Suhay, E; Brandt, M.J.; Proulx, T.
Building on psychological research linking essentialist beliefs about human differences with prejudice, we test whether lay belief in the biological basis of political ideology is associated with political intolerance and social avoidance. In two studies of American adults (Study 1: N = 288, Study
Donald Trump's actions during the election and his first weeks as US president-elect send a strong message about his belief in climate change, or lack thereof. However, these actions may reflect polarization of climate change beliefs, not climate mitigation behaviour.
Peterson, Rolfe Daus; Palmer, Carl L
Physical attractiveness is an important social factor in our daily interactions. Scholars in social psychology provide evidence that attractiveness stereotypes and the "halo effect" are prominent in affecting the traits we attribute to others. However, the interest in attractiveness has not directly filtered down to questions of political behavior beyond candidates and elites. Utilizing measures of attractiveness across multiple surveys, we examine the relationship between attractiveness and political beliefs. Controlling for socioeconomic status, we find that more attractive individuals are more likely to report higher levels of political efficacy, identify as conservative, and identify as Republican. These findings suggest an additional mechanism for political socialization that has further implications for understanding how the body intertwines with the social nature of politics.
Full Text Available In May 2011, Dominique Strauss-Kahn, head of the International Monetary Fund and a prominent member of the French Socialist Party, was charged with attempted rape. Extensive media coverage led people across the globe to speculate about intentions and responsibilities. While the case was pending, we conducted two parallel Internet surveys, with French and German participants (N= 1,314. We examined how strongly exoneration of the alleged perpetrator depended on acceptance of modern myths about sexual aggression (AMMSA and identity attributes that are temporarily salient as a function of local context (gender, political left-right orientation, nationality. AMMSA was a global predictor of exonerating the alleged perpetrator across national sub-samples, whereas the predictive power of gender and left-right orientation varied locally: For French respondents, left-wing political attitudes predicted exoneration of the alleged perpetrator, whereas only for German respondents, being male predicted exoneration. We conclude that the interplay of global (sexual aggression myths and local (social identification factors affects the lay assessment of ambiguous cases of sexual violence.
Full Text Available The Acceptance of Modern Myths about Sexual Aggression scale measures contemporary beliefs about sexual aggression that tend to blame victims and exonerate perpetrators. A Greek version of the thirty-item AMMSA scale was administered to two diverse convenience samples, one in Greece and one in Cyprus. Convergent and discriminant construct validity were assessed via correlations with other constructs that were hypothesized to be strongly related to AMMSA (Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance; hostile sexism or moderately related (benevolent sexism; social dominance orientation; right-wing authoritarianism. It was found that the Greek AMMSA was unidimensional, highly internally consistent, normally distributed, and showed good construct validity. When sociodemographic data were analyzed, age, gender, and nationality turned out to be significant predictors of AMMSA, with a U-shaped trend for age, higher scores for men than women, and higher scores for Cypriots than Greeks. In sum, the Greek AMMSA scale provides a highly useful instrument for further research on sexual aggression myths, their correlates, and effects on judgment and behavior.
Full Text Available This article examines the role of religious actors in sexual politics in Argentina. Sexual politics has become a critical battlefield when it comes to the role of religion in the Argentinean liberal-democratic regime, while gender and sexuality have been the main political targets of religious institutions since the 1980s and 1990s. In this context, progressive legislation on gender, sexual, and reproductive rights was passed, including same-sex marriage and the recognition of transgender identities, despite the opposition of the Catholic Church. Paradoxically, abortion remains largely illegal, allowed only in exceptional circumstances.
Chawke, Caroline; Kanai, Ryota
People generally have imperfect introspective access to the mechanisms underlying their political beliefs, yet can confidently communicate the reasoning that goes into their decision making process. An innate desire for certainty and security in ones beliefs may play an important and somewhat automatic role in motivating the maintenance or rejection of partisan support. The aim of the current study was to clarify the role of the DLPFC in the alteration of political beliefs. Recent neuroimaging studies have focused on the association between the DLPFC (a region involved in the regulation of cognitive conflict and error feedback processing) and reduced affiliation with opposing political candidates. As such, this study used a method of non-invasive brain simulation (tRNS) to enhance activity of the bilateral DLPFC during the incorporation of political campaign information. These findings indicate a crucial role for this region in political belief formation. However, enhanced activation of DLPFC does not necessarily result in the specific rejection of political beliefs. In contrast to the hypothesis the results appear to indicate a significant increase in conservative values regardless of participant's initial political orientation and the political campaign advertisement they were exposed to.
Clarke, Michael J; Marks, Anthony D G; Lykins, Amy D
Male sexual dysfunction is a prevalent and distressing condition, which may be exacerbated by the sufferer's perceptions of masculinity and normative sexual behavior. This study sought to investigate the effect of social context on males' beliefs regarding sexual behavior. The research examined the effect of male role modeling and masculine cues on males' dysfunctional sexual beliefs, sexual attitudes, and self-perceptions of sexual functioning. A sample of 140 male participants, with a mean age of 29 years, was exposed to pictorial and verbal cues that presented different versions of male behavior across three conditions. Results indicated that males exposed to models and cues of traditional masculinity showed significantly increased levels of dysfunctional sexual beliefs and traditional sexual attitudes relative to males exposed to models of modern masculinity. Results also indicated that males exposed to traditional masculine stimuli reported lower levels of sexual inhibition due to fear of performance failure than males exposed to models of modern masculinity. The potential role of social context is discussed in the development and maintenance of male sexual dysfunction and its implications for treatment.
Cromer, Lisa DeMarni; Goldsmith, Rachel E.
Child sexual abuse myths comprise incorrect beliefs regarding sexual abuse, victims, and perpetrators. Relations among myth acceptance, responses to disclosure, legal decisions, and victims' subsequent psychological and health outcomes underscore the importance of understanding child sexual abuse myths. Despite accurate knowledge regarding child…
Borja, Henry; Barreto, Idaly; Alzate, Mónica; Sabucedo, José Manuel; López López, Wilson
The aim of this study is to test in a real political context whether or not a change in the beliefs which were fueling the political violence in question is required during the advent of a peace process. Two hypothesis are considered: a) in the case of these beliefs not being modified, there will be difficulties to reach an atmosphere of trust between both parts and the process will fail, and b) if this happens, the groups will develop more extreme beliefs against the opponent. The results obtained through a textual analysis support both hypotheses. During the failure of the peace process, neither the strategy of the delegitimization of the opponent nor the identities in conflict were modified. Consequently, when the process failed, responsibility for this failure was attributed to the opponent, and, at the same time, delegitimization against the opponent intensified.
Full Text Available Gender performativity is one of the core concepts in Judith Butler’s work. In this paper Butler re-examines this term and completes it with the idea of precarity, by making a reference to those who are exposed to injury, violence and displacement, those who are in risk of not being qualified as a subject of recognition, There are issues that constantly arise in the nation- states, such as claiming a right when there is not a right to claim, or being forced to follow certain norms in order to change these norms. This is particularly relevant in the sexual policies that are shaped within the nation-states.
Tolma, Eleni L.; Vesely, Sara K.; Oman, Roy F.; Aspy, Cheryl B.; Rodine, Sharon
Purpose: To examine whether gender and birth control use are associated with premarital sexual attitudes, beliefs about peers, family communication about sexual relationships, and sexuality education among sexually experienced youth. Methods: Data were collected from a randomly selected ethnically diverse youth sample (N = 1,253). Only the…
Haignere, Clara S.
Planned Parenthood conducted a national public opinion poll, asking 1,000 12- through 17-year-olds about their knowledge and beliefs on the problem of teenage pregnancy. The results showed that over 50% of the adolescents had sexual intercourse before their 18th birthday. Those teenagers most likely to be sexually active fell into certain at-risk…
Pedro Alexandre Costa
Full Text Available AimDuring the last decade, there have been political changes regarding the rights of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT individuals in Portugal, such as the right to marry. However, parenting by same-sex couples is not legally allowed. The purpose of this study was to assess Portuguese heterosexuals’ beliefs about same-sex parenting, and the role of religious and political conservatism in shaping these beliefs.MethodA total of 993 participants, aged between 18 and 69 years (M = 34; SD = 11, responded to one of three questionnaires that included a case vignette depicting a different-sex, a female same-sex, or a male same-sex couple wishing to adopt a child. Participants were then asked to evaluate whether the couple would be suitable to adopt a child, and whether they anticipated any social and emotional problems with the child.ResultsParticipants consistently anticipated more children’s social and emotional problems if they were adopted by a same-sex couple. Men evaluated same-sex couples less favourably than women, and even less so the male same-sex couple.ConclusionIt was found that both religious conservatism and right-wing political leaning were associated with more sexual prejudicial beliefs regarding same-sex couples.
Full Text Available Introduction: Sexual health is the integrity between mind, emotions, and body, and any disorder leading to discoordination, can be associated with sexual dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate the beliefs of couples attending marriage counseling centers toward sexual health based on the health belief model. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional descriptive study was performed on 400 couples referring to marriage counseling centers of Hamadan recruited with a random sampling method. The participants completed a self-administered questionnaire including demographic characteristics, knowledge and health belief model constructs. Data analysis was performed using SPSS-16 software, by Pearson’s coefficient correlation, independent T-test, and one-way ANOVA. Results: Couples had a moderate knowledge of sexual health. In addition, perceived susceptibility and severity of the consequences of unsafe sexual behavior among couples were not satisfactory however, perceived benefits and barriers were reported in a relatively good level. Internet and friends were the most important sources for sexual health information. Conclusion: Promoting knowledge and beliefs toward sexual health by preparing training packages based on the needs of couples and removing obstacles to have normal sexual behavior are necessary.
Galliford, Natasha; Furnham, Adrian
This study examined the relationship between a series of individual difference measures and belief in political and medical conspiracy theories. Participants (N = 323) rated 20 conspiracy theories (10 medical, 10 political) and completed a set of questionnaires. Belief in political conspiracies was strongly positively correlated with belief in medical conspiracies. Belief in both conspiracy types was correlated with low self-esteem, low Conscientiousness, more right-wing political views, younger age, and greater belief in the benefits of Alternative Medicine. It was also correlated with religiousness and gender. Low Emotional Stability and Agreeableness were also correlated with belief in political conspiracies, and higher education level was correlated with belief in medical conspiracies. The findings generally demonstrated support for a monological belief system. Implications and limitations are discussed. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Background: The study was conducted in the background of paucity of studies examining the sexual and psychosocial functioning of women with infertility. Aims: The study explored sexual functioning in women with infertility problems, their beliefs about sexuality and their quality of life. Settings and Design: A single group exploratory design with non-probability purposive sampling was used. A total of 30 participants diagnosed with primary infertility were included in the study. Materials and Methods: The data were obtained by individual administration of the following tools: Semi-structured interview schedule, Female Sexual Functioning Inventory, Sexual Dysfunctional Beliefs Questionnaire, World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale − BREF Version and General Health Questionnaire-12. The data obtained were analyzed using descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests. Results: About half of the participants had sexual dysfunction. Pain-related problems were most commonly reported (50%. Factors contributing to dysfunction included inadequate knowledge about sex, sexual stimulation and sexual communication. Along with inadequate self-image, negative childhood experiences, financial difficulties and marital discord in parents influenced the perception of self. Majority of the women had dysfunctional beliefs about sexuality (56%, and greater beliefs were found to be in the domain of sexual conservatism. The overall quality of life was poor, and 56% of women experienced psychological distress. There was significant positive correlation between sexual conservatism and experience of pain and overall sexual functioning. Conclusion: Women with infertility bear dysfunctional beliefs and suffer from problems in sexual functioning, have low quality of life and high psychological distress.
The potential for conflict or tension between the cultural variables of sexual identity and religious belief for counselors, clients, and counseling students is well-documented by the counseling literature. The tension has existed primarily due to competing religious values for counselors and clients most often with respect to the phenomena of…
Peixoto, Maria Manuela; Nobre, Pedro
Conservative and dysfunctional sexual beliefs are commonly associated with sexual problems among heterosexual men and women. However, little is known about the role of sexual beliefs in sexual problems in gay men and lesbians. The present study aimed at analyzing the role of sexual beliefs in sexual dysfunction in a sample of heterosexual and homosexual men and women. Participants answered questions about self-perceived sexual problems and completed the Sexual Dysfunctional Beliefs Questionnaire. Two hundred twelve men (106 gay) and 192 women (96 lesbian) completed a Web survey. Findings indicated that men with sexual dysfunction (regardless of sexual orientation) reported significantly more conservative beliefs and more erroneous beliefs related to partner's sexual satisfaction compared with sexually healthy men. Also, gay men with sexual dysfunction (but not heterosexual men) scored higher on belief in sex as an abuse of men's power compared with healthy controls. In addition, heterosexual men scored higher on "macho" beliefs, beliefs regarding partner's sexual satisfaction, and partner's power, compared with gay men. For women, a main effect was found for sexual orientation, with lesbian women scoring higher on sexual desire as a sin, age-related beliefs, and affection primacy and lower on beliefs related to motherhood primacy. Overall, findings suggest that dysfunctional sexual beliefs may play a role as vulnerability factors for sexual dysfunction regardless of sexual orientation, particularly in men. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
Full Text Available Review of: Pleasures and Perils: Girls’ Sexuality in a Caribbean Consumer Culture. Debra Curtis. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2009. xii + 222 pp. (Paper US$ 23.95 Economies of Desire: Sex and Tourism in Cuba and the Dominican Republic. Amalia L. Cabezas. Philadelphia PA : Temple University Press, 2009. xii + 218 pp. (Paper US$ 24.95 Queer Ricans: Cultures and Sexualities in the Diaspora. Lawrence La Fountain-Stokes. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2009. xxvii + 242 pp. (Paper US$ 22.50 [First paragraph] Over the last ten years the field of Caribbean Studies has seen a precipitous expansion of work on sexualities, as recent review essays by Jenny Sharpe and Samantha Pinto (2006 and Kamala Kempadoo (2009 have observed. The three books under review here, all based on dissertation research and all published in 2009, make important contributions to this growing literature. While each one approaches sexual politics from a distinctive disciplinary, geographic, and theoretical vantage point, all three ask readers to take seriously the central place that sexual desires and practices occupy in the lives of Caribbean people, both at home and in the diaspora. Caribbean sexuality studies are still sometimes thought of as belonging to a domain outside of, or auxiliary to “real” politics, but these studies demonstrate without hesitation how sexuality functions as an important prism through which we might understand broader debates about ethics, politics, and economics in the region. Building from the insights of feminist theorists who connect the “private” realm to community, national, and global geopolitics, they show that sex is intimately connected to certain freedoms – be they market, corporeal, or political – as well as to their consequences. Taken together, they consider sexual subjectivity, political economy, and cultural production in unexpected ways and point to exciting new directions for the
Costa, Pedro Alexandre; Caldeira, Sara Cláudia Pombo; Fernandes, Inês; Rita, Cláudia; Pereira, Henrique Marques; Leal, Isabel Pereira
Aim: During the last decade, there have been political changes regarding the rights of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) individuals in Portugal, such as the right to marry. However, parenting by same-sex couples is not legally allowed. The purpose of this study was to assess Portuguese heterosexuals’ beliefs about same-sex parenting, and the role of religious and political conservatism in shaping these beliefs. Method: A total of 993 participants, aged between 18 and...
Eaton, Asia A; Matamala, Alejandra
Heteronormative standards for sex and romance situate men and women in a hierarchical relationship that characterizes masculinity as active and persistent and femininity as passive and responsive to male sexuality. Individuals who endorse heteronormative beliefs, such as the belief that men should dominate women sexually or that men are always ready for sex, may therefore be more approving of and experienced with behaviors that involve one partner exerting sexual pressure on the other. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between the endorsement of heteronormative beliefs and men's and women's approval of and experience with verbal sexual coercion (both as a perpetrator and as a victim). We first established a gender-neutral higher-order construct representing heteronormative beliefs consisting of multiple measures of gender norms for sexuality and relationships in a sample of 555 heterosexual college students (292 women, 263 men) primarily of Hispanic origin. We next found that endorsement of heteronormative beliefs was positively correlated with personal acceptance of verbal sexual coercion strategies and personal experience as the victim and perpetrator of verbal sexual coercion for both men and women. While men reported more overall support for heteronormative beliefs and more experience as a victim and perpetrator of verbal sexual coercion, there were minimal gender differences in how heteronormative beliefs related to verbal sexual coercion variables. The positive association found between heteronormative beliefs and sexual coercion in young men's and women's relationships represents an important step towards better understanding the antecedents and consequences of intimate partner violence.
Tinkler, Justine Eatenson; Li, Yan E.; Mollborn, Stefanie
In spite of the relative success of equal opportunity laws on women's status in the workplace, we know little about the influence of such legal interventions on people's attitudes and beliefs. This paper focuses, in particular, on how sexual harassment policy affects men's beliefs about the gender hierarchy. We employ an experimental design in…
Gvirsman, Shira Dvir; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Dubow, Eric F.; Landau, Simha F.; Boxer, Paul; Shikaki, Khalil
This study examines the effects of chronic (i.e., repeated and cumulative) mediated exposure to political violence on ideological beliefs regarding political conflict. It centers on these effects on young viewers, from preadolescents to adolescents. Ideological beliefs refers here to support of war, perception of threat to one's nation, and normative beliefs concerning aggression toward the out-group. A longitudinal study was conducted on a sample of Israeli and Palestinian youths who experience the Israeli-Palestinian conflict firsthand (N = 1,207). Two alternative hypotheses were tested: that chronic exposure via the media increases support for war and aggression and elevates feeling of threat, or that chronic exposure via the media strengthens preexisting beliefs. Results demonstrated that higher levels of exposure were longitudinally related to stronger support for war. Regarding normative beliefs about aggression and threat to one's nation, mediated exposure reinforced initial beliefs, rendering the youths more extreme in their attitudes. These results mostly support the conceptualization of the relation between media violence and behaviors as “reciprocally determined” or “reinforcing spirals.” The results are also discussed in light of the differences found between the effect of exposure to political violence firsthand and exposure via the media. PMID:26997852
Full Text Available In this article the author discusses the role of ethics and religion in the context of the current political debate on assisted reproduction in Finland. There is reason to ask why the issues of family structures, gender roles and sexuality cause conflict situations in politics and society. How should we understand the nature of political conflicts concerning family, gender and sexuality? For a proper understanding of these conflicts, we need a nuanced analysis of the role of ethics and religion in political debates in a secular European culture. In this article the author focuses on two examples drawn from Finnish discussions of assisted reproduction. The first example comes from recent parliamentary discussion of assisted reproduction, and the second example from how the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Finland has reflected on the same issue.
Feinstein, Brian A; Dyar, Christina; Bhatia, Vickie; Latack, Jessica A; Davila, Joanne
Negative attitudes toward bisexuals have been documented among heterosexuals as well as lesbians/gay men, and a common theme is that bisexuals would not be suitable romantic or sexual partners. While gender, sexual orientation, and attitudes toward bisexuality influence people's willingness to engage in romantic or sexual activities with a bisexual partner, there are other individual differences that may contribute. The current study examined the associations between four types of conservative beliefs and willingness to engage in romantic/sexual activities with a bisexual partner in a sample of heterosexuals and lesbians/gay men (N = 438). Attitudes toward bisexuality were examined as a mediator of these associations. In general, results indicated that higher social dominance orientation, political conservatism, and essentialist beliefs about the discreteness of homosexuality were associated with lower willingness to engage in romantic/sexual activities with a bisexual partner. Further, more negative attitudes toward bisexuality mediated these associations. There were several meaningful differences in these associations between heterosexual women, heterosexual men, lesbian women, and gay men, suggesting that influences on people's willingness to be romantically or sexually involved with a bisexual partner may differ for different gender and sexual orientation groups. Implications for reducing stigma and discrimination against bisexual individuals are addressed.
While nurses can and do behave as intentional political agents, claims that nurses collectively do (empiric), should (normative) or must (regulatory) act to advance political objectives lack credibility. This paper challenges the coherence and legitimacy of political demands placed upon nurses. It is not suggested that nurses ought not to contribute to political discourse and activity. That would be foolish. However, the idea that nursing can own or exhibit a general political will is discarded. It is suggested that to protect and advance political discussion, to aid explanatory adequacy and clarity, the form in which nursing associates itself with political claims merits critical appraisal. Thus significant numbers of nurses probably reject or disagree with many of the political claims that attach to them--claims often made on their behalf. More specifically, the individual beliefs and goals of nurses can be in conflict with the political pronouncements of nursing scholars and organizations (group agents). It is proposed that nurses need not share substantive normative beliefs/goals and, if this proposal holds, group descriptors such as 'nurses' and 'nursing' cannot meaningfully or easily attach to political claims. Shared value theory is linked to the fallacy of composition and the concept of collective ascription error is introduced to explore the implausibility of using group descriptors such as 'nurses' and 'nursing' to refer to the beliefs/goals of all nurses. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available A Grounded Theory study has been used, based on its Theory of Symbolic Interactionism, to explore indigenous healers’ beliefs and practices concerning sexually transmitted diseases amongst the Vhavenda. Initial data collection has been done, using purposive sampling and when categories started emerging, theoretical sampling was then used. Data were analysed by using three basic types of coding namely, open coding, axial coding and selective coding. The findings of the study revealed a variety of terms used to identify STDs. It then also became evident that there are similarities between gonorrhoea, syphilis and condylomata as shown in the orthodox Sexually transmitted diseases posters used in orthodox medicine with some of the STDs that the indigenous healers are familiar with. In accordance with the Grounded Theory, the description of types of diseases, disease patterns as well as signs and symptoms culminated in the emergence of the Dirt Theory. Based on the above findings, it was recommended that guidelines for designing a module for teaching health professionals be formulated to assist nurses in understanding the beliefs and practices of the people they serve.
Ayob, Noor Hadzlida; Sakdan, Mohd Fo’ad
This study attempt to explore the factors determined the political belief among the flood victims in Malaysia. In disaster situation such as flood, political institution plays a significant role in supplying aid for the victims. However, even with the same relief assistant that had been provided by the government, different appraisals often heard from the victims. Criticizes and compliments regarding the ways of the political institution handling the aid are among the issues that have been hi...
Zamboni, Giovanna; Gozzi, Marta; Krueger, Frank; Duhamel, Jean-René; Sirigu, Angela; Grafman, Jordan
Politics is a manifestation of the uniquely human ability to debate, decide, and reach consensus on decisions affecting large groups over long durations of time. Recent neuroimaging studies on politics have focused on the association between brain regions and specific political behaviors by adopting party or ideological affiliation as a criterion to classify either experimental stimuli or subjects. However, it is unlikely that complex political beliefs (i.e., "the government should protect freedom of speech") are evaluated only on a liberal-to-conservative criterion. Here we used multidimensional scaling and parametric functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify which criteria/dimensions people use to structure complex political beliefs and which brain regions are concurrently activated. We found that three independent dimensions explained the variability of a set of statements expressing political beliefs and that each dimension was reflected in a distinctive pattern of neural activation: individualism (medial prefrontal cortex and temporoparietal junction), conservatism (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex), and radicalism (ventral striatum and posterior cingulate). The structures we identified are also known to be important in self-other processing, social decision-making in ambivalent situations, and reward prediction. Our results extend current knowledge on the neural correlates of the structure of political beliefs, a fundamental aspect of the human ability to coalesce into social entities.
Osberg, Timothy M; Boyer, Amber
This study explored the relative impact of college alcohol beliefs (CABs; i.e., the extent to which the student views alcohol as part of the fabric of college life), descriptive norms, injunctive norms, positive alcohol expectancies, and sensation seeking on college students' (N = 415) risk for engaging in regretted sexual encounters (RSE). Overall, 12% of our sample reported having experienced RSE within the past 30 days. When pitted against the other traditional predictors of college student drinking and its consequences, such as positive alcohol expectancies, descriptive and injunctive norms, and sensation seeking, CABs emerged as the strongest correlate of RSE other than drinking itself, and explained significant additional variance in RSE beyond these other predictors. Mediation analyses revealed that CABs had a significant indirect effect on RSE through typical weekly drinking. This pattern of findings indicates that college alcohol beliefs are, from a public health perspective, dangerous beliefs, that warrant serious consideration in the development of new approaches to college student drinking and its consequences.
Nussbaum, E. Michael; Owens, Marissa C.; Cordova, Jacqueline R.
This study examines the interaction of political orientation with academic discipline on beliefs in anthropogenic climate change (ACC) among higher education faculty. Over 300 faculty members at two research institutions in the United States were surveyed on topics concerning ACC and the results were analyzed with multiple regression. Even among…
Sexual and Reproductive Rights, Social Inequality and Politics in Latin America. Paradoxically, Latin America has some of the most stringent legal restrictions against and highest rates of abortion in the world. The co-existence of legal restrictions and unsafe abortions affects society unequally. While middle- and upper-class ...
Full Text Available Sexual- reproductive health of youth is one of the most unknown aspects of our community, while the world, including our country is faced with the risk of AIDS spreading. The aim of this study was to describe Health Belief Model (HBM of the students about sexual-reproductive health behaviors and evaluate the ability of the model in predicting related behaviors. By using quota sampling, 1117 male and female students of Qazvin Medical Science and International universities were included in the study in 1991. A self-completed questionnaire was prepared containing close questions based on HBM components including perceived threats (susceptibility and severity of related diseases, perceived reproductive benefits and barriers and self efficacy of youth about reproductive health. A total of 645 of participants were female and 457 were male (Mean age 21.4±2.4 and 22.7±3.5, respectively. The Health Belief Model of the students showed that they perceived a moderate threat for AIDS and venereal diseases and their health outcomes. Most of them perceived the benefits of reproductive health behaviors. They believed that the ability of youth in considering reproductive health is low or moderate. However, they noted to some barriers for spreading of reproductive health in youth including inadequacy of services. Boys felt a higher level of threat for acquiring the AIDS and venereal diseases in compare to girls, but girls had a higher knowledge about these diseases and their complications. The Health Belief Model of the students with premarital intercourse behavior was not significantly different with the students without this behavior (Mann-Withney, P<0.05. Female students and the students without the history of premarital intercourse had significantly more positive attitude towards abstinence, comparing to male students and students with the history of premarital intercourse, respectively (Mann-Withney, P<0.05. Seventy five percent of students believed in
Baldassarri, Delia; Goldberg, Amir
How do Americans organize their political beliefs? This article argues that party polarization and the growing prominence of moral issues in recent decades have catalyzed different responses by different groups of Americans. The article investigates systematic heterogeneity in the organization of political attitudes using relational class analysis, a graph-based method for detecting multiple patterns of opinion in survey data. Three subpopulations, each characterized by a distinctive way of organizing its political beliefs, are identified: ideologues, whose political attitudes strongly align with either liberal or conservative categories; alternatives, who are instead morally conservative but economically liberal, or vice versa; and agnostics, who exhibit weak associations between political beliefs. Individuals' sociodemographic profiles, particularly their income, education, and religiosity, lie at the core of the different ways in which they understand politics. Results show that while ideologues have gone through a process of issue alignment, alternatives have grown increasingly apart from the political agendas of both parties. The conflictual presence of conservative and liberal preferences has often been resolved by alternative voters in favor of the Republican Party.
Toner, Kaitlin; Leary, Mark R; Asher, Michael W; Jongman-Sereno, Katrina P
Accusations of entrenched political partisanship have been launched against both conservatives and liberals. But is feeling superior about one's beliefs a partisan issue? Two competing hypotheses exist: the rigidity-of-the-right hypothesis (i.e., conservatives are dogmatic) and the ideological-extremism hypothesis (i.e., extreme views on both sides predict dogmatism). We measured 527 Americans' attitudes about nine contentious political issues, the degree to which they thought their beliefs were superior to other people's, and their level of dogmatism. Dogmatism was higher for people endorsing conservative views than for people endorsing liberal views, which replicates the rigidity-of-the-right hypothesis. However, curvilinear effects of ideological attitude on belief superiority (i.e., belief that one's position is more correct than another's) supported the ideological-extremism hypothesis. Furthermore, responses reflecting the greatest belief superiority were obtained on conservative attitudes for three issues and liberal attitudes for another three issues. These findings capture nuances in the relationship between political beliefs and attitude entrenchment that have not been revealed previously.
Tappin, Ben M; van der Leer, Leslie; McKay, Ryan T
Understanding how individuals revise their political beliefs has important implications for society. In a preregistered study (N = 900), we experimentally separated the predictions of 2 leading theories of human belief revision-desirability bias and confirmation bias-in the context of the 2016 U.S. presidential election. Participants indicated who they desired to win, and who they believed would win, the election. Following confrontation with evidence that was either consistent or inconsistent with their desires or beliefs, they again indicated who they believed would win. We observed a robust desirability bias-individuals updated their beliefs more if the evidence was consistent (vs. inconsistent) with their desired outcome. This bias was independent of whether the evidence was consistent or inconsistent with their prior beliefs. In contrast, we found limited evidence of an independent confirmation bias in belief updating. These results have implications for the relevant psychological theories and for political belief revision in practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Promiscuous “connoisseurs of love” (irogonomi such as the fictional Genji and the semi- legendary Ariwara no Narihira have come to define popular perception of Heian period sexual politics; that is, their names have become shorthand for male privilege over women. In this article I will complicate established ideas regarding male promiscuity and privilege in the Heian period through an examination of Tales of Ise, Tale of Lady Ochikubo and Tale of Genji. I argue that, although women’s status as linchpins in the practice of “marriage politics” rarely translated into women’s individual empowerment, men’s reliance on marriage politics placed restrictions on men’s sexuality in ways that are rarely acknowledged by modern scholarship.
Hubbard, Katherine; Hegarty, Peter
Heterosexual people with more positive attitudes to lesbians and gay men generally believe that homosexuality is immutable, is not a discrete social category, and that homosexuality exists in all cultures and time periods. Equivalent beliefs about heterosexuality and beliefs about components of sexuality have been less often researched. 136 people with diverse sexualities described heterosexuality as more universal across history and culture than homosexuality (Study 1). 69 heterosexual-identified participants similarly believed that love, identity, behavior, and desire were more historically invariant aspects of heterosexuality than of homosexuality (Study 2). Less prejudiced participants thought all components of homosexuality--except for identity--were more historically invariant. Teasing apart beliefs about the history of components of heterosexuality and homosexuality suggests that there is no "essential" relationship between sexual prejudice and the tension between essentialist and constructivist views about the history of sexual identity.
Mallet, Pascal; Herbé, Dominique
Believing that rape is acceptable in some situations may account for adolescent boys' perpetration of forced sex on girls. This study was intended to examine two hypothesized cognitive factors of adolescents' rape-supportive beliefs: general knowledge, measured with grade point average (GPA); and specific knowledge about sexuality, measured with a newly devised questionnaire. Fourteen-year-old adolescents (N = 248) participated in a short-term longitudinal study. They completed questionnaires designed to assess sexual knowledge and rape-supportive beliefs, and six months later completed them again. Sexual knowledge increased sharply between Time 1 and Time 2, whereas rape-supportive beliefs decreased during the same time. Boys obtained higher rape-supportive belief scores than girls. Regression analyses showed that sexual knowledge significantly predicted the level of rape-supportive beliefs six months later, independent of GPA and sex of participants. GPA accounted for a greater part of the variance in rape-supportive beliefs. This article discusses the importance of paying attention to the level of academic achievement of adolescents, as well as to their sexuality-specific knowledge, as a way of improving the efficiency of programs specializing in the prevention of adolescent sexual violence.
Carlee Beth Hawkins
Full Text Available Motivated thinking leads people to perceive similarity between the self and ingroups, but under some conditions, people may recognize that personal beliefs are misaligned with the beliefs of ingroups. In two focal experiments and two replications, we find evidence that perceived belief similarity moderates ingroup favoritism. As part of a charity donation task, participants donated money to a community charity or a religious charity. Compared to non-religious people, Christians favored religious charities, but within Christians, conservative Christians favored religious charities more than liberal Christians did. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the perceived political beliefs of the charity accounted for the differences in ingroup favoritism between liberal and conservative Christians. While reporting little awareness of the influence of ideology, Christian conservatives favored religious charities because they perceived them as conservative and liberal Christians favored the community charity because they perceived it as liberal.
Full Text Available A growing literature has sought to understand the relationships between religion, politics and views about climate change and climate change policy in the United States. However, little comparative research has been conducted in other countries. This study draws on data from the 2011 Australian National Church Life Survey to examine the beliefs of Australian churchgoers from some 20 denominations about climate change—whether or not it is real and whether it is caused by humans—and political factors that explain variation in these beliefs. Pentecostals, Baptist and Churches of Christ churchgoers, and people from the smallest Protestant denominations were less likely than other churchgoers to believe in anthropogenic climate change, and voting and hierarchical and individualistic views about society predicted beliefs. There was some evidence that these views function differently in relation to climate change beliefs depending on churchgoers’ degree of opposition to gay rights. These findings are of interest not only for the sake of international comparisons, but also in a context where Australia plays a role in international climate change politics that is disproportionate to its small population.
Rienzo, Barbara A; Button, James W; Sheu, Jiunn-jye; Li, Ying
Schools are increasingly expected to address the needs of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender students. However, the controversial nature of sexual orientation programs and policies makes this a politically sensitive undertaking. This empirical study analyzes the extent to which public school districts across the United States have implemented policy recommendations and describes, according to 4 theoretical policy models, factors that influence their ability to do so. The survey found that most districts have not institutionalized recommended policies or programs. Recommendations for school health professionals based on factors found to be significantly associated with the implementation of programs are discussed.
Peixoto, Maria Manuela; Nobre, Pedro
Despite the existence of conceptual models of sexual dysfunction based on cognitive theory, few studies have tested the role of vulnerability factors such as sexual beliefs as moderators of the activation of cognitive schemas in response to negative sexual events. To test the moderator role of dysfunctional sexual beliefs in the association between the frequency of negative sexual episodes and the activation of incompetence schemas in gay and heterosexual men. Five-hundred seventy-five men (287 gay, 288 heterosexual) who completed an online survey on cognitive-affective dimensions and sexual functioning were selected from a larger database. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to test the hypothesis that dysfunctional sexual beliefs moderate the association between the frequency of unsuccessful sexual episodes and the activation of incompetence schemas. Participants completed the Sexual Dysfunctional Beliefs Questionnaire and the Questionnaire of Cognitive Schemas Activated in Sexual Context. Findings indicated that men's ability for always being ready for sex, to satisfy the partner, and to maintain an erection until ending sexual activity constitute "macho" beliefs that moderate the activation of incompetence schemas when unsuccessful sexual events occur in gay and heterosexual men. In addition, activation of incompetence schemas in response to negative sexual events in gay men was moderated by the endorsement of conservative attitudes toward moderate sexuality. The main findings suggested that psychological interventions targeting dysfunctional sexual beliefs could help de-catastrophize the consequences of negative sexual events and facilitate sexual functioning. Despite being a web-based study, it represents the first attempt to test the moderator role of dysfunctional sexual beliefs in the association between the frequency of unsuccessful sexual episodes and the activation of incompetence schemas in gay and heterosexual men. Overall, findings
Mindel, Adrian; Sawleshwarkar, Shailendra
The present review assesses the protection that condoms offer against sexually transmissible infections (STI) and the impact that social, political and religious opinion in the USA has had in the past 8 years on promoting condoms for safer sex. Condoms offer protection against most STI. However, the degree of protection depends on correct and consistent use, the type of sexual activity and the biological characteristics of different infections. Cross-sectional and case-control studies and other observational data provide the majority of evidence for STI prevention. Condoms provide a high level of protection against those infections that are transmitted mainly via infected secretions, including HIV, gonorrhoea, chlamydia and trichomoniasis. Protection against those infections transmitted via skin and mucous membrane contact, including Herpes simplex virus infection and human papilloma virus, appears to be less. The Bush administration, driven by conservative political, social and religious elements in the USA, has mounted a concerted campaign to undermine the role of the condom in health-promotion activities in the USA and overseas by undervaluing and misrepresenting scientific data, and through a sustained and well-funded promotion of abstinence-only education. However, this has lead to considerable controversy and disillusionment with abstinence-only education, both at home and abroad, and there is now incontrovertible evidence that abstinence-only programs are ineffectual.
Eaton, Lisa; Kueck, Angela; Maksut, Jessica; Gordon, Lori; Metersky, Karen; Miga, Ashley; Brewer, Molly; Siembida, Elizabeth; Bradley, Alison
Sexual health is an important, yet overlooked, aspect of quality of life for gynecologic oncologic patients. Although patients with gynecologic cancer frequently report sexual health concerns, there are limited efforts to address these problems. A comprehensive understanding of the relationship between mental health and sexual health needs to be prioritized. To examine multiple components of sexual health in patients with gynecologic cancer. For the present study, sexual health concerns (ie, sexual frequency, desire, response, and satisfaction; orgasm; and pain during sex; independent variables), beliefs about cancer treatments affecting sexual health (dependent variable), and mental health (ie, anxiety and depressive symptoms; dependent variables) of patients at a US gynecologic oncology clinic were assessed. Demographics; cancer diagnosis; positive screening results for cancer; sexual health histories including sexual frequency, desire, pain, orgasm, responsiveness, and satisfaction; and mental health including depression and anxiety symptoms. Most women reported experiencing at least one sexual health concern, and half the women screened positive for experiencing symptoms of depression and anxiety. Forty-nine percent of participants reported having no or very little sexual desire or interest in the past 6 months. Further, in mediation analyses, pain during sex was significantly and positively correlated with depressive symptoms (r = 0.42, P gynecologic oncology clinics. Screening women for whether and to what extent they perceive cancer treatments affecting their sexual health could provide a brief, easily administrable, screener for sexual health concerns and the need for further intervention. Intervention development for patients with gynecologic cancer must include mental health components and addressing perceptions of how cancer treatments affect sexual health functioning. Eaton L, Kueck A, Maksut J, et al. Sexual Health, Mental Health, and Beliefs About
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are not foreign to African cultures. Like other nationalities, Africans also had their own diagnosis, treatment and prevention methods for these types of diseases. In addition, there are norms for sexual behaviour that are unique to each culture and that are different for women and men.
L B Khoza
Full Text Available Unwanted or unprotected pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections among the youth are the result of engaging in unprotected sexual behaviour. Opsomming Ongewenste of onbeskermde swangerskappe en seksueelorgedraagde infeksies onder die jeug is die gevolg van onbeskermde seksuele gedrag. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.
Svendsen, Stine Helena Bang
The point of departure for “Affecting change? Cultural politics of sexuality and ‘race’ in Norwegian education” is the reconfiguration of sexual and racial politics in the Norwegian public sphere over the past decade. Both gender equality and homotolerance was transformed from contested political issues to common values that were seen to positively distinguish Norwegian culture in this process. Furthermore, these issues were increasingly taken up to describe both cultural differences and “cul...
Yarhouse, Mark A; Morgan, Tranese; Anthony, Kristin; Sadusky, Julia
The purpose of the study is to explore the experiences of gay Christians who choose celibacy. Chief milestone events, beliefs and attitudes toward God and faith, as well as participants' experiences of church climate toward gay Christians were assessed through a structured interview. Eight interviews were analyzed, using grounded theory methodology and consensual qualitative analysis to identify several salient themes.
Oosterhoff, Benjamin; Kaplow, Julie B; Layne, Christopher M; Pynoos, Robert S
Promoting trust in public officials and active political engagement is vital to sustaining a well-functioning democracy. Developmental psychologists propose that youths' beliefs about government and participation in politics are rooted in personal experiences within their communities. Previous studies have focused on how positive experiences within youths' families, schools, and communities facilitate greater social trust and political participation. However, less is known about how negative interpersonal experiences-such as criminal victimization-intersect with youths' beliefs about the trustworthiness, competence, and knowledge of government officials, and their participation in political activity. Using data from 39 waves of the Monitoring the Future study, the current study examined associations among youth victimization, beliefs about government, and participation in various political activities. Adolescents (N = 109,574; 50.9% female) enrolled in 12th grade across the United States reported on whether they had experienced various types of victimization during the previous year, their beliefs about government, and their participation in multiple forms of political activity. Adolescents who reported more frequent victimization experiences endorsed significantly greater discontent with government and were significantly more engaged in various forms of political activity. The magnitude and direction of these effects were generally consistent across different types of victimization, different demographic subgroups of youth, and different sociohistorical periods. Findings are interpreted from a social contract theory perspective, followed by a discussion of implications for building psychological theory and informing public policy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Van Bavel, Jay J; Pereira, Andrea
Democracies assume accurate knowledge by the populace, but the human attraction to fake and untrustworthy news poses a serious problem for healthy democratic functioning. We articulate why and how identification with political parties - known as partisanship - can bias information processing in the human brain. There is extensive evidence that people engage in motivated political reasoning, but recent research suggests that partisanship can alter memory, implicit evaluation, and even perceptual judgments. We propose an identity-based model of belief for understanding the influence of partisanship on these cognitive processes. This framework helps to explain why people place party loyalty over policy, and even over truth. Finally, we discuss strategies for de-biasing information processing to help to create a shared reality across partisan divides. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
van Oosten, J.M.F.; Peter, J.; Valkenburg, P.M.
Research on how sexual music videos affect beliefs related to sexual aggression is rare and has not differentiated between the effects of music videos by male and female artists. Moreover, little is known about the affective processes that underlie the effects of sexual music videos. Using data from
Results also showed significant relationships between discussing sexual issues with( parents, educators, peers and no-one) and knowledge of some STI symptoms like foul smell (p=0.021), blisters on the penis (p=0.033) and clear vaginal discharge (p=0.021). These results indicate that learners have poor and inadequate ...
Tan, Erica S N; Yarhouse, Mark A
With the increasing relevance of sexual minority concerns, including the process of navigating sexual and religious identities, clinical practice has focused on helping sexual minorities address methods of self-expression that are most congruent with the client's values. Sexual Identity Therapy (SIT), (Throckmorton & Yarhouse, 2006) has been developed to assist individuals who are seeking to address potential conflicts between religious and sexual identities by focusing on personal congruence. To facilitate this process, the practice of mindfulness is applied. As an adaptation from its spiritual origins, mindfulness is used to facilitate the treatment of various disorders, such as chronic pain, substance abuse, and depression. It has also been the crux of several different third-wave cognitive and behavioral therapies that consider the "… context and functions of psychological phenomena" (Hayes, 2004, p. 5) for the purpose of helping clients to develop "… broad, flexible and effective repertoires" (p. 6). In this instance, mindfulness is applied to SIT to assist individuals with same-sex attraction to become nonjudgmentally aware of their thoughts and feelings related to same-sex attraction such that they are able to experience their attractions in an open and honest manner without feeling compelled to either dismiss or augment these attractions. Mindful awareness of same-sex attraction facilitates congruence because there is less emphasis on changing behaviors, thoughts or feelings, but rather, changing the relationship the individual has to their experiences of same-sex attraction so that they are experienced as neutral, as opposed to aversive. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available AimThe way caregivers experience the sexuality of older adults has implications to their identity and sexual manifestations. There are few studies that focus on the meaning of caring of older adults, taking into account their sexuality. This study aims to explore the experiences of formal caregivers (FC towards sexuality among older adults, and to obtain a description of their experiences.MethodComplete data were available from six caregivers working in a nursing home. We used a sociodemographic questionnaire and topic interview guide. The data was subjected to content analysis.ResultsThe most prevalent response of the interviewed participants for ‘beliefs about the interest in sexuality’ was ‘health limitations despite the desire’, for ‘observed behaviours related to sexual expression’ was ‘masturbation’, and for ‘reactions/behaviours due to the demonstration of sexual expression was ‘using humour”.ConclusionFuture educational and intervention programs in the institution should take into account our findings to improve their efficacy on discussing these issues and to ultimately promote sexual wellbeing.
