ball technique major problems were identified .On the basis of bio-physical and socio-economic problems, thrust area were selected. Area specific On Farm Trials (OFT in farmers' were conducted on some researchable issues. Front Line Demonstration (FLD, training programme, health camp, awareness camp and other different extension activities were arranged to mitigate the problems.
against established authorities. I adopt a ‘discursive institutionalist’ approach and argue that decisions to ban the political parties linked to the IRA and ETA can be explained at least in part by the dominance of a ‘discourse of intolerance’ in which proscription is seen predominantly as a problem......In the paper I address the empirical puzzle arising from different responses by political authorities in Spain and the UK to the existence of political parties integrated in the terrorist groups Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA, Basque Homeland and Freedom) and the Irish Republican Army (IRA). More...... specifically I address the question of why the radical Basque nationalist political party Herri Batasuna and its successors, and the republican parties Sinn Féin and the Republican Clubs, enjoyed periods of legality and illegality during periods in which they all were involved in (separate) violent campaigns...
河村, 直幸; Kawamura, Naoyuki
The aim of this research paper is to introduce a political campaign strategy. A political campaign should do on a scientific system and needs effective strategy. Before political campaign begin, a candidate and its campaigner needs to analyze election district and sample voter opinion. An election campaign needs campaign theme. The creation of campaign theme needs careful and elaborate planning. A style of campaign varies according to incumbent or challenger. The developing of an effective po...
Aleshina E. Yu.
The problem of political discourse genre specificity has been in the center of attention of Russian and foreign scholars, which is determined by the relevance of political discourse as a multidimensional object of study with its linguistic properties in particular. The ambiguity of principles for genre gradation of political discourse is linked to the variability of understanding genre proper. The definition of genre as goal-oriented text characteristics allows accentuating some genres of pol...
Full Text Available Essay faces the problem of determinacy of global capitalism processes for the reality of urban political life. The city is naturally communitarian form of human life and seems to be the place where radical pro-community politics could be undertaken. Already existing and operating forms of power could fruitfully influence the city social relations. Values and norms of conduct are broadly delegated on the urban space and materiality, thus conscious shaping of city space has severe consequences for community life. If a crisis of the political partly has its roots in metamorphoses of the cities, then also remedies, rising from the urban materiality and reestablishing political subjects, could be thought. City, as most real place of political life could be either reduced to the aggregate of consumers or reestablished as a political community. Due to this is the place where undesired course of action could be stopped, hence precisely here the radical democratic politics can emerge.
Rasch, V; Muhammad, H; Urassa, E
Illegal abortion is known to be a major contributor to maternal mortality. The objective of the study was firstly to identify women with illegally induced abortion, (IA) and to compare them with women admitted with a spontaneous abortion (SA) or receiving antenatal care (AC), and secondly...... to describe the circumstances which characterized the abortion. The population of this cross-sectional questionnaire study comprised patients from Temeke District Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. After an in-depth confidential interview, 603 women with incomplete abortion were divided into two groups: 362...
Uranium is the most political of all the elements, the material for the production of both the large amounts of electricity and the most destructive weapons in the world. The problems that its dual potential creates are only now beginning to become evident. Author Norman Moss looks at this situation and sheds light on many of the questions that emerge. The nuclear issue always comes back to how much uranium there is, what can be done with it, and which countries have it. Starting with a concise history of uranium and explaining its technology in terms the nonspecialist can understand, The Politics of Uranium considers the political issues that technical arguments obscure. It tells the little-known story of the international uranium cartel, explains the entanglements of governments with the uranium trade, and describes the consequences of wrong decisions and blunders-especially the problems of nuclear waste. It also examines the intellectual and emotional roots of the anti-nuclear movement
Davidson, Cathy N.
A discussion of "political correctness" and college faculty argues that the college teaching profession is being scapegoated for problems in U.S. education at all levels and criticized for threatening the existence of Western civilization. Examples are given of such "political hypocrisy" which is seen to ignore the historical…
Stevens, Richard G.
The meaning and understanding of conscience in political thought are examined. The problem of distinguishing apparent and real conscience and private and public judgment is illustrated by contrasting the acts of conscience of Socrates and Thomas More with the rejection of private judgment against the state in Hobbes and Locke. (RM)
Brunila, Kristiina; Rossi, Leena-Maija
In this article, identity politics is understood as a form of politics stressing collective but malleable group identities as the basis of political action. This notion of identity politics also allows thinking of identity as intersectional. The focus of this article, and a problem related to identity politics, is that when discussed in the…
... RIN 3206-AM80 Political Activity--Federal Employees Residing in Designated Localities AGENCY: Office... Federal employees residing in the District of Columbia a partial exemption from the political activity... becoming candidates for partisan political office and from soliciting, accepting, or receiving political...
Fusarelli, Bonnie C.; Lindle, Jane Clark
The purpose of this article is to illustrate Professor William L. Boyd's insights into the political ecology of schooling and his contributions and collaboration with others concerned about ensuring the well-being of students, families, and communities. Over his career, Boyd investigated the subtle and complex organizational constraints to…
Full Text Available According to Foucault, the uprising of the Iranian people in the seventies reveals how much the political force of Islam is due precisely to the fact that it is not principally located in the field of politics, but in that of ethics. Religion (Shiite Islam appears as the guarantee of real change in the very mode of existence. This spiritual politics is marginalized by Marxism, where it is understood as a discontinuity in relation to proper politics, given that the latter is necessarily linked to a strategic rationalization. By indicating, at this juncture of what is intolerable, the living source and the critical impulse of the Foucauldian ethics, this spiritual politics also leads to recognize in the concept of “subjectivation” a dimension that might escape the circle of freedom as determined by a total immanence to power. This conceptual possibility is highly present in the aporias of the Foucauldian concept of the “relation to oneself”, both as a first condition of governmentality and the ultimate point of resistance against any governmentality. It thus reveals the difficulties in relating political to ethical subjectivation.
Full Text Available Political representation is the central issue in contemporary debates on the level of democracy in political institutions and processes in the European Union. Underrepresentation of particular groups in political institutions, decision-making and policy-making processes is perceived as the problem of justice, legitimacy and effectiveness in democratic societies. In this paper, the author analyzes the gender aspects of democratic decision-making processes and political representation of women in the EU member states. The social, historical and political dimension of women's efforts to obtain and promote their civil status and political rights have been the framework for developing the principle of gender equality as one of the founding EU principles. In the past hundred years, one of the most significant trends in politics has been the expansion of formal political representation of women. Yet, even though it has been more than a hundered years since women won their political rights in the 19th and the 20th century (the right to vote and the right to be voted, gender differences in political rights are still a substantial part of debate. Today, women's political representation is still inadequate and their political capacity and power have not been exercised to a sufficient extent (or proportionally through their actual representation in parliament. In March 2012, the European Commisision published a report on gender equality in different areas of social life; the Eurobarometer survey shows that women are generally underrepresented in politics. In national parliaments, only one out of four MPs is a woman. In the European Parliament, three out of ten parliamentarians are women. The statistics shows a huge discrepancy among the EU Member States in terms of women's representation in parliament (44.7% in Sweden as contrasted to 13.3% in Romania. The prevailing view in many studies is that post-industrial democracies are deficient as they have failed
Herrero de Miñón, Miguel
Full Text Available Politics, Law and Psychology are fields that come together in the symbolic. This text takes evidence from those three areas to develop an analysis of political symbols and political transitions. The development of the analysis goes through three stages. The first succinctly describes the concept of transition and its meaning. The second closely examines the notion of the symbol, in terms of its definition, to explain aspects that allow us to understand it, characterise it and make its functions clear. Finally, from the author's experience as a witness and as an actor, I suggest three ways of understanding symbols in the processes of political transition: as symbols of change, as symbols of acknowledgment, and as symbols of support.
Muddam, Sandeep Reddy
The abstract mainly focuses on describing the prototype of the "GIS Multimedia View of Local Politics" of San Diego County. This project puts the local political information on a website which helps school children to learn about the structure of a political body and how it is organized, how the representatives are elected. It also puts up the statistics of the elections previously held. So for this, past and present election statistics have been collected. The shape files of San Diego county, congressional districts, council districts, supervisor districts have been collected. A sample community college districts is also presented. With these shape files we can show the information in an interactive map application which is based on GIS. Poll Watcher: A candidate, political party or political committee may ask someone to go to a polling place or early voting area and observe. This person is known as a poll watcher. The poll watcher observes the election process to see if any violation of the election laws occurs. If a violation occurs, the poll watcher is to refer the violation to the clerk of the election board.
Full Text Available The mutual interacüon and relation which have long past between the political systems communication tools and communication has started to have a different quality parellel nal changing especially in the second half of the 20 th century. The period of new ralisation and globalization have carried the new explanation and interpretation of political and its companents together. Media systems which is of the basic companets of racies and aiso the auality and extent of communication freedom have been considerably fedfrom the study of market system. The changing which have occured in the construction of capital has increased the tendencies of becoming capitalist in this sector. However the monopolization of media means the restriction of men's freedom of getting news.
This chapter explores the relationship between the stories people tell about their lives, and the political frameworks which form the context for those stories. Discussion in the article is based on data collected in four different research projects: the first carried out with fifteen British lifetime socialist activists; the second with anti-war activists during the Gulf War of 1992. The third project was carried out in the former East Germany, in 1992, immediately following the opening of t...
Anokbonggo, W W; Ogwal-Okeng, J W; Ross-Degnan, D; Aupont, O
In Uganda, the decentralization of administrative functions, management, and responsibility for health care to districts, which began in 1994, resulted in fundamental changes in health care delivery. Since the introduction of the policy in Uganda, little information has been available on stakeholders' perceptions about the benefits of the policy and how decentralization affected health care delivery. To identify the perceptions and beliefs of key stakeholders on the impact and process of decentralization and on the operations of health services in two districts in Uganda, and to report their suggestions to improve future implementation of similar policies. We used qualitative research methods that included focus group discussions with 90 stakeholders from both study districts. The sample population comprised of 12 health workers from the two hospitals, 11 district health administrators, and 67 Local Council Leaders. Perceptions and concerns of stakeholders on the impact of decentralization on district health services. There was a general consensus that decentralization empowered local administrative and political decision-making. Among stakeholders, the policy was perceived to have created a sense of ownership and responsibility. Major problems that were said to be associated with decentralization included political harassment of civil servants, increased nepotism, inadequate financial resources, and mismanagement of resources. This study elicited perceptions about critical factors upon which successful implementation of the decentralization policy depended. These included: appreciation of the role of all stakeholders by district politicians; adequate availability and efficient utilization of resources; reasonably developed infrastructure prior to the policy change; appropriate sensitisation and training of those implementing policies; and the good will and active involvement of the local community. In the absence of these factors, implementation of
The first 1000 day of life is the most important period in human life. Nutritional status during this period highly influences the quality of health, cognitive and productivity in the future. This research aims to assess the nutritional status of the first 1000 days in City and District of Malang. This research analyses the database and report of nutritional survey (Pre Dietetics Internship, Nutritional Study Program University of Brawijaya in area of City and District Malang from February 2012-February 2016. The research subjects included pregnant women (n 777, lactating mother (n 718, infant (n 638 and children under two year (n 554. Nutritional status was measured by using anthropometry method, with indicators for pregnant women: BMI pre pregnancy, MUAC and pregnancy weight gain; for lactating mother: BMI and MUAC; infant and under two year children: z-score weight-for-length, length-for-age dan weight-for-age. Nutrient intake was obtained by using 24h recall. Breastfeeding pattern, complementary feeding practice, and factors associated with nutritional status were collected by using structured questionnaire. All data was presented using descriptive statistics. Result shows that nutritional problem among pregnant women, lactating mother, infant and children under two year children was categorized into high and medium. There were 18,9% and 30,3% of pregnant women entering their pregnancy with underweight and overweight problem; and 49,3% low pregnancy weight gain. The percentage of underweight in lactating mother was 8,4%. Wasting and stunting in infant and children under two year were categorized as “medium problem” (wasting: 7,5% vs. 7,8%; stunting: 21,0% vs. 21.2%. There was 94,4% of infant receiving breastmilk. However exclussive breastfeeding practice only accounted for 28,8%, since there were 52,8% dan 66,5% of them received prelacteal and early complementary food. Nutritional problems in City and District Malang are still a challange and need to
Full Text Available Abstract Background While sustainability of health programmes has been the subject of empirical studies, there is little evidence specifically on the sustainability of Community Based Organisations (CBOs for HIV/AIDS. Debates around optimal approaches in community health have centred on utilitarian versus empowerment approaches. This paper, using the World Bank Multi-Country AIDS Program (MAP in Zambia as a case study, seeks to evaluate whether or not this global programme contributed to the sustainability of CBOs working in the area of HIV/AIDS in Zambia. Lessons for optimising sustainability of CBOs in lower income countries are drawn. Methods In-depth interviews with representatives of all CBOs that received CRAIDS funding (n = 18 and district stakeholders (n= 10 in Mumbwa rural district in Zambia, in 2010; and national stakeholders (n=6 in 2011. Results Funding: All eighteen CBOs in Mumbwa that received MAP funding between 2003 and 2008 had existed prior to receiving MAP grants, some from as early as 1992. This was contrary to national level perceptions that CBOs were established to access funds rather than from the needs of communities. Funding opportunities for CBOs in Mumbwa in 2010 were scarce. Health services: While all CBOs were functioning in 2010, most reported reductions in service provision. Home visits had reduced due to a shortage of food to bring to people living with HIV/AIDS and scarcity of funding for transport, which reduced antiretroviral treatment adherence support and transport of patients to clinics. Organisational capacity and viability: Sustainability had been promoted during MAP through funding Income Generating Activities. However, there was a lack of infrastructure and training to make these sustainable. Links between health facilities and communities improved over time, however volunteers’ skills levels had reduced. Conclusions Whilst the World Bank espoused the idea of sustainability in their plans, it remained
In this paper, I propose that depression is a political phenomenon insofar as it has political sources and consequences. I then investigate one aspect of this argument—whether depression reduces participation. I hypothesize that individuals with depression lack the motivation and physical capacity to vote and engage in other forms of political participation due to somatic problems and feelings of hopelessness and apathy. Moreover, I examine how depression in adolescence can have downstream consequences for participation in young adulthood. The analyses, using both cross-sectional and longitudinal data, show that voter turnout and other forms of participation decrease as the severity of depressed mood increases. These findings are discussed in light of disability rights and potential efforts to boost participation among this group. PMID:26924857
…THE POLITICAL LEADERS of the local government of Chongqing, China, vigorously promote a low-carbon economy and sustainable development to mitigate environmental pollution. Accordingly, research grants focused on this issue were supported by the government, and our group obtained a grant for a pr...... for a project about industrial park planning and design.…In my view, political priorities based on correct decision-making and market requirements are beneficial for researchers.......…THE POLITICAL LEADERS of the local government of Chongqing, China, vigorously promote a low-carbon economy and sustainable development to mitigate environmental pollution. Accordingly, research grants focused on this issue were supported by the government, and our group obtained a grant...
Jeppesen, Søren; Morsing, Mette
We engage a discussion of political CSR in SMEs in an African context. Based on critical observations on Western MNC CSR action in emerging economies that holds counterproductive implications for social development, political economists have argued that business profit far more than society...... development in local African communities. Our findings extend political CSR research by directing attention to how the corporate influence in developing economies does not only emerge from MNCs but is also established and retained by SMEs CSR work....... in developing economies from CSR. In this paper we argue that local SMEs CSR work have strong influence in developing economies, that also includes counterproductive influence for social development. Based on empirical findings from African countries, we conceptualize how CSR in African SMEs differ from...
Full Text Available This study presents evidence for the mediation effect of political knowledge through political self-efficacy (i.e. internal political efficacy in the prediction of political participation. It employs an action theoretic approach—by and large grounded on the Theory of Planned Behaviour—and uses data from the German Longitudinal Election Study to examine whether political knowledge has distinct direct effects on voting, conventional, and/or unconventional political participation. It argues that political knowledge raises internal political efficacy and thereby indirectly increases the chance that a citizen will participate in politics. The results of mediated multiple regression analyses yield evidence that political knowledge indeed translates into internal political efficacy, thus it affects political participation of various kinds indirectly. However, internal political efficacy and intentions to participate politically yield simultaneous direct effects only on conventional political participation. Sequentially mediated effects appear for voting and conventional political participation, with political knowledge being mediated by internal political efficacy and subsequently also by behavioural intentions. The mediation patterns for unconventional political participation are less clear though. The discussion accounts for restrictions of this study and points to questions for answer by future research.
This study presents evidence for the mediation effect of political knowledge through political self-efficacy (i.e. internal political efficacy) in the prediction of political participation. It employs an action theoretic approach—by and large grounded on the Theory of Planned Behaviour—and uses data from the German Longitudinal Election Study to examine whether political knowledge has distinct direct effects on voting, conventional, and/or unconventional political participation. It argues that political knowledge raises internal political efficacy and thereby indirectly increases the chance that a citizen will participate in politics. The results of mediated multiple regression analyses yield evidence that political knowledge indeed translates into internal political efficacy, thus it affects political participation of various kinds indirectly. However, internal political efficacy and intentions to participate politically yield simultaneous direct effects only on conventional political participation. Sequentially mediated effects appear for voting and conventional political participation, with political knowledge being mediated by internal political efficacy and subsequently also by behavioural intentions. The mediation patterns for unconventional political participation are less clear though. The discussion accounts for restrictions of this study and points to questions for answer by future research. PMID:27298633
Bigo, Didier; Isin, Engin; Ruppert, Evelyn
The commentary raises political questions about the ways in which data has been constituted as an object vested withcertain powers, influence, and rationalities.We place the emergence and transformation of professional practices such as‘data science’, ‘data journalism’, ‘data brokerage’, ‘data mining’, ‘data storage’, and ‘data analysis’ as part of the reconfigurationof a series of fields of power and knowledge in the public and private accumulation of data. Data politics asksquestions about ...
A prominent strand within current migration research argues that, to understand the participation of immigrants in their host societies, we must focus on their incorporation into the cities in which they settle. This article narrows the perspective further by focusing on the role that immigrants...... play within one particular neighbourhood: Nørrebro in the Danish capital, Copenhagen. The article introduces the concept of grounded politics to analyse how groups of Muslim immigrants in Nørrebro use the space, relationships and history of the neighbourhood for identity political statements...
Monogan III, James E
Political Analysis Using R can serve as a textbook for undergraduate or graduate students as well as a manual for independent researchers. It is unique among competitor books in its usage of 21 example datasets that are all drawn from political research. All of the data and example code is available from the Springer website, as well as from Dataverse (http://dx.doi.org/10.7910/DVN/ARKOTI). The book provides a narrative of how R can be useful for addressing problems common to the analysis of public administration, public policy, and political science data specifically, in addition to the social sciences more broadly. While the book uses data drawn from political science, public administration, and policy analyses, it is written so that students and researchers in other fields should find it accessible and useful as well. Political Analysis Using R is perfect for the first-time R user who has no prior knowledge about the program. By working through the first seven chapters of this book, an entry-level user sho...
Bigham, Gary; Ray, Jan
This ex post facto, causal-comparative research study examined student reading performance data within a school district before and after a school district-wide decision to alter the reading curriculum in response to local political pressure from parents. Data analysis revealed that test scores dropped to a significantly lower level, especially…
Welfare state retrenchment is widely seen as a highly unpopular endeavour and, therefore, as politically difficult to pursue. This assumption has underpinned most of the political science research on this issue, notably Paul Pierson's seminal contributions about the 'new politics of the welfare...... state'. Yet, the question remains why and under what circumstances cutbacks take place in highly developed welfare states despite these formidable political obstacles. This article reviews the literature on the politics of retrenchment, namely on the impact of socio-economic problem pressure, political...... parties, political institutions, welfare state structures and ideas. Most authors agree that socio-economic problems - particularly domestic problems - contribute to an atmosphere of 'permanent austerity' which inspires cutbacks. Moreover, according to most scholars, the extent of retrenchment possible...
Dixit, Avinash K.; Weibull, Jörgen W.
Failures of government policies often provoke opposite reactions from citizens; some call for a reversal of the policy, whereas others favor its continuation in stronger form. We offer an explanation of such polarization, based on a natural bimodality of preferences in political and economic contexts and consistent with Bayesian rationality.
Dixit, Avinash K; Weibull, Jörgen W
Failures of government policies often provoke opposite reactions from citizens; some call for a reversal of the policy, whereas others favor its continuation in stronger form. We offer an explanation of such polarization, based on a natural bimodality of preferences in political and economic contexts and consistent with Bayesian rationality.
This dissertation supplies a number of research findings that add to a theory of news framing effects, and also to the understanding of the role media effects play in political communication. We show that researchers must think more about what actually constitutes a framing effect, and that a
Solhaug, Trond; Kristensen, Niels Nørgaard
The very idea about democracies is public participation in elections, decision-making and/or public engagement. The democratic participation distributes power among ordinary people and serve to legitimize decisions in public affairs and is a vital characteristic of a political culture.”The term ’...
Full Text Available Ahlat district has suitable topography for growing of agricultural products. Almost half of Ahlat district is suitable for agricultural. Today, 32.7% of the land use in Ahlat is agricultural area. 90% of agricultural area is dry farming area. 10% of agricultural area is irrigated. 60.3%of land use in Ahlat district is pasturage area. The economy of Ahlat is based on agricultural and animal husbandry. Today, agricultural products such as wheat, potato and sugar beet are grown in agricultural areas. Ahlat district has some problems like unplanned production, irrigation and marketing.
Young, Nathan; Corriveau, Marianne; Nguyen, Vivian M; Cooke, Steven J; Hinch, Scott G
This article examines how potential users of scientific and local/traditional/experiential knowledge evaluate new claims to knowing, using 67 interviews with government employees and non-governmental stakeholders involved in co-managing salmon fisheries in Canada's Fraser River. Research has consistently shown that there are major obstacles to moving new knowledge into policy, management, and public domains. New concepts such as Knowledge Exchange (KE) and Knowledge Mobilization (KMb) are being used to investigate these obstacles, but the processes by which potential users evaluate (sometimes competing) knowledge claims remain poorly understood. We use concepts from the sociology of science and find that potential users evaluate new knowledge claims based on three broad criteria: (1) the perceived merits of the claim, (2) perceptions of the character and motivation of the claimant, and (3) considerations of the social and political context of the claim. However, government employees and stakeholders have different interpretations of these criteria, leading to different knowledge preferences and normative expectations of scientists and other claimants. We draw both theoretical and practical lessons from these findings. With respect to theory, we argue that the sociology of science provides valuable insights into the political dimensions of knowledge and should be explicitly incorporated into KE/KMb research. With respect to practice, our findings underline the need for scientists and other claimants to make conscious decisions about whose expectations they hope to meet in their communications and engagement activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Alexey I. Podberyozkin
Full Text Available Military-political issues is an important area of research work at MGIMO. The difference in this direction from the classical international specialization is that it is at the intersection of several disciplines: military science, military-technical and military-industrial as well as International Relations. A specialist in military and political issues should not only be an expert in the field of international relations and diplomacy, but also have a deep knowledge of military-technical issues to understand the basic trends in the development of scientific and technological progress and its impact on the balance of forces in the world. Global changes in the balance of power and the nature of the conflict, the emergence of new types of weapons are changing the basic methods and approaches to the art of war, which requires a science-based perspective on problem solving and multi-disciplinary approach in achieving the goals. Military and political studies allow us to understand how the development of military technology and military organization of the state affected by the political situation in the world, the national security of the country and its place in the system of international relations. Military-political research has been developing at MGIMO for a few decades. It laid down the basis for a scientific school of political-military studies. Its founding fathers were such prominent scholars of international affairs, as I.G. Usachyov, A.D. Nikonov, A.G. Arbatov, V.G. Baranovsky, V.M. Kulagin, A.N. Nikitin and other well-known experts. Their work covers a wide range of military and political issues, including the topics of arms control and disarmament, international, and especially European security, military policy, NATO, the Western military-political doctrines and their practical application. Now the lead in the development of this research at MGIMO has taken Center for Military-Political Studies, which became a concentration of relevant
... entities and public corporations. Securities registered in the name of, or assigned to, a State, county, city, town, village, school district or other political entity, public body or corporation, may be... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Political entities and public...
