WorldWideScience

Sample records for political agendas policy

  1. Climate change in Brazil: public policies, political agenda and media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelaide Lombardo, Magda; Costa Freitas, Ruimar (Univ. Estadual Paulista, Univ. de Sao Paulo Bela Vista, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo (Brazil))

    2010-07-15

    The climate change and sustainable development issue, especially in the context of energy production, have been on the current national policy rhetoric, reflecting the focus of the issue on the world scenario. The Brazilian Agroenergy Plan (2006-2011), considered as an strategic action of the federal government, is an attempt to organize a propose for Research, Development, Innovation and Technology Transfer, aiming to grant sustainability, competitiveness and greater equity between the agroenergy chain agents, starting with the reality analysis and future perspectives for the world energetic matrix. In this context, this research seeks to analyze the proposals of the State of Sao Paulo to the laws implementations that allows the goal accomplishment of 20% reduction on the greenhouse effect emissions until 2020 (base 2005), through action to the deforestation control, creation of an adaptation fund, establishment of a sustainable transportation system, mapping the vulnerabilities of the territory and financial mechanisms to the development of a low carbon economy. From the perspective of the national media coverage agenda, that has extensively approached the climate changes theme, this research collaborates to the analysis of sustainable projects inside the Brazilian perspective and context. This research will emphasize the relation between media, political speech and public policies

  2. Policy agendas, and births and deaths of political parties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lowery, D.; Otjes, S.; Gherghina, S.; van Witteloostuijn, A.; Péli, G.; Brasher, H.

    2013-01-01

    The standard model of political party density emphasizing the interaction of social cleavages and district magnitude (M) is incomplete in accounting for number of parties in cases of high values of M in an arbitrary way. We explore an alternative model for such cases emphasizing the slack in the

  3. Towards a Nordic child care policy – the political processes and agendas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Tine; Eydal, Gudny

    2012-01-01

    This chapter will address the question of why childcare policies have been shaped in the way that it has. In other words, the chapter examines the underlying political processes and the agendas of the various political parties. In the literature about the driving forces of welfare state development......, two types of approaches have dominated the theoretical debate: functionalism, stressing the importance of structures and whole systems, and conflict theories, stressing institutions and actors (Borchorst & Siim 2009; Esping-Andersen 1991). This chapter will adopt a conflict-theory perspective....

  4. Pharmaceuticals, political money, and public policy: a theoretical and empirical agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Paul D

    2013-01-01

    Why, when confronted with policy alternatives that could improve patient care, public health, and the economy, does Congress neglect those goals and tailor legislation to suit the interests of pharmaceutical corporations? In brief, for generations, the pharmaceutical industry has convinced legislators to define policy problems in ways that protect its profit margin. It reinforces this framework by selectively providing information and by targeting campaign contributions to influential legislators and allies. In this way, the industry displaces the public's voice in developing pharmaceutical policy. Unless citizens mobilize to confront the political power of pharmaceutical firms, objectionable industry practices and public policy will not change. Yet we need to refine this analysis. I propose a research agenda to uncover pharmaceutical influence. It develops the theory of dependence corruption to explain how the pharmaceutical industry is able to deflect the broader interests of the general public. It includes empirical studies of lobbying and campaign finance to uncover the means drug firms use to: (1) shape the policy framework adopted and information used to analyze policy; (2) subsidize the work of political allies; and (3) influence congressional voting. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  5. The parliamentary political agenda: a tool for policy analysis of diabetes priorities in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés A; Ruiz-Cantero, María Teresa; González-Zapata, Laura I; Restrepo-Medrano, Juan Carlos; Ortiz-Barreda, Gaby M

    2012-01-01

    To analyze the political agenda on diabetes in Spain under democracy by considering the frequency and content of initiatives in the Spanish parliament. A systematic search of parliamentary interventions (1979-2010) reported on the Spanish Congress of Deputies' web page was carried out using the key word "diabetes". A descriptive study of the frequency of interventions was performed, followed by a content analysis, according to the priorities of the World Health Organization (WHO), the International Diabetes Federation and the Spanish Diabetes Federation. Other study variables were the year of presentation, legislature, type of initiative and whether a political decision was taken (yes/no). There were 59 interventions: 22% were related to the first international initiatives and 44.1% took place in the last two legislatures in response to the WHO's program Diabetes Action Now. A total of 32.2% of the initiatives addressed educational and social programs, while 23.7% addressed access to resources and health services. Most initiatives (74.6%) consisted of parliamentary questions to the government, which only required a response. Of the 15 initiatives requiring a decision to be taken, only eight were approved. Spanish legislators aim to comply with international standards. Nevertheless, political decision-making has sometimes been slow. Importantly, most of the political responsibilities related to health have been transferred to the autonomous regions. The updated National Diabetes Strategy in Spain will need to strengthen public health policies according to established international priorities. Monitoring parliamentary interventions has proven to be a valid tool for evaluating patterns of political debate and decisions on diabetes. Copyright © 2011 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Technical analysis, contestation and politics in policy agenda setting and implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koduah, Augustina; Dijk, van Han; Agyepong, Irene Akua

    2016-01-01

    Background: Why issues get on the policy agenda, move into policy formulation and implementation while others drop off in the process is an important field of enquiry to inform public social policy development and implementation. This paper seeks to advance our understanding of health policy

  7. Political Impetus: Towards a Successful Agenda-Setting for Inclusive Health Policies in Low- and Middle-Income Countries Comment on "Shaping the Health Policy Agenda: The Case of Safe Motherhood Policy in Vietnam".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoguang; Qian, Xu

    2016-02-04

    Agenda-setting is a crucial step for inclusive health policies in the low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Enlightened by Ha et al manuscript, this commentary paper argues that 'political impetus' is the key to the successful agenda-setting of health policies in LMICs, though other determinants may also play the role during the process. This Vietnamese case study presents a good example for policy-makers of other LMICs; it offers insights for contexts where there are limited health resources and poor health performance. Further research which compares various stages of the health policy process across countries, is much needed. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  8. A POLITICAL AGENDA OF SPORTS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina-Ana DROBOT

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the most recent running marathons in Bucharest to see whether they are part of a political agenda or not, and if yes, what are the reasons for this. Is this a way of allowing people to bond together, and to take part in charity? Is this part of the way media imposes its agenda on people, or vice-versa? Is it a way of political elites to control the masses and make them take part in welfare activities? The paper will take into account the hypothesis of sports and welfare holding communities together.

  9. Technical analysis, contestation and politics in policy agenda setting and implementation : the rise and fall of primary care maternal services from Ghana’s capitation policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koduah, A.; Dijk, van J.W.M.; Agyepong, I.A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Why issues get on the policy agenda, move into policy formulation and implementation while others drop off in the process is an important field of enquiry to inform public social policy development and implementation. This paper seeks to advance our understanding of health policy agenda

  10. Policy agendas and births and deaths of political parties : The Dutch Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lowery, D.; van Witteloostuijn, A.; Peli, G.; Brasher, H.; Otjes, Simon; Gherghina, Sergiu

    The standard model of political party density emphasizing the interaction of social cleavages and district magnitude (M) is incomplete in accounting for number of parties in cases of high values of M in an arbitrary way. We explore an alternative model for such cases emphasizing the slack in the

  11. The Politics of Policy in the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act: Setting the Agenda for Students Experiencing Homelessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlakis, Alexandra E.; Duffield, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    While most of the press around the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) has focused on how it signals an end to No Child Left Behind, the implications of ESSA for students experiencing homelessness have been largely overlooked. Garnering organizational insights from Kingdon's (Agendas, alternatives, and public policies, Pearson, Glenviiew, 2011)…

  12. FOREIGN POLICY OF EUROPEAN UNION: EURASIAN AGENDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksiy KANDYUK

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available EU’s influence at so-called post-Soviet space gradually increases and becomes a significant factor of regional policy. Today we can already speak of the European Union as a full participant in the political processes occurring in the post-Soviet and broader – Eurasian area. Foreign policy of EU is evolving under impact of reasons stemming from both structural and political context and from external geopolitical trends. At the same time, challenges in the geopolitical environment in Europe today require the EU to develop new conceptual approaches helping to deal with the problems of relations with its eastern neighbours and the Russian impact. Only the development of a new Eurasian agenda could help to improve European eastern policy, consolidate the position of EU as a geopolitical actor in this region and foster Europeanization and integration of neighbour countries.

  13. Policy Research and Politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskell, Jane

    1988-01-01

    Explores what it means to do research intended to be relevant for public policy. Argues against perception of policy research as politically neutral technical exercise. Discusses political implications of methodology. Discusses research examples to illustrate point. Discusses implications for how research might be used in political process.…

  14. The politics of agenda setting at the global level: key informant interviews regarding the International Labour Organization Decent Work Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Ruggiero, Erica; Cohen, Joanna E; Cole, Donald C

    2014-07-01

    Global labour markets continue to undergo significant transformations resulting from socio-political instability combined with rises in structural inequality, employment insecurity, and poor working conditions. Confronted by these challenges, global institutions are providing policy guidance to protect and promote the health and well-being of workers. This article provides an account of how the International Labour Organization's Decent Work Agenda contributes to the work policy agendas of the World Health Organization and the World Bank. This qualitative study involved semi-structured interviews with representatives from three global institutions--the International Labour Organization (ILO), the World Health Organization and the World Bank. Of the 25 key informants invited to participate, 16 took part in the study. Analysis for key themes was followed by interpretation using selected agenda setting theories. Interviews indicated that through the Decent Work Agenda, the International Labour Organization is shaping the global policy narrative about work among UN agencies, and that the pursuit of decent work and the Agenda were perceived as important goals with the potential to promote just policies. The Agenda was closely linked to the World Health Organization's conception of health as a human right. However, decent work was consistently identified by World Bank informants as ILO terminology in contrast to terms such as job creation and job access. The limited evidence base and its conceptual nature were offered as partial explanations for why the Agenda has yet to fully influence other global institutions. Catalytic events such as the economic crisis were identified as creating the enabling conditions to influence global work policy agendas. Our evidence aids our understanding of how an issue like decent work enters and stays on the policy agendas of global institutions, using the Decent Work Agenda as an illustrative example. Catalytic events and policy

  15. The politics of agenda setting at the global level: key informant interviews regarding the International Labour Organization Decent Work Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Global labour markets continue to undergo significant transformations resulting from socio-political instability combined with rises in structural inequality, employment insecurity, and poor working conditions. Confronted by these challenges, global institutions are providing policy guidance to protect and promote the health and well-being of workers. This article provides an account of how the International Labour Organization’s Decent Work Agenda contributes to the work policy agendas of the World Health Organization and the World Bank. Methods This qualitative study involved semi-structured interviews with representatives from three global institutions – the International Labour Organization (ILO), the World Health Organization and the World Bank. Of the 25 key informants invited to participate, 16 took part in the study. Analysis for key themes was followed by interpretation using selected agenda setting theories. Results Interviews indicated that through the Decent Work Agenda, the International Labour Organization is shaping the global policy narrative about work among UN agencies, and that the pursuit of decent work and the Agenda were perceived as important goals with the potential to promote just policies. The Agenda was closely linked to the World Health Organization’s conception of health as a human right. However, decent work was consistently identified by World Bank informants as ILO terminology in contrast to terms such as job creation and job access. The limited evidence base and its conceptual nature were offered as partial explanations for why the Agenda has yet to fully influence other global institutions. Catalytic events such as the economic crisis were identified as creating the enabling conditions to influence global work policy agendas. Conclusions Our evidence aids our understanding of how an issue like decent work enters and stays on the policy agendas of global institutions, using the Decent Work Agenda as an illustrative

  16. Politics, policy and physical education | van Deventer | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To understand educational reform and the form that Physical Education (PE) takes on we need to understand how policy becomes practice and the nature of the political agenda at any particular time. The research problem focuses on the politics involved in the policy process within educational reform regarding PE as a ...

  17. HIV/AIDS policy agenda setting in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodayari-Zarnaq, Rahim; Ravaghi, Hamid; Mohammad Mosaddeghrad, Ali; Sedaghat, Abbas; Mohraz, Minoo

    2016-01-01

    HIV/AIDS control are one of the most important goals of the health systems. The aim of this study was to determine how HIV/AIDS control was initiated among policy makers' agenda setting in Iran. A qualitative research (semi-structured interview) was conducted using Kingdon's framework (problem, policy and politics streams, and policy windows and policy entrepreneurs) to analysis HIV/AIDS agenda setting in Iran. Thirty-two policy makers, managers, specialists, and researchers were interviewed. Also, 30 policy documents were analyzed. Framework analysis method was used for data analysis. the increase of HIV among Injecting drug users (IDUs) and Female Sex Workers (FSWs), lack of control of their high-risk behaviors, and exceeding the HIV into concentrated phase were examples of problem stream. Policy stream was evidence-based solutions that highlighted the need for changing strategies for dealing with such a problem and finding technically feasible and acceptable solutions. Iran's participation in United Nations General Assembly special sessions on HIV/AIDS (UNGASS), the establishment of National AIDS Committee; highlighting AIDS control in Iran's five years development program and the support of the judiciary system of harm reduction policies were examples of politics stream. Policy entrepreneurs linking these streams put the HIV/AIDS on the national agenda (policy windows) and provide their solutions. There were mutual interactions among these three streams and sometimes, they weakened or reinforced each other. Future studies are recommended to understand the interactions between these streams' parts and perhaps develop further Kingdon's framework, especially in the health sector.

  18. Political ecologies of resource extraction: Agendas pendientes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Bebbington

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Research related to extractive industries has grown significantly over the last decade. As the commodities boom appears to be winding down, this essay outlines areas for potential future research. Emphasis is placed on the need for research on: the relationships among extractivism, climate change and societal transitions; the aggregate effects of the commodity boom on the environment, on societal structures, on elite formation and on cultural politics; the implications of resource extraction on the couplings of space and power at different scales and with particular reference to the Colombian peace process; and the gendered and generation dimensions of the effects of extractivism on rights and citizenship. The paper calls for on-going collaborations among scholars and activists, for greater collaboration among social and bio-physical scientists, for comparative analysis with regions beyond Latin America and for innovative ways of bridging research and the public sphere. Resumen: Ecologías políticas de la extracción de recursos: Agendas pendientes Las investigaciones relacionadas con las industrias extractivas han aumentado considerablemente durante la última década. Como el boom de las materias primas está tocando su fin, este ensayo señala áreas que se prestan a posibles investigaciones en el futuro. Se pone el énfasis en la necesidad de investigar: las relaciones entre el extractivismo, el cambio climático y las transiciones sociales; los efectos agregados del boom de las materias primas en el medio ambiente, en las estructuras sociales, en la formación de élites y en las políticas culturales; las implicaciones de la extracción de recursos en las relaciones entre espacio y poder a distintas escalas y refiriéndose especialmente al proceso de paz colombiano; y las dimensiones generizadas y generacionales de los efectos del extractivismo en los derechos y en la ciudadanía. Este artículo hace un llamamiento a colaboraciones

  19. Why Are Some Policy Agendas Larger than Others?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peter Bjerre; Seeberg, Henrik Bech

    2016-01-01

    Most research on policy agendas is based on the assumption that space on the agenda is fixed and, hence, focuses on how problems compete for this limited agenda space. This article holds that policy agendas may be limited but not fixed, meaning that problems may not always be traded off...... but confronted through a larger policy agenda. Based on an extensive collection of local council agendas from 98 Danish municipalities over time, this article investigates variations in agenda size across local governments and examines the extent to which this reflects the local problem environment. The analysis...

  20. Putting newborn hearing screening on the political agenda in Belgium: local initiatives toward a community programme - a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Bénédicte; Lagasse, Raphaël; Levêque, Alain

    2014-07-01

    The Kingdon model, based on the convergence of three streams (problem, policy, and politics) and the opening of a policy window, analyses the process by which a health issue is placed on the political agenda. We used this model to document the political agenda-setting process of the newborn hearing screening programme in Belgium. A qualitative study based on a document review and on semi-directed interviews was carried out. The interviews were conducted with nine people who had played a role in putting the issue in question on the political agenda, and the documents reviewed included scientific literature and internal reports and publications from the newborn hearing screening programme. The thematic analysis of the data collected was carried out on the basis of the Kingdon model's three streams. The political agenda-setting of this screening programme was based on many factors. The problem stream included factors external to the context under study, such as the technological developments and the contribution of the scientific literature which led to the recommendation to provide newborn hearing screening. The two other streams (policy and politics) covered factors internal to the Belgian context. The fact that it was locally feasible with financial support, the network of doctors convinced of the need for newborn hearing screening, the drafting of various proposals, and the search for financing were all part of the policy stream. The Belgian political context and the policy opportunities concerning preventive medicine were identified as significant factors in the third stream. When these three streams converged, a policy window opened, allowing newborn hearing screening onto the political agenda and enabling the policy decision for its introduction. The advantage of applying the Kingdon model in our approach was the ability to demonstrate the political agenda-setting process, using the three streams. This made it possible to identify the many factors involved in

  1. Politics of sustainability in the Arctic - a research agenda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Ulrik Pram; Jakobsen, Uffe; Strandsbjerg, Jeppe

    2017-01-01

    and application from the global ecosphere to a regional environment, and, second, how sustainability is again conceptually transformed when meeting Greenlandic ambitions for postcoloniality. This discussion leads us to outline an agenda for how to study the way in which sustainability works as a political concept.......The concept of sustainability has taken centre stage in Arctic politics. However, there is little agreement on what ‘sustainable’ means. For different actors (governments, indigenous people, NGOs, etc.) the concept implies different sets of opportunities and precautions. Sustainability, therefore......, is much more a fundamental idea to be further elaborated depending on contexts than a definable term with a specific meaning. The paper argues a research agenda that aims to map and analyse the role of sustainability in political and economic strategies in the Arctic. Sustainability has become...

  2. The Politics of Industrial Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay; Buur, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Economic transformation is driven by successfully implemented industrial policy, but industrial policy is inherently political. We cannot understand why some governments pursue and implement industrial policy better than others without understanding the politics. This article addresses the condit......Economic transformation is driven by successfully implemented industrial policy, but industrial policy is inherently political. We cannot understand why some governments pursue and implement industrial policy better than others without understanding the politics. This article addresses...... the conditions under which industrial policies are successfully implemented. It presents an analytical approach to understanding why some ruling elite-capitalist alliances lead to better economic outcomes than others. Sub-Saharan African countries present a particular puzzle given their low productive...

  3. Corporate philanthropy, political influence, and health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fooks, Gary J; Gilmore, Anna B

    2013-01-01

    The Framework Convention of Tobacco Control (FCTC) provides a basis for nation states to limit the political effects of tobacco industry philanthropy, yet progress in this area is limited. This paper aims to integrate the findings of previous studies on tobacco industry philanthropy with a new analysis of British American Tobacco's (BAT) record of charitable giving to develop a general model of corporate political philanthropy that can be used to facilitate implementation of the FCTC. Analysis of previously confidential industry documents, BAT social and stakeholder dialogue reports, and existing tobacco industry document studies on philanthropy. The analysis identified six broad ways in which tobacco companies have used philanthropy politically: developing constituencies to build support for policy positions and generate third party advocacy; weakening opposing political constituencies; facilitating access and building relationships with policymakers; creating direct leverage with policymakers by providing financial subsidies to specific projects; enhancing the donor's status as a source of credible information; and shaping the tobacco control agenda by shifting thinking on the importance of regulating the market environment for tobacco and the relative risks of smoking for population health. Contemporary BAT social and stakeholder reports contain numerous examples of charitable donations that are likely to be designed to shape the tobacco control agenda, secure access and build constituencies. Tobacco companies' political use of charitable donations underlines the need for tobacco industry philanthropy to be restricted via full implementation of Articles 5.3 and 13 of the FCTC. The model of tobacco industry philanthropy developed in this study can be used by public health advocates to press for implementation of the FCTC and provides a basis for analysing the political effects of charitable giving in other industry sectors which have an impact on public health

  4. Corporate philanthropy, political influence, and health policy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary J Fooks

    Full Text Available The Framework Convention of Tobacco Control (FCTC provides a basis for nation states to limit the political effects of tobacco industry philanthropy, yet progress in this area is limited. This paper aims to integrate the findings of previous studies on tobacco industry philanthropy with a new analysis of British American Tobacco's (BAT record of charitable giving to develop a general model of corporate political philanthropy that can be used to facilitate implementation of the FCTC.Analysis of previously confidential industry documents, BAT social and stakeholder dialogue reports, and existing tobacco industry document studies on philanthropy.The analysis identified six broad ways in which tobacco companies have used philanthropy politically: developing constituencies to build support for policy positions and generate third party advocacy; weakening opposing political constituencies; facilitating access and building relationships with policymakers; creating direct leverage with policymakers by providing financial subsidies to specific projects; enhancing the donor's status as a source of credible information; and shaping the tobacco control agenda by shifting thinking on the importance of regulating the market environment for tobacco and the relative risks of smoking for population health. Contemporary BAT social and stakeholder reports contain numerous examples of charitable donations that are likely to be designed to shape the tobacco control agenda, secure access and build constituencies.Tobacco companies' political use of charitable donations underlines the need for tobacco industry philanthropy to be restricted via full implementation of Articles 5.3 and 13 of the FCTC. The model of tobacco industry philanthropy developed in this study can be used by public health advocates to press for implementation of the FCTC and provides a basis for analysing the political effects of charitable giving in other industry sectors which have an impact on

  5. Shaping the Health Policy Agenda: The Case of Safe Motherhood Policy in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Bui Thi Thu; Mirzoev, Tolib; Mukhopadhyay, Maitrayee

    2015-08-16

    Maternal health remains a central policy concern in Vietnam. With a commitment to achieving the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 5 target of maternal mortality rate (MMR) of 70/100 000 by 2015, the Ministry of Health (MoH) issued the National Plan for Safe Motherhood (NPSM) 2003-2010. In 2008, reproductive health, including safe motherhood (SM) became a national health target program with annual government funding. A case study of how SM emerged as a political priority in Vietnam over the period 2001-2008, drawing on Kingdon's theory of agenda-setting was conducted. A mixed method was adopted for this study of the NPSM. Three related streams contributed to SM priority in Vietnam: (1) the problem of high MMR was officially recognized from high-quality research, (2) the strong roles of policy champion from MoH in advocating for the needs to reducing MMR as well as support from government and donors, and (3) the national and international events, providing favorable context for this issue to emerge on policy agenda. This paper draws on the theory of agenda-setting to analyze the Vietnam experience and to develop guidance for SM a political priority in other high maternal mortality communities. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  6. The role of policy actors and contextual factors in policy agenda setting and formulation: maternal fee exemption policies in Ghana over four and a half decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koduah, Augustina; van Dijk, Han; Agyepong, Irene Akua

    2015-05-30

    Development of health policy is a complex process that does not necessarily follow a particular format and a predictable trajectory. Therefore, agenda setting and selecting of alternatives are critical processes of policy development and can give insights into how and why policies are made. Understanding why some policy issues remain and are maintained whiles others drop off the agenda is an important enquiry. This paper aims to advance understanding of health policy agenda setting and formulation in Ghana, a lower middle-income country, by exploring how and why the maternal (antenatal, delivery and postnatal) fee exemption policy agenda in the health sector has been maintained over the four and half decades since a 'free antenatal care in government facilities' policy was first introduced in October 1963. A mix of historical and contemporary qualitative case studies of nine policy agenda setting and formulation processes was used. Data collection methods involved reviews of archival materials, contemporary records, media content, in-depth interviews, and participant observation. Data was analysed drawing on a combination of policy analysis theories and frameworks. Contextual factors, acting in an interrelating manner, shaped how policy actors acted in a timely manner and closely linked policy content to the intended agenda. Contextual factors that served as bases for the policymaking process were: political ideology, economic crisis, data about health outcomes, historical events, social unrest, change in government, election year, austerity measures, and international agendas. Nkrumah's socialist ideology first set the agenda for free antenatal service in 1963. This policy trajectory taken in 1963 was not reversed by subsequent policy actors because contextual factors and policy actors created a network of influence to maintain this issue on the agenda. Politicians over the years participated in the process to direct and approve the agenda. Donors increasingly

  7. Policy, politics and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Scott L; Bekker, Marleen; de Leeuw, Evelyne; Wismar, Matthias; Helderman, Jan-Kees; Ribeiro, Sofia; Stuckler, David

    2017-10-01

    If public health is the field that diagnoses and strives to cure social ills, then understanding political causes and cures for health problems should be an intrinsic part of the field. In this article, we argue that there is no support for the simple and common, implicit model of politics in which scientific evidence plus political will produces healthy policies. Efforts to improve the translation of evidence into policy such as knowledge transfer work only under certain circumstances. These circumstances are frequently political, and to be understood through systematic inquiry into basic features of the political economy such as institutions, partisanship and the organization of labour markets. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  8. Sports, Global Politics, and Social Value Change: A Research Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Rensmann

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite their important role in forging, constructing and self-ascribing social identities and shaping popular culture, sports have long been a marginalized subject of social science inquiry, cultural studies, and research on international politics. Only in recent years this has begun to change. The article seeks to advance the still nascent but emerging cross-disciplinary field of research on sports and global politics in two ways: first, by addressing largely unexplored issues of sports, politics, and social conflicts, putting the spotlight on sociopolitical arenas beyond commercialized sports mega events, which have attracted most scholarly attention in contemporary research; and second, by generating hypotheses on the indirect political effects of sports cultures, in particular on the relationship between local social identities—reinforced through sports—and cosmopolitan value change. These interlinked spatial and substantive claims ground a new critical research framework and agenda: it examines sports as profoundly embedded in socioeconomic, cultural and political forms of rule and domination but also seeks to disclose sports’ emancipatory and subversive potential in advancing globalization from below.

  9. Politics of African Industrial Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay; Buur, Lars; Therkildsen, Ole

    2017-01-01

    in the early stages of capitalist transformation that also experience the pressures of elections due to democratization, this book provides four in-depth African country studies that illustrate the challenges to economic transformation and the politics of implementing industrial policies....

  10. New Agenda: South African Journal of Social and Economic Policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New Agenda: South African Journal of Social and Economic Policy: Editorial Policies. Journal Home > About the Journal ... This is a policy journal analyzing social and economic issues in South Africa. We publish infomed articles by experts and ... Publication Frequency. This journal publishes quarterly (4 issues per year).

  11. Attention to social issues as a requirement to regional political agenda-setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Kuzhman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that interest in the social issues appeared late nineteenth century together with the adoption of the concept of the welfare state. The content of two basic approaches to the study of social problems ­ positivist (functional and constructivist. Positivists (E. Durkheim, T. Parsons, R. Merton, R. Nisbet believe that the main tool in solving social issues are the facts that you can measure. In this sense the issues are the manifestation of improper performance of functions in society, that social issues can be studied as a social disorganization and behavior as deviant or deviation from accepted social norms and institutionalized. Constructivists (R. Fuller, C.W. Mills, H. Becker, H. Bloomer, M. Spector, J. Kitsuse believe that dysfunction becomes a problem if it is understood, defined and can be fixed. It was found that in order to hit the social issue of the political agenda, it must be riveted attention from the media and the public. Reported that the theoretical basis of the consideration cycle attention to the issue laid A. Downs, T. O’Riordan, B.G. Peters, B.W. Hogwood. It is proved that in order to get to the regional political agenda, the social issue has to pass a series of attention to it. Initially there is an alternative view on the issue, and the source of this view must have the trust of the community. Also formed an alternative definition of the issue, its magnitude or its seriousness. The next step is subjected reformulation of issue, leading to a greater variety of arguments, and this, in turn, can lead to reducing bureaucratic involvement, reduced media attention and weaken the bonds between community members. As a result, the question loses its priority and will be removed from the regional political agenda. That is the importance of support at three levels: regional authorities, regional media and regional community. Each of them have their highs and lows on various issues and areas of policy. Manufacturers

  12. More than Words and Good Intentions: The Political Agenda-Setting Power Behind Foreign Aid Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Riaño Rodríguez, Juan Felipe

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, international aid is examined as a tool for political agenda-setting. A theoretical model is constructed for the analysis, incorporating the incentives created by foreign aid, on the political benefits of recipient governments. The model also incorporates the compensating benefits provided by these governments through the legitimization of the donor country's political agenda. The main results of this model indicate that governments which offer international assistance can infl...

  13. How Did Youth Mental Health Make It Onto Australia’s 2011 Federal Policy Agenda?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey A. Whiteford

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The 2011 Australian federal budget included a large investment in youth mental health and early intervention services. In this article, we focus on the critical role of agenda setting in the preceding 4 years to examine how and why these services were given such a high priority at this time. We undertook a systematic review of relevant literature, including parliamentary Hansard transcripts from the House of Representatives and Senate, the final reports of all available parliamentary committees, government policy documents, other pertinent documents held by the Commonwealth Department of Health and Aging, and media reports from five widely circulated Australian publications/news outlets. We used Kingdon’s multiple streams framework to structure analysis. We highlight three factors that were influential in getting youth mental health issues onto the policy agenda: (a the strategic use of quantitative evidence to create a publicly visible “problem,” (b the marshalling of the “public” to create pressure on government, and (c the role of serendipity. Overall, we found the decision to prioritize youth mental health resulted from a combination of advocacy for a well-articulated policy solution by high-profile, influential policy entrepreneurs, and political pressure caused by an up swell of national support for mental health reform. Our findings highlight the socio-political factors that influence agenda setting and health policy formulation. They raise important ethical and strategic issues in utilizing research evidence to change policy.

  14. Policy in the Public Eye : Agenda-setting and framing dynamics of traditional and social media in relation to immigration and integration policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Dekker (Rianne)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThe policy field of immigration and migrant integration is publicly and politically controversial. Consequently, issues related to immigration and migrant integration are regularly in the public eye of the media. This doctoral thesis analyzes how policy agendas in the domain of

  15. Policy paradigms, transnationalism, and domestic politics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Skogstad, Grace Darlene

    2011-01-01

    Policy Paradigms, Transnationalism, and Domestic Politics offers a variety of perspectives on the development of policy paradigms -- the ideas that structure thinking about what can and should be done in a policy domain...

  16. The Politics of African Industrial Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay; Therkildsen, Ole; Buur, Lars

    This book engages in the debate on growth versus economic transformation and the importance of industrial policy, presenting a comprehensive framework for explaining the politics of industrial policy. Using comparative research to theorize about the politics of industrial policy in countries...... in the early stages of capitalist transformation that also experience the pressures of elections due to democratization, this book provides four in-depth African country studies that illustrate the challenges to economic transformation and the politics of implementing industrial policies....

  17. Bio-objects’ political capacity: a research agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeseele, Pieter; Hendrickx, Kim; Pavone, Vincenzo; Van Hoyweghen, Ine

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the merits of foregrounding the dichotomy of politicization vs de-politicization for our understanding of bio-objects in order to study their production, circulation, and governance in European societies. By asking how bio-objects are configured in science, policy, public, and media discourses and practices, we focus on the role of socio-technical configurations in generating political relations. The bio-object thereby serves as an entry point to approach and conceptualize “the political” in an innovative way. PMID:23630150

  18. Space Politics and Policy: An Evolutionary Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Eligar

    2002-01-01

    This paper offers an evolutionary perspective of space policy. It is argued that (1) space policy is evolutionary in that it has responded to dramatic political events, such as the launching of Sputnik and the Cold War, and has undergone dynamic and evolutionary policy changes over the course of the past fifty years of the space-age; and that (2) space policy is an integral part of and interacts with public policy processes in the United States and abroad. To this end, the paper analyzes space policy at several levels of analysis. This includes: (1) historical context, political actors and institutions, political processes, and policy outcomes; (2) the symbiotic relationships between policy and space technology; and (3) future space policy trends and developments likely to occur in the 21st century. A "Space Politics and Policy Framework" is developed in this paper to represent the evolution of space policy. Space policy involves both the process of policy formation and policy change over time (e.g., emergence of commercialization) and the courses of action taken to achieve political (and technological) determined outcomes. The evolution of space policy over time takes place through policy change. On this basis, public policy processes over the course of the space-age have involved the mobilization of governmental resources, actors, and institutions. Concomitantly, nongovernmental actors, such as private corporations and commercial enterprises, increasingly play a role in space. As a result, market factors in addition to political forces influence space policy.