Fantasia, Heidi Collins; Sutherland, Melissa A; Fontenot, Holly; Ierardi, Janet A
College women have the highest rates of sexual violence, sexually transmitted infections, and unintended pregnancy compared with women in all other age groups. Although much is known about sexual risk behaviors among college women, less is known about how women negotiate consent for contraceptive use during sexual encounters. Therefore, the purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to explore college women's knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about contraceptive and sexual consent during dating relationships. Twenty-six women participated in five focus groups on two college campuses in the northeastern United States. Content analysis was used to analyze the data. The three main categories that emerged from the analysis included the influence of alcohol on sexual behaviors, lack of negotiation for sexual consent and contraceptive use, and fear of pregnancy. The results of this study highlight the complex social interactions and norms that college women encounter when making decisions regarding sexual activity and contraceptive use. The results of this study can inform the role of college health providers and forensic nurses to promote sexual health and safety when they interact with college women.
Zvara, B.J.; Mills-Koonce, R.; Appleyard Carmody, K.; Cox, M
Using propensity-matched controls, the present study examines the long-term adjustment of women reporting Childhood Sexual Trauma (CST) at or before the age of 14 in terms of parenting efficacy and parenting behavior. Data for these analyses were obtained from mother reports and from observational protocols from a longitudinal study of low-income, rural families. The novel use of propensity-matched controls to create a control group matched on family of origin variables provides evidence that...
Kim, Hae Won; Jung, Yeon Yi; Park, Seungmi
This study was conducted to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Korean version of the Sexuality Attitudes and Beliefs Survey (SABS) and to assess SABS for Korean nurses. The Korean version of SABS was developed through forward-backward translation techniques. Internal consistency reliability and construct validity using confirmatory factor analysis were conducted using PASW+ PC Win (18.0) and AMOS (18.0). Data were collected from 567 nurses who worked in one of six general hospitals across the country. The Korean version of SABS showed a reliable internal consistency with Cronbach's α of subscales ranging from .59 to .73. Factor loadings of the 10 items of three subscales ranged from .38 to .83. The three subscales model were validated by confirmatory factor analysis (GFI>.97, RMSEASexuality attitudes and beliefs for Korean nurses were more negative than that of European or American nurses. The SABS scores for Korean nurses were significantly different according to age, marriage, education, clinical experiences, and feeling about sexuality. The Korean version of SABS has satisfactory construct validity and reliability to measure Korean nurses' attitudes and belief toward sexuality. Education is essential to enhance importance and self-efficacy and to relieve barriers to addressing patients' sexuality.
Isaksen, Eirin Winsnes
This thesis examines the recent legal, political and social changes for sexual and gender minorities in Nepal. The empirical data were produced during field work in Nepal in 2010. In a short period of time the sexual and gender minorities have experienced a significant improvement in rights as well as increased inclusion in political processes. However, this study shows that they still experience social challenges such as discrimination and harassment. Although positive social changes like in...
Full Text Available Background Advocacy coalitions play an increasingly prominent role within the global health landscape, linking actors and institutions to attract political attention and resources. This paper examines how coalitions negotiate among themselves and exercise hidden forms of power to produce policy on the basis of their beliefs and strategic interests. Methods This paper examines the beliefs and behaviours of health advocacy coalitions using Sabatier’s Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF as an informal theoretical lens. Coalitions are further explored in relation to the concept of transnational advocacy networks (Keck and Sikkink and of productive power (Shiffman. The ACF focuses on explaining how policy change takes place when there is conflict concerning goals and technical approaches among different actors. This study uses participant observation methods, self-reported survey results and semistructured qualitative interviews to trace how a major policy project of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG era, the Global Strategy for Women’s and Children’s Health, was constructed through negotiations among maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH and sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR advocacy coalitions. Results The Global Strategy represented a new opportunity for high-level political attention. Despite differing policy beliefs, MNCH and SRHR actors collaborated to produce this strategy because of anticipated gains in political attention. While core beliefs did not shift fundamentally and collaboration was primarily a short-term tactical response to a time-bound opportunity, MNCH actors began to focus more on human rights perspectives and SRHR actors adopted greater use of quantifiable indicators and economic argumentation. This shift emphasises the inherent importance of SRHR to maternal and child health survival. Conclusion As opportunities arise, coalitions respond based on principles and policy beliefs, as well as to perceptions
Advocacy coalitions play an increasingly prominent role within the global health landscape, linking actors and institutions to attract political attention and resources. This paper examines how coalitions negotiate among themselves and exercise hidden forms of power to produce policy on the basis of their beliefs and strategic interests. This paper examines the beliefs and behaviours of health advocacy coalitions using Sabatier's Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF) as an informal theoretical lens. Coalitions are further explored in relation to the concept of transnational advocacy networks (Keck and Sikkink) and of productive power (Shiffman). The ACF focuses on explaining how policy change takes place when there is conflict concerning goals and technical approaches among different actors. This study uses participant observation methods, self-reported survey results and semi-structured qualitative interviews to trace how a major policy project of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) era, the Global Strategy for Women's and Children's Health, was constructed through negotiations among maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH) and sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) advocacy coalitions. The Global Strategy represented a new opportunity for high-level political attention. Despite differing policy beliefs, MNCH and SRHR actors collaborated to produce this strategy because of anticipated gains in political attention. While core beliefs did not shift fundamentally and collaboration was primarily a short-term tactical response to a time-bound opportunity, MNCH actors began to focus more on human rights perspectives and SRHR actors adopted greater use of quantifiable indicators and economic argumentation. This shift emphasises the inherent importance of SRHR to maternal and child health survival. As opportunities arise, coalitions respond based on principles and policy beliefs, as well as to perceptions of advantage. Global health policy-making is an arena of
Fowler, Shannon K.; Blackburn, Ashley G.; Marquart, James W.; Mullings, Janet L.
Effective strategies aimed at prison sexual assault require inmates to possess the same definition of sexual assault as prison administrations. This article argues that prison culture is rape-supportive and inmates may not define sexual assault as such. After analyzing questionnaire responses given by male and female inmates in a large Southern…
Allen, Louisa; Rasmussen, Mary Lou; Quinlivan, Kathleen; Aspin, Clive; Sanjakdar, Fida; Brömdal, Annette
This paper explores the methodological politics of researching at the intersections of sexuality, culture and religion in secondary schools. It draws on experiences during a project concerned with how to address cultural and religious diversity in sexuality education in Australia and New Zealand. The paper focuses on two methodological sticking…
Zvara, B J; Mills-Koonce, W R; Appleyard Carmody, K; Cox, M
Using propensity-matched controls, the present study examines the long-term adjustment of women reporting childhood sexual trauma (CST) at or before the age of 14 in terms of parenting efficacy and parenting behavior. Data for these analyses were obtained from mother reports and from observational protocols from a longitudinal study of low-income, rural families. The novel use of propensity-matched controls to create a control group matched on family of origin variables provides evidence that when women with CST are compared with the matched comparison women, females who experienced CST show poorer functioning across multiple domains of parenting (sensitivity, harsh intrusiveness, boundary dissolution), but not in parenting efficacy. Follow-up moderation analyses suggest that the potential effects of trauma on parenting behaviors are not attenuated by protective factors such as higher income, higher education, or stable adult relationships. Implications for interventions with childhood sexual trauma histories and directions for future study are proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Strunk, Judith L
Sexual assault has been identified as a major public health problem in the United States, yet little research has been done regarding nursing students' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about sexual assault. Lack of knowledge, or victim-blaming attitudes held by healthcare providers can be problematic for the care of the sexual assault victim, leaving them feeling upset and distressed after the healthcare encounter. Prenursing and nursing students were surveyed about their knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about sexual assault. A knowledge test, the Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance scale, and the Attitudes Toward Rape Victims scale were utilized in the survey; 297 students completed the survey. Results indicate that rape myth acceptance is lower for nursing students in their last semester of college than in the prenursing group; and that last-semester nursing students held less victim-blaming attitudes toward rape victims than prenursing students. The knowledge test highlights problem areas that need to be addressed by nursing education to improve the care of sexual assault patients.
Utilizing feminist film theory, critical reviews, and viewer responses, this article examines visual representations of transgressive sexuality in two diasporic Indian women's films: Kamasutra: A Tale of Love by Mira Nair, and Fire by Deepa Mehta. The article draws from research on ancient discourses on sexuality in India to argue that contemporary constructions of women's sexuality in South Asia are not devoid of patriarchal and fundamentalist cultural politics of representation. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
Peterson, John L.; Bakeman, Roger
The association between perceptions about condom use among one's peers, beliefs about new HIV treatments, and HIV sexual risk behavior was examined in a large urban sample ( N = 454) of gay and bisexual men in the Southeast. Results partially confirmed the hypothesis that men who endorsed new HIV treatment beliefs would report lower norms for…
Tinkler, Justine E
Sexual harassment laws have led to important organizational changes in the workplace yet research continues to document resistance to their implementation and backlash against the people who mobilize such laws. Employing experimental research methods, this study proposes and tests a theory specifying the mechanisms through which sexual harassment policies affect gender beliefs. The findings show evidence that sexual harassment policies strengthen unequal gender beliefs among men and women most committed to traditional gender interaction norms. I also find that men and women's different structural locations in the status hierarchy lead to different, but related sets of concerns about the status threats posed by sexual harassment policies. By specifying the social psychological processes through which sexual harassment law affects beliefs about men and women, this study sets the stage for investigating ways to make laws designed to reduce inequality between social groups more effective. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jordan, Lorien S; Seponski, Desiree M
A crucial and overlooked facet of social justice in family therapy is political and policy advocacy. Family therapists have unique insight into how social policies and political discourse shapes clients' lives and the life of our profession. Such knowledge can inform policymakers and political debate, yet few family therapists are trained to engage in political action. In this randomized, national survey of licensed family therapists' (N = 174), we explore beliefs about and barriers to engagement in political and policy processes. The findings suggest that there are significant barriers and uncertainties surrounding family therapists' engagement, including time, feelings of efficacy, and interest. Given these barriers we discuss practical suggestions for clinicians and family therapy training programs. © 2017 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.
The article discusses sexual violence by ISIS against women in Iraq, particularly Yezidi women, against the historical background of broader sexual and gender-based violence. It intervenes in feminist debates about how to approach and analyse sexual and wider gender-based violence in Iraq specifically and the Middle East more generally. Recognizing the significance of positionality, the article argues against dichotomous positions and for the need to look at both macrostructural configuration...
Sanchez, Delida; Whittaker, Tiffany A; Hamilton, Emma; Zayas, Luis H
This study explored the relation between perceived discrimination and sexual precursor behaviors among 205 Mexican American preadolescent middle school girls. In addition, this study examined whether psychological distress and sexual attitudes mediated and whether marianismo beliefs moderated this relation. A categorical confirmatory factor analysis (CCFA) of the Marianismo Beliefs Scale (MBS) was conducted to test the factor structure with a preadolescent Mexican American population (ages 11-14). A path analysis of analytic models was then performed to examine the hypothesized relations between perceived discrimination, psychological distress, sexual attitudes, marianismo beliefs, and sexual precursor behaviors. Results of the CCFA did not support the original 5-factor structure of the MBS for preadolescent Latina girls. However, a revised version of the MBS indicated an acceptable model fit, and findings from the path analysis indicated that perceived discrimination was both directly and indirectly linked to sexual precursor behaviors via psychological distress. Marianismo was not found to moderate the relation between perceived discrimination and sexual risk behaviors, however certain marianismo pillars were significantly negatively linked with sexual attitudes and precursor behaviors. This study underscores the importance of psychological distress in the perceived discrimination and sexual precursor link as well as the compensatory aspects of marianismo against sexual precursor behaviors in Mexican American preadolescent girls. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Nisbet, Matthew; Markowitz, Ezra M
As social scientists have investigated the political and social factors influencing public opinion in science-related policy debates, there has been growing interest in the implications of this research for public communication and outreach. Given the level of political polarization in the United States, much of the focus has been on partisan differences in public opinion, the strategies employed by political leaders and advocates that promote those differences, and the counter-strategies for overcoming them. Yet this focus on partisan differences tends to overlook the processes by which core beliefs about science and society impact public opinion and how these schema are often activated by specific frames of reference embedded in media coverage and popular discourse. In this study, analyzing cross-sectional, nationally representative survey data collected between 2002 and 2010, we investigate the relative influence of political partisanship and science-related schema on Americans' support for embryonic stem cell research. In comparison to the influence of partisan identity, our findings suggest that generalized beliefs about science and society were more chronically accessible, less volatile in relation to media attention and focusing events, and an overall stronger influence on public opinion. Classifying respondents into four unique audience groups based on their beliefs about science and society, we additionally find that individuals within each of these groups split relatively evenly by partisanship but differ on other important dimensions. The implications for public engagement and future research on controversies related to biomedical science are discussed.
José Fernando Serrano Amaya
Full Text Available What was the meaning of “liberation” in the Homosexual Liberation Movement that emerged in Colombia at the end of the 1970s? El Otro, a homosexual magazine published at that time, is analyzed as a space where a particular discourse about sexuality took form based on the publication’s radical politics. In this discourse, the relationship between sexuality and liberation was understood as revolution, pragmatics, pedagogy and bond, however it became impossible to continue these countercultural liberation politics as rights discourses came to dominate the gay and lesbian movements in 1980s.
McGee, Hannah; O'Higgins, Madeleine; Garavan, Rebecca; Conroy, Ronán
Rape myths are prejudicial and stereotyped beliefs about rape which persist in society. They may have a significant impact on those affected by rape as well as the performance of legal and public participants in the justice system. Rape myths may differ over time and within different societies and cultural settings. Awareness of contemporary and local rape myths is necessary if they are to be successfully challenged through public campaigns and other means. This study sought to assess the prevalence of myths concerning rape and sexual abuse in a national population survey.
Full Text Available In his recent work, Judith Butler has offered a reconsideration of “the human” that allow re-imagine the boundaries of political community. Underlining the common precariousness that characterizes “the human” and revealing the symbolic and material conditions that politically maximize that situation, Butler gives us useful tools not only to elucidate the selective mechanisms that produce "the human" but also to subvert the normative horizon that determined it. From such assumptions, I understand that one can propose some considerations that permit the design of sexual politics more responsive to the needs of the most precarious groups of LGBT collective.
problems of political and social life must in the end be sought in the kind of reflective consideration characteristic of an outward facing philosophy (Almond and Hill, 1991, 6). For quite some time public media have carried unsettling stories of rape, ranging from the rape of minors, the elderly, people with mental disabilities, ...
Steinhart, Katharina; von Kaenel, Andreas; Cerruti, Stella; Chequer, Pedro; Gomes, Rebeca; Herlt, Claudia; Horstick, Olaf
In 2007, six countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay) commenced work on a project to harmonise public policy on school sexuality education (SE) and the prevention of HIV. Inter-sectoral management committees for SE involving ministries of education, ministries of health and civil society were established, national policies…
Wieringa, S.; Sívori, H.
The Sexual History of the Global South explores the gap between sexuality studies and post-colonial cultural critique. Featuring twelve case studies, based on original historical and ethnographic research from countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, the book examines the sexual investments
Kole, Subir K
Queerness is now global. Many emerging economies of the global South are experiencing queer mobilization and sexual identity politics raising fundamental questions of citizenship and human rights on the one hand; and discourses of nationalism, cultural identity, imperialism, tradition and family-values on the other. While some researchers argue that with economic globalization in the developing world, a Western, hegemonic notion of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) identity has been exported to traditional societies thereby destroying indigenous sexual cultures and diversities, other scholars do not consider globalization as a significant factor in global queer mobilization and sexual identity politics. This paper aims at exploring the debate around globalization and contemporary queer politics in developing world with special reference to India. After briefly tracing the history of sexual identity politics, this paper examines the process of queer mobilization in relation to emergence of HIV/AIDS epidemic and forces of neoliberal globalization. I argue that the twin-process of globalization and AIDS epidemic has significantly influenced the mobilization of queer communities, while simultaneously strengthening right wing "homophobic" discourses of heterosexist nationalism in India.
Kole Subir K
Full Text Available Abstract Queerness is now global. Many emerging economies of the global South are experiencing queer mobilization and sexual identity politics raising fundamental questions of citizenship and human rights on the one hand; and discourses of nationalism, cultural identity, imperialism, tradition and family-values on the other. While some researchers argue that with economic globalization in the developing world, a Western, hegemonic notion of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT identity has been exported to traditional societies thereby destroying indigenous sexual cultures and diversities, other scholars do not consider globalization as a significant factor in global queer mobilization and sexual identity politics. This paper aims at exploring the debate around globalization and contemporary queer politics in developing world with special reference to India. After briefly tracing the history of sexual identity politics, this paper examines the process of queer mobilization in relation to emergence of HIV/AIDS epidemic and forces of neoliberal globalization. I argue that the twin-process of globalization and AIDS epidemic has significantly influenced the mobilization of queer communities, while simultaneously strengthening right wing "homophobic" discourses of heterosexist nationalism in India.
The aim of this article is to investigate T-shirts as semiotic tools of the politics of visibility, showing which role these sartorial artefacts may play in competing struggles for recognition in which gender and sexuality intersect with other axes of social categorisations. Drawing on a queer multimodal approach, the article offers an ...
Queering the Occupation exposes a gap between the existing critical frameworks that discuss the role of gender and sexual politics in the context of Israel/Palestine and what it calls Palestinian anticolonial-queer critiques. Such critiques emerge from within Palestinian queer communities and offer
Zago, Luiz F; Holmes, Dave
This paper seeks to analyze the construction of ethics in sexuality research in which qualitative methods are employed in the field of social sciences. Analyses are based on a bibliographic review of current discussions on research methods of queer theory and on the authors' own experiences of past research on sexuality. The article offers a theoretical perspective on the ways ethnography and in-depth interviews become methods that can rely on a consensual method and create a politics of intimacy between the researchers and research participants. The politics of intimacy may contribute to the production of a politically engaged knowledge while escaping from the moral matrix that usually governs the relationship between researchers and research participants. It is argued here that the researcher's sexed and gendered body matters for fieldwork; that the consensual method among participants may be employed in sexuality research as a fruitful tool; and that the relationships created among researchers and participants can pose a challenge to predetermined ethical guidelines in research. As a result, discussions problematize the existence of a politics of intimacy in sexuality research that is characterized by ethical relations among research participants. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Eaton, Asia A; Stephens, Dionne P
This study used the theory of planned behavior to identify urban Black adolescents' beliefs about male-to-female verbal sexual coercion. Interviews were conducted with 91 urban, Black adolescents (53 boys and 38 girls) to identify their behavioral, normative, and control beliefs about verbal sexual coercion perpetration (for males) and resistance (for females). Boys reported that perpetrating verbal sexual coercion could result in negative relationship outcomes, and the main benefit of using this tactic was to obtain sex. Unsupportive peers and some male family members were seen as encouraging boys to use verbal sexual coercion, whereas parents were seen as opposed to the use of coercion. Being in a private context with a girl and having persuasive skill were seen as facilitating the use of coercion, whereas being with an experienced or skilled girl was a barrier. For girls, positive relationship outcomes and sexual health risks were the benefits and pitfalls of resisting verbal sexual coercion. "Real" friends and family were described as supporting girls' resistance to coercion, while "fake" friends, promiscuous girls, and male peers were seen as not supporting resistance. Girls believed being in a safe, public context would make it easier to resist coercion, while being in a stable relationship with an attractive and persistent partner would make it more difficult to resist. Knowing urban, Black adolescents' beliefs about verbal sexual coercion is the first step toward predicting and intervening on their perpetration and resistance behaviors.
Reyna, Christine; Wetherell, Geoffrey; Yantis, Caitlyn; Brandt, Mark J.
Attributions for sexual orientation strongly predict opposition to gay rights policies; however, we propose that beliefs that gays and lesbians violate important values drive gay rights opposition and account for the relationship between attributions and anti-gay discrimination. In two studies, we
Williams, Mary Beth
Argues that incorporating the use of poetry writing into the clinical treatment of survivors of sexual abuse can be beneficial. Uses examples of such poetry to show how the creative writing of survivors reveals repressed information about their abuses, self-concepts, and about their basic beliefs in the areas of safety, trust, power, intimacy, and…
Hunt, Xanthe; Carew, Mark T; Braathen, Stine Hellum; Swartz, Leslie; Chiwaula, Mussa; Rohleder, Poul
There is a body of theoretical work, and some empirical research, which suggests that non-disabled people assume people with physical disabilities are not suitable romantic partners, do not have sexual drives or desires, or are not sexually active. It has also been proposed that people with physical disabilities face barriers to sexual healthcare access which are structural as well as social. The present paper explores non-disabled South Africans' beliefs concerning the degree to which non-disabled respondents enjoy sexual and reproductive rights, and benefit from sexual and reproductive healthcare, compared to people without disability. Using a survey, we asked 1989 South Africans to estimate the degree to which people with physical disabilities and people without disability have sexual rights, and benefit from sexual and reproductive healthcare services, respectively. Respondents were more likely to support the idea that the population without disability were deserving of sexual rights compared to people with physical disabilities. Respondents were more likely to rate the degree to which people with physical disability benefit from sexual and reproductive healthcare as less than that for people without physical disabilities. These findings provide some of the first empirical support that non-disabled people perceive people with physical disabilities as having fewer sexual and reproductive rights, and deriving less benefit from sexual and reproductive health services, than the population without disability. To have diminished sexual rights, and benefit less from sexual and reproductive healthcare, we suggest, evinces a negation of the sexual and reproductive needs and capacity of people with physical disabilities.
Serek, Jan; Lacinova, Lenka; Macek, Petr
The study examined the relation between adolescents' interparental conflict perceptions and their political efficacy regarding local issues. Longitudinal data (age 15 and 17) from 444 adolescents were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results showed that young people experiencing frequent interparental conflict reported an increase in…
Orisaremi, Titilayo Cordelia
The paper investigated some of the beliefs around the breastfeeding norm of the postpartum abstinence and how these influence sexual behavior. It was based on a larger project which explored how gender relations affect reproductive processes and the reproductive health of Tarok women in north-central Nigeria. Research was conducted in four Tarok communities using qualitative instruments, namely in-depth interviews (IDIs) and focus group discussion (FGD) guides. Participants were female and male community members of 15 years and above. Sixteen IDIs (four per community) were conducted with women, religious and traditional leaders as well as senior health providers. Twenty-four FGD sessions (six per community) were held with different groups in the community and data were descriptively analyzed. Findings demonstrated customary double standards in sexual matters; the significance and influence of certain unfounded traditional beliefs around breastfeeding on sexual behavior and choices; as well as some of the changes that characterize sexual relationships among modern Tarok couples brought about by Christianity, Western education and modernity. Traditional breastfeeding norms and beliefs seek to overly control women's sexuality while giving precedence to the interest of the child and its father. The study calls for a change in attitude to meet the demands of the current reality in order to strengthen marital unions and guarantee healthy families. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Risky sexual behaviours in South Africa are a major contributing factor to the spread of HIV infection and AIDS. HIV infection amongst minibus taxi drivers is a concern, because these people belong to an occupational group that exhibits risky behaviours due to the demands of their work. Given the high vulnerability of minibus taxi drivers, exploring the sexual beliefs and health-related sexual practices of this group will assist in planning targeted interventions.The objectives of this study were to assess the level of knowledge, beliefs and practices regarding HIV infection and AIDS amongst minibus taxi drivers. An exploratory descriptive study was conducted using a pre-tested questionnaire to explore and describe sexual beliefs and practices associated with HIV infection and AIDS in a convenience sample of 175 minibus taxi drivers. Permission to undertake the study was obtained from the KwaZulu-Natal Taxi Alliance and individuals who participated in the study. Data analysis were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences 13.0. The study revealed that minibus taxi drivers are one of the high- risk groups in the spread of HIV infection and AIDS; they lack necessary education and need attention in relation to control and prevention of the spread of HIV and AIDS. Multiple sexual partners are relatively common amongst the minibus taxi drivers. Violence against women and even forceful sexual intercourse in the belief that women should tolerate it to keep the family together was reported. There is a need for intervention programmes with a focus on minibus taxi drivers and similar high-risk groups. Prevention activities should incorporate the distribution of condoms amongst this group and HIV prevention educational programmes, as well as creating mechanisms for accessing circumcision by the minibus taxi drivers.
MARÍA LAMEIRAS FERNÁNDEZ
Full Text Available The aim of this work is to assess the level of use of male condom and to identify the main beliefs about condomuse in a sample of 315 teenagers (55,6 % boys and 44,6% girls belonging to secondary schools, with an average ageof 18,27, which represent 23,8 % of the total sample (N= 1323. The results show that 48,1% of the sexuallyactive students use condoms systematically, boys use them more often than girls. The condom use for boys arerelated interference with the sexual pleasure and for girls are related with have sex without taking any risk. In theboys the best predictors of the use are linked to a less sexual activity frequency, owing to considerations about adouble contraceptive and preventive function of the condom, to the feeling of safety when using it, and to feel noembarrasment when buying them. In the girls the best predicgtors of the condom use are little use of the pill, theless frequent «coitus interruptus», and the safety feeling associated to the thought that the romantic atmosphere is notbroken make up.
Costa, Pedro Alexandre; Davies, Michelle
Research has shown that negative attitudes toward lesbians and gay men are common and widespread in Western societies. However, few studies have addressed attitudes toward transgender individuals. In addition, although research has shown that homophobic harassment and bullying is highly common among adolescents, little is known about adolescent's attitudes toward sexual minorities. This study aimed to fill these gaps in knowledge, by investigating adolescents' attitudes toward transgender individuals and possible attitudinal correlates of those attitudes. Participants (N = 188; 62 males and 126 females) were recruited in high schools in Lisbon, Portugal. Age ranged from 15 to 19 years (M = 17; SD = .96). Participants completed a questionnaire booklet measuring attitudes toward transgender individuals, lesbians, and gay men, and gender role beliefs. Results revealed that attitudes toward transgender individuals were significantly correlated with all attitude measures. Specifically, it was revealed that those participants who endorsed negative attitudes toward transgender individuals were also endorsing of negative attitudes toward lesbians and gay men and tended to adhere to traditional gender roles. A significant gender effect was found with males being more negative toward sexual minorities than females, but these negative attitudes were more extreme toward gay men than toward lesbian women. Implications of these findings are discussed.
This article examines how "gayness" and the "gay community" have been conceived and experienced by participants in Porto Alegre's homosexual/gay subcultures. The objective of this article is to map out some of the key tensions and power dynamics involved in the apparent consolidation of gay communities/culture in Brazil and to explore what might be gained and lost and for whom in these recent transformations of Brazilian male homosexualities. The data was obtained from ethnographic fieldwork among a group of transvestite sex workers based out of GAPA, Porto Alegre's largest AIDS-related organization and out of Nuances, Porto Alegre's principal homosexual/gay rights group. Male-male sexuality has become increasingly visible in Brazil. Additionally, homosocial/sexual commercial establishments and homosexual/gay political organizations now exist in nearly all Brazilian cities, and there is a growing gay press as well as increasingly regular mainstream press coverage of gay cultural and political issues. The current atmosphere provides a wide range of spaces in which Brazilians of different gender and sexual subjectivities can discuss and argue about what kind of "ghetto" culture or political movement they would like to create.
Petchesky, Rosalind P
In any highly contested political domain, language can be a potent force for change or an obstacle to understanding and coalition building across difference. This is surely the case in the global debates over sexuality and gender, where even those terms themselves have aroused heated conflicts. In this spirit, we want to challenge the uncritical use of the term "sexual minorities", based on a number of historical and conceptual problems with which that term - like the larger thicket of identities and identity politics it signifies - is encumbered. These include: ignoring history, legitimating dubious normativity, fixing biological categories, and recreating exclusions. With this struggle, we seem caught in a modernist dilemma between two desires: to name and honour difference by signifying identities and to avoid exclusivity and hierarchy by reclaiming universals. The insistence of diverse groups on naming themselves and achieving recognition of their distinctness and variety will go on as long as aspirations for democracy exist, because that is the nature and necessity of emancipatory politics. At the same time, our language needs to reflect the fluidity and complexity of sexuality and gender expressions in everyday life and their intricate interweaving with other conditions such as class, race, ethnicity, time and place.
Full Text Available Toward the Question of the Victims’ Number of Political Repressions for Orthodox Belief in Russia in ХХ century Somin Nikolay Vladimirovich The author oﬀ ers the technique of the approximate estimate of the general number of orthodox believers suﬀering for the Christ during XX century in Russia. The technique is based on the process’s analysis of the data input of new persons to the Database of New Russian martyrs and Confessors which has been developed in PSTGU. The feature of it is the number of «twins» in the Database, i.e. persons who already are in the Base. It assists making the conclusion concerning the general number of victims. For experiments the author used the incoming stream received from Base of the subjected to repression persons, developed by the Society the Memorial. The author brings results of calculations and necessary historical inquiries. As a result he makes the conclusion, that the general number of the Victims of Political Repression for Orthodox Belief in Russia during XX c. was about 100 thousand persons (with a margin error in 40 %.
Mamo, Laura; Epstein, Steven
Vaccine development is a core component of pharmaceutical industry activity and a key site for studying pharmaceuticalization processes. In recent decades, two so-called cancer vaccines have entered the U.S. medical marketplace: a vaccine targeting hepatitis B virus (HBV) to prevent liver cancers and a vaccine targeting human papillomavirus (HPV) to prevent cervical and other cancers. These viruses are two of six sexually transmissible infectious agents (STIs) that are causally linked to the development of cancers; collectively they reference an expanding approach to apprehending cancer that focuses attention simultaneously "inward" toward biomolecular processes and "outward" toward risk behaviors, sexual practices, and lifestyles. This paper juxtaposes the cases of HBV and HPV and their vaccine trajectories to analyze how vaccines, like pharmaceuticals more generally, are emblematic of contemporary pharmaceuticalization processes. We argue that individualized risk, in this case sexual risk, is produced and treated by scientific claims of links between STIs and cancers and through pharmaceutical company and biomedical practices. Simultaneous processes of sexualization and pharmaceuticalization mark these cases. Our comparison demonstrates that these processes are not uniform, and that the production of risks, subjects, and bodies depends not only on the specificities of vaccine development but also on the broader political and cultural frames within which sexuality is understood. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This article outlines the major threads of controversy around the emerging subject of evolutionary psychology in the U.K. mass media during the 1990s. Much of this controversy centered on the role of evolution in shaping human gender roles and sexualities, contributing to the subject's mass appeal. This case is used to illustrate the argument that in theorizing about evolution and humans, "human nature" and "human origins" both provide a flexible resource for making arguments about how people do and should relate to one another and that such theorizing is therefore reflective of how power is held (and contested) in society. In the case of popular evolutionary psychology, shifts in the U.K. political landscape during the 1990s combined with changes in gender and sexual politics to create a situation where evolutionary theorizing about humans became more acceptable than it had been in the past. This was particularly true in left-liberal media, where a newfound compatibility between certain aspects of Darwinism and feminism created a very different space for debating gender, sexuality, and the role of human nature in today's society.
Jowett, Adam; Barker, Sophie
In 2012, the U.S. actress Cynthia Nixon was quoted in the New York Times Magazine as having stated that "for me, it [being gay] is a choice. I understand that for many people it's not, but for me it's a choice, and you don't get to define my gayness for me." The interview attracted international media attention and public criticism by lesbian and gay activists. This article suggests a rhetorical approach to understanding etiological beliefs and provides a discursive analysis of 198 online comments by readers of Pink News, a gay news Web site that reported on Nixon's controversial interview. This article explores common arguments used in readers' comments about Nixon and examines the rhetorical construction of sexuality. The analysis examines three themes within the data. First, biological essentialism was treated by many readers as common knowledge; second, readers suggested that only bisexuals have "choice"; and, third, it was suggested by both Nixon's critics and her supporters that counterarguments colluded with homophobia. The article suggests that there is an ideological dilemma whereby both "born-this-way" and "choice" arguments can be understood as colluding with anti-gay prejudice.
Full Text Available Background: The first step in health education is awareness of the people and their acceptance to change their behavior. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of empowerment program towards the concept of self-care and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs in women at risk of STDs. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted as a qualitative approach (step of action and observation of an action by using conventional content analysis method. An empowerment program regarding STDs (Action was performed among 32 (with convenient sample drug user women with addicted husbands referring to the counseling center for vulnerable women (drop in enter in Isfahan in 2015. The knowledge of quiddity, transmission, and prevention of STDs, as well as some items of life skills such as self-awareness, interpersonal communication, and assertive behavior were taught in an educational program. Teaching methods were lectures, group, and individual training and role play. The impact of the program on modified belief and behavior change regarding STDs was evaluated with structured interviews. Results: Analysis of the obtained results yielded three categories. The categories were awareness of STD, believing in being at risk, and decision and change. Conclusions: Promoting self-care and prevention through education programs based on action research can make a significant reduction in the incidence of problems and cause a behavior change in women with the disease or those at risk for STDs.
The objectives of this study were to assess the level of knowledge, beliefs and practices regarding HIV infection and AIDS amongst minibus taxi drivers. An exploratory descriptive study was conducted using a pre-tested questionnaire to explore and describe sexual beliefs and practices associated with HIV infection and AIDS in a convenience sample of 175 minibus taxi drivers. Permission to undertake the study was obtained from the KwaZulu-Natal Taxi Alliance and individuals who participated in the study. Data analysis were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences 13.0. The study revealed that minibus taxi drivers are one of the high- risk groups in the spread of HIV infection and AIDS; they lack necessary education and need attention in relation to control and prevention of the spread of HIV and AIDS. Multiple sexual partners are relatively common amongst the minibus taxi drivers. Violence against women and even forceful sexual intercourse in the belief that women should tolerate it to keep the family together was reported. There is a need for intervention programmes with a focus on minibus taxi drivers and similar high-risk groups. Prevention activities should incorporate the distribution of condoms amongst this group and HIV prevention educational programmes, as well as creating mechanisms for accessing circumcision by the minibus taxi drivers.
Osorio, Alfonso; Lopez-del Burgo, Cristina; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Carlos, Silvia; de Irala, Jokin
This study intends to evaluate whether the belief that condoms are 100% effective in protecting against HIV infection is associated with sexual risk behaviours among youth. A cross-sectional study was performed in representative samples of high-school students in the Philippines, El Salvador and Peru. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire. Students were asked about the risk of HIV transmission if one has sex using condoms. They were also asked to indicate whether they had ever had sexual relations and whether they used a condom in their first sexual relation. The sample was composed of 8994 students, aged 13-18. One out of seven adolescents believed condoms are 100% effective (safe-sex believers). Those adolescents were 82% more likely to have had sex than those without such belief, after adjusting for confounders (OR=1.82; 95% CI 1.51 to 2.21). On the contrary, no association was found between risk perception and condom use. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses produced similar results. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first study conducted specifically to evaluate this phenomenon and that has used the same questionnaire and the same data collection protocol in three different developing countries from Asia, Central and South America. These results reasonably suggest that there could be an association between safe sex beliefs and sexual initiation. Longitudinal studies are needed to better understand this possible association as it could influence how to better promote sexual health. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Ana Cristina González Velez
Full Text Available This essay explores a particular farm of understanding the political influence exercised by women's groups. Especially in the field of sexual and reproductive health, based on their advocacy experiences aimed at impacting the national and international agendas. If presents different definitions of advocacy and relates them to political concept, proposing a definition that covers several forms of influence in the public world. The author argues that advocacy leads to the exercise of citizenship and empowerment and suggests it must be based on a long-term strategic focus with concrete objectives and targets. Four types of elements are said to be essential to advocacy: tools; abilities; circumstances and maps. The latter is considered a core issue for advocacy, and therefore the text outlines a map of the various players and resources in the health sector in Colombia. Lastly, strategies for carrying out advocacy are presented with warnings about its risks and dangers.
Truong, Hong-Ha M; Fatch, Robin; Raymond, H Fisher; McFarland, Willi
We examined whether beliefs about antiretroviral (ART) efficacy and reinfection prospectively predicted subsequent condomless anal intercourse (CAI). Men who have sex with men in San Francisco (N = 773) were recruited for a longitudinal study using time-location sampling. HIV-negative men were more likely to have sero-discordant receptive CAI and HIV-positive men were more likely to have sero-discordant insertive CAI if they previously reported these behaviors at baseline and reported less concern about HIV transmission due to ART. HIV-positive men were more likely to report sero-concordant CAI at follow-up if they reported this behavior at baseline. Previous sexual behavior was consistently the strongest predictor of future sexual behavior. Previous sexual behavior and optimistic beliefs about ART for treatment and prevention predicted subsequent sexual behavior with sero-discordant partners. Since individual-level and population-level benefits of ART depend on persons maintaining adequate drug concentrations, prevention messages should continue emphasizing treatment adherence and practicing a combination of risk-reduction strategies.
The aim of this study was to identify and differentiate socially shared accounts of e-cigarette use (vaping) using Q-methodology, combining factor analysis with qualitative comments. Seventy statements on e-cigarettes, drawn from media, academic and online discussions, were sorted by participants along a continuum of agreement/disagreement, commenting on strongly ranked items. Each participant thus created their own 'account' of their vaping. A by-person correlation matrix of the sorts was conducted, then factor analysed, to identify similar accounts (ppolitically motivated to maintain the rights of adults to vape. In Factor Two, 'Vaping as Medical Treatment', vaping was understood as a pragmatic choice about how to medicate one's smoking addiction, with the aim being to treat and ultimately reduce nicotine dependence. In Factor Three, 'Ambivalent E-Cigarette Use', participants reported fewer benefits and harboured more negative beliefs about e-cigarettes; they also strongly rejected a vaper identity, having no interest in online forums or being labelled a 'vaper' themselves. The UK e-cigarette users in this sample were not a homogeneous group; differing in their beliefs, motivations for use, identity and political interest. In particular they diverged on whether they accepted a medicalized account of vaping and identified as a vaper. Public health messages targeted to one group of e-cigarette users may not resonate with others. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hart, P Sol; Feldman, Lauren
Using an online survey experiment with a national sample, this study examined how changing the type and valence of efficacy information in news stories discussing global climate change may impact intended political participation through the mediators of perceived internal, external, and response efficacy. Overall, the results revealed that after a single exposure to a news story, stories including positive internal efficacy content increased perceived internal efficacy, while stories including negative external efficacy content lowered perceived external efficacy. There were limited impacts of other types of efficacy content on perceived efficacy. Perceived internal, external, and response efficacy all offered unique, positive associations with intentions to engage in climate change-related political participation. The results suggest that news stories including positive internal efficacy information in particular have the potential to increase public engagement around climate change. The implications for science communication are discussed.
Hart, P. Sol; Feldman, Lauren
Using an online survey experiment with a national sample, this study examined how changing the type and valence of efficacy information in news stories discussing global climate change may impact intended political participation through the mediators of perceived internal, external, and response efficacy. Overall, the results revealed that after a single exposure to a news story, stories including positive internal efficacy content increased perceived internal efficacy, while stories including negative external efficacy content lowered perceived external efficacy. There were limited impacts of other types of efficacy content on perceived efficacy. Perceived internal, external, and response efficacy all offered unique, positive associations with intentions to engage in climate change-related political participation. The results suggest that news stories including positive internal efficacy information in particular have the potential to increase public engagement around climate change. The implications for science communication are discussed. PMID:27487117
Sclafane, Jamie Heather; Merves, Marni Loiacono; Rivera, Angelic; Long, Laura; Wilson, Ken; Bauman, Laurie J.
The Turn the Tables Technique (T[cube]) is an activity designed to provide group facilitators who lead HIV/STI prevention and sexual health promotion programs with detailed and current information on teenagers' sexual behaviors and beliefs. This information can be used throughout a program to tailor content. Included is a detailed lesson plan of…
Full Text Available Corruption is defined as the abuse of power in order to obtain personal benefit. Central and South America, with the exception of Chile, Uruguay and the French Guiana, show high rates of corruption. This study sought to find the meanings that ordinary people attach to corruption as well as the relationship between their narratives and sociodemographic characteristics, such as sex and educational level, and political standpoints, such as their political party affiliation. A total of 325 people participated, 166 females aged 18-69 (M=35.58, SD=13.44 and 159 males aged 19-74 (M=36.09, SD=13.02. All education levels (primary, secondary, technical, university, postgraduate and none were represented in the sample. Narratives were analysed via uni- and multidimensional methods and using the SPAD software programme. Variables used for the analysis were: meaning of corruption, corruption cases, seriousness of corruption (textual, and sex, educational level, socioeconomic level, political party affiliation (categorical. The primary results suggested that the meanings and definitions of corruption frequently feature the following verbs: to benefit, power, to obtain, to take advantage of, to steal, to bribe, and to threaten. Participants also mentioned acts of corruption that they learned about via mass media, and that involved the participation of government agents and large amounts of money. A third result was evidence that sociodemographic characteristics such as sex and education level are closely related with perceptions of what is and is not corrupt. Likewise, identification with a political party influences the judgments made on acts of corruption by both the opposing group and the group to which participants belong. We first discuss the gender difference in terms of the facts and meanings of corruption, and then we discuss how the facts of corruption (big and small are perceived as serious or not depending on the education level of the citizens
Full Text Available In my article I deal with a social construction of meanings of picturebooks’ content and form in Poland and abroad, so also with what kinds of discourses and ideologies determine the conditions of picturebooks’ production in societies under analysis. For the analysis I have chosen picturebooks which deal with sexual education. The methodology applied in the research consists mostly of content analysis and critical discourse analysis. The research is a part of a bigger collaborative project called “Discursive construction of subjectivity” financed by Ministry of Science and Higher Education in Poland, grant no. N 10702632/3637, and conducted at the University of Gdansk. I present, basing on the empirical material, the critique of the dominant discourse in Poland which is powerful in the production of picturebooks, which is based on the conservative ideology and social and sexual roles defined in stereotypical, hierarchical and heterosexual terms. In this aura discourses based on liberal or radical ideologies are marginalized.The results show the knowledge/power relations, symptoms of symbolic violence in exemplified discourses and explain to what practices of ideological and political control the subject is exposed. In this context a picturebook is seen as a meaningful cultural and political medium, within the content and form of which various (possible ideologies and conceptions of the child are included to or excluded from social environment, what can occur as a real issue for educational theory and practice.