This article reacts to President Bush's entry into the dispute over "political correctness" on college campuses. The paper summarizes discussions of students, faculty, and others in the Washington, D.C. area which concluded that this seeming defense of free speech is actually an attack on affirmative action and multiculturalism stemming…
Greer, Scott L; Bekker, Marleen; de Leeuw, Evelyne; Wismar, Matthias; Helderman, Jan-Kees; Ribeiro, Sofia; Stuckler, David
If public health is the field that diagnoses and strives to cure social ills, then understanding political causes and cures for health problems should be an intrinsic part of the field. In this article, we argue that there is no support for the simple and common, implicit model of politics in which scientific evidence plus political will produces healthy policies. Efforts to improve the translation of evidence into policy such as knowledge transfer work only under certain circumstances. These circumstances are frequently political, and to be understood through systematic inquiry into basic features of the political economy such as institutions, partisanship and the organization of labour markets. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Radojčić Mirjana S.
Full Text Available In this individual project the relationship between interests and moral in politics will be considered, taking into consideration the disintegration of former Yugoslavia and the processes of globalization. The starting thesis of the research is that the main actors of global politics are still guided by the modern principles of real-politics with interests as its basic category and power as its supreme value. In that context the main elements of external politics of USA as the key actor of the processes will be specially considered. In the concluding part of the research author will be argue in favor of the affirmation of a new model of global politics, matching the character and scope of the problems faced by humanity at the turn of the century and the millenium.
Bjørnholt, Bente; Larsen, Flemming
on the utilization of evaluation and performance measurements is applied to analyse how performance measurements affect the political process of goal-setting, implementation and learning. The article concludes that performance measurements may have intended and unintended effects and they seem to have a retroactive......Performance measurements are meant to improve public decision making and organizational performance. But performance measurements are far from always rational tools for problem solving, they are also political instruments. The central question addressed in this article is how performance...... measurement affects public policy. The aim is to conceptualize the political consequences of performance measurements and of special concern is how performance systems influence how political decisions are made, what kind of political decisions are conceivable, and how they are implemented. The literature...
Bruheze, A.A.A. de la.
In the 1970s radioactive waste disposal became a controversial scientific and social issue in the United States, after the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) charged with the development, regulation and promotion of nuclear technology, had tried to implement its disposal technology near Lyons, Kansas. This study traces the emergence of this controversy as part of the long-term development of the US radioactive waste disposal technology. Radioactive waste was not always considered a problem, and different meanings were attached to radwaste in the 1940s and early 1950s. Problem definitions and technical designs that underlaid this technology can be reconstructed, and its possible to show how some definitions received attention and others not, and how some became, and remained, dominant. During the process of problem definition, views compete, agendas are built, resources are allocated, and boundaries are created and maintained between 'inside' and 'outside world'. This is a political process, and by heuristically using concepts from political science and recent technology studies, the Political Construction of US radioactive waste disposal technologically can be reconstructed. (author). 301 refs.; 3 figs.; 15 tabs
Donald M. Seekins
Full Text Available Myanmar and Japan have had an important shared history since the Pacific War, when Japan occupied the British colony of Burma and established the countryâ€™s first postcolonial state and army. The period from 1941 to 1945 also witnessed the â€œmilitarizationâ€ of Myanmar as the country was turned into a battlefield by the Japanese, the Allies and indigenous insurgents. After independence from Britain in 1948, the Union of Burma continued to suffer insurgency and became a deeply conflicted society, especially under the isolationist socialist regime of General Ne Win (1962â€“1988. However, Japan played a major role in Myanmarâ€™s economic development through its allocation of war reparations and official development assistance (ODA, especially yen loans. During the period of martial law from 1988 to 2011, Tokyo exercised some self-restraint in giving aid due to pressure from its major ally, the United States, with its human rights agenda. However, with the transition from junta rule to constitutional government in 2011 came a dramatic increase in Japanese ODA, as Tokyo forgave large amounts of debt and invested in ambitious new special economic zones (SEZ. Japan will no doubt benefit from Myanmar as close ties are expanded: Not only will Japanese companies profit, but Japan will have access to Myanmarâ€™s raw materials and gain ability to compete more effectively with an economically expansive China. On Myanmarâ€™s side, though, it is unlikely that anyone other than the military and crony capitalist elites will benefit from the flood of new yen loans and infrastructure projects. This paper argues that without a political resolution of Myanmarâ€™s many conflicts, including the establishment of genuinely open political institutions, the aid of Japan (and other countries is likely to make these deep-rooted social and ethnic conflicts even worse.
Political incorporation resulting from voter participation is often a relevant feature of the migration experience. When the legislation of the receiving nations enables the newcomers to get naturalized and grants citizenship to their children born in the adoptive country by means of the jus soli, as is the case of the United States, casting ballots in the elections of the land of their destination usually becomes part of the first and second-generation immigrants’ accommodation into the host...
The math problem is common to most U.S. school districts, and education leaders are well aware that U.S. math achievement lags far behind many other countries in the world. University Place (Washington) School District Superintendent Patti Banks found the conspicuous income gap for math scores even more disturbing. In her school district, only 23%…
Lee, Young-Joo; Ryu, Sangyub
Starting from the assumption that political support is essential for public managers to manage their organizations, this study investigates factors that enhance political leaders' support toward top executives in public organizations. Based on the literature of proactive behaviors, this study tests hypothesis that proactive managers are more likely to acquire political support. Analyses on more than 500 cases in Texas school districts find that superintendents perceive more support from their...
At the heart of the green debate are a set of basic contradictions concerning beliefs and actions. This book reveals the problems associated with these contradictions, including adherence to decentralized political forms while accepting authoritarian intervention on behalf of the environment; a belief that this is the politics of the new age but in practice split between left and right; a rejection of the rationalist scientific project and a reliance on the lessons of the science of ecology. (author)
This paper presents the results of an intervention study to increase political involvement of adolescents through target-oriented political TV programming. In the discussion concerning the lack of political engagement of adolescents the media are usually regarded as part of the problem rather than a
Full Text Available We define an environmentally aware individual as: someone who has knowledge about the ecological principles and relations, who cares about environmental problems and events, who knows the meaning and significance of the social, political and economic aspects of environmental problems, and who can organize their close environment to solve these problems. However, we encountered a target society that was only partially aware of the environmental problems and events. The individuals of this society had very little knowledge regarding ecological principles and their social, political and economic aspects and relationships. A study was conducted on women aged 15 and above who live in the Camlica district of central Eskisehir. These women were unemployed and uneducated housewives. As these women were not aware of environmental problems, they were distant to any solutions. This is the basic cause of their inability to organize their neighborhood. As a result of the aforementioned study, it can be inferred that education is an inevitable necessity to carry the targeted society to the position of environmentally aware individuals. Television is considered to be a good educational tool regarding education in environmental matters, especially when targeted towards a group with a high ratio of television watching habits as opposed to reading habits. With these considerations, the properties of an environmental education program must be determined. To summarize, an environmental education television program which appeals to the target society in a sequence from simple to complex, general to specific is capable of captivating the interest of the target society for a duration long enough to achieve its objectives. This program must be presented clearly and understandably by an aurally and visually appealing and effective host for the audience to be able to comprehend the program.
Meskens, Gaston; Laes, Erik (SCK-CEN, Mol (Bulgaria))
Work Package 2 examines how democratic societies handle risk governance - i.e. the ensemble of rules, procedures and practices affecting how powers are exercised with respect to the control of potential adverse consequences to human health or the environment - with an emphasis on the possibilities and limits of public participation and the use of knowledge in deliberation. WP2 seeks to offer the intellectual tools to describe, explain, compare and possibly improve the way risks are handled by democratic states. It also sets out to show how some 'overarching' theories of risk governance need to be modified or supplemented. Broadly speaking, this study combines two approaches to inquiring what 'good governance' means. The first approach looks at the methods of governance while the second focuses on the ways actors use knowledge and mandates in governance. In a first approach, we will mainly draw upon one important tradition in governance studies, namely the one rooted in normative political philosophy (i.e. theories which seek to set out the conditions for 'good governance' mainly based on the ideal of 'deliberative democracy') to analyse and discuss the form, functioning and overall character of social interactions). To a large extent, WP2 builds on knowledge gained in the RISCOM - II project, and the conditions for the implementation of the RISCOM model are further investigated. However, following this, the framework is broadened to include reflections about how the so-called 'transparency approach' and the 'deliberative approach' can be combined and how they can be linked to the functioning of the political system in which decisions (for example on the final disposal of nuclear waste) are ultimately taken. Participative and deliberative processes are often advocated on instrumental (i.e. a better 'control' of public reactions), moral (i.e. furthering the cause of 'democracy') and
Meskens, Gaston; Laes, Erik
Work Package 2 examines how democratic societies handle risk governance - i.e. the ensemble of rules, procedures and practices affecting how powers are exercised with respect to the control of potential adverse consequences to human health or the environment - with an emphasis on the possibilities and limits of public participation and the use of knowledge in deliberation. WP2 seeks to offer the intellectual tools to describe, explain, compare and possibly improve the way risks are handled by democratic states. It also sets out to show how some 'overarching' theories of risk governance need to be modified or supplemented. Broadly speaking, this study combines two approaches to inquiring what 'good governance' means. The first approach looks at the methods of governance while the second focuses on the ways actors use knowledge and mandates in governance. In a first approach, we will mainly draw upon one important tradition in governance studies, namely the one rooted in normative political philosophy (i.e. theories which seek to set out the conditions for 'good governance' mainly based on the ideal of 'deliberative democracy') to analyse and discuss the form, functioning and overall character of social interactions). To a large extent, WP2 builds on knowledge gained in the RISCOM - II project, and the conditions for the implementation of the RISCOM model are further investigated. However, following this, the framework is broadened to include reflections about how the so-called 'transparency approach' and the 'deliberative approach' can be combined and how they can be linked to the functioning of the political system in which decisions (for example on the final disposal of nuclear waste) are ultimately taken. Participative and deliberative processes are often advocated on instrumental (i.e. a better 'control' of public reactions), moral (i.e. furthering the cause of 'democracy') and/or knowledge (i.e. a better understanding of public 'perception') grounds. Although
Full Text Available Introduction and objective. We wished to establish the prevalence of eye diseases and eye disease risk factors at postmenopausal age and to compare ophthalmic problems in urban and rural areas of Raciborz. Patients and methods. The study was performed in 2010. Out of the whole population of Raciborz, Poland, 10 percent (1750 of women were randomly selected for the reported study. Finally, ocular diseases, ophthalmic agents, health status (physical activity level, body mass index – BMI, reproductive history, the use of psychotropic drugs and hormone replacement therapy – HRT were recorded in 623 women. The women underwent visual acuity test and anterior segment examination, applanation tonometry and indirect ophthalmoscopy. Results. The mean age of the selected patients was 66.01±7.76 years, 275 (44% of them originating from rural and 348 (56% from urban regions. The average woman was obese (BMI=30.54±5.38 kg/m2, with near normal agility and reproductive history of 2.59±1.55 births, 147 (24% subjects remained under regular HRT support. According to the WHO, the visual acuity was classified as normal or near normal in 87.5%, while no blindness was recorded at all. Visual acuity depended, first of all, on lens status and was better among subjects with good agility (R=-0.31, p=0.001. Dry eye prevalence increased significantly over age of 67 years (p=0.000 and HRT seemed to be a dry eye protective factor (p=0.010. Except age, No other risk factors of cataract, other than age, were identified. Normal agility (p=0.003 and HRT (p=0.032 were associated with lower AMD (age-related macular degeneration prevalence rates. The differences between urban and rural participants were presented only in education, reproductive history, hypertension and frequency of ophthalmic examinations. Conclusions. Older adult women living in neighboring urban and rural areas present no differential in ophthalmic health problems.
Beatriz Martínez de Teresa
Full Text Available La contaminación atmosférica y la gestión de residuos son dos problemas medioambientales consecuencia del desarrollo socioeconómico actual, que afectan cada día a mayor número de personas en la ciudad y que causan deterioro en el paisaje urbano y por tanto, en la calidad de vida de sus habitantes. Esta cuestión no es compatible con el desarrollo urbano sostenible que demanda la sociedad de hoy en día y es una realidad que hace que se planteen retos y mejoras en este tema que encuentran solución en nosotros mismos.The air pollution and waste management are two environmental problems due to the current socio-economic development, affecting every day more people in the city and causing deterioration in the urban landscape and therefore the quality of life of its citizens. This question is not compatible with sustainable urban development demanded by society today and is a reality that makes improvements and challenges arising in this topic to find solution ourselves.
Hopmann, David Nicolas; Van Aelst, Peter; Salgado, Susana
Before every election campaign, the French Conseil supérieur de l’audiovisuel (CSA) publishes detailed rules on how much news coverage candidates are allowed to have vis-à-vis one another in the electronic media to ensure what it calls pluralisme politique (e.g., CSA 2011). Also outside election...... and control news coverage (mainly public broadcasters) or have informal rules that determine news coverage of politics (Hopmann, Van Aelst, and Legnante 2012; Kaid and Strömbäck 2008)....
Pedersen, David Budtz
This dissertation is intended to establish a framework for a revised picture of the loci of epistemic preferences in our complex knowledge-based society. In what ways do institutions, policies and regulations determine the conditions under which knowledge is produced and justified? This dissertat......This dissertation is intended to establish a framework for a revised picture of the loci of epistemic preferences in our complex knowledge-based society. In what ways do institutions, policies and regulations determine the conditions under which knowledge is produced and justified......? This dissertation argues that we can identify multiple epistemic preferences in the institutional and political settings that govern the production and distribution of knowledge....
Syafruddin, D.; Asih, P.B.; Coutrier, F.N.; Trianty, L.; Noviyanti, R.; Luase, Y.; Sumarto, W.; Caley, M.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der; Sauerwein, R.W.
Malaria has long been known as one of the major public health problems in West Sumba District, East Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia. To obtain baseline data for establishment of a suitable malaria control program in the area, malariometric surveys were conducted in two sub-districts, Wanokaka and
...), as amended, to take an active part in partisan political campaigns. Employees employed in the Federal... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT 5 CFR Part 733 RIN 3206-AM80 Political Activity--Federal Employees... employees residing in the District of Columbia a partial exemption from the political activity restrictions...
Taking the examples of the Council of Economic Advisors, the Education Council and the Federal Parliament's Commission of Inquiry on Future Nuclear Energy Policy, this paper analyses political situations in the Federal Republic of Germany in which social science expertise entered public debate and decision-making in certain social problem areas in a very pronounced way. By considering the social context in which these advisory bodies were created, an attempt is made to link an analysis of different social actors' interests to a review of existing knowledge and patterns of interpretation in the social sciences. It is shown that by using social science findings some actors achieved advantages in justifying and legitimating their political positions and that subsequently the relations of actors in some arenas of conflict changed-without, however, allowing to relate this causally only to the use of scientific knowledge. If, however, the use of scientific arguments is rapidly generalized, the confrontation of expertise and counter-expertise by opposing actors becomes usual practice. This, in turn, provides for questions concerning their 'scientificity', which the social sciences are asked to take up in reflections of their relation to social practice. (orig./HSCH) [de
Iacobescu, Flavius; Badescu, Viorel
The paper presents the birth and evolution of the cogeneration-based district heating (DH) system in a medium size city in Romania (Targoviste). The evolution of the industrialization degree was the main factor which controlled the population growth and led to a continuous reconfiguration of the DH system. The DH system assisted by cogeneration emerged as a solution in a certain phase of the demographic development of the city. The political and social changes occurring in Romania after 1990 have had important negative consequences on the DH systems in small towns. In Targoviste the DH system survived but in 2001 the solution based on cogeneration became economically inefficient, due to the low technical quality of the existing equipment and the low gas prices, to the procedure of setting the DH tariffs and the service cost at consumer's level and to some bureaucratic problems. Energy policy measures taken at national and local levels in 2003 and 2005 led to the re-establishment of the cogeneration-based district heating in 2005. However, a different technical solution has been adopted. Details about the present (2009) cogeneration-based DH system in Targoviste are presented together with several technical and economical indicators. The main conclusion is that by a proper amendment of the technical solutions, cogeneration could be a viable solution for DH even in case of abrupt social and demographic changes, such as those occurring in Romania after 1990. - Research Highlights: →Birth and evolution of the cogeneration-based district heating system in a medium size city. →The industrialization degree is the main factor which controlled the reconfiguration of the district heating system. →Each stage of the evolution of district heating system has been a technological leap. →Cogeneration is a solution for district heating even in case of abrupt social changes.
Michael J. Shapiro
Full Text Available I write from Prague, where, unlike in most urban formations, the main city street plays an iconic role; it references a history of political protest. However, before elaborating on the protest iconography of the Prague street, Vaclavske nam, I want to locate the ways in which the design of urban space is actualized in everyday life in the cities of the world. Three functions stand out; the first involves dwelling, the second seeing, and the third moving. With respect to the first function – dwelling – the design partitions and coordinates residential, commercial and leisure functions. At times these are organized to segregate different classes (Robert Moses’ redesign of much of New York stands out with respect to the segregation function. With respect to the second function – seeing – the design of urban space is allegiance-inspiring; it involves sight lines that afford urban dwellers and visitors views of iconic buildings and statues, which reference key founding moments in the past and/or authoritative political functions in the present (Here, L’Enfants design for Washington DC stands out as exemplary. Its manifest intention was to make the buildings housing executive, legislative and judicial functions visible from many vantage points. Rarely are the streets themselves iconic. Their dominant role is involved with the effectuation of movement. As for this third function: As Lewis Mumford famously points out, streets were once part of an asterisk design, radiating out from an exemplary, often spiritual center...
District heating has been used in Switzerland for more than 50 years. Its share of the heat market is less than 3% today. An analysis of the use of district heating in various European countries shows that a high share of district heating in the heat market is always dependent on ideal conditions for its use. Market prospects and possible future developments in the use of district heating in Switzerland are described in this paper. The main Swiss producers and distributors of district heating are members of the Association of District Heating Producers and Distributors. This association supports the installation of district heating facilities where ecological, energetical and economic aspects indicate that district heating would be a good solution. (author) 2 tabs., 6 refs
California Natural Resource Agency — State Water Project District boundaries are areas where state contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...
California Natural Resource Agency — Private Water District boundaries are areas where private contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...
Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset is a representation overlay of Lieutenant Chief Warden Districts (areas of responsibility). The Vermont Lieutenant Chief Warden Districts layer is part...
California Department of Resources — State Water Project District boundaries are areas where state contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...
Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Vermont School Districts and one Interstate School District. Part of data sets which model Vermont's education system governance boudaries for...
Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The National Register Historic District layer is a shape file showing the boundaries of Historic Districts that are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Each coverage contains a COVER-ID field that defines the House or Senate district number. Kansas House and Senate districts were created by the Legislative Research...
California Department of Resources — Private Water District boundaries are areas where private contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...
STATUS, PROBLEMS AND PROJECTS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF DISTRICT, URBAN PLANNING AND ARCHITECTURE IN BULGARIA IN EARLY 21ST CENTURY (AGAINST THE BACKGROUND OF THE MARKET ECONOMY AND THE UPCOMING FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC CRISIS. PART 1
Kovachev Atanas Dimitrov
Full Text Available The author provides an overview of the main urban planning trends in the present-day Bulgaria. The author also demonstrates principal approaches to area planning and provides examples of master plans of major cities of the country. The author emphasizes the need to resolve the environmental problems of urban territories, to develop their public transportation networks, resorts, landscape gardening, and a special role of historic and archeological monuments in the present-day cities. Today, multiple hierarchically arranged plans of districts and towns are being developed in accordance with the Law on area arrangement of 2001. There are three levels of area planning in Bulgaria: strategic, tactical and operative/applied. The level of strategic planning covers the territory of the whole country (or its major parts, including regions and clusters of communities. The second level of area planning represents a tactical level. It is applied to smaller sections of the territory (communities, towns and it converts into more detailed planning of the territory if compared to the top level of area planning. The general structure of the territory is developed at this level of planning. This level includes master plans of cities and towns. The third level, the level of operative/ applied planning, is applied to separate parts of populated areas, even particular sites. This level is characterized by detailed elaboration and it serves as a link to architectural planning. This level incorporates detailed area plans.
Galis, Vasilis; Summerton, Jane
of various kinds, as well as for identifying and displacing undesired individuals/groups/bodies. A case in point is a recently-established police project (REVA) in Sweden for strengthening the so-called internal border control. Specifically, several underground stations in Stockholm now have checkpoints......Public spaces are often contested sites involving the political use of sociomaterial arrangements to check, control and filter the flow of people (see Virilio 1977, 1996). Such arrangements can include configurations of state-of-the-art policing technologies for delineating and demarcating borders...... status updates on identity checks at the metro stations in Stockholm and reports on locations and time of ticket controls for warning travelers. Thus the attempts by authorities to exert control over the (spatial) arena of the underground is circumvented by the effective developing of an alternative...
Cohen, David K.
Maintains that Dewey tried to solve social problems related to the growth of industrialism, increasing economic inequality, and political inequality. Argues that Dewey aspired to create a counterculture to correct the human and social devastation of industrial capitalism through a curriculum and instruction that rooted academic learning in…
Kolkman, PME; Luteijn, AJ; Nasiiro, RS; Bruney, [No Value; Smith, RJA; Meyboom-de Jong, B
District nurses constitute the basis of the primary health care services in Dominica. All encounters of three district nurses were registered using the international classification of primary care. Information on other aspects of district nursing was collected by participating observation and the
Goodman, Allan E.
This paper is based on interviews with scientists and national space policy makers on what such a protocol should contain and their reactions to the draft of one proposed by the author at the 15th Review Meeting on the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, held during the XXXVII International Astronautical Congress (1986). The key arguments against formulating a post-detection protocol are whether such advance work is necessary or practical, the implications it would have for national sovereignty and the wisdom of disseminating information about SETI research in general to the public. While such problems could be major obstacles to implementing a post-detection protocol, they are not sufficient grounds to discourage efforts to develop one. The principal operational problem will be to find an appropriate and effective international consultative body to which the discovery of extraterrestrial intelligence signals and plans for analyzing and responding to them can be referred. The paper recommends establishment of a new consultative organization which would be chartered under the auspices of the International Astronautical Union or other appropriate international scientific body.