  19. Voters and the Mass Media: Information-Seeking, Political Interest, and Issue Agendas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCombs, Maxwell; Weaver, David

    A study to determine the agenda-setting role of the mass media concerning the political interests of the general public during the 1976 presidential campaign is reported. Agenda-setting refers to the transfer of concerns from the media to the general public. The concept is concerned with cognitions rather than attitudes. It has been stated that…

  20. The Evolution of the Quality Agenda in Higher Education: The Politics of Legitimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippakou, Ourania

    2017-01-01

    Taking the evolution of the quality agenda in the UK as its centrepiece, this article analyses the politics of legitimation accompanying the emergence of quality assurance and the contribution of quality enhancement to the power play therein. This article argues that over the last 25 years the quality agenda has been used as a proxy--a state…

  1. The Political Economy of Health Co-Benefits: Embedding Health in the Climate Change Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Annabelle; Blashki, Grant; Bowen, Kathryn J; Karoly, David J; Wiseman, John

    2018-04-04

    A complex, whole-of-economy issue such as climate change demands an interdisciplinary, multi-sectoral response. However, evidence suggests that human health has remained elusive in its influence on the development of ambitious climate change mitigation policies for many national governments, despite a recognition that the combustion of fossil fuels results in pervasive short- and long-term health consequences. We use insights from literature on the political economy of health and climate change, the science–policy interface and power in policy-making, to identify additional barriers to the meaningful incorporation of health co-benefits into climate change mitigation policy development. Specifically, we identify four key interrelated areas where barriers may exist in relation to health co-benefits: discourse, efficiency, vested interests and structural challenges. With these insights in mind, we argue that the current politico-economic paradigm in which climate change is situated and the processes used to develop climate change mitigation policies do not adequately support accounting for health co-benefits. We present approaches for enhancing the role of health co-benefits in the development of climate change mitigation policies to ensure that health is embedded in the broader climate change agenda.

  2. The Political Economy of Health Co-Benefits: Embedding Health in the Climate Change Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabelle Workman

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A complex, whole-of-economy issue such as climate change demands an interdisciplinary, multi-sectoral response. However, evidence suggests that human health has remained elusive in its influence on the development of ambitious climate change mitigation policies for many national governments, despite a recognition that the combustion of fossil fuels results in pervasive short- and long-term health consequences. We use insights from literature on the political economy of health and climate change, the science–policy interface and power in policy-making, to identify additional barriers to the meaningful incorporation of health co-benefits into climate change mitigation policy development. Specifically, we identify four key interrelated areas where barriers may exist in relation to health co-benefits: discourse, efficiency, vested interests and structural challenges. With these insights in mind, we argue that the current politico-economic paradigm in which climate change is situated and the processes used to develop climate change mitigation policies do not adequately support accounting for health co-benefits. We present approaches for enhancing the role of health co-benefits in the development of climate change mitigation policies to ensure that health is embedded in the broader climate change agenda.

  3. Expanding Policy Imagination in Political Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard

    2006-01-01

    Much of the literature in political economy seeks to capture an essential insight into the evolution of political and economic systems to provide a foundation for policy advice. This article suggests that attempts to nut out the kernels of change often restrict rather than expand policy imagination...... be implemented. Historical sociology provides a way to generate information about contextual constellations through two "tonics": intentional rationality and social mechanisms. With the assistance of these tonics, historical sociology widens political economy's policy imagination....

  4. Women and Soccer: Research Agendas and Policy Debates

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Jean Williams of De Montfort University delivered the opening plenary, Women and Soccer: Research Agendas and Policy Debates, at The Futures of Women's Soccer Symposium held at Duke University's Forum for Scholars and Publics on April 10, 2015. The paper looked at the history of women's soccer and its contemporary situation in the approach to Women's World Cup in Canada 6 June 2015.

  5. New Agenda: South African Journal of Social and Economic Policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NEW AGENDA is peer-reviewed and listed in the department of education's Index of Approved South African Journals. The journal's focus encompasses South African, African and international developments in social and economic research and policy. We aim to provide high-quality pertinent information and analysis for ...

  6. Putting Physical Activity on the Policy Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Catherine B.; Mutrie, Nanette

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline why physical activity policy is important in terms of promoting population based increases in physical activity. The promotion of physical activity through public policy happens globally and nationally, however to be successful it should also happen at state and local levels. We outline the rationale for the…

  7. Gifted students in the educational policy agenda in Mexico (1980-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Adolfo Enríquez Gutiérrez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze educational policies on gifted students (1980-2006, known in Mexico as «estudiantes sobresalientes». The authors point out the way the term «estudiantes sobresalientes» was implemented over the field of Special Education as well as how a political agenda was designed in order to assist gifted childhood and youth. This article also focuses on the design a proposal of an educational intervention. And at the very end how this proposal was developed, the results and the way it was formed as a training program for Mexican Teachers from Public Education. We recognize the fact that the term «estudiante sobresaliente» is ambiguous due to the diversity of student population as well as, in many cases; the gifted status is no visible. We consider the process of selection, assessment and follow up of this project was based on formal concepts and at the same time did not take in consideration the capabilities and skills of the cultural context of each student (community, family and individual. These elements let us understand the educational political agenda (1980-2006 on special education for gifted students as well as the construction of a wide concept of «sobresaliencia» that was design in order to classify and rate them thru that political agenda.

  8. INDIA: THE PERMANENT AGENDA OF ITS FOREIGN POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CÉSAR ROSS ORELLANA

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The article tries to identify and explain the permanent subjects of the international agenda of India, from the perspective of its own intellectuality.  This set of ideas is considered by the Indian elite, as an structural key to understand its place in the world-wide, regional and local context. Also, allows us to understand and to explain the present and the future Indian foreign policy. This is a very interesting point of view, considering the increasing influence of India in the world-wide scene. The hypothesis stated by this article considers that the permanent international agenda of India has been composed by four main variables: foreign policy, geographic, historical and security and defense, those that were integrated as well by a total of 20 general subjects.

  9. Exploring the Political Agenda of the European Parliament Using a Dynamic Topic Modeling Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Greene, Derek; Cross, James P.

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes the political agenda of the European Parliament (EP) plenary, how it has evolved over time, and the manner in which Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) have reacted to external and internal stimuli when making plenary speeches. To unveil the plenary agenda and detect latent themes in legislative speeches over time, MEP speech content is analyzed using a new dynamic topic modeling method based on two layers of Non-negative Matrix Factorization (NMF). This method is ap...

  10. What Enables and Constrains the Inclusion of the Social Determinants of Health Inequities in Government Policy Agendas? A Narrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Phillip; Friel, Sharon; Kay, Adrian; Baum, Fran; Strazdins, Lyndall; Mackean, Tamara

    2018-01-01

    Background: Despite decades of evidence gathering and calls for action, few countries have systematically attenuated health inequities (HI) through action on the social determinants of health (SDH). This is at least partly because doing so presents a significant political and policy challenge. This paper explores this challenge through a review of the empirical literature, asking: what factors have enabled and constrained the inclusion of the social determinants of health inequities (SDHI) in government policy agendas? Methods: A narrative review method was adopted involving three steps: first, drawing upon political science theories on agenda-setting, an integrated theoretical framework was developed to guide the review; second, a systematic search of scholarly databases for relevant literature; and third, qualitative analysis of the data and thematic synthesis of the results. Studies were included if they were empirical, met specified quality criteria, and identified factors that enabled or constrained the inclusion of the SDHI in government policy agendas. Results: A total of 48 studies were included in the final synthesis, with studies spanning a number of country-contexts and jurisdictional settings, and employing a diversity of theoretical frameworks. Influential factors included the ways in which the SDHI were framed in public, media and political discourse; emerging data and evidence describing health inequalities; limited supporting evidence and misalignment of proposed solutions with existing policy and institutional arrangements; institutionalised norms and ideologies (ie, belief systems) that are antithetical to a SDH approach including neoliberalism, the medicalisation of health and racism; civil society mobilization; leadership; and changes in government. Conclusion: A complex set of interrelated, context-dependent and dynamic factors influence the inclusion or neglect of the SDHI in government policy agendas. It is better to think about these factors

  11. The role of policy actors and contextual factors in policy agenda setting and formulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koduah, Augustina; Dijk, van Han; Agyepong, Irene Akua

    2015-01-01

    Background: Development of health policy is a complex process that does not necessarily follow a particular format and a predictable trajectory. Therefore, agenda setting and selecting of alternatives are critical processes of policy development and can give insights into how and why policies are

  12. HIV/AIDS Policy Making Process in Iran: Analysis of HIV/AIDS Agenda Setting Based on Kingdon's Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Khodayari Zarnaq

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives : Agenda setting is the process by which certain issues come onto the policy agenda from the much larger number of issues potentially worthy of attention by policy makers. The aim of this study was to deeply understand about how AIDS entered to health policy agenda in Iran. Material and Methods: An exploratory qualitative retrospective study based on multiple streams framework to analyze AIDS agenda setting process, 32 semi-structured interviews were conducted with key informants and stakeholders in Iran and 30 policy documents were reviewed. Data were analyzed using framework analysis method and MAXQDA software. Results : Problem, policy and politics, the three streams of HIV/AIDS in context of Iran were identified and the advent and continuity of multiple streams and their interactions and combination by policy entrepreneurs in couple of streams in policy windows were explained. Conclusion: In this study, the assumption of independence of three streams from each other was doubted. Also, framework has ambiguities in explaining entrepreneurs' act when opening policy windows. Other researchers can modify the framework by learning-by-doing.

  13. The politics and policies of welfare chauvinism under the economic crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keskinen, Suvi; Norocel, Ov Cristian; Bak Jørgensen, Martin

    2016-01-01

    . This article identifies two main ways of understanding welfare chauvinism: 1) as a broad concept that covers all sorts of claims and policies to reserve welfare benefits for the ‘native’ population; 2) an ethnonationalist and racialising political agenda, characteristic especially of right-wing populist......The ongoing economic crisis that emerged in the wake of the global recession in 2008, and was followed by the more recent crisis of the Eurozone, has introduced new themes and remoulded old ways of approaching the welfare state, immigration, national belonging and racism in Northern Europe...... parties. Focusing on the relationship between politics and policies, we examine how welfare chauvinist political agendas are turned into policies and what hinders welfare chauvinist claims from becoming policy matters and welfare practices. It is argued that welfare chauvinism targeting migrants is part...

  14. Regional industrial policy and the new agenda for growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerding, Allan Næs

    2005-01-01

    intentions of the law. It is argued that while the law aims at simpli-fying the organisational setting of industrial policy, to some extent in order to avoid goal con-flicts on policy, the practical experiences so far with the raison d’être of the law indicates a process of forming broad regional policy...... coalitions rather than centralising the decision mak-ing power. However, since the political bodies involved in industrial policy will become fewer, more powerful and more focussed on industrial policy, goal conflicts are likely to oc-cur in the future....

  15. Policy initiation and political levers in health policy: lessons from Ghana's health insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddoh, Anthony; Akor, Samuel Akortey

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the health policy formulation process over the years has focused on the content of policy to the neglect of context. This had led to several policy initiatives having a still birth or ineffective policy choices with sub-optimal outcomes when implemented. Sometimes, the difficulty has been finding congruence between different values and interests of the various stakeholders. How can policy initiators leverage the various subtle mechanisms that various players draw on to leverage their interests during policy formulation. This paper attempts to conceptualise these levers of policy formulation to enhance an understanding of this field of work based on lived experience. This is a qualitative participant observation case study based on retrospective recollection of the policy process and political levers involved in developing the Ghana National Health Insurance Scheme. The study uses a four-concept framework which is agenda setting, symbols manipulation, constituency preservation and coalition building to capture the various issues, negotiations and nuanced approaches used in arriving at desired outcomes. Technical experts, civil society, academicians and politicians all had significant influence on setting the health insurance agenda. Each of these various stakeholders carefully engaged in ways that preserved their constituency interests through explicit manoeuvres and subtle engagements. Where proposals lend themselves to various interpretations, stakeholders were quick to latch on the contentious issues to preserve their constituency and will manipulate the symbols that arise from the proposals to their advantage. Where interests are contested and the price of losing out will leave government worse off which will favour its political opponent, it will push for divergent interests outside parliamentary politics through intense negotiations to build coalitions so a particular policy may pass. This paper has examined the policy environment and the

  16. Policy initiation and political levers in health policy: lessons from Ghana’s health insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Understanding the health policy formulation process over the years has focused on the content of policy to the neglect of context. This had led to several policy initiatives having a still birth or ineffective policy choices with sub-optimal outcomes when implemented. Sometimes, the difficulty has been finding congruence between different values and interests of the various stakeholders. How can policy initiators leverage the various subtle mechanisms that various players draw on to leverage their interests during policy formulation. This paper attempts to conceptualise these levers of policy formulation to enhance an understanding of this field of work based on lived experience. Methodology This is a qualitative participant observation case study based on retrospective recollection of the policy process and political levers involved in developing the Ghana National Health Insurance Scheme. The study uses a four-concept framework which is agenda setting, symbols manipulation, constituency preservation and coalition building to capture the various issues, negotiations and nuanced approaches used in arriving at desired outcomes. Results Technical experts, civil society, academicians and politicians all had significant influence on setting the health insurance agenda. Each of these various stakeholders carefully engaged in ways that preserved their constituency interests through explicit manoeuvres and subtle engagements. Where proposals lend themselves to various interpretations, stakeholders were quick to latch on the contentious issues to preserve their constituency and will manipulate the symbols that arise from the proposals to their advantage. Where interests are contested and the price of losing out will leave government worse off which will favour its political opponent, it will push for divergent interests outside parliamentary politics through intense negotiations to build coalitions so a particular policy may pass. Conclusions This paper has

  17. Expanding Policy Imagination in Political Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard

    2006-01-01

    Much of the literature in political economy seeks to capture an essential insight into the evolution of political and economic systems to provide a foundation for policy advice. This article suggests that attempts to nut out the kernels of change often restrict rather than expand policy imagination...... capacity to see political, social, and economic changes that do not conform to conventional theories, as well as distorting our understanding of how the contemporary world works. What policymakers want, more than prediction or recitation of conventional theories, is context to understand how policy can...... be implemented. Historical sociology provides a way to generate information about contextual constellations through two "tonics": intentional rationality and social mechanisms. With the assistance of these tonics, historical sociology widens political economy's policy imagination....

  18. Graduate course development : transportation policy and politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Transportation, public policy, and politics are inextricably linked and have been, in the United States, from : at least 1956, with the birth of the federal highway system and the Interstate Highway Act, if not earlier. : Much of the transportation s...

  19. Gender security between human development and human security. Recent issues in the political international agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Degani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Issues regarding security, for a long time have been proposed, both in the scientific literature, that in the writings of popular character, without taking into due consideration the specificity of the effects that certain threats can cause the different subjectivity or on specific groups rather than on other . In particular, very rarely takes into account the fact that, in relation to the condition of women, we can talk, referring to certain areas or aspects of the problem, think of the problem of violence, of a real security crisis. The safety cultures sedimentation processes of socialization through everyday practices, can be considered an integral part of the internal structures of states. The issues relating to the in / security for women are on the agenda institutional, only a few years, do not fall within the traditional framework of interventions aimed at regulating sector profiles of women, in line with a vision of the subject recipient of this policy individual as "neutral." These are issues that today are also of inter-governmental organizations, in particular the United Nations, a central political role with respect to the adoption of policies related to the affirmation, respect and the effectiveness of human rights and at the same time enrich and innovate in order substantial guidelines and decision-making processes in the field of security.

  20. Unveiling the Political Agenda of the European Parliament Plenary: A Topical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Greene, Derek; Cross, James P.

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes political interactions in the European Parliament (EP) by considering how the political agenda of the plenary sessions has evolved over time and the manner in which Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) have reacted to external and internal stimuli when making Parliamentary speeches. It does so by considering the context in which speeches are made, and the content of those speeches. To detect latent themes in legislative speeches over time, speech content is analyzed u...

  1. Health policy and systems research agendas in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez-Block Miguel A

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health policy and systems research (HPSR is an international public good with potential to orient investments and performance at national level. Identifying research trends and priorities at international level is therefore important. This paper offers a conceptual framework and defines the HPSR portfolio as a set of research projects under implementation. The research portfolio is influenced by factors external to the research system as well as internal to it. These last include the capacity of research institutions, the momentum of research programs, funding opportunities and the influence of stakeholder priorities and public opinion. These dimensions can vary in their degree of coordination, leading to a complementary or a fragmented research portfolio. Objective The main objective is to identify the themes currently being pursued in the research portfolio and agendas within developing countries and to quantify their frequency in an effort to identify current research topics and their underlying influences. Methods HPSR topics being pursued by developing country producer institutions and their perceived priorities were identified through a survey between 2000 and 2002. The response to a call for letters of intent issued by the Alliance in 2000 for a broad range of topics was also analyzed. The institutions that were the universe of this study consisted of the 176 institutional partners of the Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research producing research in low and middle income countries outside Europe. HPSR topics as well as the beneficiaries or issues and the health problems addressed were content analyzed. Topics were classified into 19 categories and their frequency analyzed across groups of countries with similar per capita income. Agendas were identified by analyzing the source of funding and of project initiation for projects under implementation. Results The highest ranking topic at the aggregate level is

  2. Citizenship and cultural diversity in agenda of cultural policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Silva Dorneles

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a discussion paper which aims to contribute to the systematization of studies, concepts and practices on cultural policies which have been developed in previous years in Brazil and are orienting cultural actions and public programs in the country, also influencing the Occupational Therapy. Citizenship and Cultural Diversity are concepts under construction and are part of the of the agenda of cultural policies and as well as the reflections and practices of various occupational therapists who are acting in a constant dialogue with the cultural area by means of the formation in cultural management, cultural mapping, programs and grant projects aimed to promote inventive identities, traditional communities, native populations, urban mobility, and cultural networks and exchange initiatives, among others. The article presents the process of this conceptual construction and the constitution of experiences aiming the democratization of the culture in the history of Brazilian cultural public policies, over which are being discussed approach paths and possibilities for Occupational Therapy.

  3. Language Policy, Politics, and Diversity in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Terrence G.; Garcia, David R.; Danzig, Arnold B.; Stigler, Monica L.

    2014-01-01

    "Review of Research in Education: Vol. 38, Language Policy, Politics, and Diversity in Education" explores the role of educational language policies in promoting education as a human right. There are an estimated nearly 7,000 living languages in the world. Yet, despite the extent of language diversity, only a small number of the…

  4. The Health Policy Process in Vietnam: Going Beyond Kingdon's Multiple Streams TheoryComment on "Shaping the Health Policy Agenda: The Case of Safe Motherhood Policy in Vietnam".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Sumit

    2016-04-25

    This commentary reflects upon the article along three broad lines. It reflects on the theoretical choices and omissions, particularly highlighting why it is important to adapt the multiple streams framework (MSF) when applying it in a socio-political context like Vietnam's. The commentary also reflects upon the analytical threads tackled by Ha et al; for instance, it highlights the opportunities offered by, and raises questions about the centrality of the Policy Entrepreneur in getting the policy onto the political agenda and in pushing it through. The commentary also dwells on the implications of the article for development aid policies and practices. Throughout, the commentary signposts possible themes for Ha et al to consider for further analysis, and more generally, for future research using Kingdon's multiple streams theory. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  5. The global agenda council on the ageing society: policy principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olshansky, S. Jay; Biggs, Simon; Achenbaum, W. Andrew

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the World Economic Forum (WEF) created the Global Agenda Councils – an amalgamation of scientists, public policy makers, academics, physicians and business leaders with the task of devising transformational innovation in global governance for the purpose of advancing knowledge...... and collaboratively developing solutions for the most crucial issues facing humanity. Because of its overarching effect on many aspects of society, a Council was created to address global issues associated with an ageing society. The Councils have the task of challenging prevailing assumptions, monitoring trends...

  6. The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in the Brazilian political agenda, 2003-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Luiz Antônio da Silva; Paiva, Carlos Henrique Assunção; Ferreira, Vanessa Nolasco

    2017-09-21

    This study analyses the development of a tobacco-control agenda in Brazil following the country's participation in the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO-FCTC). This process started with the diplomatic negotiations for the participation of Brazil in the treaty, in 2003, and its ratification by the National Congress, in 2005, and was marked by substantial controversies between public health players, who are accountable for tobacco-control actions, and the high echelon of Brazilian diplomacy, emissaries of the tobacco industry, representatives of small tobacco farmers from the Southern region of the country, congress representatives, senators and ministers. The study is based on the contributions of John W. Kingdon on the development of an agenda for the formulation of public policies. It took into account secondary references, legislative and institutional sources from the 1995 to 2005 period. It concluded that the association of tobacco-related healthcare actions by technically skilled officials, the involvement of the high echelon of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (policy flow), the initiative for the establishment of the WHO-FCTC (problem flow), and the existence of a favorable environment in both, executive and legislative (political flow), opened a window of opportunity for WHO-FCTC ratification and its inclusion in the government decision agenda.

  7. The Politics of Multilingual Communication: Case Studies and Research Agendas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marácz, L.; Craze, S.; Lempp, F.

    2014-01-01

    Due to globalisation, and different forms of migration and mobility there is a proliferation of linguistic diversity and multilingual communication. At the same time the recognition of the use of one’s first language receives more and more support in international political, legal and institutional

  8. Women's Agency and the Agenda-Setting of Danish Family Policy in the 1950s and 1960s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunse, Mai Hostrup

    2015-01-01

    The article explores the rise of women's political influence, looking specifically at women's agency outside the parliamentary sphere. The article analyses how a network of influential women combined critical resources such as knowledge of families' concerns and inside information from commission...... and boards with agenda-setting strategies promoting family policy reforms, even though women constituted a minority in parliament and had no permanent women's state institution....

  9. The Political Foundations of Regulatory Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Noll, Roger G.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the political economic theory of regulatory policy in two ways. One is to examine regulation in relation to other policies that might be seen as alternatives to it. Existing theory argues that regulation is likely to be too particularistic and cumbersome to serve the efficiency objectives that constitute its justifications in welfare economics; however the relative performance of regulation in comparison with other approaches to the same types of ...

  10. The (limited) political influence of ecological economics. A case study on Dutch environmental policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boezeman, Daan; Leroy, Pieter; Maas, Rob; Kruitwagen, Sonja

    2010-01-01

    Although the ecological economics (EE) discourse attempts to influence environmental policy, empirical studies have concluded that its success in this endeavour has been limited thus far. In the Netherlands, however, two EE-related policy concepts, Environmental Utilisation Space and Ecological Footprint, were strongly present in environmental policy during certain periods in time, but subsequently disappeared from the environmental agenda. The central question of this article is how these ups and downs of the EE concepts can be understood: which factors determine their rise on and fall from the policy agenda over time? To answer this question, this article offers a conceptual model informed by the approaches in political science on framing, agenda-setting and knowledge utilisation. We conclude that the interplay of concept-specific characteristics, the formation of coalitions around the concept and contextual variables explain the rise and fall of the aforementioned concepts. A match between the dominant policy frame and the core elements of the concept provides the opportunity for the two concepts to be pushed on the agenda. We observe the alternation of 'constraining' frames, which allows for EE concepts to survive, and 'reconciling' frames, which block agenda entrance for EE concepts. Furthermore, the alternation of these frames seems to correlate with economic and public environmental attention cycles in the Netherlands. (author)

  11. The Political Economics of Policy Centralization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelfsema, H.J.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to get a better understanding of how centralization affects the efficiency of policy making. To analyze this, the chapters in this thesis deal with political incentive problems. The chapters have in common a set of assumptions on the institutional setting in which

  12. The Politics of African Industrial Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay; Therkildsen, Ole; Buur, Lars

    in the early stages of capitalist transformation that also experience the pressures of elections due to democratization, this book provides four in-depth African country studies that illustrate the challenges to economic transformation and the politics of implementing industrial policies....

  13. A Collaboratively-Derived Science-Policy Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, William J.; Bellingan, Laura; Bellingham, Jim R.; Blackstock, Jason J.; Bloomfield, Robert M.; Bravo, Michael; Cadman, Victoria M.; Cleevely, David D.; Clements, Andy; Cohen, Anthony S.; Cope, David R.; Daemmrich, Arthur A.; Devecchi, Cristina; Anadon, Laura Diaz; Denegri, Simon; Doubleday, Robert; Dusic, Nicholas R.; Evans, Robert J.; Feng, Wai Y.; Godfray, H. Charles J.; Harris, Paul; Hartley, Sue E.; Hester, Alison J.; Holmes, John; Hughes, Alan; Hulme, Mike; Irwin, Colin; Jennings, Richard C.; Kass, Gary S.; Littlejohns, Peter; Marteau, Theresa M.; McKee, Glenn; Millstone, Erik P.; Nuttall, William J.; Owens, Susan; Parker, Miles M.; Pearson, Sarah; Petts, Judith; Ploszek, Richard; Pullin, Andrew S.; Reid, Graeme; Richards, Keith S.; Robinson, John G.; Shaxson, Louise; Sierra, Leonor; Smith, Beck G.; Spiegelhalter, David J.; Stilgoe, Jack; Stirling, Andy; Tyler, Christopher P.; Winickoff, David E.; Zimmern, Ron L.

    2012-01-01

    The need for policy makers to understand science and for scientists to understand policy processes is widely recognised. However, the science-policy relationship is sometimes difficult and occasionally dysfunctional; it is also increasingly visible, because it must deal with contentious issues, or itself becomes a matter of public controversy, or both. We suggest that identifying key unanswered questions on the relationship between science and policy will catalyse and focus research in this field. To identify these questions, a collaborative procedure was employed with 52 participants selected to cover a wide range of experience in both science and policy, including people from government, non-governmental organisations, academia and industry. These participants consulted with colleagues and submitted 239 questions. An initial round of voting was followed by a workshop in which 40 of the most important questions were identified by further discussion and voting. The resulting list includes questions about the effectiveness of science-based decision-making structures; the nature and legitimacy of expertise; the consequences of changes such as increasing transparency; choices among different sources of evidence; the implications of new means of characterising and representing uncertainties; and ways in which policy and political processes affect what counts as authoritative evidence. We expect this exercise to identify important theoretical questions and to help improve the mutual understanding and effectiveness of those working at the interface of science and policy. PMID:22427809

  14. A collaboratively-derived science-policy research agenda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J Sutherland

    Full Text Available The need for policy makers to understand science and for scientists to understand policy processes is widely recognised. However, the science-policy relationship is sometimes difficult and occasionally dysfunctional; it is also increasingly visible, because it must deal with contentious issues, or itself becomes a matter of public controversy, or both. We suggest that identifying key unanswered questions on the relationship between science and policy will catalyse and focus research in this field. To identify these questions, a collaborative procedure was employed with 52 participants selected to cover a wide range of experience in both science and policy, including people from government, non-governmental organisations, academia and industry. These participants consulted with colleagues and submitted 239 questions. An initial round of voting was followed by a workshop in which 40 of the most important questions were identified by further discussion and voting. The resulting list includes questions about the effectiveness of science-based decision-making structures; the nature and legitimacy of expertise; the consequences of changes such as increasing transparency; choices among different sources of evidence; the implications of new means of characterising and representing uncertainties; and ways in which policy and political processes affect what counts as authoritative evidence. We expect this exercise to identify important theoretical questions and to help improve the mutual understanding and effectiveness of those working at the interface of science and policy.

  15. Political processes and variation in renewable energy policies between U.S. states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasseur, Michael

    , especially an affinity for neo-liberal ideology, which informs the content of the policy a state ultimately enacts. My final empirical project examines what state-level factors predict a state pledging to join a regional cap-and-trade program and how these factors differ for states that take meaningful action and actually enact such a program. I find that in more liberal states cap-and-trade programs can enter the political agenda, but that different political, economic, and ideological factors are associated with actually implementing such a program. In this dissertation I expand understanding of the politics of renewable energy policy by complicating the outcomes examined, and extend and expand prior findings from a variety of subfields within political sociology.

  16. Family Grant: social policy or political marketing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Gabriel Martins de Moura

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay, a political analysis, criticizes the Family Grant Program, implemented by the Lula government of 2003-2005. It is based on the ongoing analysis methodology originated in U.S. political science. It seeks to establish a parallel of these analyses with criticisms of the Family Grant program presented in the media and made by specialists. They focus on the absence of a conceptual reference for the program (or its practical non-application, supported by accumulated knowledge in the field, that would guide the social policies of the Lula government. Based on secondary sources about official data and on statements from specialists, the analysis identifies an apparent 'schizophrenia' in the 'philosophical' references that orient the government's social policies, suggesting that the solution chosen was a situational response to a demand for government marketing and not oriented to a deliberate public policy pre-conceived as such, which, if it exists, is not evident in the government actions.

  17. Mídia e política no Brasil: textos e agenda de pesquisa Midia and politics in Brazil: texts and research agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Albino Canelas Rubim

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Um especialista em estudos de comunicação e um cientista político apresentam conjuntamente um panorama da pesquisa sobre as relações entre os meios de comunicação e os processos políticos no Brasil. Uma agenda de pesquisa é proposta e um elenco de textos nessa área é apresentado.A specialist in communication studies and a political scientist present together a panorama of research on the relations between communication midia and political processes in Brazil A research agenda is proposed and a list of texts in this area is presented.

  18. What Enables and Constrains the Inclusion of the Social Determinants of Health Inequities in Government Policy Agendas? A Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Baker

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Despite decades of evidence gathering and calls for action, few countries have systematically attenuated health inequities (HI through action on the social determinants of health (SDH. This is at least partly because doing so presents a significant political and policy challenge. This paper explores this challenge through a review of the empirical literature, asking: what factors have enabled and constrained the inclusion of the social determinants of health inequities (SDHI in government policy agendas? Methods A narrative review method was adopted involving three steps: first, drawing upon political science theories on agenda-setting, an integrated theoretical framework was developed to guide the review; second, a systematic search of scholarly databases for relevant literature; and third, qualitative analysis of the data and thematic synthesis of the results. Studies were included if they were empirical, met specified quality criteria, and identified factors that enabled or constrained the inclusion of the SDHI in government policy agendas. Results A total of 48 studies were included in the final synthesis, with studies spanning a number of country-contexts and jurisdictional settings, and employing a diversity of theoretical frameworks. Influential factors included the ways in which the SDHI were framed in public, media and political discourse; emerging data and evidence describing health inequalities; limited supporting evidence and misalignment of proposed solutions with existing policy and institutional arrangements; institutionalised norms and ideologies (ie, belief systems that are antithetical to a SDH approach including neoliberalism, the medicalisation of health and racism; civil society mobilization; leadership; and changes in government. Conclusion A complex set of interrelated, context-dependent and dynamic factors influence the inclusion or neglect of the SDHI in government policy agendas. It is better to think about

  19. What Enables and Constrains the Inclusion of the Social Determinants of Health Inequities in Government Policy Agendas? A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Phillip; Friel, Sharon; Kay, Adrian; Baum, Fran; Strazdins, Lyndall; Mackean, Tamara

    2017-11-11

    Despite decades of evidence gathering and calls for action, few countries have systematically attenuated health inequities (HI) through action on the social determinants of health (SDH). This is at least partly because doing so presents a significant political and policy challenge. This paper explores this challenge through a review of the empirical literature, asking: what factors have enabled and constrained the inclusion of the social determinants of health inequities (SDHI) in government policy agendas? A narrative review method was adopted involving three steps: first, drawing upon political science theories on agenda-setting, an integrated theoretical framework was developed to guide the review; second, a systematic search of scholarly databases for relevant literature; and third, qualitative analysis of the data and thematic synthesis of the results. Studies were included if they were empirical, met specified quality criteria, and identified factors that enabled or constrained the inclusion of the SDHI in government policy agendas. A total of 48 studies were included in the final synthesis, with studies spanning a number of country-contexts and jurisdictional settings, and employing a diversity of theoretical frameworks. Influential factors included the ways in which the SDHI were framed in public, media and political discourse; emerging data and evidence describing health inequalities; limited supporting evidence and misalignment of proposed solutions with existing policy and institutional arrangements; institutionalised norms and ideologies (ie, belief systems) that are antithetical to a SDH approach including neoliberalism, the medicalisation of health and racism; civil society mobilization; leadership; and changes in government. A complex set of interrelated, context-dependent and dynamic factors influence the inclusion or neglect of the SDHI in government policy agendas. It is better to think about these factors as increasing (or decreasing) the

  20. Political innovations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva

    2017-01-01

    are mainly interested in assessing and promoting innovations in public service delivery, but have paid little or no attention to the need for innovations in polity, politics and policy. This article develops a research agenda for studying innovations in political institutions, in the political process...... and in policy outputs. It proposes a number of research themes related to political innovations that call for scholarly attention, and identifies push and pull factors influencing the likelihood that these themes will be addressed in future research....