Msetfi, Rachel; Jay, Sarah; O'Donnell, Aisling T; Kearns, Michelle; Kinsella, Elaine L; McMahon, Jennifer; Muldoon, Orla T; Naughton, Catherine; Creaven, Ann-Marie
Few studies have investigated the role of disenfranchisement and denial of agency in women's sexual health. To address this, a cross-sectional study of disenfranchisement, control (general and reproductive control) and health was conducted in Ireland, where abortion is severely restricted. Multiple mediation models ( N = 513 women) indicated that general but not reproductive control mediates the association between disenfranchisement and psychological well-being. Additionally, serial mediation shows disenfranchisement is associated with lower sense of control, which is linked to poorer well-being and risky sexual behaviour. Disenfranchisement arising from socio-political contexts may have important implications for women's sexual health.
The paper is part of a wider study into how women's studies was introduced in the academic curriculum in the United Kingdom, Canada and the USA. It looks at the sexual politics of the academy during the 1970s and 1980s, and at how they are now remembered. Women's studies was inextricably bound up in the politics of feminist activism in the period,…
Interaction Effects between Exposure to Sexually Explicit Online Materials and Individual, Family, and Extrafamilial Factors on Hong Kong High School Students' Beliefs about Gender Role Equality and Body-Centered Sexuality
To, Siu-ming; Kan, Siu-mee Iu; Ngai, Steven Sek-yum
This study examined the interaction effects between Hong Kong adolescents' exposure to sexually explicit online materials (SEOM) and individual, family, peer, and cultural factors on their beliefs about gender role equality and body-centered sexuality. Based on a survey design with a sample of 503 high school students in Hong Kong, the results…
Jozkowski, Kristen N.; Geshnizjani, Alireza; Middlestadt, Susan E.
Sexual health concerns such as sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancy remain substantial health problems faced by young adults, especially college women. University healthcare providers may be instrumental in increasing female patients' involvement in preventative sexual health behaviors, however little research has examined this…
Full Text Available In 2012, human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination was introduced free of charge in the Swedish national school-based vaccination programme for 10-12-year-old girls, and as catch-up vaccination for young women. In Sweden, there is an ongoing discussion about including boys in the national vaccination programme. Few studies are undertaken about adolescents' knowledge, beliefs and HPV vaccination status in relation to socioeconomic status and sexual experience. Thus, the aim was to examine HPV catch-up vaccination status in adolescents in relation to 1 socioeconomic factors, 2 beliefs and knowledge about HPV prevention, and 3 sexual behaviour. The Health Belief Model was used as a theoretical framework. Upper secondary school students (n = 832 aged 16, randomly chosen from a larger sample, were invited to participate in conjunction with the general health interview with the school nurse. A total of 751/832 (90.3%, girls (n = 391, 52% and boys (n = 360, 48% completed the questionnaire. HPV vaccination was associated with ethnicity and the mothers' education level; i.e. girls with a non-European background and girls with a less educated mother were less likely to have received the vaccine (p<0.01 and p = 0.04 respectively. Vaccinated girls perceived HPV infection as more severe (p = 0.01, had more insight into women's susceptibility to the infection (p = 0.02, perceived more benefits of the vaccine as protection against cervical cancer (p<0.01 and had a higher intention to engage in HPV-preventive behaviour (p = 0.01. Furthermore, boys and girls were almost equally sexually experienced, although fewer girls had used condom during first intercourse with their latest partner (p = 0.03. Finally, HPV vaccinated girls were less likely to have unprotected sex (p<0.01. In summary, catch-up HPV vaccination among young girls was associated with a European background and high maternal education level, as well as more favourable beliefs towards HPV prevention and
Dias, Alfrancio; de Oliveira, Danilo Araujo; Cruz, Maria Helena Santana; Amorim, Simone Silveira
The aim of this text is to analyse how the themes of body, gender and sexuality have been positioned in the Political-Pedagogical Project, a document that provides guidelines for all educational actions in a school, in a public state school located in the city of Aracaju (SE). We have adopted a post-critical and post-structuralist perspective,…
Full Text Available The longstanding association of the “North” with “rationality” on the one hand and “Sweden” with “sex” on the other fulfilled a particular role in the philosophical geography of the radical 1960s and 1970s. By looking at works by Susan Sontag and Roland Huntford, this article proposes that Sweden could aid both radicals and conservatives in making sense of the “Western” heritage in an era of fundamental cultural change. While Sontag regarded sexual liberalism as part of a deeper fear of conflict, Huntford saw Swedish sexual liberalism as a result of political control. Both Sontag and Huntford agreed that in the end, the Swedes were not “authentically” liberated. This kind of “septentrionalism” helped Sontag and Huntford to construct a cultural compass with a negative North pole of cold, rational, and unnatural “modernity” as representative of elements which they both sought to combat in their respective home countries.
Burchard, Adrienne; Laurence, Caroline; Stocks, Nigel
International students make up an increasing proportion of university students in Australia. Research suggests that they have poor sexual health knowledge compared with local students. Thematic analysis was undertaken on focus groups carried out at the University of Adelaide (South Australia), with 21 female international students from Malaysia and China. Four themes were identified: poor sexual health knowledge; complex attitudes about premarital sex; difficulty accessing sexual health information, and poor understanding the role of general practitioners in this area; and ideas about future education. Participants believed that international students have insufficient sexual health education when they arrive in Australia. They were concerned that some students may become more sexually active in Australia, and may not have adequate access to health services and information. All participants felt it was necessary for international students to receive better sexual health education. International students are important to Australian universities, and it should be mandatory to ensure that culturally appropriate sex education is made available to this group.
Kavanaugh, Megan L; Bessett, Danielle; Littman, Lisa L; Norris, Alison
The objective of this research was to examine individuals' knowledge about abortion in the context of their knowledge about other sexual and reproductive health (SRH) issues, including contraception, abortion, pregnancy, and birth. During August 2012, we administered an online questionnaire to a randomly selected sample of 639 men and women of reproductive age (18-44 years) in the United States. Respondents reported the highest levels of perceived knowledge about SRH in general (81%), followed by pregnancy and birth (53%), contraception (48%), and abortion (35%); knowledge of specific items within each of these areas paralleled this pattern. Respondents who believe that abortion should be allowed in at least some circumstances were more likely to be correct regarding the safety and consequences of contraception and abortion. Characteristics associated with higher levels of knowledge regarding abortion-related issues included having higher levels of knowledge about non-abortion-related SRH issues and having less restrictive abortion beliefs. Women and men are not well-informed about the relative safety and consequences of SRH-related experiences. Many overestimate their knowledge, and personal beliefs about abortion restrictions may influence their knowledge about the safety and consequences of abortion and contraception. Providers of SRH services should provide comprehensive evidence-based information about the risks and consequences of SRH matters during consultations, particularly in the case of abortion providers serving women who hold more restrictive abortion beliefs. Copyright © 2013 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This is the English translation of a speech Bergson made at Lycée Henri-IV on July 30, 1892. This is an interesting text because it anticipates Bergson’s last book, his The Two Sources of Morality and Religion. Like the distinction in The Two Sources between the open and the closed, “Politeness” defines its subject matter in two ways. There is what Bergson calls “manners” and there is true politeness. For Bergson, both kinds of politeness concern equality. Manners or material politeness amount to the ritualized greetings and formalities by means of which we usually define politeness. Unfortunately and like The Two Sources, Bergson attributes this formalized relation to other human beings with primitive and “inferior races.” Nevertheless, Bergson sees in these formalities an attempt, in the name of equality, to ignore other people’s talents and merits so that one can dominate morally superior people. In contrast, true politeness or “spiritual politeness” consists in “intellectual flexibility.” When one meets a person of superior morality, one is flexible in one’s relation to him or her; one abandons the formalities in order to really live her life and think her thoughts. Here we find equality too: “what defines this very polite person is to prefer each of his friends over the others, and to succeed in this way in loving them equally.” After making a comparison to dance, Bergson defines spiritual politeness as “a grace of the mind.” Since both kinds of politeness concern equality, Bergson associates both with justice. However, beyond these two kinds of politeness and justice there is “politeness of the heart,” which concerns charity. In order to indicate politeness of the heart, Bergson describes the kind of person, a sensitive person, who anxiously awaits a word of praise in order to feel good about herself but who also, when she hears a word of reproach, is thrown into sadness. Although Bergson calls the
Liew, Warren Mark
This paper examines the Singapore Ministry of Education's sexuality education curriculum in relation to two leading approaches to sex education, namely, abstinence-only-until-marriage education (AOUME) and comprehensive sexuality education (CSE). Based on competing cultural, political, and religious beliefs, the arguments between the advocates of…
Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Koopman, Cheryl
Examined young runaways' current risk behaviors, knowledge of AIDS, and beliefs about preventing AIDS by questioning 130 male and female subjects from shelters in New York City in 1988-89. Results did not explain the 6.7 percent seroprevalence rate reported in l988. Recommends closer inquiries regarding IV drug use and prostitution. (DM)
McGee, Hannah; O'Higgins, Madeleine; Garavan, Rebecca; Conroy, Ronan
Rape myths are prejudicial and stereotyped beliefs about rape which persist in society. They may have a significant impact on those affected by rape as well as the performance of legal and public participants in the justice system. Rape myths may differ over time and within different societies and cultural settings. Awareness of contemporary and…
Miller, Ann Neville; Kinnally, William; Maleche, Hellen; Booker, Nancy Achieng'
Adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa are at risk for contracting HIV. Although media campaigns have educated the population as a whole, few studies are available about the time sub-Saharan African youth spend listening to and viewing sexual messages via the entertainment and informational media. The goals of this project were: 1) to investigate what programming Nairobi adolescents access; and 2) to investigate the association between frequency of access and level of focus on physical relationships with adolescents' perceptions of descriptive norms of peer sexual behaviour, and their attitudes regarding men as sex driven, women as sex objects, and dating as a sport. A total of 464 students from 6 Nairobi secondary schools were surveyed. When students' favourite musicians had a strong focus on physical relationships in their songs, those students estimated the prevalence of risky sexual behaviours among their peers higher. These students also endorsed gender stereotypical and casual attitudes about sex. Large amounts of time spend on the Internet was predictive of all sexual attitude variables. Students whose favourite TV programmes had a strong focus on physical relationships also estimated prevalence of peer sexual behaviour as high.
The paper examines the relationship between violence against women, and in particular sexual violence against women, and the use of political power in Egypt after the 2011 uprising. The paper aims to explore and understand the prevailing power dynamics in the post-uprising Egypt and how these have affected women’s rights and position in the Egyptian society. The objective is to understand how the situation has changed from a peaceful and liberal uprising calling for social justice for all in ...
Amuchástegui, Ana; Cruz, Guadalupe; Aldaz, Evelyn; Mejía, María Consuelo
This article explores the complexities of the interaction between politics, religion and gender equality in contemporary Mexico, by analysing recent developments in public debate, legal changes and implementation of government policies in two areas: 1) the inclusion of emergency contraception in public health services in 2004; and 2) the decriminalisation of abortion in Mexico City in 2008, which was followed by a massive campaign to re-criminalise abortion in the federal states. Three main findings emerge from our analysis: first, that women's sexual and reproductive autonomy has become an issue of intense public debate that is being addressed by both state-public policy and society; second, that the gradual democratisation of the Mexican political system and society is forcing the Catholic Church to play by the rules of democracy; and third, that the character and nature of the Mexican (secular) state has become an arena of intense struggle within which traditional political boundaries and ideologies are being reconfigured.
Amar, Angela F; Sutherland, Melissa; Laughon, Kathryn
Sexual violence is a significant problem on many college campuses. Bystander education programs have been found to train individuals to act to prevent sexual and partner violence and improve the responses of peers to survivors. Limited evidence suggests that gender differences exist between males and females regarding both attitudes toward, and use of, bystander behavior, with females reporting more supportive attitudes and greater use of bystander behavior. The purpose of this study is to compare male and female college students on attitudes toward date rape, bystander efficacy, intention to act as a bystander, and actual use of bystander behaviors. A secondary aim explored gender differences in theoretically driven bystander behaviors and barriers to acting as a bystander. A convenience sample of 157 full-time undergraduate students aged 18-24 years completed survey measures of attitudes related to sexual and partner violence and willingness to help. Analysis of variance and chi-square were used to compare gender differences in scores. Significant gender differences were found for date rape attitudes, efficacy, and intention to act as a positive bystander. Men reported more rape-supportive attitudes and greater intention to act as a bystander than women, whereas women reported greater levels of bystander efficacy than men. The findings can be used in tailoring gender-specific components of bystander education programs for sexual assault prevention and intervention.
Scott, Clarissa S.; And Others
Explored the level of scientific knowledge regarding sexuality and contraception of Black and Hispanic inner-city adolescents. Results indicated that Hispanic males were the most knowledgeable, Hispanic females the least, and Black males and females were intermediate. A cultural basis for this difference is considered, and the need to design…
Maravelias, Constantine; Stefanidou, Maria; Dona, Artemis; Athanaselis, Sotiris; Spiliopoulou, Chara
The number of drug-facilitated sexual assault incidents has lately been increased all over the world leading law enforcement agencies and hospital doctors to constant alert. The drugs involved may be benzodiazepines, hypnotics, other sedatives, anesthetics, drugs of abuse or ethanol. The detection of these agents in biologic fluids is difficult, since most of them are shortly acting, and provoke victim's amnesia which in turn leads the victim to report the allegation late. An unusual case-study of a 35-year-old, married woman who was admitted to the hospital with dizziness and loss of memory for a period of 10 days is here reported. The toxicological analysis of the victim's blood and urine for unknown sedative drugs, achieved by GC-MS, revealed the presence of zolpidem (Stilnox), a nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic. Concentration of zolpidem in blood, 11 hours after the last supposedly intake, was 47 microg/L. After family counseling at the hospital, the victim's husband confessed that he was replacing the contents of Losec capsules of his wife, with Stilnox tablets. This unjust act was committed by the husband in order for him to have sex with his wife, since she was not willing to participate in a sexual intercourse due to her religious restraints for a fasting period of 40 days. The aim of this article is 2-fold. First, to emphasize the fact that a sexual assault can take place not only between 2 strangers, but also within a happily married couple. Second, to remind doctors that any case of sexual assault must be examined toxicologically, for a better and thorough investigation.
The Kaiser Family Foundation conducted a telephone survey of US teenagers in the spring of 1996 to gather information about what teenagers believe they need in terms of sex education and who they would like to teach them. It was found that although 55% of the teenagers believed their parents to be their most complete and reliable source of information about contraception and sex, they actually received more information from school sources. The respondents indicated that 54% of their parents had failed to discuss contraception with them, and 45% of the parents had not discussed sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). In many cases, parents waited until "too late" to broach these subjects. Information about contraception was usually too general to be of practical use. The survey also revealed that the teenagers exhibited inconsistent use of contraception. While 55% of the sexually active teens indicated that they worry about pregnancy, only 48% stated that they always use contraception. When asked why teenagers had unplanned pregnancies, most responded that the teenagers felt immune from pregnancy, indicating a need for more information about the specific risks of pregnancy. About half of the young people believe that teenagers have sexual intercourse because they think they are ready. The other reason cited by more than half of the respondents was to increase popularity. Teenagers, thus, need specific information about how to prevent pregnancy and STDs and about how to resist pressure to have sex (and avoid situations, such as alcohol or drug use, which are conducive to sexual behavior). While 69% of the respondents recognize teen pregnancy as a "big" problem, they have unrealistic expectations about their ability (should they become pregnant) to finish high school or to marry the mother/father of the child, and they underestimate their potential need for public assistance or their willingness to resort to abortion.
Sturm, Lynne A; Mays, Rose M; Zimet, Gregory D
Over the past 150 years, innovations in immunization practices have dramatically improved the health of children, and parents are increasingly asked to consider and accept new childhood vaccines. We present a conceptual model to frame a review of research on the role of parental attitudes and beliefs in decision making about child and adolescent immunization and describe the historical context of vaccine-related decision-making research. This review focuses on theory-based Social-environmental and parent-specific personal factors as potential influences on vaccine decision making. Relevant Social-environmental issues discussed include media coverage of vaccines, perceived social norms, and the persuasive influence of peer groups. Health care provider recommendations are presented as an exemplar of factors related to the family's interface with the health care system. Personal factors addressed include parental health beliefs, attitudes, and knowledge related to vaccine preventable diseases and immunization, as well as cognitive heuristics that are employed in the decision-making process (e.g., omission bias, protected values, framing of information). Last, promising directions for research and suggestions for clinical practice are presented.
Krok-Schoen, Jessica L; Bernardo, Brittany M; Weier, Rory C; Peng, Juan; Katz, Mira L; Reiter, Paul L; Richardson, Morgan S; Pennell, Michael L; Tatum, Cathy M; Paskett, Electra D
To examine how demographic, general health, religious, and political characteristics influenced beliefs about mandatory school vaccinations and history of vaccination refusal for children among Ohio Appalachian parents. In 2013 and 2014, baseline data were obtained from parents (n = 337) of girls aged 9-17 from 12 counties in rural Ohio Appalachia enrolled in the Community Awareness, Resources and Education (CARE II) Project. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify correlates of parental beliefs about mandatory school vaccinations and history of refusing a doctor-recommended vaccine for their child(ren). About 47% of parents agreed that parents should have the right to refuse mandatory school vaccinations for their child(ren). Participants who reported their political affiliation as Republican (OR = 2.45, 95% CI: 1.28-4.66) or Independent (OR = 3.31, 95% CI: 1.70-6.44) were more likely to agree that parents should have the right to refuse school-mandated vaccinations than parents who reported their political affiliation as Democrat. Approximately 39% of parents reported ever refusing a vaccine for their child(ren). Participants who were female (OR = 3.90, 95% CI: 1.04-14.58) and believed that parents should have the right to refuse mandatory school vaccinations (OR = 3.27, 95% CI: 1.90-5.62) were more likely to report ever refusing a vaccine for their child(ren). The study findings provide information to better understand factors related to vaccination refusal among parents in Appalachia Ohio that can be used to design interventions to improve vaccination uptake. © 2017 National Rural Health Association.
Full Text Available Today news about neuroscience is received with great enthusiasm by the general public as well as the academic field. The authority awarded to the results of neuroscientific experiments, linked to its successful dissemination through the mass media, serves to extend the sexual dimorphism argument, opening old feminist debates. Consequently, from a feminist position, we ought to critically approach the neurogenderings and the neurosexism. This aim is performed in order to identify the risks that such discourse entails for feminist political struggle. In order to achieve our objective, we rely on the analysis of the seminal works of feminism, as well as the post-feminist proposal of Paul B. Preciado.
As part of Western European development aid policy, comprehensive sexuality education (CSE) is increasingly promoted in resource-poor countries. This paper engages with CSE promotion in Bangladesh funded by the Dutch Government. It unpacks the 'collaboration' by looking at how a paradox is played
As part of Western European development aid policy, comprehensive sexuality education (CSE) is increasingly promoted in resource-poor countries. This paper engages with CSE promotion in Bangladesh funded by the Dutch Government. It unpacks the "collaboration" by looking at how a paradox is played out between the universal ideals…
This article complicates recent discussions about the expanding zones and influences of medicalization and biomedicalization on sexuality and sex therapy by contextualizing them with competing nonmedicalizing trends. These latter developments include an escalating nonexpert commercial sexuality sector on the Internet, as well as a long history of anarchic and democratizing social politics, such as "the counterculture" and "free love movements." What these nonmedicalizing trends have in common is the view of sexual problems and solutions as far broader than sexual dysfunctions and sex therapies, a belief in the social determinants of individuals' sexual experiences, and a deep concern regarding the socially harmful consequences of medicalization. With the quantity of sexuality information and advice available to the public through the Internet only likely to expand, a long era of clashing claims about relations between sexuality and health and about the role of expertise in sexual life can be foreseen.
Huesmann, L Rowell; Dubow, Eric F; Boxer, Paul; Landau, Simha F; Gvirsman, Shira Dvir; Shikaki, Khalil
We examine the hypothesis that children's exposure to ethnic-political conflict and violence over the course of a year stimulates their increased aggression toward their own in-group peers in subsequent years. In addition, we examine what social cognitive and emotional processes mediate these effects and how these effects are moderated by gender, age, and ethnic group. To accomplish these aims, we collected three waves of data from 901 Israeli and 600 Palestinian youths (three age cohorts: 8, 11, and 14 years old) and their parents at 1-year intervals. Exposure to ethnic-political violence was correlated with aggression at in-group peers among all age cohorts. Using a cross-lagged structural equation model from Year 1 to Year 3, we found that the relation between exposure and aggression is more plausibly due to exposure to ethnic-political violence stimulating later aggression at peers than vice versa, and this effect was not moderated significantly by gender, age cohort, or ethnic group. Using three-wave structural equation models, we then showed that this effect was significantly mediated by changes in normative beliefs about aggression, aggressive script rehearsal, and emotional distress produced by the exposure. Again the best fitting model did not allow for moderation by gender, age cohort, or ethnic group. The findings are consistent with recent theorizing that exposure to violence leads to changes both in emotional processes promoting aggression and in the acquisition through observational learning of social cognitions promoting aggression.
Miller, Alice M; Gruskin, Sofia; Cottingham, Jane; Kismödi, Eszter
Although past resistance to sexual rights in global debates has often been grounded in claims to culture, nation and religion, opposition voices are now using, rather than rejecting, the frame of international human rights. This Commentary argues that, despite opponents' attempts to defeat sexual rights with other rights claims, a careful understanding of the principles of international human rights and its legal development exposes how the use of rights to oppose sexual rights should, and will ultimately, fail. The Commentary briefly takes up three kinds of "rights" claims made by opponents of sexual rights: limiting rights to protect rights, textual basis, and universality, and explores the rationales and impact of their application to countering sexual rights. Because sexuality and reproduction intersect as well as diverge in the opposition they face, this struggle matters intensely and plays out across advocacy, programmatic and policy worlds. Underpinning this Commentary is the understanding that opposition to sexual and reproductive health rights uses common arguments about rights principles that must be understood in order to be countered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Dagmar Herzog bietet mit der vorliegenden Untersuchung einen ersten und in diesem Sinne beachtenswerten, körper- und geschlechtergeschichtlich aber grundsätzlich ergänzungsbedürftigen Überblick zur Geschichte der Sexualität in Deutschland im 20. Jahrhundert. Im Zentrum der Studie steht das sich wandelnde Verhältnis zwischen Sexualität und Vergangenheitspolitik in der Bundesrepublik, insbesondere die Politisierung der Sexualität um ‚1968‘. Eher rückblickend geraten die Adenauerära und der Nationalsozialismus in den Blick. Der Titel der amerikanischen Originalausgabe bringt diesen Themenschwerpunkt deutlich zum Ausdruck: Sex after Fascism.Dagmar Herzog’s study offers a first and therefore noteworthy overview of the history of sexuality in twentieth-century Germany from the perspective of the history of the body and gender, a study that, however, is in need of supplementation. The central focus of the study is the changing relationship between sexuality and the politics of confronting the past in the Federal Republic of Germany. The book pays particular attention to the politicization of sexuality around 1968. The Adenauer-Era and National Socialism are, for the most part, attended to merely in retrospective. The title of the American original edition expresses this focus clearly: Sex after Fascism.
Abstract. Body image is internal and external. It is seen by ourselves and by others. Social body image constructs seem to be built on what is deemed to be beautiful within our cultural contexts, which in turn is perceived as valuable and in turn has higher social standing because everyone else looks up to it. The politics of ...
Body image is internal and external. It is seen by ourselves and by others. Social body image constructs seem to be built on what is deemed to be beautiful within our cultural contexts, which in turn is perceived as valuable and in turn has higher social standing because everyone else looks up to it. The politics of body image ...
Lugg, Catherine A.
Seeks to chart a course through the contested area of gender and sexual orientation in hopes of establishing a theoretical framework and an agenda for much needed future research. Draws from two research traditions, particularly in the areas of history and law: neo-Marxist theory generally and Queer Legal Theory specifically. (Contains 161…
Indonesia has been haunted by the "spectre of communism" since the putsch by military officers on 1 October 1965. That event saw the country's top brass murdered and the military attributing this putsch to the Communist Party. The genocide that followed was triggered by a campaign of sexual slander.
Lilienfeld, Scott O
A 1998 meta-analysis by B. Rind, P. Tromovitch, and R. Bauserman in Psychological Bulletin indicated that the relations between child sexual abuse and later psychopathology were weak in magnitude. Shortly thereafter, this article was condemned by media personality Dr. Laura Schlessinger and numerous conservative organizations and was denounced by the United States Congress. In addition, the American Psychological Association (APA) distanced itself from the authors' conclusions. This incident raises questions regarding (a) authors' responsibilities concerning the reporting of politically controversial findings, (b) academic and scientific freedom, (c) the role of the APA in disabusing the public and media of logical errors and fallacies, and (d) the substantial gap between popular and academic psychology and the responsibility of the APA to narrow that gap.
This article focuses on the micro-narratives of two individuals whose responses to AIDS were mediated by their sexual identity, AIDS activism and the political context of South Africa during a time of transition. Their experiences were also mediated by well-established metanarratives about AIDS and ‘homosexuality’ created in the USA and the UK which were transplanted and reinforced (with local variations) into South Africa by medico-scientific and political leaders.The nascent process of writing South African AIDS histories provides the opportunity to record responses to AIDS at institutional level, reveal the connections between narratives about AIDS and those responses, and draw on the personal stories of those who were at the nexus of impersonal official responses and the personal politics of AIDS. This article records the experiences of Dennis Sifris, a physician who helped establish one of the first AIDS clinics in South Africa and emptied the dance floors, and Pierre Brouard, a clinical psychologist who was involved in early counselling, support and education initiatives for HIV-positive people, and counselled people about dying, and then about living. Their stories show how, even within government-aligned health care spaces hostile to gay men, they were able to provide support and treatment to people; benefited from international connections with other gay communities; and engaged in socially subversive activities. These oral histories thus provide otherwise hidden insights into the experiences of some gay men at the start of an epidemic that was initially almost exclusively constructed on, and about, gay men’s bodies. PMID:24775431
Rasmussen, S J
This essay explores connections between political institutions, forms of power, and women's health care concerns from a cultural anthropological perspective. I focus on the roles of different medical establishments among the Kel Ewey Tuareg of Niger--Western-European sponsored, central state, traditional herbalism and Islamic scholarship--in creating, maintaining, and disputing these constructs, through the invention and elaboration of disease categories and through the selective application of medical and reproductive models and technology to women. I also explore women's attempts to manage these forces, as they draw upon a cultural inventory that is alternately supportive and in conflict with their interests.
Peter R. Reuter
Full Text Available Young adults have a higher risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections (STIs than other age groups. This risk may be mediated by their social and cultural setting which can impact young adults’ awareness of, beliefs in, and risk of contracting STIs (including HIV/AIDS. In order to understand how these factors vary among young adults of different cultures, it is important to study these issues on a cross-cultural scale. This study aimed to increase understanding of the relationship between the culture of a place of study and: (1 STI awareness; (2 belief in STIs; and (3 self-reported STI prevalence in the study population. Survey data were collected from university students in Madagascar (n = 242 surveys in 2013 and the United States of America (n = 199 surveys in 2015. Compared to students at the American university, students at the Malagasy university: (1 did not appear to have a conclusively lower awareness of STIs; (2 did not differ in rates of belief in the existence of gonorrhea and syphilis, but had higher rates of disbelief in HIV/AIDS; and (3 were more likely to report having been infected with syphilis and gonorrhea, but not with HIV/AIDS. Students at the Malagasy university also listed different reasons than the students at the American university for why they believed in the existence of STIs. These findings highlight the need for further cross-cultural research to better adapt intervention strategies to different cultural settings.
Christensen Carsten Sander
Full Text Available The article deals with the history and the problems of ethnic religions in nowadays Europe. Based on a definition and discussion of Paganism and Neopaganism, and a thereby following definition and discussion of differences between ethnic religion and monotheistic religion, the article tries to get the answer as to whether ethnic religion, nowadays, is a Political Paganism, a renaissance of historical pagan beliefs or a mixture. To answer the question, the problem of the article will be exemplified by an analysis of two types of paganism in contemporary Europe: the Asatru in Denmark and the Mari Native Religion in Russia. Revived in the 1970s, the Asatru is a rather new phenomenon as well in Denmark as in other countries of the world. On 15 November 1997 the Forn Siðr association, the Asatru and Vanatru Association in Denmark, was established, in 2003 recognized, and registered as an official religion in Denmark. Whereas the Mari Native Religion, a religion practiced by the Mari people in a Russian region of Mari El Republic, 800 kilometres east of Moscow, can lead its roots several thousand years back.
Full Text Available Research Problem: i What is the level of knowledge and altitude of undergraduates about AIDS and human sexuality? ii What arc the preferred modes of obtaining such knowledge?.Objectives: To assess the knowledge, beliefs and attitudes of undergraduate students regarding AIDS and human sexuality.Study Design: Self administered questionnaire.Setting and Participants: 1289 undergraduates from B.R.D. Medical College., M. M. M. Engineering College and University of Gorakhpur. .Study Variables: Knowledge, beliefs and attitudes regarding AIDS and sexuality.Outcome Variables: Proportion of students having correct knowledge and positive attitudes.Statistical Analysis: By proportions.Result: l.evcl of knowledge about AIDS was generally high. Most of the students obtained knowledge about it through mass media. Few students had misconceptions about transmission of 1IIV infection. Knowledge about sex was obtained mainly from friends (36% and books (31.31%. Most of the students preferred doctors (44.15% and friends (43.66% for asking something about sex. and not their parents (4.37% or teachers (4.61%. 59.13% of boys and 34.49% of girls thought that students of their age had sex.Conclusion and Recommendations: The most peculiar fact in (his study is that students have no reliable means of obtaining correct information about subjects related to sex. Medical profession contributed very little in providing such knowledge. Most of them relied on their friends for such information. So. emphasis is to be given on recommending proper education material for the youth.
Wald, Kenneth D; Rienzo, Barbara A; Button, James W
In what has sometimes provoked a "culture war" over America's schools, gays and lesbians have sought an expanded voice in the making of education policy. This paper explores the factors that promote gay representation on school boards, how this variable in turn influences gay representation in both administrative and teaching positions, and how all three forms of gay representation relate to school board policies regarding sexual orientation education. Three of the four models drawn from the social movement literature help to explain gay school board representation. In a manner similar to other minority groups, gay representation on school boards directly or indirectly promotes the appointment of gays to administrative and teaching positions and the adoption of policies that address the problems faced by gay and lesbian students in the public schools.
Tan, M; De Leon, A; Stoltzfus, B; O'donnell, C
An estimated 200,000-500,000 men, women, and children work in prostitution in the Philippines in a variety of venues, including brothels, nightclubs, pubs, massage parlors, and other legitimate entertainment establishments. Few, however, are voluntary prostitutes. Many people who work as prostitutes have been recruited from the provinces, kept in conditions similar to slavery, and forced to earn money from prostitution to pay for their transportation, board, and lodging. Many prostitutes work in urban centers and tourist resorts in the countryside. During the 1970s, then President Ferdinand Marcos promoted tourism as a major industry, effectively marketing attractive Filipinas to tourists. Sex tourism has flourished in the country ever since. Thousands of prostitutes are also located in Olongapo and Angeles, 2 cities north of Manila, from where they serve the sexual desires of US military personnel. The presence of US military personnel in the Philippines has always been associated with prostitution. The country's social hygiene centers, prostitutes in Manila and Davao, and AIDS education are briefly discussed.
Iyer, Padmini; Aggleton, Peter
Although schools have been identified as important settings in which young people's sexual and reproductive health (SRH) can be promoted, there has been limited research into the role of teachers in delivering sex education programmes. This paper describes findings from a qualitative study of teachers' beliefs and attitudes towards young people's…
Hall, John Powell
Sexual orientation continues to be an explosive issue in American classrooms. Increasing the political knowledge of students can reduce the volatility of this explosive issue by increasing tolerance toward the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender community. This relationship between political knowledge and political tolerance has been…
Stephens, Torrance T; Gardner, Darius; Jones, Keena; Sifunda, Sibusiso; Braithwaite, Ronald; Smith, Selina E
This study was designed to identify the extent to which self-reported Mandrax use impacts condom-use beliefs amongst South African prison inmates. Participants were inmates from four prisons in the provinces of KwaZulu-Natal and Mpumalanga. In total, 357 inmates participated in the parent study of which 121 are included in this analysis based on their self-reported use of Mandrax. The questionnaire was developed in English, translated into Zulu, and back translated into English. Age significantly predicted the use of Mandrax: younger prison inmates reported higher use. Linear regression analysis was conducted to determine whether the use of Mandrax was associated with length of incarceration and other demographic variables, as well as participants' self-reported condom use beliefs behavior. Regression results indicated that two factors operationalizing condom-use beliefs were impacted by Mandrax use: 1) it is important to use condoms every time you have sex (pcondoms work well to prevent the spread of HIV (puse. STI prevention programs among prison inmates that seek to promote safer sex behaviors among men must address attitudes to condom use, specifically consistent and correct use of latex condoms and reducing substance misuse. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Li, Xianhong; Lei, Yunxiao; Wang, Honghong; He, Guoping; Williams, Ann Bartley
The Health Belief Model (HBM) has been widely used to explain rationales for health risk-taking behaviors. Our qualitative study explored the applicability of the HBM to understand high-risk sexual behavior in Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM) and to elaborate each component of the model. HIV knowledge and perception of HIV prevalence contributed to perceived susceptibility. An attitude of treatment optimism versus hard life in reality affected perceived severity. Perceived barriers included discomfort using condoms and condom availability. Perceived benefits included prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted illnesses. Sociocultural cues for Chinese MSM were elaborated according to each component. The results demonstrated that the HBM could be applied to Chinese MSM. When used with this group, it provided information to help develop a population- and disease-specific HBM scale. Results of our study also suggested behavioral interventions that could be used with Chinese MSM to increase condom use. Copyright © 2016 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. All rights reserved.
Rassenhofer, Miriam; Spröber, Nina; Schneider, Thekla; Fegert, Jörg M
Recent revelations about the scope and severity of past child sexual abuse in German institutions set off a broad public debate on this issue, and led to the establishment of a politically appointed Round Table committee and an Independent Commissioner whose mandates were to reappraise the issue and develop recommendations for future policies. A media campaign was launched to publicize the establishment of a Critical Incident Reporting System (CIRS) whereby now-adult victims of past abuse could anonymously provide testimonials and let policy makers know what issues were important to them. Respondents could either call a hotline number or communicate by mail or email. The information collected was documented and analyzed by a research team, and the results of interim reports were included in the recommendations of the Independent Commissioner and the Round Table committee. Most of the respondents described severe and repeated occurrences of childhood sexual abuse. For many, priorities were improvements in therapy and counseling services, the abolishment of the statute of limitations on prosecuting offenders, and financial compensation. Based on the recommendations of the Round Table and the Independent Commissioner, two new laws were adopted as well as an action plan and some guidelines. In addition to rules for recompensation of victims in an institutional context a fund for victims of sexual abuse in intrafamilial context was established by the Federal Government. Another effect of this process was raising societal sensitivity to the problem of child sexual abuse. The use of a CIRS enabled those directly affected by childhood sexual abuse to have some input into a political process designed to address this issue. Such an approach could have applicability in other countries or in other domains of public health and other forms of societal conflict as well. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kellogg Spadt, Susan; Rosenbaum, Talli Y; Dweck, Alyssa; Millheiser, Leah; Pillai-Friedman, Sabitha; Krychman, Michael
Sexual health is an integral part of the multifaceted human experience that is driven both by biological factors and psychological facets. Religion may provide a moral code of conduct or a sexual compass as to sexual norms and behaviors. The aim of this study was to summarize the integration of sexuality and religion. A review of published literature and religious texts was conducted. The integration of religion with country or state politics and laws is a complicated dilemma and will not be discussed in the scope of this article. The extent to which an individual incorporates their religious doctrine into their sexual life is a personal and individualized choice. The sexual medicine health professional will likely encounter a diverse patient population of distinct religious backgrounds, and a primer on religion and sexuality is a much needed adjunctive tool for the clinician. Because religion can influence sexuality and dictate, in part, the behavioral and medical treatments for sexual complaints, the clinician should be familiar with religious guidelines regarding sexuality, and treatment should be customized and individualized. Failure to do so can impact compliance with the therapeutic interventions. Religious awareness also solidifies the therapeutic alliance between clinician and patient as it demonstrates respect and acknowledgment for patient's beliefs and autonomy. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
Castelo-Branco, Camil; Huezo, Milagro León; Lagarda, José Luís Ballescá
Regardless of the relationship between aging and sexual dysfunction, most adults continue to be sexually active in their later years. Conditions such erectile dysfunction or hypoactive sexual desire disorder present one of many barriers to maintain a healthy sex life. This article links the concurrence between the social, cultural, political, and economic changes on a worldwide and historical level and the changes observed in sexuality. This review comprises from medical, biological and behavioral concerns to those of rights and social justice. To give an idea about the interests and trends of modern research on sexuality, the manuscript includes a review on the impact of contraception, public advertising, mass media and new technologies on sexuality and introduces the concept of sexual dysfunction. Data suggest that broader cultural beliefs about appropriate sexuality are evident in general practice. Asking about sexual health remains a low priority for many doctors, particularly when it comes to older patients. The influence of all these previous concerns on the field of sexuality notion is particularly apparent in the development of concepts such as sexual health and sexual rights. These new concepts had an effect on researchers allowing them to describe connections between highly limited occurrence and global systems. Further education is needed to raise professional awareness about the importance of healthy sexuality in aging.
How Setswana Cultural Beliefs and Practices on Sexuality Affect Teachers' and Adolescents' Sexual Decisions, Practices, and Experiences as well as HIV/AIDS and STI Prevention in Select Botswanan Secondary Schools.
Nleya, Paul T; Segale, Emelda
The article reports on the aspects of a Botswana Ministry of Education and Skills Development (MoE & SD) HIV/AIDS Instructional Television (ITV) project modeled on a similar HIV/AIDS program implemented in Brazil. This Teacher Capacity Building Project (TCBP) in Botswana is in its initial years of implementation. Its overall goal is to contribute to the prevention and mitigation of the impact of HIV and AIDS by strengthening the capacity of the education and communication sectors to deliver interactive, distance HIV/AIDS education primarily to teachers so that they act as agents of behavior change among the in-school youth. One of the components of the TCBP program is a live teacher education television HIV/AIDS program called Talk Back program. Talk Back is a collaborative effort of the MoE & SD and the Botswana national television station. The Talk Back program involves development and implementation of weekly 1 hour live HIV/AIDS education interactive TV broadcasts for teachers. The development of the live programs is guided by a curriculum that provides a wide range of themes related to HIV/AIDS and education. This article reports the results of a survey of a sample of teachers and students at junior secondary schools and senior secondary schools, first, on their views and opinions regarding the Talk Back program as a TCBP. Second, how Setswana cultural beliefs, myths, and practices on sexuality affect teachers' and adolescents' sexual decisions, practices, and experiences as well as HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infection prevention. A questionnaire survey and focus group interviews were used as data collection instruments in selected secondary schools. The findings of the study suggest that the Talk Back program has not met much success as a TCBP. The findings further suggest that several myths, beliefs, misconceptions, and attitudes about HIV/AIDS exist among Botswana teachers and students and thus make it difficult for the Talk Back program to impart
Bil, Janneke P; Hoornenborg, Elske; Prins, Maria; Hogewoning, Arjan; Dias Goncalves Lima, Fernando; de Vries, Henry J C; Davidovich, Udi
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is highly effective for preventing HIV infections, but is not yet implemented in the Netherlands. As the attitudes of health-care professionals toward PrEP can influence future PrEP implementation, we studied PrEP knowledge and beliefs and their association with PrEP acceptability among professionals in clinics for sexually transmitted infection (STI professionals) and HIV treatment centers (HIV specialists). In addition, we examined preferred regimens, attitudes toward providing PrEP to key populations and to reimbursement of PrEP costs. An online questionnaire was distributed among 24 public health STI clinics and 27 HIV treatment centers nationwide in the Netherlands between January and August 2015. The acceptability of PrEP was measured on a 7-point Likert scale ranging from 1 = low to 7 = high acceptability. Univariable and multivariable linear regression analyses were used to explore associations between demographic characteristics, PrEP knowledge, beliefs about PrEP, and PrEP acceptability. In total, 209 people (143 STI professionals and 66 HIV specialists) completed the questionnaire. The mean acceptability of PrEP implementation was 4.28 (SD 1.68) among STI professionals and 4.42 (SD 1.67) among HIV specialists. The mean score on self-perceived knowledge related to PrEP efficacy was 3.90 (SD 1.57) among STI professionals and 5.68 (SD 1.08) among HIV specialists ( p -value of <0.001). Beliefs associated with lower PrEP acceptability among both groups were the fear that PrEP use will lead to a decrease in condom use and an increase in STI, the high costs of PrEP and ethical issues regarding prescribing antiretroviral medication to healthy individuals. No preference for a daily or an event-driven regimen was detected. Most participants deemed the following groups to be eligible for PrEP: men who have sex with men (MSM) who regularly get post-exposure prophylaxis, MSM who never used condoms with casual partners and MSM
Gacoin, Andrée E.
Globally, sexuality education is framed as a key programmatic strategy for achieving HIV prevention among youth. In particular, sexuality education is positioned as a way to address gender inequalities and promote youth empowerment in relation to gendered identities. In this paper, I argue that the focus on what content should be taught and…
Dekker, I; Barling, J
The authors investigated the predictors of workplace sexual harassment in 278 male university faculty and staff (M age = 45 years). Workplace variables (perceptions of organizational sanctions against harassment and perceptions of a sexualized workplace) and personal variables (adversarial sexual beliefs, sexual harassment beliefs, perspective taking, and self-esteem) were studied as predictors of sexualized and gender harassment. Social desirability was controlled. Both organizational variables and beliefs about sexual harassment predicted gender harassment and sexualized harassment. Perspective taking, adversarial sexual beliefs, and sexual harassment beliefs moderated the effects of perceived organizational sanctions against harassment on sexualized harassment. Findings are discussed as they relate to organizational efforts to reduce or prevent sexual harassment.