The recommended approach to solving Panama's, or Latin America's, housing problem was to use an integrated program of services which considered not just housing, but also sanitation, roads, clean water supply, accessibility, educational and health services, financial resources, and human, legal, and administrative resources. Rapid population growth in cities from migration has created the "witches' district." Living conditions in "witches' districts" are characterized by poverty, crowded sleeping and living conditions, filth, lack of sanitary services, naked children, and files that hover around food, children, and garbage. Limited resources creates a mentality of partial solutions, rationing, and a closed attitude toward an integrated solution. Housing means more than a roof over one's head. There is planning, design, finance, administration, housing construction, and services. A shelter exists in a larger framework of a human habitat. The priority should be in order of importance: the physical structure of housing in a socially organized form, basic services including health and education, and availability of resources. Housing lobbyists have prevented integrated solutions because of their emphasis on the lack of housing units, and the identification of substandard housing. There is a narrow focus that deliberately reduces both the availability of housing and necessary services, whether at the local or community, regional, or national level. Housing is an urban problem, caused by urban population's high growth rates between 2.5% and 3.5%. There has been constant migration which has led to growth rates of 10% annually in large cities. Confounding the issue is the expectation from migrants that there will be dwelling space better than prior housing, drinkable water, electricity, rapid transit, and free services. Educational and health services which were adequate in rural life are unsuitable for urban living. Cars and trucks require paved roads. Living requires
Jonathan K. Nelson
Full Text Available We introduce spatial patterns of Tweets visualization (SPoTvis, a web-based geovisual analytics tool for exploring messages on Twitter (or “tweets” collected about political discourse, and illustrate the potential of the approach with a case study focused on a set of linked political events in the United States. In October 2013, the U.S. Congressional debate over the allocation of funds to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (commonly known as the ACA or “Obamacare” culminated in a 16-day government shutdown. Meanwhile the online health insurance marketplace related to the ACA was making a public debut hampered by performance and functionality problems. Messages on Twitter during this time period included sharply divided opinions about these events, with many people angry about the shutdown and others supporting the delay of the ACA implementation. SPoTvis supports the analysis of these events using an interactive map connected dynamically to a term polarity plot; through the SPoTvis interface, users can compare the dominant subthemes of Tweets in any two states or congressional districts. Demographic attributes and political information on the display, coupled with functionality to show (dissimilar features, enrich users’ understandings of the units being compared. Relationships among places, politics and discourse on Twitter are quantified using statistical analyses and explored visually using SPoTvis. A two-part user study evaluates SPoTvis’ ability to enable insight discovery, as well as the tool’s design, functionality and applicability to other contexts.
Stričević, Ljiljana; Radivojević, Aleksandar; Golubović, Ninoslav; Miletić, Jelena; Milić, Jana
Rasina District is faced with serious demographic problems at the beginning of the twenty-first century which are the consequence of long-term economic and social changes both in this area and the country as a whole. The basic problem is insufficient population regeneration, which further leads to other negative processes. One of the most important problems of Rasina District is the ageing of population, i.e., a drop in young population and a significant rise in old population. Therefore, the...
p lion hectares of its forests left due to uncontrolled exploitation of forest resources. (Avolca, 1998). Meanwhile, research ﬁndings indicate that unsustainable ... of natural resources conservation and promoting alternative sources of income for the people. Considerable efforts have been made by the Ghana Government to ...
Claudia Franziska Brühwiler
Full Text Available Le Complot contre l’Amérique de Philip Roth décrit l’initiation politique de ses deux protagonistes, le narrateur Philip et son frère aîné, Sanford. Tandis que ce dernier passe par un processus initiatique quasi classique — il se déroule conformément au schéma tripartite de van Gennep — l’apogée de l’initiation de Philip est marquée par douleur et blessure. Toutefois, tous les deux connaissent seulement une initiation partielle, car le premier doit d’abord admettre ses erreurs tandis que le second va devoir apprendre, non seulement à remettre en cause l’autorité, mais également à développer ses idées de façon indépendante.Philip Roth’s The Plot Against America traces the political awakening of its two child protagonists, the narrator Philip and his elder brother Sanford. While the latter undergoes an initiation process nearly in accordance with the classical tripartite scheme as coined by van Gennep, the height of Philip’s initiation process is marked by physical pain and injury. However, both experience only a partial initiation, since the elder brother will have to recognize his errors and the younger one will first have to learn how to go beyond the mere questioning of authority.
The paper tackles the changes that occurred in the political culture and the episteme of risk in the Federal Republic of Germany in the 1970s. The objects of observation are limit values for hazardous industrial materials, especially for carcinogens. At the forefront of the production of such values in Germany was the German Research Society's Senate Commission for the Examination of Hazardous Industrial Materials. Limit values bring economy, politics, and science together and they mediate different interests. This makes limit values an ideal object of study to bring together changes in different parts of society. In 1972, a new category of limit values for carcinogenic substances is introduced, the so called "Technische Richtkonzentration" (TRK). This category of values does not assume that complete safety can be reached, as do limit values for hazardous industrial materials, so called "Maximale Arbeitsplatzkonzentrationen" (MAK). This means an important rupture in toxicological thinking. Until the 1970s, Paracelsus' dictum about dosage and poison still served as starting point for toxicologists. The innovation of TRK marks an important rupture in the episteme of regulating dangerous matters. Whereas until the 1970s there existed, at least as an ideal, the myth of "no risk" or "zero tolerance" even in the case of carcinogens, since the beginning of the 1970s, certainty is no more guaranteed by epistemically, but by socially robust knowledge. This also means the return of the risk society at the beginning of the 1970s, whereby cancer at the workplace becomes--in the view of the regulatory bodies--out of a medical problem a socioeconomic illness. The paper argues that these changes are connected to a general feeling of disorientation.
Hall, John Powell
Sexual orientation continues to be an explosive issue in American classrooms. Increasing the political knowledge of students can reduce the volatility of this explosive issue by increasing tolerance toward the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender community. This relationship between political knowledge and political tolerance has been…
Irina V. Shugurova
Full Text Available The authors discuss major trends in the area of reforming of copyright in the light of full exercise of internationally recognized human right to expression regarding the digital environment, especially the Internet, and demonstrate the significant situation when intellectual property rights, mainly author’s exclusive rights, build a lot of troubles for the information human rights. The article also looks at the changes in the understanding the relation between copyright and the human right to freedom of expression and information on the Internet. Much attention is paid to new moments in the modern doctrine of intellectual property that is inspired by process of digitization of author’s rights. There is conducted the approach to addressing copyright as one of the digital human rights resulted from property rights and right of creators to protection of their moral and economic interests. However, authors of the article departure from postulate that copyright is the human rights to a certain degree only. Moreover, this article examines the international legal approach to seeking the balance between the human right to freedom of expression, opinion and information, on the one hand, and copyright, especially as regards the Internet, on the other hand. There has been argued that key role in elaborating and adopting the principled standards in this sphere belongs to international law, including international law of human rights. In addition, the latter, as authors have ascertained, must correspond to international law of intellectual property rights, international information law, and international competition law. The study focus on various aspects of solving the problem of adapting copyright to the digital environment.
Orlović Slobodan P.
Full Text Available In this work the author refers to some legal and political questions in connection with green political parties. Those questions cover: the ideology of green political parties, their number and influence, both in general and in Serbia. The first part of work is generally speaking about political parties - their definition, ideology, role and action. Main thesis in this work is that green political parties, by their appearance, were something new on the political scene. But quickly, because of objective and subjective reasons, they were changing original ideas and were beginning to resemble to all other political parties. In this way, they lost their vanguard and political alternativeness.
Wiersinga, W.A.; Breeman, G.E.
Ad-hoc political advisory committees are appointed to solve political problems and they can have a relatively large impact on the policy-process. The legitimacy of these committees is contested because they can form a closed venue for interactive governance or interest representation by their
In this article, we aim to identify the main determinants of political polarization using Bayesian Model Averaging to overcome the problem of model uncertainty. We find that the level of trust within a country and the degree of income inequality are the most robust determinants of political polarization.
Studies of colonialism and empire have increasingly drawn attention to the problem of conceptualizing the political logic of colonial projects and the circumstances of state formation in colonial contexts. Concepts such as ‘colonial governmentality’ (Prakash, Thomas, Scott, Legg), ‘state effect...
What makes environmental conflicts complex and difficult to solve? This question is increasingly important because, more and more, environmental problems are going to shape local, national, regional, and international politics. Not surprisingly, this question has generated a lot of scholarship. Most
examines the issues, problems and contexts of national integration or the national question in Nigeria. It also discusses the .... In other words, a sense. National Integration, Citizenship, Political Participation & Democratic Stability in Nigeria .... unorganized, episodic or continuous, employing legitimate or illegitimate methods ...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Following the 1971 ban of DDT in Bangladesh, malaria cases have increased steadily. Malaria persists as a major health problem in the thirteen south-eastern and north-eastern districts of Bangladesh. At present the national malaria control program, largely supported by the Global Fund for AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM, provides interventions including advocacy at community level, Insecticide Treated Net (ITN distribution, introduction of Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT and combination therapy with Coartem. It is imperative, therefore, that baseline data on malaria prevalence and other malaria indicators are collected to assess the effectiveness of the interventions and rationalize the prevention and control efforts. The objective of this study was to obtain this baseline on the prevalence of malaria and bed net use in the thirteen malaria endemic districts of Bangladesh. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In 2007, BRAC and ICDDR,B carried out a malaria prevalence survey in thirteen malaria endemic districts of Bangladesh. A multi-stage cluster sampling technique was used and 9750 blood samples were collected. Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT were used for the diagnosis of malaria. The weighted average malaria prevalence in the thirteen endemic districts was 3.97%. In five south-eastern districts weighted average malaria prevalence rate was 6.00% and in the eight north-eastern districts weighted average malaria prevalence rate was (0.40%. The highest malaria prevalence was observed in Khagrachari district. The majority of the cases (90.18% were P. falciparum infections. Malaria morbidity rates in five south-eastern districts was 2.94%. In eight north-eastern districts, morbidity was 0.07%. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: Bangladesh has hypoendemic malaria with P. falciparum the dominant parasite species. The malaria situation in the five north-eastern districts of Bangladesh in particular warrants urgent attention. Detailed maps of the
Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan C.
Recently, the areas of strategic political marketing and political market orientation have been the subject of several conceptual articles which have provided the theoretical foundations for further empirical work. However, despite the close conceptual relatedness of the proposed concepts...... by developing an integrated concept of political marketing strategy using two complementary frameworks, namely Strategic Political Postures (SPP) and Political Market Orientation (PMO). We introduce the two main concepts and derive for each of the strategic posture-specific PMO profiles as well as inter...
Ormrod, Robert P.
’ and ‘narrow’ interpretations of political marketing, the nature of the political marketing exchange, political relationship marketing and how one can integrate the stakeholder concept into an understanding of political marketing. Finally, we propose a definition of political marketing that differs from......The aim of this working paper is to develop a definition of political marketing that builds on the political rather than commercial marketing literature. This aim is motivated by the need to make explicit our understanding of what political marketing is, a necessary exercise when discussing theory......, concepts and empirical methods in political marketing. We first present five existing definitions of political marketing that have been selected to represent advances in research from the origins of academic research into political marketing in the mid-1970’s to the present day. After this we discuss ‘wide...
What we are faced with at present is a blatant neoliberal transformation of universities, whose social relevance depends increasingly on the ability to serve the needs of neoliberal capitalism. If we see this as a problem - as many of us do - then we also feel the need to defend (and develop) the traditional practices of universities, such as "pure" research and critical reflection on society. Yet such a response, inevitably, goes hand in hand with critique of and struggle against ideology be...
Swami, D.; Parthasarathy, D.; Dave, P.
Climate variability (CV) has adverse impact on crop production and inadequate research carried out to assess the impact of CV on crop production has aggravated the ability of farmers to adapt (Jones et al., 2000). A better understanding of CV is required to reduce the vulnerability of farmers towards existing and future CV. Further, a wide variation in policies related to climate change exists at global level and considering the state/nation as a single unit for policy formulations may lead to under-representation of regional problems. Hence, the present work chooses to focus on CVassessment at the regional/district level of Maharashtra state in India. Here, interannual variability of wet and dry spells from year 1951-2013, are used as a measure of CV. Statistical declining trend of wet spells for (12/34) districts was observed across all the districts of Maharashtra. Districts showing highest change in wet spell pre and post 1976/77 are Beed, Latur and Osmanabad belong to Central Maharashtra Plateau zone and Western Maharashtra scarcity zone. Dry spells for (8/34) districts were found to statistically increase across all the districts of Maharashtra. Washim, Yavatmal of Vidarbha zone; and Latur, Parbhani of Amravati division belonging to Central Maharashtra Plateau zone and Central Vidarbha zone are found to reflect the large variation in their behavior pre and post 1976/77. Findings reveal that districts from the same agro-climate zones respond differently to CV, indicating significant spatial heterogeneity within the region. Trend in monsoon variability was found to be prominent after 1976/77, suggesting an enhanced role of climate change on climate variability after 1977. It necessitates separate policy formulation related to CV and agriculture for each district to bring out the solution for regional issues (socio-political, farmers, agriculturalists, economical) more clearly. Further we have attempted to link agriculture vulnerability and crop sensitivity to
Maluka, Stephen Oswald
Health care systems are faced with the challenge of resource scarcity and have insufficient resources to respond to all health problems and target groups simultaneously. Hence, priority setting is an inevitable aspect of every health system. However, priority setting is complex and difficult because the process is frequently influenced by political, institutional and managerial factors that are not considered by conventional priority-setting tools. In a five-year EU-supported project, which started in 2006, ways of strengthening fairness and accountability in priority setting in district health management were studied. This review is based on a PhD thesis that aimed to analyse health care organisation and management systems, and explore the potential and challenges of implementing Accountability for Reasonableness (A4R) approach to priority setting in Tanzania. A qualitative case study in Mbarali district formed the basis of exploring the sociopolitical and institutional contexts within which health care decision making takes place. The study also explores how the A4R intervention was shaped, enabled and constrained by the contexts. Key informant interviews were conducted. Relevant documents were also gathered and group priority-setting processes in the district were observed. The study revealed that, despite the obvious national rhetoric on decentralisation, actual practice in the district involved little community participation. The assumption that devolution to local government promotes transparency, accountability and community participation, is far from reality. The study also found that while the A4R approach was perceived to be helpful in strengthening transparency, accountability and stakeholder engagement, integrating the innovation into the district health system was challenging. This study underscores the idea that greater involvement and accountability among local actors may increase the legitimacy and fairness of priority-setting decisions. A broader
Full Text Available Health care systems are faced with the challenge of resource scarcity and have insufficient resources to respond to all health problems and target groups simultaneously. Hence, priority setting is an inevitable aspect of every health system. However, priority setting is complex and difficult because the process is frequently influenced by political, institutional and managerial factors that are not considered by conventional priority-setting tools. In a five-year EU-supported project, which started in 2006, ways of strengthening fairness and accountability in priority setting in district health management were studied. This review is based on a PhD thesis that aimed to analyse health care organisation and management systems, and explore the potential and challenges of implementing Accountability for Reasonableness (A4R approach to priority setting in Tanzania. A qualitative case study in Mbarali district formed the basis of exploring the sociopolitical and institutional contexts within which health care decision making takes place. The study also explores how the A4R intervention was shaped, enabled and constrained by the contexts. Key informant interviews were conducted. Relevant documents were also gathered and group priority-setting processes in the district were observed. The study revealed that, despite the obvious national rhetoric on decentralisation, actual practice in the district involved little community participation. The assumption that devolution to local government promotes transparency, accountability and community participation, is far from reality. The study also found that while the A4R approach was perceived to be helpful in strengthening transparency, accountability and stakeholder engagement, integrating the innovation into the district health system was challenging. This study underscores the idea that greater involvement and accountability among local actors may increase the legitimacy and fairness of priority
Acidente perfurante por arame fixador de um pôster de propaganda política nas ruas do DF: relato de caso Ocular penetrating wound caused by a wire attached to a political propaganda poster on the streets of the Federal District (BR: a case report
João Luiz Pacini Costa
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar um caso de um acidente perfurante por arame que fixava material de propaganda política exposto nas ruas do DF. MÉTODO: Relato de caso de um adolescente, sexo masculino, 16 anos, vítima de traumatismo perfurante no olho esquerdo por arame exposto que fixava propaganda eleitoral. RESULTADO: Acuidade visual de 20/25 foi obtida por implante secundário no sulco ciliar e capsulotomia posterior cirúrgica 90 dias após a perfuração ocular. CONCLUSÃO: Atentamos para a gravidade e o risco a que os cidadãos estão expostos em período de eleições devido à má fiscalização da propaganda política no Distrito Federal e a importância de leis mais rígidas na prevenção destes acidentes.PURPOSE: Report a case of ocular penetrating wound caused by a wire attached to a political propaganda poster on the streets of the DF (BR. METHODS: Case report of a teenager, male, 16-year-old. RESULTS: Visual acuity of 20/25 was obtained with a secondary intraocular lens implantation in the ciliary sulcus and a posterior surgical capsulotomy 90 days after the ocular perforation. CONCLUSION: We alert the readers about the severity and the risk that citizens are exposed to in this period of elections due to lack of safety inspection measures in the Federal District and the importance of stricter laws to prevent such accidents.
Shields, Carolyn M.; Oberg, Steven Lynn; LaRocque, Linda J.
Explores district leaders' roles in implementing a year-round schooling reform. Examines experiences of four Florida districts, stressing social, political, and fiscal contexts. Leaders promote innovation by acting humanely and openly, and by eschewing unfulfillable promises. Creating widespread support, being flexible, and crafting a climate for…
Ober, Patrick; Decker, Janet R.
This case illustrates why future school leaders must be prepared to handle complex legal and political issues that commonly arise in school districts today. We discuss a long-standing and unresolved legal battle between a Hasidic Jewish community and the public school district in East Ramapo, New York. In particular, we examine the difficulties…
Surveys the interrelationship between language and politics. Touches on the context of political discourse, or political culture and ideology in new and old democracies and the reemerging manifestations of totalitarianism, censorship, and linguistic imperialism; then examines selected linguistic features of political discourse and their…
Hegland, Troels Jacob; Raakjær, Jesper
ABSTRACT: Denmark is among the more loyal European Union (EU) member states when it comes to national implementation of the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP). However, even in Denmark several mechanisms contribute to sub-optimal implementation of the CFP. Looking at implementation problems for a rela......ABSTRACT: Denmark is among the more loyal European Union (EU) member states when it comes to national implementation of the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP). However, even in Denmark several mechanisms contribute to sub-optimal implementation of the CFP. Looking at implementation problems...... for a relatively loyal member state, this chapter sheds critical light on national implementation of the CFP in the EU as a whole. The chapter initially provides a description of the institutional set-up for fisheries policy-making and implementation in Denmark, including a short historical account....../networks and prevailing discourses. The inability of the EU to ensure that the conservation goals agreed at the EU level are loyally pursued during national implementation is one of the reasons why the EU has been struggling to keep fishing mortality rates at a sustainable level....
Health insurance reform requires political solutions, not technocratic fixes. Single payer frames the problem as a grossly inefficient bursar's office. Great political leadership means reframing the problem as a faulty social compact, rewriting the compact, and making everybody play by the new rules. Most of all, great leadership means explaining in powerful language why participating in the new social compact would fulfill both enlightened self-interest and social responsibility.
Freedson, Margaret; Eastman, Wayne
Discussing ideologically opposing views of beginning reading, the authors trace the politics of reading curriculum in two racially diverse New Jersey school districts working to raise the literacy achievement of traditionally underserved students through socially just literacy education.
Mikulandric, Robert; Krajačić, Goran; Khavin, Gennadii
more extensively used in district heating systems either separately or as a supplement to traditional fossil fuels in order to achieve national energy policy objectives. However, they are still facing problems such as high intermittences, high energy production costs and low load factors as well...... could reach up to 20% with utilisation of solar energy as supplement energy source in traditional fossil fuel based district heating systems. In this work, the performance of hybrid district energy system for a particular location will be analysed. For performance analysis, mathematical model......District heating system could contribute to more efficient heat generation through cogeneration power plants or waste heat utilization facilities and to increase of renewable energy sources share in total energy consumption. In the most developed EU countries, renewable energy sources have been...
influential answers to this problem. He is also often credited with providing some of the intellectual foundation for the “neoconservative” movement. In particular, Strauss addressed two questions relevant to today’s political environment: What is the role of truth in politics? And, what is the relation......This article argues for the relevance of biblical thought to progressive political philosophy. One of the most significant problems for political philosophy is the role that religion, and particularly the role that biblical faith, ought to play. Philosopher Leo Strauss provided some of the most...... their control. It concludes with the argument that the Bush doctrine is an anathema to Straussian political philosophy. Neither Bush’s invocation of prophecy nor his neoconservatism provide him any theoretical ground to walk on....
Lake, Robin; Posamentier, Jordan; Denice, Patrick; Hill, Paul
The portfolio strategy is a change strategy for public education in a district or metropolitan area. It is founded on the idea of re-missioning government agencies from rigid bureaucratic entities that mostly manage compliance requirements and interest group politics to a new role: overseeing performance and a diverse range of school choices…
Ormrod, Robert P.
The aim of this working paper is to develop a definition of political marketing that builds on the political rather than commercial marketing literature. This aim is motivated by the need to make explicit our understanding of what political marketing is, a necessary exercise when discussing theory, concepts and empirical methods in political marketing. We first present five existing definitions of political marketing that have been selected to represent advances in research from the origins o...
Ho 1: Voter's choice of political candidates in the 2011 presidential election was not influenced by political communication on ... Ho 3: Electorate voting pattern during the 2011 elections was not influenced by their exposure to political messages on social ...... Studies.1 (2), 161- 173. Sherman, A. (2010). The problem with ...
Full Text Available Ethics and politics are normally considered domains that do not mix, in fact, domains that have little to do with one another. In this article, I provide four factual fictions that show how at the university, research ethics and politics are intertwined. Politics appears to be used for the sole purpose of constructing and maintaining control over the research process and its products. Ultimately, even ethics reviews of proposed research studies are caught up in the politics of power. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0403357
Pabayo, Roman; Kawachi, Ichiro; Muennig, Peter
Ecological and cross-sectional studies have indicated that conservative political ideology is associated with better health. Longitudinal analyses of mortality are needed because subjective assessments of ideology may confound subjective assessments of health, particularly in cross-sectional analyses. Data were derived from the 2008 General Social Survey-National Death Index data set. Cox proportional analysis models were used to determine whether political party affiliation or political ideology was associated with time to death. Also, we attempted to identify whether self-reported happiness and self-rated health acted as mediators between political beliefs and time to death. In this analysis of 32,830 participants and a total follow-up time of 498,845 person-years, we find that political party affiliation and political ideology are associated with mortality. However, with the exception of independents (adjusted HR (AHR)=0.93, 95% CI 0.90 to 0.97), political party differences are explained by the participants' underlying sociodemographic characteristics. With respect to ideology, conservatives (AHR=1.06, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.12) and moderates (AHR=1.06, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.11) are at greater risk for mortality during follow-up than liberals. Political party affiliation and political ideology appear to be different predictors of mortality. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
In the social sciences, inquiry into the relationship between storytelling and politics is based on a notion of historical continuity. One problem is the possible trap of inevitability inherent in this notion--that something which happened "had to happen". Hannah Arendt's conception of political theory as storytelling overcomes this trap,…
Woodburn Public Schools, OR.