  1. The Politics of Local Tax Policy-Making in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swianiewicz Paweł

    2016-06-01

    To what extent is tax policy an important item of the local political agenda in Polish municipalities ? Is it a subject of intense debates at city hall and local councils or is it accepted as a routine exercise ? The results suggest that the issues related to local taxes play a relatively marginal role compared to issues such as the location of major investments. However, the importance of taxes in local debates increases in those local communities in which the tax yields collected are larger and in the case of those taxes which are paid by a wider group of tax payers.Who governs in local tax-policy-making ? According to local provisions the proposal of tax resolution is submitted by the mayor, and the local council makes the final decision. But empirical findings suggest that the practice follows the “strong mayor” model, in which the local political leader, supporter by his staff of the financial department, is more influential than the councilors.

  2. Nature/nurture and the anthropology of Franz Boas and Margaret Mead as an agenda for revolutionary politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney M. Greenfield

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available There is much more involved in the nature/nurture debate than an abstract theoretical disagreement among dispassionate scientists. Each side of the debate leads logically to significantly different views of the social order and holds different implications for social policy. In this paper I shall argue that Boas' Anthropology with its emphasis on cultural relativism was as much a social and political agenda as it was a scientific theory. The positions on public policy issues he opposed were informed (and rationalized by what its advocates claimed to be science. To be able to counter the discriminatory policy proposals that followed from this science, it was necessary for Boas both to challenge its validity and then replace it with an alternative that would support a more liberal political agenda. This chapter of anthropology's history gains relevance in today's context as neoevolutionary, reductionist theories once more provide "scientific" support for conservative, separatist and often discriminatory social policies.O debate natureza/cultura é muito mais do que um desentendimento teórico e abstrato entre cientistas desapaixonados. Cada lado do debate leva a visões diferentes da ordem social e traz implicações diferentes para políticas sociais. Neste artigo, sugiro que a Antropologia de Boas, com sua ênfase no relativismo cultural, tanto quanto uma teoria científica, foi um programa social e político. As posturas de política pública às quais ele se opunha eram informadas (e racionalizadas por algo apresentado por seus proponentes como ciência. Para combater as propostas discriminatórias que decorriam desta ciência, cabia a Boas desafiar sua validade e substituí-la por uma alternativa que daria apoio a uma agenda política mais liberal. Esse capítulo da história da antropologia assume maior relevância no contexto atual em que teorias néo-evolucionistas e reducionistas mais uma vez fornecem uma base "científica" para pol

  3. Trump and the GOP agenda: implications for retirement policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madland, David; Rowell, Alex

    2018-04-11

    Policymakers need to act to protect Americans' retirement security. A significant portion of Americans are at risk of not being able to maintain their standard of living in retirement and research suggests that this percentage is likely to grow. This commentary provides background on the current state of American retirement, highlights recent efforts to reform retirement policy, and predicts what to expect under President Donald Trump. Retirement has not been a major focus of national policymakers in recent years. Early actions during the Trump administration to undo Obama administration policies may make it more difficult for individuals to save for retirement. While it is impossible to predict the future with any certainty, long standing trends and recent political developments suggest that major action will not be taken during the Trump presidency to boost retirement security.

  4. The politics of federal environmental education policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Richard Craig

    Both environmental governance1 and education governance 2 occupy contested territory in contemporary US political discourse. Environmental education (EE) policy has emerged at this intersection and taken on aspects of both controversies. Central to debates surrounding environmental education are still unresolved issues concerning the role of the federal government in education, the role of education in citizen-making, and the role of the public in environmental governance. As a case study of the politics of environmental education policy, I explore these issues as they relate to the National Environmental Education Act of 1990,3 attempts at its reauthorization, its continued appropriations, and its current state of policy stasis. The political controversy over the federal role in environmental education is an appropriate case study of environmental education politics insofar as it reflects the different positions held by actor groups with regard to the definition, efficacy, and legitimacy of environmental education. At the core of these debates, as we will see, is a definitional crisis---that is, there is no common understanding across the relevant actor groups as to what environmental education is, or should be. I suggest here that this definitional issue can be best understood as having technical, ideological, and structural components4---all of which are mutually reinforcing and thus perpetuate the stasis in federal environmental education policy. 1I rely on Durant, Fiorino and O'leary's definition of environmental governance in Environmental Governance Reconsidered ; "In the term environmental governance, we refer to the increasingly collaborative nature of [environmental and natural resource] policy formulation and implementation. In this vein, a wide array of third parties (for example, actors in the profit sector, the nonprofit sector, and civic society), in addition to government agencies, comprise non hierarchical networks of actors wielding a variety of

  5. Behaviour Change Policy Agendas for "Vulnerable" Subjectivities: The Dangers of Therapeutic Governance and Its New Entrepreneurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecclestone, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    Apocalyptic crisis discourses of mental health problems and psycho-emotional dysfunction are integral to behaviour change agendas across seemingly different policy arenas. Bringing these agendas together opens up new theoretical and empirical lines of enquiry about the symbioses and contradictions surrounding the human subjects they target. The…

  6. Social Investment after Neoliberalism: Policy Paradigms and Political Platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeming, Christopher; Smyth, Paul

    2015-04-01

    The concept of the 'social investment state' refocuses attention on the productive function of social policy eclipsed for some time by the emphasis on its social protection or compensation roles. Here we distinguish between different social investment strategies, the Nordic 'heavy' and the Liberal 'light', with particular reference to the inclusive growth approach adopted in Australia. In 2007, social democrats in Australia returned to government with a clear mandate to reject the labour market deregulation and other neoliberal policies of its predecessor, and to tackle entrenched social and economic disadvantage in Australian society. For the last five years, social investment and inclusive growth has been at the centre of the Australian social policy agenda. Against this background, the article examines and critically assesses the (re)turn to 'social investment' thinking in Australia during Labor's term in office (2007-13). Analysis focuses not just on what was actually achieved, but also on the constraining role of prevailing economic and political circumstances and on the processes that were used to drive social investment reform. In many ways, the article goes some way to exposing ongoing tensions surrounding the distinctiveness of 'social investment' strategies pursued by leftist parties within the (neo)liberal state.

  7. SHAPING THE AGENDA: FEMINIST STRATEGIES OF CIVIC AND POLITICAL ACTION IN POST-COMMUNISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Elena NEAGA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available More than 20 years after the 1989 Revolution, the Romanian society continues to be patriarchal – and implicitly less democratic for women. This fact becomes more obvious if one looks towards the political sphere and at the way in which women’s interests are represented at the political decision level. In this social environment, civil society and especially the feminist movement have a particularly important role in terms of promoting women’s specific civic and political agendas. Our paper is an exploratory investigation of the strategies of political and civic actions used by the feminist movement in Romania during the postcommunist period. We will try to identify and categorize these strategies. Our aim is to explore a way of formulating a sort of typology (a methodological exploration of the civil and political models of action used by five Romanian feminist NGOs, while trying to assess their activity. This study is one of a prospective nature, in other words, it is not an exhaustive attempt to analyze the entire specter of feminist organizations, but rather an attempt to test the methodological apparatus and to adapt the theoretical framework to the realities found in the field.

  8. Monitoring HIV-Related Laws and Policies: Lessons for AIDS and Global Health in Agenda 2030.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Mary Ann; Gruskin, Sofia; Buse, Kent; Erkkola, Taavi; Bendaud, Victoria; Alfvén, Tobias

    2017-07-01

    The National Commitments and Policy Instrument (NCPI) has been used to monitor AIDS-related laws and policies for over 10 years. What can be learnt from this process? Analyses draw on NCPI questionnaires, NCPI responses, the UNAIDS Law Database, survey data and responses to a 2014 survey on the NCPI. The NCPI provides the first and only systematic data on country self-reported national HIV laws and policies. High NCPI reporting rates and survey responses suggest the majority of countries consider the process relevant. Combined civil society and government engagement and reporting is integral to the NCPI. NCPI experience demonstrates its importance in describing the political and legal environment for the HIV response, for programmatic reviews and to stimulate dialogue among stakeholders, but there is a need for updating and in some instances to complement results with more objective quantitative data. We identify five areas that need to be updated in the next iteration of the NCPI and argue that the NCPI approach is relevant to participatory monitoring of targets in the health and other goals of the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

  9. Incorporating Economic Policy Into A 'Health-In-All-Policies' Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Elizabeth; Hatch, Megan E

    2016-11-01

    Recognizing the health effects of nonhealth policies, scholars and others seeking to improve Americans' health have advocated the implementation of a culture of health-which would call attention to and prioritize health as a key outcome of policy making across all levels of government and in the private sector. Adopting this "health-in-all-policies" lens, policy makers are paying increasing attention to health impacts as they debate policies in areas such as urban planning, housing, and transportation. Yet the health impacts of economic policies that shape the distribution of income and wealth are often overlooked. Pooling data from all fifty states for the period 1990-2010, we provide a broad portrait of how economic policies affect health. Overall, we found better health outcomes in states that enacted higher tax credits for the poor or higher minimum wage laws and in states without a right-to-work law that limits union power. Notably, these policies focus on increasing the incomes of low-income and working-class families, instead of on shaping the resources available to wealthier individuals. Incorporating these findings into a health-in-all-policies agenda will require leadership from the health sector, including a willingness to step into core and polarizing debates about redistribution. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  10. Sharing the agenda: pondering the politics and practices of occupational therapy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammell, Karen R W; Miller, William C; Forwell, Susan J; Forman, Bert E; Jacobsen, Brad A

    2012-05-01

    Occupational therapists espouse a client-centred philosophy of practice, yet little attention has been given to pondering the politics or client-centred practices of occupational therapy research. The aim of this paper is thus to foster reflection on occupational therapy's commitment to client-centredness in the practice of occupational therapy research. Occupational therapy research is not consistently undertaken in a collaborative manner. Power resides in control of the research agenda and participants' priorities can be supplanted by those of researchers. However, examples from the literature and from the authors' research suggest that study participants may wish to influence the research agenda such that their needs and priorities are addressed. Client-centred principles appear to require occupational therapists to undertake collaborative research and to ensure that research agendas are informed by clients' priorities. Commitment to client-centred principles demands concerted efforts to identify and address potential barriers to meaningful client participation in the occupation of research. However, it is argued that if researchers and disabled people collaborate, and pool their knowledge and expertise, they may achieve research that is more philosophically compatible with espoused professional values; and that collaborative research may also inform more relevant and useful client-centred clinical practices.

  11. Exploring European urban policy: Towards an EU-national urban agenda?

    OpenAIRE

    Moneyba González Medina; Valeria Fedeli

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the European Union has reactivated the “urban agenda process”. The mainstreaming of the “urban dimension” into the EU policies (2009), the explicit integration of the “urban policy” in the new Cohesion policy (2012) and the public consultation on the EU urban agenda (2014) are some examples which offer a new interesting framework for European urban research. Thus, this article addresses, on the one hand, the evolution of the “European urban agenda process”, based on the conso...

  12. Global climate policy and local energy politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Mark Daniel; Michaelowa, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Along with the large middle-income countries Brazil, China, and South Africa, India has been put under increasing pressure to shoulder parts of the mitigation burden and commit to national emission reduction targets. India, however, refers to its limited capacity and widespread poverty. Is India......-poor arguments advanced at the international level. Given their large number and the country's democratic system, the poor do have some weight in Indian politics. However, pro-poor policies end where they do not translate into greater vote shares. Moreover, India's international position ignores the existing...

  13. The health policy pathfinder: an innovative strategy to explore interest group politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nannini, Angela

    2009-10-01

    Moving a specific nursing health policy agenda forward depends on skill in building coalitions with other interest or stakeholder groups, including consumers. Often, nursing students study health policy in a discipline-specific environment without experiential opportunities to argue their views with other stakeholders in policy arenas. The health policy pathfinder, an innovative learning strategy for understanding interest group politics, will assist nursing students in meeting the following objectives: 1) analyze and articulate diverse policy arguments from various stakeholder groups; 2) identify opportunities for collaborations between stakeholder groups; 3) identify the influence of interest groups on the policy making process; and 4) critically evaluate evidence from a variety of sources ranging from peer-reviewed publications to grey literature to Internet blogs. This article describes the health policy pathfinder, including design, execution, and evaluation steps, and provides a brief excerpt from a student pathfinder. Copyright 2009, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Neo-Liberal Policy Agendas and the Problem of Inequality in Higher Education: The Ethiopian Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molla, Tebeje

    2014-01-01

    Under the influence of the external policy pressure of donors such as the World Bank, higher education in Ethiopia has witnessed a series of institutional and system-wide reforms. This article reviews selected policy documents to show key neo-liberal policy agendas endorsed in the reforms and explicate how they have affected social equity in the…

  15. Politics in India: A Research Bibliography on Indian Political Institutions, Behavior and Public Policy Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Urmila

    This bibliography is a classified list of published research material on the contemporary Indian political system. The research references assembled have been organized under three broad categories: Indian political institutions, Indian political behavior, and public policy issues. The political institutions section focuses on the presidency,…

  16. Building Political Participation: The Role of Family Policy and Political Science Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Emily

    2017-01-01

    This mixed-methods study examined the long-term associations between two kinds of politics courses--required political science courses and required family policy courses--and the political participation, knowledge, skill, efficacy, and politically engaged identity of child and family studies alumni. Two special cases were examined: those who…

  17. Identity politics: Exploring Georgian foreign policy behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornely Kakachia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the extent to which Georgia's pro-Western foreign policy orientation stems from ideas and identity rather than from materialist and systemic factors alone. Finding such narrow approaches insufficient for explaining small state behavior, and drawing on liberal and constructivist approaches to international relations theory, the article argues that Georgia's foreign policy orientation has a strong basis in the widespread ideological perception amongst the local political elite that Georgia “belongs” in the West. Based on this theoretical framework, this paper provides a historical overview of Georgia's foreign policy, tracing the evolution of Georgia's identity from seeing itself as “Christian” in contrast to its Islamic neighbors, to identifying as European in contrast to a modern, Russian “other”. As Georgia attempts to construct a collective international identity, the devotion to the idea of Euro-Atlantic integration as a “sacred destiny” amongst the country's elite has significant foreign policy implications. This article overviews the current challenges and dilemmas of self-identification and investigates the roles that national identity and the prevailing “European” identity play in Georgia's quest for “desovietization”.

  18. From ‘Good’ to ‘Growth-Enhancing’ Governance: Emerging Research Agendas on Africaʼs Political-Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anne Mette

    2014-01-01

    application of pre-defined good governance institutions in African states. Rather, it argues that there is a need for understanding the political feasibility of possible alternative growth-enhancing governance initiatives. The paper argues that growth-enhancing governance will always be context dependent...... and that there is a need for more research into potential political incentives that might lead ruling elites to adopt policies for growth-enhancing governance. To this end, it is necessary to improve our understanding of the particular features of ruling coalitions that enable growth-enhancing governance. To do this we......This paper explores the nature of the governance debate in African politics. It offers an overview of key debates since the governance concept first emerged in development circles. Through a review of the critique of the ‘good governance’ agenda, the paper demonstrates the futility of a rigid...

  19. The Development of Computer Policies in Government, Political Parties, and Trade Unions in Norway 1961-1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgsaas, Knut; Hegna, Håvard

    A “Council for Government Electronic Data Processing” was established in 1961. This was the start of development of a common policy for computers and data within the public administration. In 1969-70, computers got on the agenda of political parties and the trade unions. In the course of the seventies and the beginning of the eighties the government, the political parties, and the trade unions established a more comprehensive view of data political questions that we will designate by the term data policy. This paper puts some light on the causes and forces that drove the evolvement of a data policy within these central sectors in Norway. We will also show how various actors of research, trade and industry, and political life influenced the development of data policy and present links between the actors that indicate that they mutually influenced each other.

  20. Bringing the Low-Carbon Agenda to China: A Study in Transnational Policy Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Hofem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study traces the transnational interactions that contributed to introducing the low-carbon economy agenda into Chinese policymaking. A microprocessual two-level analysis (outside-in as well as inside-access is employed to analyse transnational and domestic exchanges. The study provides evidence that low-carbon agenda-setting – introduced by transnational actors, backed by foreign funding, promoted by policy entrepreneurs from domestic research institutes, propelled by top-level attention, but only gradually and cautiously adopted by the government bureaucracy – can be considered a case of effective transnational diffusion based on converging perceptions of novel policy challenges and options. Opinion leaders and policy-brokers from the government-linked scientific community functioned as effective access points to the Chinese government’s policy agenda.

  1. Technology, world politics, and American policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basiuk, V.

    1977-01-01

    This book concentrates on modern technology, analyzing its present and future impact on international relations. Beginning with the socio-political impact of technological trends around the world, Dr. Basiuk examines the aspects of future military (nuclear and ''conventional'') technology that will likely reinforce the growing stalemate between the U. S. and USSR. He surveys the integrative power of technology which is ''shrinking'' the modern world into global interdependence devoting detailed chapters to an assessment of the major strengths and weaknesses that characterize the ability of the United States, the Soviet Union, Western Europe, and Japan to deal with the problems arising from future developments in science and technology. As technology changes societies, ''power over'' people is becoming less important, while ''power toward,'' the ability to lead people and mobilize resources for the solution of contemporary problems and toward new frontiers of human achievement, tends to gain. Although technological impact can modify the international system, leading to transnationalism and a proliferation of actors on the global scene, nation-states will remain a principal element in world politics for some time to come. The current role of technology in America's domestic, foreign, and security policies is discussed. The final section examines the complexities of the postindustrial society. Projecting the direction of societal development well into the twenty-first century, Dr. Basiuk identifies two seemingly contradictory trends: the need for strengthening scientific and technological policy to achieve higher levels of material capability, accompanied by a reorientation in values to a limited-growth, semistationary society which de-emphasizes material rewards.

  2. Agenda-Setting for VET Policy in the Western Balkans: Employability versus Social Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Will; Pagliarello, Marina Cino

    2016-01-01

    For the last decade, the Western Balkan countries have sought to modernise their vocational education and training (VET) systems, adapting them to the needs of their emerging market economies. Within the framework of the EU accession process, the policy agenda for VET policies has been strongly influenced by a range of international and domestic…

  3. Advancing the climate agenda: Exploiting material and institutional linkages to develop a menu of policy options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Asselt, H.D.; Gupta, J.; Biermann, F.

    2005-01-01

    The utilization of interlinkages of existing material and the strengthening and promotion of new institutional interlinkages can widen the climate change agenda through new and innovative policy and legal measures. Material linkages are inherent structural connections between policy domains that are

  4. Conceptualizing an Agenda for Social Responsibility and Public Policy at Montgomery College. A Briefing Paper. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Michelle T.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this briefing paper is to conceptualize a social responsibility and public policy agenda for Montgomery College. The briefing paper provides (a) a well researched perspective to embed a College culture to actualize social responsibility and public policy as institutional practices; (b) examines some of the opportunities and…

  5. Political considerations of nuclear waste disposal policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, R.S.

    1985-01-01

    In order to create a program for the establishment of nuclear waste repositories several conditions must prevail. Perhaps foremost is the need to alter the public perception of risk. In short, there will need to be recognition that cigarette smoking and automobile driving, acts of volition, are potentially more dangerous to one's health than radiation leaks from nuclear power plants or waste repositories. Second, the process of repository site selection will have to include wide public participation in the process in order to obtain legitimacy. Without it Congress and the state legislatures are certain to override any proposal no matter how widely accepted by scientists and engineers. Finally, states and localities selected as sites for repositories will need to be compensated adequately in exchange for accepting the onus of serving as host. Political scientists have not been notably successful forecasters of policy outcomes. However, the evidence of American history does not provide encouragement that maximization of control at the state and local level and oversight by Congress of administrative actions, as meritorious as they might appear in terms of democracy, are harbingers of success for unpleasant policy decisions. States rights and Congressional intervention to block executive action were used to maintain second-class citizenship status for Black Americans until the judicial process was resorted to as a device to alter policy. Most likely, a major policy breakthrough will occur only after a mishap or tragedy, the final product involving either a waste disposal program in the context of continued use of nuclear power or one premised on its abandonment

  6. Intergovernmental health policy decisions in Brazil: cooperation strategies for political mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Alcides S

    2007-05-01

    The advantages of established intergovernmental decision-making arenas for the implementation of health policies in decentralized settings are not well known. This paper presents the case of the joint health management committee, known as the Tripartite Committee, created to formalize intergovernmental decisions about the implementation of policies of the Brazilian Unified Health System. This paper adopts a descriptive approach for the strategic analysis of decision process among governmental actors from three federative levels, as well as of mechanisms for the negotiation of their interests in the formalization of health policy agreements. The roles and positions of governmental actors within the Tripartite Committee were analysed, together with the definition of decision agendas and strategies. The data come from normative documents and proceedings of the Tripartite Committee, interviews with their governmental actors and observations of their meetings. The distinct governmental actors from the Tripartite Committee employed cooperation strategies with permanent negotiations oriented towards interchanges and political mediation. The power of the federal Government is also pre-eminent for the constitution of decision agendas and in the shaping of negotiation processes and priorities. The Tripartite Committee formalized agreements between unequal administrative and political powers to ensure a systemic integration of governmental policies and a self-regulation of the political autonomies. There are some divergences within the governmental actors' interpretation of key policies and processes in this decision arena; the primacy of political or technical criteria as well as the applicability of laws or ad hoc norms. Although such cooperation strategies may slow down the decision-making process and render it more complicated, they also define more clearly areas of institutional responsibility and ensure a broader support from different levels of government for the

  7. Inside the Agenda-Setting Process: How Political Advertising and TV News Prime Viewers Think about Issues and Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleuder, Joan; And Others

    A study of the agenda-setting influence of the mass media on adult viewers explored (in a series of five experiments) how political knowledge stored in long term memory can be activated by the media, leading to decisions about issue salience. Spreading activation theory formed the basis for the study, and priming--the concept that the activation…

  8. A review of Brazilian scientific output on crack--contributions to the political agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Marcelo Rasga; Fernandes, Fernando Manuel Bessa; Ribeiro, José Mendes; Franco Neto, Thereza de Lamare

    2015-04-01

    scientific literature about crack abuse published in Brazilian journals indexed in SCIELO. systematic review of literature treating findings as a framework for agenda-setting orienting policy decision makers. SCIELO online journals research since 02/06/2013 on tag crack as "key word searched" and in indexes as "research amplitude". An amount of 199 references were identified and their abstracts were analyzed getting to a final group of 59 articles specifically studying crack issues in Brazil. institutional criteria (journal, subject area, and publishing time) and analytical categories created by the authors: "Social Risk", "Treatment", "Use/Abuse", "Profile", "Social Relations", and "Study". crack use impact Brazilian journals since 2011; health field is prominent; articles about "Associated Risk" and "Treatment" prevail; SUS cannot face demand;investment improvement in CAP and harm reduction; therapeutic communities need to match with SUS standards; youngers, black people and poor express users profile; rave style use; repressive policies were not well succeeded; and multidisciplinary approach are necessary.

  9. How Intense Policy Demanders Shape Postreform Politics: Evidence from the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocco, Philip; Haeder, Simon F

    2018-04-01

    The implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) has been a politically volatile process. The ACA's institutional design and delayed feedback effects created a window of opportunity for its partisan opponents to launch challenges at both the federal and state level. Yet as recent research suggests, postreform politics depends on more than policy feedback alone; rather, it is shaped by the partisan and interest-group environment. We argue that "intense policy demanders" played an important role in defining the policy alternatives that comprised congressional Republicans' efforts to repeal and replace the ACA. To test this argument, we drew on an original data set of bill introductions in the House of Representatives between 2011 and 2016. Our analysis suggests that business contributions and political ideology affected the likelihood that House Republicans would introduce measures repealing significant portions of the ACA. A secondary analysis shows that intense policy demanders also shaped the vote on House Republicans' initial ACA replacement plan. These findings highlight the role intense policy demanders can play in shaping the postreform political agenda. Copyright © 2018 by Duke University Press.

  10. 20 CFR 641.836 - What policies govern political activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What policies govern political activities? 641.836 Section 641.836 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 641.836 What policies govern political activities? (a) No project under title V of the OAA may involve...

  11. 20 CFR 641.833 - What policies govern political patronage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What policies govern political patronage? 641.833 Section 641.833 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... What policies govern political patronage? (a) A recipient or subrecipient must not select, reject...

  12. Aligning climate policy with finance ministers' G20 agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edenhofer, Ottmar; Knopf, Brigitte; Bak, Céline; Bhattacharya, Amar

    2017-07-01

    There is no longer a choice between climate policy and no climate policy. G20 finance ministers have to play a key role in implementing smart climate policies like carbon pricing. Yet they remain reluctant to take advantage of the merits of carbon pricing for sound fiscal policy.

  13. Political contexts and maternal health policy: insights from a comparison of south Indian states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephanie L

    2014-01-01

    Nearly 300,000 women die from pregnancy-related complications each year. One-fifth of these deaths occur in India. Maternal survival rose on India's national policy agenda in the mid-2000s, but responsibility for health policy and implementation in the federal system is largely devolved to the state level where priority for the issue and maternal health outcomes vary. This study investigates sources of variation in maternal health policy and implementation sub-nationally in India. The study is guided by four analytical categories drawn from policy process literature: constitutional, governing and social structures; political contexts; actors and ideas. The experiences of two south Indian states-Tamil Nadu a leader and Karnataka a relatively slow mover-are examined. Process-tracing, a case study methodology that helps to identify roles of complex historical events in causal processes, was employed to investigate the research question in each state. The study is informed by interviews with public health policy experts and service delivery professionals, observation of implementation sites and archival document analysis. Historical legacies-Tamil Nadu's non-Brahmin social movement and Karnataka's developmental disparities combined with decentralization-shape the states' political contexts, affecting variation in maternal health policy and implementation. Competition to advance consistent political priorities across regimes in Tamil Nadu offers fertile ground for policy entrepreneurship and strong public health system administration facilitates progress. Inconsistent political priorities and relatively weak public health system administration frustrate progress in Karnataka. These variations offer insights to the ways in which sub-national political and administrative contexts shape health policy and implementation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 1986 POLICY: BEGINNING OF NEO-LIBERAL AGENDA

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics... VIOLATED THE CONSTITUTIONAL PRINCIPLES OF. EQUALITY & SOCIAL JUSTICE.. INTRODUCED A SOCIO-POLITICAL FAULT FOR NEO-LIBERAL FORCES TO PROMOTE PRINCIPLE OF PARALLEL STREAMS.

  15. The emergence of the vertical birth in Ecuador: an analysis of agenda setting and policy windows for intercultural health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamas, Ana; Mayhew, Susannah

    2016-01-01

    Maternal mortality continues to claim the lives of thousands of women in Latin America despite the availability of effective treatments to avert maternal death. In the past, efforts to acknowledge cultural diversity in birth practices had not been clearly integrated into policy. However, in Otavalo (Ecuador) a local hospital pioneered the implementation of the ‘Vertical Birth’—a practical manifestation of an intercultural health policy aimed at increasing indigenous women’s access to maternity care. Drawing on agenda-setting theory, this qualitative research explores how the vertical birth practice made it onto the local policy agenda and the processes that allowed actors to seize a window of opportunity allowing the vertical birth practice to emerge. Our results show that the processes that brought about the vertical birth practice took place over a prolonged period of time and resulted from the interplay between various factors. Firstly, a maternal health policy community involving indigenous actors played a key role in identifying maternal mortality as a policy problem, defining its causes and framing it as an indigenous rights issue. Secondly, previous initiatives to address maternal mortality provided a wealth of experience that gave these actors the knowledge and experience to formulate a feasible policy solution and consolidate support from powerful actors. Thirdly, the election of a new government that had incorporated the demands of the indigenous movement opened up a window of opportunity to push intercultural health policies such as the vertical birth. We conclude that the socioeconomic and political changes at both national and local level allowed the meaningful participation of indigenous actors that made a critical contribution to the emergence of the vertical birth practice. These findings can help us advance our knowledge of strategies to set the agenda for intercultural maternal health policy and inform future policy in similar settings

  16. The Health Policy Process in Vietnam: Going Beyond Kingdon’s Multiple Streams Theory Comment on “Shaping the Health Policy Agenda: The Case of Safe Motherhood Policy in Vietnam”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Kane

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This commentary reflects upon the article along three broad lines. It reflects on the theoretical choices and omissions, particularly highlighting why it is important to adapt the multiple streams framework (MSF when applying it in a socio-political context like Vietnam’s. The commentary also reflects upon the analytical threads tackled by Ha et al; for instance, it highlights the opportunities offered by, and raises questions about the centrality of the Policy Entrepreneur in getting the policy onto the political agenda and in pushing it through. The commentary also dwells on the implications of the article for development aid policies and practices. Throughout, the commentary signposts possible themes for Ha et al to consider for further analysis, and more generally, for future research using Kingdon’s multiple streams theory.

  17. [Governance and political economy of PHC policies in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Báscolo, Ernesto

    2011-06-01

    The development of implementation processes of PHC policies in Latin America, is a challenge yet to be tackled. It is necessary to acknowledge the political economy related to the implementation processes of PHC policies in Latin America from a governance perspective, characterized by the regulatory strategies used and the political processes. The promotion of social values, organizational policies or the introduction of new financial incentives are components of different forms of governance used in health system reforms. The institutional factors of social protection systems in Latin America are considered. Their potential, redistribution limitations and the political economy disputes of the reform strategies are explained by the conflict between the economic and related interests and values of the actors involved. This dynamic of the political process influences regulatory modes inherent in the processes of implementation of PHC policies. The State's governing capacity and levels of health system segmentation impinge on the effectiveness of reform strategies for resolving the conflicts in the policies implemented.

  18. Environmental law, policy, and economics: reclaiming the environmental agenda

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caldart, Charles C; Ashford, Nicholas Askounes

    2008-01-01

    ... of Information Regarding Chemical Risks 771 11 Enforcement: Encouraging Compliance with Environmental Statutes 807 12 Alternative Forms of Government Intervention to Promote Pollution Reduction 879 13 Polici...

  19. Democracy's Denominator: Reassessing Responsiveness with Public Opinion on the National Policy Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabas, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Democratic responsiveness concerns the degree to which government policies match public preferences. Responsiveness studies typically use national surveys to characterize public opinion, but whether poll questions overlap with the policy agenda is unknown. The first of two empirical analyses presented here, with hundreds of issues on the national agenda in the United States from 1947 to 2000, reveals that public opinion is mostly unrelated to policy outcomes. The picture appears to be even more ominous-that is, opinion and policy are negatively related-on highly salient issues that attract media attention. A second study revisiting published work confirms that responsiveness patterns look different depending upon whether studies of opinion-policy connections (a) begin with survey data and then examine policy developments, or (b) begin with national legislative agenda issues and then examine survey data. Thus, conclusions about democratic responsiveness depend upon the issues that are examined, and often opinion surveys do not include questions about tangible public policy options. In that sense, future changes in democratic responsiveness might go undetected because scholars often lack data on what goes into the denominator of democracy.

  20. Political theory in forest policy science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de W.; Arts, B.J.M.; Krott, M.

    2012-01-01

    The use of theory in forest policy studies has given a new face to forest policy science, as it matured from an applied academic field to a specialized sub-discipline. In addition to doing science to support policy, forest policy academics engage in research to expand policy sciences. The link to

  1. Policies, Agendas, and Practices Influencing Doctoral Education in Physical Education Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    If teaching physical education is a moral activity, it follows that there is a moral component to the preparation of teachers of physical education and thus a moral component to the preparation of teacher educators. In this article, I examine the major policies, agendas, and practices that influence doctoral preparation in physical education…

  2. Opportunity from Crisis: A Common Agenda for Higher Education and Science, Technology and Innovation Policy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Merle; Hellström, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    This paper makes a plea for the construction of a common agenda for higher education and science, technology and innovation (STI) policy research. The public higher education and research sector in all countries is currently in the grip of several challenges arising from increased accountability, internationalization and in some cases dwindling…

  3. European and United States Political Contexts for Family Policy Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumon, Wilfried; Aldous, Joan

    1979-01-01

    Presents how and why programs embodying family policy in Western Europe and the United States differ. By indicating current changes in these programs and how political decisions affect them, fruitful areas for family policy research are suggested. Family policy meeting needs of pragmatically defined parent-child units will be most successful.…

  4. A New Research Agenda for Educational Leadership and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper identifies some new research issues and sketches out some new research questions for education policy and leadership researchers as a response to ongoing changes in the landscape of English education policy. Three interrelated issues are considered: leadership, values and interests, and ownership. It argues for the need to ask new…

  5. Understanding the micro and macro politics of health: Inequalities, intersectionality & institutions - A research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkiouleka, Anna; Huijts, Tim; Beckfield, Jason; Bambra, Clare

    2018-01-28

    This essay brings together intersectionality and institutional approaches to health inequalities, suggesting an integrative analytical framework that accounts for the complexity of the intertwined influence of both individual social positioning and institutional stratification on health. This essay therefore advances the emerging scholarship on the relevance of intersectionality to health inequalities research. We argue that intersectionality provides a strong analytical tool for an integrated understanding of health inequalities beyond the purely socioeconomic by addressing the multiple layers of privilege and disadvantage, including race, migration and ethnicity, gender and sexuality. We further demonstrate how integrating intersectionality with institutional approaches allows for the study of institutions as heterogeneous entities that impact on the production of social privilege and disadvantage beyond just socioeconomic (re)distribution. This leads to an understanding of the interaction of the macro and the micro facets of the politics of health. Finally, we set out a research agenda considering the interplay/intersections between individuals and institutions and involving a series of methodological implications for research - arguing that quantitative designs can incorporate an intersectional institutional approach. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Review: Questioning Ireland: debates in political philosophy and public policy

    OpenAIRE

    Sheehan, Helena

    2000-01-01

    This is a review of a collection of essays entitled Questioning Ireland: debates in political philosophy and public policy, edited by Joseph Dunne, Attracta Ingram and Frank Litton, published in Dublin by the Institute of Public Administration in 2000.