Over the last two decades sexuality has emerged as a key theme in debates about citizenship, leading to the development of the concept of sexual citizenship. This article reviews this literature and identifies four main areas of critical framing: work that contests the significance of sexuality to citizenship; critiques that focus on the possibilities and limitations of mobilising the language of citizenship in sexual politics; analyses of sexual citizenship in relation to nationalisms and border making; and literature that critically examines western constructions of sexuality and sexual politics underpinning understandings of sexual citizenship. In order to progress the field theoretically, the article seeks to extend critiques of sexual citizenship focusing on two key aspects of its construction: the sexual citizen-subject and spaces of sexual citizenship. It argues for a critical rethink that encompasses a de-centring of a 'western-centric' focus in order to advance understandings of how sexual citizenship operates both in the Global North and South.
Abraham, CS; Sheeran, P; Abrams, D; Spears, R
Results from a longitudinal survey of sexual behaviour and HIV-relevant cognitions amongst 258 sexually-active adolescents are reported. Demographic characteristics, previous sexual experience, prior condom use, beliefs specified by the health belief model (I-IBM), peer norms regarding condom use
Full Text Available A sexualidade na juventude tem sido objeto de atenção em nossa sociedade. Um dos principais focos de preocupação e intervenção é a gravidez na adolescência, que é também recorrentemente chamada de indesejada, precoce, não-planejada. Este artigo reflete sobre a atual explosão discursiva em torno desse tema e sobre o modo como a sexualidade adolescente tem sido focada como um problema social frente ao qual a escola é conclamada a intervir. O artigo analisa como a conduta sexual dos indivíduos e da população tornou-se objeto de análise e de diferentes intervenções médicas, pedagógicas, políticas e governamentais. Diferentes campos, como a medicina, a demografia e a educação, articulam-se com o intuito de gerir a sexualidade adolescente a fim de, entre outros, evitar a gravidez, que, em nossa sociedade, não é tida como uma experiência a ser vivida nesse período da vida.Youth sexuality has been an object of attention in our society. One of the main focuses of preoccupation and intervention is adolescent pregnancy, which is also recurrently labeled as unwanted, precocious, and not planned. This article reflects about the present discursive explosion regarding this theme, and the way adolescent sexuality has been treated as a social problem, upon which the school is called to intervene. The article analyzes how the sexual conduct of individuals and the population has become an object of analysis and of different medical, pedagogical, political and governmental interventions. Different fields, such as medicine, demography and education fuse themselves in view of regulating adolescent sexuality intending, among other things, to avoid pregnancy, which, in our society, is not understood as an experience to be lived at this time in life.
Soleymani, Shahla; Abdul Rahman, Hejar; Lekhraj, Rampal; Mohd Zulkefli, Nor Afiah; Matinnia, Nasrin
Background The main sexual and reproductive health issues among young people are premarital sexual intercourse, unwanted pregnancies, unsafe abortions and sexually transmitted diseases including Human Immunodeficiency Virus. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge related to sexual and reproductive health among Malaysian postgraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out among postgraduate students by systematic random sampli...
Breno, Angela L.; Galupo, M. Paz
This research provides descriptive data regarding sexual abuse histories of high-functioning women (N = 84; 18-25 years old) previously in the child welfare system. Placement histories of foster youth who were sexually abused were distinct. Girls with a history of sexual abuse were more likely to have been in restrictive housing and changed…
Full Text Available Moran’s revised conception of conscious belief requires us to reconceptualise suppressed belief. The work of Merleau-Ponty offers a way to do this. His account of motor-skills allows us to understand suppressed beliefs as pre-reflective ways of dealing with the world.
Con base en las preocupaciones de la época sobre la susceptibilidad al romance y acoso sexual de la trabajadora de oficina, este artículo propone explorar la representación de secretarias y taquígrafas en TheType-Writer Girl (1897), de Grant Allan, y en North of Fifty-Three (1914), de Bertrand Sinclair. Se mirará la presión para adquirir la independencia económica y autonomía personal a través del trabajo en oficina. También, la necesidad de ajustarse a ideologías presentes en la sociedad, qu...
Soleymani, Shahla; Abdul Rahman, Hejar; Lekhraj, Rampal; Mohd Zulkefli, Nor Afiah; Matinnia, Nasrin
The main sexual and reproductive health issues among young people are premarital sexual intercourse, unwanted pregnancies, unsafe abortions and sexually transmitted diseases including Human Immunodeficiency Virus. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge related to sexual and reproductive health among Malaysian postgraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was carried out among postgraduate students by systematic random sampling technique. A pre-tested self administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. Out of 434 respondents, the majority of students were female (78.6 %) and single (78.3 %). The overall mean age of respondents was 27.0 ranging from 20 to 46 years of age. The main sources of information for sexual and reproductive health awareness were the internet (78.6 %) and newspaper (61.8 %). The majority (97.9 %) of the students knew that AIDS is a sexually transmitted disease. Most of them believed that the spread of sexually transmitted diseases was through shaking hands (92.1 %). Use of condoms was perceived to be the best way to avoid sexually transmitted diseases (88.4 %). Sexual and reproductive health knowledge was significantly associated with the students' age, marital status and faculty. The socio-demographic factors and current educational status accounted for a significant 9 % of the variability in sexual and reproductive health knowledge, f (7, 426) = 11, p knowledge on sexual and reproductive health was not satisfactory. Sexual and reproductive health knowledge was associated with the students' marital status and faculty. Intervention programs related to sexual and reproductive health are recommended.
At the heart of the green debate are a set of basic contradictions concerning beliefs and actions. This book reveals the problems associated with these contradictions, including adherence to decentralized political forms while accepting authoritarian intervention on behalf of the environment; a belief that this is the politics of the new age but in practice split between left and right; a rejection of the rationalist scientific project and a reliance on the lessons of the science of ecology. (author)
PEDRO CARLOS FONSECA
Full Text Available O presente estudo examina, através da perspectiva da crítica feminista, aspectosda representação da imagem feminina e do seu processo tropológico defeminilização que, característicos do discurso europeu patriarcal, encontram-seestrategicamente presentes no discurso dos primeiros textos que registram asexperiências da descoberta e conquista da América. O estudo pretende aindaevidenciar que, nesse tipo de discurso da representação americana, figuralizaçõese a manipulação de uma forjada imagem do outro sexual ameríndiobaseiam-se em construções simbólicas e ideológicas que, de forma argumentativae retórica, visaram à preservação de uma política sexual. Tais formaçõescorrespondem ainda a um complexo sociocultural e histórico que objetiva,finalmente, o prevalecimento de prerrogativas filosóficas e pragmáticas de umahegemonia androcêntrica característica da mentalidade do europeu dominanteque, constantes da sua tradição civilizacional, disseminam-se nos temposmodernos.Through the perspective of feminist criticism, this study examines some aspectsof the representation of the feminine image as well as its tropological process offeminilization. Being this phenomenon characteristic of the European patriarcaldiscourse, it is strategically found in the first texts that registered the discoveryand conquest of America. The study still aims to make clear that, in that type ofdiscourse representing the American reality, some figuralities and themanipulation of a forged image of the Amerindian, as the sexual other, werebased on simbolic and ideological constructions which in an argumentativeand rhetorical manner aimed to preserve a sexual politics. Such formationscame to correspond to a socio-cultural and historical complex which, finally,had as its goal to mantain philosophical and pragmatic prerrogatives of theandrocentric hegemony characteristic of the dominat European male mentality.Forming a part of his civilizational
Pabayo, Roman; Kawachi, Ichiro; Muennig, Peter
Ecological and cross-sectional studies have indicated that conservative political ideology is associated with better health. Longitudinal analyses of mortality are needed because subjective assessments of ideology may confound subjective assessments of health, particularly in cross-sectional analyses. Data were derived from the 2008 General Social Survey-National Death Index data set. Cox proportional analysis models were used to determine whether political party affiliation or political ideology was associated with time to death. Also, we attempted to identify whether self-reported happiness and self-rated health acted as mediators between political beliefs and time to death. In this analysis of 32,830 participants and a total follow-up time of 498,845 person-years, we find that political party affiliation and political ideology are associated with mortality. However, with the exception of independents (adjusted HR (AHR)=0.93, 95% CI 0.90 to 0.97), political party differences are explained by the participants' underlying sociodemographic characteristics. With respect to ideology, conservatives (AHR=1.06, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.12) and moderates (AHR=1.06, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.11) are at greater risk for mortality during follow-up than liberals. Political party affiliation and political ideology appear to be different predictors of mortality. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Full Text Available A autora conta suas desventuras teóricas após aceitar escrever um verbete sobre "gênero" para um dicionário marxista reputado. Em suas próprias palavras: "Além disso, mesmo se Marx e Engels - ou até Gayle Rubin - não se aventuraram pela sexologia, medicina ou biologia em suas discussões sobre sexo/gênero, ou sobre a questão da mulher, eu sabia que teria de fazê-lo. Ao mesmo tempo, estava claro que outras GRANDES correntes dos escritos feministas modernos sobre sexo, sexualidade e gênero se entrelaçavam constantemente mesmo com as mais modestas interpretações de minha encomenda. A maioria delas, talvez especialmente as correntes psicanalítica e literária do feminismo francês e inglês, não aparece em meu verbete sobre Geschlecht. De modo geral, o verbete abaixo focaliza os escritos das feministas norte-americanas. Este não é um escândalo trivial."The misadventures of the Author in writing about a "key-word" for a famous marxist dictionary are recounted here. In her own words: "Also, even if Marx and Engels - or Gayle Rubin, for that matter - had not ventured into sexology, medicine, or biology for their discussions of sex/gender or the woman question, I knew I would have to do so. At the same time, it was clear that other BIG currents of modern feminist writing on sex, sexuality, and gender interlaced constantly with even the most modest interpretation of my assignment. Most of those, perhaps especially the French and British feminist psychoanalytic and literary currents, do not appear in my entry on Geschlecht. In general, the entry below focuses on writing by US feminists. This is not a trivial scandal."
Kevin M. Murphy; Andrei Shleifer
We present a model of the creation of social networks, such as political parties, trade unions, religious coalitions, or political action committees, through discussion and mutual persuasion among their members. The key idea is that people are influenced by those inside their network, but not by those outside. Once created, networks can be “rented out” to politicians who seek votes and support for their initiatives and ideas, which may have little to do with network members' core beliefs. In ...
Parent-Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health Communication Is Very Limited and Associated with Adolescent Poor Behavioral Beliefs and Subjective Norms: Evidence from a Community Based Cross-Sectional Study in Eastern Ethiopia
Introduction While parent-adolescent sexual and reproductive health (SRH) communication is one potential source of SRH information for adolescents, it appears to be inadequately practiced in Ethiopia. This study was designed to investigate the factors that limit or improve parent-adolescent SRH communication in Harar, Eastern Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross-sectional study was done on 4,559 adolescents of age 13–18. SRH communication was measured using a nine-item scale whose response ranged from “not at all” to “always.” Summated composite score ranging from 0–36 was generated; higher score indicates high SRH communication. A median value of the composite score was 4 out of the possible 36 with an Interquartile Range (IQR) of 7. Respondents were ranked as very poor, poor and satisfactory communicators based on 33rd and 67th percentiles values. Generalized ordered logit model was applied to investigate the factors associated with SRH communication. Results Results showed that the adolescents who were more likely to practice poor-very poor/very poor SRH communication were those who had poor behavioral beliefs on and poor subjective norms of communicating sexual issues with parents and those who perceived their parents’ reproductive health (RH) knowledge as poor. Nonetheless, the probability of poor-very poor/very poor SRH communication was less with high adolescent-parent communication quality, television co-viewing and discussions, and self-disclosure. Conclusions Curtailing the adolescents’ underlying poor beliefs and norms, and improving adolescent-parent communication quality, self-disclosure, and television co-viewing and discussions are essential to engage the parents in sexual and reproductive health education of the adolescents. PMID:26167860
Kantola, Johanna; Rolandsen-Agustín, Lise
research traditions, we build toward an analytical framework to study gender and transnational party politics. Our empirical analysis focuses on two policy issues, the economic crisis and the sexual and reproductive health and rights, analyzing European Parliament reports, debates and voting on the issues......In this article, we analyze transnational party politics in the European Union from a gender perspective. This is a subject that has been neglected both by mainstream European studies on party politics and by gender scholars who work on political parties. Drawing on the insights of these two...... right axis and, at the same time, internal divisions within party groups affect policy output....
Full Text Available to logic-based belief change, with a particular emphasis on classical propositional logic as the underlying logic in which beliefs are to be represented. Their intention is to provide the reader with a basic introduction to the work done in this area over...
Full Text Available Tim Crane maintains that beliefs cannot be conscious because they persist in the absence of consciousness. Conscious judgments can share their contents with beliefs, and their occurrence can be evidence for what one believes; but they cannot be beliefs, because they don’t persist. I challenge Crane’s premise that belief attributions to the temporarily unconscious are literally true. To say of an unconscious agent that she believes that p is like saying that she sings well. To say she sings well is to say that when she sings, her singing is good. To say that she believes that p is (roughly to say that when she consciously considers the content that p she consciously affirms (believes it. I also argue that the phenomenal view of intentional content Crane appears to endorse prima facie commits him to the view, at least controversial, perhaps incoherent, that there is unconscious phenomenology (the intentional contents of unconscious beliefs.
Levy, Brett L. M.
Political scientists have found that one of the strongest predictors of political participation is political efficacy, the belief that individuals' actions can influence political processes. Prior research indicates that political efficacy increases through various experiences, such as discussions of public issues, but it does not explain why or…
A discussion of three kinds of degree of belief: subjective (credal) probability, degree of belief in the maximizing sense (expected epistemic utility) and degree of belief in the satisficing sense (Shackle type degrees of belief). The relations between these concepts and full belief (absolute certainty) and other qualitative assessments of belief (mere belief or plain belief) will be considered.
Valentine, Jo A
Compared to whites, blacks experience significant health disparities for sexually transmitted diseases, particularly in the rates of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. To develop more effective interventions to control and prevent STDs, public health practitioners should better understand and respond to factors that facilitate sexual risk-taking behaviors and impede access to STD health care and make use of factors that promote sexual health. Legacies of slavery, racism, and economic or class discrimination leave many blacks suspicious of interventions aimed at improving the welfare of their communities. Sexual behavior, in particular, has been used to justify social oppression of blacks in the United States. Although efforts to engage affected black communities in improving STD health care delivery have been undertaken, bias, prejudice, and stereotyping continue to contribute to negative experiences for many blacks across health care settings, including those involving STD care. Implementing more effective interventions to reduce the disparate burden of bacterial STDs in black communities requires accessible and acceptable STD health care. Understanding and addressing the potential impact of both provider and patient attitudes can improve these service delivery outcomes.
Hernandez, Krystal M; Mahoney, Annette; Pargament, Kenneth I
Research on the intersection of sexuality, religion, and spirituality has primarily examined whether global levels of religiousness (e.g., service attendance) deter premarital and extramarital sexual activity. Virtually no empirical work has addressed whether specific spiritual beliefs about sexuality enhance marital sexuality. Using a community sample of 83 individuals married between 4 and 18 months, we found that greater perceptions of sexuality as sanctified predicted greater marital satisfaction, sexual satisfaction, sexual intimacy, and spiritual intimacy beyond global religiousness and demographics. The findings open a new line of research on religion and family life, and extend theories on the possible benefits of the sanctification of intimate relationships.
Rondalyn V. Whitney
Full Text Available Sexuality is one area of human occupation that spans across the lifespan and is identified as an activity of daily living. Barriers to engagement in this occupation fall under the occupational therapists’ scope of practice. Teaching that fosters self-reflection about attitudes and perceptions has the power to shape the practice methodology of future practitioners. This paper presents a curriculum module that aims to go beyond basic delivery of content related to human sexuality to instead show how the teaching methodology developed competency in practitioners, changed perceptions that would serve as barriers to empathetic care, and followed the guidelines of best practice. The authors further present the setting of academia as a practice setting and, as such, one that must adhere to the same standards of evidence-based, science-driven protocols as clinical practice.
Full Text Available This paper presents a qualitative analysis of the accounts offered by individuals (n = 7 convicted of a sexual offense who describe themselves as Buddhists. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews within a custodial environment and analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA. This paper presents the two superordinate themes that emerged from the data: (i Better as a Buddhist and (ii Ebb and Flow. Reflections and analysis from the Buddhist prison chaplain are integrated within the analysis of prisoner-participant data. Implications of the analysis are discussed with reference to interventions that use Buddhist principles, factors that underpin factors that help reduce reoffending and those that fit with the formation of a desistance narrative for religious individuals who have committed sexual offenses
Full Text Available The authors argue that the important changes in behaviour related to family and sexual life that were seen in Quebec during the second half of the 20th century are a consequence of a major transformation of the foundation of the normative system shared by the members of Quebec’s main socio-religious group, Frenchspeaking Catholics. Using data from Gallup polls, the authors compare the evolution of the opinions of French-speaking Quebec Catholics and Englishspeaking Ontario Protestants on matters related to sexual and family behaviour from the 1950s to the beginning of the 2000s. The general result is that the evolution of the differences between the two groups is compatible with the hypothesis.
textabstractProf.dr. Jodi Dean, hoogleraar politieke filosofie aan Hobart and William Smith Colleges (Geneva, New York), sprak donderdag 19 februari 2009 haar inaugurele rede uit, getiteld "Politics without politics". Dean is dit jaar Erasmus Professor op de Erasmus Chair of Humanities in de Faculteit der Wijsbegeerte. De Erasmus Wisselleerstoel is ingesteld door de G. Ph. Verhagen Stichting. V In haar oratie gaat Dean in op het thema democratie in relatie tot linkse politiek. Enkele politiek...
There exists high correlation between teachers' confessed beliefs and their actual classroom practices in applying problem-solving teaching method. It is found out that teachers are employing traditional teaching methods in teaching mathematics at grade nine and ten. The responses from open ended questions indicated.
Klemmensen, Robert; Hatemi, Peter K; Hobolt, Sara B
Interest in politics is important for a host of political behaviors and beliefs. Yet little is known about where political interest comes from. Most studies exploring the source of political interest focus on parental influences, economic status, and opportunity. Here, we investigate an alternative...
Lack of consideration of the sexually functional population has led to misconceptions about causes of sexual dysfunction functioning. Automatic functioning can mask effects of pathogenic influences on sexuality, making these effects appear random, confounding etiological issues and creating the belief that causes of sexual dysfunction and disorder…
Carboni, Nicci; Bhana, Deevia
This paper explores some of the difficulties of doing research concerning young people's use of online sexually explicit materials in three high schools in South Africa. Against the backdrop of young people's sexual agency, we elaborate on the ways in which getting permission to conduct the research unsettled gatekeepers, as research on young…
Cristina Mair Barros Rauter
Full Text Available An analysis of contemporary sexuality and subjectivity production, from a point of view that links sexuality to collectiveness and to the political processes that obstacle its expression. This perspective has psychopathological and political consequences, affecting also the capacity of producing social change in contemporary society
de Looze, Margreet; Constantine, N.; Jerman, P.; Vermeulen-Smit, Evelien; Vollebergh, Wilma; ter Bogt, Tom
Sexual communication is a principal means of transmitting sexual values, beliefs, expectations, and knowledge from parents to children. Although this area has received considerable research attention, more studies with representative samples are needed to assure that findings are reflective of
Juan Marco Vaggione
Full Text Available The article analyzes the intersections between religion and politics by observing the debate about same-sex marriage in Argentina in 2010. It begins by critically examining some principles of the secularization theory about the role of religious beliefs, particularly how these beliefs are articulated in contemporary sexual policy. The article focuses on three main phenomena to show how religion was mobilized in favor of the expansion of rights: the activist LGBT strategy of allying itself with religious actors; the support of evangelical churches and Catholic priests in favor of recognition of egalitarian marriage; and the use of religious discourse by legislators to justify their support for the legal reform.
Over the last two decades sexuality has emerged as a key theme in debates about citizenship, leading to the development of the concept of sexual citizenship. This article reviews this literature and identifies four main areas of critical framing: work that contests the significance of sexuality to citizenship; critiques that focus on the possibilities and limitations of mobilising the language of citizenship in sexual politics; analyses of sexual citizenship in relation to nationalisms and border making; and literature that critically examines western constructions of sexuality and sexual politics underpinning understandings of sexual citizenship. In order to progress the field theoretically, the article seeks to extend critiques of sexual citizenship focusing on two key aspects of its construction: the sexual citizen-subject and spaces of sexual citizenship. It argues for a critical rethink that encompasses a de-centring of a ‘western-centric’ focus in order to advance understandings of how sexual citizenship operates both in the Global North and South. PMID:28490816
This paper deals with three major questions: (1) What are the sexual norms defined by the sacred texts (Koran and Sunna)? (2) What are the sexual practices currently observed among Moslems? (3) To which extent are current sexual practices of Moslems dissociated from Islamic sexual norms? Sexual standards in Islam are paradoxical: on the one hand, they allow and actually are an enticement to the exercise of sexuality but, on the other hand, they discriminate between male and female sexuality, between marital and pre- or extramarital sexuality, and between heterosexuality and homosexuality. Men are given more rights with regard to the expression of their sexuality; women are forbidden to have extramarital sex (with their slaves) and both genders to have homosexual relationships. The combination of these paradoxical standards with modernisation leads to the current back and forth swing of sexual practices between repression and openness. Partial modernisation leads to greater sexual tolerance. But restrictive sexual standards have gathered strength and have become idealised as a result of the current radicalisation of Islam. This swing of the pendulum between repression and openness is illustrated by phenomena such as public harassment, premarital sexuality, female pleasure, prostitution, and homosexuality. Currently, Islam is not any more the only reference which provides guidance concerning sexual practices but secularisation of sexual laws is still politically unthinkable today. So the only solution is to achieve reform in the name of Islam, through the reinterpretation of repressive holy texts.
Botero, Carlos A; Gardner, Beth; Kirby, Kathryn R; Bulbulia, Joseph; Gavin, Michael C; Gray, Russell D
Although ecological forces are known to shape the expression of sociality across a broad range of biological taxa, their role in shaping human behavior is currently disputed. Both comparative and experimental evidence indicate that beliefs in moralizing high gods promote cooperation among humans, a behavioral attribute known to correlate with environmental harshness in nonhuman animals. Here we combine fine-grained bioclimatic data with the latest statistical tools from ecology and the social sciences to evaluate the potential effects of environmental forces, language history, and culture on the global distribution of belief in moralizing high gods (n = 583 societies). After simultaneously accounting for potential nonindependence among societies because of shared ancestry and cultural diffusion, we find that these beliefs are more prevalent among societies that inhabit poorer environments and are more prone to ecological duress. In addition, we find that these beliefs are more likely in politically complex societies that recognize rights to movable property. Overall, our multimodel inference approach predicts the global distribution of beliefs in moralizing high gods with an accuracy of 91%, and estimates the relative importance of different potential mechanisms by which this spatial pattern may have arisen. The emerging picture is neither one of pure cultural transmission nor of simple ecological determinism, but rather a complex mixture of social, cultural, and environmental influences. Our methods and findings provide a blueprint for how the increasing wealth of ecological, linguistic, and historical data can be leveraged to understand the forces that have shaped the behavior of our own species.
Botero, Carlos A.; Gardner, Beth; Kirby, Kathryn R.; Bulbulia, Joseph; Gavin, Michael C.; Gray, Russell D.
Although ecological forces are known to shape the expression of sociality across a broad range of biological taxa, their role in shaping human behavior is currently disputed. Both comparative and experimental evidence indicate that beliefs in moralizing high gods promote cooperation among humans, a behavioral attribute known to correlate with environmental harshness in nonhuman animals. Here we combine fine-grained bioclimatic data with the latest statistical tools from ecology and the social sciences to evaluate the potential effects of environmental forces, language history, and culture on the global distribution of belief in moralizing high gods (n = 583 societies). After simultaneously accounting for potential nonindependence among societies because of shared ancestry and cultural diffusion, we find that these beliefs are more prevalent among societies that inhabit poorer environments and are more prone to ecological duress. In addition, we find that these beliefs are more likely in politically complex societies that recognize rights to movable property. Overall, our multimodel inference approach predicts the global distribution of beliefs in moralizing high gods with an accuracy of 91%, and estimates the relative importance of different potential mechanisms by which this spatial pattern may have arisen. The emerging picture is neither one of pure cultural transmission nor of simple ecological determinism, but rather a complex mixture of social, cultural, and environmental influences. Our methods and findings provide a blueprint for how the increasing wealth of ecological, linguistic, and historical data can be leveraged to understand the forces that have shaped the behavior of our own species. PMID:25385605
Sexualidade na adolescência: análise da influência de fatores culturais presentes no contexto familiar Sexualidad en la adolescencia: análisis del influjo de factores culturales presentes en el contexto familiar The influence of family cultural beliefs on adolescent's sexual behavior
Leilane Barbosa de Sousa
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Compreender a complexidade da influência de elementos culturais, presentes no contexto familiar, sobre o comportamento sexual do adolescente. MÉTODOS: Este trabalho foi produzido a partir de um estudo de caso realizado com a família de uma adolescente, fundamentado nos preceitos da teoria do cuidado transcultural. RESULTADOS: Verificamos concepções errôneas e escrúpulos sem fundamentos sobre sexualidade, presentes no contexto familiar, que exerceram significativa influência no comportamento da adolescente. Entre eles a crença de que conversar sobre sexo pode induzir a filha a iniciar a prática sexual. CONSIDERAÇÕES FINAIS: Percebemos a importância da realização de atividades de educação sexual direcionadas para o esclarecimento de conceitos que possam prejudicar a saúde e a qualidade de vida de adolescentes.OBJETIVO: Comprender la complejidad de la influencia de elementos culturales, presentes en el contexto familiar, sobre el comportamiento sexual del adolescente. MÉTODOS: Este trabajo fue producido a partir de un estudio de caso realizado con la familia de una adolescente, fundamentado en los preceptos de la teoría del cuidado transcultural. RESULTADOS: Verificamos concepciones erróneas y escrúpulos sin fundamentos sobre sexualidad presentes en el contexto familiar que ejercieron influencia significativa en el comportamiento de la adolescente. Entre ellos la creencia de que conversar sobre sexo puede inducir a la hija a iniciar la práctica sexual. CONSIDERACIONES FINALES: Percibimos la importancia de la realización de actividades de educación sexual orientadas a aclarar conceptos que puedan perjudicar la salud y la calidad de vida de adolescentes.OBJECTIVE: To understand the complexity of the influence of family cultural beliefs on adolescent's sexual behavior. METHOD: The transcultural care theory guided this case study of family members of a female adolescent. RESULTS: Family members'misconceptions and
Young women who have sex with men are vulnerable to infection with HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), because of both the potential presence of infectious organisms and young women's lack of appropriate and effective personal skills in asserting their relationship needs, and their needs for protection against infection. The increasing incidence of STDs, including HIV, in young women would reduce if the women could be enabled to develop techniques, such as the communication, negotiation, and assertiveness skills needed to manage their sexual health within a heterosexual relationship. One obstacle to bringing about substantive changes in heterosexual behavior is that STDs are not fully acknowledged as a public health issue by non-gay people. However, an overwhelming body of evidence from sources around the world shows that STDs are mainly infections of heterosexual people aged 15-30 years, and that the concept of a risk group is unsound for educational purposes. Risk behavior is what matters. Other obstacles include the belief among many that heterosexual behavior is natural, and that sex must be penetrative; serial monogamy; lack of frank communication between sex partners; the absence of a heterosexual community; and current economic and political circumstances.
Prior research often explains the lower risk of early sexual initiation among foreign-born Mexican-origin young women by a patriarchal and sexually conservative "traditional Latino culture." This definition overlooks structural factors such as exploitation of migrant workers, and conflates gender inequality and sexual expectations. I use an intersectional framework and the theory of gender and power to explore how gender inequality and sexual expectations are both influenced by structural factors and affect reproductive health outcomes. I integrate data from qualitative interviews with 21 first and second generation Mexican-origin women in 2013-2014 with data from discrete time hazard models with 798 Mexican-origin young women in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Qualitative results demonstrate that gender inequality and sexual expectations in Mexican-origin immigrant households are associated with structural factors. Gender inequality occurs more often in households with family instability, greater poverty, and among parents who migrated independently. Qualitative data also demonstrate that parental gendered expectations are sometimes at odds to what parents are actually doing in the household. Finally, contrary to assumptions that a patriarchal "traditional Latino culture" protects against early sexual initiation, qualitative and multivariate quantitative data suggest that household gender inequality increases risk of early sexual initiation. These findings challenge the utility of a culturalist approach that views culture as determining health behavior among immigrants and demonstrate the need to incorporate an intersectional framework that includes structural factors. This approach may reduce stereotypes and identify meaningful interventions to reduce reproductive health disparities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Escalating adolescent pregnancy and risky sexual behaviour is becoming more common amongst young adolescents and especially amongst black adolescents in South Africa. Statistics confirm that South African adolescents as young as fourteen are already sexually active and become pregnant. The decision to become sexually active with resulting adolescent pregnancy whether planned or not, are directly influenced by the teenager’s beliefs. A person’s beliefs consist of a person’ own individual beliefs or attitude as well as what the individual subjective norm which the individual perceive as other people’s beliefs regarding the same object of reason. The aim of the study was to describe the attitude of black grade six learners under the age of fourteen, towards adolescent pregnancy and sex. A quantitative descriptive research design was used. Results were clustered according to demographic variables as well as beliefs that consist of attitude and subjective norm.
Fernando Rodrigues Silva
Full Text Available Este artigo busca apontar e compreender, no contexto brasileiro, a construção de uma rede social, política e jurídica de combate à discriminação por orientação sexual. Para tanto, vale-se de uma abordagem genealógica das condições de possibilidade para a emergência da discriminação por orientação sexual como questão social, bem como para a criação de instrumentos jurídicos e sociais de enfrentamento e ações afirmativas pela liberdade de expressão sexual. Consideram-se como aspectos importantes nesse processo a atuação dos movimentos sociais contra a discriminação de gênero e sexo; a dimensão da saúde, sobretudo no que diz respeito à epidemia da Aids nos anos 80; e a resposta do Estado frente a esse contexto.This paper seeks to understand, in the Brazilian context, the construction of a social, political and juridical network aimed to fight discrimination linked to sexual orientation. To do so, we used a genealogical approach to define the conditions of possibility to the emergence of sexual orientation discrimination as a social issue, as well as the creation of social and legal instruments and affirmative actions to ensure freedom of sexual expression. We consider as important aspects in this process the role of social movements against gender discrimination, the health dimension concerning aids epidemic in the 1980's and the government response to it.
using conditional belief operators, examining three additional axioms of increasing strength. First, introspection, which requires the agent to be...unconditionally certain of her beliefs . Second, echo, according to which the unconditional beliefs implied by the condition must be held given the...condition. Third, determination, which says that the conditional beliefs are the unconditional beliefs that are conditionally certain. Echo implies that
Full Text Available EnglishThe authors argue that the important changes in behaviour related to family andsexual life that were seen in Quebec during the second half of the 20th centuryare a consequence of a major transformation of the foundation of the normativesystem shared by the members of Quebec's main socio-religious group, French speakingCatholics. Using data from Gallup polls, the authors compare theevolution of the opinions of French-speaking Quebec Catholics and English speakingOntario Protestants on matters related to sexual and family behaviourfrom the 1950s to the beginning of the 2000s. The general result is that theevolution of the differences between the two groups is compatible with thehypothesis.FrenchLes auteurs proposent d’expliquer les importants changements qui se sontproduits, dans le Québec de la deuxième moitié du 20e siècle, dans lescomportements liés à la famille et à la vie sexuelle par la transformation dusystème normatif des membres de son principal groupe socio-religieux, lesfrancophones catholiques. À partir des données de sondages Gallup, ilscomparent l'évolution des opinions des francophones catholiques du Québec etdes anglophones protestants de l’Ontario sur des questions liées à la famille etau comportement sexuel et de famille des années 1950 à 2000. L’évolution desdifférences entre les deux groupes est compatible avec l’hypothèse.
Phinney, Harriet M
Research from around the world has suggested that married women's greatest risk for contracting HIV is from having sexual intercourse with their husbands. On the basis of 6 months of ethnographic research in Hanoi, Vietnam, I argue that the contemporary nature of the HIV epidemic in Hanoi is shaped by 3 interrelated policies implemented in 1986 as part of the government's new economic policy, Doi Moi (Renovation). Together, these policies structure men's opportunities for extramarital sexual relations and encourage wives to acquiesce to their husbands' sexual infidelity, putting both at risk of HIV. I propose 4 structural intervention strategies that address the policies that contribute to men's opportunities for extramarital liaisons and to marital HIV risk.
R Kelly Garrett
Full Text Available Widespread misperceptions undermine citizens' decision-making ability. Conclusions based on falsehoods and conspiracy theories are by definition flawed. This article demonstrates that individuals' epistemic beliefs-beliefs about the nature of knowledge and how one comes to know-have important implications for perception accuracy. The present study uses a series of large, nationally representative surveys of the U.S. population to produce valid and reliable measures of three aspects of epistemic beliefs: reliance on intuition for factual beliefs (Faith in Intuition for facts, importance of consistency between empirical evidence and beliefs (Need for evidence, and conviction that "facts" are politically constructed (Truth is political. Analyses confirm that these factors complement established predictors of misperception, substantively increasing our ability to explain both individuals' propensity to engage in conspiracist ideation, and their willingness to embrace falsehoods about high-profile scientific and political issues. Individuals who view reality as a political construct are significantly more likely to embrace falsehoods, whereas those who believe that their conclusions must hew to available evidence tend to hold more accurate beliefs. Confidence in the ability to intuitively recognize truth is a uniquely important predictor of conspiracist ideation. Results suggest that efforts to counter misperceptions may be helped by promoting epistemic beliefs emphasizing the importance of evidence, cautious use of feelings, and trust that rigorous assessment by knowledgeable specialists is an effective guard against political manipulation.
Pennycook, Gordon; Cheyne, James Allan; Seli, Paul; Koehler, Derek J; Fugelsang, Jonathan A
An analytic cognitive style denotes a propensity to set aside highly salient intuitions when engaging in problem solving. We assess the hypothesis that an analytic cognitive style is associated with a history of questioning, altering, and rejecting (i.e., unbelieving) supernatural claims, both religious and paranormal. In two studies, we examined associations of God beliefs, religious engagement (attendance at religious services, praying, etc.), conventional religious beliefs (heaven, miracles, etc.) and paranormal beliefs (extrasensory perception, levitation, etc.) with performance measures of cognitive ability and analytic cognitive style. An analytic cognitive style negatively predicted both religious and paranormal beliefs when controlling for cognitive ability as well as religious engagement, sex, age, political ideology, and education. Participants more willing to engage in analytic reasoning were less likely to endorse supernatural beliefs. Further, an association between analytic cognitive style and religious engagement was mediated by religious beliefs, suggesting that an analytic cognitive style negatively affects religious engagement via lower acceptance of conventional religious beliefs. Results for types of God belief indicate that the association between an analytic cognitive style and God beliefs is more nuanced than mere acceptance and rejection, but also includes adopting less conventional God beliefs, such as Pantheism or Deism. Our data are consistent with the idea that two people who share the same cognitive ability, education, political ideology, sex, age and level of religious engagement can acquire very different sets of beliefs about the world if they differ in their propensity to think analytically. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
This article revisits the view that women are absent or insignificant across the extreme right spectrum. It draws on ethnographic research with grassroots activists in the English Defence League to explore whether a new generation of populist radical right movements offers a gender politics and practice capable of appealing to women and LGBT…
Full Text Available Are sexual orientations freely chosen? The idea that someone’s sexual orientation is not a choice is very influential in the mainstream LGBT political movement. But do we have good reasons to believe it is not a choice? Going against the orthodoxy, William Wilkerson has recently argued that sexual orientation is partly constituted by our interpretations of our own sexual desires, and we choose these interpretations, so sexual orientation is partly constituted by choice. In this paper I aim to examine the question of whether our interpretations of our own sexual desires are constitutive of our sexual orientations. I will argue that whereas Wilkerson’s argument for the claim that sexual orientations are in part constituted by our chosen interpretations of our sexual desires is not sound, there are good reasons for endorsing a weaker claim, namely, that there are different but equally apt descriptions of the same sexual desires, depending on which concepts we have.
are mainly interested in assessing and promoting innovations in public service delivery, but have paid little or no attention to the need for innovations in polity, politics and policy. This article develops a research agenda for studying innovations in political institutions, in the political process...... and in policy outputs. It proposes a number of research themes related to political innovations that call for scholarly attention, and identifies push and pull factors influencing the likelihood that these themes will be addressed in future research....
Background Research suggests that Chinese religious believers are more likely to commit suicide than those identifying as non-religious among rural young adults, contrary to findings in Western countries. However, one cannot conclude that religiosity is associated with elevated suicide risk without examining the effect of political and religious beliefs in a generally atheist country like China where political belief plays a dominant role in the belief system of young adults. The present study investigated the effects of political and religious belief on suicidality with meaningfulness and psychopathology as potential mediators in a large representative sample of Chinese college students. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1390 first-year college students randomly sampled from 10 colleges and universities in mainland China. Results A total of 1168 respondents (84.0%) provided complete data on all variables. Lifetime prevalence of suicidal ideation, plan, and attempt were 45.1%, 6.8%, and 1.9% respectively, with one-year suicidal ideation showing at 19.3%. Female gender was associated with elevated risk of suicidality. Political belief but not religious belief was associated with decreased suicide risk. A significant interactive effect of political belief and religious belief was found, indicating that for political believers, being religious was associated with decreased suicide risk; for non-political believers, being religious was associated with increased suicide risk. Multi-group structural equation modeling showed that meaningfulness completely mediated and psychopathology partially mediated the effect of belief system on suicidality. Gender differences were found in pathways of political belief by religious beliefs to suicidality and political belief to psychopathology. The coefficients were significant for males but not for females. Conclusions In less religious societies, political belief may serve as a means of integration as does
Storm, Paula; Kelly, Robert; deVries, Susann
People and organizations are inherently political. Library workplace environments have zones of tension and dynamics just like any corporation, often leading to the formation of political camps. These different cliques influence productivity and work-related issues and, at worst, give meetings the feel of the Camp David negotiations. Politics are…
Rapp, Carolin; Traunmüller, Richard; Freitag, Markus
This article combines the research strands of moral politics and political behavior by focusing on the effect of individual and contextual religiosity on individual vote decisions in popular initiatives and public referenda concerning morally charged issues. We rely on a total of 13 surveys with 1...... American research on moral politics, direct democracies, and the public role of religion....
Osborne, Danny; Yogeeswaran, Kumar; Sibley, Chris G
Political efficacy-the belief that one can influence politics-is a key predictor of people's involvement in social movements. Political institutions that are open to change should, however, be seen as just. Thus, political efficacy may ironically undermine minority group members' support for collective action by simultaneously increasing their belief in the fairness of the system. The current study aims to examine this possibility in a national sample of Māori-New Zealand's indigenous minority population. Participants (N = 399) were Māori (Mage = 44.22; SD = 13.30) women (n = 272) and men (n = 115; unreported = 12) who completed a survey assessing their levels of (a) political efficacy, (b) system justification, and (c) support for the political mobilization of their group, as well as relevant demographic covariates. Consistent with past research, political efficacy had a positive direct effect on participants' support for the political mobilization of Māori. Nevertheless, political efficacy also had a negative indirect effect on political mobilization support via increases in system justification. These results held after controlling for participants' ethnic identification, self-efficacy, and conservatism. Our findings uncover a hidden consequence of political efficacy and show that, while believing that the political system is receptive to change predicts political mobilization, it can also undermine minorities' support for the mobilization of their group. Thus, our results uncover a previously unknown process that maintains inequality between ethnic minority and majority group members. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
International audience; Introduction Geography and politics'', Gottmann wrote in 1980, ``have long been in search of each other'' (page 11). Debates in the literature suggest not only that they have found each other, but also that the encounter has instigated, notably in the last decade or so, a body of literature seeking to think space politically, and to think politics spatially. This is not to suggest that previous work on space was apolitical, nor to suggest that previous work on politics...
Troy R. E. Paddock
Full Text Available Walter Benjamin’s observation that fascism turns politics into aesthetics is, by now, a well-worn idea. This article argues that Benjamin’s critique of politics can apply just as much to the modern democratic politics of the United States. Borrowing from Benjamin, Jürgen Habermas, and Carl Schmitt, this article suggests that modern political discourse in the United States does not follow the classical liberal ideal of rational discourse in the marketplace of ideas within the public sphere. Instead, contemporary politics has become spectacle where images and slogans replace thought and debate in a 24/7 news cycle and political infotainment programs. The result is that progressives and conservatives have their own political “ecospheres” which enable them to have their own perspective reinforced, and debate is replaced by straw man arguments and personal attacks.
Discusses how to bring political issues into the classroom, highlighting the influence of local context and noting conservative and liberal criticisms of political correctness. Suggests the need for a different idea of how to teach politically from the advocacy pedagogy advanced by recent critical educators, explaining that bringing students into…
Blanco, Mariana; Engelmann, Dirk; Koch, Alexander
Belief elicitation in economics experiments usually relies on paying subjects according to the accuracy of stated beliefs in addition to payments for other decisions. Such incentives, however, allow risk-averse subjects to hedge with their stated beliefs against adverse outcomes of other decisions......-belief elicitation treatment using a financial investment frame, where hedging arguably would be most natural....
Erica M Schulte
Full Text Available This study examines whether belief in the food addiction construct is associated with support for obesity-related policies (e.g., restrictions on foods served in schools and workplace cafeterias, subsidies on fruits and vegetables, while simultaneously examining other factors associated with policy support (e.g., political party affiliation.Cross-sectional.Online Community.200 individuals were recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk.Participants (n = 193 responded to three questions about belief in food addiction and a measure evaluating support for 13 obesity-related policy initiatives. Individuals also completed the modified Yale Food Addiction Scale (mYFAS, self-reported height and weight, and provided demographic information (age, gender, race, political party affiliation.Belief in food addiction was significantly associated with greater support for obesity-related initiatives, even when accounting for the significant associations of age, gender, and political party. Belief in food addiction and political party both had moderate effect sizes for predicting support for obesity-related policy. There was an interaction between age and belief in food addiction, with significant associations with policy support for both younger and older individuals, though the effect was larger for younger participants.The current study provides evidence that belief in food addiction is associated with increased obesity-related policy support, comparable to the influence of one's political party. Growing evidence for the role of an addictive process in obesity may have important implications for public support of obesity-related policy initiatives.