Year-round schooling is a positive alternative for the Woodburn School District, a district experiencing an overcrowding problem. The year-round education system has not yet been implemented in Woodburn, but the proposal is getting serious attention by administrators, teachers, and parents. The Utah Foundation Research Report identifies 10…
Exploring Women's Understanding of Politics, Political Contestation and Gender Transformation in the Caribbean. IDRC's Democratic Governance, Women's Rights and Gender Equality initiative is supporting a body of comparative research on whether and how democratic processes and institutions are responding to ...
This study x-rayed the significance of civic political culture on participatory governance and its potentialities on political development. It adopted theoretical postulations in analyzing the subject matter. The analytical model showed a diagrammatic presentation of the relationship among participant culture features, elements ...
Full Text Available This essay was motivated by the gap between proclaimed democratic principles and the perceptions of politics which are exhibited by the citizens in transitional countries -more specifically in the Republic of Macedonia. It is based on research data collected in the past few decades, which illustrate that, in their political actions, the citizens are highly motivated by personal benefits and profits, rather than by their internalized values and ideologies. Non-democratic, authoritarian values prevail, while politics is perceived as a value itself, in the most materialistic meaning of the word. It creates a suitable milieu for growth of corruption, nepotism and clientelism. The authors conclude that such a circulus vitsiosus is a corner stone of the Macedonian political regime, and an enormous obstacle for the advancement of the participative, democratic political culture in reality, in spite of its formal acceptance.
The current status of and problems facing district heating systems operated by electric utilities were identified. The technical and economic factors which can affect the present and future success of district heating systems in the United States were evaluated. A survey of 59 district heating electric utilities was conducted to determine the current status of the industry. Questions developed to obtain data on technical, economic, regulator, and marketing factors were included in the survey. Literature on district heating in the U.S. and abroad was collected from governments, industry and foreign sources and reviewed to aid in evaluating the current and future potential of the industry. Interviews were held with executives of 16 utilities that operate district heating systems in order to determine corporate attitudes. A summary of the literature obtained is provided. Survey results are tabulated and described. The interviews and survey data were used to compile 10 case studies of utilities operating district heating systems under a braod range of circumstances.
Political interest fundamentally influences political behavior, knowledge, and persuasion (Brady, Verba, & Schlozman, 1995; Delli Carpini & Keeter, 1996; Luskin, 1990; Zukin, Andolina, Keeter, Jenkins, & Delli Carpini, 2006). Since the early 1960s, the American National Election Studies (ANES) ha...
Heinrichs, Harald; Biermann, Frank
he article gives an overview of global sustainability policy and politics. It is shown how international policy making on sustainable development has progressed from environmental policy toward recent approaches of Earth system governance. Key challenges of international sustainability politics are
The process works with members of a real DHMT, and has the advantage of encouraging team building around real health problems. It does, however, have the disadvantage of depleting districts of the bulk of their managerial staff during the workshop periods. The programme should ideally be run by the Department of ...
It is important to remember that elections are but one piece--albeit an important one--of much larger processes of politics and governance. Moreover, in the United States they are increasingly implicated in the construction of identities and places. What goes on in the course of electoral politics (creating electoral systems and voting districts,…
Pfetsch, Barbara; Esser, Frank
This chapter describes the maturation of comparative political communications as a sub-discipline and defines its conceptual core. It then lays out the concept of “political communication system”. At the macro-level, this model captures the patterns of interaction between media and politics as social systems; at the micro-level it captures the interactions between media and political actors as individuals or organizations. Comparative research in this tradition focuses on the structure of pol...
Woulfin, Sarah L.
Facing relentless pressure to improve student achievement, many states and districts are using coaching as a policy lever to promote changes in practice. This special issue centers on the policies and politics of coaching, and this editorial commentary highlights what we know about the role of coaches and coaching in the field of education. Then I…
Lowery, D.; Otjes, S.; Gherghina, S.; van Witteloostuijn, A.; Péli, G.; Brasher, H.
The standard model of political party density emphasizing the interaction of social cleavages and district magnitude (M) is incomplete in accounting for number of parties in cases of high values of M in an arbitrary way. We explore an alternative model for such cases emphasizing the slack in the
The paper discusses the South American gas and oil industries. Opening ever wider to private investment, the continent is attracting a flood of foreign and local firms, pushing drilling and production rates still higher. This is despite a rash of political problems in many countries, including guerrillas, environmentalists, crooked officials and border disputes. Separate evaluations are given for Venezuela, Argentina, Colombia, Brazil, Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, Chile, and briefly for Falkland Islands, Paraguay, Suriname, and Barbados
Western Political Consulting Techniques and Post-Soviet Political Technology in Political Campaigns in Latvia Ieva Dmitričenko Keywords: political campaignsm political consulting, political technology, parties, marketing, media Political campaigning is an international phenomenon, because there is a free flow of information, knowledge and human resource among practitioners of political campaigning in various countries. As a result political campaigning techniques that have proven to ...
Kjær, Anne Mette; Muwanga, Nansozi
Uganda has been successful in broadening access to education. However, this achievement has been undermined by low literacy and numeracy levels and high drop-out rates. A political settlement perspective sheds light on the politics of education reforms. We find that there are weak political drive...
Graber, Doris A.
This book illustrates how and why knowledge of verbal behavior is important to an understanding of politics by analyzing and describing verbal behavior studies pertaining to politics. Chapters in the first part of the book discuss the various characteristics of verbal behavior: the importance of verbal behavior in politics, construction of…
Explores what it means to do research intended to be relevant for public policy. Argues against perception of policy research as politically neutral technical exercise. Discusses political implications of methodology. Discusses research examples to illustrate point. Discusses implications for how research might be used in political process.…
This article argues that teaching politically correct language to English learners provides them with important information and opportunities to be exposed to cultural issues. The author offers a brief review of how political correctness became an issue and how being politically correct influences the use of language. The article then presents…
Moreira, Silvio; Batista, David S.; Carvalho, Paula; Couto, Francisco M.; Silva, Mario J.
Purpose: POWER is an ontology of political processes and entities. It is designed for tracking politicians, political organizations and elections, both in mainstream and social media. The aim of this paper is to propose a data model to describe political agents and their relations over time. Design/methodology/approach: The authors propose a data…
Dag, Nilgun; Sozer, Mehmet Akif; Sel, Burcu
Political education is a term with negative associations and triggering prejudiced approaches and discourses--maybe some paranoid thoughts--like "keep politics away from education!" in the minds of several people. This article deals with "political education" phenomenon almost never discussed and made subject to scientific…
Ursprung, Heinrich W.
Standard spatial models of political competition give rise to equilibria in which the competing political parties or candidates converge to a common position. In this paper I show how political polarization can be generated in models that focus on the nexus between pre-election interest group lobbying and electoral competition.
Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...
Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset portrays the boundaries of the County Council Districts in Allegheny County. The dataset is based on municipal boundaries and City of Pittsburgh ward...
Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Solid waste management districts layer is part of a dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. This dataset...
Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The dataset represents the boundaries of all public school districts in the state of New Mexico. The source for the data layer is the New Mexico Public Education...
Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The ACT 250 Districts layer is part of a larger dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This layer depicts the 115th Congressional Districts for the United States, with attributes listing the elected officials for the 115th Congress. Elected to a...
Montgomery County of Maryland — The purpose of a Floodplain District Permit (FPDP) is to control floodplain development in order to protect persons and property from danger and destruction and to...
Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset outlines the location of the five Groundwater Management Districts in Kansas. GMDs are locally formed and elected boards for regional groundwater...
Conti, Gregory Andrew
This dissertation places the problem of social and ideological diversity at the center of nineteenth-century British political thought. Given our contemporary preoccupation with the diversity of beliefs, perspectives, and identities, it is tempting to assume that this diversity has always been regarded as a central political issue. Surprisingly, however, I contend that ideological diversity was identified as a political problem in a recognizably modern sense only in the aftermath of the Frenc...
Lett, Ronald R; Kobusingye, Olive Chifefe; Ekwaru, Paul
War injury is a public health problem that warrants global attention. This study aims to determine the burden of injury during a complex emergency in sub-Saharan Africa. To determine the magnitude, causes, distribution, risk factors and cumulative burden of injury in a population experiencing armed conflict in northern Uganda since 1986 and to evaluate the living conditions and access to care for injury victims, we took a multistage, stratified, random sampling from the Gulu district to determine the rates of injury from 1994 to 1999. The Gulu district is endemic for malaria, tuberculosis, HIV and malnutrition and has a high maternal death rate. It is 1 of 3 districts in northern Uganda affected by war since 1986. The study participants included 8595 people from 1475 households. Of these, 73.0% lived in temporary housing, 46.0% were internally displaced and 81.0% were under 35 years of age. Trained interviewers administered a 3-part household survey in the local language. Quantitative data on injury, household environment, health care and demography were analyzed. Qualitative data from part 3 of the survey will be reported elsewhere. A similar rural district (Mukono) not affected by war was used for comparison. We studied injury risk factors, mortality and disability rates, accumulated deaths, access to care and living conditions. Of the study population, 14% were injured annually: gunshot injuries were the leading cause of death. The annual death rate from war injury was 7.8/1000 (95% confidence interval [CI] 7.0-8.5) and the disability rate was 11.3/1000 (95% CI 10.4-12.2). The annual excess injury mortality was 6.85/1000. Only 4.5% of the injured were combatants. Fifty percent of the injured received first aid, but only 13.0% of those who died reached hospital. The injury mortality in Gulu was 8.35-fold greater than that for Mukono. The crisis in Gulu can be considered a complex political emergency. Protracted conflicts should not be ignored because of a low
Based on audience research in European countries, this article suggests that television miniseries "Holocaust" was not successful in teaching about the fate of Jews in Germany during World War II. Major problems with the series include that it personalized problems and gave no insight into economic and political forces at work during the…
Religion and politics provide an interesting juxtaposition. On the one hand, both may initially come across as rather self-evident categories, with religion dealing with human perceptions and what people hold as sacred, and politics addressing the control and governance of fellow human beings....... Nonetheless, such a simple opposition should only work as a starting point for an interrogation of both terms and how they have come to look and function as empirical and analytical categories. Focusing on the ways that religion is played out in relation to politics reveals different historical and cultural...... constellations and positions, which can be highlighted as variations of religion as politics, religion in politics, religion out of politics, and religion not politics....
Aaskoven, Lasse; Lassen, David Dreyer
The political budget cycle—how elections affect government fiscal policy—is one of the most studied subjects in political economy and political science. The key theoretical question is whether incumbent governments can time or structure public finances in ways that improve their chances of reelec......The political budget cycle—how elections affect government fiscal policy—is one of the most studied subjects in political economy and political science. The key theoretical question is whether incumbent governments can time or structure public finances in ways that improve their chances...... on political budget cycles have recently focused on conditions under which such cycles are likely to obtain. Much recent research focuses on subnational settings, allowing comparisons of governments in similar institutional environments, and a consensus on the presences of cycles in public finances...
Hacker, Jacob S
The greatest lesson of the failure of comprehensive health reform in the early 1990s is that politics comes first. Even the best-laid policy plans are worthless if they lack the political support to pass. Putting politics first means avoiding the overarching mistake of the Clinton reformers: envisioning a grand policy compromise rather than hammering out a real political compromise. It also means addressing the inevitable fears of those who believe that they are well protected by our eroding employment-based system. And it means formulating political strategies that are premised on the contemporary realities of the hyperpolarized U.S. political environment, rather than wistfully recalled images of the bipartisan politics of old.
In this comment, I build on Shiffman’s call for the global health community to more deeply investigate structural and productive power. I highlight two challenges we must grapple with as social scientists carrying out the types of investigation that Shiffman proposes: the politics of challenging the powerful; and the need to investigate types of expertise that have traditionally been thought of as ‘outside’ global health. In doing so, I argue that moving forward with the agenda Shiffman sets out requires social scientists interested in the global politics of health to be reflexive about our own exercise of structural and productive power and the fact that researching global health politics is itself a political undertaking. PMID:25905482
Ginsburg, F; Rapp, R
The topic of human reproduction encompasses events throughout the human and especially female life-cycle as well as ideas and practices surrounding fertility, birth, and child care. Most of the scholarship on the subject, up through the 1960s, was based on cross-cultural surveys focused on the beliefs, norms, and values surrounding reproductive behaviors. Multiple methodologies and subspecialties, and fields like social history, human biology, and demography were utilized for the analysis. The concept of the politics of reproduction synthesizes local and global perspectives. The themes investigated include: the concept of reproduction, population control, and the internationalization of state and market interests (new reproductive technologies); social movements and contested domains; medicalization and its discontents; fertility and its control; adolescence and teen pregnancy; birth; birth attendants; the construction of infancy and the politics of child survival; rethinking the demographic transition; networks of nurturance; and meanings of menopause. The medicalization of reproduction is a central issue of studies of birth, midwifery, infertility, and reproductive technologies. Scholars have also analyzed different parts of the female life-cycle as medical problems. Other issues worth analysis include the internationalization of adoption and child care workers; the crisis of infertility of low-income and minority women who are not candidates for expensive reproductive technologies; the concerns of women at high risk for HIV whose cultural status depends on their fertility; questions of reproduction concerning, lesbians and gay men (artificial insemination and discrimination in child rearing); the study of menopause; and fatherhood. New discourse analysis is used to analyze state eugenic policies; conflicts over Western neocolonial influences in which women's status as childbearers represent nationalist interests; fundamentalist attacks on abortion rights; and
This article examines the state of political public relations in the European Union by specifically focusing on reputation management and relationship management. Its arguments are based on a theoretical review of the literature of political public relations, reputation and relationship management......, and EU communication. The article suggests an in-depth examination of the nature of some of the EU’s major problems in political public relations, and contributes to a more nuanced understanding of the possibilities and limitations of applying reputation and relationship management constructs...
Taking the SNR-300 reactor in Kalkar as an example, the process of forming of political opinion and decision is reconstructed in order to get a picture of typical consensus- and conflict patterns in the discussion of safety problems. On this basis, it should be possible to derive a freedom of action for the political and administrative managing of safety matters by means of feed back with social groups. As a crucial point the aspects concerning the steps of the forming of political opinion and decision are examined. (DG) [de
Kane, V.E.; Larson, N.M.
The Union Carbide Corporation, Nuclear Division, Uranium Resource Evaluation Project uses a two-stage sampling program to identify potential uranium districts. Cluster analysis techniques are used in locating high density sampling areas as well as in identifying potential uranium districts. Problems are considered involving the analysis of multivariate censored data, laboratory measurement error, and data standardization
Tedesco, Carmen; Ruiz, Marilyn; McLafferty, Sara
Differences in mosquito control practices at the local level involve the interplay of place, scale and politics. During the Chicago West Nile Virus (WNV) outbreak of 2002, mosquito abatement districts represent distinct suburban clusters of human WNV cases, independent of characteristics of the local population, housing and physical environment. We examine how the contrasting actions of four districts reveal a distinct local politics of mosquito control that may have contributed to local-scale geographic differences in WNV incidence. This politics is rooted in political, economic and philosophical differences within and between administrative boundaries. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hasselbalch, Jacob A.
This qualitative multi-method studymaps the politics of brain drain at the level of the European Union and follows the evolution of the issue over the last four parliamentary periods. By utilizing a novel combination of interviews with a content and network analysis of parliamentary questions, the article demonstrates how the politics of brain drain travel from the domestic level to the European through frames that connect the issue to problems and solutions at the Union-level....
Full Text Available This article examines the relationship between religion and the state in Indonesia by exploring how Islam is used by political parties to shape the politics. The study shows that Islamic politics is a complementary in both nationhood and statehood in Indonesia. From the early days of the new-born nation-state, Muslims in Indonesia had played significant role in shaping the nation; nonetheless, they have never dominated the political power. Fragmentation among Muslims themselves and internal political parties is among the reason why religious (Islamic parties failed in bringing religious identity to the state arena. Political subordination-inclusion-ignorance-confrontation is the circular game that features Islamic politics in Indonesia. The debatable issue on shari‘ah law, which is frequently used by Islamic parties, always becomes the core problem of the relation between Islam and the state. Even though Islam has played an important role in colouring the Indonesian politics, its existence remains complementary.
Konovalov Valery Nikolaevich
Full Text Available Russia is a country in which political culture takes in different stages of development. In the social and cultural life are combined two basic forms - the traditional type of political culture and modern political culture. There is asynchrony in the political culture, which creates a serious problem of managing Russian society.
The situation analysis embraces chapters on: Estonia, Kaliningrad, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Russia, which experience varying degrees of difficulties with the transition to a market economy, and with integrating into the world market. In the following, the focus is on Lithuania, which has been visited during the project period. Lithuania has specific problems due to the existence of the Ignalina power plant, but has nevertheless characteristics, which apply to Estonia and Latvia as well. The problem with the quality of heat supply is rampant in all the countries, as is legal framework for the sector, except in Poland, which has generally attracted much attention from investors over the last ten years and has experienced a relatively sound political development in the energy sector. The main problem in all countries seem to relate to the policy development. The case of Lithuania confirms this. Following the observations on Lithuania, it is attempted to establish some points of concern, which are relevant to a greater or lesser extent in all countries, as well as some suggestions on how to move towards a solution of those problems. As mentioned Poland is generally in a better position, technically and politically than the three Baltic states, whereas Russia still needs to progress much on those issues. The general recommendations for initiatives in the Baltic countries in question are in brief: Establishing a clear view at governmental level of what the EU and liberalisation will bring, and what needs to be done additionally to secure main energy political objectives. Issues such as security of supply, environmental protection, low cost energy supplies and security of investments need to be thoroughly discussed at national level. It is important to understand that EU Directives provide a framework, not an answer to the future of the energy sector. Reinforcement of governmental bodies that deal with the practical problems of the energy sector. The main task of
Наронская, Анна Гегамовна
This article is devoted to corruption’s impact on the functioning of political institutions. In the author’s opinion, political corruption leads to informal institutionalization and degradation of political institutions. The author concludes that public control can prevent political corruption.Key words: the political corruption, conflict of interests, formal and informal institutions, political process.
Åberg, M.; Fälting, L.; Forssell, A.
The deregulation of the Swedish electricity market in 1996 made it possible to operate municipal district heating commercially. Until that time district heating had been organized mainly as municipal utilities. After 1996 district heating is instead expected to function on a market. In competitive and integrated markets, prices are expected to be equal, or converging. To find out if district heating operates on an integrated market the differences in price levels, price convergence, price strategy, and business goals, among municipal, private and state owned district heating companies are investigated. Price statistics was used along with results from a questionnaire that was answered by representatives for 109 Swedish district heating companies. The results show that prices among district heating systems do not converge significantly and that variations in prices among municipal systems are larger than among private and state owned systems. Furthermore, despite the fact that district heating is supposed to be commercial, a vast majority of district heating companies apply cost-based pricing and not market pricing. The municipal companies give priority to political goals before financial goals. The conclusion is that a Swedish integrated market for heat has not yet evolved, and some district heating price-controlling mechanism is necessary. - Highlights: • Price statistics and owner type data were used along with results from a questionnaire. • Results show that prices among district heating systems do not converge. • Municipal district heating companies still apply cost-based pricing to a large extent. • District heating companies are not operating on an integrated market for heat. • Some price-controlling mechanism for district heating is necessary.
Bone district is one of region in South Sulawesi province. There are 27 sub-districts and 374 villages in Bone district. A villages sampled in this study is Barakkae village Lamuru Bone district. The problem in this research is how to make the management system administration at rural level in Bone district and how to apply information technology based on RESTful API on rural administration of Bone district. The technology or method used is the RESTful API, RESTful API is REST (REpresentatio...
Comparing Political Journalism is a systematic, in-depth study of the factors that shape and influence political news coverage today. Using techniques drawn from the growing field of comparative political communication, an international group of contributors analyse political news content drawn f...... Comparing Political Journalism offers an unparalleled scope in assessing the implications for the ongoing transformation of Western media systems, and addresses core concepts of central importance to students and scholars of political communication world-wide.......Comparing Political Journalism is a systematic, in-depth study of the factors that shape and influence political news coverage today. Using techniques drawn from the growing field of comparative political communication, an international group of contributors analyse political news content drawn...... from newspapers, television news, and news websites from 16 countries, to assess what kinds of media systems are most conducive to producing quality journalism. Underpinned by key conceptual themes, such as the role that the media are expected to play in democracies and quality of coverage...
A. D. Voskresensky
Full Text Available Out of all the departments of political sciences in Russia - the Department at MGIMO-University is probably the oldest one. In fact it is very young. While MGIMO-University is celebrating its 70th anniversary the Department of Political Sciences turns 15. Despite the fact that political analyst is a relatively new profession in Russia, it acquired a legal standing only in the 1990s, the political science school at MGIMO-University is almost as old as the university itself. Unlike many other universities, focused on the training teachers of political science or campaign managers MGIMO-University has developed its own unique political science school of "full cycle", where students grow into political sciences from a zero level up to the highest qualifications as teachers and researchers, and campaign managers, consultants and practitioners. The uniqueness of the school of political science at MGIMO-University allows its institutional incarnation -the Department of Political Science - to offer prospective studentsa training in a wide range of popular specialties and specializations, while ensuring a deep theoretical and practical basis of the training. Studying at MGIMO-University traditionally includes enhanced linguistic component (at least two foreign languages. For students of international relations and political science learning foreign languages is particularly important.It allows not only to communicate, but also to produce expertise and knowledge in foreign languages.
This article examines the current social problems in Macau—inequalities, problems in urban housing, traffic and transportation, air pollution, crime and deviant behaviour, and education. It does not focus on one social problem in detail; rather, it attempts to offer a broad picture of the issues from a sociological perspective. To help solve these problems, it seems that Macau has to build a stronger civil society and continue to democratise its political system. How Macau deals with these pr...
Moch. Nur Ichwan
Full Text Available The Majelis Ulama Indonesia (MUI has played an important role in guarding the Sunni orthodoxy in contemporary Indonesia. As it has chapters in almost parts of Indonesia in the provincial, district and municipality level, this role has been also translated into the local context. The strength of the MUI stems from “semi-officiality” and “semi-representative” nature of the organisation. This article is aimed to analyse this role in the post-New Order period, after the establishment of the Majelis Ulama Indonesia (MUI of Banten province in 2001, especially in dealing with deviant beliefs or sects and shirk (polytheist and bid‘ah (religious innovation practices. It is to show that orthodoxy and heterodoxy is not purely religious, but also political, as this is related to the problem of authority and power.
Full Text Available The article focuses on multiple cases of the politicization of history by the Baltic political elites. Three states of development of politics of memory in the Baltic States are identified. Problems of political exploitation of the past are scrutinized in the context of political life and international relations. It is concluded that the narratives of the past where nazi and Soviet legacies are equated are actively promoted on the pan-European level. Elites of the Baltic States play a salient role in this process and enhance ties with the elites of the Eastern Europe, expert and political communities of the Western Europe and USA. The dominant trends in the development of the historical politics in the Baltic countries are the administrative and legislative instruments for approval of the preferred narratives of the past, as well as an active political work at the international level aimed at the inclusion of the Baltic narratives of the past into the European politics of memory. Historical politics of the Baltic States shows the Baltic countries as the victims of "two totalitarianisms" ("Nazi and Soviet occupation", and this point of view is widely used as a foreign policy tool. The politicization of the "anti-totalitarianism" issue is now a popular foreign policy tool that not only serves the interests of the Baltic and Eastern European politicians, but also finds ideological supporters in Western Europe and the United States.