  7. Abortion politics: public policy in cross-cultural perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stetson, Dorothy M; Githens, Marianne

    1996-01-01

    " ... focuses on current abortion policy and practice in the United States, Canada, Europe, and Japan and aims to provide a comprehensive, stimulating, and balanced picture of current abortion politics...

  8. Academic Entrepreneurship, Innovation Policies and Politics in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arapostathis, Stathis

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the process of the emergence in Greece of the "Triple Helix", and the nature of the "Helix" in the context of the concurrent changes occurring in Greek socio-political affairs. The influence of politics and innovation policies on the relationships between academia and government and industry is considered.…

  9. Policy and Culture: From Machiavelli’s Political Philosophy to Kipling’s Political Prophecies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin M. Dolgov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with interrelationship of policy and culture, in particular N.Machiavelli's political philosophy and its reflection in some short stories by R.Kipling, one of the most recognized representatives of the British imperial thought. Policy and culture have traditionally been considered almost incompatible spheres of human activity as policy tended to become more and more severe, cynical, "dirty", while culture aspired to develop supreme values and perfect ideals. Sometimes the direct confrontation between policy and religion, policy and morals, policy and law, policy and literature, policy and art in the broad sense of the word could occur. The greatest Renaissance masters - Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Rafael etc. - actively opposed any evil manifestations: evil ideas, evil words, evil doings, expressing in their masterpieces the highest ideals and values. However, these ideals and values drastically diverged from the reality, political and public relations of the time, the "dirty" policy conducted by the rulers of numerous Italian principalities. It is no coincidence that N.Machiavelli develops his new political philosophy aiming not only to create the strong unitary state, but also to overcome this "dirty" policy at least to a certain extent. Therefore, describing the mechanism of the "dirty" policy that opposes high culture, N.Machiavelli introduces a new political philosophy which should be based on the highest ideals and values. As far as literary art is concerned, one can easily see that such world famous novelists as Kipling, Chekhov, Maupassant and many others reflected in their short stories that very longing for highest values and ideals which are almost absent in political doctrines and political practice. The true policy is necessarily based on the true culture and its values and ideals, whereas the true culture is indispensably connected with the true policy.

  10. Should we use a direct regulation to implement the Healthy Prisons Agenda in England? A qualitative study among prison key policy makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, N; de Viggiani, N

    2017-08-31

    The Healthy Prisons Agenda seeks to reduce prisoners' health risks, balance prisoners' rights with a security regime, ensure equivalent prison health service provisions to community health services, and facilitate the whole-prison approach. There is an established assumption that legislation will ensure better implementation of health promotion programmes. This study aimed to examine whether a legislative framework, via a direct regulation, could lead to enhanced implementation of the Healthy Prisons Agenda in England. A qualitative study design was conducted using semi-structured interviews with 30 key prison policy makers in England. Our findings contradict the established assumption that legislation improves the implementation of health promotion programmes. A direct regulation was perceived as restrictive, manifesting excessive compliance and encouraging a risk-averse culture, whilst preoccupation with security, order and discipline amongst prison governors and custody staff was deemed an internal institutional barrier to implementing the Healthy Prisons Agenda. External barriers included diminishing resources, lengthier or delayed sentencing, and an unsympathetic public and political stance towards prisoner rehabilitation. A direct regulation should not be used to operationalize the Healthy Prisons Agenda. Rather, self-regulation, along with proactive solutions for the identified barriers to implementing the Agenda, is the most appropriate path forward. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  11. The Naivasha Language Policy: The Language of Politics and the Politics of Language in the Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhay, Ashraf Kamal; Makoni, Busi; Makoni, Sinfree Bullock

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a textual analysis of the Naivasha language provisions in Sudan in an attempt to explore how political discourse is manifested in each policy statement. Using Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) as an analytic and interpretive framework, the article argues that the Naivasha language provisions as political discourse are shaped…

  12. The passage of tobacco control law 174 in Lebanon: reflections on the problem, policies and politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakkash, R T; Torossian, L; El Hajj, T; Khalil, J; Afifi, R A

    2018-04-04

    Progress in tobacco control policy making has occurred worldwide through advocacy campaigns involving multiple players- civil society groups, activists, academics, media and policymakers. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC)-the first ever global health treaty-outlines evidence-based tobacco control policies. Lebanon ratified the FCTC in 2005, but until 2011, tobacco control policies remained rudimentary and not evidence-based. Beginning in 2009, a concerted advocacy campaign was undertaken by a variety of stakeholders with the aim of accelerating the process of adopting a strong tobacco control policy. The campaign was successful, and Law 174 passed the Lebanese Parliament in August 2011. In this article, we analyse the policy making process that led to the adoption of Law 174 using Kingdon's model. The analysis relies on primary and secondary data sources including historical records of key governmental decisions, documentation of the activities of the concerted advocacy campaign and in-depth interviews with key stakeholders. We describe the opening of a window of opportunity as a result of the alignment of the problem, policy and politics streams. Furthermore, findings revealed that despite the challenge of persistent tobacco industry interference and established power relations between the industry, its allies and policymakers; policy entrepreneurs succeeded in supporting the alignment of the streams, and influencing the passage of the law. Kingdon's multiple stream approach was useful in explaining how tobacco control became an emerging policy issue at the front of the policy agenda in Lebanon.

  13. New Agenda: South African Journal of Social and Economic Policy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a policy journal analyzing social and economic issues in South Africa. We publish infomed articles by experts and decision makers. These articles are accessible to the ordinary reader. Other website associated with this journal: www.newagenda.org.za ...

  14. Political commitment in organising municipal responses to climate adaptation: the dedicated approach versus the mainstreaming approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uittenbroek, C.J.; Janssen-Jansen, L.B.; Spit, T.J.M.; Salet, W.G.M.; Runhaar, H.A.C.

    2014-01-01

    We develop conceptual understanding of political commitment in two approaches to organising municipal responses to climate adaptation. The dedicated approach, based on direct political commitment to climate adaptation, implies political agenda setting, resource allocation, and clear policy

  15. Policy Ideas, Knowledge Regimes and Comparative Political Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, John L.; Pedersen, Ove K.

    2015-01-01

    Despite much attention to how ideas affect policy making, where these ideas come from is a blind spot in comparative political economy. We show that an important source of policy ideas are knowledge regimes—fields of policy research organizations. We show as well that the organization of knowledge...... to restore it by transforming their knowledge regimes, albeit in ways that are still shaped by the surrounding political and economic institutions. The effectiveness of their efforts is not guaranteed. The argument is based on an analysis of the evolution of knowledge regimes since the 1970s in the USA...... regimes is heavily influenced by the organization of their surrounding political economies such that knowledge regimes have particular national characters. Furthermore, when people perceive that the utility of their knowledge regime for the rest of the political economy breaks down, they often try...

  16. Policy Proposal for Higher Education Agenda in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armağan ERDOĞAN

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Higher Education Area is going through fast changes as a result of the changes in technology, economy, communication and demographic and social structures both in Turkey and in the world. These changes underline the importance of certain terms and values more than ever before. The terms transparency, diversity, quality, cooperation and competition started to be used together with higher education in recent years. Higher education systems are being reorganised in accordance with these changes. Higher education which is started to be evaluated within the frame of information society, is also interlinked with the basic dynamics of economy though labour force, employment policies and innovation. This situation necessitates internationalization for countries in line with their need for establishing bilateral and regional partnerships. This article aims to analyse current indicators in the dynamically evolving Turkish Higher Education Area and to suggest predictions and new policies based on these indicators and international trends for the mid and long-term targets. It is accepted by many international platforms that Turkey is a rising economy. However, it is difficult to state that higher education is addressed systematically through economic perspective. Estimating higher education as the leading sector, reorganising legal and structural reforms considering international trends in the mid-long term plans, quality assured capacity building, qualitative and quantitative increase of human resources, transparently defined qualifications framework, data-based policies, coordination between the related institutions and defining internationalisation strategy around these paradigms will significantly contribute Turkey's higher education outcomes to achieve the 2023 targets.

  17. Power and Agenda-Setting in Tanzanian Health Policy: An Analysis of Stakeholder Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Sara Elisa; Strandberg-Larsen, Martin

    2016-02-09

    Global health policy is created largely through a collaborative process between development agencies and aid-recipient governments, yet it remains unclear whether governments retain ownership over the creation of policy in their own countries. An assessment of the power structure in this relationship and its influence over agenda-setting is thus the first step towards understanding where progress is still needed in policy-making for development. This study employed qualitative policy analysis methodology to examine how health-related policy agendas are adopted in low-income countries, using Tanzania as a case study. Semi-structured, in-depth, key informant interviews with 11 policy-makers were conducted on perspectives of the agenda-setting process and its actors. Kingdon's stream theory was chosen as the lens through which to interpret the data analysis. This study demonstrates that while stakeholders each have ways of influencing the process, the power to do so can be assessed based on three major factors: financial incentives, technical expertise, and influential position. Since donors often have two or all of these elements simultaneously a natural power imbalance ensues, whereby donor interests tend to prevail over recipient government limitations in prioritization of agendas. One way to mediate these imbalances seems to be the initiation of meaningful policy dialogue. In Tanzania, the agenda-setting process operates within a complex network of factors that interact until a "policy window" opens and a decision is made. Power in this process often lies not with the Tanzanian government but with the donors, and the contrast between latent presence and deliberate use of this power seems to be based on the donor ideology behind giving aid (defined here by funding modality). Donors who used pooled funding (PF) modalities were less likely to exploit their inherent power, whereas those who preferred to maintain maximum control over the aid they provided (ie, non

  18. A Test of the Agenda-Setting Influence of Televised Political Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Thomas A.

    The concept of the agenda setting function of the mass media holds that apart from any influence they may have on voter attitudes or behavior, the mass media apparently influence voters' perceptions of the importance of the issues. The agenda setting function of the mass media is analyzed for significance in this investigation. A panel study of…

  19. Politics and Policies of Promoting Multilingualism in the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaine, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the politics of policies promoting multilingualism in the European Union (EU), specifically in light of the recently released European Union Civil Society Platform on Multilingualism. As the most far-reaching and ambitious policy document issued by the European Commission, the Platform warrants close scrutiny at a significant…

  20. The Politics of Urban Policies in Lagos, 1914 - 1960 | Davies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Viewed from this perspective then, urban politics deals with the policies of urban government. Some studies on urbanisation in colonial Lagos, in the period under study have discussed urban policies among others, within the context of the advantages or benefits that Lagos derived from them. These studies argue that ...

  1. Iran: Politics, Gulf Security, and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-30

    press for their right to celebrate their culture and history . The government accuses them of promoting revolution or separatism. Kurds There are...United States has supported programs to promote civil society in Iran, but successive U.S. administrations have stopped short of adopting policies...U.S. Policy Congressional Research Service Contents Political History

  2. Political elites and foreign policy : democratization in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wibisono, Aria Teguh Mahendra

    2009-01-01

    In the investigation, the domestic sources of foreign policy analytical framework were used to analyze the dynamics of elites in foreign policy making. After analyses of the results of mostly personal interviews and historical materials, it was determined that political elites do matter in foreign

  3. Europeanising Intercultural Education: Politics and Policy Making in Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajisoteriou, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Historically, education policy making has been interwoven with the nation-building project. However, the centrality of the nation state in education policy making has been constrained by a wide range of new socio-political and economic phenomena that relate to European integration. This article explores the ways in which European education…

  4. Charting the Research on the Policies and Politics of Coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woulfin, Sarah L.

    2014-01-01

    Facing relentless pressure to improve student achievement, many states and districts are using coaching as a policy lever to promote changes in practice. This special issue centers on the policies and politics of coaching, and this editorial commentary highlights what we know about the role of coaches and coaching in the field of education. Then I…

  5. The Politics of Trade and Industrial Policy in Africa: Forced ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2004-01-01

    Jan 1, 2004 ... This book maps the policy process and political economy of policymaking in Africa. ... Professionals, practitioners, and policymakers in the international donor community and both the governmental and nongovernmental sectors will appreciate the book's focus on research for impact and policy change.

  6. Political motives in climate and energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruvoll, Annegrete; Dalen, Hanne Marit; Larsen, Bodil M.

    2012-07-01

    Standard economic theory provides clear guidance on the design of cost-efficient policy in the presence of imperfect markets and externalities. However, observed policies reveal extensive discrepancies between principles and practise. Based on interviews with core politicians from the Norwegian parliament, we investigate causes for the lack of cost efficiency in climate and energy policy. We find that politicians agree with the notion of cost efficiency in principle, but rather than ascribing efficient instruments directed at specific policy goals, they include concerns for industrial and regional development, income distribution and employment in the environmental policy design. Lacking insight in the functioning of economic instruments and perceptions of a non-binding budget constraint also violate the requirements for efficient policy decisions. The findings point to the role of economists and social scientists to communicate the functioning of complex instruments. Improved compensation procedures could help reduce the politicians' incentives to undermine efficiency in order to avoid unwanted distributional effects.(Author)

  7. The Politics of Education Policy in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Helen M.

    2015-01-01

    In this appreciative discussion paper I provide an overview of the reforms made to education in England, and engage with the politics of education through examining the simultaneous and inter-related processes of politicisation, depoliticisation and repoliticisation of educational matters. I engage in a discussion of the papers in this special…

  8. The Politics of EPSDT Policy in the 1990s: Policy Entrepreneurs, Political Streams, and Children's Health Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardell, Alice; Johnson, Kay

    1998-01-01

    The Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment (EPSDT) program, which was designed to ensure that Medicaid-eligible children receive comprehensive health services, is the only national attempt to provide a right to these services. The political factors that have shaped national EPSDT policy during the past decade are described, based on a conceptual framework developed by John W. Kingdon. The analysis focuses on the roles of two distinct sets of policy entrepreneurs: child health advocates and fiscally conservative governors. Their activities are described in relation to the larger political environment, or “political stream,” from the period of the expansion of Medicaid eligibility for pregnant women and children in the late 1980s to the enactment of a new State Children’s Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) in 1997. The relative saliency of eligibility and benefit issues in children’s health policies had a major influence on the politics and outcomes. PMID:9614420

  9. Internet & Human Rights in foreign policy : comparing narratives in the US and EU internet governance agenda

    OpenAIRE

    WAGNER, Benjamin; GOLLATZ, Kirsten; CALDERARO, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The intricate relationship between Internet, on the one hand, and Human Rights, on the other, is increasingly becoming relevant in foreign policy. Discussions are animated by different actors, providing contributions from multiple perspectives, yet the debate on Internet and Human Rights is still fragmented and has not evolved into a unified agenda. This paper explores this on-going debate over competing perspectives, and frames the current discussion on Internet and Human Rights in foreign p...

  10. An integrative review of pursing policy and political competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, D C; Al Maaitah, R; Gharaibeh, M

    2017-03-01

    For several decades, there have been repeated calls for nurses to become more involved in policy and political processes. The purpose of this article is to conduct an integrative review to identify and assess the current state of the science relating to supporting the pursuit of greater involvement by the nursing profession in policy and political processes. Standard integrative review procedures were used to identify studies that examined how policy competence could be achieved. A comparative thematic approach to synthesis was used. Both published and grey literature written in English between January 1965 and January 2015 were identified via a structured search of CINAHL, SCOPUS, Science Direct and Google Scholar. Forty-five primary studies were identified with literature from North America dominating, but contributions from low- and middle-income countries have recently started to feature. Studies tended to focus on the immediate impact of didactic and action learning-based approaches. The majority of articles were descriptive survey designs utilizing small convenience samples. Many programmes of education have focused on developing an understanding of legislative policy and political processes, but the development of policy and political competencies at team and institutional levels has been ignored. Existing research have looked at the short-term effects of educational programmes. At this time, there are conflicting reports on the impact of variables such as gender and educational preparation on policy and political competence. There is an urgent need to address these major gaps if nurses at all levels are to play a full role in shaping policy and political process. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.

  11. The political economy of trade liberalization and environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredriksson, P.G.

    1999-01-01

    A pressure group model where environmental and industry lobby groups offer political support in return for favorable pollution tax policies is used to explain and predict the equilibrium pollution tax in sectors protected by tariffs. The political economy effects of trade liberalization are investigated. The pollution tax is shown to decrease if the lobbying effort by the environmental lobby decreases more rapidly than by the industry lobby Ceteris paribus. The level of political conflict falls with trade liberalization. Pollution may increase because of a reduction of the pollution tax, and tax revenues may fall simultaneously as pollution increases

  12. Unconventional politics of unconventional gas: Environmental reframing and policy change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kear, Andrew Robert

    The present Rocky Mountain West natural gas boom, enabled by historic pro-resource-development political, institutional, economic, and cultural structures, is a politically contested battle over values. Volatile political action, unconventional coalitions, and unconventional politics engulf this unconventional gas boom -- especially at the state level. In this comparative case study of natural gas policy in Wyoming, Colorado, and New Mexico, I measure and compare these values, expressed as frames, through textual analysis of interest group public documents and state legislative bills and statutes from 1999-2008. By developing a new measure of state legislative framing, I test the relationship between interest group and institutional framing and also provide a viable measure of policy change useful to Narrative Policy Analysis theory. Results show that competing interest group and state legislative framing efforts are dynamic, measurably different, and periodically correlative. Competing interest groups rarely engage each other, except as the conflict matures when status-quo-supporters break their silence and engage the challengers' frames that have gained legislative traction. Environmental and land-use counter-framing ensues, but status-quo-supporters remain vigilant in their economic framing. Economic frames retain their institutional privilege within Wyoming and New Mexico, but natural gas policy undergoes a complete environmental reframe in the Colorado state legislature. Although the historically dominant economy frame based on "Old West" values remains largely intact, the respective state legislatures partially reframe policy (within 4 years) using environment, alternative land-uses, and democracy frames based on "New West" and long-extant but previously marginalized status-quo-challenger definitions. This reframing is not a strictly partisan issue, but rather it is influenced by political context, policy diffusion, and long-term interest group advocacy and

  13. Prison Education across Europe: Policy, Practice, Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costelloe, Anne; Warner, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    The nature of the education offered in prisons varies greatly. Provision can be focused narrowly on limited objectives, such as training for employment or seeking to "address offending behaviour." On the other hand, where prison education follows the policies of the Council of Europe or the European Union, which are drawn from the…

  14. African Journal of Political Science: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is published 2 times a year - in June and December, and targeted at the social science community, policy-makers, and university students. Contributions are in either English or French. With effect from the year 2000, it will be published in Arabic by the Institute of African Research and Studies, Cairo University, Egypt ...

  15. Islam and Roman Catholicism as Transnational Political Phenomena: Notes for a Comparative Research Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ted G. Jelen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we offer some preliminary insights into a comparison of Islam and Roman Catholicism as transnational or “transcivilizational” political phenomena. We note that both traditions are monotheistic, offer universalist theologies, and have played important political roles both historically and in contemporary national and international politics. The comparison provides some additional insights into the role of ‘the sacred’ in politics at various levels, and presents the possibility of an intermediate level of analysis in comparative politics.

  16. Russia's New Engineering Policy in Global Politics

    OpenAIRE

    Karpova, Anna; Karpov, Dmitry; Kruchkov, Yuriy

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the authors give a definition, basis and description of a new conceptual metaphor “solid power”. The main hypothesis of the authors is based on the fact that the American concepts of soft and smart power allow to build doctrines, strategies and scenarios that support for ideological formation of policy “hard power” veiled under the idea of promoting the “model” of American democracy and the justification of military intervention and economic pressure on other countries, with th...

  17. The politics of policy : participatory irrigation management in Andhra Pradesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikku, B.R.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis studies the emergence, process and politics of the Andhra Pradesh reform policy of Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM). The reform has been labeled as the 'A? model' of irrigation reforms and supported by external aid agencies like World Bank. Within a short span of time Andhra

  18. Tobacco Control in Africa: People, Politics and Policies | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-10-15

    Oct 15, 2011 ... Tobacco use in Sub-Saharan Africa is growing rapidly as a result of strong economic growth and the aggressive marketing tactics of tobacco multinationals. Although the policy interventions are well understood, the political economy of tobacco control in Sub-Saharan Africa is not, and this volume is a timely ...

  19. Power, Politics and Transnational Policy-Making in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutsios, Stavros

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the relation between power and politics under the conditions of economic globalisation and transnational policy-making in education. The paper argues that power lies not only with the producers of the dominant educational discourse nor simply with the very discourse which is circulated and reproduced in national legislations,…

  20. The (Absent) Politics of Neo-Liberal Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Despite its ideological saturation, recent neo-liberal education policy has been deeply depoliticising in the sense of reducing properly political concerns to matters of technical efficiency. This depoliticisation is reflected in the hegemony of a managerial discourse and the decontestation of terms like "quality" and…

  1. Embryo politics: ethics and policy in Atlantic democracies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Banchoff, Thomas F

    2011-01-01

    ... States, the United Kingdom, Germany, and France have grappled with these questions so far. In setting out an argument about the intersection of politics, ethics, and policy, I focus on national bioethics committees, elected leaders, and their efforts to reconcile the moral status of the embryo and the imperative of biomedical progress in practice. In order to st...

  2. Tobacco Control in Africa: People, Politics and Policies | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    15 oct. 2011 ... Although the policy interventions are well understood, the political economy of tobacco control in Sub-Saharan Africa is not, and this volume is a timely ... the African Tobacco Situational Analyses, a recent major public health initiative sponsored by the Canada's International Development Research Centre.

  3. The role of political affiliation in employment decisions: A model and research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Philip L; Goldberg, Caren B; Thatcher, Jason B

    2017-09-01

    Organizational researchers have studied how individuals identify with groups and organizations and how this affiliation influences behavior for decades (e.g., Tajfel, 1982). Interestingly, investigation into political affiliation and political affiliation similarity in the organizational sciences is extremely rare. This is striking, given the deep political divides that exist between groups of individuals described in the political science literature. We draw from theories based on similarity, organizational identification, and person-environment fit, as well as theoretical notions related to individuating information, to develop a model, the political affiliation model (PAM), which describes the implications of political affiliation and political similarity for employment decisions. We set forth a number of propositions based on PAM, to spur future research in the organizational sciences for a timely topic which has received little attention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Political rhetoric from Canada can inform healthy public policy argumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Patrick B; McIntyre, Lynn; Anderson, Laura C; Mah, Catherine L

    2017-10-01

    Household food insecurity (HFI), insufficient income to obtain adequate food, is a growing problem in Canada and other Organisation of economic cooperation and development (OECD) countries. Government political orientations impact health policies and outcomes. We critically examined Canadian political rhetoric around HFI from 1995 to 2012 as a means to support effective healthy public policy argumentation. We analysed a data set comprised of Hansard extracts on HFI from the legislative debates of the Canadian federal and three provincial governments, using thematic coding guided by interpretivist theories of policy. Extracts were examined for content, jurisdiction, the political affiliation of the legislator speaking and governing status. Members of non-governing, or 'opposition' parties, dominated the rhetoric. A central hunger-as-poverty theme was used by legislators across the political spectrum, both in government and in opposition. Legislators differed in terms of policy approach around how income should flow to citizens facing HFI: income intervention on the left, pragmatism in the centre, reliance on markets on the right. This analysis is a case-example from Canada and caution must be exercised in terms of the generalizability of findings across jurisdictions. Despite this limitation, our findings can help healthy public policy advocates in designing and communicating HFI policy interventions in OECD countries with a similar left-right spectrum. First, even with a divisive health policy issue such as actions to address HFI, core themes around poverty are widely understood. Secondly, the non-polarizing centrist, pragmatist, approach may be strategically valuable. Thirdly, it is important to treat the rhetoric of opposition members differently from that of government members. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. The Political Economy of Carbon Securities and Environmental Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polborn, Sarah

    The costs of the current suboptimal carbon abatement policy are likely in the range of 3 to 6 trillion 2005 US dollars. Using methods from the political economy of environmental policy, the paper develops a new carbon abatement policy instrument, carbon securities. A carbon security entitles its...... owner to a ?xed proportion of ex ante unknown total emissions. This creates an additional group of stakeholders on the side of the issue that has traditionally been underrepresented. The advantages over existing systems include an equilibrium carbon price closer to the social optimum, a more predictable...

  6. Legislative Agenda Setting for In-State Resident Tuition Policies: Immigration, Representation, and Educational Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLendon, Michael K.; Mokher, Christine G.; Flores, Stella M.

    2011-01-01

    Few recent issues in higher education have been as contentious as that of legislation extending in-state college tuition benefits to undocumented students, initiatives now known as in-state resident tuition (ISRT) policies. Building on several strands of literature in political science and higher education studies, we analyze the effects of…

  7. Finding politically feasible conservation policies: the case of wildlife trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Timothy C; Ferreira, Sam M

    2018-03-01

    Conservation management is of increasing importance in ecology as most ecosystems nowadays are essentially managed ecosystems. Conservation managers work within a political-ecological system when they develop and attempt to implement a conservation plan that is designed to meet particular conservation goals. In this article, we develop a decision support tool that can identify a conservation policy for a managed wildlife population that is both sustainable and politically feasible. Part of our tool consists of a simulation model composed of interacting influence diagrams. We build, fit, and use our tool on the case of rhino horn trafficking between South Africa and Asia. Using these diagrams, we show how a rhino poacher's belief system can be modified by such a policy and locate it in a perceived risks-benefits space before and after policy implementation. We statistically fit our model to observations on group actions and rhino abundance. We then use this fitted model to compute a politically feasible conservation policy. © 2017 The Authors Ecological Applications published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Ecological Society of America.

  8. The politics of surveillance policy: UK regulatory dynamics after Snowden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Hintz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The revelations by NSA whistleblower Edward Snowden have illustrated the scale and extent of digital surveillance carried out by different security and intelligence agencies. The publications have led to a variety of concerns, public debate, and some diplomatic fallout regarding the legality of the surveillance, the extent of state interference in civic life, and the protection of civil rights in the context of security. Debates about the policy environment of surveillance emerged quickly after the leaks began, but actual policy change is only starting. In the UK, a draft law (Investigatory Powers Bill has been proposed and is currently discussed. In this paper, we will trace the forces and dynamics that have shaped this particular policy response. Addressing surveillance policy as a site of struggle between different social forces and drawing on different fields across communication policy research, we suggest eight dynamics that, often in conflicting ways, have shaped the regulatory framework of surveillance policy in the UK since the Snowden leaks. These include the governmental context; national and international norms; court rulings; civil society advocacy; technical standards; private sector interventions; media coverage; and public opinion. We investigate how state surveillance has been met with criticism by parts of the technology industry and civil society, and that policy change was required as a result of legal challenges, review commissions and normative interventions. However a combination of specific government compositions, the strong role of security agendas and discourses, media justification and a muted reaction by the public have hindered a more fundamental review of surveillance practices so far and have moved policy debate towards the expansion, rather than the restriction, of surveillance in the aftermath of Snowden.

  9. Identifying Presidents' Domestic Agendas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shull, Steven A.

    1983-01-01

    To ascertain the degree to which presidential rhetoric establishes the public agenda, presidential policy statements from 1953 through 1979 across six areas of domestic policy were examined. Results indicate that presidents exerted varied leadership in advocating their agendas. (RM)

  10. Machine Learning-Based Content Analysis: Automating the analysis of frames and agendas in political communication research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burscher, B.

    2016-01-01

    We used machine learning to study policy issues and frames in political messages. With regard to frames, we investigated the automation of two content-analytical tasks: frame coding and frame identification. We found that both tasks can be successfully automated by means of machine learning

  11. Developing a research agenda for promoting physical activity in Brazil through environmental and policy change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Rodrigo S; Kelly, Cheryl M; Parra, Diana C; Barros, Mauro; Gomes, Grace; Malta, Deborah; Schmid, Thomas; Brownson, Ross C

    2012-08-01

    To identify the highest priorities for research on environmental and policy changes for promoting physical activity (PA) in Brazil; to uncover any gaps between researchers' and practitioners' priorities; and to consider which tools, methods, collaborative strategies, and actions could be useful to moving a research agenda forward. This was a mixed-methods study (qualitative and quantitative) conducted by Project GUIA (Guide for Useful Interventions for Activity in Brazil and Latin America) in February 2010-January 2011. A total of 240 individuals in the PA field (186 practitioners and 54 researchers) were asked to generate research ideas; 82 participants provided 266 original statements from which 52 topics emerged. Participants rated topics by "importance" and "feasibility;" a separate convenience sample of 21 individuals categorized them. Cluster analysis and multidimensional scaling were used to create concept maps and pattern matches. Five distinct clusters emerged from the concept mapping, of which "effectiveness and innovation in PA interventions" was rated most important by both practitioners and researchers. Pattern matching showed a divergence between the groups, especially regarding feasibility, where there was no consensus. The study results provided the basis for a research agenda to advance the understanding of environmental and policy influences on PA promotion in Brazil and Latin America. These results should stimulate future research and, ultimately, contribute to the evidence-base of successful PA strategies in Latin America.

  12. The Rise of Political Interference in Science Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J. M.; Goldman, G. T.; Barry, J.

    2017-12-01

    The United States federal government has long relied on independent science to inform policy decisions that impact public health and safety, and the environment. Yet, losses of scientific integrity in federal decisionmaking have persisted, politicizing science and undermining science-based public health protections the government is charged with overseeing. However, politicization of science has accelerated in recent months. Focusing on a series of recent case studies, we investigated different tactics used by political actors to undermine the use of independent science in the policy making process. In this talk, we will highlight and discuss many of these tactics used in the current political era including the delay of science-based decisions, disbanding scientific advisory boards, and the dismissal of scientific evidence. Additionally, this talk will be followed by a discussion of what we might expect for federal scientific integrity in the next few years.

  13. From ‘Good’ to ‘Growth-Enhancing’ Governance: Emerging Research Agendas on Africaʼs Political-Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Kjaer, Anne Mette

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the nature of the governance debate in African politics. It offers an overview of key debates since the governance concept first emerged in development circles. Through a review of the critique of the ‘good governance’ agenda, the paper demonstrates the futility of a rigid application of pre-defined good governance institutions in African states. Rather, it argues that there is a need for understanding the political feasibility of possible alternative growth-enhancing gove...

  14. Fact-dependent policy disagreements and political legitimacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappel, Klemens

    2017-01-01

    Suppose we have a persistent disagreement about a particular set of policy options, not because of an underlying moral disagreement, or a mere conflict of interest, but rather because we disagree about a crucial non-normative factual assumption underlying the justification of the policy choices...... on value disagreements and proposed theories of legitimate coercive legislation in valuedependent disagreements. The paper presents an argument showing that under certain plausible assumptions regarding legitimacy, there are serious difficulties in identifying legitimate choices in fact-dependent policy...... disagreements. This may be unsurprising to political philosophers preoccupied with value-based disagreements, perhaps because it has been assumed that legitimacy-related concerns are irrelevant (or do not apply) to fact-dependent policy disagreements. The paper argues that this response is premature. If we...

  15. Iraq’s post-election political dynamics: Pressing Concerns and Conflicting Agendas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Barnes

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the current political, social and economic situation in Iraq and analyzes the dynamics of Iraq's political governing body, the Council of Representatives (COR, which was elected to office during the March 2010 national parliamentary elections. Since these elections, Iraqi politics have been marked by political wrangling, infighting and increased polarization, which have negatively affected governance throughout the country. With the U.S. military withdrawal date set for the end of this year, security concerns have also been highlighted. The Iraqi government will soon be handed increased responsibilities in protecting citizens and maintaining stability throughout the country. Furthermore, the recent protests in Iraq during the Arab Spring have shown that even a democratically elected government is not immune to civil unrest if it does not respond to its people’s needs. This paper argues that if competing Iraqi political factions continue to put personal interests and political ideologies over effective policymaking, the recent successes in security and democratization throughout the country may be quickly reversed.