Schulte, Erica M; Tuttle, Hannah M; Gearhardt, Ashley N
This study examines whether belief in the food addiction construct is associated with support for obesity-related policies (e.g., restrictions on foods served in schools and workplace cafeterias, subsidies on fruits and vegetables), while simultaneously examining other factors associated with policy support (e.g., political party affiliation). Cross-sectional. Online Community. 200 individuals were recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk. Participants (n = 193) responded to three questions about belief in food addiction and a measure evaluating support for 13 obesity-related policy initiatives. Individuals also completed the modified Yale Food Addiction Scale (mYFAS), self-reported height and weight, and provided demographic information (age, gender, race, political party affiliation). Belief in food addiction was significantly associated with greater support for obesity-related initiatives, even when accounting for the significant associations of age, gender, and political party. Belief in food addiction and political party both had moderate effect sizes for predicting support for obesity-related policy. There was an interaction between age and belief in food addiction, with significant associations with policy support for both younger and older individuals, though the effect was larger for younger participants. The current study provides evidence that belief in food addiction is associated with increased obesity-related policy support, comparable to the influence of one's political party. Growing evidence for the role of an addictive process in obesity may have important implications for public support of obesity-related policy initiatives.
Grose, Rose Grace; Grabe, Shelly; Kohfeldt, Danielle
Sexual education plays an essential role in preventing unplanned pregnancy and the transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). School-based sexual education programs, in particular, may be well positioned to address social factors that are empirically linked to negative sexual health outcomes, such as traditional social norms surrounding gender and sexuality. However, youth are seldom granted access to sexual education programs that explicitly address these issues. This study presents findings from a pretest-posttest survey of a sexual education program that did. It was designed for eighth graders (N=95) in the context of a school-community collaboration. The study assessed the links between several components of sexual empowerment, including gender ideology, sexual knowledge, and contraceptive beliefs. Findings link participation in the sexual education program to more progressive attitudes toward girls and women, less agreement with hegemonic masculinity ideology, and increases in sexual health and resource knowledge. Structural equation models suggest that traditional attitudes toward women were significantly related to hegemonic masculinity ideology among both boys and girls, which was in turn negatively related to safer contraceptive beliefs.
Humans may be distinguished from all other animals in having beliefs about the causal interaction of physical objects. Causal beliefs are a developmental primitive in human children; animals, by contrast, have very few causal beliefs. The origin of human causal beliefs comes from the evolutionary advantage it gave in relation to complex tool making and use. Causal beliefs gave rise religion and mystical thinking as our ancestors wanted to know the causes of events that affected their lives.
Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás
In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.
Sexuality education is a life long process of acquiring information and forming attitudes, beliefs and values about gender towards building a strong foundation for sexual health. All theories of adolescent development give sexuality a central role in negotiating the transition from child to adult. Sexuality education takes place ...
Rodriguez, Eric M; Lytle, Megan C; Vaughan, Michelle D
While there is a small but growing body of work that examines the religious and spiritual lives of bisexuals, there is a strong need for additional research that further explores the intersectionality of these distinct identities. Motivated by the feminist notions that the personal is political and that individuals are the experts of their own experiences (Unger, 2001), the specific aim of this study is to better understand the intersection of multiple identities experienced by bisexual individuals. Relying upon data collected by Herek, Glunt, and colleagues during their Northern California Health Study, in this exploratory study we examine the intersection of bisexual, religious/spiritual, and political identities by conducting an archival secondary analysis of 120 self-identified bisexual individuals. Among the significant findings, results suggest that higher LGB self-esteem scores and openness about sexual orientation correlated with higher levels of spirituality. Further, attraction to same sex partners was associated with perceiving sexual orientation as a choice, identifying as bisexual at a younger age, more likely to disclose one's sexual orientation, less likely to view religion as being socially important, and a higher score on the belief statement. We discuss the implications of these results and make suggestions for future research on the role of religion and spirituality in bisexual lives.
Full Text Available The goal of the study was to examine the political ideology and perceptions of bias among the faculty in a university in the southeast U.S.A. Findings regarding the overall dominance of a liberal political ideology as well as ideological differences among disciplines are consistent with previous research. Respondents did distinguish between political dominance and political bias and were relatively accurate in their perceptions of a liberal dominance. Reports of bias were much lower overall but all groups were more likely to report a bias against conservatives than against Liberal and Moderates. Reports of bias against conservatives were quite high among conservatives themselves (48.7%. Conservatives were more likely to report a need to conceal their political beliefs, while Moderates and Liberals were slightly more likely to report harassment or attacks for their political beliefs. The gender differences in political ideology show that women are significantly more likely to hold a liberal political ideology.
Mladenović, Miroslav; Jeftić, Zoran
The term politics, from its origin until nowadays, has been closely related to coercion and effects of coercion. The first rulers were finding support in a belief in the divine nature of power, but since, in time, this belief faded, the solution was found in physical superiority of rulers. The development of politics as an activity by which a community can be governed instrumentally, conditioned its closer linkage to force. Politics was sometimes identified with force, and sometimes politics ...
Orchowski, Lindsay M.; Gidycz, Christine A.
A prospective design was utilized to explore the impact of social reactions to sexual assault disclosure among college women who experienced sexual victimization over a 4-month academic quarter. Women completed baseline, 4- and 7-month assessments of symptomatology, beliefs about why sexual assault occurs, victimization, and social reactions to sexual assault disclosure. Accounting for symptomatology or beliefs reported prior to the assault, positive social reactions were not associated with victims’ subsequent symptomatology or beliefs. However, accounting for symptomatology or beliefs reported prior to the assault, higher negative social reactions were associated with victims’ post-assault reports of hostility, fear, and beliefs about why sexual assault occurs. PMID:25926138
Jeppesen, Søren; Morsing, Mette
We engage a discussion of political CSR in SMEs in an African context. Based on critical observations on Western MNC CSR action in emerging economies that holds counterproductive implications for social development, political economists have argued that business profit far more than society...... development in local African communities. Our findings extend political CSR research by directing attention to how the corporate influence in developing economies does not only emerge from MNCs but is also established and retained by SMEs CSR work....
Casey B. Mulligan; Kevin K. Tsui
Political competitiveness - which many interpret as the degree of democracy - can be modeled as a monopolistic competition. All regimes are constrained by the threat of "entry," and thereby seek some combination of popular support and political entry barriers. This simple model predicts that many public policies are unrelated to political competitiveness, and that even unchallenged nondemocratic regimes should tax far short of their Laffer curve maximum. Economic sanctions, odious debt repudi...
DeFriez, Joshua; Larsen, Justine; Hilton, Nicholas
Environmental legislation is commonly accepted as an altruistic approach to land management. A closer examination however, reveals that political incentives and flawed arguments consistently shape U.S. environmental policy at high public costs. As student fellows at the Institute of Political Economy at Utah State University, we have had the opportunity to research this subject under the direction of Professor Randy Simmons. Political Ecology is his upcoming book that explores a variety of en...
Political campaigns are orchestrated attempts by political organizations to garner public support through persuasive communication in order to influence public policy in their favor. This broad definition encapsulates all forms of campaigns from those of neighborhood organizations seeking to influence local politicians to the campaigns of political parties and candidates who seek election to office in order to shape policy themselves. In pluralist democracies, campaigns are crucial for repres...
Åkerstrøm Andersen, Niels
One of the major discussions of the 1990s has been about the relation between politics and administration. The themes of the discussions have been many and varied. It has been suggested that the level of politics should concentrate on the general political outlining and entrust the remaining to the administration. It has been criticised that politicians make their decisions on the basis of single cases, which ought to be an administrative matter entirely. It has been a theme that efficient op...
Vainio, Annukka; Paloniemi, Riikka
We studied environmental action and its predictors in a multi-scalar context of climate change politics. We asked how belief in climate change, post-materialist values, trust and knowledge predict people's engagement in environmental action by testing two alternative structural equation models (SEM). In one of these models all these factors directly predicted climate-friendly action, and in the other the effect of political trust, post-materialist values and climate change knowledge on climate-friendly action was mediated by belief in climate change. The models were tested with Eurobarometer 69.2 survey data of adult people living in Finland (N = 1,004). The SEM revealed that belief in climate change mediates the effect of post-material values, trust and knowledge on climate-friendly action. It is therefore important to recognize the role of belief in the public understanding of large-scale environmental problems. These results help political authorities to develop policies to encourage people's engagement in climate-friendly action.
This paper presents the findings of a three-year study into pre-service (student) teachers' experiences of and beliefs about sexuality education in New Zealand schools. It reports on participants' own memories of school sexuality education programmes, and examines changes in their constructs of sexuality education during their teacher education in…
Nie-waarskynlikheids, doelgerigte steekproeftrekking is gebruik om 'n steekproef te bekom wat bestaan het uit 12 vroulike en 15 manlike deelnemers, tussen 15 en 18 jaar oud. Die resultate het getoon dat adolessente by magte was om dit te identifiseer wat as veiliger en meer riskante seksuele gedrag beskou kan word.
Riley, Gerard A; Baah-Odoom, Dinah
Complacency about one's HIV risk status may reduce the intention to practise safe sex. It was hypothesised that belief in a just world and stigmatising attitudes may contribute to complacency and thereby have a negative impact on safe sex intention. A sample of 238 young people in Ghana, ranging in age from 14 to 22, completed the Generalised Self-Efficacy Scale and the Belief in a Just World Scales for Self and Other, together with self-report measures of stigmatising attitudes, perceived vulnerability to HIV/AIDS and intentions to practise safe sex. Mediation analysis supported the hypothesis that stigma and just world beliefs may have a negative impact on safe sex intention that is mediated by a reduced perception of vulnerability. It was also found that generalised self-efficacy beliefs had a similar mediated impact. Each of the three factors had a mediated impact that was relatively independent of the other two factors. In addition, stigma had a negative direct (unmediated) effect on safe sex intention (i.e., more stigma was associated with reduced safe sex intention); but generalised self-efficacy beliefs had a positive direct effect (i.e., greater belief was associated with increased safe sex intention). The study replicates some previous research about stigma, and provides new evidence about the role of just world and generalised self-efficacy beliefs. Implications for public health programmes are discussed.
Full Text Available According to results of a survey in 2007, this study analyses conspiratorial beliefs in Croatia and their correlates. Conspiratorial beliefs consist of politically controversial events and processes in recent Croatian history. Factorial analysis has revealed two factors: Government conspiracies during the 90’s and Conspiracies of internal and external enemies. Based on the ideas of Sloterdijk and Žižek, we can name these Factors – Kynical and Cynical conspiracy theories. The first ones are a cheeky and bold exposure of cynicism of the power elite: secret meetings with the enemy and trade in territory during the war, political crimes, corruption, etc. The second ones are the back side of the public façade, obscene reactions to ‘thefts of enjoyment’ in the National Thing. Further analysis has revealed strong differences in beliefs in conspiracies between citizens of different ideological affiliation and different political legacy, and between voters of two main political parties, HDZ and SDP.*
Olsen, Tore Vincents
In the age of migration, the inclusion of immigrants in national politics is crucial for democratic reasons, and because it increases the coordination and cooperation ability of society. The informal norms, values and beliefs of the political culture are one aspect of the institutional and discur......In the age of migration, the inclusion of immigrants in national politics is crucial for democratic reasons, and because it increases the coordination and cooperation ability of society. The informal norms, values and beliefs of the political culture are one aspect of the institutional...
Guacira Lopes Louro
Full Text Available É intolerável conviver com um sistema de leis, de normas e de preceitos jurídicos, religiosos, morais ou educacionais que discriminam sujeitos porque seu modo de ser homem ou de ser mulher, suas formas de expressar seus desejos e prazeres não correspondem àquelas nomeadas como "normais". Esse é um sentimento comum entre as estudiosas/os que sabem da relevância de se refletir sobre questões de gênero e sexualidade. No entanto, embora sejam inegáveis as afinidades políticas entre os/as intelectuais que se dedicam a tais estudos, são muitas e distintas as formas de conceber o que fazer face a tal horizonte político. A diversidade teórica e metodológica, bem como a pluralidade de práticas pedagógicas ou de intervenção, são discutidas e compreendidas, neste artigo, como indicadoras da vitalidade desses campos disciplinares, simultaneamente teóricos e políticos. Conceitos recorrentes, tais como gênero, sexualidade, corpo e poder são contemplados nesta análise.It is unbearable to live within a law system composed by legal, religious, moral or educational norms and rules that discriminate individuals for their way of life as a man or a woman. It is unbearable to live in a society that discriminates someone when the desires and pleasures he/she expresses do not fulfill those named as normal. Intellectuals who discuss and reflect about gender and sexuality issues use to experience this feeling. However, besides the undeniable political affinity among these intellectuals, there are, simultaneously, many different ways to conceive what to do to concerning this political horizon. This article discusses theoretical and methodological diversity as well as pedagogical and interventionist plurality in this area, seeing diversity as indicative of vitality and actuality of these fields of studies. Recurrent concepts, as gender, sexuality, body and power are focused.
Full Text Available The role of religion in the environment has yet to be empirically investigated in the country with the largest atheist population across the globe. Using data from the Chinese General Social Survey 2013, we examined the effects of religious beliefs on environmental behaviors in China. Dependent variables of private and public environmental behaviors were identified by factor analysis. The estimation revealed a contradictory result that most religious beliefs had negative effects on private environmental behaviors while having positive effects on public environmental behaviors. The findings suggest a religion–politics interactive mechanism to enhance pro-environmental behavior in China.
Ménard, Kim S; Hall, Gordon C Nagayama; Phung, Amber H; Ghebrial, Marian F Erian; Martin, Lynette
Differences in male (N = 148) and female (N = 278) college students' use of sexually harassing and coercive behaviors were investigated. Men were twice as likely to be sexually harassing and 3 times more likely to be sexually coercive as women. Among men, sexual harassment was predicted by child sexual abuse, hostility, adversarial heterosexual beliefs, and alcohol expectancy, with the latter mediating the effects of aggression. Sexual coercion was predicted by adult sexual victimization and alcohol expectancy, with alcohol expectancy again mediating the effect of aggression. Among women, sexual harassment was predicted by adult sexual victimization, adversarial heterosexual beliefs, aggression, and alcohol expectancy, with aggression mediating the effect of adversarial heterosexual beliefs and alcohol expectancy mediating the effect of aggression. Sexual coercion was predicted by a hostile personality, which mediated the effects of both child and adult sexual victimization. These findings suggest both gender similarities and differences in determinants of sexual aggression.
Nour, Matthew M; Evans, Lisa; Carhart-Harris, Robin L
The psychedelic experience (including psychedelic-induced ego dissolution) can effect lasting change in a person's attitudes and beliefs. Here, we aimed to investigate the association between naturalistic psychedelic use and personality, political perspectives, and nature relatedness using an anonymous internet survey. Participants (N = 893) provided information about their naturalistic psychedelic, cocaine, and alcohol use, and answered questions relating to personality traits of openness and conscientiousness (Ten-Item Personality Inventory), nature relatedness (Nature-Relatedness Scale), and political attitudes (one-item liberalism-conservatism measure and five-item libertarian-authoritarian measure). Participants also rated the degree of ego dissolution experienced during their "most intense" recalled psychedelic experience (Ego-Dissolution Inventory). Multivariate linear regression analysis indicated that lifetime psychedelic use (but not lifetime cocaine use or weekly alcohol consumption) positively predicted liberal political views, openness and nature relatedness, and negatively predicted authoritarian political views, after accounting for potential confounding variables. Ego dissolution experienced during a participant's "most intense" psychedelic experience positively predicted liberal political views, openness and nature relatedness, and negatively predicted authoritarian political views. Further work is needed to investigate the nature of the relationship between the peak psychedelic experience and openness to new experiences, egalitarian political views, and concern for the environment.
There is now unmistakable evidence of a widening split within the Western industrial nations arising from conflicting views of society; for and against change. The argument is over the benefits of 'progress' and growth. On one side are those who seek more jobs, more production and consumption, higher standards of living, an ever-increasing GNP with an increasing globalisation of production and welcome the advances of science and technology confident that any temporary problems that arise can be solved by further technological development - possible energy shortages as a growing population increases energy usage can be met by nuclear power development; food shortages by the increased yields of GM crops. In opposition are those who put the quality of life before GNP, advocate a more frugal life-style, reducing needs and energy consumption, and, pointing to the harm caused by increasing pollution, press for cleaner air and water standards. They seek to reduce the pressure of an ever-increasing population and above all to preserve the natural environment. This view is associated with a growing uncertainty as the established order is challenged with the rise in status of 'alternative' science and medicine. This paper argues that these conflicting views reflect instinctive attitudes. These in turn draw support from beliefs selected from those which uncertainty offers. Where there is scope for argument over the truth or validity of a 'fact', the choice of which of the disputed views to believe will be determined by a value judgement. This applies to all controversial social and political issues. Nuclear waste disposal and biotechnology are but two particular examples in the technological field; joining the EMU is a current political controversy where value judgements based on attitudes determine beliefs. When, or if, a controversy is finally resolved the judgement arrived at will be justified by the belief that the consequences of the course chosen will be more favourable
Greenhalgh, Geoffrey [Down Park Place, Crawley Down (United Kingdom)
There is now unmistakable evidence of a widening split within the Western industrial nations arising from conflicting views of society; for and against change. The argument is over the benefits of 'progress' and growth. On one side are those who seek more jobs, more production and consumption, higher standards of living, an ever-increasing GNP with an increasing globalisation of production and welcome the advances of science and technology confident that any temporary problems that arise can be solved by further technological development - possible energy shortages as a growing population increases energy usage can be met by nuclear power development; food shortages by the increased yields of GM crops. In opposition are those who put the quality of life before GNP, advocate a more frugal life-style, reducing needs and energy consumption, and, pointing to the harm caused by increasing pollution, press for cleaner air and water standards. They seek to reduce the pressure of an ever-increasing population and above all to preserve the natural environment. This view is associated with a growing uncertainty as the established order is challenged with the rise in status of 'alternative' science and medicine. This paper argues that these conflicting views reflect instinctive attitudes. These in turn draw support from beliefs selected from those which uncertainty offers. Where there is scope for argument over the truth or validity of a 'fact', the choice of which of the disputed views to believe will be determined by a value judgement. This applies to all controversial social and political issues. Nuclear waste disposal and biotechnology are but two particular examples in the technological field; joining the EMU is a current political controversy where value judgements based on attitudes determine beliefs. When, or if, a controversy is finally resolved the judgement arrived at will be justified by the belief that the consequences of the course
The role of experience for belief revision is seldom explicitly discussed. This is surprising as it seems obvious that experiences play a major role for most of our belief changes. In this work, the two most plausible views on the role of experience for belief change are investigated: the view that
Metz, S Emlen; Weisberg, Deena S; Weisberg, Michael
Why is evolutionary theory controversial among members of the American public? We propose a novel explanation: allegiance to different criteria for belief. In one interview study, two online surveys, and one nationally representative phone poll, we found that evolutionists and creationists take different justifications for belief as legitimate. Those who accept evolution emphasize empirical evidence and scientific consensus. Creationists emphasize not only the Bible and religious authority, but also knowledge of the heart. These criteria for belief remain predictive of views about evolution even when taking into account other related factors like religion, political affiliation, and education. Each view is supported by its own internally specified criteria for what constitutes a justified belief. Changing minds may thus require changing epistemic norms. Copyright © 2018 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Sarrasin, Oriane; Fasel, Nicole; Green, Eva G T; Helbling, Marc
Drawing on psychological and political science research on individuals' sensitivity to threat cues, the present study examines reactions to political posters that depict male immigrants as a sexual danger. We expect anti-immigrant attitudes to be more strongly predicted by feelings of insecurity or representations of men and women as strong and fragile when individuals are exposed to sexual threat cues than when they are not. Results from two online experiments conducted in Switzerland and Germany largely confirmed these assumptions. Comparing two anti-immigrant posters (general and non-sexual threat vs. sexual threat), Experiment 1 (n = 142) showed that feelings of insecurity were related to an increased support for expelling immigrants from the host country in both cases. However, only in the sexual threat cues condition and among female participants, were perceptions of women as fragile-as measured with benevolent sexism items-related to support for expelling immigrants. Further distinguishing between different forms of violence threat cues, Experiment 2 (n = 181) showed that collective feelings of insecurity were most strongly related to support for expelling immigrants when a male immigrant was presented as a violent criminal. In contrast, benevolent sexist beliefs were related to anti-immigrant stances only when participants were exposed to a depiction of a male immigrant as a rapist. In both cases attitudes were polarized: on the one hand, representations of immigrants as criminals provoked reactance reactions-that is, more positive attitudes-among participants scoring low in insecurity feelings or benevolent sexism. On the other hand, those scoring high in these dimensions expressed slightly more negative attitudes. Overall, by applying social psychological concepts to the study of anti-immigrant political campaigning, the present study demonstrated that individuals are sensitive to specific threat cues in posters.
Foss, Nicolai Juul
While (managerial) beliefs are central to many aspects of strategic organization, interactive beliefs are almost entirely neglected, save for some game theory treatments. In an increasingly connected and networked economy, firms confront coordination problems that arise because of network effects....... The capability to manage beliefs will increasingly be a strategic one, a key source of wealth creation, and a key research area for strategic organization scholars.......While (managerial) beliefs are central to many aspects of strategic organization, interactive beliefs are almost entirely neglected, save for some game theory treatments. In an increasingly connected and networked economy, firms confront coordination problems that arise because of network effects...
Full Text Available According to Foucault, the uprising of the Iranian people in the seventies reveals how much the political force of Islam is due precisely to the fact that it is not principally located in the field of politics, but in that of ethics. Religion (Shiite Islam appears as the guarantee of real change in the very mode of existence. This spiritual politics is marginalized by Marxism, where it is understood as a discontinuity in relation to proper politics, given that the latter is necessarily linked to a strategic rationalization. By indicating, at this juncture of what is intolerable, the living source and the critical impulse of the Foucauldian ethics, this spiritual politics also leads to recognize in the concept of “subjectivation” a dimension that might escape the circle of freedom as determined by a total immanence to power. This conceptual possibility is highly present in the aporias of the Foucauldian concept of the “relation to oneself”, both as a first condition of governmentality and the ultimate point of resistance against any governmentality. It thus reveals the difficulties in relating political to ethical subjectivation.
and representation within family law, civil society, and in the labour market. In conclusion, I suggest the possibility of different evaluations of the level of sexual justice reached, a mainly positive, partially negative one. Additionally, I discuss the gains and pains of the existing normalizing politics....
Herrero de Miñón, Miguel
Full Text Available Politics, Law and Psychology are fields that come together in the symbolic. This text takes evidence from those three areas to develop an analysis of political symbols and political transitions. The development of the analysis goes through three stages. The first succinctly describes the concept of transition and its meaning. The second closely examines the notion of the symbol, in terms of its definition, to explain aspects that allow us to understand it, characterise it and make its functions clear. Finally, from the author's experience as a witness and as an actor, I suggest three ways of understanding symbols in the processes of political transition: as symbols of change, as symbols of acknowledgment, and as symbols of support.
Ward, L Monique; Vandenbosch, Laura; Eggermont, Steven
Although much attention concerning the potential impact of sexualized media has focused on girls and women, less is known about how this content effects boys' perceptions of women and courtship. Accordingly, the current three-wave panel study investigated whether exposure to sexualizing magazines predicts adolescent boys' (N = 592) sexually objectifying notions of women and their beliefs about feminine courtship strategies. The results indicated that when boys consumed sexualizing magazines more often, they expressed more gender-stereotypical beliefs about feminine courtship strategies over time. This association was mediated by boys' objectification of women. The possibility of a reciprocal relation whereby beliefs about courtship strategies predict future consumption of sexualizing magazines was also explored but received no support. Discussion focuses on effects of sexualizing media on boys, and supports future research to build on multidisciplinary knowledge. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
environment improves global business performance: protecting new and existing global investments and operations, and capitalizing on opportunities resulting from political change (Phung, 2009). It is our belief that by establishing a systematic approach to political risk management, multinational companies can drive ...
Swire, Briony; Berinsky, Adam J; Lewandowsky, Stephan; Ecker, Ullrich K H
This study investigated the cognitive processing of true and false political information. Specifically, it examined the impact of source credibility on the assessment of veracity when information comes from a polarizing source (Experiment 1), and effectiveness of explanations when they come from one's own political party or an opposition party (Experiment 2). These experiments were conducted prior to the 2016 Presidential election. Participants rated their belief in factual and incorrect statements that President Trump made on the campaign trail; facts were subsequently affirmed and misinformation retracted. Participants then re-rated their belief immediately or after a delay. Experiment 1 found that (i) if information was attributed to Trump, Republican supporters of Trump believed it more than if it was presented without attribution, whereas the opposite was true for Democrats and (ii) although Trump supporters reduced their belief in misinformation items following a correction, they did not change their voting preferences. Experiment 2 revealed that the explanation's source had relatively little impact, and belief updating was more influenced by perceived credibility of the individual initially purporting the information. These findings suggest that people use political figures as a heuristic to guide evaluation of what is true or false, yet do not necessarily insist on veracity as a prerequisite for supporting political candidates.
This lesson plan is designed to help students become more aware of how advertisements play a role in shaping societal attitudes about gender and sexuality and how these messages effect their own beliefs. This lesson plan will outline how to effectively accomplish this goal in any course focusing on gender and/or sexuality.
Using facts and examples, this didactically structures textbook gives an insight into the extent and consequences of the damage to the environment, with the subjects - fundamentals of ecology; - population and food problems; - the energy problem; - economic growth; scarcity of resources, recycling; - ground, water, and air pollution, - city and traffic problems; - work protection and medical care; - political alternatives and 'soft technologies'. The analysis of the political and economic reasons is combined with social and technical alternatives from which demands to be made and measures to be taken can be derived for individuals, citizens' interest groups, political groups and trade unions. Teaching models intend to help teachers to work on specific problems of ecology. (orig.) [de
…THE POLITICAL LEADERS of the local government of Chongqing, China, vigorously promote a low-carbon economy and sustainable development to mitigate environmental pollution. Accordingly, research grants focused on this issue were supported by the government, and our group obtained a grant for a pr...... for a project about industrial park planning and design.…In my view, political priorities based on correct decision-making and market requirements are beneficial for researchers.......…THE POLITICAL LEADERS of the local government of Chongqing, China, vigorously promote a low-carbon economy and sustainable development to mitigate environmental pollution. Accordingly, research grants focused on this issue were supported by the government, and our group obtained a grant...
Jeppesen, Søren; Morsing, Mette
We engage a discussion of political CSR in SMEs in an African context. Based on critical observations on Western MNC CSR action in emerging economies that holds counterproductive implications for social development, political economists have argued that business profit far more than society...... development in local African communities. Our findings extend political CSR research by directing attention to how the corporate influence in developing economies does not only emerge from MNCs but is also established and retained by SMEs CSR work....... in developing economies from CSR. In this paper we argue that local SMEs CSR work have strong influence in developing economies, that also includes counterproductive influence for social development. Based on empirical findings from African countries, we conceptualize how CSR in African SMEs differ from...
Full Text Available This study presents evidence for the mediation effect of political knowledge through political self-efficacy (i.e. internal political efficacy in the prediction of political participation. It employs an action theoretic approach—by and large grounded on the Theory of Planned Behaviour—and uses data from the German Longitudinal Election Study to examine whether political knowledge has distinct direct effects on voting, conventional, and/or unconventional political participation. It argues that political knowledge raises internal political efficacy and thereby indirectly increases the chance that a citizen will participate in politics. The results of mediated multiple regression analyses yield evidence that political knowledge indeed translates into internal political efficacy, thus it affects political participation of various kinds indirectly. However, internal political efficacy and intentions to participate politically yield simultaneous direct effects only on conventional political participation. Sequentially mediated effects appear for voting and conventional political participation, with political knowledge being mediated by internal political efficacy and subsequently also by behavioural intentions. The mediation patterns for unconventional political participation are less clear though. The discussion accounts for restrictions of this study and points to questions for answer by future research.
This study presents evidence for the mediation effect of political knowledge through political self-efficacy (i.e. internal political efficacy) in the prediction of political participation. It employs an action theoretic approach—by and large grounded on the Theory of Planned Behaviour—and uses data from the German Longitudinal Election Study to examine whether political knowledge has distinct direct effects on voting, conventional, and/or unconventional political participation. It argues that political knowledge raises internal political efficacy and thereby indirectly increases the chance that a citizen will participate in politics. The results of mediated multiple regression analyses yield evidence that political knowledge indeed translates into internal political efficacy, thus it affects political participation of various kinds indirectly. However, internal political efficacy and intentions to participate politically yield simultaneous direct effects only on conventional political participation. Sequentially mediated effects appear for voting and conventional political participation, with political knowledge being mediated by internal political efficacy and subsequently also by behavioural intentions. The mediation patterns for unconventional political participation are less clear though. The discussion accounts for restrictions of this study and points to questions for answer by future research. PMID:27298633
Fletcher, Gillian; Dowsett, Gary W.; Duncan, Duane; Slavin, Sean; Corboz, Julienne
Critical Sexuality Studies is an emerging field of academic enquiry linked to an international network of advocacy agencies, activists, and political issues. This paper reports on the development of an advanced short course in sexuality theory and research, drawing on Critical Sexuality Studies and aiming directly at academics in developing…
Bigo, Didier; Isin, Engin; Ruppert, Evelyn
The commentary raises political questions about the ways in which data has been constituted as an object vested withcertain powers, influence, and rationalities.We place the emergence and transformation of professional practices such as‘data science’, ‘data journalism’, ‘data brokerage’, ‘data mining’, ‘data storage’, and ‘data analysis’ as part of the reconfigurationof a series of fields of power and knowledge in the public and private accumulation of data. Data politics asksquestions about ...
A prominent strand within current migration research argues that, to understand the participation of immigrants in their host societies, we must focus on their incorporation into the cities in which they settle. This article narrows the perspective further by focusing on the role that immigrants...... play within one particular neighbourhood: Nørrebro in the Danish capital, Copenhagen. The article introduces the concept of grounded politics to analyse how groups of Muslim immigrants in Nørrebro use the space, relationships and history of the neighbourhood for identity political statements...
Klaus Nehring; Giacomo Bonanno
We provide an introduction to interactive belief systems from a qualitative and semantic point of view. Properties of belief hierarchies are formulated locally. Among the properties considered are ""Common belief in no error"" (which has been shown to have important game theoretic applications), ""Negative introspection of common belief"" and ""Truth about common belief."" The relationship between these properties is studied.
Reissing, Elke D; Andruff, Heather L; Wentland, Jocelyn J
A young person's first consensual sexual intercourse experience is often a remarkable and memorable experience. However, little systematic information exists regarding contextual factors of first intercourse, the affective salience of the experience, possible effects on sexual attitudes and beliefs, and subsequent sexual development and adjustment. This retrospective study aimed to examine these in a sample of 475 young adults. Overall, young men and women experienced intercourse for the first time around age 17, were in a committed relationship, and reported positive affective responses. Affective reactions to the first sexual intercourse experience, sexual self-efficacy, sexual aversion, and age at first intercourse affected individuals' current sexual adjustment; however, only sexual self-efficacy mediated between first intercourse and current sexual adjustment in young men and women. Older age at first intercourse was associated with less sexual self-efficacy and lower current sexual adjustment for women. This study provides initial data to suggest that the first sexual intercourse experience significantly impacts current sexual adjustment by affecting beliefs about sexual self-efficacy.
I defend the view that we act “under the guise of the good.” More specifically, I argue that an intention to do something is a belief that one ought to do it. I show how conflicts in intention and belief, as well as more complex impairments in these states, account for the central problem cases: akrasia in belief and intention, apparently unintelligible choices, and lack of motivation or accidie.
Foss, Nicolai Juul
While (managerial) beliefs are central to many aspects of strategic organization, interactive beliefs are almost entirely neglected, save for some game theory treatments. In an increasingly connected and networked economy, firms confront coordination problems that arise because of network effects....... The capability to manage beliefs will increasingly be a strategic one, a key source of wealth creation, and a key research area for strategic organization scholars....
Boas, Erica Misako
This dissertation responds to the question: How is sexuality organized in elementary schools? I argue that despite the absence of overt discussions on sexuality in elementary schools, sexuality is "organized" through social processes that are recursively linked to ideology. Due to the widely held belief that "children" and…
The rate of HIV infections among adolescents is high due to their sexual behaviours. The best way to control the spread of HIV among adolescents is to work towards influencing their sexual beliefs and practices. Since the school brings together adolescents with varied sexual experiences, the role the school counsellor ...
Full Text Available The widely spread view on magical beliefs in modern industrial cultures contends that magical beliefs are a bunch of curious phenomena that persist today as an unnecessary addition to a much more important set of rational beliefs. Contrary to this view, in this article, the view is presented, which suggests that the belief in magic is a fundamental property of the human mind. Individuals can consciously consider themselves to be completely rational people and deny that they believe in magic or God despite harboring a subconscious belief in the supernatural. Research also shows how engagement in magical thinking can enhance cognitive functioning, such as creative thinking, perception and memory. Moreover, this article suggests that certain forms of social compliance and obedience to authority historically evolved from magical practices of mind control and are still powered by the implicit belief in magic. Finally, the article outlines areas of life, such as education, religion, political influence, commerce, military and political terror, and entertainment, in which magical thinking and beliefs of modern people can find practical applications.
Conti, Gregory Andrew
This dissertation places the problem of social and ideological diversity at the center of nineteenth-century British political thought. Given our contemporary preoccupation with the diversity of beliefs, perspectives, and identities, it is tempting to assume that this diversity has always been regarded as a central political issue. Surprisingly, however, I contend that ideological diversity was identified as a political problem in a recognizably modern sense only in the aftermath of the Frenc...
Nicolet, Sarah; Tresch, Anke
Starting from theories of secularization and of religious individualization, we propose a two-dimensional typology of religiosity and test its impact on political attitudes. Unlike classic conceptions of religiosity used in political studies, our typology simultaneously accounts for an individual's sense of belonging to the church (institutional dimension) and his/her personal religious beliefs (spiritual dimension). Our analysis, based on data from the World Values Survey in Switzerland (198...
This article expresses some last thoughts from Abraham Maslow on his vision of humanistic psychology. He suggests that the two main problems of creating the good person and the good society are interwoven inextricably. He gives some social and political mechanisms which would enhance desirable personal growth and considers the main tasks of…
Lucas, W. R.
Certain decisions, problems, and successes are selected to recall the great impact of the 1950s on the history of rocketry, and particularly the inauguration of the space age. In reviewing the history of the Redstone, Juno, and Jupiter, some of the largest stepping stones to space, problems stand out in three areas: technical or engineering, management, and political.
Dixit, Avinash K.; Weibull, Jörgen W.
Failures of government policies often provoke opposite reactions from citizens; some call for a reversal of the policy, whereas others favor its continuation in stronger form. We offer an explanation of such polarization, based on a natural bimodality of preferences in political and economic contexts and consistent with Bayesian rationality.
Dixit, Avinash K; Weibull, Jörgen W
Failures of government policies often provoke opposite reactions from citizens; some call for a reversal of the policy, whereas others favor its continuation in stronger form. We offer an explanation of such polarization, based on a natural bimodality of preferences in political and economic contexts and consistent with Bayesian rationality.
This dissertation supplies a number of research findings that add to a theory of news framing effects, and also to the understanding of the role media effects play in political communication. We show that researchers must think more about what actually constitutes a framing effect, and that a
Solhaug, Trond; Kristensen, Niels Nørgaard
The very idea about democracies is public participation in elections, decision-making and/or public engagement. The democratic participation distributes power among ordinary people and serve to legitimize decisions in public affairs and is a vital characteristic of a political culture.”The term ’...
McKenney, Sarah J.; Bigler, Rebecca S.
Sexually objectifying messages about girls and women are common in U.S. popular culture. As a consequence of exposure to such messages, girls may develop "internalized sexualization," or internalization of the belief that sexual attractiveness to males is an important aspect of their identity. We hypothesized that internalized…
Maxwell-Smith, Matthew A; Seligman, Clive; Conway, Paul; Cheung, Irene
The commitment to beliefs (CTB) framework (Maxwell-Smith & Esses, 2012) proposes that there are individual differences in the extent to which people generally follow beliefs that are a reflection of their values. The current research hypothesized that CTB would amplify the effects of perceived belief dissimilarity or incompatibility, such that individuals higher in CTB would display more pronounced reactions to belief-relevant groups, events, or individuals seen as incompatible with their value-based beliefs. We tested our hypothesis in three studies that assessed participants' CTB and their perceptions of belief dissimilarity or incompatibility with regard to other religious groups (Study 1), political parties during a national election (Study 2), and their romantic partner (Study 3). CTB amplified the effects of perceived belief dissimilarity or incompatibility on people's biases toward other religious groups, voting intentions and behavior in a national election, and their evaluative and behavioral responses toward their romantic partner. These results collectively suggest that perceptions of belief dissimilarity or incompatibility are particularly important cues for individuals with higher levels of CTB as they encounter other people or events that are relevant to their beliefs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Clarkson, Joshua J.; Chambers, John R.; Hirt, Edward R.; Otto, Ashley S.; Kardes, Frank R.; Leone, Christopher
Evidence from three studies reveals a critical difference in self-control as a function of political ideology. Specifically, greater endorsement of political conservatism (versus liberalism) was associated with greater attention regulation and task persistence. Moreover, this relationship is shown to stem from varying beliefs in freewill; specifically, the association between political ideology and self-control is mediated by differences in the extent to which belief in freewill is endorsed, is independent of task performance or motivation, and is reversed when freewill is perceived to impede (rather than enhance) self-control. Collectively, these findings offer insight into the self-control consequences of political ideology by detailing conditions under which conservatives and liberals are better suited to engage in self-control and outlining the role of freewill beliefs in determining these conditions. PMID:26100890
Sanders, T G
Women are gradually gaining influence in Brazilian politics, especially since recent advances in the women's movement, but they still play a limited role. There have been journals devoted to feminism and some notable feminists since 1850. In 1932 suffragettes in Brazil gained women the right to vote. Women's associations burgeoned in the 1940s and 1950s, culminating in a peak in number of women in national elected positions in 1965. A repressive military regime reversed the process, which resumed in 1975. 1975 was also significant for the Brazilian women's movement because of the U.N. Women's Year. Several large, influential feminist political action groups were formed, typically by upper class women with leftist views, although some church and union groups from lower classes also appeared. In 1979-1981, the coherence of these groups fell into schism and fragmentation, because of disagreements over the feminist political doctrines and roles, views on legality of abortion, and special interest groups such as lesbians. Another bitter dispute is opposition by leftist women to BEMFAM, the Brazilian Society of Family Welfare, which provides family planning for the poor: leftists oppose BEMFAM because it is supported by funds from "imperialist" countries such as the U.S. There are several types of feminists groups: those that emphasize health, sexuality and violence; those composed of lesbians; those originating from lower classes and unions; publicly instituted organizations. Brazilian law forbids discrimination against women holding public office, but in reality very few women actually do hold office, except for mayors of small towns and a few administrators of the Education and Social Security ministries. Political office in Brazil is gained by clientism, and since women rarely hold powerful positions in business, they are outsiders of the system. Brazilian women have achieved much, considering the low female literacy rate and traditional power system, but their
Paulo Roberto Carvalho
Full Text Available One of the distinctive marks of current capitalism is the presence of mass media constituting the psyche in different aspects. Today, we observe the multiplication of many contents with erotic appeal in the media and the effects of this process are still to be known, particularly in the matter of sexuality. Concretely, what we have is that the practices and the effective conceptions of sexuality are suffering an accelerated transformation that involves the abandonment of the traditional practices. In this context, we can ask about the sense that is attributed to sexuality experiences and evaluate the impact of the different "manners of being" which are referred to sexuality and systematically diffused by the media. Therefore, we can explore the implications of this new scenery for different social realities: the family institution, the affectionate and loving relationships, the school and professional everyday life, as well as the formulation of public politics in this field.
Full Text Available This article deals with selected aspects of popular belief in post-Reformation England as compared to the pre-Reformation popular tradition of the fourteenth and fifteenth century. Through a discussion of the politics of superstition and religiously-shaped concepts of reason in Early Modern England, this article discusses medicinal magic, and the power of objects and words in the context of religion and popular belief, focusing in particular on leprosy and exorcism. By examining the Protestant understanding of the supernatural as well as its polemical importance, the article investigates the perseverance of popular belief after the Reformation and outlines some of the reasons and politics behind this perseverance, while also examining the role of the supernatural in the culture of belief in Early Modern England by tracing the presence and importance of particular beliefs in popular imagination and in the way religion and confessional rhetoric made use of popular beliefs.
Carney, Gemma M; Gray, Mia
This article uses feminist scholarship to investigate 'the elderly mystique'-which contends that the potential of old age is masked by a set of false beliefs about ageing (i.e. ageism) which permeate social, economic, and political life (Cohen, 1988). The article presents a theoretical model which explores the extent to which institutionalised ageism shapes the trajectory of life after 60.(1) The hypothesis underpinning the model is simple: The challenge for ageing societies is not the average age of a given population, but rather, how age is used to structure economic, social and political life. An inter-disciplinary framework is used to examine how biological facts about ageing are used to segregate older from younger people, giving older people the status of 'other'; economically through retirement, politically through assumptions about 'the grey vote,' and socially through ageist stereotyping in the media and through denial and ridicule of the sexuality of older people. Each domain is informed by the achievements of feminist theory and research on sexism and how its successes and failures can inform critical investigations of ageism. The paper recognises the role of ageism in de-politicising the lived experience of ageing. The paper concludes that feminist scholarship, particularly work by feminists in their seventies, eighties, and nineties, has much to offer in terms of re-framing gerontology as an emancipatory project for current and future cohorts of older people. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Maternal beliefs about infant teething. 1. 2. 3. OG Uti , KO Savage ... Nigeria. 3Department of Community Health, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos. Nigeria. KEY WORDS: Infant teething. Maternal beliefs. Lagos. Nigeria now accurately .... the questions into the appropriate language or Pidgin. English. Analysis.
Marks, Michael P.
This article suggests strategies for promoting scholarly discussion and critical thinking in political science classes. When scholars study politics they are engaged in an investigation into the dynamics of governance, not a debate over personal political beliefs. The problem with a politicized classroom is that it gives students a false…
This article reacts to President Bush's entry into the dispute over "political correctness" on college campuses. The paper summarizes discussions of students, faculty, and others in the Washington, D.C. area which concluded that this seeming defense of free speech is actually an attack on affirmative action and multiculturalism stemming…
Syme, Maggie L; Cohn, Tracy J
Stigma related to later life sexuality could produce detrimental effects for older adults, through individual concerns and limited sexual health care for older adults. Identifying groups at risk for aging sexual stigma will help to focus interventions to reduce it. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to examine cross-sectional trends in aging sexual stigma attitudes by age group, generational status, and gender. An online survey was administered to a national sample of adults via a crowdsourcing tool, in order to examine aging sexual stigma across age groups, generational status, and gender (N = 962; 47.0% male, 52.5% female, and .5% other; mean age = 45 years). An aging sexual stigma index was formulated from the attitudinal items of the Aging Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Scale. This sample reported moderately permissive attitudes toward aging sexuality, indicating a low level of aging sexual stigma. Though descriptive data showed trends of stigma attitudes increasing with age and later generations, there were no significant differences between age groups or generations in terms of aging sexual stigma beliefs. Men, regardless of age and/or generation, were found to espouse significantly higher stigmatic beliefs than women or those reporting 'other' gender. Aging sexual stigma beliefs may not be prevalent among the general population as cohorts become more sexually liberal over time, though men appear more susceptible to these beliefs. However, in order to more comprehensively assess aging sexual stigma, future research may benefit from measuring explicit and implicit aging sexual stigma beliefs.