Navarro, Vicente; Muntaner, Carles; Borrell, Carme; Benach, Joan; Quiroga, Agueda; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Vergés, Núria; Pasarín, M Isabel
The aim of this study was to examine the complex interactions between political traditions, policies, and public health outcomes, and to find out whether different political traditions have been associated with systematic patterns in population health over time. We analysed a number of political, economic, social, and health variables over a 50-year period, in a set of wealthy countries belonging to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Our findings support the hypothesis that the political ideologies of governing parties affect some indicators of population health. Our analysis makes an empirical link between politics and policy, by showing that political parties with egalitarian ideologies tend to implement redistributive policies. An important finding of our research is that policies aimed at reducing social inequalities, such as welfare state and labour market policies, do seem to have a salutary effect on the selected health indicators, infant mortality and life expectancy at birth.
Solhaug, Trond; Kristensen, Niels Nørgaard
This article focuses on students’ first political learning and explores the research question, what dynamic patterns of political learning can be explored among a selection of young, diverse Danish students’ first political interests? The authors use theories of learning in their analytical...... approach to students´ stories. A group of 10 young students who claim a certain political interest and attend a social studies course in Danish upper secondary school were selected to interview. A “life story approach” is used in the interviews and in the analytical approach. Findings: contrary to many...... “single agent studies in the tradition” of political socialization, the authors find that all students display a complex pattern of political influence. The influence from various agents like school, family, media and peers is also rather complex. Students are not passive recipients of influence...
In this paper, I will argue that, while the ethical issues raised by cluster randomization can be challenging, they are not new. My thesis divides neatly into two parts. In the first, easier part I argue that many of the ethical challenges posed by cluster randomized human subjects research are clearly present in other types of human subjects research, and so are not novel. In the second, more difficult part I discuss the thorniest ethical challenge for cluster randomized research--cases where consent is genuinely impractical to obtain. I argue that once again these cases require no new analytic insight; instead, we should look to political philosophy for guidance. In other words, the most serious ethical problem that arises in cluster randomized research also arises in political philosophy. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Chekunova Marina A.
Full Text Available Nowadays, in transformation of the realm of political communication, a more important part is given to the so-called «new social media». Previously, political communication was seen as a process of production, dissemination and perception of political information for the purpose of achieving a consent regarding one or another political action. Additionally, communication appeared as a mechanism of one-way information exchange. Under new conditions, political communication becomes a tool of ensuring the process of preparation, making and implementing political decisions. In a modern understanding, an informational message is built by means of specific cooperation between communicants. In this regard, information sources appear as a specific base for state actions. This paper deals with old (traditional and new social media and lists several characteristics that help distinguish these media. It also shows how authorities and representatives of political opposition can use social media to achieve their political purposes. This article analyses not only benefits but also drawbacks in the application of new information technologies in politics, considering a problem of manipulation as a main disadvantage. It also compares the use of social networks by authorities in Russia and abroad. Because of differences in political culture, social networks are not popular with Russian authorities. However, the number of social networking users among Russian politicians is increasing year by year. Moreover, the most popular network with them is Twitter. A conclusion can be drawn that new media play an important role in creating a system of rules of conduct on the Internet and in establishing a specific culture of electronic communication between representatives of authority and society.
This paper hans three interrelated parts. First, atmosphere is approached through the concept of power. Atmospheres 'grip' us directly or mediate power indirectly by manipulating moods and evoking emotions. How does atmosphere relate to different conceptions of power? Second, atmospheric powers may...... be critiqued. Which conception of critique can be involved? Third, critiquing atmospheric powers can generate political conflict. How does atmospheric disputes relate to conceptions of politics and the political?...
Erçetin, Şefika; Tekin, Ali
The present work investigates global politics and political implications of social science and management with the aid of the latest complexity and chaos theories. Until now, deterministic chaos and nonlinear analysis have not been a focal point in this area of research. This book remedies this deficiency by utilizing these methods in the analysis of the subject matter. The authors provide the reader a detailed analysis on politics and its associated applications with the help of chaos theory, in a single edited volume.
Sladeček Michal M.
Full Text Available This paper considers the concept of political community, its constitution and value. The starting point is that the concept of community is not sufficiently recognized in modern political theories, as well as in contemporary liberal theory. In the last two decades communitarian and republican political theory attempted to revitalize this notion. The first part of the paper elaborates on the polemics between these three theoretical orientations. The concluding part examines the possibilities and prospect for stable political community in conditions of pluralism of particular social communities and ethnocultural heterogeneity.
’ is distinct from both the study of political practices of securitization and explorations of competing concepts of politics among security theories. It means tracking what kinds of analysis the theory can produce and whether such analysis systematically impacts real-life political struggles. Securitization...... theory is found to ‘act politically’ through three structural features that systematically shape the political effects of using the theory. The article further discusses – on the basis of the preceding articles in the special issue – three emerging debates around securitization theory: ethics...
Harris, Christine R.; Henniger, Nicole E.
In the last 5 years, the phrase “politics of envy” has appeared more than 621 times in English-language newspapers, generally in opinion essays contending that political liberalism reflects and exploits feelings of envy. Oddly, this assertion has not been tested empirically. We did so with a large adult sample (n = 357). Participants completed a Dispositional Envy Scale and questions about political ideology, socioeconomic status, and age. Envy and age were moderately correlated; younger people reported greater envy. Political ideology and envy were weakly correlated; however, this relationship was not significant when controlling for age. PMID:23471177
Kantola, Johanna; Rolandsen-Agustín, Lise
research traditions, we build toward an analytical framework to study gender and transnational party politics. Our empirical analysis focuses on two policy issues, the economic crisis and the sexual and reproductive health and rights, analyzing European Parliament reports, debates and voting on the issues......In this article, we analyze transnational party politics in the European Union from a gender perspective. This is a subject that has been neglected both by mainstream European studies on party politics and by gender scholars who work on political parties. Drawing on the insights of these two...... right axis and, at the same time, internal divisions within party groups affect policy output....
Full Text Available New institutional politics is an interdisciplinary movement that tries to reinstate the institutional politics to the center of the political science. After the limits of formal-legal analyze, used by old institutional politics, have been criticized by behaviorists, rational choice and neo-Marxist movements, since 1950, the state was alienated from the center of the political studies as an independent variable. Since 1980, neo institutional politics, raised as a reaction to this development, has been developing a new description and understanding of the institution which goes beyond the limitations of the old one. The rise and change of the political institutions and the interactions between political institutions and the actors, are being retheorized, by depending on informal rules and conventions as much as formal rules, and pointing out cultural factors as much as legal factors. So, in this study, rational choice, sociological and historical new institutional politics, as the three different school of new institutionalism, will be examined separately and there will be a debate on colliding and overlapping points of these schools
Steele, John M.
The relationship between astronomy and politics is a complex but important part of understanding the practice of astronomy throughout history. This chapter explores some of the ways that astronomy, astrology, and politics have interacted, placing particular focus on the way that astronomy and astrology have been used for political purposes by both people in power and people who wish to influence a ruler's policy. Also discussed are the effects that politics has had on the development of astronomy and, in particular, upon the recording and preservation of astronomical knowledge.
NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Community Development Districts (CDDs) are special taxing districts or local units of special-purpose government. A CDD may charge separate non-ad valorem special...
Almost everywhere the antinuclear lobby remains entrenched and vigorous. At the same time nuclear power makes about 17 per cent of the world's electricity - as much as came from all sources in 1957. Ten of the 25 countries with operating reactors make more than a third of their electricity this way. This disparity between perception and reality must be dealt with before nuclear power can make its proper contribution in a world whose population will be 60 per cent larger by 2025. Even allowing for conservation and efficiency, 50 per cent more energy will be needed by then. It cannot come on that scale from the renewables. Only coal, gas, oil, hydro and nuclear power produce really big packets of energy. The first three have the greenhouse question mark hanging over them, while hydro resources are limited. Reductions in the emissions of carbon dioxide, already promised by Europe and Japan, would be impossible without a full nuclear contribution. There is scope for at least a doubling of nuclear electricity over the next 30 years. But today the nuclear construction industry's order books are almost empty. The problems are almost entirely political: before the politicians will act, the public's concerns about economics, safety, waste disposal and nuclear proliferation must first be allayed. The background to the creation of a more favourable nuclear climate is discussed. (author)
Rosoff, J I
A systematic review of national and local press coverage of congressional races makes possible a general appraisal of the significance of the abortion issue in the 1974 general election; analysis of polls conducted by congresspersons offers further clues to voter sentiment regarding this issue. Congressional initiatives in regard to abortion following the 1973 Supreme Court decision fell into 3 major categories: 1) introduction of proposals for constitutional amendments to reverse the Supreme Court decision; 2) efforts to exempt both individuals and institutions from having to perform or to allow the performance of abortion; 3) attempts to prohibit or restrict the use of federal funds for abortion in domestic or foreign programs. Many districts are so "safe" that the incumbent is virtually assured of election without campaigning, so a more reliable test of the importance of the abortion issue is to examine what happened to those incumbents whose hold over their districts was generally acknowledged to be insecure or who faced especially strong challengers. The voting records and election outcomes of 119 incumbents were scrutinized. Incumbents from unsafe districts fared considerably more poorly than those from safe areas in the 1974 elections. 1% of the safe incumbents lost compared to 31% of those whose races were considered close. Antiabortion candidates from unsafe districts had a much higher casualty rate (39%) than proabortion candidates (8%); while those with mixed records fared about the same as congresspersons from unsafe districts generally. Among Republicans running in close races, 42% of the antiabortion incumbents were defeated, about the same porportion of casualties as among Republicans in unsafe districts generally. Among Democrats, all of the 12 proabortion incumbents from unsafe districts were reelected, while 2 of the 8 who voted consistently in opposition were defeated. When party affiliation is controlled and attention is on those districts where
Full Text Available This inquiry analyzes how political orientations shape welfare states and labour market institutions when seeking to reduce poverty. In order to identify effects of these two key variables, we conduct a panel regression analysis that includes two poverty measures: poverty rates before and after social spending. This inquiry considers 14 EU countries, and in the period from 1995 to 2008, which are grouped according to welfare state regimes. We consider Social Democratic, Corporatist, Mediterranean and Liberal welfare state regimes. Panel regression results indicate that political orientation engenders no significant statistically measurable effects on poverty rates before social spending. Effects register, however, as significant when considering poverty rates after social spending. With respect to the first set of results, we advance two key explanations. First, we note a longer period of time is necessary in order to observe actual effects of political orientation on market generated poverty. Second, political parties with their respective programs do not register as influential enough to solve social problems related to income distribution when taken alone. Influences register as indirect and are expressed through changes in employment rates and social spending. The second set of results support the hypothesis that a selected political regime does indeed contribute to poverty reduction. In sum, political orientation and political regime does indeed affect poverty through welfare state institutions, as well as through labour market institutions.
Fearnley, R.; Susak, W. [City of Vancouver, BC (Canada); Johnstone, I. [BCG Services Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)
The concept of district energy was introduced in the City of North Vancouver, a city of 45,000, in 1997. A preliminary study was completed in 1997, followed by a tour of some district energy facilities in Finland in the same year. In 1999 a large district energy study was completed by a consultant. The study indicated the need for an investment of $15 million to implement district heating in the City. Lack of sufficient financial resources and immediately connectable heat load, the project was considered a non-starter. Some of the other factors leading to shelving the project included no current significant pricing advantages over competing energy sources and no current opportunity for cogeneration, given the low price that BC Hydro is willing to pay for independently produced power. The project, although shelved for the moment, has not been discarded. Planning and exploration are continuing, aided by the City's commitment to energy efficiency and conservation, its long term planning horizon and its significant influence over the development of some prime real estate.
School districts have resorted to hiring debt collectors, employing constables, and swapping out standard meals for scaled-back versions to try to coerce parents to pay off school lunch debt that, in recent years, appears to have surged as the result of a faltering economy and better record-keeping. While the average school lunch costs just about…
Minnesota State Office of the Legislative Auditor, St. Paul. Program Evaluation Div.
Minnesota spends more for education than most states and has increased its financial commitment steadily over the past 15 years. Because of the state's dominant role in education funding, legislators have enacted measures requiring all local school districts to follow uniform financial accounting and reporting standards (UFARS). Since 1980, the…
Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data represents the NM Department of Transportation District boundaries as legislatively defined (i.e. these are not maintenance defined districts).
Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains boundaries of the New Mexico Forestry Districts, plus the names of the district offices. It is in a vector digital structure digitized from a...
, the article demonstrates how the politics of brain drain travel from the domestic level to the European through frames that connect the issue to problems and solutions at the Union-level. After presenting a statistical overview of intra-EU mobility flows, I conclude that the politics of brain drain......-European phenomenon lends itself well to multiple framings by actors in pursuit of preconceived political ends. This creates a space of opportunities within the Commission between laissez-faire and interventionist responses that vary in terms of the economic assumptions and political preferences brought to bear...... on the issue. Although the current balance is weighted in favor of a supply-side, employability logic towards brain drain, there is evidence of a schism within the Commission that presents an opportunity to productively engage with other understandings of the issue in pursuit of best practices....
Lewis, Orion; Steinmo, Sven
In this essay, we explore the epistemological and ontological assumptions that have been made to make political science "scientific." We show how political science has generally adopted an ontologically reductionist philosophy of science derived from Newtonian physics and mechanics. This mechanical framework has encountered problems and constraints on its explanatory power, because an emphasis on equilibrium analysis is ill-suited for the study of political change. We outline the primary differences between an evolutionary ontology of social science and the physics-based philosophy commonly employed. Finally, we show how evolutionary thinking adds insight into the study of political phenomena and research questions that are of central importance to the field, such as preference formation.
Political competencies are often considered a precondition for political action; however, they are not independent of previous political participation, which may also include the frequency and the kind of political media consumption. My research aims at finding out the importance of participation in political activities in the past, as well as taking over civic responsibility in positions at school or university for cognitive political competencies. The focus is on structural political knowle...
Full Text Available Multi-input prediction models are gradually finding their places in the arena of social and economic sciences to assess, locate and address the complicated socio-economic issues arising around the globe. These models treat the problems as the output aroused from a complex interaction between a range of variables linked with physical, socio-cultural, economic as well as ambient political systems. The discussion on dropout from the education system belongs to the core of the educational researchers. The researchers within this domain are attempting to develop the ‘tools and techniques’ for efficiently demarcating the space with a given degree of susceptibility. The scope is to drop out and examine the internal functions of the interactive variables associated with the process. In the present study, we try to apply the fuzzy logic in mapping the spatial variation of the susceptibility of school dropout in the district of Purulia, a backwards district in India regarding achieved level of human development. The training datasets for building the fuzzy model based on the available secondary data from different reports published by the Government and a range of primary data collected through a socio-economic survey. The model output is an index, namely the Index of Susceptibility of School Drop Out (ISDO which reflects the levels of susceptibility to school dropout at different parts of the study area. The proposed model should allow the success within the larger social and economic system.
Full Text Available Multi-party political system led to competition between political parties which caused the need for marketing in politics that improves political reputation. Politics, based on rich experience of political practice, used existing, developed methods and techniques of commercial marketing. Political marketing openly admits that politics and politicians are simply goods that are being sold on a political market. Political marketing is a whole way of operation by political parties which ask these questions: how do the voters choose; what affects their preference and how that preference can be influenced. Usage of political marketing in Bosnia and Herzegovina is still not on a satisfactory level but the knowledge about the importance of political marketing is increasing.
Gobernar la universidad pública: un problema político-administrativo Governo das universidades públicas: um assunto político-administrativo Governing Public Universities: A Political-Administrative Problem
Daniel Alberto Cortés-Moreno
Full Text Available Se hace una reflexión acerca del gobierno de la educación superior en Colombia, que toma como estudio de caso a la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, la cual se considera como el centro público universitario más importante del país. Este estudio expone los problemas de índole político-administrativa que acarrea el gobernar establecimientos educativos con criterios homogéneos y unidireccionales, así como la constante y creciente pérdida de legitimidad de los entes administrativos, la limitación de la autonomía de los estudiantes y la ausencia de una democracia participativa en el gobierno de las universidades. También se incluye una parte de la historia de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, así como la actual conformación de su administración y algunos hechos que marcan y caracterizan su academia, para finalmente proponer las formas de gobierno posibles y deseables en la educación superior en Colombia.Este artigo é uma reflexão sobre a governança do ensino superior na Colômbia. Como estudo de caso, apresenta à Universidad Nacional de Colombia, o maior centro de universidade pública no país. Este estudo descreve os problemas político-administrativos que envolvem governar as instituições de ensino com criterios uniformes e unidirecionais, bem como a perda constante e crescente de legitimidade dos órgãos administrativos, a restrição à autonomia dos alunos e a falta de democracia participativa no governo das universidades. Este artigo inclui uma parte da historia da Universidad Nacional de Colombia, a forma atual de sua administração e alguns fatos característicos de sua academia. Finalmente, oferece formas possíveis e desejáveis de governo no ensino superior na Colombia.This article reflects on how higher education is managed in Colombia, using as a case study the National University of Colombia, which is considered to be the most important public university in the country. It shows the political
Over the last thirty years, happiness research in psychology, economics and philosophy has been discussing the proper meaning of happiness and its main determinants. Moreover, the idea has spread within academic and political circles that it may be legitimate for institutions to engage in “politics...... of happiness”. This article presents a critique of the project of promoting happiness through public policies....
Benotti, Luciana; Blackburn, Patrick Rowan
We sketch an inference architecture that permits linguistic aspects of politeness to be interpreted; we do so by applying the ideas of politeness theory to the SCARE corpus of task-oriented dialogues, a type of dialogue of particular relevance to robotics. The fragment of the SCARE corpus we...
In this article I sketch the outlines of a theory of political human-animal conversations, based on ideas about language that I borrow from Ludwig Wittgenstein’s later work, in particular his notion of language-games. I present this theory as a supplement to the political theory of animal rights Sue
Citi, Manuele; Justesen, Mogens Kamp
Political actors need to be nimble and respond to the opportunity to reform old policies and initiate new ones. The article looks at how the European Commission takes advantage of politically opportune moments (the ‘gridlock interval’) in the European Parliament to put forward new legislation...
Tooms, Autumn K.; Kretovics, Mark A.; Smialek, Charles A.
This study is an effort to examine principals' perceptions of workplace politics and its influence on their productivity and efficacy. A survey was used to explore the perceptions of current school administrators with regard to workplace politics. The instrument was disseminated to principals serving public schools in one Midwestern state in the…
The paper assesses the political credibility of three encyclopaedias (Encyclopaedia Britannica, Encyclopedia of Marxism and Wikipedia) in relation to three chosen topics (Friedrich Engels's biography; the political philosophy of fascism; and, the discipline of social psychology). I was interested in discerning how entries are represented and…
Reed, Steven R.; And Others
Provides an overview of political corruption and its place in Japanese culture and society. Discusses recent scandals and efforts at political reform. These efforts are moving Japan from a "boss-patronage" system to a "civic-culture." Includes a table of post-war Japanese prime ministers and corruption scandals. (MJP)
I Wayan Wirata
Full Text Available This research is entitled “The Hegemony Imposed by the Government and theResistance of Wetu Telu Sasaknese Ethnic Group at Bayan District, North Lombok”.The interaction between the government and the Wetu Telu Sasaknese community atBayan District has resulted in differences in views, ideas, and behaviors leading tofriction and refusal or opposition from the community.This research is focused on 1 how has the hegemony imposed by thegovernment upon the Wetu Telu Sasaknese Ethnic Group residing at Bayan District,North Lombok Regency taken place? 2 what has been done by the people of the WetuTelu Sasaknese Ethnic Group residing at Bayan Distrik, North Lombok to resist to thehegemony imposed by the government upon them? and 3 what are the effects andmeanings of the hegemony imposed by the government and the resistance of the WetuTelu Sasaknese Ethnic Group on the multicultural community life at Bayan District,North Lombok Regency?The data needed were collected by interview, observation, and documentationand were descriptively, qualitatively and interpretatively analyzed. The theories used togive answers to the problems formulated above are the theory of hegemony (Gramsci,the theory of deconstruction (Jacques Derrida, and the theory of discourse (Foucault.The results show that the hegemony imposed by the government has taken placein a number of particular aspects such as the religious aspect, socio political aspect,cultural aspect and educational aspect. Being marginalized and being not free indeveloping their tradition and culture, the people of Wetu Telu Sasaknese Ethnic Groupresiding at Bayan District, North Lombok Regency, have been responsible for theirresistance to the government and the followers Islam Waktu Lima. The resistance hasbeen shown by avoiding, refusing and even opposing what is considered not inaccordance with their tradition and culture.One of the effects of the hegemony imposed by the government and theresistance made by the
First, researchers will explore women's political leadership and the extent to which it promotes the will to transform gender relations both within and outside the state. Second, they will assess quota systems for their impact on women's participation and leadership in representative government. Third, they will evaluate the ...
Glaser, J; Salovey, P
Recent U.S. history provides vivid illustrations of the importance of politicians' emotional displays in subsequent judgments of them. Yet, a review of empirical research on the role of affect (emotion, mood, and evaluation) in electoral politics reveals little work that has focused on the impact of candidates' emotional expression on voters' preferences for them. A theoretical framework is proposed to identify psychological mechanisms by which a target's displays of emotion influence judgments of that target. Findings from the emerging literature on emotions and politics challenge the traditional assumption of political science that voters make decisions based solely on the cold consideration of nonaffectively charged information. The affect and politics literature, although somewhat unfocused and broad, represents an interdisciplinary domain of study that contributes to the understanding of both electoral politics and social interaction more generally.
This paper considers political competition and the consequences of political polarization when parties are better informed about how the economy functions than voters are. Specifically, parties know the cost producing a public good, voters do not. An incumbent's choice of policy acts like a signa...... for costs before an upcoming election. It is shown that the more polarized the political parties the more distorted the incumbent's policy choice.......This paper considers political competition and the consequences of political polarization when parties are better informed about how the economy functions than voters are. Specifically, parties know the cost producing a public good, voters do not. An incumbent's choice of policy acts like a signal...
Christopher P. Long
Full Text Available This essay articulates the differences and suggests the similarities between the practices of Socratic political speaking and those of Platonic political writing. The essay delineates Socratic speaking and Platonic writing as both erotically oriented toward ideals capable of transforming the lives of individuals and their relationships with one another. Besides it shows that in the Protagoras the practices of Socratic political speaking are concerned less with Protagoras than with the individual young man, Hippocrates. In the Phaedo, this ideal of a Socrates is amplified in such a way that Platonic writing itself emerges as capable of doing with readers what Socratic speaking did with those he encountered. Socrates is the Platonic political ideal. The result is a picture of the transformative political power of Socratic speaking and Platonic writing both.
Rienzo, Barbara A; Button, James W; Sheu, Jiunn-jye; Li, Ying
Schools are increasingly expected to address the needs of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender students. However, the controversial nature of sexual orientation programs and policies makes this a politically sensitive undertaking. This empirical study analyzes the extent to which public school districts across the United States have implemented policy recommendations and describes, according to 4 theoretical policy models, factors that influence their ability to do so. The survey found that most districts have not institutionalized recommended policies or programs. Recommendations for school health professionals based on factors found to be significantly associated with the implementation of programs are discussed.