  16. POLITICAL PSYCHOLOGY – NEW CHALLENGES IN ANALYZING FOREIGN POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin MEGHEȘAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The art of governance, the relationship between the governed and the governing, the impact of a social and political system on coherent foreign policy-building is significantly influenced by the distribution of power and the type of decisional unit existent within the state. New subjects of study, such as political psychology, have proved their utility both in theoretical and practical study of international relations. Being a frontier subject, political psychology tries to offer answers to a number of questions regarding different issues among which the way character features influence the decision maker’s behavior, the role of the operational code in foreign policy and the utility of psychological profiles in the international relationships and in intelligence. Leading from the types of power distribution and decisional units existent in the professional literature, the present paper narrows the narrative and focuses on examining the importance of the individual level of analysis in explaining foreign policy decisions, analyzing the decision of the Russian Federation to veto the intervention of the international community in the Syrian civil conflict.

  17. From ‘Good’ to ‘Growth-Enhancing’ Governance: Emerging Research Agendas on Africaʼs Political-Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anne Mette

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the nature of the governance debate in African politics. It offers an overview of key debates since the governance concept first emerged in development circles. Through a review of the critique of the ‘good governance’ agenda, the paper demonstrates the futility of a rigid app...

  18. The Effect of Early Political Opinion and the Political Positions on Willy Brandt's Policy towards America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Michel

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on two case studies and using the hermeneutic interpretation of sources, this paper analyzes how Willy BRANDT's early political and cultural orientation and his respective political offices influenced his policy towards the United States of America. The example of the Vietnam war illustrates that his early biographical conditioning, as well as his government office, caused him to restrain from public criticism of American involvement in Southeast Asia. As an elder statesman, after leaving the office of Federal Chancellor, some of the orientations which he had developed during the early phase of the Cold War faded into the background while other early conditionings gained new strength in a modified form. He now took a much more critical line on the American policy towards Latin America which was consistent with his aims as Chairman of the "North-South-Commission" and President of the Socialist International. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1102122

  19. Green politics in Germany: what is Green health care policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wörz, M; Wismar, M

    2001-01-01

    For the first time ever, a Green party has governed in Germany. From September 1998 to January 2001 the German Green party, Bündnis 90/Die Grünen, held the Federal Ministry of Health. Little has been said so far about Bündnis 90/Die Grünen and its relation to health policy. This article is intended to fill that void. An analysis of the health policy program of the Greens reveals that it centers around moving the health sector toward more comprehensiveness and decentralization, strengthened patients' rights, increased use of preventive and alternative medicine, and a critique of the German cost-containment debate and policy. The current health policy program of the Greens is closest to that of the Party of Democratic Socialism, and to a lesser extent it has affinities to the program of the Social Democratic Party. The health policy program of Bündnis 90/Die Grünen is furthest from those of the Christian Democratic Union and the Free Democratic Party. The health care reforms passed in 1998 and 1999 were not a shift toward a "Green paradigm" of health care policy, because they included no fundamental changes. In addition, cost-containment is still a major political goal in German health care policy.

  20. The Power of Economic Ideas: A Constructivist Political Economy of EU Trade Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Siles-Brügge

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The European Union’s (EU’s 2006 Global Europe communication established an offensive Free Trade Agreement (FTA agenda premised on serving the interests of the EU’s upmarket exporters at the expense of the EU’s remaining “pockets of protection”. This has remained in place with the advent of the 2010 Trade, Growth and World Affairs strategy. Such a development defies both rationalist International Political Economy (IPE explanations – which emphasise the protectionist bias of societal mobilisation – and accounts stressing the institutional insulation of policy-makers from societal pressures because the recent economic crisis and the increased politicisation of EU trade policy by the European Parliament have coexisted without leading to greater protectionism. Adopting a constructivist approach, we show that this turn of events can be explained by the neoliberal ideas internalised by policy-makers in the European Commission’s Directorate-General (DG for Trade. We then deploy a novel heuristic to illustrate how DG Trade acted upon these ideas to strategically construct a powerful discursive imperative for liberalisation.

  1. Developing a Research Agenda on the Political Economy of Immigrants' Oral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvasina, Paola; Gastaldo, Denise; Quiñonez, Carlos; Muntaner, Carles

    2017-11-03

    Acculturation has been widely used in health research to explain oral health disparities between immigrants and their native born counterparts. However, immigrants' oral health studies have not clearly defined the acculturation construct. Also, a narrow focus on cultural oral health behaviours is likely to be inadequate for explaining immigrants' oral health inequities, which are also rooted in societal, political and economic factors produced across the globe. In this brief report, we discuss the use of the acculturation framework in the dental public health literature, note gaps in this approach, and argue for the need to incorporate the political economy lens to help better understand the complexities of immigrants' oral health.

  2. Bringing Political Parties into the Picture: A Two-Dimensional Analytical Framework for Higher Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungblut, Jens

    2015-01-01

    This article examines conceptually the role of political parties in higher education policy. It discusses in how far political parties matter for changes in higher education policy, whether they offer different policy positions that might result in differing policy outputs and how one can conceptualize these differences. To do so, it develops a…

  3. "Place" as an integrating concept in natural resource politics: propositions for a social science research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony S. Cheng; Linda E. Kruger; Steven E. Daniels

    2003-01-01

    This article lays out six propositions centering on a relationship between peopleplace connections and strategic behavior in natural resource politics. The first two propositions suggest a strong and direct connection between self-identity, place, and how individuals perceive and value the environment. The third, fourth, and fifth propositions tie together social group...

  4. News Media, Political Socialization and Popular Citizenship: Towards a New Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, David

    1997-01-01

    Notes that news media use has declined in recent years, particularly among young people. Offers a critical review of research on the changing role of journalism in political socialization. Evaluates calls for popular alternatives to conventional forms of news and for a postmodern conception of citizenship and the public sphere. Concludes that more…

  5. The Politics of LGBT Rights in Latin America and the Caribbean: Research Agendas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Corrales

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available LGBT rights have expanded unevenly across Latin America and the Caribbean. Recent scholarship has been able to explain some of the reasons for this unevenness. But new and old questions remain unaddressed. This article suggests areas for further research. Resumen: Los derechos LGBT en la política de América Latina y el Caribe: Agendas para la investigación Los derechos LGBT han proliferado en América Latina y el Caribe de modo disparejo. Varios estudios académicos recientes han logrado explicar las razones de dicho crecimiento disparejo. Sin embargo, existen todavía preguntas sin responder al igual que nuevas preguntas por contestar. Este artículo sugiere algunas áreas que ameritan más investigación.

  6. Energy policies and politics for sustainable world-system development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    by Euratom (Woodman 2003). A political approach to preconditions for sustainable energy policies is finally developed from (a) Barry Commoner's critique of 1979 of president Carter's energy plan followed by the impasse of the Reagan era with the US government's retreat from federal energy and environmental...... politics, put into perspective by (b) R.C.-Dupont 1993 as the movement of the US in a field of tension between eco- and geopolitics; and (c) a 2006 declaration of ten former environmental ministers to end the nuclear age and to reform the UN mandate of the International Atomic Energy Agency.......  Analytically, (a) Barry Commoner's theses of 1976 on the connections between energy, environmental and economic crises are discussed from thermo-dynamical inefficiencies through sector analyses to barriers of energy reform, actualized by (b) the contribution of Sterling 2002 reminding upon...

  7. Agenda 21; Agenda 21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    In the prospect of the Johannesburg international summit in August 2002, the regional council of Midi-Pyrenees region (S France) in partnership with the French ministry of national development and environment has organized a two-days meeting in order to identify and valorize the good practices for the implementation of a sustainable development policy. The basic reference document of this meeting is the 'Agenda 21' program of actions that all governments signatories to the commitments of the Rio summit will have to implement. This document is the complete version in French language of the Agenda 21. It comprises several points dealing with: the environment protection and the abatement of pollution, the management of energy resources with the development of renewable energies, the viable management of the transportation sector, the management of wastes and radioactive wastes, etc.. (J.S.)

  8. Overheads Reduction: Policy Change as a Political Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Böcskei, Balázs

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the overheads reduction initiative, leading issue of public policy in Hungary between 2013 and 2014 in the face of the punctuated equilibrium theory. The case is examined from the perspective of how the punctuated equilibrium theory and the associated concepts (as policy image, policy monopoly and stream can be applied to the overheads reduction initiative, a significant change in the public policy. After clarifying the terminology, the study presents that the increase of the expenditure of the domestic energy along with the rising number of those in arrears have already been issued as a real societal problem for years. Nevertheless, the intermittent character and the emergence of the policy image and monopoly can be justified with the priority of political aspects and the aspiration for bigger popularity. The series of provisions of the overheads reduction initiative perfectly match the governmental narrative. Between the discourse of the overheads reduction initiative generated by the government and the punctuated equilibrium provisions and the climax of popularity of Fidesz, a close interrelation can be detected. However, the widespread support of Fidesz cannot exclusively be attributed to the overheads reduction initiative.

  9. Políticas de saúde no Brasil nos anos 2000: a agenda federal de prioridades Health policies in Brazil in the 2000s: the national priority agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiani Vieira Machado

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa as prioridades da política nacional da saúde no período de 2003 a 2008, correspondente ao Governo Lula. A pesquisa envolveu revisão bibliográfica, análise documental, análise de dados e entrevistas com dirigentes federais. Foram identificadas quatro prioridades na agenda federal da saúde: a Estratégia Saúde da Família, o Brasil Sorridente, os Serviços de Atendimento Móvel de Urgência e o programa Farmácia Popular. A primeira configura uma política de alta densidade institucional, iniciada no governo anterior, constituindo um exemplo de "dependência da trajetória". As demais foram adotadas como marcos de governo e trouxeram inovações em áreas em que havia fragilidades da atuação federal. As quatro políticas prioritárias analisadas se voltam para problemas relevantes do sistema de saúde brasileiro, porém apresentam diferenças quanto à sua trajetória, base de apoio e implicações para os princípios do Sistema Único de Saúde. Apesar de mudanças incrementais, observou-se a predominância de elementos de continuidade na política nacional de saúde no período.This article analyzes Brazilian national health priorities from 2003 to 2008 under the Lula Administration. The study included a literature review, document analysis, and interviews with Federal health administrators. Four priorities were identified on the national health agenda: the Family Health Program, Smiling Brazil, Mobile Emergency Services, and the Popular Pharmacy Program. The first is a policy with high institutional density launched by the previous Administration, constituting an example of path dependence. The other three are innovations in areas where there had been weaknesses in Federal government action. The four policy priorities are strategies focused on solving key problems in the Brazilian health system. However, they display important differences in their historical development, political and institutional base, inclusion on

  10. Immigration agenda in Domestic Politics in the Great Britain: Main Participants and Controversy in Conditions of Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Людмила Константиновна Мамедова

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available British Labour government has been implementing a policy of multiculcuralism in Great Britain for the last ten years. New Labour multicultural policy is based on cultural diversity and could be built up in a society of social cohesion. But in the beginning of the XXI century the tolerant attitude towards members of the British ethnic minorities clashed with the religious consciousness strengthening among radical British Muslims. It was obvious that Labour government lacked effective instruments to deal with this group of people. Serious mistakes in immigration policy have made sufficient negative impact on Labour government popularity rates. Global financial recession have caused more troubles and made political perspectives of Mr. Brown government vaguer. Such situation in its turn leads to the increase of popularity of British Conservative party and even of far right party - British National party, which is famous for its racist statements. British observers star to talk that the political leadership faces the necessity to revise the multicultural policy.

  11. Governance and political consumerism in Finnish energy policy-making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruostetsaari, Ilkka [University of Turku, Turku (Finland)

    2009-01-15

    The research task in the study was, firstly, to analyse citizens' perceptions of the power structure underlying Finnish energy policy-making. Secondly, we analysed the role of civil society in the energy sector, addressing the question whether Finns feel that they can influence energy policy-making as citizens through general elections (civic participation) or as consumers via their own consumption choices (political consumerism). Methodologically, the study was based on postal survey conducted in 2007 among a random sample representing 18-75-year-old Finns (N=4000). According to the views expressed, the innermost core of the influence structure of Finland's energy policy-making today comprises only the Cabinet and Parliament, while the second circle is composed of energy-producer firms and big firms. The European Union, the Ministry of the Environment and the Ministry of Trade and Industry belong to the third circle of influence. The power relations in Finland's energy sector have continued particularly stable since the late 1980s despite the liberalization and globalization of the energy markets. In order to influence energy policy-making, citizens consider their own consumption choices more useful than voting in elections or contacts with MPs, authorities and energy-producing companies. The least useful devices are radical environmental activism and participation in mass demonstrations. (author)

  12. Governance and political consumerism in Finnish energy policy-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruostetsaari, Ilkka

    2009-01-01

    The research task in the study was, firstly, to analyse citizens' perceptions of the power structure underlying Finnish energy policy-making. Secondly, we analysed the role of civil society in the energy sector, addressing the question whether Finns feel that they can influence energy policy-making as citizens through general elections (civic participation) or as consumers via their own consumption choices (political consumerism). Methodologically, the study was based on postal survey conducted in 2007 among a random sample representing 18-75-year-old Finns (N=4000). According to the views expressed, the innermost core of the influence structure of Finland's energy policy-making today comprises only the Cabinet and Parliament, while the second circle is composed of energy-producer firms and big firms. The European Union, the Ministry of the Environment and the Ministry of Trade and Industry belong to the third circle of influence. The power relations in Finland's energy sector have continued particularly stable since the late 1980s despite the liberalization and globalization of the energy markets. In order to influence energy policy-making, citizens consider their own consumption choices more useful than voting in elections or contacts with MPs, authorities and energy-producing companies. The least useful devices are radical environmental activism and participation in mass demonstrations

  13. Features of modern security policy UK political parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Stalovierova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The security policy of the British coalition government of D. Cameron (2010-2015 is summarized; it’s been proved that political forces of Tory and Liberal Democrat should have compromised to carry out unanimous course in the scope of national security, and the problems of the security strategy on parliamentary elections in 2015 are analyzed, particularly the comparative analysis of the modern safety strategy of leading British parties is exercised. Under conditions of the appearance of new challenges and threats, transformation of international safety system, the questions of safety policy often become the object of attention of the British community and experts. The absence of cross-party consensus on most terms of safety strategy of the United Kingdom during the election campaign in 2015 makes the discussion about perspectives of the British safety policy still more urgent. During the election campaign there was no unity on any aspect of security subject between parties. First of all, Labourists, Liberal Democrats, Scottish National Party and Green Party made a statement about readiness to develop cooperation with the EU and the Conservatives and the UK Independence Party were on the side of the Eurosceptics. The opinions of the parties were also divided on military operations abroad, financing and force level. In terms of one-party government and presence of majority in the House of Commons, the Conservatives have opportunities to realize their own vision of British safety policy.

  14. Neo-Liberalism and the Politics of Higher Education Policy in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines Indonesia's experience with neo-liberal higher education reform. It argues that this agenda has encountered strong resistance from the dominant predatory political, military, and bureaucratic elements who occupy the state apparatus, their corporate clients, and popular forces, leading to continuation of the centralist and…

  15. Immunization campaigns and political agendas: retrospective from Ecuador and El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloyd, Stephen; Suarez Torres, Jose; Mercer, Mary Anne

    2003-01-01

    Since the mid-1980s international donors have promoted vertical, campaign-based strategies to help improve immunization coverage in poor countries. National immunization days (NIDs) are currently in vogue and are prominent in the worldwide polio eradication efforts. In spite of their widespread use, campaigns that include NIDs have not been well evaluated for their effects on coverage, reduction in vaccine-preventable diseases, or effects on the health system. An assessment of the results of two such campaigns implemented in Ecuador and El Salvador shows limited impact on short-term coverage and questionable effects on long-term coverage and disease incidence. Although NIDs may have substantial short-term political benefits, the vertical approach can undermine provision of routine services by ministries of health and may be counterproductive in the long-term.

  16. Deliberative Political Leaders: The Role of Policy Input in Political Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Lees-Marshment

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a fresh perspective on political leadership by demonstrating that government ministers take a deliberative approach to decision making. Getting behind the closed doors of government through 51 elite interviews in the UK, US, Australia, Canada and New Zealand, the article demonstrates that modern political leadership is much more collaborative than we usually see from media and public critique. Politicians are commonly perceived to be power-hungry autocratic, elite figures who once they have won power seek to implement their vision. But as previous research has noted, not only is formal power circumscribed by the media, public opinion, and unpredictability of government, more collaborative approaches to leadership are needed given the rise of wicked problems and citizens increasingly demand more say in government decisions and policy making. This article shows that politicians are responding to their challenging environment by accepting they do not know everything and cannot do everything by themselves, and moving towards a leadership style that incorporates public input. It puts forward a new model of Deliberative Political Leadership, where politicians consider input from inside and outside government from a diverse range of sources, evaluate the relative quality of such input, and integrate it into their deliberations on the best way forward before making their final decision. This rare insight into politician’s perspectives provides a refreshing view of governmental leadership in practice and new model for future research.

  17. BRICS COUNTRIES’ POLITICAL AND LEGAL PARTICIPATION IN THE GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE AGENDA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gladun, Elena; Ahsan, Dewan

    2016-01-01

    and in the financial infrastructure, and in the formation of an international climate change policy. The importance of the participation of Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (BRICS) in an international climate change regime has been recognized for some time. The article describes the policy...... and regulations on climate-related issues in BRICS. The authors compare the key actions and measures BRICS have taken for complying with international climate change documents. They highlight that global climate change action cannot be successful without BRICS countries’ involvement. BRICS must therefore make...... adequate efforts in emissions reduction measures and significant commitments in respect of the international climate change regime. The authors propose three major steps for BRICS to take the lead in dealing with climate change. First, BRICS need to foster further discussion and cooperation on climate...

  18. The "Good Governance" of Evidence in Health Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Benjamin; Parkhurst, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Calls for evidence-based policy often fail to recognise the fundamentally political nature of policy making. Policy makers must identify, evaluate and utilise evidence to solve policy problems in the face of competing priorities and political agendas. Evidence should inform but cannot determine policy choices. This paper draws on theories of…

  19. Population policies for 21st century. Population and sustainable development high on agenda at Bali conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-01

    At the August 1992 Population Conference for Asia and the Pacific held in Bali, a state minister from Indonesia remarked that changes in population growth must occur along with changes in quality of life and that more effective family planning (FP), family health, and welfare programs were needed. FP programs must be internally financed by each country. Conference goals were to assist governments in understanding the value of having multidisciplinary policies and programs, the need for research and evaluation in program implementation, and the role of population data for planning and policy. Senior officials from 36 countries and representatives from international bodies attended the week-long meetings. There was representation from outside the regional (Syria, Sweden, the Holy See, and the World Bank). A series of goals for the 21st century were agreed upon by participants in the Bali Declaration on Population and Sustainable Development. The message that there were no "quick fixes" was communicated and that women need to be involved in development beyond their role as wives as mothers. Dr. Sadik spoke about the importance of reducing maternal mortality and improving reproductive health. In Southeast Asia alone maternal deaths number about 250,000/year. The solution is family planning particularly for women older than 35 years and teenagers and social welfare programs for improving health care, fertility regulation, nutrition, and income. Dr. Sadik also focused on placing the elimination of poverty, improving women's conditions, and enabling reproductive choice as top priorities on country agendas. The issue of a large aging population in Southeast Asia necessitates future planning. The Japanese delegation pledged continued bilateral and multilateral cooperation in population control, with the hope that Japan may be useful as an example to other countries. There was participant commitment to the creation of policies on population and sustainable development.

  20. Problems, policies and politics: making the case for better assistive technology provision in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Natasha

    2015-05-01

    Substantial evidence supports assistive technology and environmental adaptations as key enablers to participation. In order to realise the potential of these interventions, they need to be both recognised in policy, and resourced in practice. This paper uses political theory to understand the complexities of assistive technology (AT) policy reform in Australia. AT research will not be influential in improving AT policy without consideration of political drivers. Theories of policy formation are considered, with Kingdon's (2003) theory of multiple streams identified as a useful lens through which to understand government actions. This theory is applied to the case of current AT policy reformulation in Australia. The convergence model of problem identification, policy formulation and political will is found to be an applicable construct with which to evaluate contemporary policy changes. This paper illustrates the cogency of this theory for the field of AT, in the case of Australia's recent disability and aged care reforms. Political theory provides a way of conceptualising the difficulties of consumers and AT practitioners experience in getting therapeutically valid solutions into public policy, and then getting policies prioritised and funded. It is suggested that AT practitioners must comprehend and consider political factors in working towards effective policies to support their practice. AT practitioners generally lack political awareness or an understanding of the drivers of policy. The effectiveness of AT practitioners at a systemic level will remain limited without consideration of policy drivers. AT practitioners must comprehend and consider political factors in working towards effective policies to support their practice.

  1. Policy, Practice, and Research Agenda for Emergency Medical Services Oversight: A Systematic Review and Environmental Scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taymour, Rekar K; Abir, Mahshid; Chamberlin, Margaret; Dunne, Robert B; Lowell, Mark; Wahl, Kathy; Scott, Jacqueline

    2018-02-01

    criteria; 46 included process, 36 outcomes, and 18 structural measures. Most studies applied quality measures at the personnel level (40), followed by the agency (28) and system of care (28), and few at the oversight level (5). Numerous grey literature articles provided principles for high-quality EMS oversight. Limited quality measurement at the oversight level is an important gap in the peer-reviewed literature. The grey literature is ahead in this realm and can guide the policy and research agenda for EMS oversight quality measurement. Taymour RK , Abir M , Chamberlin M , Dunne RB , Lowell M , Wahl K , Scott J . Policy, practice, and research agenda for Emergency Medical Services oversight: a systematic review and environmental scan. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(1):89-97.

  2. Political Strategies and Language Policies: The European Union Lisbon Strategy and Its Implications for the EU's Language and Multilingualism Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyzanowski, Michal; Wodak, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the interplay between the politics and policies of multilingualism by looking at the role of political macro-strategies in shaping language and multilingualism policies within the European Union. The paper focuses on the relationship between the European Union's 2000-2010 Lisbon Strategy on the European Knowledge-Based Economy…

  3. Intra-party policy entrepreneurship and party goals. The case of political parties’ climate policy preferences in Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Little, Conor

    2017-01-01

    This study contributes to the growing literature on the domestic politics of climate change by examining the climate policy preferences of Fianna Fáil, Fine Gael and the Labour Party over 20 years. Bringing the concept of ‘policy entrepreneurship’ into the study of intra-party politics, it uses...... secondary data, party documents, publicly-available information and a series of in-depth interviews to develop an understanding of intra-party policy entrepreneurship and political parties’ climate policy preferences. It finds that office-seeking incentives have tended to trump the activities of individuals...... who have engaged in policy entrepreneurship with the aim of strengthening their parties’ climate policy preferences. In instances where office-seeking incentives for climate policy have been strong, they have often contributed to changes in policy preferences, whether or not intra-party policy...

  4. Intra-party policy entrepreneurship and party goals. The case of political parties’ climate policy preferences in Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Little, Conor

    2017-01-01

    This study contributes to the growing literature on the domestic politics of climate change by examining the climate policy preferences of Fianna Fáil, Fine Gael and the Labour Party over 20 years. Bringing the concept of ‘policy entrepreneurship’ into the study of intra-party politics, it uses...... who have engaged in policy entrepreneurship with the aim of strengthening their parties’ climate policy preferences. In instances where office-seeking incentives for climate policy have been strong, they have often contributed to changes in policy preferences, whether or not intra-party policy...... secondary data, party documents, publicly-available information and a series of in-depth interviews to develop an understanding of intra-party policy entrepreneurship and political parties’ climate policy preferences. It finds that office-seeking incentives have tended to trump the activities of individuals...

  5. Political Limits to the Processing of Policy Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. May

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This contribution addresses political limits to the processing of policy problems in the United States. Our foci are the forces that limit policymakers' attention to different aspects of problems and how this affects the prospects for problem resolution. We theorize about three sets of forces: interest engagement, linkages among relevant institutions for policymaking, and partisan conflict. We show how the interplay of these forces limits efforts to address complex problems. Based on secondary accounts, we consider these underlying dynamics for ten complex problems. These include the thorny problems of the financial crisis, climate change, and health care; the persistent problems of K-12 education, drug abuse, and food safety; and the looming problems associated with critical infrastructure, the obesity epidemic, ocean health, and terrorism and extreme events. From these accounts we identify different patterns that we label fractured, allied, bureaucratic, and anemic policymaking.

  6. Political Parties and Social Policy Responses to Global Economic Crises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Peter; Kaasch, Alexandra; van Hooren, Franca

    2014-01-01

    Based on empirical findings froma comparative study onwelfare state responses to the four major economic shocks (the 1970s oil shocks, the early 1990s recession, the 2008 financial crisis) in four OECD countries, this article demonstrates that, in contrast to conventional wisdom, policy responses...... to global economic crises vary significantly across countries. What explains the cross-national and within-case variation in responses to crises?We discuss several potential causes of this pattern and argue that political parties and the party composition of governments can play a key role in shaping crisis...... responses, albeit in ways that go beyond traditional partisan theory.We show that the partisan conflict and the impact of parties are conditioned by existing welfare state configurations. In less generous welfare states, the party composition of governments plays a decisive role in shaping the direction...

  7. Discursos cruzados: telenoticiários, HPEG e a construção da agenda eleitoral Cross-discourses: news programs on TV, free time for political propaganda on TV, and the construction of the electoral agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Felipe Miguel

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O Horário de Propaganda Eleitoral Gratuita (HPEG faculta aos candidatos um espaço de comunicação autônomo, em que suas mensagens não têm que passar pelo crivo dos grupos de mídia. O paper discute a eficácia do HPEG, em contraposição ao telejornalismo, e analisa a evolução da relação entre os dois nas quatro eleições presidenciais brasileiras do período pós-autoritário. Em 1989, os telenoticiários mostravam-se receptivos à agenda proposta pelos partidos em seus programas de TV, mas há um nítido fechamento nas eleições seguintes. Em 2002, os principais candidatos preferiram aderir à agenda e aos enquadramentos dominantes, reconhecendo a incapacidade do HPEG para alterar a pauta da mídia.The free time for political propaganda on TV gives candidates a space for autonomous communication in which their messages do not have to pass the scrutiny of media groups. This paper discusses the effectiveness of such free time on TV as opposed to TV journalism, and examines the development of the relationship between them in the four presidential elections in Brazil in the post-authoritarian period. In 1989, TV news programs welcomed the agenda put forward by candidates in their TV programs, but a closure is clear in the next elections. In 2002, the main candidates chose to join mainstream agenda and frameworks, acknowledging the inability of free TV time to change the media's agenda.

  8. Switzerland: current energy and climate policies. Political boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previdoli, P.

    2006-01-01

    End use energy consumption in Switzerland has increased almost ninefold over the past 95 years, amounting to nearly 88 PJ in 2004. This figure breaks down as follows: coal 5%, oil-based fuels 29%, motor fuels 31%, electricity 22%, gas 11%, district heat, solid municipal and industrial waste as well as renewables (excluding electricity) approx. 1%. In 2004 alone, end use energy consumption rose by half a percent, thus reaching a new record high. This development is due, above all, to the population increase and to economic growth. To achieve its goals in energy and climate policies, and to initiate sustainable energy supply, the Swiss federal council in 2001 launched the 'EnergySwitzerland' Program. The new strategy of the Program focuses on these three goals: 'Climate', 'Electricity: Efficiency Goal', and 'Renewable Energies'. On the basis of perspectives of the development of the population and of the economy, the consequences of a number of policy variants for energy supply and demand and for the economy and the environment have been examined. Four scenarios (variants) are to help design energy policy on a medium and long term by showing energy policy options. For the area of electricity supply facing increasing requirements, 4 options and their pros and cons are distinguished: electricity imports, renewable energies, fossil- fired thermal plants (combined-cycle plants), and nuclear power. With a 40% share in domestic production, nuclear power continues to be a pillar of Swiss energy supply. The fundamental question about the future of nuclear power is not a question of technical or economic know-how, but a question of the system of political values. As the current legal system in the field of electricity supply does not meet requirements, it will have to be adapted. (orig.)

  9. Corporate political strategy: incorporating the management of public policy issues into hospital strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, B; Arndt, M; Stone, M M

    1997-01-01

    Hospitals engage in a variety of strategies designed to anticipate, shape, and respond to public policy issues. This article describes corporate political strategy and argues for its need throughout a public policy issue's life cycle.

  10. BRICS COUNTRIES’ POLITICAL AND LEGAL PARTICIPATION IN THE GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE AGENDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Gladun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an overview and analysis of international legal regulations on climate change. The authors examine how the international regime related to climate change has evolved in multilateral agreements. A special focus is put on the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities which became the basis of discord among states in discussing targets and responsibilities in climate change mitigation. The authors note that in 2015 the international climate change regime entered a new stage where the most important role is determined for developing countries, both in the legal and in the financial infrastructure, and in the formation of an international climate change policy.The importance of the participation of Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (BRICS in an international climate change regime has been recognized for some time. The article describes the policy and regulations on climate-related issues in BRICS. The authors compare the key actions and measures BRICS have taken for complying with international climate change documents. They highlight that global climate change action cannot be successful without BRICS countries’ involvement. BRICS must therefore make adequate efforts in emissions reduction measures and significant commitments in respect of the international climate change regime. The authors propose three major steps for BRICS to take the lead in dealing with climate change. First, BRICS need to foster further discussion and cooperation on climate issues and work out an obligatory legal framework to fight climate change collectively as well as unified legislation at their domestic levels. Second, Russia and other BRICS countries have the potential to cooperate in the field of renewable energy through the exchange of technology, investment in the sector, and the participation of their energy companies in each other’s domestic market. Assuming Russia will support the development and enhancement of

  11. The Evaluation of Public Policies from the Perspective of the Agenda 21 of Culture: a Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    María Aracely Mendívil-Portillo; Luz Cecilia Gálvez-Bon; Juan Pedro Ibarra-Michel; José Guadalupe Soto-Karass

    2017-01-01

    . This research shows the results of the implementation of a public cultural policy at the municipal level and has as a main objective to evaluate, from the perspective of the agenda 21 of culture, the program "Art for social development" by the Municipal Institute of Art and Culture developed in a secondary-level boarding school located at the Topolobampo community, in the municipality of Ahome, Mexico. A QUAN-QUAL methodology was used with instruments like questionnaires applied to the youn...

  12. Setting the agenda of a counter-terrorism strategic policy model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Ferone

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a functional model to fight terrorism from macro perspective through a “Strategic Policy Model” (SPM. The focus on legal order within the practices of Sociology of Law and Criminology is pivotal in order to reframe terrorism within a viable SPM. In “The Counterterrorism Handbook”, written by Bolz, Dudonis, and Schulz (2005, terrorism, at its very basic level, is defined as “an action that the urban guerrilla must execute with the greatest cold bloodedness, calmness and decision”. They further go on to provide a more scholarly definition: “the calculated use of violence to attain goals which are political, religious or ideological in nature. Terrorism involves a criminal act that is often symbolic in nature and intended to influence an audience beyond the immediate victims”.

  13. Book Review: "The Honest Broker: Making Sense of Science in Policy and Politics"

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Honest Broker is a must-read for any scientist with even a modest interest in environmental policy or politics, and I recommend it especially to scientists unfamiliar with the continuing controversy over how scientists misuse science in environmental policy and politics. The ...

  14. The "Post-Racial" Politics of Race: Changing Student Assignment Policy in Three School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Kathryn A.; Frankenberg, Erica; Diem, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Many school districts have recently revised, or tried to revise, their policies for assigning students to schools, because the legal and political status of racial and other kinds of diversity is uncertain, and the districts are facing fiscal austerity. This article presents case studies of politics and student assignment policy in three large…

  15. The Politics of District Instructional Policy Formation: Compromising Equity and Rigor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Tina M.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative case study extends the literature on urban district instructional policymaking by analyzing the ways in which normative and political pressures shaped district leaders' instructional policy decisions. Drawing on concepts from the politics of education, it shows how teachers and principals repeatedly nullified policies that aimed…

  16. Demographic profile of states with human cloning laws: morality policy meets political economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabile, Bonnie

    2007-03-01

    This analysis seeks to identify factors that may shape the policy stance - whether restrictive or permissive - that each state in the United States with a human cloning law in place takes toward human therapeutic cloning. The investigation also considers if cloning policy is more the product of morality politics or political economy. Results show that among states with human cloning policies in place, those with a greater biotechnological capacity, more permissive abortion laws, fewer Evangelical Protestants, and higher political liberalism rankings are more likely to have permissive cloning laws. A higher Roman Catholic population is strongly associated with permissive cloning laws, rather than restrictive cloning laws as originally supposed. Factors with morality policy and economic bases were both found to be associated with cloning policy outcomes. Results suggest that morality policies, though distinct in some ways, do share determinants with public policies based on political economy.