Full Text Available In point of principle, Christianity does not give room for any belief in fate. Astrology, horoscopes, divination, etc., are strictly rejected. Belief in fate never disappeared in Christian countries, nor did it in Scandinavia in Christian times. Especially in folklore we can find it at any period: People believed in an implacable fate. All folklore is filled up with this belief in destiny. Nobody can escape his fate. The future lies in the hands of fate, and the time to come takes its form according to inscrutable laws. The pre-Christian period in Scandinavia, dominated by pagan Norse religion, and the secularized epoch of the 20th century, however, show more distinctive and more widespread beliefs in fate than does the Christian period. The present paper makes a comparison between these forms of belief.
Full Text Available he article deals with a nonviolent perspective of political education and with some theories that may conjugate these two domains: Nonviolent Culture and Political Education. Methodologically an approach rooted in the theoretical and bibliographical research has been privileged. The discourse investigates the causes of the actual political disaffection, and follows the purpose to highlight the irrevocable role of a structured nonviolent perspective (like Gandhi’s one, in the rehabilitation of politics. Nonviolence does not remove Marxist elements of legitimation in their entirety – as Gramsci’s theory will highlight – provided that they correspond the “conquest of violence” that needs to succeed first and foremost in the “intimate” individual’s awareness. Moreover, the importance of contemporary ecological theories, which embed the nonviolent perspective in a general epistemological view, will be also discussed to reaffirm the crucial significance of the latter. Through this path, different authors, hailing from diverse backgrounds, such as philosophical, pedagogical and anthropological studies, show meaningful affinities and matching points, presenting, in some case, political education in terms of education and training of the “political emotions”. The reflection highlights the relevance of an expanded political participation and experimentation through praxis, as ways of an actual political education, in the belief that emphasizing the pedagogic dimension of political activity, means nothing less than searching for its deepest fundament.
Asheim, Geir B.
A belief operator derived from preferences is presented. It generalizes ‘belief with probability1’ to incomplete preferences and satisﬁes minimal requirements for belief operators under weak conditions.
Wittenbrink, Bernd; Henly, Julia R.
Three experiments tested the hypothesis that comparison information about other people's stereotypic beliefs is used to validate personal beliefs about a target group. A simple manipulation of questionnaire items and their response scales, presented as part of a political opinion survey, served as social comparison information regarding beliefs…
Barry, Colleen L; Brescoll, Victoria L; Brownell, Kelly D; Schlesinger, Mark
Context: Relatively little is known about the factors shaping public attitudes toward obesity as a policy concern. This study examines whether individuals' beliefs about the causes of obesity affect their support for policies aimed at stemming obesity rates. This article identifies a unique role of metaphor-based beliefs, as distinct from conventional political attitudes, in explaining support for obesity policies.
Morton, Heather; Gorzalka, Boris B
The purpose of this study was to investigate the sexual beliefs of female undergraduates, as well as the thoughts they experience during sexual experiences. The study aimed to determine potential differences in these variables between East Asian-Canadians and Euro-Canadians, as well as the influence of acculturation on these variables. In addition, the relationships between sexual beliefs, automatic thoughts, and specific aspects of sexual functioning were examined. Euro-Canadian (n = 77) and East Asian-Canadian (n = 123) undergraduate women completed the Sexual Dysfunctional Beliefs Questionnaire, the Sexual Modes Questionnaire, the Female Sexual Function Index, and the Vancouver Index of Acculturation. East Asian women endorsed almost all sexual beliefs assessed in this study more than did Euro-Canadian women, and endorsement of these beliefs was associated with acculturation. In addition, East Asian-Canadian and Euro-Canadian women differed in the frequency of experiencing negative automatic thoughts. Results also revealed associations between difficulties in sexual functioning, and both sexual beliefs and automatic thoughts. Together, these results provide preliminary support for the hypothesis that differences in cognitive aspects of sexuality may underlie the differences in sexual functioning previously observed between these two groups.
The present study investigates stereotypical beliefs about cyber bullying in terms of myths, a well applied concept in the study of beliefs concerning sexual aggression. The level of acceptance of cyber bullying myths (low vs. high) and the relation of myth acceptance to a number of demographic variables such as gender, field of studies, frequency…
Cultural and ethnic identity and folk beliefs play a decisive role in perceptions, attitudes and practices regarding health care and illness. Such beliefs and practices of a community may have an influence on the causes and transmission of diseases, including sexually transmitted diseases. The purpose of the study on which ...
ABRAHAM, Charles; SHEERAN, P; SPEARS, R; ABRAMS, D
Beliefs concerning the spread of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and preventive behaviors were examined in a sample of 351 sexually active Scottish teenagers. A postal questionnaire, including measures of variables specified by the health belief model (HBM) and preventive intentions, was
Political incorporation resulting from voter participation is often a relevant feature of the migration experience. When the legislation of the receiving nations enables the newcomers to get naturalized and grants citizenship to their children born in the adoptive country by means of the jus soli, as is the case of the United States, casting ballots in the elections of the land of their destination usually becomes part of the first and second-generation immigrants’ accommodation into the host...
Bleakley, Amy; Hennessy, Michael; Fishbein, Martin; Jordan, Amy
Published research demonstrates an association between exposure to media sexual content and a variety of sex-related outcomes for adolescents. What is not known is the mechanism through which sexual content produces this "media effect" on adolescent beliefs, attitudes, and behavior. Using the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction, this…
Jul 21, 2011 ... Abstract. The sugar industry has experienced poor performance attributed to industry deregulation, poor management and political interference. Adopting the. Simons' Levers of Control framework, this study sought to establish the relationship between belief control practices and organizational performance.
Wagers, Shelly M; Wareham, Jennifer; Boots, Denise Paquette
In recent decades, significant effort and money have been spent to change social and legal responses to domestic violence and affect public perceptions. A small body of research has examined individuals' opinions about what behaviors are considered domestic violence. Using a sample of college students, the present study examined a modified version of a somewhat popular instrument used to measure beliefs about domestic violence, extending previous work done by Carlson and Worden. Results indicated beliefs about domestic violence are multidimensional, depending on the nature of the behavior and, in part, the gender of the perpetrator. Opinions about the lawfulness of these behaviors fit the same factor structure as beliefs about domestic violence. Demographic characteristics, current relationship status, secondhand experiences with domestic violence, and perceived prevalence of domestic violence in the community are generally not related to beliefs about domestic violence or the lawfulness of these behaviors. However, attributions of blame on the victim are negatively related to domestic violence beliefs and lawfulness. Moreover, lawfulness is a key covariate for domestic violence beliefs. In addition, results also indicate that the gender of the perpetrator is an important variable affecting student's beliefs about sexual assault behaviors. Results from this study support the prevailing ideas behind the Battered Women's Movement that enacting policies and educational programs deeming domestic violence socially, morally, and legally wrong could shift long-standing sociocultural beliefs about men's use of violence against women. Implications of this study for research and policy specific to college students are discussed.
Full Text Available This article deals with the emergence of queer movements and theories, with theirrelations to feminisms, and with the political use they make of Foucault and Deleuze. It alsoexplores the theoretical and political advantages of the notion of “multitude” in relation to that of“sexual difference” for queer theory and movements. Differently from what happens in the United States, queer movements in Europe follow the anarchist and the emerging transgender cultures tofight the “Sexual Empire”, proposing a deontology of identity politics. There is no longer a naturalbasis (“woman”, “gay”, etc to legitimate political action. What matters is not “sexual difference”or “the difference of homosexuals”, but the queer multitudes. A multitude of bodies: transgenderbodies, men without penises, gounis garous, cyborgs, butch women, lesbian gays... “Sexualmultitude” appears, then, as the possible subject of queer politics.
Wetherill, Reagan R; Neal, Dan J; Fromme, Kim
Several decades of research have identified the contributions of psychosocial influences on adolescent and young adult sexual behavior; however, few studies have examined parental and peer influence and sexual values during the transition from high school to college. The current study tested the influence of sexual values and perceived awareness and caring (PAC), or beliefs about how much parents and peers know and care about students' behavior, on sexual behavior during this transitional period. Using data from a longitudinal study, generalized estimating equations and the generalized linear model were used to examine the associations among sexual values, parental and peer PAC, and sexual behavior, both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Participants (N = 1,847; 61% female) completed web-based surveys the summer before college matriculation and at the end of the first semester in college. Results indicated that individuals with high levels of both parental and peer PAC engaged in less frequent sexual behaviors and that PAC moderated the effect of sexual values on sexual behaviors. Furthermore, both PAC variables decreased during the transition from high school to college, and high school sexual values, parental PAC, and their interaction predicted the number of sexual partners during the first semester of college. Only sexual values and high school unsafe sexual behaviors predicted unsafe sexual behavior in college. Findings suggest that complex associations exist among perceived awareness and caring, sexual values, and sexual behaviors, and that the transition from high school to college may be an ideal time for safer-sex interventions.
Mario López Martínez
Full Text Available Mohandas K. Gandhi was the father of modern nonviolence. He called the forms of struggle without use of firearms as satyagraha. Gandhi distinguished between passive resistance and satyagraha. The basic postulate of satyagraha rested on the belief in the inherent goodness of man, moral power and the capacity to suffer for the opponent. He tried, in difficult times, offering an alternative to war and social policy. On the roots of forms of struggle and popular peasant ancestral (disobedience, non-cooperation, insubordination, he developed the ethical and political union, beyond N. Machiavelli and M. Weber. But his ethical-political struggle could not be understood without other elements of his “constructive program” such as ahimsa (not kill, Sarvodaya (welfare of all, swaraj (self-determination and self-government and swadeshi (self-sufficiency.
José Fernando Serrano Amaya
Full Text Available The article discusses the 2016 debate over egalitarian adoption in Colombia in order to suggest that in the fields of gender and sexuality, religion and politics constitute the same flow of signifiers. That flow is dislocated, temporary, and unstable, since it depends on the dynamics of social conflicts and political transitions. Thus, the Colombian case can be interpreted as the emergence of a religious project in political terms, which secularizes its discourse in order to spiritualize society. In turn, both the legal debate, with its appeal to State authority, and populism, with its longing to return to founding principles, are means for that emergence.
Hopmann, David Nicolas; Van Aelst, Peter; Salgado, Susana
Before every election campaign, the French Conseil supérieur de l’audiovisuel (CSA) publishes detailed rules on how much news coverage candidates are allowed to have vis-à-vis one another in the electronic media to ensure what it calls pluralisme politique (e.g., CSA 2011). Also outside election...... and control news coverage (mainly public broadcasters) or have informal rules that determine news coverage of politics (Hopmann, Van Aelst, and Legnante 2012; Kaid and Strömbäck 2008)....
Pedersen, David Budtz
This dissertation is intended to establish a framework for a revised picture of the loci of epistemic preferences in our complex knowledge-based society. In what ways do institutions, policies and regulations determine the conditions under which knowledge is produced and justified? This dissertat......This dissertation is intended to establish a framework for a revised picture of the loci of epistemic preferences in our complex knowledge-based society. In what ways do institutions, policies and regulations determine the conditions under which knowledge is produced and justified......? This dissertation argues that we can identify multiple epistemic preferences in the institutional and political settings that govern the production and distribution of knowledge....
The subject matter of this diploma thesis "Sexual Education" is sexual education in the Czech Republic, specifically dedicated to the study of the integration of sexual education into the educational process in schools and families.
... health By Mayo Clinic Staff Sexual health basics Sexuality is part of being human. Love, affection and ... infections. Talking to kids about sex Kids and sexuality — those words strike fear into the hearts of ...
Camelia Florela Voinea
Full Text Available Our class of models aims at explaining the dynamics of political attitude change by means of the dynamic changes in values, beliefs, norms and knowledge with which it is associated. The model constructs a political culture perspective over the relationship between macro and micro levels of a society and polity. The model defines the bonding mechanism as a basic mechanism of the political culture change by taking inspiration from the valence bonding theory in Chemistry, which has inspired the elaboration of the mechanisms and processes underlying the political culture emergence and the political culture control over the relationship between macro-level political entities and the micro-level individual agents. The model introduces operational definitions of the individual agent in political culture terms. The simulation model is used for the study of emergent political culture change phenomena based on individual interactions (emergent or upward causation as well as the ways in which the macro entities and emergent phenomena influence in turn the behaviors of individual agents (downward causation. The model is used in the ongoing research concerning the quality of democracy and political participation of the citizens in the Eastern European societies after the Fall of Berlin Wall. It is particularly aimed at explaining the long-term effect of the communist legacy and of the communist polity concept and organization onto the political mentalities and behaviors of the citizens with respect to democratic institutions and political power. The model has major implications in political socialization, political involvement, political behavior, corruption and polity modeling.
Andersen, Mikkel Birkegaard; Bolander, Thomas; van Ditmarsch, Hans
Plausibility models are Kripke models that agents use to reason about knowledge and belief, both of themselves and of each other. Such models are used to interpret the notions of conditional belief, degrees of belief, and safe belief. The logic of conditional belief contains that modality and also...... the knowledge modality, and similarly for the logic of degrees of belief and the logic of safe belief. With respect to these logics, plausibility models may contain too much information. A proper notion of bisimulation is required that characterises them. We define that notion of bisimulation and prove...... be similarly expressed in the logic of conditional belief, or the logic of degrees of belief, or that of safe belief. This, we found a surprising result. Still, that does not mean that the logics are equally expressive: the logics of conditional and degrees of belief are incomparable, the logics of degrees...
Michael J. Shapiro
Full Text Available I write from Prague, where, unlike in most urban formations, the main city street plays an iconic role; it references a history of political protest. However, before elaborating on the protest iconography of the Prague street, Vaclavske nam, I want to locate the ways in which the design of urban space is actualized in everyday life in the cities of the world. Three functions stand out; the first involves dwelling, the second seeing, and the third moving. With respect to the first function – dwelling – the design partitions and coordinates residential, commercial and leisure functions. At times these are organized to segregate different classes (Robert Moses’ redesign of much of New York stands out with respect to the segregation function. With respect to the second function – seeing – the design of urban space is allegiance-inspiring; it involves sight lines that afford urban dwellers and visitors views of iconic buildings and statues, which reference key founding moments in the past and/or authoritative political functions in the present (Here, L’Enfants design for Washington DC stands out as exemplary. Its manifest intention was to make the buildings housing executive, legislative and judicial functions visible from many vantage points. Rarely are the streets themselves iconic. Their dominant role is involved with the effectuation of movement. As for this third function: As Lewis Mumford famously points out, streets were once part of an asterisk design, radiating out from an exemplary, often spiritual center...
This book is a non-technical exploration of the political and policy issues that have influenced the development of nuclear power. Part One describes the successes, failures, horse-trading, and infighting that make up nuclear power's history, taking nine counties as examples. Part Two reviews the main problems that now confront us, as seen in mid-June 1990; like all contemporary accounts, the book is unavoidably incomplete. However, by then it was possible to make provisional judgements about two very important recent influences: the political consequences of Chernobyl, and concerns about the greenhouse effect. The story that emerges is of a nuclear industry that has rarely been guilty of dereliction of duty, though it was undeniably complacent in not addressing sooner the causes of the public's entirely reasonable anxieties. The anti-nuclear lobby has been skilled in debate, and sometimes extraordinarily percipient; but less than fair in failing to acknowledge the industry's achievements and its willingness to learn from past mistakes. As for the politicians, the book contains many examples that show how the flames of controversy can be deliberately fanned when there are votes to be gained. The story has few heroes, but within the industry fewer villains than the public has been led to believe. (author)
In this dissertation, I explore contemporary transformations of both progressive sexual politics and queer theory from a politico-philosophical perspective. On the one hand, I analyze how LGBTQ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, queer) politics have been recently articulated to the politico-economic
Herbert, T. Walter
Discusses the false dichotomy pitting aesthetic power against political complicity in literary criticism. Considers the sexual politics of the household of Nathaniel Hawthorne in light of this opposition. Suggests how literary works keep warring voices and inner conflicts alive and at odds. (HB)
Veening, Jan G.; Coolen, LM; de Jong, TR; Joosten, Henk W.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Olivier, B; Coolen, Lique M.; Boer, Sietze F. de
It is a common belief that male aggressive and sexual behaviour share many of the underlying neurobiological, neurological, pharmacological and neuroendocrine mechanisms. Therefore, we studied brain activation patterns in male rat after performance of aggressive and sexual behaviour and compared
Veening, J.G.; Coolen, L.M.; Jong, T.R. de; Joosten, H.W.M.; Boer, S.F. de; Koolhaas, J.M.; Olivier, B.
It is a common belief that male aggressive and sexual behaviour share many of the underlying neurobiological, neurological, pharmacological and neuroendocrine mechanisms. Therefore, we studied brain activation patterns in male rat after performance of aggressive and sexual behaviour and compared
. It has moral and social responsibilities. Beyond the social function, this paper makes the claim that notions of marriage life, sexuality and moral responsibility have their foundations in indigenous soteriological beliefs and worldviews.
Full Text Available The paper is divided into three sections. The first section focuses on the contested nature of the sexual politics that surrounded the Jacob Zuma rape trial. This sexual politics was not simply the background to the "real" politics of the leadership succession battle between pro-Mbeki and pro-Zuma factions. The rise of sexual politics after apartheid, this paper argues, has largely been due to the politicization of sexuality and masculinity in response to HIV/AIDS. Section two examines the ways in which ideas about "traditional" Zulu masculinity were represented and performed in the Zuma trial, introducing the tension between universalistic sexual rights and particularistic sexual cultures. The third section of the paper is concerned with innovative attempts by a group of young men in Cape Town to create "alternative masculinities" (Connell, 1996 in a time of HIV and AIDS.
Friesen, Justin P; Campbell, Troy H; Kay, Aaron C
We propose that people may gain certain "offensive" and "defensive" advantages for their cherished belief systems (e.g., religious and political views) by including aspects of unfalsifiability in those belief systems, such that some aspects of the beliefs cannot be tested empirically and conclusively refuted. This may seem peculiar, irrational, or at least undesirable to many people because it is assumed that the primary purpose of a belief is to know objective truth. However, past research suggests that accuracy is only one psychological motivation among many, and falsifiability or testability may be less important when the purpose of a belief serves other psychological motives (e.g., to maintain one's worldviews, serve an identity). In Experiments 1 and 2 we demonstrate the "offensive" function of unfalsifiability: that it allows religious adherents to hold their beliefs with more conviction and political partisans to polarize and criticize their opponents more extremely. Next we demonstrate unfalsifiability's "defensive" function: When facts threaten their worldviews, religious participants frame specific reasons for their beliefs in more unfalsifiable terms (Experiment 3) and political partisans construe political issues as more unfalsifiable ("moral opinion") instead of falsifiable ("a matter of facts"; Experiment 4). We conclude by discussing how in a world where beliefs and ideas are becoming more easily testable by data, unfalsifiability might be an attractive aspect to include in one's belief systems, and how unfalsifiability may contribute to polarization, intractability, and the marginalization of science in public discourse. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.
In view of challenges of HIV/AIDS, unwanted pregnancy, unsafe abortion, Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIS) facing Nigerian adolescents there is need for greater political will in implementing a nation-wide program of Comprehensive Sexuality Education (CSE) which transcends the 'ABC' that promotes 'Abstinence', 'Be ...
McCall, George J.
Sexual assault prevention programming remains a confused, scattered, and sporadic enterprise with little scientific underpinning. Sexual assault prevention suffers because it neither fits the traditional crime prevention model, nor the traditional public health model of prevention programming. Traces political and technical consequences, and…
The origins and evolution of psychiatry as a medical discipline since the end of the 18th century have been influenced by society's beliefs about the 'nature of man', the dominant forms of social organisation, and the level of technology which could be mobilised to modify human behaviour. These are also the themes from which politics develop. Throughout the past two centuries and up to the present day, two distinct streams can be traced in the political history of psychiatry: first, psychiatry as social control of deviance; and secondly, psychiatry as advocacy of the 'right to be different'. The 'third psychiatric revolution' which is now in progress in many parts of the world has been inspired by the second set of beliefs. It has already produced positive effects on the quality of life of many patients but is also experiencing certain setbacks. The extent to which the new approach to mental health care delivery will benefit patients and society depends not so much on psychiatry as a discipline as on the perceptions and actions of politicians.
Ginsburg, F; Rapp, R
The topic of human reproduction encompasses events throughout the human and especially female life-cycle as well as ideas and practices surrounding fertility, birth, and child care. Most of the scholarship on the subject, up through the 1960s, was based on cross-cultural surveys focused on the beliefs, norms, and values surrounding reproductive behaviors. Multiple methodologies and subspecialties, and fields like social history, human biology, and demography were utilized for the analysis. The concept of the politics of reproduction synthesizes local and global perspectives. The themes investigated include: the concept of reproduction, population control, and the internationalization of state and market interests (new reproductive technologies); social movements and contested domains; medicalization and its discontents; fertility and its control; adolescence and teen pregnancy; birth; birth attendants; the construction of infancy and the politics of child survival; rethinking the demographic transition; networks of nurturance; and meanings of menopause. The medicalization of reproduction is a central issue of studies of birth, midwifery, infertility, and reproductive technologies. Scholars have also analyzed different parts of the female life-cycle as medical problems. Other issues worth analysis include the internationalization of adoption and child care workers; the crisis of infertility of low-income and minority women who are not candidates for expensive reproductive technologies; the concerns of women at high risk for HIV whose cultural status depends on their fertility; questions of reproduction concerning, lesbians and gay men (artificial insemination and discrimination in child rearing); the study of menopause; and fatherhood. New discourse analysis is used to analyze state eugenic policies; conflicts over Western neocolonial influences in which women's status as childbearers represent nationalist interests; fundamentalist attacks on abortion rights; and
Sheehan, Helena M
This paper is an examination of the philosophical and political legacy of John Desmond Bernal. It addresses the evidence of an emerging consensus on Bernal based on the recent biography of Bernal by Andrew Brown and the reviews it has received. It takes issue with this view of Bernal, which tends to be admiring of his scientific contribution, bemused by his sexuality, condescending to his philosophy and hostile to his politics. This article is a critical defence of his philosophical and political position
Sheehan, Helena M [Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland)
This paper is an examination of the philosophical and political legacy of John Desmond Bernal. It addresses the evidence of an emerging consensus on Bernal based on the recent biography of Bernal by Andrew Brown and the reviews it has received. It takes issue with this view of Bernal, which tends to be admiring of his scientific contribution, bemused by his sexuality, condescending to his philosophy and hostile to his politics. This article is a critical defence of his philosophical and political position.
Galis, Vasilis; Summerton, Jane
of various kinds, as well as for identifying and displacing undesired individuals/groups/bodies. A case in point is a recently-established police project (REVA) in Sweden for strengthening the so-called internal border control. Specifically, several underground stations in Stockholm now have checkpoints......Public spaces are often contested sites involving the political use of sociomaterial arrangements to check, control and filter the flow of people (see Virilio 1977, 1996). Such arrangements can include configurations of state-of-the-art policing technologies for delineating and demarcating borders...... status updates on identity checks at the metro stations in Stockholm and reports on locations and time of ticket controls for warning travelers. Thus the attempts by authorities to exert control over the (spatial) arena of the underground is circumvented by the effective developing of an alternative...
McAuliff, Bradley D; Bornstein, Brian H
This introduction describes what the co-editors believe readers can expect in this Special Issue. After beliefs and expectancies are defined, examples of how these constructs influence human thought, feeling, and behavior in legal settings are considered. Brief synopses are provided for the Special Issue papers on beliefs and expectancies regarding alibis, children's testimony behavior, eyewitness testimony, confessions, sexual assault victims, judges' decisions in child protection cases, and attorneys' beliefs about jurors' perceptions of juvenile offender culpability. Areas for future research are identified, and readers are encouraged to discover new ways that beliefs and expectancies operate in the legal system.
Hamilton, Lawrence C; Hartter, Joel; Lemcke-Stampone, Mary; Moore, David W; Safford, Thomas G
A simple question about climate change, with one choice designed to match consensus statements by scientists, was asked on 35 US nationwide, single-state or regional surveys from 2010 to 2015. Analysis of these data (over 28,000 interviews) yields robust and exceptionally well replicated findings on public beliefs about anthropogenic climate change, including regional variations, change over time, demographic bases, and the interacting effects of respondent education and political views. We find that more than half of the US public accepts the scientific consensus that climate change is happening now, caused mainly by human activities. A sizable, politically opposite minority (about 30 to 40%) concede the fact of climate change, but believe it has mainly natural causes. Few (about 10 to 15%) say they believe climate is not changing, or express no opinion. The overall proportions appear relatively stable nationwide, but exhibit place-to-place variations. Detailed analysis of 21 consecutive surveys within one fairly representative state (New Hampshire) finds a mild but statistically significant rise in agreement with the scientific consensus over 2010-2015. Effects from daily temperature are detectable but minor. Hurricane Sandy, which brushed New Hampshire but caused no disaster there, shows no lasting impact on that state's time series-suggesting that non-immediate weather disasters have limited effects. In all datasets political orientation dominates among individual-level predictors of climate beliefs, moderating the otherwise positive effects from education. Acceptance of anthropogenic climate change rises with education among Democrats and Independents, but not so among Republicans. The continuing series of surveys provides a baseline for tracking how future scientific, political, socioeconomic or climate developments impact public acceptance of the scientific consensus.
This study sought to determine whether religious beliefs could distinguish between older adolescent males of differing sexual experience and to determine whether such beliefs could distinguish between older adolescent males differing in frequency of contraceptive use. Results are discussed and implications for health educators are set forth. (MT)
Casper, Monica J; Carpenter, Laura M
HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the world. While most strains are relatively harmless, some increase a woman's risk of developing cervical cancer. This article explores the intimate, contested relationships among etiologies of cervical cancer, development and use of the new HPV vaccine, and contested notions of sexuality. We particularly focus on shifts in US health care and sexual politics, where the vaccine has animated longstanding concerns about vaccination (e.g. parental rights, cost, specialisation) and young women's bodies and behaviour. We conclude that vaccines are a distinctive kind of pharmaceutical, invoking notions of contagion and containment, and that politics shape every aspect of the pharmaceutical life course.
Figueiredo, Luis Claudio
A case of hysteria is presented in order to create a frame of reference for the author's approach to the concepts of hope, belief and faith. A difference between hope as a 'sad passion' (which is here called regressive hope) and hope as a principle of mental functioning is established. The concept of hope will at first always be based on beliefs--either beliefs organised in the paranoid-schizoid position (called here fragmented and delusional beliefs)--or those organised from the depressive position (complex systems of beliefs, which end up being dogmatic); the latter typically occur in neurotics. It is suggested here that there is another possibility for hope, which is based on faith. The meaning of faith is considered here externally to the religious sense. The solid establishment of hope as a principle--based on faith--can be viewed as responsible for the opening up of creative potentials and as one of the main aims of analysis. Such an aim, however requires the establishment of a deep relationship, both in theory and in clinical practice, between the Kleinian question of the depressive position and the Freudian question of the Oedipus complex.
Null, Eldon J.; Smead, William H.
In this study, statistical analyses indicated that certain dimensions of political belief, particularly Foreign Affairs and Nature of Man and Society, are related to certain dimensions of leader behavior. (Authors)
Camelia Florela Voinea
Full Text Available This paper presents empirical modeling research on political socialization of the citizens in the new Eastern European democracies. The political socialization issue offers a comparative perspective over the modeling methodologies in analytical paradigms. Eastern European political culture research has revealed features of the electoral behavior and political participation which can be identified in different degrees in all the new democracies in the area: passivity with respect to political activity of parties, elites and institutions, political apathy or lack of reaction to anti-democratic actions, skepticism or distrust in institutions, scarce participation to social movements. Several authors explain the actual political behavior of the Eastern European citizens’ and their low social and political involvement by the (political culture heritage of the communist regimes in which they lived for a long time, and which keeps shaping their political attitudes towards the state, civil society, government and institutions. Research issues in the analysis of political participation are traditionally based on statistics analyses of empirical evidence coming from public surveys. However, scarcity ofempirical data from the communist periode with regard to (political socialization, values and beliefs represent a major obstacle towards a better understanding of the historical roots of current behaviors and attitudes. Scarcity of observational data might be overcome by computational and simulation modeling.
Barnes, Carolyn Y; Hope, Elan C
In recent years, scholars have pointed to the politically demobilizing effects of means-tested assistance programs on recipients. In this study, we bridge the insights from policy feedback literature and adolescent political socialization research to examine how receiving means-tested programs shapes parent influence on adolescent political participation. We argue that there are differences in pathways to political participation through parent political socialization and youth internal efficacy beliefs for adolescents from households that do or do not receive means-tested assistance. Using data from a nationally representative sample of 536 Black, Latino, and White adolescents (50.8% female), we find that adolescents from means-tested assistance households report less parent political socialization and political participation. For all youth, parent political socialization predicts adolescent political participation. Internal political efficacy is a stronger predictor of political participation for youth from a non-means-tested assistance household than it is for youth from a household receiving means-tested assistance. These findings provide some evidence of differential paths to youth political participation via exposure to means-tested programs.
Vitak, Jessica; Zube, Paul; Smock, Andrew; Carr, Caleb T; Ellison, Nicole; Lampe, Cliff
In the 2008 U.S. presidential election, social network sites such as Facebook allowed users to share their political beliefs, support specific candidates, and interact with others on political issues. But do political activities on Facebook affect political participation among young voters, a group traditionally perceived as apathetic in regard to civic engagement? Or do these activities represent another example of feel-good participation that has little real-world impact, a concept often referred to as "slacktivism"? Results from a survey of undergraduate students (N = 683) at a large public university in the Midwestern United States conducted in the month prior to the election found that students tend to engage in lightweight political participation both on Facebook and in other venues. Furthermore, two OLS regressions found that political activity on Facebook (e.g., posting a politically oriented status update, becoming a "fan" of a candidate) is a significant predictor of other forms of political participation (e.g., volunteering for an organizing, signing a paper or online petition), and that a number of factors--including intensity of Facebook use and the political activity users see their friends performing on the site--predict political activity on Facebook. Students' perceptions regarding the appropriateness of political activity on Facebook, as well as the specific kinds of political activities they engaged in and witnessed within the site, were also explored.
Swami, Viren; Furnham, Adrian; Haubner, Tanja; Stieger, Stefan; Voracek, Martin
Previous investigators of extraterrestrial beliefs have relied on single-item scales, which limit the researchers' understanding of such beliefs. The present authors report responses to a 37-item scale about extraterrestrial beliefs from 320 participants in Austria and 257 participants in Britain. A factor analysis revealed 3 primary factors that were stable across sites: (a) belief that extraterrestrial life has visited Earth and that governmental agencies have knowledge of this fact, (b) scientific search for extraterrestrial life, and (c) general beliefs about the existence of extraterrestrial life. Participants rated only Factor 3 positively, suggesting that there is a distinction between paranormal-related beliefs and science-related beliefs. The authors found only political orientation and religiosity to be significantly correlated with factor scores. They discuss their results in relation to previous reports of extraterrestrial beliefs.
Rowe, Kathleen K.
Traces the Romanticism in the work and persona of film director Jean-Luc Godard. Examines the contradictions posed by Godard's politics and representations of sexuality. Asserts, that by bringing an ironic distance to the works of such canonized directors, viewers can take pleasure in those works despite their contradictions. (MM)
We clarified the nature of sexual compulsivity in adolescence, addressed who is labeled as "sexually compulsive youth," conceptualized the underlying factors of sexual compulsivity, and outlined a treatment format. We focused on trauma, dissociation, attachment, and self-concept. We questioned the conventional perceptions of who is included in this group. We reiterated that the belief that sexually compulsive adolescents are abusive males is no longer considered accurate. The evolution and accessibility of the Internet only raises greater concerns about compulsive sexual behavior, as more adolescents are brought into therapy because of Internet use to seek sexual interaction or stimulation. The sexually compulsive youth is as likely to be the clean-cut, high-achieving, intelligent student as is the economically deprived, juvenile delinquent on the street. This article began with the observation that adolescents rarely receive any direct, accurate information about sexuality and intimacy. The messages taken in through music, television, movies, politicians, popular press, clergy, and school are polarizing and contradictory. Beyond this are the implications as to how we, as a society, treat the youths that do present with sexual behavior problems. We have tended to treat these youth (as well as adults) with disdain and to designate sexually abusive youth the same as adult offenders with harsher, more punitive treatment interventions. Research and clinical experience now strongly question this type of response. This article is consistent with this leaning. Early psychological injury, from sexual abuse, physical abuse, exposure to violence, attachment trauma, or early sexualization, is at the root of sexually compulsive behavior. While it is necessary to reign in out-of-control and destructive behaviors, if we acknowledge that the source of the behavior is psychological injury, then it is cruel and inconsistent to treat the individual with disdain or as a pariah. The
Full Text Available Political crowdfunding is analyzed as a new concept of political science. The justification of use of crowdfunding technologies not only in business but also in the political sphere is argued. The efficiency, availability, low cost of the new forms of political investment through the development of information and communication technologies are noted. The typology of political crowdfunding is proposed. Political projects promoting domestic crowdfunding platforms are analyzed. Attention is drawn to the problem of legal gaps in the regulation of crowdfunding is studied. The foreign experience of organizing public support (mikroinvestment political projects. It is emphasized that in terms of political theory crowdfunding is based on solidarity. The crowdfunding properties of transforming social capital accumulated by social networks into financial capital are mentioned.
Zafar, Sadia; Ross, Erin C.
The Childhood Sexual Abuse Stereotypes Scale was developed to assess stereotypes of adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Scale items were derived from two studies that elicited cultural and personal beliefs about, and emotions experienced towards adult childhood sexual abuse survivors among university undergraduates. Two scales, Emotions and…
Byers, E Sandra; O'Sullivan, Lucia F; Brotto, Lori A
Researchers have given significant attention to abstinence among adolescents, but far less is known about purposeful avoidance of sexual activity (and relationship involvement). Typically, it is assumed that, once adolescents have initiated sexual activity, they will thereafter engage in sexual activity if given the opportunity. However, it is unclear whether that is true as some research indicates that many adolescents engage in sexual activity intermittently. Sexually experienced adolescents may purposefully avoid engaging in sexual activity for a period of time and, if so, this has implications for understanding their sexual decision-making. We used a mixed methods approach to investigate sexually experienced adolescents' decisions to purposefully avoid further sexual activity and/or romantic relationships with a focus on how common these decisions are and factors influencing them. Participants were 411 (56 % female) adolescents (16-21 years old) who completed an on-line survey that assessed reasons for each type of avoidance, religiosity, sexual esteem, sexual distress, sexual coercion, and dysfunctional sexual beliefs. Overall, 27 % of participants had engaged in sexual avoidance and 47 % had engaged in romantic avoidance. Significantly more female than male adolescents reported sexual and romantic avoidance. Adolescents' reasons for sexual avoidance included: lack of sexual pleasure or enjoyment, relationship reasons, negative emotions, values, fear of negative outcomes, negative physical experience, and other priorities. Reasons for romantic avoidance included: effects of previous relationship, not interested in commitment, wrong time, other priorities, negative emotions, no one was good enough, and sexual concerns. Logistical regressions were used to assess associations between age, religiosity, sexual esteem, sexual distress, experience of sexual coercion, and dysfunctional sexual beliefs and having engaged in romantic and/or sexual avoidance. The
Claudia Franziska Brühwiler
Full Text Available Le Complot contre l’Amérique de Philip Roth décrit l’initiation politique de ses deux protagonistes, le narrateur Philip et son frère aîné, Sanford. Tandis que ce dernier passe par un processus initiatique quasi classique — il se déroule conformément au schéma tripartite de van Gennep — l’apogée de l’initiation de Philip est marquée par douleur et blessure. Toutefois, tous les deux connaissent seulement une initiation partielle, car le premier doit d’abord admettre ses erreurs tandis que le second va devoir apprendre, non seulement à remettre en cause l’autorité, mais également à développer ses idées de façon indépendante.Philip Roth’s The Plot Against America traces the political awakening of its two child protagonists, the narrator Philip and his elder brother Sanford. While the latter undergoes an initiation process nearly in accordance with the classical tripartite scheme as coined by van Gennep, the height of Philip’s initiation process is marked by physical pain and injury. However, both experience only a partial initiation, since the elder brother will have to recognize his errors and the younger one will first have to learn how to go beyond the mere questioning of authority.
Courtois, R; Mullet, E; Malvy, D
The pandemic due to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is extensive in Sub-Saharan Africa and especially in Congo. Congo is a small country on the Atlantic coast and characterized by plentiful equatorial forests and low population density (essentially urban). In Congo, there is a high prevalence of HIV. The social and economic consequences of AIDS add to those of a recent civil war in 1997. There were fratricidal confrontations before and after this period. These confrontations have led to a massive exodus of the inhabitants of the capital, Brazzaville, to the forests and neighbouring cities, essentially towards Pointe-Noire. Pointe-Noire, chief place of the region of Kouilou, in the South of the country, is the second city of Congo and the economic Capital. It is undoubtedly for this reason that it has been globally saved. In this context, a sanitary policy of prevention of sexual risky behavior can appear as a challenge. While it supposes a better knowledge of the sexual activity of the young people, it cannot be dissociated from the analysis of the other factors. These factors can be of socio-economic political or cultural order. Thus the influence of cultural variables in the field of sexuality is certainly preponderant in African countries, where sexuality is taboo. Sexuality is a private matter (personal intimacy and the couple), but concerns also the family (in the sense of membership in an extended domestic group or in a system of relationship) in its aspects related to procreation and to the social field (power, alliances). Such individual behaviour can be lived as a questioning of the social order. In this article, the authors question the place of sexuality in Congo, particularly based on the work of anthropologists [2, 6, 7, 9]. Research in the field of sexuality at adolescence is rather recent in France and investigations that have been done in Congo these last ten years do not exist. Meetings and exchanges in 1998 with high-school pupils and
Orlović Slobodan P.
Full Text Available In this work the author refers to some legal and political questions in connection with green political parties. Those questions cover: the ideology of green political parties, their number and influence, both in general and in Serbia. The first part of work is generally speaking about political parties - their definition, ideology, role and action. Main thesis in this work is that green political parties, by their appearance, were something new on the political scene. But quickly, because of objective and subjective reasons, they were changing original ideas and were beginning to resemble to all other political parties. In this way, they lost their vanguard and political alternativeness.
Johnston, James Scott
Education is oftentimes understood as a deeply ethical practice for the development of the person. Alternatively, education is construed as a state-enforced apparatus for inculcation of specific codes, conventions, beliefs, and norms about social and political practices. Though holding both of these beliefs about education is not necessarily…
This article reviews the history of American sexuality in the 20th century. Section 1 reveals how the nation dealt with the economic technological and social effects of industrialization at the start of the century. Section 2 examines the second decade of the century, which was characterized by the emergence of social and feminist theorists such as Sigmund Freud, who reevaluated the meaning of sex and sexuality beyond the procreative framework. Section 3 explores the shift in sexual behaviors and attitudes, which began during the 1920s. Practices like dating, necking, and petting became part of growing up and a real form of sexuality education. Sections 4 and 5, respectively, examine American sexuality during the Great Depression and the changes in the sexual landscape during the 1940s. Section 6 offers a glimpse on sexuality in the pop culture decade, when television entered American homes. In this period sexual ethics became a hotly debated issue. Section 7 examines the effect of scientific research on female sexuality. Institutional breakthroughs on human sexuality in 1970s are considered in section 8. During this decade, a new goal for sexual education emerged: the promotion of sexual health. Section 9 reviews the issue of AIDS amidst religious-political extremism, which used the epidemic to advance an anti-homosexuality agenda and push abstinence education in schools. Section 10 describes American sexuality at the end of the 20th century, the availability of school-based sexuality education programs, the public response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic, sexuality and politics, and the role of the Internet.
Renner, K. Edward; Yurchesyn, Kathaleen A.
Political efforts by feminists in the 1970s and early 1980s resulted in the redefinition of rape as physical assault in Canada's 1983 rape law in the Criminal Code. This paper argues that treating a woman's sexuality as "property," as did the rape law prior to 1983, was correct. Redefining rape as sexual assault, and measuring the…
Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan C.
Recently, the areas of strategic political marketing and political market orientation have been the subject of several conceptual articles which have provided the theoretical foundations for further empirical work. However, despite the close conceptual relatedness of the proposed concepts...... by developing an integrated concept of political marketing strategy using two complementary frameworks, namely Strategic Political Postures (SPP) and Political Market Orientation (PMO). We introduce the two main concepts and derive for each of the strategic posture-specific PMO profiles as well as inter...
Chonody, Jill M; Kavanagh, Phillip S; Woodford, Michael R
Research suggests that contact with sexual minorities and etiology beliefs regarding the origins of homosexuality are associated with antigay bias; however, factors related to etiology beliefs have received little empirical attention. Our primary research question is: Does closeness to someone who is gay, lesbian, or bisexual influence etiology beliefs? Students (n = 851) from four U.S. universities completed an anonymous survey, and regression results indicated that contact and closeness were not significantly associated with etiology beliefs. Because both contact and relationship closeness were associated with antigay attitudes, and closeness demonstrated the largest effect, we tested three alternative structural equation models to determine if contact and closeness mediated etiology beliefs. Results suggested that contact and the degree of closeness are indirectly associated with students' etiology beliefs through antigay bias.
Baltag, A.; Smets, S.
We investigate the discrete (finite) case of the Popper-Renyi theory of conditional probability, introducing discrete conditional probabilistic models for knowledge and conditional belief, and comparing them with the more standard plausibility models. We also consider a related notion, that of safe
Zeuthen, Katrine Egede; Gammelgård, Judy
When first presented, Freud´s theory of infantile sexuality was a scandal. Not only was the claim that the small child sucking at the mother´s breast experiences a kind of pleasure that Freud without hesitation named sexual, the theory also turned the common understanding of human sexuality up...... vision of the sexual. Following a historic outline, we examine the theories that inspired by Laplanche, once more discuss infantile sexuality, and argue that infantile sexuality is clarified by combining the concept of the drive with what in effect is an inter-subjective point of view....