Campos, J E; Lien, D
"Economic theory suggests that transnational migration results from the push-pull effect of wage differentials between host and source countries. In this paper, we argue that political instability exacerbates the migration flow, with greater instability leading to relatively larger flows. We conclude then that an optimal solution to the illegal immigration problem requires proper coordination of immigration and foreign policies by the host country. A narrow preoccupation with tougher immigration laws is wasteful and may be marginally effective." Emphasis is on the United States as a host country. excerpt
Full Text Available This essay aims to understand how refugees present a problem for liberal nation-states. The point of departure is Arendt’s The Origins of Totalitarianism where she argues that the continual existence of refugees within liberal nation-states threatens to break down the principle of equality before the law thereby enabling the rise of police-states and totalitarianism. In light of this diagnosis, three of Arendt’s philosophical heirs—Giorgio Agamben, Seyla Benhabib and Peg Birmingham—argue that it is necessary to think political membership in different and broader terms than national citizenship if we are to avoid a new rise of totalitarianism.
Full Text Available The regional autonomy conducted in many functions of government. One of its forms is proliferation of region. The aim of this study was to overview the proceed of proliferation in East Belitung District. This research was a qualitative research consisted of two main techniques to collect the data; they were interview and secondary data from documentations. The findings show that there were ten steps to create the new East Belitung District. The steps started from the preparations of local’s planning and administration to the final steps in the hand of national parliaments. This study found that the number of local government in Indonesia has increases, and the process at the central government level seem relatively easy. But, the eligibility criteria being compromised. Then, the political will from communities were not clear mention. Also there was a conflict interest between local government and central government in the feasibility study for proliferation in Belitung District. It concluded that we could not deny that political intervention in the bureaucracy has facilitated the formation of East Belitung districts.
Hansen, Sune Welling; Houlberg, Kurt; Holm Pedersen, Lene
between budget guardians and advocates, political influence is expected to move in the direction of the guardians when the economy gets tighter. However, this claim is difficult to investigate empirically at the national level due to problems of endogeneity and measurement. B, but by moving the analytical...... guardians, who ‘should not waste a good crisis to make political changes’ because their political influence is increasing in times of austerity....
Haque, Ubydul; Ahmed, Syed Masud; Hossain, Shahed; Huda, Mamun; Hossain, Awlad; Alam, Mohammad Shafiul; Mondal, Dinesh; Khan, Wasif Ali; Khalequzzaman, Mohammod; Haque, Rashidul
BACKGROUND: Following the 1971 ban of DDT in Bangladesh, malaria cases have increased steadily. Malaria persists as a major health problem in the thirteen south-eastern and north-eastern districts of Bangladesh. At present the national malaria control program, largely supported by the Global Fund for AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM), provides interventions including advocacy at community level, Insecticide Treated Net (ITN) distribution, introduction of Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT) and ...
Political competencies are often considered a precondition for political action; however, they are not independent of previous political participation, which may also include the frequency and the kind of political media consumption. My research aims at finding out the importance of participation in political activities in the past, as well as…
Full Text Available Rasina District is faced with serious demographic problems at the beginning of the twenty-first century which are the consequence of long-term economic and social changes both in this area and the country as a whole. The basic problem is insufficient population regeneration, which further leads to other negative processes. One of the most important problems of Rasina District is the ageing of population, i.e., a drop in young population and a significant rise in old population. Therefore, the population of Rasina District is already in the critical phase of demographic aging. Such age structure influences further economic development of this area at large. The decrease in young population, which is the carrier of future reproduction and regeneration of the population of this area, is evident. So as to stop or decelerate these processes, it is necessary to improve life conditions and ensure certain economic standard. Otherwise, these processes will not be stopped; they will be all the more intensified.
'What has politics got to do with nursing?' This is a question I hear often as a lecturer in nursing with a specialist interest in politics, as is the comment: 'I did not come into nursing to learn about politics.'
Damecour, R.; Andersson, B. [Kattner/FVB District Energy Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada)
An overview of the development of district energy systems throughout the world is provided. Significant district energy data is provided for Canada, the United States, East Asia, Korea, Japan, China, Eastern Europe and Russia, Estonia, and Sweden. The overall conclusion is that district energy systems are here to stay and have a good chance of succeeding provided that the concept has the support of business, municipalities and national governments. The 40 years old district heating system in Vasteras, Sweden, the oldest and most successful district energy system in the world, was highlighted.
Simons, M. [Columbus School of Law, Washington, DC (United States)
Over the next twenty years, the Earth`s rain forests may decrease by forty percent! This paper presents a revolutionary corporate entity for the protection of those forests, the biological diversity conservation district (biodistricts). The underlying cause of rain forest destruction is unfettered competition for limited resources. The competitors are many: farmers, business, local and national governments, the biotechnology and ecotourism industries, multinational companies, public utilities, and indigenous groups. To varying degrees, all compete within the marketplace. biodistricts will bring together two forces once thought to be antithetical: conservation an development. They will be set up in corporate form, owned and controlled by groups claiming access to the forest resources. Because the various groups will fight for the same resources habitats, ecosystems, and genetic diversity-each will prevent the others from destroying them. The district members will ensure that all businesses maintain sustainable development practices because the economic success of the district depends upon the area`s natural beauty and biological diversity. This paper analyzes the effects on the culture, politics, economy and conservation there. It will conclude that the comprehensive approach taken by biodistricts is the only method for solving the problem of rain forest destruction; that it is economically feasible, culturally viable, and ethically defensible. By March 1, 1995, the paper will represent not only the culmination of eighteen months of research, writing and interviews regarding biological diversity conservation, but also the impetus to push the thinking of environmentalists and business persons in a new direction, perhaps the only direction that will allow the nations of the world to protect their forests for the next twenty years and beyond.
Stephen W. Litvin
Full Text Available Government policy has a significant impact on the hospitality and tourism industry, but it is unclear if political leaders fully understand this economic sector when crafting policies. This article offers new research about the direct involvement of industry practitioners in the political process, by analyzing the backgrounds of legislators in the six New England states. The data indicate that only 3% of these legislators have current or former careers related to hospitality and tourism. The author suggests that practitioners should seek election to political office, to better influence government policy.
Tang, Yi; Lin, Yu; Andersen, Torben Juul
Political networking is frequently used in transition economies to gain superior performance. This study draws on upper echelons theory (UET) and the resource-based view (RBV) to analyze the relationship between political networking and firm innovation moderated by the core self-evaluation (CSE......) of the CEO. Based on a sample of 381 manufacturing firms extracted from the Entrepreneurs Survey System of Chinese CEOs with 2014 data from the Jiangsu province, the study finds that political networking is positively related to explorative and exploitative innovation but negatively moderated by the CSE...
This thesis consists of five essays in the field of political economy. The first part of the thesis includes three essays covering various aspects of the political economy of globalization and economic reforms, which are linked in several ways. The second part of the thesis includes two essays on the political economy of development in India. The aim of this introductory section is to give a brief and non-technical overview of the essays, as well as to explain the links between them. The disc...
Full Text Available "Private political archives" are understood by me as all acts collected intently by a private person. These acts are connected with the person's participation in political life and gathered in order to be used in public activity as the source of argumentation and information about factors and mechanisms of political processes. Private political archives of the first half of the XVI century were mainly created by royal servants, often with reference to their job duties. These duties could inspire to collect political acts for private purposes. During the reign of Sigismund Augustus, archives of gentry activists were developed to small extent and they mainly focused on parliamentary life. Private political archives were created outside the executionist movement, namely in the community gathered around the royal court. After 1572, Crown and Lithuanian magnates greatly influenced the creation of political archives. Archives of lesser gentry, scarce and poor, did not disappear completely. However, they became difficult for identification. Therefore, developmental process concerned exclusively documentary "treasure troves" created by magnates. They had the financial means and possibilities to create truly valuable political archives. The same as in the previous period the dynamisms of executionist movement was reflected in political archival documentation, now the creation of patronage system and clientele, or traditionally understood magnate oligarchy, (depending on the point of view corresponded best to archives development. The heritage of previous generations was the treasure trove of patterns and solutions. However, this trove was used selectively, on one hand giving up patterns and rights that were uncomfortable, and, on the other, giving the value of precedence to unexpected acts that gained more importance or even new content in changed political conditions. The application of interpretation principle raised interest in old acts and patterns
Rout, U R
This paper presents the results of a pilot study investigating stress among district nurses in the north-west of England. Nurses completed questionnaires covering job satisfaction, mental health, stress, Type A behaviour, health behavior, coping skills and demographic details. A specific measure of stress was developed following in-depth interviews with primary care professionals, including district nurses. A total of 79 district nurses took part in the study. The major sources of stress isolated by the district nurses related to: time pressure, administrative responsibility, having too much to do, factors not under their control, interruptions, keeping up with National Health Service (NHS) changes, and lack of resources. Factor analysis of stress questionnaire responses identified five major factors: demands of the job and lack of communication, working environment, problems with patients, work/home interface and social life, and career development. The highest levels of satisfaction were reported for the amount of variety in their job and the lowest level of job satisfaction was reported for chance of promotion. The results revealed that the mental wellbeing of the nurses was higher than that of the other population groups. Furthermore, multivariate analysis revealed three major stressors that were predictive of high levels of job dissatisfaction: demands of the job and lack of communication, working environment, and career development. The implications of the findings for further research are considered.
Full Text Available Political competencies are often considered a precondition for political action; however, they are not independent of previous political participation, which may also include the frequency and the kind of political media consumption. My research aims at finding out the importance of participation in political activities in the past, as well as taking over civic responsibility in positions at school or university for cognitive political competencies. The focus is on structural political knowledge of the polity, symbolic political knowledge about political figures and actors, and political reasoning. The main hypothesis reads that the media primarily influence symbolic political knowledge, while structural political knowledge is mainly achieved by active political participation. The ability of political reasoning is assumed to be equally influenced by both, media consumption and political participation. By using a small, homogeneous sample of university students, these hypotheses are examined by taking into consideration socio-demographic control variables and political interest in statistical analyses and by considering differential effects of various political activities and different forms of political media consumption. The results are primarily discussed with respect to potential future research and by considering political education in modern societies.
In order to address this prevailing condition, the paper believed that citizenship education is a veritable tool for solving the problem of political instability in Nigeria. The paper adopted descriptive and content analysis method. The paper opined that lack of political stability in Nigeria is due to lack of adequate attention to ...
Full Text Available This article aims to present a brief overview of the evolving debates on the problem of the identity of political theory, mainly in the Anglophone academic context since the end of the 1950’s. At least three ways of identifying the nature of political theory have shaped those de-bates: the scientistic, the normative and the historical.
To understand educational reform and the form that Physical Education (PE) takes on we need to understand how policy becomes practice and the nature of the political agenda at any particular time. The research problem focuses on the politics involved in the policy process within educational reform regarding PE as a ...
Secondly, a significant correlation was found between political knowledge and critical thinking abilities in a political context. This implied that critical thinking ability varied directly with the amount of knowledge of the subject required by the problem. Thirdly, the results of the research indicated that gender and environment ...
From preindependence era to date, political corruption and its attendant problems in forms of vote buying, election rigging and manipulation, outright embezzlement by politicians have negatively affected the lives of Nigerians. This has led to increased political apathy and distrust in the country's fledging democratic ideals.
The post-independence politics of African countries has been dominated by the phenomenon of sit-tight African heads of state and government who had acceeded to office by election or coup d'etat. This paper examines this recurring problem in post-independence African politics by examining its general and specific ...
Contemporary social movements along with rapid economic development throughout the world have pushed women into the mainstream of cultural change, i.e., urbanization and westernization. These new circumstances have altered the feeding patterns of these women. What is happening to breastfeeding should be viewed as part of a larger, ongoing acculturation process. Childrearing practices have been forced to accommodate to the dramatic realities in women's lives, including migration to the cities, the loss of caring kin, and work outside the home. These are all difficult transitions which many poor women have had to deal with on their own. Consequently, they are forced to redefine their roles and to change their childrearing practices so that they can maximize their changes to survive. According to anthropological evidence, women act sensibly and rationally in their decision regarding breastfeeding despite rapid acculturation and severe economic constraints. "Lactation Review" has observed how women have invented new systems of help and support when they want to breastfeed, and it has reported how they have become adept at dealing with overcrowded health services. The Review has also described the lives of women living in poor urban areas who are often forced to give up breastfeeding much too soon. Little trust in these women exists among international health agencies, many western legislators, and an elite group of health professionals worldwide. Legislators, with antiformula as their cause, have built new constituencies. A new politics of breastfeeding has emerged. It thrives on scientific naivete, authoritarian legislation as well as single minded and simplistic solutions to the problems of poor mothers. As indicated by the conference participants at Copenhagen, women need to take back their right to decide what and when to feed their children.
Some basic concepts of political decision making - a process within a given system - are described and analysed starting from false and going on to more adequate concepts. A practical example (breeder technology) is used to show how the author's arguments can be applied to the analysis of practical problems in social reality. (DG) [de
The paper discusses political aspects of decision making about the safety of nuclear power plants especially in Eastern Europe and in connection with the enlargement of the European Union. The problem of the Kozloduy NPP safety is also discussed. Recommendations on the policy and tasks for nuclear regulators are given
The aim of this thesis is to get a better understanding of how centralization affects the efficiency of policy making. To analyze this, the chapters in this thesis deal with political incentive problems. The chapters have in common a set of assumptions on the institutional setting in which
The private sector is at last beginning to make inroads into the gas industry in Latin America, but the transition is expected to be anything but smooth. Whilst many of the initial problems are of an economic nature, it is politics that will create the biggest stumbling-block. (author)
Wolf-Wilets, Vivian C.; Nugent, L. Catherine
Presents an analysis of faculty dynamics in nursing curriculum situations based on the social theories of conflict, community power, and interest-group to form a political model representing stages in policy development. These stages are applied to curriculum change examples to show how social conflict and power plays cause problems. (MF)
southern interior. 14 Once displaced, the new Shi’a areas of concentration were, “in the infertile zones of the Jebel Amil in the south and the Bekaa...valley.”22 The fact that they were pushed to rugged, infertile and arid lands denote a pattern of economic dislocation that continued over the...political and social subjugation of the Lebanese Shi’a culminated to form a powerfully resonant psychological “frame” upon which Hezbollah could build a
Duarte, José L; Crawford, Jarret T; Stern, Charlotta; Haidt, Jonathan; Jussim, Lee; Tetlock, Philip E
Psychologists have demonstrated the value of diversity--particularly diversity of viewpoints--for enhancing creativity, discovery, and problem solving. But one key type of viewpoint diversity is lacking in academic psychology in general and social psychology in particular: political diversity. This article reviews the available evidence and finds support for four claims: (1) Academic psychology once had considerable political diversity, but has lost nearly all of it in the last 50 years. (2) This lack of political diversity can undermine the validity of social psychological science via mechanisms such as the embedding of liberal values into research questions and methods, steering researchers away from important but politically unpalatable research topics, and producing conclusions that mischaracterize liberals and conservatives alike. (3) Increased political diversity would improve social psychological science by reducing the impact of bias mechanisms such as confirmation bias, and by empowering dissenting minorities to improve the quality of the majority's thinking. (4) The underrepresentation of non-liberals in social psychology is most likely due to a combination of self-selection, hostile climate, and discrimination. We close with recommendations for increasing political diversity in social psychology.
Morozova Galina Viktorovna
Full Text Available The article presents the main results of the research of interests and political orientations of student youth which was carried out in 2014 at the Kazan federal university and its branches in the territory of the Republic of Tatarstan. The choice of student youth as a reference group is caused by a number of factors, among which we should name the status of intellectual elite, social and political mobility that allows to consider students as the potential actors of socio-political transformations in the country. The data obtained during poll compared with the results of last research allow defining the dynamics of development of student youth’s political sentiment in the region. The study of political attitudes, preferences of students was based on the identification of a number of indicators (degree of interest in politics, the level of personal involvement in political life and on the study of factors that determine the motivation of political behavior of students. Empirical studies make it possible to rank the problems that dominate the political consciousness of students in the region. These include a high level of corruption in the government, inflation, rising prices, the state of health and education systems and the growing income inequality. Particular attention is accented on the problems associated with the foreign policy aspects, threats, aggression from abroad. The study showed that most young people’s interest in politics is limited primarily by informational level, rarely they have desire to express their own position or judgments in political situations. The level of real political participation, socio-political activity of students is low. Obtained results let us notice the increasing trend of demonstration of protest behavior among certain part of the students.
Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan C.
influences of such behavior. The study includes structural equation modeling to investigate several propositions. While the results show that political parties need to focus on several different aspects of market-oriented behavior, especially using an internal and external orientation as cultural antecedents......This article develops a conceptual framework and measurement model of political market orientation that consists of attitudinal and behavioural constructs. The article reports on perceived relationships among different behavioral aspects of political market orientation and the attitudinal......, a more surprising result is the inconclusive effect of a voter orientation on market-oriented behaviours. The article discusses the findings in the context of the existing literature in political marketing and commercial market orientation....
’ of globalization. Historically speaking, human rights are closely connected with globalization, but at the same time, they raise a question about the foundation of globalization: is there a universal community or only economic and political power-relations? The article argues that the political use of human rights...... discourses is split down the middle: it serves both as a critique of power and as an extension of power, and the disclosure of this split helps us understand the inner politics of human rights. The article discusses the trial in Valladolid in 1550 when the rights of the barbarian Indians of America were put......This article investigates the political function of human rights in the 16th Century in Spain just after the conquest of America. It claims that the study of this period of early globalization is relevant for the understanding of the function of human rights discourses to day, at the ‘end...
Full Text Available Politicians are considered to be the ones whose honesty is doubtful. This is proven by the fact that there are a lot of negative perception about them. Most of the people know that their ideology is power. In public discussion they often violate or apply politeness with the purpose to get as much power as possible. How polite they are in using the language will be measured by the combination of Grice’s maxims of cooperative principles (1975 and Leech’s mxims of politeness principle. Through analysing the language used by politicians in the talk show Today;s Dialogue, it was found that there were violation and application of politeness in their effort to realize their ideology, which is power.
Tillman, Hope N.
Reviews the literature that deals with the political ramifications of weeding material from academic library collections and the need to involve users and other libraries within the institution in the decision process. (14 references) (CLB)
Department of Transportation — State boundaries with political limit - boundaries extending into the ocean (NTAD). The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an...
Sørensen, Mads P.
Political conversations are according to theories on deliberative democracy essential to well-functioning democracies. Traditionally these conversations have taken place in face-to-face settings, in e.g. party meetings and town meetings. However, social media such as Facebook and Twitter offers new...... possibilities for online political conversations between citizens and politicians. This paper examines the presence on Facebook and Twitter of Members of the Danish national Parliament, the Folketing, and focusses on a quantitative mapping of the political conversation activities taking place in the threads...... following Facebook posts from Danish Members of Parliament (MPs). The paper shows that, in comparison with previous findings from other countries, Danish MPs have a relatively high degree of engagement in political conversations with citizens on Facebook – and that a large number of citizens follow MPs...
If doctors want to play a role in future health promotion, they have to leave their citadel, and come closer to life and society. Modern preventive medicine cannot be dissociated from basic political, cultural and religious values and processes. Genetic counseling and engineering, influencing lifestyle, community intervention and changing the health culture among patients and doctors all require ethical and political competence rather than traditional medical skills. The author advocates the development of a new discipline, medical politics, with two major commitments: -To define basic health rights -To study the public health consequences of political systems and decisions. In a polemic and provocative style the article enlightens the potentials and dangers associated with an expanded concept of preventive medicine.
Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix; Elmegaard, Brian
In the current Danish energy system, the majority of electricity and heat is produced in combined heat and power plants. With increasing shares of intermittent renewable power production, it becomes a challenging task to match power and heat production, as heat demand and production capacity...... constraints limit the power plants. Efficient heat pumps can be used to decouple the constraints of electricity and heat production, while maintaining the high energy efficiency needed to match the politically agreed carbon emission goals. The requirements in terms of COP, location, capacity and economy...... are calculated using an energy system model which includes power plants, heat pumps and district heating consumption profiles. The model is developed with focus on accurate representation of the performance of the units in different locations and operating modes. The model can assist in investment decisions...
Lassen, David Dreyer; Serritzlew, Søren
This paper uses a novel research design to re-examine the causal effect of jurisdiction size on political participation. Two waves of municipal consolidation in Denmark, in 1970 and in 2005, provide exogenous variation in jurisdiction size.......This paper uses a novel research design to re-examine the causal effect of jurisdiction size on political participation. Two waves of municipal consolidation in Denmark, in 1970 and in 2005, provide exogenous variation in jurisdiction size....
Kevin M. Murphy; Andrei Shleifer
We present a model of the creation of social networks, such as political parties, trade unions, religious coalitions, or political action committees, through discussion and mutual persuasion among their members. The key idea is that people are influenced by those inside their network, but not by those outside. Once created, networks can be “rented out” to politicians who seek votes and support for their initiatives and ideas, which may have little to do with network members' core beliefs. In ...
Steffen Hertog’s article argues that Saudi Arabian regime has embarked upon the modernization of its authoritarian rule by attempting to institutionalize important aspects of the political debate. The way this is being done, he proposes, is best captured with the time-honoured concept of corporatism. It helps to bring the kingdom back into the framework of comparative politics, testing and giving new nuances to familiar concepts.
Stephen W. Litvin
Government policy has a significant impact on the hospitality and tourism industry, but it is unclear if political leaders fully understand this economic sector when crafting policies. This article offers new research about the direct involvement of industry practitioners in the political process, by analyzing the backgrounds of legislators in the six New England states. The data indicate that only 3% of these legislators have current or former careers related to hospitality and tourism. The ...
Gancia, Gino A.; Ponzetto, Giacomo A. M.; Ventura, Jaume
The first wave of globalization (1830-1914) witnessed a decline in the number of countries from 125 to 54. Political consolidation was often achieved through war and conquest. The second wave of globalization (1950-present) has led instead to an increase in the number of countries to a record high of more than 190. Political fragmentation has been accompanied by the creation of peaceful structures of supranational governance. This paper develops a theoretical model of the interaction between ...
The Political Parties and Political Participation in Rivers State, Nigeria: A Case Study of 2015 General Elections. Goddey Wilson. Abstract. The study reviewed the activities of the political parties and its impact on voters' participation in the political activities in Rivers State. In pursuit of this objective, the study generated ...