  17. Curbing the lifestyle disease pandemic: making progress on an interdisciplinary research agenda for law and policy interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toebes, Brigit; Hesselman, Marlies; van Dijk, Jitse P; Herman, Joost

    2017-09-18

    By 2030, noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) will be the leading cause of death in every region in the world. While law and policy have an important role to play in curbing this pandemic, our current understanding of how they can most effectively be used is still limited. This contribution identifies a number of gaps in current research and insists on an interdisciplinary research agenda between law, health science and international relations aimed at designing concrete proposals for laws and policies to curb the NCD pandemic, both globally and domestically.

  18. Managing between the agendas: implementing health care reform policy in an acute care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Roslyn; Paull, Glenn; Magann, Linda; Davis, JanMaree

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to assess administrative and clinical manager stances on health system reform. Understanding these stances will help to identify cultural differences and competing agendas between these two key health service stakeholders and contribute to developing strategies to improve organisational performance. A qualitative methodology was used comprising in-depth open-ended interviews conducted in 2007 with 26 administrative and clinical managers who managed clinical units. This paper provides empirical insights into the ways that administrative and clinical mangers conceive of their managerial roles in relation to health care reform and performance improvement in health services. The findings suggest that developing a hybrid clinical manager culture as a means to bridge the gap between administrative and clinical manager stances on reform objectives, while possible, is not yet being realised. The research has relevance for health services that are experiencing organisational transformation. However, its location in one health service limits the generalisability of findings to other sites. Further research is needed to assess the opportunities for a hybrid culture to emerge as well as its effect. While attention is predominantly directed to clinician groups as a key stakeholder in implementing health reform policies, this paper has implications for how administrative managers also structure their roles and responsibilities to create an organisational climate conducive to change. This will include strategies to support clinical managers to make the transition from a predominantly clinical, to a clinical managerial, orientation. This paper addresses a significant problem in health service governance, namely the divide between the value stances of dual hierarchies. This problem is only now gaining prominence as a significant barrier to health reform.

  19. Global health politics: neither solidarity nor policy: Comment on "Globalization and the diffusion of ideas: why we should acknowledge the roots of mainstream ideas in global health".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Claudio A

    2014-07-01

    The global health agenda has been dominating the current global health policy debate. Furthermore, it has compelled countries to embrace strategies for tackling health inequalities in a wide range of public health areas. The article by Robert and colleagues highlights that although globalization has increased opportunities to share and spread ideas, there is still great asymmetry of power according to the countries' economic and political development. It also emphasizes how policy diffusion from High Income Countries (HICs) to Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs) have had flaws at understanding their political, economic, and cultural backgrounds while they are pursuing knowledge translation. Achieving a fair global health policy diffusion of ideas would imply a call for a renewal on political elites worldwide at coping global health politics. Accordingly, moving towards fairness in disseminating global health ideas should be driven by politics not only as one of the social determinants of health, but the main determinant of health and well-being among-and within-societies.

  20. The presidential politics of climate discourse: energy frames, policy, and political tactics from the 2016 Primaries in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, George; Sovacool, Benjamin K

    2017-01-01

    his study presents the results of an investigation into the frequency in which four candidates of the 2016 United States Presidential Primary season communicated their political positions on climate change, and how they subsequently framed these stances in numerous contextual drivers alongside energy policies. A systematic content analysis of political debates, campaign speeches, and press statements reveals how Hillary Clinton, Bernie Sanders, Donald Trump, and Ted Cruz undertook in vote-see...

  1. The concern for nature, a natural process for public policy? How to promote sustainable development in urban environmental agendas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de los Ángeles Barrionuevo Mora

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ecuador is a leader worldwide for its recognition of the Rights of Nature and the Rights of the City in its Constitution. In so far as Quito, its capital, has positioned itself among the first municipalities that have demonstrated their compliance with the international commitments on climate change, it is a relevant case study. From the experience of this city, we aim to identify the main factors that contribute to local government taking on a sustainability agenda. Although the national and international context influence on the positioning of such topics, such factors as leadership, the influence of international networks, the level of specialization of the bureaucratic apparatus and local regulations have permitted to include issues related to sustainable development in the public policy agenda and thus have given visibility to cities as relevant actors in the pursuit of sustainable development.

  2. When Politics Matters: The Impact of Politicians' and Bureaucrats' Policy Preferences on Salient and Nonsalient Policy Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Martin; Blom-Hansen, Jens; Serritzlew, Søren

    2015-01-01

    in policy areas salient to the public, but not in less salient areas. This might be comforting news from a democratic perspective. However, since public budgets represent an easy case for political influence, it is food for thought that political preferences do not always prevail.......The public administration literature provides ample reasons why civil servants may be influential in public policy. However, for three decades, the ‘politics matters’ literature has found that political ideology is an important explanation of public policy, which indicates that politicians actually...... control their civil servants. But, the ‘politics matters’ literature systematically fails to include the influence of the bureaucracy. In fact, it is almost impossible to identify a single study in this literature that controls for the influence of the permanent bureaucracy. In this paper we investigate...

  3. In whose interest? Policy and politics in assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donchin, Anne

    2011-02-01

    This paper interprets the British legislative process that initiated the first comprehensive national regulation of embryo research and fertility services and examines subsequent efforts to restrain the assisted reproduction industry. After describing and evaluating British regulatory measures, I consider successive failures to control the assisted reproduction industry in the US. I discuss disparities between UK and US regulatory initiatives and their bearing on regulation in other countries. Then I turn to the political and social structures in which the assisted reproduction industry is embedded. I argue that regulatory bodies are seldom neutral arbiters. They tend to respond most readily to special interests and neglect strategies that could more effectively meet the health needs of the people they represent. Neither national nor international bodies have aggressively pursued policies to harness the industry, reduce infertility rates, or meet the needs of people whose fertility is threatened by substandard healthcare and environmental neglect. In conclusion, I consider recent initiatives by activist groups to mount an alternative response to the industry's current practices and build a transnational reproductive justice movement. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Political economy constraints on carbon pricing policies: What are the implications for economic efficiency, environmental efficacy, and climate policy design?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, Jesse D.

    2014-01-01

    Economists traditionally view a Pigouvian fee on carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions, either via carbon taxes or emissions caps and permit trading (“cap-and-trade”), as the economically optimal or “first-best” policy to address climate change-related externalities. Yet several political economy factors can severely constrain the implementation of these carbon pricing policies, including opposition of industrial sectors with a concentration of assets that would lose considerable value under such policies; the collective action nature of climate mitigation efforts; principal agent failures; and a low willingness-to-pay for climate mitigation by citizens. Real-world implementations of carbon pricing policies can thus fall short of the economically optimal outcomes envisioned in theory. Consistent with the general theory of the second-best, the presence of binding political economy constraints opens a significant “opportunity space” for the design of creative climate policy instruments with superior political feasibility, economic efficiency, and environmental efficacy relative to the constrained implementation of carbon pricing policies. This paper presents theoretical political economy frameworks relevant to climate policy design and provides corroborating evidence from the United States context. It concludes with a series of implications for climate policy making and argues for the creative pursuit of a mix of second-best policy instruments. - Highlights: • Political economy constraints can bind carbon pricing policies. • These constraints can prevent implementation of theoretically optimal carbon prices. • U.S. household willingness-to-pay for climate policy likely falls in the range of $80–$200 per year. • U.S. carbon prices may be politically constrained to as low as $2–$8 per ton of CO 2 . • An opportunity space exists for improvements in climate policy design and outcomes

  5. The health and human rights of survivors of gun violence: charting a research and policy agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Cate

    2011-12-15

    The health and human rights implications of violently acquired impairments (VAI), specifically gun-related injuries and trauma resulting in disability, represent an overlooked public policy concern. For several decades, detailed attention has been committed to better understanding of the international arms trade and its consequences. A discursive shift in the last decade from "small arms control" as the core objective (a "hardware" focus on the weapons themselves) to "armed violence prevention" (a focus on impacts, wider drivers, and solutions) still requires a rigorous set of objectives that respond to the rights and needs of survivors of such violence. This article seeks to chart some of the challenges of responding to gun violence survivors and identify entry points for contributions from health, social science and human rights researchers and practitioners. Efforts to address armed violence typically pivot around two goals: reduction and prevention. But what of those already injured? This article argues that a third goal is overdue for attention: response to those injured, impaired, and disabled from gun violence. This would allow a clear pathway for progress (conceptual, political, policy, and practice) to be defined related to gun violence under the ambit of three overarching goals: reducing existing gun violence; responding to those already injured, traumatized, and impaired by such violence; and preventing future violence from occurring. Copyright © 2011 Buchanan. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  6. Reducing variation in health care: the rhetorical politics of a policy idea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanenbaum, Sandra J

    2013-02-01

    For decades, geographic variation in the use and cost of health care has captured the imagination of researchers and policy makers. As a policy problem, variation suggests its own solution--reducing variation--but the substantive weaknesses of this policy idea invite a second look at its success. This article considers the politics of policy ideas to analyze the potential rhetorical strengths of reducing variation. It finds that this idea appeals to multiple health care audiences, remains practically and politically ambiguous as to problem and solution, and resonates with long-held aspirations of policy elites, including being hopeful about solving the seemingly intractable problems of the US health care system.

  7. A Literature Review of Homelessness and Aging: Suggestions for a Policy and Practice-Relevant Research Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, Amanda; Barken, Rachel; Sussman, Tamara; Rothwell, David; Bourgeois-Guérin, Valérie; Lavoie, Jean-Pierre

    2016-03-01

    Homelessness among older people is a growing concern across Canada and is expected to rise with demographic change (Crane & Warnes, 2010; Culhane, Metraux, Byrne, Stino, & Bainbridge, 2013). Yet current knowledge, policies, and practices on homelessness largely focus on younger populations. Likewise, research and policies on aging typically overlook homelessness. Responses to homelessness among older people must address complex needs related to health, income security, and housing. Based on a comprehensive literature review, this article outlines the existing and needed research with regards to homelessness among older people. We clarify the intersections of aging and homelessness; review the relevant statistics, including estimated prevalence; discuss pathways and variations in experience; and identify gaps in knowledge. We conclude with a call for an inclusive research agenda that will help build policies and practices to reduce and ultimately to eliminate homelessness among older people in Canada.

  8. State political ideology, policies and health behaviors: The case of tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Ashley M; Feng, Wenhui; Yumkham, Rakesh

    2017-05-01

    Anti-smoking campaigns are widely viewed as a success case in public health policy. However, smoking rates continue to vary widely across U.S. states and the success of anti-smoking campaigns is contingent upon states' adoption of anti-smoking policies. Though state anti-smoking policy is a product of a political process, studies of the effect of policies on smoking prevalence have largely ignored how politics shapes policy adoption, which, in turn, impact state health outcomes. Policies may also have different effects in different political contexts. This study tests how state politics affects smoking prevalence both through the policies that states adopt (with policies playing a mediating role on health outcomes) or as an effect modifier of behavior (tobacco control policies may work differently in states in which the public is more or less receptive to them). The study uses publicly available data to construct a time-series cross-section dataset of state smoking prevalence, state political context, cigarette excise taxes, indoor smoking policies, and demographic characteristics from 1995 to 2013. Political ideology is measured using a validated indicator of the ideology of state legislatures and of the citizens of a state. We assess the relationship between state political context and state smoking prevalence rates adjusting for demographic characteristics and accounting for the mediating/moderating role of state policies with time and state fixed effects. We find that more liberal state ideology predicts lower adult smoking rates, but that the relationship between state ideology and adult smoking prevalence is only partly explained by state anti-smoking policies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Health policy and systems research in access to medicines: a prioritized agenda for low- and middle-income countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To identify priority policy issues in access to medicines (ATM) relevant for low- and middle-income countries, to identify research questions that would help address these policy issues, and to prioritize these research questions in a health policy and systems research (HPSR) agenda. Methods The study involved i) country- and regional-level priority-setting exercises performed in 17 countries across five regions, with a desk review of relevant grey and published literature combined with mapping and interviews of national and regional stakeholders; ii) interviews with global-level stakeholders; iii) a scoping of published literature; and iv) a consensus building exercise with global stakeholders which resulted in the formulation and ranking of HPSR questions in the field of ATM. Results A list of 18 priority policy issues was established following analysis of country-, regional-, and global-level exercises. Eighteen research questions were formulated during the global stakeholders’ meeting and ranked according to four ranking criteria (innovation, impact on health and health systems, equity, and lack of research). The top three research questions were: i) In risk protection schemes, which innovations and policies improve equitable access to and appropriate use of medicines, sustainability of the insurance system, and financial impact on the insured? ii) How can stakeholders use the information available in the system, e.g., price, availability, quality, utilization, registration, procurement, in a transparent way towards improving access and use of medicines? and iii) How do policies and other interventions into private markets, such as information, subsidies, price controls, donation, regulatory mechanisms, promotion practices, etc., impact on access to and appropriate use of medicines? Conclusions Our HPSR agenda adopts a health systems perspective and will guide relevant, innovative research, likely to bear an impact on health, health systems and

  10. Politics and Policy Change in American Administrative Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Murphy

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This essay uses Justice Scalia’s and Breyer’s dueling opinions in FCC v. Fox Television Stations, Inc. (2009, as a vehicle for exploring the contested relationship between politics and policy change in administrative law. In Fox, a five – justice majority led by Justice Scalia insisted that an agency’s abandonment of an old policy position in favor of a new one should survive review for arbitrariness so long as the agency explains why its new position is reasonable. A different five – justice majority (yes – that adds up to ten led by Justice Breyer thought that Justice Scalia’s stance left too much room for politicization of policymaking. To curb such influence, Justice Breyer insisted that an agency, to justify abandoning an old policy, must explain why it was reasonable to change from its old policy to the new one. Neither of these two approaches in Fox hits quite the right note. Justice Scalia’s view unduly minimizes the problem of politicization. Justice Breyer’s solution seems formalistic and easy to evade. A better way forward may lie in combining Justice Scalia’s simpler framework with Justice Breyer’s more suspicious attitude. Taking a cue from Justice Frankfurter in Universal Camera, the courts should respond to the potential for excessive politicization of agency policymaking not with more doctrinal metaphysics but with a suspicious “mood.” Cet article se base sur les opinions adverses des juges Scalia et Breyer dans FCC v. Fox Television Stations Inc. (2009 comme véhicule pour explorer le rapport contesté entre la politique et les changements de politiques en droit administratif. Dans Fox, une majorité de cinq juges dirigée par le juge Scalia a insisté que l’abandon d’une ancienne politique par une agence en faveur d’une nouvelle politique devrait survivre à un examen pour juger si elle est arbitraire en autant que l’agence explique pourquoi sa nouvelle politique est raisonnable. Une autre

  11. Hispanic Business Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coca-Cola USA, Atlanta, GA.

    This is a corporate policy statement of the Hispanic business agenda of Coca Cola USA, and the results of a community survey conducted to inform that agenda. The statement outlines several areas of company policy as they relate to Hispanic Americans. These areas include regional marketing, promotion, and community relations strategies, a…

  12. Academic Capitalism: Politics, Policies, and the Entrepreneurial University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Sheila; Leslie, Larry L.

    Globalization of the political economy, and the attendant reductions in government funding, liaisons with business and industry, and marketing of educational and business services, has been changing the nature of academic labor. The first three chapters discuss the ways in which global political and economic changes have had an impact on higher…

  13. Building Knowledge and Advocacy Agendas for Change in the Arab ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The project will empower vulnerable groups, women, and youth to participate in developing agendas for change through research and policy discussions that will ... Democratic transformations in the Arab world have reignited debate around the need for more inclusive political systems where the rights of different ethnic and ...

  14. Strengthening political leadership and policy innovation through the expansion of collaborative forms of governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torfing, Jacob; Ansell, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    This article explores how political leadership and policy innovation can be enhanced through collaborative governance. The main findings are that while wicked and unruly problems create an urgent need for policy innovation, politicians are badly positioned to initiate, drive and lead...... this innovation. They are either locked into a dependency on policy advice from senior civil servants or locked out of more inclusive policy networks. In either case, they are insulated from fresh ideas and ultimately reduced to ‘policy-takers’ with limited engagement in policy innovation. Collaborative policy...

  15. Do Voters Learn? Evidence that Voters Respond Accurately to Changes in Political Parties’ Policy Positions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Henrik Bech; Slothuus, Rune; Stubager, Rune

    2017-01-01

    A premise of the mass–elite linkage at the heart of representative democracy is that voters notice changes in political parties’ policy positions and update their party perceptions accordingly. However, recent studies question the ability of voters accurately to perceive changes in parties’ posit...... are better able to make meaningful political choices than previous work suggests....

  16. Sustainable Master Planning in Urban Politics and Policy: A Service-Learning Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Shannon

    2008-01-01

    Despite evidence that service-learning projects can have positive effects on students' learning and civic engagement, such projects are not yet widely utilized in political science. This seems to be driven, in part, by the concern that service-learning projects may politicize students. In my Urban Politics and Policy class, I implemented a…

  17. The (Bio)politics of Engagement: Shifts in Singapore's Policy and Public Discourse on Civics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weninger, Csilla; Kho, Ee Moi

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a historical overview of civic educational policy and political discourse in Singapore from 1959 to 2011, focusing on changes in the role attributed to students in the education process. A review of educational programmes and analysis of political speeches reveals that an earlier transmissionist approach that focused on value…

  18. Governing Diversity. Dutch political parties’ preferences on the role of the state in civic integration policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonjour, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    This article analyses political debates about civic integration policies in the Netherlands, so as to identify different conceptions of the role of the state in ensuring social cohesion by governing diversity. Drawing on the literature on party systems, it presents an analysis of political party

  19. WTO judicial Politics and EU Trade Policy: Business Associations as Vessels of Special Interest?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poletti, A.; De Bièvre, D.; Hanegraaff, M.

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the effects of the WTO’s quasi-judicial system of dispute resolution on the politics of trade policy making in the European Union (EU). We argue that this institutional innovation had a systematic transformative effect on EU trade politics, creating pressures for

  20. Public health policy research: making the case for a political science approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Nicole F; Clavier, Carole

    2011-03-01

    The past few years have seen the emergence of claims that the political determinants of health do not get due consideration and a growing demand for better insights into public policy analysis in the health research field. Several public health and health promotion researchers are calling for better training and a stronger research culture in health policy. The development of these studies tends to be more advanced in health promotion than in other areas of public health research, but researchers are still commonly caught in a naïve, idealistic and narrow view of public policy. This article argues that the political science discipline has developed a specific approach to public policy analysis that can help to open up unexplored levers of influence for public health research and practice and that can contribute to a better understanding of public policy as a determinant of health. It describes and critiques the public health model of policy analysis, analyzes political science's specific approach to public policy analysis, and discusses how the politics of research provides opportunities and barriers to the integration of political science's distinctive contributions to policy analysis in health promotion.

  1. Government, politics and health policy: A quantitative analysis of 30 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenbach, Johan P; McKee, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Public health policies are often dependent on political decision-making, but little is known of the impact of different forms of government on countries' health policies. In this exploratory study we studied the association between a wide range of process and outcome indicators of health policy and four groups of political factors (levels of democracy, e.g. voice and accountability; political representation, e.g. voter turnout; distribution of power, e.g. constraints on the executive; and quality of government, e.g. absence of corruption) in contemporary Europe. Data on 15 aspects of government and 18 indicators of health policy as well as on potential confounders were extracted from harmonized international data sources, covering 30 European countries and the years 1990-2010. In a first step, multivariate regression analysis was used to relate cumulative measures of government to indicators of health policy, and in a second step panel regression with country fixed effects was used to relate changes in selected measures of government to changes in indicators of health policy. In multivariate regression analyses, measures of quality of democracy and quality of government had many positive associations with process and outcome indicators of health policy, while measures of distribution of power and political representation had few and inconsistent associations. Associations for quality of democracy were robust against more extensive control for confounding variables, including tests in panel regressions with country fixed effects, but associations for quality of government were not. In this period in Europe, the predominant political influence on health policy has been the rise of levels of democracy in countries in the Central & Eastern part of the region. In contrast to other areas of public policy, health policy does not appear to be strongly influenced by institutional features of democracy determining the distribution of power, nor by aspects of political

  2. Venezuela: Political Conditions and U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Mark P

    2008-01-01

    Under the populist rule of President Hugo Ch vez, first elected in 1998 and most recently reelected to a six-year term in December 2006, Venezuela has undergone enormous political changes, with a new...

  3. Venezuela: Political Conditions and U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Mark P; Olhero, Nelson

    2007-01-01

    Under the populist rule of President Hugo Ch vez, first elected in 1998 and most recently reelected to a six-year term in December 2006, Venezuela has undergone enormous political changes, with a new...

  4. Examining the streams of a retention policy to understand the politics of high-stakes reform.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher P. Brown

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Using John Kingdon's (2003 multiple streams approach to agenda setting, I analyze how key actors within the state of Wisconsin understood the need to construct and implement the state's No Social Promotion statutes to improve students' academic performance. Policymakers within the state focused their standards-based reforms on the issue of improving students' academic performance through increasing accountability. In doing so, they did not see these high-stakes policies as a form of punishment for those who fail, but rather, as a tool to focus the education establishment on improving the academic skills and knowledge of all their students. Thus, the retained student is not the primary concern of the policymaker, but rather, the retained student demonstrates the state's system of accountability works. Raising the question as to whether those who support or oppose high-stakes policies such as these should focus their efforts on the agenda setting process rather than analyzing effects of such policies. I contend that while evaluating a policy's effects is important, education stakeholders must pay attention to all three streams of the agenda setting process as they promote particular reforms to improve students' academic performance.

  5. O caso da Rede Universitária de Telemedicina: análise da entrada da telessaúde na agenda política brasileira The case of Telemedicine University Network: analysis of telehealth entry in the Brazilian political agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Baptista Silva

    2012-01-01

    the cycle of public policy: the construction of the government agenda and choice of alternative policies. We sought to delineate the composition of Rute and answer constraints which led federal managers from various sectors to recognize the quality of the system as a public health problem and the choice of implementing telehealth programs as one of the alternatives. The cases analyzed showed that in the flux convergence problems with favorable political environment, a window of opportunity opened up for the deployment of telehealth to eventually ascend as an alternative in the political agenda of the government decision. But for this, there is urgent need for digital inclusion in the territory and identify the technologies of information and communication as an innovation for SUS.

  6. Environment protection and energy politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernice, I.

    1993-01-01

    Three aspects make the issue of energy politics and environment protection in the European Community interesting: Questions of competence, international stipulations, and the concrete measures the Community implements or plans in fulfillment of its duty to integrate these two political spheres. At the international level impulses for an environmentally benign energy policy are given by the World Climate Convention, the Agenda 21 passed at the Rio Conference, and by the European Energy Charter and its consequential documents. (orig./HSCH) [de

  7. User satisfaction as a political technology in school policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Palle

    The paper discusses user satisfaction surveys as a policy instrument in education with a focus on local school policy, including the reasons for and the consequences of introducing user surveys in educational policy will be discussed. Empirical examples are drawn mainly from Danish municipalities....

  8. Discourse, ideas and power in global health policy networks: political attention for maternal and child health in the millennium development goal era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Lori

    2016-05-18

    Maternal and child health issues have gained global political attention and resources in the past 10 years, due in part to their prominence on the Millennium Development Goal agenda and the use of evidence-based advocacy by policy networks. This paper identifies key factors for this achievement, and raises questions about prospective challenges for sustaining attention in the transition to the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals, far broader in scope than the Millennium Development Goals. This paper relies on participant observation methods and document analysis to develop a case study of the behaviours of global maternal and child health advocacy networks during 2005-2015. The development of coordinated networks of heterogeneous actors facilitated the rise in attention to maternal and child health during the past 10 years. The strategic use of epidemiological and economic evidence by these networks enabled policy attention and promoted network cohesion. The time-bound opportunity of reaching the 2015 Millennium Development Goals created a window of opportunity for joint action. As the new post-2015 goals emerge, networks seek to sustain attention by repositioning their framing of issues, network structures, and external alliances, including with networks that lay both inside and outside of the health domain. Issues rise on global policy agendas because of how ideas are constructed, portrayed and positioned by actors within given contexts. Policy networks play a critical role by uniting stakeholders to promote persuasive ideas about policy problems and solutions. The behaviours of networks in issue-framing, member-alignment, and strategic outreach can force open windows of opportunity for political attention -- or prevent them from closing.

  9. Wake Up the Nation: Public Libraries, Policy Making, and Political Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Paul T.; Bertot, John Carlo; Gorham, Ursula

    2013-01-01

    Public libraries are heavily affected by political and policy-making processes that shape the funding, activities, and roles of libraries in society, with the explosion of information policy decisions in the past two decades significantly increasing the responsibilities of libraries while also increasing limitations on their activities. Research…

  10. On Welfare and Terror: Social Welfare Policies and Political-Economic Roots of Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoon, Brian

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that social welfare policies may reduce international and domestic terrorism. Social policies likely affect terrorism in offsetting ways but, on balance, should diminish preferences for terrorism by reducing economic insecurity, inequality, poverty, and religious-political extremism. Thus, countries with more generous welfare…

  11. Political Turbulence and Policy Research: The National Commission on Student Financial Assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, Carolyn P.

    1999-01-01

    A study explored constraints experienced by policy researchers working for the National Commission on Student Assistance, founded in 1980 to investigate federal student-aid policy. It analyzed how political changes limited the scope of research questions, influenced reporting of results, and reduced effects of research on policymaking. Findings…

  12. Tobacco control policy development in the European Union: do political factors matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosdriesz, Jizzo R.; Willemsen, Marc C.; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E.

    2015-01-01

    There has been much variation between European countries in the development of tobacco control policy. Not much is known about the factors that shape this variation. This study aimed to assess the role of political factors in tobacco control policy development. We used data from 11 European

  13. Political economy models and agricultural policy formation : empirical applicability and relevance for the CAP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der F.A.

    1997-01-01

    This study explores the relevance and applicability of political economy models for the explanation of agricultural policies. Part I (chapters 4-7) takes a general perspective and evaluates the empirical applicability of voting models and interest group models to agricultural policy

  14. 'Economic' and 'Political' cooperation in various climate policy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamaide, Bertrand

    2003-01-01

    Cooperation in the economic sense considers efficiency issues. Cooperation in the political sense, like the Kyoto Protocol, considers other issues like equity and historical responsibility. The environmental and economic impacts of the Kyoto Protocol and other scenarios are thus examined. The US pullout may then be viewed, among others, as the result of not untying 'economic' and 'political' cooperation; and since the Protocol will be much less effective without the US, it is shown that an external economic stimulus should and may theoretically be found for retaining their participation

  15. Networks of power in digital copyright law and policy political salience, expertise and the legislative process

    CERN Document Server

    Farrand, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    In this book, Benjamin Farrand employs an interdisciplinary approach that combines legal analysis with political theory to explore the development of copyright law in the EU. Farrand utilises Foucault's concept of Networks of Power and Culpepper's Quiet Politics to assess the adoption and enforcement of copyright law in the EU, including the role of industry representative, cross-border licensing, and judicial approaches to territorial restrictions. Focusing in particular on legislative initiatives concerning copyright, digital music and the internet, Networks of Power in Digital Copyright Law and Policy: Political Salience, Expertise and the Legislative Process demonstrates the connection between copyright law and complex network relationships. This book presents an original socio-political theoretical framework for assessing developments in copyright law that will interest researchers and post-graduate students of law and politics, as well as those more particularly concerned with political theory, EU and c...

  16. Government Policies Affecting Forests in Latin America: An Agenda for Discussion

    OpenAIRE

    Jan G. Laarman

    1995-01-01

    This paper identifies policy issues that affect the extent, distribution, and condition of forests in Latin America. Forest management policies are only one element in the framework; policies related to agricultural development and land tenure can have potentially negative consequences for forests. Mineral exploration, hydroelectric reservoirs, highway projects, and urban expansion also have impacts on forest conversion. Finally, macroeconomic policies affect forests through their impact on i...

  17. Politics in education quality policies in Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan MUÑOZ PORTILLO

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the adoption of education policies in Central America and Panama during the 2010 decade in three areas: the increase in education expenditure, curricular reforms and teacher recruitment and evaluation rules. The paper argues that greater foreign direct investment and more international trade are associated with the adoption of these policies. This, in turn, relates to the incentives produced by varieties of capitalism within the region. It is hypothesised that conservative governments under systems with stronger executive powers, have a preference for policy reform in teacher recruitment and evaluation. Historical factors contribute to explain policy change in Costa Rica and the statu quo in Guatemala.

  18. Integrated primary health care in Greece, a missing issue in the current health policy agenda: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Lionis

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over the past years, Greece has undergone several endeavors aimed at modernizing and improving national health care services with a focus on PHC. However, the extent to which integrated primary health care has been achieved is still questioned. Purpose: This paper explores the extent to which integrated primary health care (PHC is an issue in the current agenda of policy makers in Greece, reporting constraints and opportunities and highlighting the need for a policy perspective in developing integrated PHC in this Southern European country. Methods: A systematic review in PubMed/Medline and SCOPUS, along with a hand search in selected Greek biomedical journals was undertaken to identify key papers, reports, editorials or opinion letters relevant to integrated health care. Results: Our systematic review identified 198 papers and 161 out of them were derived from electronic search. Fifty-three papers in total served the scope of this review and are shortly reported. A key finding is that the long-standing dominance of medical perspectives in Greek health policy has been paving the way towards vertical integration, pushing aside any discussions about horizontal or comprehensive integration of care. Conclusion: Establishment of integrated PHC in Greece is still at its infancy, requiring major restructuring of the current national health system, as well as organizational culture changes. Moving towards a new policy-based model would bring this missing issue on the discussion table, facilitating further development.

  19. Green industrial policy. Perspectives of economic and political scienc; Oekologische Industriepolitik. Wirtschafts- und politikwissenschaftliche Perspektiven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, Klaus [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    The necessity and possibilities of, limits to and the specific instruments employed for green industrial policy are a topic of both scientific and political debate. Economists and politicians can draw on rich resources in dealing with these issues. The contributions contained in this volume are the outcome of a workshop held by the German Federal Environment Agency and the Federal Environment Ministry on the topic of ''Green industrial policy'' on 18 April 2008 in Berlin. Economists and politicians were invited to participate in an expert dialog to locate the topic of green industrial policy within the larger discourses of political economics, deliberate on theoretical motives and practical limits to the concept from an economic viewpoint and discuss possible instruments and fields of action. The workshop focussed on questions relating to the necessity of green industrial policy, the framing of political programmes and the implementation of adopted goals into specific measures.

  20. The EU and Climate Change Policy: Law, Politics and Prominence at Different Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad David Damro

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The European Union (EU is a prominent player in the politics of climate change, operating as an authoritative regional actor that influences policy-making at the national and international levels. The EU’s climate change policies are thus subjected to multiple pressures that arise from the domestic politics of its twenty-seven individual member states and the international politics of non-EU states with which it negotiates. Facing these multiple pressures, how and why could such a non-traditional actor develop into a prominent player at different levels of climate change policy-making? This article argues that the EU’s rise to prominence can be understood by tracking a number of historical-legal institutional developments at the domestic and international levels. The article also provides a preliminary investigation of the EU emissions trading scheme, a new institutional mechanism that illustrates the policy pressures arising from different levels.

  1. Iran: Politics, Gulf Security, and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-19

    state-controlled “Workers’ House” umbrella. In 2014, Iran ratified an additional International Labour Organization convention. A bus drivers’ union...Factbook; various press; IMF; Iran Trade Planning Division ; CRS conversations with experts and foreign diplomats. Iran: Politics, Gulf Security, and

  2. Spatial Regulation, Politics of Access and Informal economic Policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to draw attention to the political contestation over space. The city was 'invaded' and 'conquered' by traders who were formerly excluded (Nesvag, 2000, 2001; Tsoeu, 2003). At the same time, attention is drawn to the current attempts by city managers to control and regulate this contested space in an environment of flux.

  3. Political economy of the West: Populism versus policy wonks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, F.

    2017-01-01

    An attempt is made to understand the political upheaval in the West following the Brexit vote, the election of Donald Trump as President of the United States, and the emergence of populist patriotic parties throughout Europe, and why much of the anger is directed at economists and other experts. One

  4. The role of the media in agenda setting: the case of long-term care rebalancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Edward Alan; Nadash, Pamela; Goldstein, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the role of print media in state policy agendas in four states-Connecticut, Minnesota, Oregon, and Utah-in rebalancing long-term care away from institutions toward home- and community-based (HCBS) services. Ordinary least squares regression is used to model states' policy agendas, as measured by the proportion of Medicaid long-term care spending on HCBS expenditures and number of rebalancing bills proposed, from 1999 to 2008. Results reveal a relationship between states' rebalancing agendas and the extent of media coverage, and state economic, political, and programmatic characteristics. Findings suggest that media coverage reflects broader shifts in state-level attitudes toward rebalancing.