Ormrod, Robert P.
’ and ‘narrow’ interpretations of political marketing, the nature of the political marketing exchange, political relationship marketing and how one can integrate the stakeholder concept into an understanding of political marketing. Finally, we propose a definition of political marketing that differs from......The aim of this working paper is to develop a definition of political marketing that builds on the political rather than commercial marketing literature. This aim is motivated by the need to make explicit our understanding of what political marketing is, a necessary exercise when discussing theory......, concepts and empirical methods in political marketing. We first present five existing definitions of political marketing that have been selected to represent advances in research from the origins of academic research into political marketing in the mid-1970’s to the present day. After this we discuss ‘wide...
Bianchi-Demicheli, Francesco; Ammar, Nadia; Bolmont, Mylène; Dosch, Alessandra; Favez, Nicolas; Van der Linden, Martial; Widmer, Eric
In the last years, University Fund Maurice Chalumeau (FUMC) launched a dynamic of research designed to promote scientific excellence and the development of Sexology with particular interest regarding sexual desire. The FUMC has supported a research project entitled "Neurobiological, psychological and sociological approach to sexual desire and sexual satisfaction". This project, sampled on 600 people (300 men and 300 women) aged between 25 and 46 years, was structured around three studies: a broad sociological study and two more specific ones, focused on some psychological mechanisms and neurobiological factors involved in sexual desire. The results show how the secondary socialization, personal expectations, beliefs and values in sexuality, sexual motivations, body image, as well as the neurobiological foundations and visual patterns, are of vital importance in the dynamics of sexual desire.
Bernstein, Elizabeth; Jakobsen, Janet R
Through an analysis of alliances between secular and religious actors in US politics and a specific case study on anti-trafficking policy, we show that the intertwining of religion and politics in the US comes from two sources: 1) the secular political and cultural institutions of American public life that have developed historically out of Protestantism, and which predominantly operate by presuming Protestant norms and values; and 2) the direct influence on US politics of religious groups and organisations, particularly in the past quarter-century of lobby groups and political action committees identified with conservative evangelical Christianity. The sources of policies that promote gender and sexual inequality in the US are both secular and religious and we conclude that it is inaccurate to assume that religious influence in politics is necessarily conservative or that more secular politics will necessarily be more progressive than the religious varieties.
Full Text Available Climate change is a political as well as an environmental issue. Climate change beliefs are commonly associated with voting behaviour, but are they associated with swings in voting behaviour? The latter are arguably more important for election outcomes. This paper investigates the predictive power of these beliefs on voting swings at the 2010 Australian federal election after controlling for a range of other related factors (demographic characteristics of voters, different worldviews about nature and the role of government, and the perceived opportunity cost of addressing climate change. Drawing on data from two nationally representative surveys of voters and data from the Australian Electoral Commission, this paper investigates relationships between climate change beliefs and voting swings at both the individual and electorate levels. At an individual level, a hypothetical 10% change in climate change beliefs was associated with a 2.6% swing from a conservative Coalition and a 2.0% swing toward Labor and 1.7% toward the Greens party, both left on the political spectrum. At the electorate level, this equates to a shift of 21 seats between the two main political parties (the Coalition and Labor in Australia’s 150 seat parliament, after allocating Green preferences. Given many seats are marginal, even modest shifts in climate change beliefs can be associated with changes in electoral outcomes. Thus, climate change is expected to remain a politically contested issue in countries like Australia where political parties seek to distinguish themselves, in part, by their responses to climate change.
Egor A. Stepkin
Full Text Available Abstract: This article deals with analyzing the place and the political Islam occupies on the Palestinian territories. The author tries to prove that despite the “Arab spring” and growing popularity of Islamism in the neighbor Arab countries its popular support among Palestinians is low. The main reason for this is Israeli total control of political, economic and - partially - social processes taking place in the West Bank. Position of the officials in Ramallah who together with Tel-Aviv strictly contain spread of Islamism throughout the West Bank also has a strong suppressing effect. Central Palestinian leadership may be called one of the few secular political establishments that are still in power in the Arab countries. The main explanation for this is the desire to make a positive effect on the international community, which Palestine totally depends on in political and financial terms. Also one should keep in mind secular beliefs of the current political elite in Palestine. President Mahmoud Abbas with his counterparts from FATAH and PLO represent old type of Arab nationalist politicians, almost all of who were stripped from power after the beginning of “Arab spring” in 2011. Finally, Palestinian society itself still feels united by the idea of national liberation from the Israeli occupation. This helps Palestinians to put aside the issue of religious self-identification. According to the surveys, most of Palestinians still rank their national identity number while describing their identity, while religion comes only second (despite the strong stable tendency for growing Islamization of their views. The only Palestinian enclave where political Islam has gained ground is isolated Gaza Strip. However ruling there “Islamic Resistance Movement” (HAMAS, despite declared anti-Zionism and Islamism, in reality show pragmatic readiness for certain coordination of its actions with Israel and central government in Ramallah. Nowadays one can
Kazukauskas, Kelly A.; Lam, Chow S.
This study investigated Certified Rehabilitation Counselors' (CRCs) beliefs about the importance of addressing sexuality issues during rehabilitation. A modified version of the Family Life Sex Education Goals Questionnaire (FLSEGQ) was completed by 199 CRCs to determine which issues CRCs believe are most important to address. Six sexuality-related…
Dialogue with teenagers about sexual health is of global concern, as it is found mostly to be minimal, if not absent. This limitation is influenced by the cultural values, beliefs and norms of teenagers. To a great extent, culture influences which and how sexual health issues can be discussed between teenagers and adults.
Ferfolja, Tania; Ullman, Jacqueline
Although social acceptance of gender and sexuality diversity is growing in Australian society, in schools, visibility and inclusion of knowledge pertaining to those who are gender- and/or sexuality-diverse, such as lesbians, gay men and transgender people, remain marginalised. This may be due, in part, to a belief that parents are opposed to such…
Sexuality education is the process of acquiring information and forming attitudes and beliefs about sex, sexual identity, relationships and intimacy. It develops young people's skills so that they make informed choices about their behaviour, and feel confident and competent about acting on these choices. It also equips ...
Kim, ChanMin; Kim, Min Kyu; Lee, Chiajung; Spector, J. Michael; DeMeester, Karen
The purpose of this exploratory mixed methods study was to investigate how teacher beliefs were related to technology integration practices. We were interested in how and to what extent teachers' (a) beliefs about the nature of knowledge and learning, (b) beliefs about effective ways of teaching, and (c) technology integration practices were…
Wolfe, Michael B; Williams, Todd J
When people change beliefs as a result of reading a text, are they aware of these changes? This question was examined for beliefs about spanking as an effective means of discipline. In two experiments, subjects reported beliefs about spanking effectiveness during a prescreening session. In a subsequent experimental session, subjects read a one-sided text that advocated a belief consistent or inconsistent position on the topic. After reading, subjects reported their current beliefs and attempted to recollect their initial beliefs. Subjects reading a belief inconsistent text were more likely to change their beliefs than those who read a belief consistent text. Recollections of initial beliefs tended to be biased in the direction of subjects' current beliefs. In addition, the relationship between the belief consistency of the text read and accuracy of belief recollections was mediated by belief change. This belief memory bias was independent of on-line text processing and comprehension measures, and indicates poor metacognitive awareness of belief change.
Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo analisar os principais dispositivos de discurso que estabelecem fronteiras e hierarquias entre práticas sexuais. Pretende-se analisar em que medida a utilização de alguns conceitos da Psicanálise, da Antropologia e do Direito são evocados para definir fronteiras entre sexualidades normais e desviantes. Para isto, serão destacadas: a construção, por aqueles discursos, do dispositivo "diferença sexual" (de hierarquia entre os sexos e de exclusão da homossexualidade e a noção de "ordem procriativa" (atualizadora de um modelo biológico de filiação. A partir dessas premissas, nota-se que a tríade heterossexualidade-casamento-filiação permanece como a única referência possível para pensar a cultura ou a sociedade, sendo que a visibilidade ou o reconhecimento civil do laço afetivo e sexual homossexual se transforma numa ameaça de apagamento de fronteiras ou de transgressões de limites.This study aims to analyze the main discursive devices that establish borders and hierarchies among sexual practices. The objective is to analyze to what extent the utilization of certain concepts from psychoanalysis, anthropology, and law are invoked to define borders between normal and deviant sexualities. The following points are highlighted: the construction, by these discourses, of the "sexual difference" device (hierarchy between the sexes and exclusion of homosexuality and the notion of "procreative order" (updating a biological model of filiation. Based on these premises, one notes that the heterosexuality-marriage-filiation triad remains as the only possible reference to conceive of culture or society, while the visibility or civil recognition of homosexual affective and sexual ties threatens to erase borders or transgress limits.
TÀNIA VERGE MESTRE
Full Text Available This article explores the role of individual resources, situational factors, and the socialization process in the persistence of a gender gap in political dispositions, principally in political interest. We pay special attention to situational factors, especially those related to the time devoted to housework and caring responsibilities. Despite the growing participation of women in the labor market and increasingly comparable levels of male and female educational attainment, the enduring unequal sexual division of household tasks reduces women?s time availability as well as the pool of skills, resources and social networks which could foster their political engagement, thus helping to sustain the gender gap in political interest.
Low, W Y
A sexual health course was offered and taught by academic staff from the Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya during semester II of every year as a university elective course to other university students apart from medical students. The course covered a wide range of topics: adolescent sexuality, family planning and pregnancy, violence against women, alternative sexual behavior, physiology of sex, sex and the disabled, gender bias in sexuality, relationship and marriage, sexual dysfunctions, clarification of sexual attitudes and STDs and AIDS. The Sexual Knowledge and Attitude Test (SKAT-II) was used to measure students' pre- and post-course scores on sexual knowledge and attitudes. Fifty-four students who completed both the pre- and post-course tests showed a significant change in sexual knowledge and their attitudes towards sexual myths and autoeroticism. Sexual knowledge was also positively correlated with age, heterosexual relations, autoeroticism and sexual myths scores. However, sexual knowledge is negatively related to religiosity and the influence of religious beliefs on one's attitudes towards sexual matters. This study showed that the sexual health course offered does have a positive impact in increasing one's knowledge and changing one's attitudes towards sexual issues.
Sexual Violence Facts at a Glance 2012 Adults In a nationally representative survey of adults: 1 • Nearly 1 in ... 5.6% and 5.3%, respectively) experienced sexual violence other than rape, such as being made to ...
Through a series of interrelated essays, this book explores fundamental issues concerning gender, sexual and romantic attraction, sexual desire and fantasies, the sexual positions, age dysphoria, and the role of naked skin in human sexuality. It does so by exploring experiential, social, biological......, and evolutionary aspects of sexual life. The author criticizes several popular views, rejecting both social constructionist accounts of gender and social constructionist and biological accounts of sexual desire. It is argued instead that gender roles and gender are often confused and that gender itself is based...... on sex. It is further argued that sexual desire is an existential need based on the experience of having a gendered body. A case study of age dysphoria is presented showing how the conclusions concerning concerning gender and desire apply in an atypical case. The body's fundamental role in sexuality...
... abused? Domestic or intimate partner violence Signs of domestic violence or abuse Getting a restraining order Leaving an abusive relationship Effects of domestic violence on children Sexual assault and rape Sexual assault ...
Surveys the interrelationship between language and politics. Touches on the context of political discourse, or political culture and ideology in new and old democracies and the reemerging manifestations of totalitarianism, censorship, and linguistic imperialism; then examines selected linguistic features of political discourse and their…
Rahimi, Regina; Liston, Delores D.
"Pervasive Vulnerabilities" explores the beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors of adolescent girls and boys and female teachers in order to expose the continuing persistence of sexual harassment in the United States. The book addresses the sexual double standard that continues to hold girls and women accountable for male sexual aggression, and…
This study examined the effects of a sexual health curriculum developed for school psychological counsellors in Turkey on the sexual health knowledge of the participating candidates, their beliefs in sexual myths and their tendencies towards ambivalent sexism and sexism in romantic relationships. The study adopted a semi-experimental design. Study…
Fernando Luiz Cardoso
Full Text Available This article discusses some theoretical contributions in the field of sexual orientation, as well as, important concepts and their articulation with on of sexual orientation extremes – the homosexuality. I avoided taking the comfortable posture politically correct when trying to discuss these categories of the sexuality based only on data and evidences, and not only on concepts and unnoticeable fallacious. The purpose of this discussion is to reorganize in Portuguese some theories in order to clarify this subject to guide future researches inside of kinesis science with more explanatory stamp that is going to influence the political perception of bodyness.
Zeuthen, Katrine Egede; Gammelgård, Judy
When first presented, Freud´s theory of infantile sexuality was a scandal. Not only was the claim that the small child sucking at the mother´s breast experiences a kind of pleasure that Freud without hesitation named sexual, the theory also turned the common understanding of human sexuality up-si...
Leif Edward Ottesen Kennair
Full Text Available The current study sought to answer three key questions about explaining the emotion of regret in the domain of casual sex: Are sex differences in sexual regret robust or attenuated in a highly egalitarian culture? What proximate psychological variables might explain sex differences in sexual regret? And what accounts for within-sex variation in experiences of sexual regret about casual sex. We conducted a study of 263 Norwegian students (ages 19–37 who reported how much they regretted having either engaged in, or passed up, their most recent casual sexual experience. Sex differences in sexual regret are not attenuated in this sexually egalitarian culture. The study revealed sex differences in worries about pregnancy, STIs, and reputation; however, these predictors did not succeed in accounting for the sex differences in regret engaging in casual sex. Sexual gratification and socio-sexual orientation both predicted the sex differences in casual sex regret. In contrast, only socio-sexual orientation attenuated the sex difference in regret passing up casual sex. Predictors of within-sex variation in casual sexual regret included worry about sexual reputation, experienced gratification during the encounter, and socio-sexual orientation. Discussion focuses on implications for the psychological design features of this relatively neglected emotion.
Irina V. Smirnova
Full Text Available Thanks to different mass media sources, members of any society are well aware of political developments and events and politicians. Every person has his or her own formed political beliefs and affirmations, interpreters other people's actions during political developments and evaluates events that take place. Political forces, in turn, see a person (a potential elector as an object of external information influence. This lets them use political communication when competing for the power. In the modern democratic society this competition is carried out via parliamentarian debates, politicians' speeches, examining political parties' programs, political agitation and voting. General audience-oriented political discourse implements its function of political information influence. As the goal of any political party's program (as an independent form of text in the system of political discourse is to win the elections and come to power, thus the audience influence function is one of the most fundamental and serve as the basis for the text. The text of a program itself is characterized by its persuasive orientation towards the audience, which reveal itself in such methods as convincing, argumentation, manipulation and evaluation. All the political programs pertain to parties which are at the power or which are in opposition. The main characteristic of oppositional programs is the criticism of the power, vice versa, the dominant party's programs confirm the correctness of their policy. All the political programs are multi-authored. The written form of any political program lets put into practice a detailed text analysis. This article presents the analysis of the texts of two leading Spanish political parties (the Spanish socialist worker's party and the people's party of Spain.
Ormrod, Robert P.
The aim of this working paper is to develop a definition of political marketing that builds on the political rather than commercial marketing literature. This aim is motivated by the need to make explicit our understanding of what political marketing is, a necessary exercise when discussing theory, concepts and empirical methods in political marketing. We first present five existing definitions of political marketing that have been selected to represent advances in research from the origins o...
Petrie, Brian M.
A variety of reports, both conjectural and scientific, as well as current beliefs of the youth counterculture have identified university athletes as being more politically conservative than nonathletes. The present study evaluated the political attitudes of students of the University of Western Ontario on several dimensions: a) "global…
Hess, Diana; Gatti, Lauren
Throughout the last 50 years, the debate over engaging politics in the college classroom has raged on, sparked in part by the belief that liberal biases saturate scholarship and teaching in universities, which in turn lays the bedrock for the left-wing indoctrination of students. Polarizing and vitriolic debates abound regarding if, when, and how…
Hvidt, Niels Christian
Faith and hope in divine healing figure in most religious traditions. This chapter looks at faith in healing miracles and explores how following that faith may involve both risks and advantages. On the one hand, it may imply a risk by camouflaging a deferring attitude as when patients decline...... medical treatment on the basis of their belief in Divine intervention. On the other hand, faith in miracles forms an important part of a well-integrated religiosity by inspiring hope and so helping patients to find meaning and initiative in situations in which they might otherwise be tempted to give up....... Against the backdrop of such considerations, the chapter provides recommendations for health professionals and relatives as how to handle patient belief in miracles in practice....
Vasvári, Louise O.
In her article "Gendered Hate Speech and Political Discourse in Recent U.S. Elections and in Postsocialist Hungary" Louise O. Vasvári illustrates gendered political discourse in the U.S. through a case study of the 2008 presidential campaign. While the campaign turned into a plebiscite on gender and sexual politics with Hillary Clinton and other female political figures depicted in the most traditionally misogynist terms, Barack Obama has in some leftist circles been seen as an empathetic fig...
Schulte, Erica M.; Tuttle, Hannah M.; Gearhardt, Ashley N.
Objectives This study examines whether belief in the food addiction construct is associated with support for obesity-related policies (e.g., restrictions on foods served in schools and workplace cafeterias, subsidies on fruits and vegetables), while simultaneously examining other factors associated with policy support (e.g., political party affiliation). Design Cross-sectional. Setting Online Community. Participants 200 individuals were recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk. Measurements P...
Bell, David L; Rosenberger, Joshua G; Ott, Mary A
There is a need to understand better the complex interrelationship between the adoption of masculinity during adolescence and the development of early romantic and sexual relationships. The purpose of this study was to describe features of adolescent masculinity and how it is expressed in the contexts of early to middle adolescent males' romantic and sexual relationships. Thirty-three 14- to 16-year-old males were recruited from an adolescent clinic serving a community with high sexually transmitted infection rates and were asked open-ended questions about their relationships-how they developed, progressed, and ended. Participants described a high degree of relationally oriented beliefs and behaviors related to romantic and sexual relationships, such as a desire for intimacy and trust. The males also described a more limited degree of conventionally masculine beliefs and behaviors. These beliefs and behaviors often coexisted or overlapped. Implications for the clinical care of similar groups of adolescents are described. © The Author(s) 2014.
... of sexual interest and willingness to be sexual. Sexual arousal disorder. Your desire for sex might be intact, but ... orgasm after sufficient sexual arousal and ongoing stimulation. Sexual pain disorder. You have pain associated with sexual stimulation or ...
An analytical framework for dealing with political entrepreneurship and reform is proposed which is based on some new combinations of Schumpeterian political economy, an extended version of Tullock's model of democracy as franchise-bidding for natural monopoly and some basic elements of New Institutional Economics. It is shown that problems of insufficient award criteria and incomplete contracts which may arise in economic bidding schemes, also - and even more so - characterise political comp...
The author argues that the fossilized belief that sex is preserve of the married and the concomitant label of persons with sex-related objects as sexual perverts inhibit reproductive health-seeking behaviour, with consequences for exposure to HIV/AIDS. The finding is puzzling amidst numerous HIV/AIDS Awareness ...
Lindsay, D. Stephen
This conference address examines the question of whether "memory work"--using therapeutic techniques to help clients recover suspected hidden memories of childhood sexual abuse--has led some clients to develop illusory memories or false beliefs. Prospective research on memory for childhood trauma indicates that the gist of traumatic…
Bailey, J Michael; Vasey, Paul L; Diamond, Lisa M; Breedlove, S Marc; Vilain, Eric; Epprecht, Marc
SummaryOngoing political controversies around the world exemplify a long-standing and widespread preoccupation with the acceptability of homosexuality. Nonheterosexual people have seen dramatic surges both in their rights and in positive public opinion in many Western countries. In contrast, in much of Africa, the Middle East, the Caribbean, Oceania, and parts of Asia, homosexual behavior remains illegal and severely punishable, with some countries retaining the death penalty for it. Political controversies about sexual orientation have often overlapped with scientific controversies. That is, participants on both sides of the sociopolitical debates have tended to believe that scientific findings-and scientific truths-about sexual orientation matter a great deal in making political decisions. The most contentious scientific issues have concerned the causes of sexual orientation-that is, why are some people heterosexual, others bisexual, and others homosexual? The actual relevance of these issues to social, political, and ethical decisions is often poorly justified, however. © The Author(s) 2016.
Full Text Available Ethics and politics are normally considered domains that do not mix, in fact, domains that have little to do with one another. In this article, I provide four factual fictions that show how at the university, research ethics and politics are intertwined. Politics appears to be used for the sole purpose of constructing and maintaining control over the research process and its products. Ultimately, even ethics reviews of proposed research studies are caught up in the politics of power. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0403357
Zeuthen, Katrine Egede; Gammelgård, Judy
Clinical Encounters in Sexuality makes an intervention into the fields of clinical psychoanalysis and sexuality studies, in an effort to think about a range of issues relating to sexuality from a clinical psychoanalytic perspective. This book concentrates on a number of concepts, namely identity......, desire, pleasure, perversion, ethics and discourse. The editors, Noreen Giffney and Eve Watson, have chosen queer theory, a sub-field of sexuality studies, as an interlocutor for the clinical contributors, because it is at the forefront of theoretical considerations of sexuality, as well as being both...... a self-reflective attitude in clinical readers about sexuality which historically has tended toward reification. The central questions we present to readers to think about are: 1. What are the discourses of sexuality underpinning psychoanalysis, and how do they impact on clinical practice? 2. In what...
Córdoba García, David
Full Text Available This text intends to approach the question of sexual identity as it has been defined in queer theory, and particularly in Judith Butler's work. The notion of performativity, closely related to a conception of the social as an open field of power relations where all identity is a contingent and precarious stabilization, leads to a politicization of identity that implies a second step further from its denaturalization. Identity is the place from which we can articulate a resistance politics, and its open and incomplete character is what allows its resignification.
Lindeman, Marjaana; Svedholm-Häkkinen, Annika M; Lipsanen, Jari
The current research tested the hypothesis that the abilities for understanding other people's minds give rise to the cognitive biases that underlie supernatural beliefs. We used structural equation modeling (N=2789) to determine the roles of various mentalizing tendencies, namely self-reported affective and cognitive empathy (i.e., mind reading), actual cognitive and affective empathic abilities, hyper-empathizing, and two cognitive biases (core ontological confusions and promiscuous teleology) in giving rise to supernatural beliefs. Support for a path from mentalizing abilities through cognitive biases to supernatural beliefs was weak. The relationships of mentalizing abilities with supernatural beliefs were also weak, and these relationships were not substantially mediated by cognitive biases. Core ontological confusions emerged as the best predictor, while promiscuous teleology predicted only a small proportion of variance. The results were similar for religious beliefs, paranormal beliefs, and for belief in supernatural purpose. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Angelone, David J; Mitchell, Damon; Carola, Kara
The present study attempted to develop a laboratory analogue for the study of tolerance for sexual harassment by using an online speed-dating paradigm. In that context, the relation between participants' sexual harassment attitudes, perpetrator attractiveness, perpetrator status, and perceived dating potential of the perpetrator were examined as factors influencing participants' tolerance of sexually harassing behavior. Participants were 128 female college students from a small northeastern public university. Results indicated that attractiveness, high social status, and attitudinal beliefs about sexual harassment were all predictive of tolerance for sexual harassment, providing preliminary support for the validity of this paradigm. In addition, participants' self reported likelihood to date a bogus male dating candidate was also predictive of tolerance for sexual harassment, over and above the aforementioned variables, suggesting that dating potential can play a role in perceptions of sexual harassment. Further, this experiment demonstrated that perceptions of sexual harassment can be assessed using the in vivo measurement of behavior. In addition, using an online environment not only provides a contemporary spin and adds a greater degree of external validity compared to other sexual harassment analogues, it also reduces any risk of potential physical sexual contact for participants.
Rather, Michael G., Jr.
Michael G. Rather Jr., examines in his article "About the Political Dimensions of the Formation of the King James Bible" the politics surrounding the formation of one of the most influential text in culture and politics in England and later in English-speaking countries. The translators and King exhibited a duality of beliefs emblematic of Jacobean society. These dualities of hierarchy and commonness, ceremony and purity, clarity and majesty were instituted in England followed by the Australi...
and gender playing a larger role in determining party affiliation among military members then they do in the civilian population.53 Another counter...general population in regard to their political beliefs, explaining that they “did not conform to the stereotype of the military as a caste discrete...president’s political survival. Beyond the cold calculus of political survival, however, the relational aspect can also introduce more personal, emotive or
Boratav, Hale Bolak; Çavdar, Alev
This article is based on a study of young people and sexuality in Turkey. The focus of this study included messages about sexuality, sexual beliefs, sexual experiences with a view to consent and resistance, religiosity, and certain interrelations therein. A total of 471 students (273 women, M age=20.5 years, and 198 men, M age=21 years) from four different universities in Turkey participated in a survey with measures of restrictive and permissive messages about sexuality received from various sources, beliefs about sexual roles of men and women in relationships, and questions about a range of sexual experiences, including coital and non-coital. The incidence and characteristics of ideal sexual partnership and incidence and dynamics of experiences involving "token resistance" and "consent to unwanted sex" were specifically investigated. The results provided a snapshot of the sexual lives of students in this country at the crossroads of secularism and traditional Muslim mores. Both commonalities and differences were found across gender. Both men and women received more restrictive than permissive messages. The most important message source was same-sex friends for men and parents for women. Men had more dating and sexual partners than women. The correlations of religiosity and messages with sexual experiences and attitudes were mostly in the expected direction. Women were more likely to have a token resistance incidence and both genders were equally unlikely to consent to unwanted sex. The results were discussed in relation to the cultural context and the relevant literature, and recommendations are offered for future research.
Full Text Available By the creation of the unique currency, the European construction advanced, in the late twenty years, more in economic terms than in political ones. Still, at a closer look there can be found interesting arguments to sustain the idea of a political background for this surprising economic acceleration. Creating the common market and a new currency are things which have been possible only because of favourable factors in economy and of strong political will. This paper analyses the market as a frame of a political construction, and euro as a decisive tool for the purpose of the United Europe. For the first time in history, there is a space which approaches beliefs and values with the “help” of a currency, integrated in the political agenda.
Exploring Women's Understanding of Politics, Political Contestation and Gender Transformation in the Caribbean. IDRC's Democratic Governance, Women's Rights and Gender Equality initiative is supporting a body of comparative research on whether and how democratic processes and institutions are responding to ...
This study x-rayed the significance of civic political culture on participatory governance and its potentialities on political development. It adopted theoretical postulations in analyzing the subject matter. The analytical model showed a diagrammatic presentation of the relationship among participant culture features, elements ...
Indexed African Journals Online: www.ajol.info as its potential contribution to political development in Nigeria-as it will be applicable to other developing countries of the world. This study provided theoretical postulations in analysing the notion of participatory governance, and linking the research problem (civic political ...
Change to Either a Nonandrogenic or Androgenic Progestin-Containing Oral Contraceptive Preparation is Associated with Improved Sexual Function in Women with Oral Contraceptive-Associated Sexual Dysfunction
Davis, Susan R; Bitzer, Johannes; Giraldi, Annamaria
It is a commonly held belief that combined oral contraceptive (COC) pills containing an androgenic progestin may be less likely to impair sexual function than COCs containing an anti-androgenic progestin....
Belief fusion is the principle of combining separate beliefs or bodies of evidence originating from different sources. Depending on the situation to be modelled, different belief fusion methods can be applied. Cumulative and averaging belief fusion is defined for fusing opinions in subjective logic, and for fusing belief functions in general. The principle of fission is the opposite of fusion, namely to eliminate the contribution of a specific belief from an already fused belief, with the pur...
Full Text Available This essay was motivated by the gap between proclaimed democratic principles and the perceptions of politics which are exhibited by the citizens in transitional countries -more specifically in the Republic of Macedonia. It is based on research data collected in the past few decades, which illustrate that, in their political actions, the citizens are highly motivated by personal benefits and profits, rather than by their internalized values and ideologies. Non-democratic, authoritarian values prevail, while politics is perceived as a value itself, in the most materialistic meaning of the word. It creates a suitable milieu for growth of corruption, nepotism and clientelism. The authors conclude that such a circulus vitsiosus is a corner stone of the Macedonian political regime, and an enormous obstacle for the advancement of the participative, democratic political culture in reality, in spite of its formal acceptance.
Guita Grin Debert
Full Text Available Drawing on the interplay between gender, aging, and sexuality, the aim of this article is twofold: (1 to show how Brazilian gerontologists treat gender differences and sexual activity in old age; (2 to analyze the ways discourses regarding the aging body and sexuality are perceived and evaluated by older women and men . I argue that attempts of gerontologists’ to eroticize old age have to contend with the widespread notion that the desire for sex is inevitably lost with age. Thus, in the retiree associations that were studied, men had a tendency to assume they are not ‘old’ because their erectile function was still in good condition, and divorced or widowed women, in senior citizen associations, tend to regard themselves as happy due to having freed themselves from the sexual obligations imposed by marriage. In both cases, the dominant belief that there is a loss of sexual desire in old age was reproduced.
Freedom of religion and belief is one of the strongest rights contained in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), but simultaneously one of the most elusive. Article 18 of the ICCPR protects “theistic, non-theistic and atheistic beliefs, as well as the right not to profess any religion or belief.” And yet jurisprudence is yet to fully explore the capacity of this right to stand up to the challenge of meaningfully protecting freedom of religion and belief across the ...
In the United States, women have long held the right to vote and can participate fully in the political process, and yet they are underrepresented at all levels of elected office. Worldwide, men's dominance in the realm of politics has also been the norm. To date, scholars have focused on supply-side and demand-side explanations of women's underrepresentation but differences in how men and women assess electoral risk (the risk involved in seeking political office) are not fully explained. To fill this gap, I explore how evolutionary theory offers insights into gendered differences in political ambition and the evaluation of electoral risk. Using the framework of life-history theory, I hypothesize that both cognitive and environmental factors in human evolution, particularly as they relate to sexual selection and social roles, have shaped the psychology of ambition in gendered ways affecting contemporary politics. Cognitive risk-assessment mechanisms evolving in the hominid line came to be expressed differently in females and males, in women and men. These gendered expressions plausibly reflect differentiable environmental pressures in the past and may help explain behaviors in and barriers to women's electoral political activity in the present. If so, then the success of efforts to increase such activity - or, regressively, to suppress it - may be better understood.
Christensen, Peter Ove; Qin, Zhenjiang
and the maximum expected abnormal trading volume. Imperfect public information increases the gains-to-trade based on heterogeneously updated posterior beliefs. In an exchange economy, this leads to higher growth in the investors' certainty equivalents and, thus, a higher equilibrium interest rate, whereas the ex...... ante risk premium is unaffected by the informativeness of the public information system. Similar results are obtained in a production economy, but the impact on the ex ante cost of capital is dampened compared to the exchange economy due to welfare improving reductions in real investments to smooth...
Sbraga, T P; O'Donohue, W
We review the current state of sexual harassment theory, research, treatment, and prevention. Definitional problems and implications are discussed. An examination of the epidemiology of sexual harassment is presented, highlighting correlates that include characteristics of the organizational environment, the perpetrator, and the recipient of unwanted sexual behavior. Normative responses to sexual harassment and consequences are discussed. Descriptions of the most prevalent models of sexual harassment are offered and the empirical evidence for them is briefly reviewed. From there, the effect of model development and evaluation on the prevention and treatment of sexual harassment is considered. We comment on the steps that would need to be taken to develop viable prevention and treatment programs. Suggestions for fruitful avenues of research and theory development are offered.
Political interest fundamentally influences political behavior, knowledge, and persuasion (Brady, Verba, & Schlozman, 1995; Delli Carpini & Keeter, 1996; Luskin, 1990; Zukin, Andolina, Keeter, Jenkins, & Delli Carpini, 2006). Since the early 1960s, the American National Election Studies (ANES) ha...
Heinrichs, Harald; Biermann, Frank
he article gives an overview of global sustainability policy and politics. It is shown how international policy making on sustainable development has progressed from environmental policy toward recent approaches of Earth system governance. Key challenges of international sustainability politics are
Callan Windsor; Gianni La Cava; James Hansen
We document some new stylised facts about how Australian homeowners value their homes using household panel data and unit-record data on home sale prices. We find that homeowners' price beliefs are unbiased at the postcode level, on average, although there is considerable dispersion in the difference between beliefs and prices across postcodes. Household characteristics, such as age and tenure, and the regional unemployment rate are correlated with differences between beliefs and prices. We a...
Hindman, Douglas Blanks; Yan, Changmin
The knowledge gap hypothesis predicts widening disparities in knowledge of heavily publicized public affairs issues among socioeconomic status groups. The belief gap hypothesis extends the knowledge gap hypothesis to account for knowledge and beliefs about politically contested issues based on empirically verifiable information. This analysis of 3 national surveys shows belief gaps developed between liberals and conservatives regarding abstinence-only sex education; socioeconomic status-based knowledge gaps did not widen. The findings partially support both belief gap and knowledge gap hypotheses. In addition, the unique contributions of exposure to Fox News, CNN, and MSNBC in this process were investigated. Only exposure to Fox News was linked to beliefs about abstinence-only sex education directly and indirectly through the cultivation of conservative ideology.
Davis, Shoni; Schrader, Vivian; Belcheir, Marcia J
Considering a growing nurse shortage and the need for qualified nurses to handle increasingly complex patient care situations, how ethical beliefs are influenced and the consequences that can occur when moral conflicts of right and wrong arise need to be explored. The aim of this study was to explore influencers identified by nurses as having the most impact on the development of their ethical beliefs and whether these influencers might impact levels of moral distress and the potential for conscientious objection. Nurses whose ethical beliefs were most influenced by their religious beliefs scored higher in levels of moral distress and demonstrated greater differences in areas of conscientious objection than did nurses who developed their ethical beliefs from influencers such as family values, life and work experience, political views or the professional code of ethics.
Emens, Elizabeth F
Asexuality is an emerging identity category that challenges the common assumption that everyone is defined by some type of sexual attraction. Asexuals--those who report feeling no sexual attraction to others--constitute one percent of the population, according to one prominent study. In recent years, some individuals have begun to identify as asexual and to connect around their experiences interacting with a sexual society. Asexuality has also become a protected classification under the antidiscrimination law of one state and several localities, but legal scholarship has thus far neglected the subject. This Article introduces asexuality to the legal literature as a category of analysis, an object of empirical study, and a phenomenon of medical science. It then offers a close examination of the growing community of self-identified asexuals. Asexual identity has revealing intersections with the more familiar categories of gender, sexual orientation, and disability, and inspires new models for understanding sexuality. Thinking about asexuality also sheds light on our legal system. Ours is arguably a sexual law, predicated on the assumption that sex is important. This Article uses asexuality to develop a framework for identifying the ways that law privileges sexuality. Across various fields, these interactions include legal requirements of sexual activity, special carve-outs to shield sexuality from law, legal protections from others' sexuality, and legal protections for sexual identity. Applying this framework, the Article traces several ways that our sexual law burdens, and occasionally benefits, asexuals. This Article concludes by closely examining asexuality's prospects for broader inclusion into federal, state, and local antidiscrimination laws.
Pfetsch, Barbara; Esser, Frank
This chapter describes the maturation of comparative political communications as a sub-discipline and defines its conceptual core. It then lays out the concept of “political communication system”. At the macro-level, this model captures the patterns of interaction between media and politics as social systems; at the micro-level it captures the interactions between media and political actors as individuals or organizations. Comparative research in this tradition focuses on the structure of pol...
Full Text Available As a foundational concept in economics, the homo economicus assumption regards humans as rational and self-interested actors. In contrast, trust requires individuals to believe partners' benevolence and unselfishness. Thus, the homo economicus belief may inhibit trust. The present three experiments demonstrated that the direct exposure to homo economicus belief can weaken trust. And economic situations like profit calculation can also activate individuals' homo economicus belief and inhibit their trust. It seems that people's increasing homo economicus belief may serve as one cause of the worldwide decline of trust.
Xin, Ziqiang; Liu, Guofang
As a foundational concept in economics, the homo economicus assumption regards humans as rational and self-interested actors. In contrast, trust requires individuals to believe partners' benevolence and unselfishness. Thus, the homo economicus belief may inhibit trust. The present three experiments demonstrated that the direct exposure to homo economicus belief can weaken trust. And economic situations like profit calculation can also activate individuals' homo economicus belief and inhibit their trust. It seems that people's increasing homo economicus belief may serve as one cause of the worldwide decline of trust.
The term “internet sexuality” (or OSA, online sexual activities) refers to sexual-related content and activities observable on the internet (cf. Adams, Oye, & Parker, 2003; Cooper, McLoughlin, & Campbell, 2000; Leiblum & Döring, 2002). It designates a variety of sexual phenomena (e.g., pornography, sex education, sexual contacts) related to a wide spectrum of online services and applications (e.g., websites, online chat rooms, peer-to-peer networks). If an even broader range of computer networks - such as the Usenet or bulletin board systems - is included in this extensional definition, one speaks of “online sexuality” or “cybersexuality.”
Western Political Consulting Techniques and Post-Soviet Political Technology in Political Campaigns in Latvia Ieva Dmitričenko Keywords: political campaignsm political consulting, political technology, parties, marketing, media Political campaigning is an international phenomenon, because there is a free flow of information, knowledge and human resource among practitioners of political campaigning in various countries. As a result political campaigning techniques that have proven to ...
Kjær, Anne Mette; Muwanga, Nansozi
Uganda has been successful in broadening access to education. However, this achievement has been undermined by low literacy and numeracy levels and high drop-out rates. A political settlement perspective sheds light on the politics of education reforms. We find that there are weak political drive...
Graber, Doris A.
This book illustrates how and why knowledge of verbal behavior is important to an understanding of politics by analyzing and describing verbal behavior studies pertaining to politics. Chapters in the first part of the book discuss the various characteristics of verbal behavior: the importance of verbal behavior in politics, construction of…
Explores what it means to do research intended to be relevant for public policy. Argues against perception of policy research as politically neutral technical exercise. Discusses political implications of methodology. Discusses research examples to illustrate point. Discusses implications for how research might be used in political process.…
This article argues that teaching politically correct language to English learners provides them with important information and opportunities to be exposed to cultural issues. The author offers a brief review of how political correctness became an issue and how being politically correct influences the use of language. The article then presents…
Moreira, Silvio; Batista, David S.; Carvalho, Paula; Couto, Francisco M.; Silva, Mario J.
Purpose: POWER is an ontology of political processes and entities. It is designed for tracking politicians, political organizations and elections, both in mainstream and social media. The aim of this paper is to propose a data model to describe political agents and their relations over time. Design/methodology/approach: The authors propose a data…
Dag, Nilgun; Sozer, Mehmet Akif; Sel, Burcu
Political education is a term with negative associations and triggering prejudiced approaches and discourses--maybe some paranoid thoughts--like "keep politics away from education!" in the minds of several people. This article deals with "political education" phenomenon almost never discussed and made subject to scientific…
Ursprung, Heinrich W.
Standard spatial models of political competition give rise to equilibria in which the competing political parties or candidates converge to a common position. In this paper I show how political polarization can be generated in models that focus on the nexus between pre-election interest group lobbying and electoral competition.
Braüner, Torben; Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Polyanskaya, Irina
The literature on first-order false-belief is extensive, but less is known about the second-order case. The ability to handle second-order false-beliefs correctly seems to mark a cognitively significant step, but what is its status? Is it an example of *complexity only* development, or does it in...
Holbrook, Colin; Izuma, Keise; Deblieck, Choi; Fessler, Daniel M T; Iacoboni, Marco
People cleave to ideological convictions with greater intensity in the aftermath of threat. The posterior medial frontal cortex (pMFC) plays a key role in both detecting discrepancies between desired and current conditions and adjusting subsequent behavior to resolve such conflicts. Building on prior literature examining the role of the pMFC in shifts in relatively low-level decision processes, we demonstrate that the pMFC mediates adjustments in adherence to political and religious ideologies. We presented participants with a reminder of death and a critique of their in-group ostensibly written by a member of an out-group, then experimentally decreased both avowed belief in God and out-group derogation by downregulating pMFC activity via transcranial magnetic stimulation. The results provide the first evidence that group prejudice and religious belief are susceptible to targeted neuromodulation, and point to a shared cognitive mechanism underlying concrete and abstract decision processes. We discuss the implications of these findings for further research characterizing the cognitive and affective mechanisms at play. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Pople Deputy Editor, Stephen
If you were a caring, thinking, liberally minded person in the 1960s, you marched against the bomb, against the Vietnam war, and for civil rights. By the 1980s, your voice was raised about the destruction of the rainforests and the threat to our whole planetary environment. At the same time, you opposed discrimination against any group because of race, sex or sexual orientation. You reasoned that people who spoke or acted in a discriminatory manner should be discriminated against. In other words, you became politically correct. Despite its oft-quoted excesses, the political correctness movement sprang from well-founded concerns about injustices in our society. So, on balance, I am all for it. Or, at least, I was until it started to invade science. Biologists were the first to feel the impact. No longer could they refer to 'higher' and 'lower' orders, or 'primitive' forms of life. To the list of undesirable 'isms' - sexism, racism, ageism - had been added a new one: speciesism. Chemists remained immune to the PC invasion, but what else could you expect from a group of people so steeped in tradition that their principal unit, the mole, requires the use of the thoroughly unreconstructed gram? Now it is the turn of the physicists. This time, the offenders are not those who talk disparagingly about other people or animals, but those who refer to 'forms of energy' and 'heat'. Political correctness has evolved into physical correctness. I was always rather fond of the various forms of energy: potential, kinetic, chemical, electrical, sound and so on. My students might merge heat and internal energy into a single, fuzzy concept loosely associated with moving molecules. They might be a little confused at a whole new crop of energies - hydroelectric, solar, wind, geothermal and tidal - but they could tell me what devices turned chemical energy into electrical energy, even if they couldn't quite appreciate that turning tidal energy into geothermal energy wasn't part of the
María Teresa Vera-Rojas
Full Text Available This article propose that the alignment of love with the socialist pretensions of Hugo Chávez and his political successors is grounded in, as well as reinforces, heteronormativity as the natural organization of contemporary Venezuelan society. Consequently, I suggest that the institutional homophobia of the Bolivarian revolution could be understood as the counterpart of the discourse of love from which the Bolivarian socialist ideas have been built upon, the bonds of which only consider heterosexual relationships and affective expressions as legitimate, productive and ethical.
Full Text Available The author in this work speaks about general problems of political corruption in the world and in Serbia. The author tries to define the phenomenon of political corruption and pays special attention to financing political parties. Ćirić gives the overview of international documents about financing political parties and gives us the overview of MP's salaries in some western countries. At the end it is analyzed the question of trading MP's mandate, as a matter of fact who is the owner of the mandate of one representative - that representative, or his/her political party. That also could be the origin of different manipulations and corruption.