Dominguez, Casey B. K.; Smith, Keith W.; Williams, J. Michael
This study tests, and finds support, for the hypotheses that a student who majors in political science will have stronger feelings of political competence and will be more willing to engage in hypothetical political actions than two peer groups: (a) those who major in other fields and (b) those who show an interest in politics but have not studied…
Full Text Available This article focuses on some parties and significant personalities who worked in the Bessarabian institution of local self-government – Zemstvo (created in 1869 and contributed to the development of the province. The authors found that some nobles united and formed political parties. Parties of the Zemstvo were groups of persons related to the most influential families from Bessarabia. For some of them the Zemstvo served as a platform on which the nobles could solve their problems. It can be said that the Zemstvo was the “alter ego” of the Bessarabian nobility. As a result, in the political life of Bessarabia two main parties were formed – “Young Bessarabia” (“Molodaya Bessarabiya” and “Old Greek Party” (Starogrecheskaya”, which succeeded each other at the helm of power. In the early 1880s, the “Old Greek party” finally defeated its rival and gained full power in the Bessarabian Zemstvo administration. Counselors saw in the Bessarabian Zemstvo an important and reliable instrument for committing abuses. For example, the Head of the Orhei Zemstvo Council Cozac embezzled money from the Zemstvo budget. When the fact of the theft was uncovered, and this was written about in the press, Cozac shot himself. Each group of the nobles included not only people related to certain interest in economic and political life of Bessarabia, but also people related by kinship, acting in the family interests. In 1881-1884, 18 of the 52 provincial councelors were relatives: brothers Semigradov (4 people, brothers Krupensky, brothers Sinadino, brothers Dunca, brothers Cotruta (2 people. The Krupensky family was the most influential family in the Bessarabian Zemstvo. The publicist P. Krushevan wrote in this regard that the Krupensky clan usurped all the power in Bessarabia, and the Governor S. Urusov noted their importance in economic and political life of the province. Many members of the Zemstvo left their mark in the economic, political, and
Muratova, Yulia; Arnoldi, Jakob; Chen, Xin
of the promotion system of political cadres in China—is a mechanism enabling growth through cross-province acquisitions. We conceptualize rotated leaders as brokers between two geographically dispersed networks. We contribute to the literature on the characteristics of Chinese social networks, the effect...... of political connections on firm strategy, and the impact of political rotations on firm growth in China’s provinces.......The underdeveloped institutional framework and trade barriers between China’s provinces make cross-province acquisitions challenging. We explore how Chinese firms can mitigate this problem. Drawing on social network theory we propose that cross-province rotation of political leaders—a key element...
Svetlana V. Petrova
Full Text Available The article examines problems of Ossetians reunion in terms of modern geopolitical processes, analyses Russia's intermediary role in present situation settlement. The article offers culturological, ethnic, economic and political aspects of the given problematic.
Albæk, E.; van Dalen, A.; Jebril, N.; de Vreese, C.H.
Political journalism is often under fire. Conventional wisdom and much scholarly research suggest that journalists are cynics and political pundits. Political news is void of substance and overly focused on strategy and persons. Citizens do not learn from the news, are politically cynical, and are
A common complaint from political scientists involved in the study of religion is that religious issues have been largely overlooked by political science. Through a content analysis of leading political science and sociology journals from 2000 to 2010, this article considers the extent of this claim. The results show that political science…
SHUSTOVA IRINA NIKOLAEVNA
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of axiological possibilities of political nicknames. Political nicknames are very expressive. They can be personal and impersonal. Some nicknames lose their primary meaning to become a part of evaluative political lexis. In the language of politics nicknames often serve not only as means of assessment, but also as ideological weapon.
Andersen, John; Siim, Birte
The book examines the political and academic debates about the interplay between political, civil and social citizenship in US and Europe......The book examines the political and academic debates about the interplay between political, civil and social citizenship in US and Europe...
The IAEA's organization of its 20th General Conference at Rio de Janeiro clearly underlined the importance of a comprehensive international transfer of nuclear technology. Despite all efforts to keep the Agency out of general political confrontations, the Conference was tinged politically by the PLO and South Africa problems. Besides the next five year program, which was agreed upon in the light of existing factual constraints, the support and control functions of the IAEA and next year's Salzburg Fuel Cycle Conference were other main topics of discussion. The 1977 IAEA budget was approved at a level of 43.5 million, the General Fund at 6.5 million. (orig.) [de
Full Text Available This study focuses on the substantive area of business administration using the classic grounded theory method. Business administration is mostly driven by political games between top-level corporate managers. The main concern of the managers I met was that they wanted to be more politically successful. For them, success meant being able to change regularly the course of decisions and action within their firm. The study led to the emergence of a core variable called political intelligentizing. Political intelligentizing explains the recurrent main concern that these managers have to resolve, and it explains the competences managers have to combine to succeed regularly in organisational politics. They resolve their main problem through political intelligentizing which consists in acquiring, developing and combining six specific skills: time matching, rhetorical fitting, silence juggling, strategic forward-thinking, strategic interacting and relationing.
Francisco J. Gonzalez
Full Text Available Socrates can be said to have left the subsequent philosophical tradition with the problem of the relation between philosophy and politics. Already in the Republic the proposal of philosopher-kings represents more a tension than an identity. While Aristotle responds by insisting on a sharp distinction between politics and philosophical wisdom, this distinction proves on closer examination much less sharp than might appear. Heidegger characterizes philosophy as the only authentic politics and the philosopher as ruling just by virtue of being a philosopher. In contrast, Foucault insists that, if philosophy can play a role in relation to politics by transforming the subject who lives politically, it plays no role within politics. In this contrast can be seen the ‘fallout’ of the tension bequeathed by Socrates through both Plato and Aristotle.
Full Text Available The crisis of identity is the underlying hallmark of the contemporary era. It is not confined to the question of the individual but also applies to a more politically serious problem. After the breakup of Yugoslavia and the interethnic and civil war, the newly established political entities were faced with ongoing and parallel processes of reverting to the form of collective identity as well as the formulating new facets of national and political identities. These aspects denote an intentionally conceived self-determination in the face of impending challenges. In this paper, emphasis is placed on the role of mass media in terms of identification and self-identification of people, social groups, political communities, and the promotion of political values and goals as well as the encouragement of behavioral patterns concerning mediated political initiateves. .
Bickerton, George E.
Although there were not reasons to deplore against major activity release from any of the 110 industrial reactors authorized to operate in US, the nuclear incident that occurred at the Three Mile Island Plant in 1979 urged the public conscience toward the necessity of readiness to cope with events of this type. The personnel of the Emergency Planning Office functioning in the frame of US Department of Agriculture has already participated in around 600 intervention drillings on a federal, local or state scale to plan, test or asses radiological emergency plans or to intervene locally. These exercises allowed acquiring a significant experience in elaborating emergency plans, planning the drillings, working out scenarios and evaluation of the potential impact of accidents from the agricultural point of view. We have also taken part in different international drillings among which the most recent are INEX 1 and RADEX 94. We have found on these occasions that the agricultural problems are essential preoccupations in most of the cases no matter if the context is international, national, local or of state level. The paper poses problems specifically related to milk, fruits and vegetables, soils, meat and meat products. Finally the paper discusses issues like drilling planning, alarm and notification, sampling strategy, access authorizations for farmers, removing of contamination wastes. A number of social, political and economical relating problems are also mentioned
Citi, Manuele; Justesen, Mogens Kamp
One of the main functions of centralized budgets in federal and political unions is to act as an equalizing mechanism to support economic cohesion. This is also the case with the European Union’s budget, which operates as a redistributive mechanism that counteracts the cross-national and cross...... redistributive dynamics. We find that the relative wealth of a country vis-à-vis the other EU countries is a powerful factor in explaining its net fiscal position, but the change in the relative wealth of a country over time has little effect on its position as net contributor or net beneficiary. In addition, we...
Grünbaum, Niels Nolsøe; Stenger, Marianne
The aim of this paper is to create a more complex and holistic understanding of the value system of the political consumer. A case study was undertaken were the unit of analysis constituted 12 high users of organic food products. The empirical data was analysed by utilizing Reynolds and Gutman’s ...... or services will enable companies to better understand consumers need and expectations. The latter being a necessity if confirmation of expectations, satisfaction, retention of customers and customer loyalty are goals of importance for the selling company....
Rhetoric – the tool of politicians seeking to gain public support appeared and was developed in times of ancient Greece. In our days political rhetoric still is considered to be powerful tool in political arena and even survives kind of renascence. Politician as any other professional is obliged to be skilled user of methods of political rhetoric. Municipality elections are coming soon in Lithuania. Public discourse is going to be filled of different political speeches, examples of political ...
Aleksey Sergeevih Voynov
Full Text Available Purpose: identify the most important features in the process of making political decisions that affect the effectiveness of problem-solving situationsScientific novelty: as a result of the analysis identified the problematic features of major importance for the efficiency of the development and adoption of the most rational solution to a problem situation.Results: the analysis of the most significant features affecting the quality of decisions among them the interest of the person making decisions in the search for causes of the problem situation; decisions from the influence of the immediate environment; populism in decision making, creating a visibility problem-solving; decision making based on personal emotional factor face decision-makers; the perception of the population face decision-makers in relation to the current problem situation and possible ways of its resolution.Defined facts influencing the process of political decision-making such as: corruption, the struggle for influence on the process of political decision-making, lack of qualified specialists, staff shortage, including arose as the result of substitution of notions of "succession" to "nepotism".
Ana Maria Centola Vidal-Martins
Full Text Available Milk is a food of high nutritional value and is considered one of the main animal products consumed today. At the same time, Brazil stands out as one of the leading milk producers in the world and, since 2006 has been showing growing increase in its production. On the other hand, it is observed from the beginning of the 1990s, the growth of so-called informal milk and milk products (foods marketed without any kind of inspection, representing a challenge to be overcome related to food security. There are many diseases that can be transmitted by such foods, as tuberculosis and brucellosis, and there are few consumers who are aware of such information. The fact worsens the thought that milk and dairy products make up the diet of many children, elderly and weakened persons, which may make it more severe. Thus, this study aims to evaluate, through the use of questionnaires in 23 districts of São José do Rio Preto, the profile of 805 consumers or not, of milk and dairy products, the knowledge that they have about the diseases transmitted by milk and dairy products and the significance of the seals from Inspection Services. As a result, it was found that 97.76% (787/805 respondents consume milk or its derivatives, and about 30% are obtained by informal means of commerce. The form of consumption of this product is quite variable, but the work shows that 3.93% (31/787 of the consumers still ingest raw milk without boiling or pasteurization and 65.96% (531/805 of consumers are unaware of the possible transmission of disease by the ingestion of milk. Furthermore 80.24% (646/805 of consumers do not seek the packaging if the product has gone through some kind of supervision before reaching the trade - identification through stamps organs of sanitary inspection. Obtaining such data aims to collaborate in future for the development of prevent programs in the city, and the information gathered will be available to assist inspections services to reduce the
This paper describes the geology of the Streltsovskoye uranium district located in south-eastern Zabaikalie region, Chita Province, Siberia, Russia. This district hosts Russia's only currently active uranium production centre. The uranium ore was discovered from 1963 to 1967 by drilling below fluorite veins which had minor associated uranium mineralization and radioactive anomalies. The uranium occurs as large scale vein stockwork deposits of hydrothermal origin within a volcano-tectonic caldera formed by continental volcanism of Late Mesozoic age. Rocks occurring in the caldera include basalt and trachydacite, overlain by rhyolite, and with associated interbedded sediments. The ore bodies occur in steeply dipping faults, with the greatest concentrations located where faults along the margins of the caldera intersect steeply dipping, cross cutting, northeasterly and northwesterly striking faults. The Streltsovskoye caldera extends over an area of 150 km 2 and is underlain by a large batholith. The 19 identified uranium deposits occurred in structural features that cut through the caldera sequence and extend into the basement rocks. The caldera has a maximum thickness of 1400 metres. Details of several deposits are given, including descriptions of mineralization and associated alteration. (author). 10 figs
Full Text Available To which extent do dysfunctional political systems lead to everyday challenges for social workers? Moreover, how do social workers benefit from working in well-ordered democracies? The purpose of this paper is to gain insights into how the interplay between the political context and social work actually operates. Our main question is: How do accountability and state capacity levels affect daily social work? This interplay frequently becomes associated with levels of democracy and redistribution. We also draw attention to how social workers’ are dependent on the capacity of the state to implement policies. We compare social work and the political and legal contexts in two widely different polities – Norway and Bolivia. Our primary findings indicate that the effects of generally unfavourable political conditions permeate the possibilities for effective social work in previously unforeseen ways. Coordination problems, clientelism and political rivalry lead to everyday challenges on the ground, as many problems seem to reflect the overall institutional system and political culture. In well-ordered political systems, these problems are hardly an issue. In our concluding discussion, we address how the nature of the institutional system and political culture apparently might call for a differentiated approach towards reform strategies. For instance, progressive politicians, citizens and social workers advocating a policy transfer could face severe hindrances in polities, thus comprising weak state capacities.
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Lammers, J.; Koch, Alex; Conway, Paul; Brandt, M.J.
How does political preference affect categorization in the political domain? Eight studies demonstrate that people on both ends of the political spectrum—strong Republicans and strong Democrats—form simpler and more clustered categories of political stimuli than do moderates and neutrals. This
Greer, Scott L; Mätzke, Margitta
Communicable disease control might be one of the oldest and most important functions of the modern state, but it receives very little attention today. This article introduces a special issue on the Europeanization of communicable disease control politics in Europe. The Europeanization of communicable disease control is a case of both European integration and communicable disease politics. We first analyze the problems and tensions in communicable disease control as a problem of overlapping interprofessional, interorganizational, intergovernmental, and international tensions. We then present the European Union, a new and understudied actor in communicable disease politics, sketching the theoretical background for Europeanization of the field and introducing the articles in the special issue.
Heitzman, Andrew J.; Wiley, David B.
Failure to solve school discipline problems is attributed to four factors: school district priorities, unclear problem dimensions, inadequate teacher training, and flaws in teacher/ administrator applied psychology. Psychological approaches that provide systems to control student behavior are described, including biophysical, interactionist, and…
DeNicola, E; Subramaniam, P R
To explore the impact of political partisanship on environmental attitudes related to climate change in United States and its implications for public health. An integrative literature review. A literature review of English articles was performed from January 2013 to March 2013 using the following databases: CINAHL, PubMed, Academic Search Premier, Business Source Premier, ERIC, psychINFO, and Wiley Online Library. Empirical and review articles and Internet sources were included. Continued mass emission of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases will exacerbate the consequences of global warming and climate change. As one of the key global contributors of carbon emissions, the lack of climate change policy and regulatory practices at the federal level in the United States is of great concern. Political partisanship in the US is largely to blame for this inaction, as efforts for drastic remediation action is met with rejection from conservative groups who do not believe that global warming and climate change are a problem, despite scientific evidence to the contrary. To promote the health of the entire population, there needs to be a paradigm shift from consumption driven economic growth as advocated by the Republicans to a realization of true prosperity beyond growth in order to create a sustainable world. This presents a critical challenge to public health professionals as political partisanship has the power to impact environmental attitudes and have serious implications for public health. Preserving the environment must take precedence over economic growth if we want a habitable planet low in carbon. Copyright © 2014 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Regional head election system was change in 2015. It has impact on political marketing strategy to all stake holders, such as political party and candidatures.The purposes of this research is to analyzeashifting ofpolitical marketing issueson regional election 2015. The research approach uses the mix method with the type of sequential explanatory. The subjects of this research are the candidates, election successful teams or supporting team, and young voters. Location of research based on cluster system district and sub district in Bandung, Cianjur, Magelang, Sleman, and Medan. The data are collected through techniques of questionnaires to young voters; interview to candidates, election successful teams and young voters, as well as the documentation of media and data on Regional General Elections Commission (KPUD. There are also triangular data techniqueinterviews with the General Elections Commission (KPU, the community and supporting team, and documentation and questionnaire form. The result shows that the system of political marketing has already started shifting from product, promotion, price, place, and people known as the 5Ps from mostly dominated by Political Partyinto the role of PEOPLE as candidature in influensing the voters. The Result also tells that shifting from using convetional media into almost using digital media was powerfull.
Marks, Michael P.
This article suggests strategies for promoting scholarly discussion and critical thinking in political science classes. When scholars study politics they are engaged in an investigation into the dynamics of governance, not a debate over personal political beliefs. The problem with a politicized classroom is that it gives students a false…
Roush, Daniel R.
This article proposes an answer to the primary question of how the American Sign Language (ASL) community in the United States conceptualizes (im)politeness and its related notions. It begins with a review of evolving theoretical issues in research on (im)politeness and related methodological problems with studying (im)politeness in natural…
DeLancey, Mark; And Others
Traces new developments in the study of African comparative politics since 1978 by surveying a number of college teachers of African politics. Finds there is an escalation of interest in the politics of South Africa. The lack of student knowledge concerning Africa and the lack of an agreed-upon text are identified as problems. (KO)
Bischoff, Carina Saxlund; Christiansen, Flemming Juul
Public innovation and political parties are usually not studied together. Given the key position parties hold in representative democracies, it is somewhat odd that their influence on public innovation has not been explored. We propose to open this line of inquiry and introduce a typology...... that highlights four avenues for studying the links between public innovation and political parties: linkage, programme, interaction and policy. We use the typology to discuss relevant themes and empirical examples in existing literature and to formulate of a number of hypotheses about innovation of political...... parties themselves as well their impact on potentially innovative public decisions. One major expectation is that hierarchical parties with centralized leadership make more efficient decisions but that sustainable innovation outcomes promoted by collaborative efforts are easier to obtain for decentralized...
Munksgaard, Rasmus; Demant, Jakob Johan
is specifically libertarian. The aim of the paper is to investigate the prevalence of political discourses within discussions of cryptomarket drug dealing, and further to research the potential changes of these over the timespan of the study. Methods We develop a novel operationalization of discourse analytic...... still observe political matter. We identified one topic which expresses a libertarian discourse that emphasizes the individual's right to non-interference. Over time we observe an increasing prevalence of the libertarian discourse from 2011 to the end of 2013. In the end of 2013 - when Silk Road...... was seized - we observe an abrupt change in the prevalence of the libertarian discourse. Conclusions The libertarian political discourse has historically been prevalent on cryptomarket forums. The closure of Silk Road has affected the prevalence of libertarian discourse suggesting that while the closure did...
For almost 20 years, gay rights advocates and defenders of military anti-gay discrimination engaged in a phony debate about whether allowing open service would undermine unit cohesion. To be sure, a preponderance of evidence showed that open service would not undermine cohesion, and the repeal of don't ask, don't tell (DADT) required advocates to prevail on that point in the court of public opinion. But concerns about cohesion were never the basis of opposition to open service. Rather, opposition was a modern incarnation of the politics of paranoia, a dangerous tradition in American history. Acknowledging that DADT had nothing to do with cohesion and that military leaders allowed the armed forces to be implicated in the politics of paranoia could facilitate disabling paranoia as the basis for other political projects such as anti-immigrant xenophobia. For a video on DADT and paranoia, search for "Donnelly Belkin DADT" on YoutTube.
Korsgaard, Morten Timmermann
This paper presents the controversial separation of education from the realm of the political as proposed by Hannah Arendt. For the sake of children and the future of the world, we must, according to Arendt, separate education from the political. If we do not do so, we not only expose our children...... to claim that this separation is based on a psychological misunderstanding and that it renders children incapable of political action. I propose here that, by considering the separation instead to be a question of protection, not only can we heed the two essences of education that Arendt articulates...... in The Crisis in Education, namely natality and conservation, but we can also form a clearer understanding of the separation and of her educational thinking more broadly....
Kannabiran, Gobinaath; Petersen, Marianne Graves
At the birth of participatory design, there was a strong political consciousness surrounding the design of new technology, the design process in particular, establishing a rich set of methods and tools for user-centered design. Today, the term design has extended its scope of concern beyond...... the process of design and into how users interact with the designed product on a day-to-day basis. This paper is an attempt to call to attention the need for a new set of methods, attitudes and approaches, along with the existing, to discuss, analyze and reflect upon the politics at the interface....... By presenting a critical analysis of two design cases, we elicit the importance of such an agenda and the implications for design in doing so. We use the Foucauldian notion of power to analyze the power relationships in these two cases and to articulate the politics at the interface. We conclude by emphasizing...
Full Text Available During the 2000 Presidential election between George H. W. Bush and Al Gore, journalists often used the terms blue states and red states to describe the political landscape within the United States. This article studies the framing of these terms during the years 2004 through 2007. Using latent and manifest qualitative content analyses, six different news media frames were found in a sample of 337 newspaper articles. Two hypotheses were also tested indicating that framing patterns varied slightly by time period and article types. However, the argument that increased levels of political polarization in the United States have been created by predominantly conflict-oriented coverage may not be true. Instead, these terms became journalistic heuristics that were used to organize how people think about politics in a way that fit with contemporary media practices, and there is no single agreed upon interpretation of these terms within this reporting.
Political parties can be vehicles for economic and social development in poor countries. They can also serve as rent seeking instruments. Uncovering how parties function is therefore key to establishing the preconditions for good governance. The paper discusses when and why clientelism on the ba......Political parties can be vehicles for economic and social development in poor countries. They can also serve as rent seeking instruments. Uncovering how parties function is therefore key to establishing the preconditions for good governance. The paper discusses when and why clientelism...... on the basis of party affiliation may arise. Operationally, party-based clientelism is defined as a bias of public policy in favour of members of the governing political party. In a sample of local governments in India, party-based clientelism is shown to exist in two out of four states and to be strongly...
This paper will argue that astronomical models have long been applied to political theory, from the use of the Sun as a symbol of the emperor in Rome to the application of Copernican theory to the needs of absolute monarchy. We will begin with consideration of astral divination (the use of astronomy to ascertain divine intentions) in the ancient Near East. Particular attention will be paid to the use of Newton's discovery that the universe operates according to a single set of laws in order to support concepts of political quality and eighteenth century Natural Rights theory. We will conclude with consideration of arguments that the discovery of the expanding, multi-galaxy universe, stimulated political uncertainty in the 1930s, and that photographs of the Earth from Apollo spacecraft encouraged concepts of the `global village'.
Venezuela's struggle to develop its economic and political independence separate from the colonialism of foreign oil companies and free from the authoritarian dictatorships of other developing countries is described by one who has been intimately involved in the nation's political life and is knowledgeable in the relationships of oil, economics, and politics during the bid for democracy and economic egalitarianism. First published in 1956, the treatise has been revised and updated to show how strong party organization was responsible for developing demoncratic programs and how this new strength allowed Venezuela to domesticate much of the foreign involvement in oil production. Historical facts, though acknowledged to have a bias, are documented. 88 references. (DCK)
Яна Александровна Волкова
Full Text Available Destructiveness is among the fundamental discourse categories that play a significant role in the organization of communicative interaction and define the pragmatics of discourse; its study helps to understand some mechanisms and principles of communication, identify strategies and tactics used by a destructive communicative personality. The relevance of this study is determined by the increasing aggressiveness in various types of discourse, and, accordingly, by the need to extend the knowledge of destructive behavior of a communicative personality. The study is based on the theory of discourse-analysis and theory of destructiveness (Z. Harris, T. van Dijk, A. Buss, E. Fromm, D. Ponton, K. Hacker, R. Wodak. N. Arutyunova, V. Karasik, M. Makarov, E. Sheigal et al. Developing the theory of destructiveness and relying on Erich Fromm’s research (1973, we specify the concept of “destructiveness” in relation to the political discourse and compare it with the related concept of aggressiveness. The paper analyses the category of destructiveness in modern US political discourse, using excerpts from the speeches of the candidates for presidency of 2016. Particular attention is paid to the dominant destructive intention - to harm the reputation of the opponent and reduce his political chances, as well as to the functions of verbal aggression: on the one hand - to discredit the opponent, bring accusations, on the other hand - to poison the audience mind against him/her and arouse the feeling of danger posed by a political opponent. The analysis of verbal and nonverbal means of destructiveness in the US political discourse is carried out. The article concludes that abusive remarks of politicians do not result from spontaneous emotional outburst, but from an elaborated destructive strategy where the agonistic nature of political discourse stipulates the use of instrumental aggression (Buss, 1971 for the sake of the conquest of power, lowering the
Full Text Available Considering how persistently a certain amount of specialized critics work to diminish contemporary Brazilian poetry, this essay seeks to conceive an articulation among poetry, philosophy and politics. We atempt to do that, on the one hand, through the philosophical concepts of aporia and wonder (thaumazein, and, on the another hand, by considering what Giorgio Agamben refers to as “an insurmontable disjunction between whatever singularity and the State organization”. Among the many poets that could be approached in this context, we chose to close the text with an interpretation some of Tarso de Melo's remarkably and explicitly political poems.