  5. Opposition Policy Influence Through Agenda-Setting: The Environment in Denmark, 1993–2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Henrik Bech

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the opposition’s opportunities to influence policy; a topic that has been neglected in existing party-policy research. The idea that is developed is applied to a remarkable policy development on the environment during the Danish right-wing government in the 2000s. Contrary...... opinion, carbon dioxide emissions, and the government’s approval ratings into account, the empirical estimation based on unique quarterly data shows that opposition criticism had a systematic impact on the pro-environmental policy development. The implications for party-policy research are important...

  6. Atomic-powered democracy: Policy against politics in the quest for American nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the relationship of American nuclear energy to democracy. It examines whether the nuclear policy processes have furthered the legitimacy-government accountability and citizen participation-which the democratic institutes are based. Nuclear policy and its institutions have placed severe limitations on democratic practices. Contravened democracy is seen most clearly in the decoupling of policy from politics. Decoupling refers to the weakening of institutional linkages between citizens and government, and to the erosion of the norms that ground liberal democracy. Decoupling is manifested in policy centralization, procedural biases, technical rationality, and the spatial displacement of conflict. Decoupling has normative implications: While federal accountability was limited and citizen participation was shackled, other major groups enjoyed privileged access to policy making. The decoupling of nuclear policy from politics arose within the context of US liberal-democratic capitalism. The federal government pursued its own goals of defense and world leadership. Yet, it was not structurally autonomous from the hegemony of the political-economic context. Economically, the Atomic Energy Act did not permit federal agencies to directly invest in power plant construction, and did not authorize them to commercially generate electricity. Private industry was structurally placed to domesticate the atom. Politically, the liberal-democratic system hampered an unquestioning pursuit of atomic energy. Federal institutions have been forced to heed some of the anti-nuclear concerns. The pervasive influence of the US political economy on nuclear policy has come to transgress democracy. Nuclear power's growth faltered during the 1970s. The political and economic constraints on federal actions have limited the means available to revive a becalmed nuclear industry; this has exerted strong pressure on federal institutions to decouple policy from

  7. Atomic-powered democracy: Policy against politics in the quest for American nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the relationship of American nuclear energy to democracy. It examines whether the nuclear policy processes have furthered the legitimacy-government accountability and citizen participation-which the democratic institutes are based. Nuclear policy and its institutions have placed severe limitations on democratic practices. Contravened democracy is seen most clearly in the decoupling of policy from politics. Decoupling refers to the weakening of institutional linkages between citizens and government, and to the erosion of the norms that ground liberal democracy. Decoupling is manifested in policy centralization, procedural biases, technical rationality, and the spatial displacement of conflict. Decoupling has normative implications: While federal accountability was limited and citizen participation was shackled, other major groups enjoyed privileged access to policy making. The decoupling of nuclear policy from politics arose within the context of US liberal-democratic capitalism. The federal government pursued its own goals of defense and world leadership. Yet, it was not structurally autonomous from the hegemony of the political-economic context. Economically, the Atomic Energy Act did not permit federal agencies to directly invest in power plant construction, and did not authorize them to commercially generate electricity. Private industry was structurally placed to domesticate the atom. Politically, the liberal-democratic system hampered an unquestioning pursuit of atomic energy. Federal institutions have been forced to heed some of the anti-nuclear concerns. The pervasive influence of the US political economy on nuclear policy has come to transgress democracy. Nuclear power's growth faltered during the 1970s. The political and economic constraints on federal actions have limited the means available to revive a becalmed nuclear industry; this has exerted strong pressure on federal institutions to decouple policy from participation

  8. Building Bridges: Linking political leaders and policy experts in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-05-01

    May 1, 2017 ... Building Bridges was conceived as a safe and constructive space for African leaders to foster a systematic and sustained dialogue about critical development issues in Africa. The policy-focused research and outreach program at the University of Cape Town's Graduate School of Development Policy and ...

  9. Building Bridges: Linking political leaders and policy experts in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1 mai 2017 ... Building Bridges was conceived as a safe and constructive space for African leaders to foster a systematic and sustained dialogue about critical development issues in Africa. The policy-focused research and outreach program at the University of Cape Town's Graduate School of Development Policy and ...

  10. Political implications of US nuclear-export-policy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson-Freese, J.S.

    1981-01-01

    There has been a great deal of international debate regarding how effective strict export controls on nuclear-energy supplies are toward a non-proliferation goal. With the Carter Administration, the debate was heightened by a new, more-vigorous US nuclear-export policy, much of which was codified by the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978 (NNPA). Because of the US position in both the international non-proliferation regime and nuclear export market, the NNPA has had far-reaching consequences. The thesis of this paper is that a nuclear-export policy that fails to consider its short-term ramifications, as the NNPA has been accused of, will be self-defeating. If the US wants a viable worldwide nuclear non-proliferation policy, it must first direct its efforts toward building a domestic non-proliferation consensus, and then worldwide, rather than first setting a highly controversial policy and expecting other nations to fall into line. This work provides a comprehensive case study of US nuclear-export policy between the years 1976 to 1980 in support of the thesis. Further, the behavior and impact of the interest groups which seem to shape US nuclear-export policies is examined, and recommendations made regarding the role of groups in nuclear policy-making and implementation. Finally, recommendations are made regarding non-proliferation policy for the future, as it relates to nuclear exports

  11. Caching the carbon: the politics and policy of carbon capture and storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Meadowcroft; Oluf Langhelle (eds.) [Carleton University, Ottawa, ON (Canada). School of Public Policy and Department of Political Science

    2009-07-01

    Contents are 1. The Politics and Policy of Carbon Capture and Storage by James Meadowcroft and Oluf Langhelle; 2. Technology Leader, Policy Laggard: CCS Development for Climate Mitigation in the US Political Context by Jennie C. Stephens; 3. CCS in Australia: From Political Posturing to Policy Potential by Darren Sinclair and Neil Gunningham; 4. CCS in Canada by Mark Jaccard and Jacqueline Sharp; 5. Technology as Political Glue: CCS in Norway by Andreas Tjernshaugen and Oluf Langhelle; 6. Electricity Gap versus Climate Change: Electricity Politics and the Potential Role of CCS in Germany by Barbara Praetorius and Christoph von Stechow; 7. CCS in the UK: Squaring Coal Use with Climate Change? by Ivan Scrase and Jim Watson; 8. CCS in the Netherlands: Glass Half Empty or Half Full? by Philip J. Vergragt; 9. CCS and the European Union: Magic Bullet or Pure Magic? by Dag Harald Claes and Paal Frisvold; 10. CCS in Comparative Perspective by Oluf Langhelle and James Meadowcroft; and 11. The Politics and Policy of CCS: The Uncertain Road Ahead by James Meadowcroft and Oluf Langhelle. Chapter 7 has been indexed separately for the Coal Abstracts database.

  12. Political and institutional influences on the use of evidence in public health policy. A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Liverani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is increasing recognition that the development of evidence-informed health policy is not only a technical problem of knowledge exchange or translation, but also a political challenge. Yet, while political scientists have long considered the nature of political systems, the role of institutional structures, and the political contestation of policy issues as central to understanding policy decisions, these issues remain largely unexplored by scholars of evidence-informed policy making. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of empirical studies that examined the influence of key features of political systems and institutional mechanisms on evidence use, and contextual factors that may contribute to the politicisation of health evidence. Eligible studies were identified through searches of seven health and social sciences databases, websites of relevant organisations, the British Library database, and manual searches of academic journals. Relevant findings were extracted using a uniform data extraction tool and synthesised by narrative review. FINDINGS: 56 studies were selected for inclusion. Relevant political and institutional aspects affecting the use of health evidence included the level of state centralisation and democratisation, the influence of external donors and organisations, the organisation and function of bureaucracies, and the framing of evidence in relation to social norms and values. However, our understanding of such influences remains piecemeal given the limited number of empirical analyses on this subject, the paucity of comparative works, and the limited consideration of political and institutional theory in these studies. CONCLUSIONS: This review highlights the need for a more explicit engagement with the political and institutional factors affecting the use of health evidence in decision-making. A more nuanced understanding of evidence use in health policy making requires both additional empirical studies

  13. Child health and nutrition in Peru within an antipoverty political agenda: a Countdown to 2015 country case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huicho, L.; Segura, E.R.; Huayanay-Espinoza, C.A.; Niño de Guzman, J.; Restrepo-Méndez, M.C.; Tam, Y.; Barros, A.J.D.; Victora, C.G.; Hernández-Peña, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Peru is an upper-middle-income country with wide social and regional disparities. In recent years, sustained multisectoral antipoverty programmes involving governments, political parties, and civil society have included explicit health and nutrition goals and spending increased sharply.

  14. Japan's 2014 General Election: Political Bots, Right-Wing Internet Activism, and Prime Minister Shinzō Abe's Hidden Nationalist Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Fabian; Evert, Stefan; Heinrich, Philipp

    2017-12-01

    In this article, we present results on the identification and behavioral analysis of social bots in a sample of 542,584 Tweets, collected before and after Japan's 2014 general election. Typical forms of bot activity include massive Retweeting and repeated posting of (nearly) the same message, sometimes used in combination. We focus on the second method and present (1) a case study on several patterns of bot activity, (2) methodological considerations on the automatic identification of such patterns and the prerequisite near-duplicate detection, and (3) we give qualitative insights into the purposes behind the usage of social/political bots. We argue that it was in the latency of the semi-public sphere of social media-and not in the visible or manifest public sphere (official campaign platform, mass media)-where Shinzō Abe's hidden nationalist agenda interlocked and overlapped with the one propagated by organizations such as Nippon Kaigi and Internet right-wingers (netto uyo) during the election campaign, the latter potentially forming an enormous online support army of Abe's agenda.

  15. Japan's 2014 General Election: Political Bots, Right-Wing Internet Activism, and Prime Minister Shinzō Abe's Hidden Nationalist Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Fabian; Evert, Stefan; Heinrich, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In this article, we present results on the identification and behavioral analysis of social bots in a sample of 542,584 Tweets, collected before and after Japan's 2014 general election. Typical forms of bot activity include massive Retweeting and repeated posting of (nearly) the same message, sometimes used in combination. We focus on the second method and present (1) a case study on several patterns of bot activity, (2) methodological considerations on the automatic identification of such patterns and the prerequisite near-duplicate detection, and (3) we give qualitative insights into the purposes behind the usage of social/political bots. We argue that it was in the latency of the semi-public sphere of social media—and not in the visible or manifest public sphere (official campaign platform, mass media)—where Shinzō Abe's hidden nationalist agenda interlocked and overlapped with the one propagated by organizations such as Nippon Kaigi and Internet right-wingers (netto uyo) during the election campaign, the latter potentially forming an enormous online support army of Abe's agenda. PMID:29182493

  16. Comparing the Cross-Strait Economic Policies of KMT and DPP, 2008-2016: Implications for the Future Politics of Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Chi-yeung Chiu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses and analyzes the cross-Strait economic policies of the KMT and the DPP in three presidential elections since 2008. The dilemma between the necessity of regional economic integration and the rise of the Taiwanese identity as a result of democratization has led to signs of convergence in terms of cross-Strait economic policies between the two parties in response to international economic environment despite their difference of emphasis and their priorities in facing the global economy. With reference to the implications for the future politics of Taiwan, this study suggested that the growing importance of economic agenda, which bridges the Blue-Green divide, is actually conducive to democratic consolidation in Taiwan. Democratic consolidation has simultaneously reinforced the concept of “stateness” in the development of the Taiwanese identity, which has, in return, challenged the spillover effect of cross-Strait economic relations.

  17. Regulating the Role of PMCs in Shaping Security and Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leander, Anna

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the way PMCs shape security policies and more generally political priorities. Linking up with classical thinking about "civil-military relations", it suggests that preoccupation with security professionals' role in shaping politics is as important when these professionals...... the issue of regulating "civil-PMCs relations" on the agenda is essential....

  18. Food policy and politics. The political economy of the Public Distribution System in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E. Mooij (Jos)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractAbstract This paper discusses the history and political economy of the Public Distribution System (PDS) in India. This food distribution programme, which dates from 1939, is meant to increase food security both at the national and the household level. Since its emergence, it has passed

  19. Policy without politics: the limits of social engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Vicente

    2003-01-01

    The extent of coverage provided by a country's health services is directly related to the level of development of that country's democratic process (and its power relations). The United States is the only developed country whose government does not guarantee access to health care for its citizens. It is also the developed country with the least representative and most insufficient democratic institutions, owing to the constitutional framework of the political system, the privatization of the electoral process, and the enormous power of corporate interests in both the media and the political process. As international experience shows, without a strong labor-based movement willing to be radical in its protests, a universal health care program will never be accepted by the US establishment.

  20. Towards a Demand-Driven Agenda for Place-Based Policies in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla

    This policy study is the second report on the policy implications of the EU funded project Policy Incentives for the Creation of Knowledge – Methods and Evidence (PICK-ME). All contributions in the project related with place-based policy and cluster building are summarized and reviewed (Work......-term viability through the emergence of new and related industries over time. Labor market policies are an important area of research with respect to the study of innovation in clusters and how to create incentives for clusters that combine related types of knowledge. The policy review also showed...... and creating institutions to achieve coordination mechanisms that use principles of market forces and lead firms towards creating the same ends....

  1. The new politics of U.S. health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, J S; Skocpol, T

    1997-04-01

    Following the demise of comprehensive health care reform in 1994, some reformers are seeking comfort in the successful "incremental" strategy for enacting Medicare that emerged out of President Harry Truman's failed campaign for national health insurance in 1948-50. But despite similarities between the Truman and Clinton health security efforts, overall contexts of government and politics are much less hospitable to governmentally funded reforms today than they were after Truman's defeat. Back then, market transformations and political dynamics were both pushing toward expanded access to health services and insurance coverage. Today, by contrast, both push in the opposite direction. The private insurance market is fragmenting, federal budgetary constraints stymie new programs, and the deficit dominates debate over existing programs. Equally important, a stable pro-reform coalition like that of Truman's day has yet to emerge, while a new and fiercely conservative corps of Republicans is championing coherent programmatic alternatives based on antigovernment premises. Although passage of the Kassebaum-Kennedy health insurance reform bill in 1996 unleashed a wave of enthusiasm about incremental health care reform, formidable political, fiscal, and technical obstacles continue to stand in the way of even relatively modest incremental solutions.

  2. Identity politics: implications for gender analysis policy and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erturk, Y

    1997-01-01

    As attention has shifted from a concern for citizenship, equality, and welfare to ideas of empowerment, equity, and governance, the locus of competition over power has rested with "identity politics," a recognition of cultural diversity that claims the legitimate right to produce alternative definitions and symbols of identity in public space. The change in identity formation from universal/national to fractured/tribalizing has implications for gender relations in contexts where patriarchal power controls production and reproduction. Except for feminism, all discourses in the current competition over identity politics are patriarchal. A look at the forces of change that shifted the process of modernization to a process of globalization reveals that, while modernization tends to standardize, globalization embraces the contradictory forces of universalizing and diversifying trends. Issues of identity and inequality were not problematic until the modern and the traditional subsumed each other and, thus, revealed the inherent contradictions of modernization. The diversifying forces that jeopardize the transnationalization of identity into membership in a "human society" include 1) language differences among the working classes, 2) growing global inequalities, and 3) collective memories of antagonistic histories. An analysis of gender based on identity politics can be conducted on a macro-level to understand the reluctance of central governments to initiate certain interventions, competing needs, new contradictions, changing gender roles, and the importance of promoting a global social contract.

  3. Social, state and political society: Reflections on Mental Health Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Laurentino

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to develop a historical, theoretical and critical debate about mental health, as a social policy, resulting from the dialectical relationship between state and civil society. The adopted methodology is qualitative, consisting on a bibliographical and reflexive review, through which it aims to evaluate positions of various authors on the subject. A discussion of the historical development of the Mental Health policy in Brazil was made, emphasizing the presence of various social movements, such as the Workers in Mental Health Movement, the Sanitary Reform Movement, the Psychiatric Reform Movement and the Anti-Asylum Movement. Therefore, it is verified that society has great ability to fight for effective social policies, in order to mitigate the destructive effects of capitalism. It is concluded that, although social policy is incapable of overcoming the social order, it includes significant changes to the recognition and assurance of rights to the people deprived of wealth and power in society.

  4. The politics of ideas in welfare state transformation: Christian Democracy and the reform of family policy in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleckenstein, Timo

    2011-01-01

    The expansion of employment-centered family policies of the Grand Coalition in Germany came with some surprise, as Christian Democrats have traditionally been strongly committed to the male breadwinner model and corresponding family policies. This article investigates why Christian Democrats (though with some inconsistencies) promoted “social-democratic” family policies guided by the adult worker rather than by the male breadwinner model. Illuminating the politics of recent family policy reforms, the electoral rationale for this modernization of family policy, the role of political entrepreneurship, and intraparty political conflicts over the new policy paradigm are discussed.

  5. Tobacco control policy development in the European Union: do political factors matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosdriesz, Jizzo R; Willemsen, Marc C; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E

    2015-04-01

    There has been much variation between European countries in the development of tobacco control policy. Not much is known about the factors that shape this variation. This study aimed to assess the role of political factors in tobacco control policy development. We used data from 11 European countries from 1996 to 2010. Multilevel regression modelling was used to investigate associations between the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS) and indicators of left-wing government and government effectiveness (policy formulation, implementation and enforcement), with control for confounders. An association was found between left-wing government and TCS over the period 1996-2003, but not over the whole period. The association between government effectiveness and TCS was significant and negative over the whole period, but positive between 2001 and 2005. Residual analysis showed that TCS scores from 2002 onwards were higher than expected based on the political factors. Associations varied among the five subscales of the TCS. The results suggest that, on the whole, national political factors have had only a minor influence on the large variations in tobacco control policy development in Europe over the last 15 years. However, there are indications that left-wing governments were important for early adoption of tobacco control policy, and high government effectiveness was important in the phase of adopting innovative policies. However, since 2002, with the advent of international treaties, the influence of national politics has diminished. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  6. Opposition Policy Influence Through Agenda-Setting: The Environment in Denmark, 1993–2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Henrik Bech

    2016-01-01

    to its policy position when it took office in 2001, the right-wing government turned green and adopted a series of green policy initiatives. The vehement and persistent criticism from the left-wing opposition of the government provides an explanation, this article argues. Taking media coverage, public...

  7. Regime change and public policy: the political and macro-economic decision-making of Spanish energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lancaster, T.D.

    1983-01-01

    This dissertation examines the effects of peaceful regime change on public policy-making. Spain's National Energy Plan (PEN) in particular, and energy planning in general, constitute a critical policy issue which permits direct comparison of decision-making across regime change from the Franco dictatorship to the present constitutional monarchy. The research reveals that the nature of the political coalition underlying Spain's regime change accounts of the lack of significant change in policy-making processes in this particular policy issue. This thesis develops a two-pronged argument to explain the absence of significant policy change. The first is based on a general view of the Franco regime's and the democratic system's coalitional support. In each, three major political forces are seen as central: the military, business, and labor. One of these, business, is seen as being pivotal in the regime transition. Business' pivotal position, it is argued, has permitted a defence of a national energy policy beneficial to its economic interests in energy. The argument's second part focuses on the binding constraint on policy outcomes imposed by private interests in state planning and the generally non-binding nature of oppositional party policy proposals and public opinion.

  8. Progress report and preliminary 1981-83 agenda of the United States Radiation Policy Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-09-01

    The U.S. Radiation Policy Council is responsible for coordinating the formulation and implementation of Federal Policy relating to radiation protection. In carrying out this very broad and basic mandate, the RPC has been directed to: Advise on the formulation of broad radiation protection policies; monitor the implementation of Federal policies; Help resolve conflicts in jurisdiction among Federal agencies; Recommend corrective legislation, if needed; ensure effective liaison with the States and the Congress; and Serve as a forum for public participation and comment. The RPC was established by Executive Order Number 12194 in February 1980. The Council was created to coordinate the formulation and implementation of Federal policies relating to radiation protection. This report summarizes the first 7 months the Council has been in operation, its activities, and decisions through September 1980

  9. The WTO Agenda and the Media Agenda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune Saugmann; Skjoldan, Lasse

    ’ (DDA) negotiations. While the DDA was set off in 2001 and was intended to be concluded by the end of 2004, the multilateral negotiations are in the end of 2007 still short of agreement. This thesis conceives of the media agenda as an important factor influencing trade policy formation and trade...... as the ones who should liberalise. When this particular press coverage of the DDA is highly institutionalised, it means that it will be sticky and less prone to change. And because the media agenda is taken to affect the WTO agenda, the actors who are (dis)advantaged from this particular coverage in the press...

  10. The politics of stem cell policy: ballot initiative in Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kant

    2011-01-01

    In of November 2006, Missouri became the first state in the United States to pass a constitutional amendment designed to protect stem cell research in the state when voters approved a citizen-initiated ballot proposal known as Amendment 2. This article examines the juxtaposition of science, religion, politics, and economics surrounding the campaign by the supporters and the opponents of the ballot initiative. The outcome of Amendment 2 was also closely intertwined with the U.S Senate race in Missouri. The article also provides an analysis of the outcome of the ballot initiative through the use of county-level data.

  11. THE POLITICS OF BANKING: GLOBALISATION AND DOMESTIC POLICY CHANGE

    OpenAIRE

    Sukarman, Widigdo

    2015-01-01

    The current article aims to elaborate on the history of bank policy modifications as a response towards economic and financial change, mainly due to globalisation. The centralstatus of banks in the economy causes a need for the government to protect it in many forms that differ from one country to another. Bank policy makers that are closed oresoteric and are short-lived must be opened up to be able to receive long term ideas. The process is also marked intensively with competing interests be...

  12. Health policy--why research it and how: health political science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, Evelyne; Clavier, Carole; Breton, Eric

    2014-09-23

    The establishment of policy is key to the implementation of actions for health. We review the nature of policy and the definition and directions of health policy. In doing so, we explicitly cast a health political science gaze on setting parameters for researching policy change for health. A brief overview of core theories of the policy process for health promotion is presented, and illustrated with empirical evidence. The key arguments are that (a) policy is not an intervention, but drives intervention development and implementation; (b) understanding policy processes and their pertinent theories is pivotal for the potential to influence policy change; (c) those theories and associated empirical work need to recognise the wicked, multi-level, and incremental nature of elements in the process; and, therefore, (d) the public health, health promotion, and education research toolbox should more explicitly embrace health political science insights. The rigorous application of insights from and theories of the policy process will enhance our understanding of not just how, but also why health policy is structured and implemented the way it is.

  13. Developing an agenda for research about policies to improve access to healthy foods in rural communities: a concept mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Donna B; Quinn, Emilee; Sitaker, Marilyn; Ammerman, Alice; Byker, Carmen; Dean, Wesley; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Kolodinsky, Jane; Pinard, Courtney; Pitts, Stephanie B Jilcott; Sharkey, Joseph

    2014-06-12

    Policies that improve access to healthy, affordable foods may improve population health and reduce health disparities. In the United States most food access policy research focuses on urban communities even though residents of rural communities face disproportionately higher risk for nutrition-related chronic diseases compared to residents of urban communities. The purpose of this study was to (1) identify the factors associated with access to healthy, affordable food in rural communities in the United States; and (2) prioritize a meaningful and feasible rural food policy research agenda. This study was conducted by the Rural Food Access Workgroup (RFAWG), a workgroup facilitated by the Nutrition and Obesity Policy Research and Evaluation Network. A national sample of academic and non-academic researchers, public health and cooperative extension practitioners, and other experts who focus on rural food access and economic development was invited to complete a concept mapping process that included brainstorming the factors that are associated with rural food access, sorting and organizing the factors into similar domains, and rating the importance of policies and research to address these factors. As a last step, RFAWG members convened to interpret the data and establish research recommendations. Seventy-five participants in the brainstorming exercise represented the following sectors: non-extension research (n = 27), non-extension program administration (n = 18), "other" (n = 14), policy advocacy (n = 10), and cooperative extension service (n = 6). The brainstorming exercise generated 90 distinct statements about factors associated with rural food access in the United States; these were sorted into 5 clusters. Go Zones were established for the factors that were rated highly as both a priority policy target and a priority for research. The highest ranked policy and research priorities include strategies designed to build economic viability in

  14. Developing an agenda for research about policies to improve access to healthy foods in rural communities: a concept mapping study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Policies that improve access to healthy, affordable foods may improve population health and reduce health disparities. In the United States most food access policy research focuses on urban communities even though residents of rural communities face disproportionately higher risk for nutrition-related chronic diseases compared to residents of urban communities. The purpose of this study was to (1) identify the factors associated with access to healthy, affordable food in rural communities in the United States; and (2) prioritize a meaningful and feasible rural food policy research agenda. Methods This study was conducted by the Rural Food Access Workgroup (RFAWG), a workgroup facilitated by the Nutrition and Obesity Policy Research and Evaluation Network. A national sample of academic and non-academic researchers, public health and cooperative extension practitioners, and other experts who focus on rural food access and economic development was invited to complete a concept mapping process that included brainstorming the factors that are associated with rural food access, sorting and organizing the factors into similar domains, and rating the importance of policies and research to address these factors. As a last step, RFAWG members convened to interpret the data and establish research recommendations. Results Seventy-five participants in the brainstorming exercise represented the following sectors: non-extension research (n = 27), non-extension program administration (n = 18), “other” (n = 14), policy advocacy (n = 10), and cooperative extension service (n = 6). The brainstorming exercise generated 90 distinct statements about factors associated with rural food access in the United States; these were sorted into 5 clusters. Go Zones were established for the factors that were rated highly as both a priority policy target and a priority for research. The highest ranked policy and research priorities include strategies designed to

  15. Same-Sex Marriage and the Assimilationist Dilemma: A Research Agenda on Marriage Equality and the Future of LGBTQ Activism, Politics, Communities, and Identities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Mary

    2018-01-10

    This special issue of the Journal of Homosexuality, examines the impact of the marriage equality movement and the resulting landmark U.S. Supreme Court decision, Obergefell v. Hodges (2015) that legalized same-sex marriage in the U.S., on lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) activism, politics, communities, and identities. The articles in this issue examine the complicated ways in which the discourse used in same-sex marriage court cases is related to heteronormative discursive frames; the lived reality of married same-sex couples and the complex ways in which they think about marriage and heteronormativity; the ways that heteronormativity is racialized, which affects how African Americans perceive the impact of same-sex marriage on their lives; how same-sex marriage has influenced public opinion and the likelihood of anti-gay backlash; and the impact of same-sex marriage on family law. In this article, I draw on the empirical research from these articles to develop a theoretical framework that expands a multi-institutional (MIP) approach to understanding social movements and legal change. I build on and develop three conceptual tools: the assimilationist dilemma, discursive integration and cooptation, and truth regime. I conclude by laying out an agenda for future research on the impact of same-sex marriage on LGBTQ movements, politics, identities, and communities.

  16. Foreign Policy and The Cultural Factor : A Research and Education Agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. P. Ester; Pieter van Nispen tot Pannerden

    2013-01-01

    In this introduction we have outlined the vital importance of the role of culture (i.e.: the cultural factor) in the field of international relations, foreign policy, and diplomacy and the professional need for cultural competence among its practitioners.

  17. 'Man Up': the importance and strategy for placing male reproductive health centre stage in the political and research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, Christopher L R; De Jonge, Christopher J; Sharpe, Richard M

    2018-04-01

    Approximately 1 in 20 young men today have sperm counts low enough to impair fertility, whereas this may not have been the case historically. The cause(s) of such a decline in male reproductive health is unknown, despite it being a global health issue. Concomitantly, little progress has been made in answering fundamental questions in andrology or in developing new diagnostic tools or alternative management strategies to ICSI in infertile men. We advocate formulation of a detailed roadmap for male reproductive health to facilitate development of a research agenda that highlights the present unmet needs and key unanswered questions, and seeks to deliver effective funding and investment to address them. This vision we term 'a Male Reproductive Health Ecosystem'.

  18. ESD: Power, Politics, and Policy: "Tragic Optimism" from Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Gaudiano, Edgar J.

    2016-01-01

    In light of the challenging developmental issues confronting the countries of Latin America, this response article analyzes the power and resistance of education for sustainable development from both theoretical and policy perspectives. Of particular concern are the neo-productivist strategies driving the latest stage of capitalist development.…

  19. Towards a Demand-Driven Agenda for Place-Based Policies in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla

    -term viability through the emergence of new and related industries over time. Labor market policies are an important area of research with respect to the study of innovation in clusters and how to create incentives for clusters that combine related types of knowledge. The policy review also showed...... and creating institutions to achieve coordination mechanisms that use principles of market forces and lead firms towards creating the same ends....

  20. Moving an Evidence-Based Policy Agenda Forward: Leadership Tips From the Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Teresa

    2018-05-01

    Advancing evidence-based policy change is a leadership challenge that nurses should embrace. Key tips to ensure that evidence-based policy changes are successful at the individual, community, and population levels are offered to help nurses through the change process. The public trust in the nursing profession is a leverage point that should be used to advance the use of evidence, expedite change, and improve health for students and across communities.

  1. Beyond the usual suspects: using political science to enhance public health policy making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fafard, Patrick

    2015-11-01

    That public health policy and practice should be evidence based is a seemingly uncontroversial claim. Yet governments and citizens routinely reject the best available evidence and prefer policies that reflect other considerations and concerns. The most common explanations of this paradox emphasise scientific disagreement, the power of 'politics', or the belief that scientists and policymakers live in two separate communities that do not communicate. However, another explanation may lie in the limits of the very notion of evidence-based policy making. In fact, the social science discipline of political science offers a rich body of theory and empirical evidence to explain the apparent gap between evidence and policy. This essay introduces this literature with a particular emphasis on a recent book by Katherine Smith, Beyond evidence-based policy in public health: the interplay of ideas. As the title suggests, Smith argues that what matters for public health policy is less scientific evidence and much more a more complex set of ideas. Based on detailed case studies of UK tobacco and health inequality policy, Smith offers a richly textured alternative account of what matters for policy making. This excellent book is part of a small but growing body of political science research on public health policy that draws on contemporary theories of policy change and governance more generally. This essay provides a window on this research, describes some examples, but emphasises that public health scholars and practitioners too often retain a narrow if not naive view of the policy-making process. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. The Evaluation of Public Policies from the Perspective of the Agenda 21 of Culture: a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Aracely Mendívil-Portillo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available . This research shows the results of the implementation of a public cultural policy at the municipal level and has as a main objective to evaluate, from the perspective of the agenda 21 of culture, the program "Art for social development" by the Municipal Institute of Art and Culture developed in a secondary-level boarding school located at the Topolobampo community, in the municipality of Ahome, Mexico. A QUAN-QUAL methodology was used with instruments like questionnaires applied to the young participants and interviews with the workshop facilitators and administrative staff. Guitar, painting and theatre workshops were given, through which the development of new artistic expression skills was achieved, as well as contributing to the strengthening of social behaviors such as tolerance, patience and interpersonal communication, among others. It was found the constant need of having permanent programs of integral training, both in the field of artistic training and socio-emotional, giving priority to groups at risk, such as students of the boarding school that mostly come from families of scarce resources, some of the low performance academic and aggressive behavior. The conclusion is that public policies are required to promote greater articulation of education and culture in order to have a stronger impact on the social and cultural inclusion of young people.

  3. What Should Guide Health Policy? A Perspective Beyond Politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirch, Darrell G; Ast, Cori

    2017-09-01

    As the U.S. electorate has become increasingly polarized, these divisions are poised to shape legislative and regulatory work in the years ahead. For those whose focus is on the public goods of health care for all, the advancement of science through rigorous research, and the contribution of higher education to the continual improvement of the nation's workforce, there is profound uncertainty about the future. There are several pressing questions facing the nation and academic medicine, including the future of affordable, accessible insurance; acceptance of scientific evidence; sustainable learning and teaching methodologies; and the well-being and preparation of the nation's health workforce to care for an increasingly diverse nation. For those in academic medicine and policy making alike, the authors propose a framework, grounded in scientific evidence and guided by clinical ethics, for designing and evaluating health policy solutions for these and other pressing questions.