Gericke, Niklas; Carver, Rebecca; Castéra, Jérémy; Evangelista, Neima Alice Menezes; Marre, Claire Coiffard; El-Hani, Charbel N.
Genetic determinism can be described as the attribution of the formation of traits to genes, where genes are ascribed more causal power than what scientific consensus suggests. Belief in genetic determinism is an educational problem because it contradicts scientific knowledge, and is a societal problem because it has the potential to foster intolerant attitudes such as racism and prejudice against sexual orientation. In this article, we begin by investigating the very nature of belief in genetic determinism. Then, we investigate whether knowledge of genetics and genomics is associated with beliefs in genetic determinism. Finally, we explore the extent to which social factors such as gender, education, and religiosity are associated with genetic determinism. Methodologically, we gathered and analyzed data on beliefs in genetic determinism, knowledge of genetics and genomics, and social variables using the "Public Understanding and Attitudes towards Genetics and Genomics" (PUGGS) instrument. Our analyses of PUGGS responses from a sample of Brazilian university freshmen undergraduates indicated that (1) belief in genetic determinism was best characterized as a construct built up by two dimensions or belief systems: beliefs concerning social traits and beliefs concerning biological traits; (2) levels of belief in genetic determination of social traits were low, which contradicts prior work; (3) associations between knowledge of genetics and genomics and levels of belief in genetic determinism were low; and (4) social factors such as age and religiosity had stronger associations with beliefs in genetic determinism than knowledge. Although our study design precludes causal inferences, our results raise questions about whether enhancing genetic literacy will decrease or prevent beliefs in genetic determinism.
... NDSS Events Shop NDSS Contact NDSS > Resources > Sexuality Sexuality Sexuality & Down Syndrome Human sexuality encompasses an individual’s self- ... community standards for adult behavior. How Can Healthy Sexuality be Encouraged for Individuals with Down Syndrome? Creating ...
Hekma, G.; Giami, A.
The sexual revolution of 1960-1980 created a major break in attitudes and practices in Western societies. It created many new freedoms for gay men, youth and women, in terms of sexual imagery, information, and rights. Leftists denounced the revolution's consumerism whilst feminists lamented its
Zeuthen, Katrine Egede; Gammelgård, Judy
, desire, pleasure, perversion, ethics and discourse. The editors, Noreen Giffney and Eve Watson, have chosen queer theory, a sub-field of sexuality studies, as an interlocutor for the clinical contributors, because it is at the forefront of theoretical considerations of sexuality, as well as being both...
Religion and politics provide an interesting juxtaposition. On the one hand, both may initially come across as rather self-evident categories, with religion dealing with human perceptions and what people hold as sacred, and politics addressing the control and governance of fellow human beings....... Nonetheless, such a simple opposition should only work as a starting point for an interrogation of both terms and how they have come to look and function as empirical and analytical categories. Focusing on the ways that religion is played out in relation to politics reveals different historical and cultural...... constellations and positions, which can be highlighted as variations of religion as politics, religion in politics, religion out of politics, and religion not politics....
Aaskoven, Lasse; Lassen, David Dreyer
The political budget cycle—how elections affect government fiscal policy—is one of the most studied subjects in political economy and political science. The key theoretical question is whether incumbent governments can time or structure public finances in ways that improve their chances of reelec......The political budget cycle—how elections affect government fiscal policy—is one of the most studied subjects in political economy and political science. The key theoretical question is whether incumbent governments can time or structure public finances in ways that improve their chances...... on political budget cycles have recently focused on conditions under which such cycles are likely to obtain. Much recent research focuses on subnational settings, allowing comparisons of governments in similar institutional environments, and a consensus on the presences of cycles in public finances...
Hacker, Jacob S
The greatest lesson of the failure of comprehensive health reform in the early 1990s is that politics comes first. Even the best-laid policy plans are worthless if they lack the political support to pass. Putting politics first means avoiding the overarching mistake of the Clinton reformers: envisioning a grand policy compromise rather than hammering out a real political compromise. It also means addressing the inevitable fears of those who believe that they are well protected by our eroding employment-based system. And it means formulating political strategies that are premised on the contemporary realities of the hyperpolarized U.S. political environment, rather than wistfully recalled images of the bipartisan politics of old.
In this comment, I build on Shiffman’s call for the global health community to more deeply investigate structural and productive power. I highlight two challenges we must grapple with as social scientists carrying out the types of investigation that Shiffman proposes: the politics of challenging the powerful; and the need to investigate types of expertise that have traditionally been thought of as ‘outside’ global health. In doing so, I argue that moving forward with the agenda Shiffman sets out requires social scientists interested in the global politics of health to be reflexive about our own exercise of structural and productive power and the fact that researching global health politics is itself a political undertaking. PMID:25905482
Arslantas, Halis Adnan
This study aimed to identify the relationship between teacher candidates' epistemological beliefs and academic achievement. The participants of the study were 353 teacher candidates studying their fourth year at the Education Faculty. The Epistemological Belief Scale was used which adapted to Turkish through reliability and validity work by…
Free will is one of the fundamental aspects of human cognition. In the context of cognitive neuroscience, various experiments on time perception, sensorimotor coordination, and agency suggest the possibility that it is a robust illusion (a feeling independent of actual causal relationship with actions) constructed by neural mechanisms. Humans are known to suffer from various cognitive biases and failures, and the sense of free will might be one of them. Here I report a positive correlation between the belief in free will and paranormal beliefs (UFO, reincarnation, astrology, and psi). Web questionnaires involving 2076 subjects (978 males, 1087 females, and 11 other genders) were conducted, which revealed significant positive correlations between belief in free will (theory and practice) and paranormal beliefs. There was no significant correlation between belief in free will and knowledge in paranormal phenomena. Paranormal belief scores for females were significantly higher than those for males, with corresponding significant (albeit weaker) difference in belief in free will. These results are consistent with the view that free will is an illusion which shares common cognitive elements with paranormal beliefs. PMID:24765084
van Benthem, J.; Smets, S.; van Ditmarsch, H.; Halpern, J.; van der Hoek, W.; Kooi, B.
This chapter gives an overview of current dynamic logics that describe belief update and revision, both for single agents and in multi-agent settings. We employ a mixture of ideas from AGM belief revision theory and dynamic-epistemic logics of information-driven agency. After describing the basic
This thesis contributes to the development of Soft Dynamic Epistemic Logic (Soft DEL). Soft DEL has been introduced to deal with a number of informational phenomena, including belief revision. The work in this thesis extends the scope of Soft DEL to belief contraction, providing as such a framework
Faiver, Christopher M.; O'Brien, Eugene M.
Notes that religion may be source of spiritual strength or source of conflict and guilt. Outlines importance of assessing religious beliefs of clients for treatment purposes and provides format for counselor to use. Says that, because counselors may be unaware of clients' individual perspectives, it is important to evaluate client's belief system…
Full Text Available Free will is one of the fundamental aspects of human cognition. In the context of cognitive neuroscience, various experiments on time perception, sensorimotor coordination, and agency suggest the possibility that it is a robust illusion (a feeling independent of actual causal relationship with actions constructed by neural mechanisms. Humans are known to suffer from various cognitive biases and failures, and the sense of free will might be one of them. Here I report a positive correlation between the belief in free will and paranormal beliefs (UFO, reincarnation, astrology, and psi. Web questionnaires involving 2076 subjects (978 males, 1087 females, and 11 other genders were conducted, which revealed significant positive correlations between belief in free will (theory and practice and paranormal beliefs. There was no significant correlation between belief in free will and knowledge in paranormal phenomena. Paranormal belief scores for females were significantly higher than those for males, with corresponding significant (albeit weaker difference in belief in free will. These results are consistent with the view that free will is an illusion which shares common cognitive elements with paranormal beliefs.
Free will is one of the fundamental aspects of human cognition. In the context of cognitive neuroscience, various experiments on time perception, sensorimotor coordination, and agency suggest the possibility that it is a robust illusion (a feeling independent of actual causal relationship with actions) constructed by neural mechanisms. Humans are known to suffer from various cognitive biases and failures, and the sense of free will might be one of them. Here I report a positive correlation between the belief in free will and paranormal beliefs (UFO, reincarnation, astrology, and psi). Web questionnaires involving 2076 subjects (978 males, 1087 females, and 11 other genders) were conducted, which revealed significant positive correlations between belief in free will (theory and practice) and paranormal beliefs. There was no significant correlation between belief in free will and knowledge in paranormal phenomena. Paranormal belief scores for females were significantly higher than those for males, with corresponding significant (albeit weaker) difference in belief in free will. These results are consistent with the view that free will is an illusion which shares common cognitive elements with paranormal beliefs.
Ghosh, S.; de Jongh, D.
Inspired by a similar use in provability logic, formulas p > B q and p ≥ B q are introduced in the existing logical framework for discussing beliefs to express that the strength of belief in p is greater than (or equal to) that in q. Besides its usefulness in studying the properties of the concept
Herek, Gregory M; McLemore, Kevin A
Despite shifts toward greater acceptance in U.S. public opinion and policy, lesbian, gay, and bisexual people remain widely stigmatized. This article reviews empirical research on sexual prejudice, that is, heterosexuals' internalization of cultural stigma, manifested in the form of negative attitudes toward sexual minorities and same-sex desires and behaviors. After briefly reviewing measurement issues, we discuss linkages between sexual prejudice and religion, gender, sexuality, and related variables, and consider how the cultural institutions encompassing these domains create a social context within which individual expressions of prejudice can meet important psychological needs. These include needs for securing social acceptance, affirming values that are central to one's self-concept, and avoiding anxiety and other negative emotions associated with threats to self-esteem. We conclude by discussing factors that may motivate heterosexuals to reduce their own sexual prejudice, including intergroup contact, as well as avenues for future empirical inquiry.
A study was conducted to determine what physical sexual activities lesbians engage in and what attitudes lesbians have toward various aspects of their sexuality. The sample consisted of 286 homosexual women. This article reports results in the following areas: first orgasm, first sexual experience with another women, sexual fantasies, number of sex partners, faking orgasm, sex toys, initiating sex, techniques used to reach orgasm with partners, and the attitudes of respondents toward their own lesbianism, erotica, female genitals, masturbation, emotional involvement with sex partners, monogamy, sex toys, oral sex, tribadism, group sex, and sadomasochism. The study suggests that the sample group has very positive attitudes about their lesbianism, their own bodies, masturbation, and the various ways in which they express sexuality with their partners.
Colbert, S M; Peters, E R; Garety, P A
A defining characteristic of delusions is inflexibility. However, it is not known if this is specific to the deluded individual's thinking about delusional beliefs, or whether this might apply more generally to the thinking style of people with delusions. A cross-sectional design was employed comparing belief flexibility, belief dimensions, and extreme responding (ER) across three groups. Belief flexibility and dimensions were assessed for two types of beliefs, personally meaningful beliefs (delusional or idiosyncratic beliefs) and standard beliefs. The number of extreme responses endorsed on a questionnaire was also measured. Participants consisted of a currently deluded group (N=17), a remitted delusions group (N=17), both recruited from an early psychosis service, and a non-clinical control group (N=35). Personally meaningful beliefs, whether delusions or other idiosyncratic beliefs, were held with equal conviction and belief flexibility in the three groups. However, on the standard belief, the clinical groups showed less belief flexibility than the control group (with only the remitted group significantly so) and greater ER. Individuals who showed belief flexibility about both types of beliefs displayed less ER than those who were inflexible, and belief flexibility was related to less delusional conviction in the clinical groups. These results suggest that belief inflexibility and ER may be characteristics of the thinking styles of individuals with delusions, rather than being specific to the delusional beliefs themselves. This has implications for cognitive behavioural therapy, which might usefully focus on generally thinking style as a preparation for working more directly with delusional beliefs.
Building Capacity for Feminist Research in Africa : Gender, Sexuality and Politics. Over the past decade, there has been increasing interest in African scholarship on the importance of understanding sexualities and on connecting this understanding to more relevant policy prescriptions so that African women can enjoy their ...
Antonella Del Rosso
Twenty years of designing, building and testing a number of innovative technologies, with the strong belief that the endeavour would lead to a historic breakthrough. The Bulletin publishes an abstract of the Courier’s interview with Barry Barish, one of the founding fathers of LIGO. The plots show the signals of gravitational waves detected by the twin LIGO observatories at Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. (Image: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab) On 11 February, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo collaborations published a historic paper in which they showed a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. These results come after 20 years of hard work by a large collaboration of scientists operating the two LIGO observatories in the US. Barry Barish, Linde Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology and former Director of the Global Design Effort for the Internat...
Pazmany, Els; Bergeron, Sophie; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Verhaeghe, Johan; Enzlin, Paul
Although it is known that women with dyspareunia suffer from impaired psychological and sexual functioning, the study of the various dimensions of sexual self-schema and their associations with these outcomes has been neglected. To examine whether self-image cognitions about vaginal penetration, body image, and feelings and beliefs about one's own genitals contribute to the variance in pain, sexual functioning, and sexual distress. Premenopausal women (n = 231; M age = 24.85, SD = 5.55) with self-reported dyspareunia completed an online survey focusing on self-image cognitions about vaginal penetration, body image, female genital self-image, pain during intercourse, sexual functioning, sexual distress, anxiety, and catastrophizing. (i) Pain intensity during intercourse, (ii) the Female Sexual Function Index without the Pain subscale, and (iii) the Female Sexual Distress Scale. Controlling for anxiety and catastrophizing, negative self-image cognitions about vaginal penetration, negative body image, and negative genital self-image together accounted for a portion of the variance in increased pain intensity, sexual dysfunction, and sexual distress. However, only self-image cognitions about vaginal penetration (β = 0.25, P = 0.005) contributed uniquely to the variance in pain intensity, whereas self-image cognitions about vaginal penetration (β = -0.18, P = 0.048) and genital self-image (β = 0.21, P = 0.008) contributed independently to the variance in sexual functioning. Finally, self-image cognitions about vaginal penetration (β = 0.28, P < 0.001), body image (β = 0.24, P < 0.001) and genital self-image (β = -0.14, P = 0.006) each contributed independently to the variance in sexual distress. Findings suggest that self-image cognitions about vaginal penetration and feelings and beliefs about one's own body and genitals are associated with pain and sexuality outcomes in women with dyspareunia. © 2013
Наронская, Анна Гегамовна
This article is devoted to corruption’s impact on the functioning of political institutions. In the author’s opinion, political corruption leads to informal institutionalization and degradation of political institutions. The author concludes that public control can prevent political corruption.Key words: the political corruption, conflict of interests, formal and informal institutions, political process.
Phong, Vu Hong
Male sexual health concerns are often construed in the medical literature as linked only to genital and reproductive difficulties and malfunctions. However, in reality, male sexual health concerns encompass a broader range of issues and should not be so narrowly conceived. This paper explores men's perceptions of sexual health concerns in Muong Khen, a rural town in northwestern Vietnam. Data were collected through observation, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. Findings suggest that men's sexual health concerns are strongly related to worries about economic problems, excessive drinking, men's beliefs about how their bodies work and the hegemonic notion that a man should be responsible for his family's economic well-being.
Early sexual intercourse among American adolescents represents a major public health problem. Although early sexual activity may be caused by a variety of factors, the media are believed to play a significant role. In film, television, and music, sexual messages are becoming more explicit in dialogue, lyrics, and behavior. In addition, these messages contain unrealistic, inaccurate, and misleading information that young people accept as fact. Teens rank the media second only to school sex education programs as a leading source of information about sex. Recommendations are presented to help pediatricians address the effects of the media on sexual attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of their patients.
Friedman, H L
Adolescence is a period of transition from childhood to adulthood in which interlocking changes in the body, mind and social relationship take place. Healthy development depends on both a propitious environment and the action of adolescents themselves. A stable family, peace, material conditions for physical health, and educational, social and vocational opportunities with a chance to make use of them before marriage, are necessary environment conditions. However, within this context the adolescent must experiment with new behaviours and relationships inevitably courting some risks. Adolescent health is especially linked to behaviour. If the environment is inadequate or dangerous and the adolescent lacks self-esteem, behaviours dangerous to health are more likely to occur. These include: precocious and unprotected sexual behaviour sometimes resulting in too early or unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases; the use of tobacco, alcohol and other drugs; injuries arising accidentally from risk taking behaviours especially when combined with alcohol or drugs; intentional injury whether self-inflicted or inflicted by others; and poor eating and habits of hygiene leading to obesity, or emaciation, acne and poor teeth and gums. Adolescent behaviour is often governed by their beliefs about what others think. Two way communication in a trusting atmosphere will reduce myths and misinformation and encourage healthy behaviour. The promotion of health, the prevention of problems, and their treatment and rehabilitation when they arise can best be accomplished with the active co-operation of young people.
Pérez-Testor, Carles; Behar, Julia; Davins, Montse; Conde Sala, José Luís; Castillo, José A; Salamero, Manel; Alomar, Elisabeth; Segarra, Sabina
Schools play a key role in transmitting attitudes towards sexual diversity. Many studies stress the importance of teachers' and other professionals' attitudes towards gay men and/or lesbian women. This study evaluates attitudes and prejudices toward homosexuality in a sample of 254 elementary and high school teachers in Barcelona and its surrounding area. The results obtained using a scale of overt and subtle prejudice and a scale of perceived discrepancy of values indicate that discrepancy between likely behavior and personal values was significantly greater in women, those who hold religious beliefs, churchgoers and people without any gay or lesbian acquaintances. Approximately 88% of the teachers showed no type of prejudiced attitudes towards gay men and lesbian women. The experience of proximity to gay men and/or lesbian women reduces not only the discrepancy between personal values and likely behavior but also the presence of homophobic prejudice. It would be advisable to expand specific teacher training in the subject of sexual diversity in order to reduce prejudicial attitudes, thus fostering non-stereotyped knowledge of homosexuality.
This paper seeks to explore the complex position transsexualism has in relation to a range of personal identities and identity politics. In recent years there has been considerable debate over 'borderline identities' particularly between lesbians, transgenderists, and FTM and MTF transsexuals who transgress the identity category 'lesbian.'2 Stronger political affiliations between transsexuals, lesbians and feminists are argued for, and a greater recognition of the futility in attempting to demarcate the infinitely blurred ontological boundaries between 'sex,' gender and sexuality. Rather, we should focus on 'issue' based politics that challenge heterosexist and normative gender epistemologies and practices that restrict non-conformist subjectivities.
Reid, Joan A; Sullivan, Christopher J
Extending previous research, this study utilized structural equation modeling to examine the effects of poor mother/child attachment, child neglect, juvenile sexual victimization (JSV), and Finkelhor and Browne's (1985) proposed construct of traumatic sexualization on vulnerability to adult sexual victimization. The proposed model was assessed using data drawn from a sample of African American females involved in a prospective study of child sexual abuse survivors. This group was matched to similar others without such history. Findings suggest that child neglect worsens with poor mother/child attachment, resulting in a greater likelihood of JSV. Both neglect and JSV impact shaming sexual beliefs and behaviors, contributing to the risk for adult sexual victimization. This set of variables accounted for 27% of variance in adult sexual victimization.
Currier, Ashley; Migraine-George, Thérèse
Understandings of African lesbian sexualities have been affected by silence, repression, and uncertainty. The subject of lesbian experiences and sexualities in Africa constitutes an opportunity for feminist scholars to address the transnational politics of knowledge production about African lesbians' lives and the contours of lesbian art, activism, and relationships in African nations. This article contextualizes the state of research on African lesbian sexualities and introduces the special issue.
Full Text Available Disabled young people are sexual beings, and deserve equal rights and opportunities to have control over, choices about, and access to their sexuality, sexual expression, and fulfilling relationships throughout their lives. This is critical to their overall physical, emotional, and social health and well-being. However, societal misconceptions of disabled bodies being non-normative, other, or deviant has somewhat shaped how the sexuality of disabled people has been constructed as problematic under the public gaze. The pervasive belief that disabled people are asexual creates barriers to sexual citizenship for disabled young people, thereby causing them to have lower levels of sexual knowledge and inadequate sex education compared to their non-disabled peers. As a consequence, they are more vulnerable to “bad sex”—relationships, which are considered to be exploitative and disempowering in different ways. Access to good sex and relationships education for disabled young people is, therefore, not only important for them to learn about sexual rights, sexual identity, and sexual expression but also about how to ensure their sexual safety. In so doing, it will contribute to the empowerment and societal recognition of disabled people as sexual beings, and also help them resist and report sexual violence. Therefore, it is critical that parents, educationalists, and health and social care professionals are aware and appropriately equipped with knowledge and resources to formally educate disabled young people about sexuality and well-being on par to their non-disabled peers.
Comparing Political Journalism is a systematic, in-depth study of the factors that shape and influence political news coverage today. Using techniques drawn from the growing field of comparative political communication, an international group of contributors analyse political news content drawn f...... Comparing Political Journalism offers an unparalleled scope in assessing the implications for the ongoing transformation of Western media systems, and addresses core concepts of central importance to students and scholars of political communication world-wide.......Comparing Political Journalism is a systematic, in-depth study of the factors that shape and influence political news coverage today. Using techniques drawn from the growing field of comparative political communication, an international group of contributors analyse political news content drawn...... from newspapers, television news, and news websites from 16 countries, to assess what kinds of media systems are most conducive to producing quality journalism. Underpinned by key conceptual themes, such as the role that the media are expected to play in democracies and quality of coverage...
A. D. Voskresensky
Full Text Available Out of all the departments of political sciences in Russia - the Department at MGIMO-University is probably the oldest one. In fact it is very young. While MGIMO-University is celebrating its 70th anniversary the Department of Political Sciences turns 15. Despite the fact that political analyst is a relatively new profession in Russia, it acquired a legal standing only in the 1990s, the political science school at MGIMO-University is almost as old as the university itself. Unlike many other universities, focused on the training teachers of political science or campaign managers MGIMO-University has developed its own unique political science school of "full cycle", where students grow into political sciences from a zero level up to the highest qualifications as teachers and researchers, and campaign managers, consultants and practitioners. The uniqueness of the school of political science at MGIMO-University allows its institutional incarnation -the Department of Political Science - to offer prospective studentsa training in a wide range of popular specialties and specializations, while ensuring a deep theoretical and practical basis of the training. Studying at MGIMO-University traditionally includes enhanced linguistic component (at least two foreign languages. For students of international relations and political science learning foreign languages is particularly important.It allows not only to communicate, but also to produce expertise and knowledge in foreign languages.
Willard, Aiyana K; Norenzayan, Ara
Cognitive theories of religion have postulated several cognitive biases that predispose human minds towards religious belief. However, to date, these hypotheses have not been tested simultaneously and in relation to each other, using an individual difference approach. We used a path model to assess the extent to which several interacting cognitive tendencies, namely mentalizing, mind body dualism, teleological thinking, and anthropomorphism, as well as cultural exposure to religion, predict belief in God, paranormal beliefs and belief in life's purpose. Our model, based on two independent samples (N=492 and N=920) found that the previously known relationship between mentalizing and belief is mediated by individual differences in dualism, and to a lesser extent by teleological thinking. Anthropomorphism was unrelated to religious belief, but was related to paranormal belief. Cultural exposure to religion (mostly Christianity) was negatively related to anthropomorphism, and was unrelated to any of the other cognitive tendencies. These patterns were robust for both men and women, and across at least two ethnic identifications. The data were most consistent with a path model suggesting that mentalizing comes first, which leads to dualism and teleology, which in turn lead to religious, paranormal, and life's-purpose beliefs. Alternative theoretical models were tested but did not find empirical support. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Safi, Ahmad Saleh; Smith, William James; Liu, Zhnongwei
In this article, we present the results of a study investigating the influence of vulnerability to climate change as a function of physical vulnerability, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity on climate change risk perception. In 2008/2009, we surveyed Nevada ranchers and farmers to assess their climate change-related beliefs, and risk perceptions, political orientations, and socioeconomic characteristics. Ranchers' and farmers' sensitivity to climate change was measured through estimating the proportion of their household income originating from highly scarce water-dependent agriculture to the total income. Adaptive capacity was measured as a combination of the Social Status Index and the Poverty Index. Utilizing water availability and use, and population distribution GIS databases; we assessed water resource vulnerability in Nevada by zip code as an indicator of physical vulnerability to climate change. We performed correlation tests and multiple regression analyses to examine the impact of vulnerability and its three distinct components on risk perception. We find that vulnerability is not a significant determinant of risk perception. Physical vulnerability alone also does not impact risk perception. Both sensitivity and adaptive capacity increase risk perception. While age is not a significant determinant of it, gender plays an important role in shaping risk perception. Yet, general beliefs such as political orientations and climate change-specific beliefs such as believing in the anthropogenic causes of climate change and connecting the locally observed impacts (in this case drought) to climate change are the most prominent determinants of risk perception. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.
Macintyre, Anna K-J; Montero Vega, Adela R; Sagbakken, Mette
Although Chile is a traditionally conservative country, considerable legal advances in sexual and reproductive rights over the past decade have brought discourses on sexuality into mainstream political, social and media agendas. In light of these changes it is important to explore how adolescents conceptualize sexuality, which in turn influences their understanding of sexual rights. This study is based on four focus group discussions and 20 semi-structured interviews with adolescents, and seven interviews with key informants in Santiago, Chile. Findings indicate that adolescent conceptualizations of sexuality are diverse, often expressed as attitudes or observations of their social context, and primarily shaped by peers, parents and teachers. Attitudes towards individuals with non-heterosexual orientations ranged from support to rejection, and conceptualizations of sexual diversity were also influenced by media, medicalization and biological explanations. Gender differences in sexual expression were described through gendered language and behaviour, in particular observations of gender stereotypes, censored female sexuality and discourses highlighting female risk. Many adolescents described social change towards greater equality regarding gender and sexuality. To optimize this change and help bridge the gap between legal and social recognition of sexual rights, adolescents should be encouraged to reflect critically on issues of gender equality and sexual diversity in Chile. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Adams-Curtis, Leah E; Forbes, Gordon B
The literature on college women's experiences with sexual coercion is reviewed, with an emphasis on work published since 1990. Sexual coercion is defined as any situation in which one person uses verbal or physical means (including the administration of drugs or alcohol, with or without the other person's consent) to obtain sexual activity against consent. We argue that coercive sexual behavior among college students can best be understood within the context of other sexual behaviors and values on college campuses. Significant definitional and methodological problems are identified and discussed. Important victim, perpetrator, and situational variables are identified and discussed. These include attitudes toward women, beliefs about sexual behavior (including rape-supporting beliefs and values), communication problems, coercion-supporting peer groups (including fraternities and athletics), concepts of masculinity and femininity, sexual promiscuity, and alcohol.
Hall, Gordon C Nagayama; Teten, Andra L; Sue, Stanley
Attention paid to culture in theories of sexual coercion has been limited. This failure to include culture in these theories implies that culture does not have an important role in sexually coercive behavior. Recent conceptual and empirical work supports the existence of culture-specific models of sexual coercion. Sexual coercion has been characterized in much of the literature as an individual phenomenon. However, cultural norms are influential in collectivist cultural groups. Whereas European American men's sexual coercion is primarily determined by misogynous beliefs, Asian American men's sexual coercion is determined by a combination of misogynous beliefs and cultural considerations. These findings underscore the need to consider cultural context in the development of theoretical models and interventions for sexually coercive behavior.
Just, Aida; Sandovici, Maria Elena; Listhaug, Ola
The issues of migration and immigrant political integration in western democracies have become increasingly intertwined with debates on religion, particularly Islam. To date, however, we have surprisingly little systematic research on how religious beliefs are related to immigrants' political engagement. In this study, we argue that religion has a capacity to mobilize immigrants politically but the strength of this relationship depends on immigrant generation, religiosity, and the type of religion. Using survey data collected as part of the European Social Survey (ESS) 2002-2010 in 18 West European democracies, our analyses reveal that religion is indeed linked to political engagement of immigrants in a complex way: while belonging to a religion is generally associated with less political participation, exposure to religious institutions appears to have the opposite effect. Moreover, we find that, compared to foreign-born Muslims, second-generation Muslim immigrants are not only more religious and more politically dissatisfied with their host countries, but also that religiosity is more strongly linked to their political engagement. This relationship, however, is limited to uninstitutionalized political action. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John; Lynskey, Michael T.
An 18-year longitudinal study of 520 New Zealand women found that those reporting childhood sexual abuse, particularly severe abuse involving intercourse, had significantly higher rates of early onset consensual sexual activity, teenage pregnancy, multiple sexual partners, unprotected intercourse, sexually transmitted disease, and sexual assault…
Although Americans generally hold science in high regard and respect its findings, for some contested issues, such as the existence of anthropogenic climate change, public opinion is polarized along religious and political lines. We ask whether individuals with more general education and greater science knowledge, measured in terms of science education and science literacy, display more (or less) polarized beliefs on several such issues. We report secondary analyses of a nationally representative dataset (the General Social Survey), examining the predictors of beliefs regarding six potentially controversial issues. We find that beliefs are correlated with both political and religious identity for stem cell research, the Big Bang, and human evolution, and with political identity alone on climate change. Individuals with greater education, science education, and science literacy display more polarized beliefs on these issues. We find little evidence of political or religious polarization regarding nanotechnology and genetically modified foods. On all six topics, people who trust the scientific enterprise more are also more likely to accept its findings. We discuss the causal mechanisms that might underlie the correlation between education and identity-based polarization. PMID:28827344
Drummond, Caitlin; Fischhoff, Baruch
Although Americans generally hold science in high regard and respect its findings, for some contested issues, such as the existence of anthropogenic climate change, public opinion is polarized along religious and political lines. We ask whether individuals with more general education and greater science knowledge, measured in terms of science education and science literacy, display more (or less) polarized beliefs on several such issues. We report secondary analyses of a nationally representative dataset (the General Social Survey), examining the predictors of beliefs regarding six potentially controversial issues. We find that beliefs are correlated with both political and religious identity for stem cell research, the Big Bang, and human evolution, and with political identity alone on climate change. Individuals with greater education, science education, and science literacy display more polarized beliefs on these issues. We find little evidence of political or religious polarization regarding nanotechnology and genetically modified foods. On all six topics, people who trust the scientific enterprise more are also more likely to accept its findings. We discuss the causal mechanisms that might underlie the correlation between education and identity-based polarization.
Verkuyten, Maykel; Slooter, Luuk
Tolerant judgments of Muslims’ political rights and dissenting beliefs and practices by ethnic Dutch adolescents (12–18 years) were examined. Participants (N = 632) made judgments of different types of behaviors and different contexts in an experimental questionnaire study. As in other studies,
Moore, Erin W.
Objectives: This study explored God locus of control beliefs (ie, God's control over behavior) regarding their influence on alcohol use and sexual behavior as an alternative religiosity measure to religious behaviors, which does not capture perceived influence of religiosity. Additionally, demographic differences in religious beliefs were…
Bullock, Clayton M; Beckson, Mace
Myths, stereotypes, and unfounded beliefs about male sexuality, in particular male homosexuality, are widespread in legal and medical communities, as well as among agencies providing services to sexual assault victims. These include perceptions that men in noninstitutionalized settings are rarely sexually assaulted, that male victims are responsible for their assaults, that male sexual assault victims are less traumatized by the experience than their female counterparts, and that ejaculation is an indicator of a positive erotic experience. As a result of the prevalence of such beliefs, there is an underreporting of sexual assaults by male victims; a lack of appropriate services for male victims; and, effectively, no legal redress for male sexual assault victims. By comparison, male sexual assault victims have fewer resources and greater stigma than do female sexual assault victims. Many male victims, either because of physiological effects of anal rape or direct stimulation by their assailants, have an erection, ejaculate, or both during the assault. This is incorrectly understood by assailant, victim, the justice system, and the medical community as signifying consent by the victim. Studies of male sexual physiology suggest that involuntary erections or ejaculations can occur in the context of nonconsensual, receptive anal sex. Erections and ejaculations are only partially under voluntary control and are known to occur during times of extreme duress in the absence of sexual pleasure. Particularly within the criminal justice system, this misconception, in addition to other unfounded beliefs, has made the courts unwilling to provide legal remedy to male victims of sexual assault, especially when the victim experienced an erection or an ejaculation during the assault. Attorneys and forensic psychiatrists must be better informed about the physiology of these phenomena to formulate evidence-based opinions.
Newton, Fiona J.; Newton, Joshua D.; Windisch, Lydia; Ewing, Michael T.
Objective: To investigate gender differences in beliefs about condom use among young, sexually active, heterosexual Australian adults. Design: Cross-sectional survey of 1,113 adults aged 18-26 years. Setting: Higher education institutions across New South Wales and Victoria, Australia. Method: Participants were recruited during higher-education…
Gannon, Theresa A.; Wright, Daniel B.; Beech, Anthony R.; Williams, Sian
Do child molesters hold distorted beliefs (or cognitive distortions) that support their sexual offending? To test this hypothesis, we asked 28 child molesters and 20 inmate controls to read a description of child molestation. Within this vignette, we planted 10 ambiguous descriptions. If child molesters' information processing were driven by…
Juan, Vallejo Ramos L.
In opposition to the Sexual Education Traditional Model (SETM) that is used in the state schools of Puerto Rico, the Health Beliefs Model (HBM) appears. It facilitates a curricular design that improves the ability of the students to respond to the group pressure by means of attitudes that stimulate sexual conducts of smaller risk of propagation of…
J. van Luxemburg
Full Text Available This paper explores the relationship between the love story and official history in Animal triste by the German novelist Monika Maron. Despite suggestions that the love story could have happened at any time or place, a strong case can be made for a special interwovenness of the personal and the political in this Wende novel. Timelessness thus gives way to the intertwinement of a love story with a period in history, the Wende, the period of political change in Germany in 1989-1990. On the other hand, the love story's political dimensions contribute to another form of timelessness, a kind of religious belief in the eternity of love. Before discussing Animal triste, I trace the relationship between love and politics in Maron's earlier novels.
J. van Luxemburg
Full Text Available This paper explores the relationship between the love story and official history in Animal triste by the German novelist Monika Maron. Despite suggestions that the love story could have happened at any time or place, a strong case can be made for a special interwovenness of the personal and the political in this Wende novel. Timelessness thus gives way to the intertwinement of a love story with a period in history, the Wende, the period of political change in Germany in 1989-1990. On the other hand, the love story's political dimensions contribute to another form of timelessness, a kind of religious belief in the eternity of love. Before discussing Animal triste, I trace the relationship between love and politics in Maron's earlier novels.
Navarro, Vicente; Muntaner, Carles; Borrell, Carme; Benach, Joan; Quiroga, Agueda; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Vergés, Núria; Pasarín, M Isabel
The aim of this study was to examine the complex interactions between political traditions, policies, and public health outcomes, and to find out whether different political traditions have been associated with systematic patterns in population health over time. We analysed a number of political, economic, social, and health variables over a 50-year period, in a set of wealthy countries belonging to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Our findings support the hypothesis that the political ideologies of governing parties affect some indicators of population health. Our analysis makes an empirical link between politics and policy, by showing that political parties with egalitarian ideologies tend to implement redistributive policies. An important finding of our research is that policies aimed at reducing social inequalities, such as welfare state and labour market policies, do seem to have a salutary effect on the selected health indicators, infant mortality and life expectancy at birth.
Solhaug, Trond; Kristensen, Niels Nørgaard
This article focuses on students’ first political learning and explores the research question, what dynamic patterns of political learning can be explored among a selection of young, diverse Danish students’ first political interests? The authors use theories of learning in their analytical...... approach to students´ stories. A group of 10 young students who claim a certain political interest and attend a social studies course in Danish upper secondary school were selected to interview. A “life story approach” is used in the interviews and in the analytical approach. Findings: contrary to many...... “single agent studies in the tradition” of political socialization, the authors find that all students display a complex pattern of political influence. The influence from various agents like school, family, media and peers is also rather complex. Students are not passive recipients of influence...
Rose, Jeremy; Sæbø, Øystein
The extension and transformation of political participation is dependent on widespread deliberation supported by information and communication technologies. The most commonly found examples of these eParticipation systems are political discussion forums. Though much of the discussion...... of these technologies is conducted in the eGovernment and (particularly) the eDemocracy literature, political discussion forums present a distinct set of design and management challenges which relate directly to IS concerns. In this article we analyze problems in establishing political deliberation systems under five...... headings: stakeholder engagement, web platform design, web platform management, political process re-shaping and evaluation and improvement. We review the existing literature and present a longitudinal case study of a political discussion forum: the Norwegian DemokratiTorget (Democracy Square). We define...
This paper hans three interrelated parts. First, atmosphere is approached through the concept of power. Atmospheres 'grip' us directly or mediate power indirectly by manipulating moods and evoking emotions. How does atmosphere relate to different conceptions of power? Second, atmospheric powers may...... be critiqued. Which conception of critique can be involved? Third, critiquing atmospheric powers can generate political conflict. How does atmospheric disputes relate to conceptions of politics and the political?...
Erçetin, Şefika; Tekin, Ali
The present work investigates global politics and political implications of social science and management with the aid of the latest complexity and chaos theories. Until now, deterministic chaos and nonlinear analysis have not been a focal point in this area of research. This book remedies this deficiency by utilizing these methods in the analysis of the subject matter. The authors provide the reader a detailed analysis on politics and its associated applications with the help of chaos theory, in a single edited volume.
Extreme overvalued beliefs (EOB) are rigidly held, non-deusional beliefs that are the motive behind most acts of terrorism and mass shootings. EOBs are differentiated from delusions and obsessions. The concept of an overvalued idea was first described by Wernicke and later applied to terrorism by McHugh. Our group of forensic psychiatrists (Rahman, Resnick, Harry) refined the definition as an aid in the differential diagnosis seen in acts of violence. The form and content of EOBs is discussed as well as group effects, conformity, and obedience to authority. Religious cults such as The People's Temple, Heaven's Gate, Aum Shinrikyo, and Islamic State (ISIS) and conspiracy beliefs such as assassinations, moon-hoax, and vaccine-induced autism beliefs are discussed using this construct. Finally, some concluding thoughts on countering violent extremism, including its online presence is discussed utilizing information learned from online eating disorders and consumer experience.
to better understand how different cultural, personal and contextual issues influence teacher belief and teaching practices. Encountering new cultures in a new country and adjusting to a new teaching context, CFL teachers taught and learned and in the process many of them developed and changed their beliefs...... of teaching in a new context and in their early years of the teaching careers of CFL teachers in the Danish context. It has been shown that the multifaceted beliefs that CFL teachers hold are based on their personal experience, shaped by context, and mediated by their classroom practices. The educational...... culture in which the teacher has been educated affects how they interpret students, teaching and their teacher role. The study of CFL teachers teaching in intercultural contexts makes a connection between context, cultural issues, individual experience, teacher belief and teaching concerns, and it helps...
Ethical approaches to practice and research in counselling and arts/psychotherapies demand an urgent attention to body politics. Bodies are not neutral; gender, sexuality, ethnicity and class are socio-political aspects that shape our mental, emotional and physical selves and inform our ethical values. Drawing from the author's embodied practice…
Gresham, Jewell Handy
Traces the development and political use of the racist stereotype of the degenerate Black family from the early 1800s to the present. Highlights basic misconceptions about the unbridled sexuality of Black "superstuds" and "mammas." Urges Black women to take the lead in defining the family as a unifying factor in society. (FMW)
Svendsen, Stine H. Bang
While there is little political opposition towards sex education as such in Norway, recent attempts at reforming the subject reveal underlying heteronormative presumptions that seem resistant to reform. While a focus on homosexuality is included in the national curriculum at all levels of compulsory education, the sexual practices involved in…
Ancient people envisaged a strong link between what was deemed transgressive religious activities and objectionable sexual practices. Moreover, sexual behaviour considered aberrant was deemed to upset political boundaries which should protect civic and national stability, especially when this behaviour was suspected ...
Jern, Alan; Chang, Kai-min K; Kemp, Charles
Belief polarization occurs when 2 people with opposing prior beliefs both strengthen their beliefs after observing the same data. Many authors have cited belief polarization as evidence of irrational behavior. We show, however, that some instances of polarization are consistent with a normative account of belief revision. Our analysis uses Bayesian networks to characterize different kinds of relationships between hypotheses and data, and distinguishes between cases in which normative reasoners with opposing beliefs should both strengthen their beliefs, cases in which both should weaken their beliefs, and cases in which one should strengthen and the other should weaken his or her belief. We apply our analysis to several previous studies of belief polarization and present a new experiment that suggests that people tend to update their beliefs in the directions predicted by our normative account.
Full Text Available This paper focuses on the development of discourses around sexual rights, linking tendencies in official global dialogues with national and local realities. Recognizing some of the factors that have facilitated or impeded discourses and action to promote sexual rights around the world, we explore the principles and processes of framing sexual rights and sexual citizenship. We consider political opportunity and the mobilization of resources as important as cultural and emotional interpretations of sexual rights in conceptualizing a "sexual rights movement". Throughout the paper we question whether a movement based on solidarity can be forged between different social movements (i.e., feminist movements, HIV/AIDS movements, LGBT movements, etc. that are advocating for distinct sexual rights. While theoretically sexual rights range from protection from sexual violation to the celebration of sexual pleasure, in reality the agendas of sexual rights movements are still largely fragmented, heteronormative, and focused on negative rights.
Sladeček Michal M.
Full Text Available This paper considers the concept of political community, its constitution and value. The starting point is that the concept of community is not sufficiently recognized in modern political theories, as well as in contemporary liberal theory. In the last two decades communitarian and republican political theory attempted to revitalize this notion. The first part of the paper elaborates on the polemics between these three theoretical orientations. The concluding part examines the possibilities and prospect for stable political community in conditions of pluralism of particular social communities and ethnocultural heterogeneity.
’ is distinct from both the study of political practices of securitization and explorations of competing concepts of politics among security theories. It means tracking what kinds of analysis the theory can produce and whether such analysis systematically impacts real-life political struggles. Securitization...... theory is found to ‘act politically’ through three structural features that systematically shape the political effects of using the theory. The article further discusses – on the basis of the preceding articles in the special issue – three emerging debates around securitization theory: ethics...
Harris, Christine R.; Henniger, Nicole E.
In the last 5 years, the phrase “politics of envy” has appeared more than 621 times in English-language newspapers, generally in opinion essays contending that political liberalism reflects and exploits feelings of envy. Oddly, this assertion has not been tested empirically. We did so with a large adult sample (n = 357). Participants completed a Dispositional Envy Scale and questions about political ideology, socioeconomic status, and age. Envy and age were moderately correlated; younger people reported greater envy. Political ideology and envy were weakly correlated; however, this relationship was not significant when controlling for age. PMID:23471177