Lowe, P.; Goyder, J.
The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introduction; (Part I) the environmental movement (environmental groups and the attentive public; the episodic development of the environmental movement; the underlying values of environmentalism; the roots of environmental concern; the social limits to growth; elite manipulation of values); the organisation of environmental groups; environmental groups in national politics; environmental groups in local politics; (Part II) the Henley Society; Friends of the Earth; the National Trust; the Royal Society for Nature Conservation; the European Environmental Bureau. (U.K.)
Olsen, Asmus Leth
-endings data. Second, nine-ending and other higher-end decimals are found to be over-represented which echoes odd pricing research. It suggests that incumbents take voters’ biases into account and apply odd taxes to minimize the political costs of taxation while maximizing revenue. Attention should be given......From the concept of odd pricing, i.e., setting rightmost price digits below a whole number, this paper advances the political counterpart of odd taxation using a panel of Danish municipal taxes. First, the distribution of tax decimals is non-uniform and resembles the distribution of price...
This book, divided into four parts, describes, first, energy consumption and national economy growth. In a second part, the irresistible ascent of coal, natural gas and petroleum international markets is studied. In the third part, energy politic is investigated: exchanges releasing, prices deregulation, contestation of power industry monopoly, energy national market and common energetic politic, single market concept. In the last part, global risks and world-wide regulations are given: demand, energy resources, technical changes, comparative evaluations between fossil, nuclear and renewable energies, environment, investments financing and international cooperation. 23 refs., 14 figs., 16 tabs
Myers, J. C.
One rather striking description of what lies behind the various phenomena we now refer to with the term "globalisation" comes to us from the chairman of Magna International, a Canadian-owned auto-parts manufacturer whose production lines are located in Mexico. "To be in business," he states, "your first mandate is to make money, and money has no heart, soul, conscience, homeland" (Henwood, 1997, 113). If this is the world of business and money, might politics be its obverse? To be sure, polit...
This paper describes an approach to school district planning that examines overall objectives, ongoing operations, values, performance criteria, performance outcomes, and costs. The method utilizes seven general data files to assess school district activities in terms of educational and economic criteria. These files consist of: three structural…
This book provides guidelines for conducting internal audits of school districts. The first five chapters provide an overview of internal auditing and describe techniques that can be used to improve or implement internal audits in school districts. They offer information on the definition and benefits of internal auditing, the role of internal…
In this paper, we look at the inner workings of a school district through the lens of the "district operating system (DOS)," a set of interlocking mutually-reinforcing modules that includes functions like procurement, contracting, data and IT policy, the general counsel's office, human resources, and the systems for employee and family…
Nengher N. Vang, Ph.D
Full Text Available Since the initial resettlement of the Hmong in the United States in the mid-1970s, they have maintained strong political and military relationships with the Lao People‘s Democratic Republic (LPDR. Yet, there is little research on that relationship and the involvement of the Hmong in the United States in political developments in Laos. Most works on Hmong political activism have focused on the electoral participation and representation of Hmong Americans in relation to American domestic politics. In this article, using archival, ethnographic, and interview data that I have collected between 2006 and 2009 in Laos, Thailand, and the United States, I describe and analyze the non-domestic or transnational form of Hmong American political expression and participation. I argue that Hmong political activism in America not only was transnational from the outset, but that their transnational involvement in political developments in Laos and their relations with the Lao PDR government also had a significant impact on their ethnic politics. Many Hmong political activists made their entry into ethnic politics through the door of transnational politics, and many were motivated by transnational political issues to participate in domestic American politics. By exploring their transnational involvement in political developments in Laos and their relations with the Lao PDR government, we get a more complete and dynamic understanding of Hmong political activism in the United States than is possible by focusing exclusively on domestic and electoral participation. Examining their transnational politics also allows us to see the transnationality of not only their culture, identity, and community but also that of their political activities and aspirations.
An economic study of nuclear district heating is concerned with: heat production, its transmission towards the area to be served and the distribution management towards the consumers. Foreign and French assessments show that the high cost of now existing techniques of hot water transport defines the competing limit distance between the site and township to be below some fifty kilometers for the most important townships (provided that the fuel price remain stationary). All studies converge towards the choice of a high transport temperature as soon as the distance is of some twenty kilometers. As for fossile energy saving, some new possibilities appear with process heat reactors; either PWR of about 1000MWth for large townships, or pool-type reactors of about 100MWth when a combination with an industrial steam supply occurs [fr
Forty years after gaining the right to vote, Colombian women comprise scarcely 8% of persons recently elected to the Colombian Congress. At the municipal and departmental level, women occupy even fewer of the positions. Explanations of women's marginal political participation in terms of stereotypes such as their presumed disinterest or emotionalism reflect androcentric prejudices. Their lack of preparation and social conditioning is also a suspect argument, given that there are no objective forms of measuring preparation for political office, such as examinations or specific requirements. Centers for women's studies have sought explanation in terms of aspects of the social and political organization of society that impede access by women to positions of power. Laws assuring women their political rights have not been sufficient to allow them to participate under equal conditions. The assignment of responsibility for domestic labor exclusively to women is a powerful handicap to their full participation. Moreover, public life has become a costly career in terms of resources, time, and energy. The problem is not that women do not participate in politics, but that they are underrepresented in the centers of power. They comprise half of voters and the majority of members of community and civic associations dealing with problems of everyday life. But the number of women declines as the scale of power increases. Feminists suggest that the problem will not be solved by women assuming the behavior patterns of men. Rather, the governmental and civil elites must overcome norms and practices that perpetuate the subordination of women. Women achieving positions of power should maintain a gender perspective and assist in transforming conditions.
Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The following Overlay Districts are included in the data:General Development Four Commercial DistrictGeneral Development Four Openspace DistrictShoreland...
Andersen, John; Siim, Birte
The objective of the book is to analyse different politics of inclusion and empowerment and the different paradigms of inclusion/exclusion in order to underline the close link between politics of scoial equality and politics of recognition of ciultural difference. Politics of inclusion is thus...... theproductive/innovative linkage of politics of redistributuin and politics og resognition, whnich over a longer time span creates sustainable paths of democratic and social development, which increases the capacity to handle both conflicts about economic resources and life-chances and conflicts about...
The use of Twitter by politicians, parties, and the general audience in politics, particularly during election campaigns, has become an extremely popular research field almost overnight. Even though Twitter, a medium that emerged early in 2006 – the first tweet was posted on 21 March 2006 by Jack
Spears, R; Smith, HJ
The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the political nature of laboratory experiments. Such experiments can be construed as paradigms of power, open to construction and debate, where different agents and interests are involved in a process of struggle over both (re)presentation and substance.
Berthou, Sara Kristine Gløjmar
This thesis revolves around ideas of social change and attempts to ameliorate the consequences of climate change at the local level. Based on extensive ethnographic fieldwork participating in the making of a Local Agenda 21 plan the thesis explores rationales and practices of planning, governing ...... as serious political support for the climate change mitigation agenda....
In short, the "politics of aviation" lies in a few propositions: the need of having as large a number of fields as possible and of sufficient area; the utilization of the larger part of the existing military fields; the selection of uncultivated or unproductive fields, whenever technical conditions permit; ability to disregard (save in exceptional cases) objections of an agricultural nature.
Boase, Paul H.
Examines the phenomenon of political correctness, its roots and objectives, and its successes and failures in coping with the conflicts and clashes of multicultural campuses. Argues that speech codes indicate failure in academia's primary mission to civilize and educate through talk, discussion, thought,166 and persuasion. (SR)
If one reads Michel Foucault "backward," so to speak, one can sense the contours of a "big narrative" of "the political" which is founded on the claim that "Where there is obedience there cannot be parrhesia" (Foucault, 2011, p. 336). What Foucault is doing with this sentence is breaking the circle...
Thomassen, Bjørn; Forlenza, Rosario
This article engages with the thought of Augusto Del Noce (1910-1989), the most important Italian Catholic philosopher and political thinker of the twentieth century. The focus is on how Del Noce came to elaborate a Catholic ‘modernity,’ bridging a positive encounter between Catholicism, democracy...
A state of the art artcle on academic work on religion, politics, and religious freedom in Burma......A state of the art artcle on academic work on religion, politics, and religious freedom in Burma...
Agyepong, I A
Many countries in sub-Saharan Africa face the problem of organizing health service delivery in a manner that provides adequate quality and coverage of health care to their populations against a background of economic recession and limited resources. In response to these challenges, different governments, including that of Ghana, have been considering or are in the process of implementing varying degrees of reform in the health sector. This paper examines aspects of health services delivery, and trends in utilization and coverage, using routine data over time in the Dangme West district of the Greater Accra region of Ghana, from the perspective of a district health manager. Specific interventions through which health services delivery and utilization at district level could be improved are suggested. Suggestions include raising awareness among care providers and health managers that increased resource availability is only a success in so far as it leads to improvements in coverage, utilization and quality; and developing indicators of performance which assess and reward use of resources at the local level to improve coverage, utilization and quality. Also needed are more flexibility in Central Government regulations for resource allocation and use; integration of service delivery at district level with more decentralized planning to make services better responsive to local needs; changes in basic and inservice training strategies; and exploration of how the public and private sectors can effectively collaborate to achieve maximum coverage and quality of care within available resources.
Ledyaeva Ol'ga Mikhaylovna
Full Text Available Several approaches that underlie urban politics are discussed in the paper. They include neo-liberalism, political economy discourse, elitist/pluralist debates, and postmodernism. The neoliberal approach focuses on the limited role of the state and individual responsibility. The legal framework protects both the rights and responsibilities of individuals and regulates the operation of the market. It is the market that fosters individual choices and provides goods and services by virtue of the processes which are flexible, efficient and transparent. The political economy approaches (regulation theory, public choice theory, neo-Marxism explain urban politics via the analysis of national and international economic processes and changes in contemporary capitalism. Changes in national and international economies determine what solutions are possible. The discourse has been influenced by the debate on globalization of capital and labour markets. Modern elitism and neopluralism are represented by theories of "growth machines" and "urban regimes". The former focuses on bargaining alliances between political and business leaders in order to manage the urban system and to promote its growth. The latter develops neopluralist explanations of power within local communities with an emphasis on the fragmented nature of the government where local authorities lack comprehensive governing powers. Postmodernism views the city as the site of the crisis of late capitalism which leads to segregation of neighbourhoods onto prosperous areas and ghettoes. In contrast to the modern city, the postmodern city is not defined by its industrial base; rather, it is determined by its consumerist environment of malls and museums, characterized by revivalist architecture. At the same time, the suburban shopping mall and a motorway network make nonsense of the idea of the city as a unique and well-defined space. These and other approaches encompass a wide spectrum of possibilities
- Джеффри Лич
Full Text Available The present paper was planned for this issue of our journal, which Geoffrey Leech and I intended to devote to Politeness phenomena across cultures. It is based on his article titled “Politeness: Is there an East-West Divide?” (2005 which he suggested as a theoretical framework and includes results of our discussions held during our personal meetings and our epistolary exchange. Unfortunately the final version of the paper was never read by Geoffrey Leech for the reasons we all sadly know. Nevertheless I decided to publish it as a tribute to him in the knowledge that the result was not going to have the degree of excellence it would have had if he were still with us today. I therefore apologise for any mistakes or misinterpretations of his thoughts that might be found in the paper. The aim of this article is to sum up the main ideas of Politeness Theory presented earlier in Leech 1983, 2003, 2005, and other publications and discuss how that theory applies (or fails to apply to other languages, with the main emphasis on the Russian language and culture. The term ‘maxim’ used in Principles of Pragmatics (Leech 1983 is avoided here as much as possible, as it implies some kind of moral imperative, rather than a pragmatic constraint. Instead, a single constraint, which comprehends all the maxims (the Maxims of Tact, Generosity, Approbation, Modesty, Agreement, Sympathy, and is called the Grand Strategy of Politeness (GSP, is used. The GSP says: In order to be polite, S expresses or implies meanings which place a high value on what pertains to O- his/her wants, qualities, obligation, opinion, feelings (O = other person[s], [mainly the addressee, i.e. H = hearer] or place a low value on what pertains to S (S = self, speaker. The essential point is that these are not separate, independent constraints or maxims: they are instances of the operation of the GSP as ‘super-maxim’ which is an overarching framework for studying linguistic politeness
Otto, L.; Glogger, I.; Boukes, M.
Despite the scholarly popularity of important developments of political communication, concepts like soft news or infotainment lack conceptual clarity. This article tackles that problem and introduces a multilevel framework model of softening of journalistic political communication, which shows that
Perissinotto, Renato Monseff; Universidade Federal do Paraná
The purpose of this essay is to make some considerations on the limits and advantages of institutionalism’s rational choice in regard to the understanding of political phenomena. The text critically examines some of the representative studies that Brazilian political science has attached to this theoretical approach. This criticism develops around three themes: state, political elites and democracy. It suggests that a prudent return to the approach of political sociology wou...
Economic Organization, Translated by Talcott Parsons , New York: Oxford, 1947. Weiner, Myron, "Political Participation Crisis of the Political Process...industriali- zation and education have on the development of political culture in Egypt, but rather that the importance of these factors of modernization...kinship and subsequently on the political culture become more understandable. The impact of education perhaps more than any other factor of
Political stability throughout the world appears to be greater in countries with slowly growing populations than in those with rapid growth. Population is not the only influence on political stability, however. The relationship between political stability and development is strong. The rich countries with the slowest growth are the most stable, while poor developing countries with rapid growth suffer from chronic instability. Demographic pressure and density are not the same thing and must be distinguished. A fragile environment like that of the Sahel will experience demographic pressure despite low density. Japan has a greater population density than Rwanda and little cultivable land, but the population has a high standard of living. demographic pressure is not comparable in Japan and Rwanda because Japan has slow population growth and stable democratic political institutions. The rate of growth seems to be a more important element in destabilization than density. Rapid growth creates enormous political tensions especially when profound ethnic divisions exist, and it complicates problems of government by encouraging rapid urbanization. The unbalanced age structures resulting from rapid growth hinder the satisfaction of employment, educational, and health care needs for the ever-increasing masses of young people. 49% of Rwanda's population is under 15 and 66% is under 25. Rwanda is already densely populated, with around 300 inhabitants/sq km, and its population is projected to double in 20 years. 95% of the population is dependent on agriculture, but by 1988 the average landholding per family was only 1.25 hectares and 58% of families did not grown sufficient food for household needs. Further reduction in the size of holdings or a growing landless population will have multiple consequences. Urban migration will inevitably increase, bringing with it all the problems so evident in other poor countries where the process is more advanced than in Rwanda. Chaotic
In 2007, University of Oklahoma political science professor Cindy Simon Rosenthal was elected mayor of Norman, Oklahoma, after having served as a member of its city council. Was her activity unique within the political science profession among female political scientists? Her election stimulated the curiosity of some of us in the…
Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Historical Preservation overlay district, Westminster, Vermont. Other overlay overlay districts (Agricultural Land and Ridgeline Protection), and base zoning...
Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Cartographic version of overlay district (surface water buffer), Marlboro, Vermont. Base zoning districts are in a separate shapefile. Data were originally created...
Juckett, Emily; Feinberg, Joseph R.
The ReDistricting Game is an online simulation game that engages learners in the redistricting process and spotlights the problem of gerrymandering districts in the United States. Hands-on simulation games such as this one can motivate students to think at higher levels and master key concepts. The concept of redistricting does not automatically…
The Central Arizona Irrigation and Drainage District (CAIDD) began delivering water to users in 1987. Although designed for automatic control, the system was run manually until a homemade SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) system was developed by a district employee. In 2002, problem...
Reynolds, Richard Kent
Hallsburg ISD is a small, rural, K-6 school district struggling to sustain its operations due to reduced funding from the state, decreased enrollment, and a decrease in the local tax base. This Problem in Practice Record of Study examines the sustainability issues associated with this school district and its importance to the community. Key…
The author considers the place of education for leisure in primitive political systems, traditional political systems, and modern political systems (including premobilized and mobilized dictatorships and democracies). (GW)
A. D. Bogaturov
Full Text Available The article is devoted to a problem of political analysis in the fi eld of international relations. The author discusses the key rules, standards and requirements of correct political research as well as basic criteria of analytical correctness. The author formulates typology of analytical papers, assesses the state of environment and working conditions for today’s experts, analysis key problems and diffi culties at the stage of empirical data selection (including verifi cation of information sources, while choosing analytical methods and formulating conclusions. The article gives advice for experts, how to organize research, deal with diffi culties and fi nd non-standard solutions.
Pfau, Michael; Burgoon, Michael
Posits a strategy of resistance to the influence of attack messages in political campaigns. Finds that political campaign messages can be designed to inoculate supporters of candidates against subsequent attack messages of opposing candidates. (MS)
Grodos, Daniel; Tonglet, René
Urban health is a fashionable topic which generates a bulk of research work most often focused on particularities of health problems in urban settings. This focus distracts from the importance of research on how local urban health systems are organized and managed. To analyse the conceptual, managerial and technical problems faced by urban health system policy and organization in sub-Saharan Africa, in order to make recommendations. We report here on a research programme carried out to review the available evidence on health system policy and organization in urban areas, and to learn lessons from a number of case studies. First, while the health district approach is usually regarded as a means of implementing primary health care in rural areas, we argue that it is likewise appropriate - theoretically and empirically - for the formulation and implementation of a coherent and effective health system in urban areas. Secondly, we concentrate on a number of contextual features that have to be taken into account in order to strengthen district organization and management in the urban context. Spatial, managerial and technical constraints which do not exist in rural areas, proliferation and fragmentation of uncontrolled health services in the private sector, lack of control over political power of the large national and university hospitals, insufficient governance and leadership of the urban health authorities are pointed out for attention. Having noted and thoroughly analysed these issues is not to suggest therefore that the health district approach has to be rejected but that it has to be modified and adapted in key respects. Thirdly, we outline district health system strengthening in the cities as a policy option less fashionable but more appropriate, including the World Bank agenda for reform, the sector-wide approaches for health development, the health promotion approaches based on the Ottawa Charter, and the poverty reduction approaches focusing on coping
Lowery, D.; van Witteloostuijn, A.; Peli, G.; Brasher, H.; Otjes, Simon; Gherghina, Sergiu
The standard model of political party density emphasizing the interaction of social cleavages and district magnitude (M) is incomplete in accounting for number of parties in cases of high values of M in an arbitrary way. We explore an alternative model for such cases emphasizing the slack in the
NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Polygons designating boundaries for state Senate Districts within Volusia County according to Senate Joint Resolution 2B State Senate Plan S016S9030 approved on...
Full Text Available The District of Codru – District or Land? The main objective of this paper is to demonstrate why the ethnographic Codru is a “district” (ținut and not a “land” (țară – the term used by most people. To achieve this goal, we analyzed the significance of the two concepts, as well as their characteristic elements. Following the first part of the paper we presented connotations that have known “district and land” over time, and in the second part we presented the differences between the two concepts, with application to the District of Codru. Presentation and analysis of the situation eventually led to support the fact that the ethnographic Codru is a “district” – a unique mental space.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is one component of a digital terrain model (DTM) for the Southwest Florida Water Management District's FY2006 Digital Orthophoto (B089) and LiDAR...
Carmo Ferreira, Maria Eulália do
Hunger, poverty and environmental degradation are not only national but international issues. Thus, they could be solved or at least be minimized through greater international cooperation. However, international cooperation is not automatic, even with awareness of these serious problems shared by significant portion of the world population. Furthermore, the interdependence that is being built between the states is asymmetric. Core States, in addition to obtaining more political and economic g...
Sonninen, R.; Leisio, C.
Oxygen dissolving in district heating water through district heat pipes and pipe joints made of plastic corrodes many small and medium-size district heating systems, resulting in heat cuts in the buildings connected to these systems. IN some cases, corrosion products have even circulated back to district heating power plants, thus hampering heat generation in the worst of cases. People residing in blocks of flats where some radiator components are made of plastic also face a similar problem, though on a smaller scale. A small and efficient electrochemical deoxidation cell has now been invented to eliminate this nuisance, which occurs particularly in cold winter weather. (orig.)
de Baets, Antoon
This essay, Archivists Killed for Political Reasons, offers an overview of archivists who were killed for political reasons through the ages. After determining the criteria for inclusion, sixteen such political murders of archivists are briefly discussed. These cases were distributed over six
Garoupaa, Nuno; Grembi, Veronica
of substantive judicial review (ricorsi in via principale) from 1985 to 2005, and proposing new measures of political alignment within constitutional review, we analyze the effect of a change in the political party system on judicial behavior. Our results show that political alignment is a stronger predictor...
This paper, which was given as the Dudley Allen Sargent lecture at the 2012 conference of the National Association for Kinesiology and Physical Education in Higher Education, discusses the politics of physical education. It examines how both national politics and local/campus politics affect the discipline. Drawing from the history of national…
Discusses political correctness and cultural politics in the schools. Questions whether concern over education's traditionally Eurocentric view justifies rejecting the curriculum. Observes that the issue of how teachers teach also has cultural implications. Suggests that the political correctness debate shows how long the road to cross-cultural…
Carey, James W.
Discusses political correctness and cultural studies, dealing with cultural studies and the left, the conservative assault on cultural studies, and political correctness in the university. Describes some of the underlying changes in the university, largely unaddressed in the political correctness debate, that provide the deep structure to the…
The tasks of socialization (especially political) and modernization have placed the political and educational systems in India in close interrelationship. One result of this close relationship has been politicization which forces the educational system to resort to the use of political influence. (Author/MS)
Monroe, William E.; Whitson, Charles M.
The first school district in the nation established within the confines of a State adult penal institution offers hands-on vocational training to 17,000 inmates (approximately half participate) in 32 subjects, 880 class hours each. Placement service, problem-solving rap groups, and human relations workshops for instructors help keep recidivism…
Meybodi, Soroush Afkhami; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon
Feasibility of underground data communications is investigated by employing magnetic induction as the key technology at physical layer. Realizing an underground wireless sensor network for a district heating plant motivates this research problem. The main contribution of the paper is to find the ...
Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend
and the pipe friction and heat loss formulations are non-linear. In order to find the optimal district heating network configuration, genetic algorithm which handles the mixed integer nonlinear programming problem is chosen. The network configuration is represented with binary and integer encoding...
The research problem addressed in this quantitative correlational study was the inadequacy of sound information security management (ISM) practices in K-12 school districts, despite their increasing ownership of information assets. Researchers have linked organizational and sociotechnical factors to the implementation of information security…
Full Text Available It is commonly assumed that how individuals identify on the political spectrum-whether liberal, conservative, or moderate-has a universal meaning when it comes to policy stances and voting behavior. But, does political identity mean the same thing from place to place? Using data collected from across the U.S. we find that even when people share the same political identity, those in "bluer" locations are more likely to support left-leaning policies and vote for Democratic candidates than those in "redder" locations. Because the meaning of political identity is inconsistent across locations, individuals who share the same political identity sometimes espouse opposing policy stances. Meanwhile, those with opposing identities sometimes endorse identical policy stances. Such findings suggest that researchers, campaigners, and pollsters must use caution when extrapolating policy preferences and voting behavior from political identity, and that animosity toward the other end of the political spectrum is sometimes misplaced.