  4. Political Influence on Japanese Nuclear and Security Policy: New Forces Face Large Obstacles

    OpenAIRE

    Tatsumi, Yuki; Weiner, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Japan’s nuclear weapons policy has long enjoyed a stable, if somewhat internally inconsistent, equilibrium. Anti-proliferation efforts co-exist with reliance upon the United States’ nuclear deterrent, alongside dependence on a nuclear energy program robust enough to potentially support nuclear weapons capability. These policies have been promoted and maintained by Japan’s bureaucracy rather than by political bargains, with their bureaucratic proponents separately stovepipe...

  5. Child health and nutrition in Peru within an antipoverty political agenda: a Countdown to 2015 country case study

    OpenAIRE

    Huicho, L.; Segura, E.R.; Huayanay-Espinoza, C.A.; Niño de Guzman, J.; Restrepo-Méndez, M.C.; Tam, Y.; Barros, A.J.D.; Victora, C.G.; Hernández-Peña, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Peru is an upper-middle-income country with wide social and regional disparities. In recent years, sustained multisectoral antipoverty programmes involving governments, political parties, and civil society have included explicit health and nutrition goals and spending increased sharply. We did a country case study with the aim of documenting Peru's progress in reproductive, maternal, neonatal, and child health from 2000–13, and explored the potential determinants. Methods We examin...

  6. Convergence, Creative Industries and Civil Society Towards a New Agenda for Cultural Policy and Cultural Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Mercer

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article I start with a personal experience "cameo" from 1996 in Australia and extrapolate from that some issues that remain relevant in the sometimes trou-bled relationship between cultural studies and cultural policy. These are encapsu-lated in the three "cs" of convergence, creative industries and civil society which provide a new context for both new research and new policy settings. The argu-ment is developed and situated in historical terms by examining the "cultural technologies", especially the newspaper, and subsequently print media in the 19th century, electronic media in the 20th century and digital media in the 21st century which provide the content, the technologies and the rituals for "imagining" our sense of place and belonging. This is then linked to ways of understanding culture and cultural technologies in the context of governmentality and the emergence of culture as a strategic object of policy with the aim of citizen- and population for-mation and management. This argument is then linked to four contemporary "testbeds" - cultural mapping and planning, cultural statistics and indicators, cul-tural citizenship and identity, and research of and for cultural policy - and priori-ties for cultural policy where cultural studies work has been extremely enabling and productive. The article concludes with an argument, derived from the early 20th century work of Patrick Geddes of the necessity of linking, researching, un-derstanding and operationalising the three key elements and disciplines of Folk (anthropology, Work (economics, and Place (geography in order to properly situate cultural policy, mapping and planning and their relationship to cultural studies and other disciplines.

  7. Emotion regulation as the foundation of political attitudes: does reappraisal decrease support for conservative policies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jooa Julia Lee

    Full Text Available Cognitive scientists, behavior geneticists, and political scientists have identified several ways in which emotions influence political attitudes, and psychologists have shown that emotion regulation can have an important causal effect on physiology, cognition, and subjective experience. However, no work to date explores the possibility that emotion regulation may shape political ideology and attitudes toward policies. Here, we conduct four studies that investigate the role of a particular emotion regulation strategy--reappraisal in particular. Two observational studies show that individual differences in emotion regulation styles predict variation in political orientations and support for conservative policies. In the third study, we experimentally induce disgust as the target emotion to be regulated and show that use of reappraisal reduces the experience of disgust, thereby decreasing moral concerns associated with conservatism. In the final experimental study, we show that use of reappraisal successfully attenuates the relationship between trait-level disgust sensitivity and support for conservative policies. Our findings provide the first evidence of a critical link between emotion regulation and political attitudes.

  8. Emotion regulation as the foundation of political attitudes: does reappraisal decrease support for conservative policies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jooa Julia; Sohn, Yunkyu; Fowler, James H

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive scientists, behavior geneticists, and political scientists have identified several ways in which emotions influence political attitudes, and psychologists have shown that emotion regulation can have an important causal effect on physiology, cognition, and subjective experience. However, no work to date explores the possibility that emotion regulation may shape political ideology and attitudes toward policies. Here, we conduct four studies that investigate the role of a particular emotion regulation strategy--reappraisal in particular. Two observational studies show that individual differences in emotion regulation styles predict variation in political orientations and support for conservative policies. In the third study, we experimentally induce disgust as the target emotion to be regulated and show that use of reappraisal reduces the experience of disgust, thereby decreasing moral concerns associated with conservatism. In the final experimental study, we show that use of reappraisal successfully attenuates the relationship between trait-level disgust sensitivity and support for conservative policies. Our findings provide the first evidence of a critical link between emotion regulation and political attitudes.

  9. Politics or profits? Gazprom, the Kremlin, and Russian energy policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinn, Eric S.

    This paper adds to the ongoing discussion of Gazprom's role in Russia by placing the debate around Gazprom within the broader contexts of both the increasing prevalence of national oil companies in the world and the changing natural gas landscape. It assesses how the interplay between politics and profits has affected the way Gazprom can adapt to a rapidly changing world natural gas environment and how both the Kremlin and Gazprom are adjusting---or failing to adjust---their strategies accordingly. It concludes that Gazprom and the Kremlin are both adjusting to changes in the world natural gas environment, but they are doing so in their own ways, but given the affects the actions of one has on the other, the pace of adaptation is slower than what we might see with an entirely independent firm. The paper begins with a discussion of the tradeoffs inherent in Gazprom's relationship with the Kremlin. It identifies various factors at work politically that prevent Gazprom from profiting in the domestic economy. Primary among these factors are entrenched rent-seeking interests and philosophies about natural resources, as well as geopolitical interests. The paper identifies the 2006 and 2009 gas disputes with Ukraine as evidence of Kremlin interference in Gazprom's commercial activities and concrete examples of the boundaries between these two entities as well as the seeming blurring of these boundaries. The paper then moves into a discussion of increased volatility and risk in Gazprom's primary export market, Europe. The systemic context of a discussion of Gazprom today must include factors such as increased supply options for Europe that make natural gas a more fungible commodity than in the past and new legislation aimed at promoting energy independence via the development of a competitive natural gas market. This new context threatens Gazprom's ability to mitigate price risk in its export market, which in turn makes providing for the domestic market through gas rents

  10. Colombia - The Quality of Education in Colombia : An Analysis and Options for a Policy Agenda

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of this report is to analyze student learning in Colombia in order to foster policies to improve education quality that are grounded in research and the Colombian context. In 2006, Colombia participated for the first time in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), which provides an imp...

  11. India’s Foreign Policy Energy Agenda in the Central Asia (2000-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V V Shikin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses Indian energy policy goals in Central Asia and factors affecting their implementation at the present stage. It also touches upon Delhi’s diplomatic means of pursuing its energy interests. The author pays special attention to the problem of hydrocarbons transit from Central Asia to India.

  12. Social Protection as Development Policy: A New International Agenda for Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François-Xavier Merrien

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available At the turn of the millennium, social protection became a new priority for both states of the global South and international development policy more generally. As, in the past, social protection policies were considered unsuitable for development countries, the elevation of social protection to the level of a preferred instrument of development marks a fundamental paradigm shift. This shift began in the late 1990s, driven by disenchantment with the results of economic adjustment programmes, the 1997 Asian economic crisis, and a heightened awareness of the negative effects of global poverty. Social protection thus became a preferred instrument of the Millennium Development Goals, while the World Bank promoted social protection as a key component of international poverty reduction strategies (social risk management. The Department for International Development (DfID in the United Kingdom, along with other organisations, promoted a development model centred on the rights of the poor. Successful social protection programmes developed in the Global South – such as Brazilian and South African social pension schemes and conditional cash transfers (CCT established in Mexico and Brazil – were adopted as model programmes at the global level. The purpose of this article is to analyse the emergence of social protection in development policies. From this perspective, it examines the various types of programmes promoted by the international community, with a specific focus on CCT. It concludes with an assessment of the relative appropriateness of social protection policies for developing countries.

  13. Lifelong Learning Policy Agenda in the European Union: A Bi-Level Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panitsides, Eugenia A.; Anastasiadou, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    The Lisbon European Summit in 2000 has been a milestone in reframing education policies to foster a "knowledge economy", whilst amid the challenges of the new decennium Lifelong Learning (LLL) has been propounded as a powerful lever for attaining "sustainable growth". The present article aims to elucidate the development of an…

  14. Higher Education Policy Change in Europe: Academic Research Funding and the Impact Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Andrew; Mintrom, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In the policy period following the Lisbon Strategy of 2000, European governments increasingly regard universities, and the research they produce, as key to enhancing economic performance. With this heightened respect for the value of university-based research, comes an impatience to see returns on the public investments made. We analyze how policy…

  15. On the Relationship of External Quality Assurance and Equity: Can They Converge on National Policy Agendas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michaela

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the findings of exploratory research on the relationship of external quality assurance (EQA) systems and equity policies conducted at the UNESCO Institute for Educational Planning. Authors from Australia, Brazil, India and South Africa were invited to discuss this relationship in the context of their respective higher…

  16. The politics of carbon taxation - how varieties of policy style matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2018-01-01

    that the share of fossil fuels in the energy mix defines the room for such taxes, nor does it point to a strong role for political partisanship. Rather, it is deep-seated patterns of national policy styles with neo-corporatist traits, providing a protective device for the open economies of small countries, which...... condition the introduction of carbon taxes. The associated routines of decision-making offer coordination mechanisms for proactive macroeconomic policies in which carbon taxation can find a place. Parliamentary democracies with proportional representation, as are common in the smaller countries, provide...... access to the government for political parties that pursue carbon taxation. These in turn sensitise larger political parties to climate concerns, as they benefit from institutionalised practices and routines for problem-solving and consensus-seeking. Carbon taxes tend to get more leeway in coordinated...

  17. Contesting Public Monolingualism and Diglossia: Rethinking Political Theory and Language Policy for a Multilingual World

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    In many language policy and political theory discussions, there is an overt skepticism, and at times outright hostility, towards the ongoing maintenance of private and, especially, public multilingualism, particularly when these include/incorporate the languages of linguistic minorities. For linguistic minority individuals, ongoing multilingualism…

  18. Bringing concepts from cognitive linguistics into the analysis of policies and the political

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cienki, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    The articles in this special issue all seek to highlight the ways in which concepts from linguistics can enlighten analyses of policies and the political. In this commentary, I seek to situate some of the central concepts that have been employed in terms of their treatment in cognitive linguistics.

  19. Growing apart : the comparative political economy of income inequality and social policy development in affluent countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thewissen, Stefan Hubert

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades, most OECD countries witnessed a widening of the income distribution. This doctoral thesis collects five studies that provide insight into determinants and political and economic consequences of income inequality and social policy development in affluent countries. The

  20. Do political variables affect fiscal policy adjustment decisions? New empirical evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mierau, Jochen O.; Jong-A-Pin, Richard; de Haan, Jakob

    2007-01-01

    We test eight hypotheses on political factors influencing the likelihood that a fiscal policy adjustment occurs. We employ a panel discrete choice model for 20 OECD countries for the period 1970-2003. Two different definitions of fiscal adjustments are used to capture the differences between rapid

  1. The Law, Policy, and Politics of Formal Hypnosis in the Public Community College Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Steven Mark

    Information from printed sources, legal documents, and interviews with community college administrators formed the basis of an investigation of the legal, policy, and political implications of the use of formal hypnosis as an instructional augmentation in the community college classroom. Study findings included the following: (1) no formal policy…

  2. The social and political lives of zoonotic disease models: narratives, science and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Melissa; Scoones, Ian

    2013-07-01

    Zoonotic diseases currently pose both major health threats and complex scientific and policy challenges, to which modelling is increasingly called to respond. In this article we argue that the challenges are best met by combining multiple models and modelling approaches that elucidate the various epidemiological, ecological and social processes at work. These models should not be understood as neutral science informing policy in a linear manner, but as having social and political lives: social, cultural and political norms and values that shape their development and which they carry and project. We develop and illustrate this argument in relation to the cases of H5N1 avian influenza and Ebola, exploring for each the range of modelling approaches deployed and the ways they have been co-constructed with a particular politics of policy. Addressing the complex, uncertain dynamics of zoonotic disease requires such social and political lives to be made explicit in approaches that aim at triangulation rather than integration, and plural and conditional rather than singular forms of policy advice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Virtual Schools in the U.S. 2015: Politics, Performance, Policy, and Research Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Luis; Shafer, Sheryl Rankin; Barbour, Michael K.; Miron, Gary; Gulosino, Charisse

    2015-01-01

    This 2015 report is third in a series of annual reports on virtual education in the U.S. It is organized in three major sections: Section I examines the policy and political landscape associated with virtual schooling and describes the current state of affairs related to finance and governance, instructional program quality, and teacher quality.…

  4. Political and Institutional Drivers of Social Security Policy in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    S. Ulriksen, Marianne; Plagerson, Sophie

    This paper provides an analysis of political and institutional drivers that shape social policy in South Africa with a specific focus on social security. As elsewhere in the Global South, South Africa has a quite extensive social assistance framework, whereas social insurance is limited...

  5. Ingredients for Good Health Policy-Making: Incorporating Power and Politics into the Mix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusra Shawar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Eggs, flour, sugar, butter, baking soda, milk, and vanilla extract—all ingredients necessary to make a delicious cake. Similarly, good health policy-making can only be successfully pursued and understood by accounting for all of its basic ingredients, including the role of politics and power. Otherwise, the result is simply not good.

  6. Eduard Spranger's Opposition to Higher-Educational Policy in 1933--A Prussian Scholar's Political Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenorth, Heinz-Elmar

    1990-01-01

    Discusses Eduard Spranger's 1933 resignation from the University of Berlin from the internal perspectives of the Ministry of Culture and Spranger himself. Examines how his resignation influenced his subsequent philosophical reflections. Argues Spranger's conflict with university policy resulted in both his political distance from Nazism and a…

  7. Thinking Whimsically: Queering the Study of Educational Policy-Making and Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugg, Catherine A.; Murphy, Jason P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses employing queer theory (QT) and queer legal theory (QLT) for critical policy analysis as applied to education. In doing so, the authors will highlight how both QT and QLT can empower analyses to look beyond the identity politics of a particular time period or space and toward potential reforms in curriculum, pedagogy, and…

  8. The endangered species act: science, policy, and politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Michael J

    2009-04-01

    The Endangered Species Act of 1973 is one of the nation's most significant and most controversial environmental laws. Over three-and-a-half decades, it has profoundly influenced both private and federal agency behavior. As the scope of that influence has come to be recognized, a law that is ostensibly to be guided by science has inevitably become entangled in politics. The generality of many of the law's key provisions has produced continuing uncertainty and conflict over some basic issues. Among these are what species or other taxa are potentially subject to the Act's protections, what the extent of those protections is, and whether the Act's ultimate goal of recovery is one that is being effectively achieved. New challenges face the administrators of this law, including that of incorporating climate change considerations into the decisions made under the Act, and responding to the information made available by recent advances in genetics. This paper provides a brief overview of the Endangered Species Act's history and its key provisions, and a more in-depth look at some of the current and recurrent controversies that have attended its implementation.

  9. EU rural policy reform (1997-1999): between politics and policy learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Jonny Trapp

    2006-01-01

    EU rural development policy is gaining in relative significance as the "second pillar" of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). Its substance - objectives and instruments - is still under development. This article explores the contribution of so-called "policy learning" by the European Commission...... to the 1997-1999 revision of EU rural development policy...

  10. European Parliament Elections of May 2014: Driven by National Politics or EU Policy Making?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Schmitt

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The 2014 European Parliament (EP elections took place in a very particular environment. Economic crisis, bailout packages, and austerity measures were central on the agenda in many Southern countries while open borders and intra-EU migration gained high salience elsewhere in the Union. A strong decline of political trust in European and national institutions was alarming. At the same time, the nomination and campaigning of “Spitzenkandidaten”, lead candidates of EP political groups for European Commission (EC presidency, was meant to establish a new linkage between European Parliament elections and the (selection of the president of the Commission. All of this might have changed the very nature of EP elections as second-order national elections. In this paper, we try to shed light on this by analysing aggregate election results, both at the country-level and at the party-level and compare them with the results of the preceding first-order national election in each EU member country. Our results suggest that the ongoing politicisation of EU politics had little impact on the second-order nature of European Parliament elections.

  11. Anthroposphere theses of social and political ecology (for project of Kazakstan's agenda conception on the 21 century)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilenko, V.N.

    1996-01-01

    The main problems, priorities and principles are considered for environmental safety and sustainable development in Kazakstan under the condition of transition period from standpoint of anthroposphere examination of problems of environment and socio-nature interaction. Complex problems include the common methodical aspects of management and required environmental safety and sustainable development aspects: natural and scientific (theses on bio spheric natural history); scientific and technical (theses on engineering ecology); human (theses of human ecology); social (theses of social, political, legal and economical ecology); theses on environmental safety, environmental management and marketing, and others. (author)

  12. Person-centred medicines optimisation policy in England: an agenda for research on polypharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Janet; Britten, Nicky; Krska, Janet; Reeve, Joanne

    2017-01-01

    Aim To examine how patient perspectives and person-centred care values have been represented in documents on medicines optimisation policy in England. There has been growing support in England for a policy of medicines optimisation as a response to the rise of problematic polypharmacy. Conceptually, medicines optimisation differs from the medicines management model of prescribing in being based around the patient rather than processes and systems. This critical examination of current official and independent policy documents questions how central the patient is in them and whether relevant evidence has been utilised in their development. A documentary analysis of reports on medicines optimisation published by the Royal Pharmaceutical Society (RPS), The King's Fund and National Institute for Health and Social Care Excellence since 2013. The analysis draws on a non-systematic review of research on patient experiences of using medicines. Findings The reports varied in their inclusion of patient perspectives and person-centred care values, and in the extent to which they drew on evidence from research on patients' experiences of polypharmacy and medicines use. In the RPS report, medicines optimisation is represented as being a 'step change' from medicines management, in contrast to the other documents which suggest that it is facilitated by the systems and processes that comprise the latter model. Only The King's Fund report considered evidence from qualitative studies of people's use of medicines. However, these studies are not without their limitations. We suggest five ways in which researchers could improve this evidence base and so inform the development of future policy: by facilitating reviews of existing research; conducting studies of patient experiences of polypharmacy and multimorbidity; evaluating medicines optimisation interventions; making better use of relevant theories, concepts and tools; and improving patient and public involvement in research and in

  13. The politics of drug control in Nigeria: Exclusion, repression and obstacles to policy change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klantschnig, Gernot

    2016-04-01

    International agencies have viewed West Africa as a major player in the global trade in cocaine and heroin and in efforts to control that trade, as there have been reports of escalating arrests of drug smugglers, large-scale drug seizures and 'narco-states' in the subregion. It is claimed that a substantial share of the drugs available in Western markets transit through West Africa today and are increasingly used there as well. Notwithstanding this growing alarm, there is little serious scholarship addressing the issue of drugs and drug policy in West Africa. The article assesses and challenges some of the existing depictions of drugs and drug policy in West Africa through an empirical case study of drug control in Nigeria - one of West Africa's most notorious 'drug hubs' and recently hailed as a policy model by international experts. Based on previously inaccessible government documents, interviews with key officials in Nigeria, as well as ethnographic work at Nigeria's key drug agency, the article provides a unique insight into the politics of drug policy-making and implementation in West Africa. After describing the dominant official narratives of Nigeria's drug control, the article shows how the key political dynamics underlying drug policy remain obscured by these narratives. Nigerian drug policy has been characterised by a highly exclusive policy-making process, repression as the sole means of implementation and a strong bond with international drug agencies. This policy emerged in the 1980s and 1990s and has remained the unchallenged norm until today. The political processes underlying Nigerian drug policy also explain why policy reform has been and will be difficult to accomplish. These domestic political processes have largely been ignored in the existing depictions of drugs in West Africa, as they have mainly focused on externally driven drug threats and foreign policy responses. Most importantly, they have ignored the role played by the state. Rather

  14. Climate policy. The dirt, the country and the world. Part 1. Solo climate policy is damaging symbol politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, P.

    2008-01-01

    This article assumes that the objective of climate policy is to limit climate change. The alternative goal of security of supply was not considered. Some measures can be defended in view of both objectives. This is for example the case with energy saving. It is evident that the climate problem becomes increasingly urgent. If the Netherlands or Europe choose individual climate policy, some 'leakage effects' are unavoidable. Such symbol politics harm the economy, whereas the climate does not benefit. On a national and European scale all means must be put to use to bring global collaboration closer at the shortest possible term. [mk] [nl

  15. Family planning policy in the United States: the converging politics of abortion and contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, Abigail R A; Scott, James G

    2016-05-01

    Following decades of mainstream bipartisan support, contraception has reemerged as a controversial political issue in the United States. At the same time, opposition to abortion has intensified. State legislatures across the country have enacted highly visible policies limiting access to family planning. Perhaps the most striking example occurred in 2011 in Texas, when legislators instituted unprecedented requirements on abortion providers and cut public funding for contraception by two thirds. Yet, despite popular interpretations of this phenomenon as a simple byproduct of increasing partisan divisions, little is understood about the factors underlying such policy shifts. We fit Bayesian ideal-point models to analyze correlation patterns in record-vote data in the Texas House of Representatives in the 2003 and 2011 Legislatures. Both sessions had large Republican majorities and saw the passage of restrictive abortion bills, but they differed markedly with respect to public funding for contraception. We demonstrate that variation in voting on family-planning issues cannot be fully attributed to partisanship in either session. However, the politics of abortion and contraception have converged over time, and - at least for Democrats - the correlation between constituency characteristics and voting behavior on family-planning legislation is markedly higher in 2011 than in 2003. These shifts have been partly driven by legislators from high-poverty, majority Latino districts near the US-Mexico border. Recent dramatic shifts in family-planning policy go beyond simple partisan divisions. As the politics of abortion and contraception have converged, policies that are increasingly hostile to reproductive health and that disproportionately affect low-income minority women have emerged. Recent shifts in family-planning policy restrict women's access to contraception and abortion, yet little research has examined why such shifts are occurring. This paper analyzes factors

  16. Mapping of Policies Shaping the Agenda within Health and Sustainability Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Katrine Dahl; Simovska, Venka

    This paper maps the key international and national policy documents influencing work with health education/promotion and education for sustainable development within primary and lower secondary education in Denmark. This mapping will provide the foundation for further analysis of: - the ways...... in which the concepts of health and sustainability are articulated, with particular focus on stated aims, strategies and competences required for health promotion and sustainable development - the relevance of the above-mentioned conceptualizations for school-based health education/promotion and education...

  17. The politics of Latin American family-planning policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, J L

    1978-07-01

    In population planning in Latin America the programs are as successful as the government's support of family planning. Colombia is one of the few Latin American countries which has actively exhorted its populace to birth control. If the propensity for large families reflects a belief in the economic or social utility of children, instead of machismo, birthrates will fall with expanded social security and economic welfare programs. If birthrates are the result of machismo, new gender models stressing the positive rewards and social esteem to be gained through responsible parenthood would have to be taught to both adults and children. The position profamily planning in most Latin American countries is generally supported by the ministers, technocrats, corporations, businessmen, middle-class women, doctors, mass media, protestant congregations, and working-class women. Family planning is usually opposed by members of the armed forces, Catholic hierarchy, Catholic lay organizations, oligarchy, university students, leftist intellectuals, Marxist insurgents, Indian communities, and peasants. The portion of the total national populations encompassed by the groups composing the core combination, ideological bias, and stability group ranges from 50-60% in Argentina, Uruguay, and Venezuela to 10-20% in Central America, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Paraguay. Most groups are outside the policy-making process.

  18. The environmental and political policies in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, E.P.

    1980-12-01

    Due to the active demographic and industrial growth, the permanent incorporation of new lands to agricultural and cattle industries, the increasing heavy pressure on the renewable natural resources, the demand for new articles and products for human, conford, and the growing needs of water for human, agricultural, industrial and energetic uses, the present situation of Colombia as a developing country points out to the urgent need of a permanent and effective action by the state, that has been delegated to the National Institute of Natural Renewable Resources and the Environment (Instituto Nacional de los Recursos Naturales Renovables y del Ambiente-INDERENA). Accordingly a national environmental policy is being implemented by INDEPENA, based on primary fields of activity such as Environmental Education, a system of environmental information and environmental planning, coupled with the necessary actions for control and protection of natural renewable resources. A dynamic cooperation with the neighbowring Latin American countries would imply a meaningful diminution of possible duplicated efforts that usually are the result of efforts carried on when each country individually attempts to solve problems of a common nature.

  19. Extent and agenda of emission reduction policies in front of climate risks: lessons learned from integrated models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosi, Ph.

    2004-05-01

    After having highlighted the main difficulties met when trying to take decisions on emission reductions (i.e. disequilibrium between short term action and long term dynamics, series of uncertainties, lack of a clear information on threats), this research aims at studying the extent and the agenda of CO 2 emission reduction efforts at a global scale. First, the author explores under various perspectives the relationship between the extent of climate change and the extent of its impacts and modes of analysis of climate policies. Then, he examines how different attitudes towards the climate risk are translated into recommendations for action which are obtained by always more complex models. In order to compare results, simulations are performed, based on optimal control models belonging to the RESPONSE family. Three different options or attitudes are then studied and assessed with RESPONSE: firstly, the uncertainty on impact and damage assessment is still too important to have confidence in present assessments; secondly, while being sceptical on damage assessment, more confidence is given to climate model results, and thirdly, an explicit representation of climate damages is used to introduce rationality issues in the debate on risks

  20. Menace of E-Wastes in Developing Countries: An Agenda for Legal and Policy Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejo Olowu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Undoubtedly, one of the most manifest indices of new age globalisation has been the transboundary movement of toxic and hazardous waste products, principally from developed countries to the developing countries otherwise known as the ‘Third World’. While waste generation is essentially a domestic problem, the issue has assumed global importance as industrialised countries continually seek convenient disposal sites outside their own shores. Despite increasing global, regional, and national legal and policy interventions to curb the menace of toxic and hazardous waste dumping, however, the problem has largely not abated. Against the backdrop of the enormous negative consequences of the transboundary movement of toxic and hazardous waste products in developing countries, and the impunity engendered by this ubiquitous practice, is it not high time that new strategies were evolved for tackling this menace? With the global proliferation of information technology continuing to escalate at an exponential rate, driven largely by the lure of exploiting the globalised info-tech market, this essay accentuates the latent dangers looming in developing countries particularly with regard to electronic wastes. Reflecting on the litany of treaties already adopted in responding to the problem of toxic and hazardous wastes, this essay attempts to highlight alternative policy and strategic initiatives against current trends.

  1. Wind power a victim of policy and politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaureguy-Naudin, M.

    2010-01-01

    -scale wind power in the EU. As wind-power penetration increases, the impact on the whole electrical system is no longer trivial. The paper is organized in three parts: - The first part discusses the value of wind power as a source for electricity generation and presents an overview of wind-power development at the European level. - The second part presents seven case studies in member states Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain and the UK. It will show the difficulty of accommodating large amounts of wind-power energy and the impact on the overall electrical system. - The last part discusses the main political and economic issues arising from the fact that wind-power development obeys national rationales rather than serving a common European objective. (author)

  2. Wind power a victim of policy and politics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaureguy-Naudin, M.

    2010-07-01

    -scale wind power in the EU. As wind-power penetration increases, the impact on the whole electrical system is no longer trivial. The paper is organized in three parts: - The first part discusses the value of wind power as a source for electricity generation and presents an overview of wind-power development at the European level. - The second part presents seven case studies in member states Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain and the UK. It will show the difficulty of accommodating large amounts of wind-power energy and the impact on the overall electrical system. - The last part discusses the main political and economic issues arising from the fact that wind-power development obeys national rationales rather than serving a common European objective. (author)

  3. Globalization, the Strong State and Education Policy: The Politics of Policy in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Leonel

    2016-01-01

    Much of the scholarship around the workings of education policy has focused on the global West and has taken for granted the state's limited abilities in the control of policies as both text and discourse. Drawing upon policy texts from the Singapore Ministry of Education and ethnographic data collected in a Singapore school, this paper explores…

  4. Three decades of policy layering and politically sustainable reform in the European Union's agricultural policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Swinbank, Alan

    2016-01-01

    are introduced by adding new policy instruments or by redesigning existing ones to address new concerns. The limited research on single-stage policy reforms highlights that these may not endure in the postenactment phase when circumstances change. We argue that gradual policy layering may create sustainability...

  5. Republican policies in practical politics : placing contemporary Sinn Féin in a European context

    OpenAIRE

    Doyle, John

    2005-01-01

    Sinn Féin, the party most associated in public discourse with the term “republican” in Ireland, is a party undergoing a process of development. It has been suggested that its recent electoral success would result in Sinn Féin moving to the centre and abandoning the civic republican focus on equality, political participation or activism, and a national political project with a strong internationalist context with which it has identified. However, while aspects of Sinn Féin policy remain fluid ...

  6. Trade Policy and Health: Adding Retrospective Studies to the Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Chantal

    2017-01-01

    Prospective studies of the potential health consequences of trade and investment treaties, such as the Trans-Pacific Partnership, are critical. These studies can make visible to trade policy-makers the potential negative impacts associated to such treaties and can influence the outcomes of such negotiations. However, few researchers have examined retrospectively the consequences of trade agreements. With more than 400 trade agreements and more than 2000 investment treaties currently in force, researchers have a large corpus of agreements to analyse in order to assess not only their potential impacts on health system and population health, but also their actual impacts. This comment suggests some research questions that would benefit from retrospective inquiry. PMID:28812809

  7. Education Policy and School Segregation of Migrant Students in Catalonia: The Politics of Non-Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonal, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    This article shows how the Catalan government has not developed an agenda to tackle school segregation despite the growing number of migrant pupils who arrived over the course of the last decade. Education policy has explicitly disregarded the possibilities of improving the regulatory framework for tackling segregation; it has exercised…

  8. Education policy and school segregation of migrant students in Catalonia: the politics of non-decision-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonal, X.

    2012-01-01

    This article shows how the Catalan government has not developed an agenda to tackle school segregation despite the growing number of migrant pupils who arrived over the course of the last decade. Education policy has explicitly disregarded the possibilities of improving the regulatory framework for

  9. Sector-based political analysis of energy transition: Green shift in the forest policy regime in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergent, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    This article examines energy transition political process from a sector-based approach, through the analysis of recent shift in the French forest policy regime. We demonstrate that, since 2007, energy transition policies have led to a harvesting turn within the French forest policy framework, meaning that priority is given to wood mobilisation, mainly for biomass uses. In addition, our findings suggest that the political authority wielded by the state over forest policy has shifted from forest administrative services to energy agencies and local authorities. Finally, we show that, although implementation of the harvesting turn is a cause of sectoral and inter-sectoral tensions, energy transition challenge also contributes to a process of (re)institutionalisation of mediation relationships among forestry stakeholders and wood-based industries representatives. The article concludes by arguing that sectors should retain relevant institutional frameworks for actors when choosing political arrangements required for implementing energy transition policy. - Highlights: • Implementing energy transition policy potentially challenges sector-based politics. • We propose a policy regime framework and socio-political investigations. • We analyse the political impact of energy transition policy on French forest sector. • Shifts occur in sectoral policy framework, authority, and mediation relationships

  10. Politeness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Bergson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This is the English translation of a speech Bergson made at Lycée Henri-IV on July 30, 1892. This is an interesting text because it anticipates Bergson’s last book, his The Two Sources of Morality and Religion. Like the distinction in The Two Sources between the open and the closed, “Politeness” defines its subject matter in two ways. There is what Bergson calls “manners” and there is true politeness. For Bergson, both kinds of politeness concern equality. Manners or material politeness amount to the ritualized greetings and formalities by means of which we usually define politeness. Unfortunately and like The Two Sources, Bergson attributes this formalized relation to other human beings with primitive and “inferior races.” Nevertheless, Bergson sees in these formalities an attempt, in the name of equality, to ignore other people’s talents and merits so that one can dominate morally superior people. In contrast, true politeness or “spiritual politeness” consists in “intellectual flexibility.” When one meets a person of superior morality, one is flexible in one’s relation to him or her; one abandons the formalities in order to really live her life and think her thoughts. Here we find equality too: “what defines this very polite person is to prefer each of his friends over the others, and to succeed in this way in loving them equally.” After making a comparison to dance, Bergson defines spiritual politeness as “a grace of the mind.” Since both kinds of politeness concern equality, Bergson associates both with justice. However, beyond these two kinds of politeness and justice there is “politeness of the heart,” which concerns charity. In order to indicate politeness of the heart, Bergson describes the kind of person, a sensitive person, who anxiously awaits a word of praise in order to feel good about herself but who also, when she hears a word of reproach, is thrown into sadness. Although Bergson calls the

  11. Health Policy and Management: In Praise of Political Science; Comment on “On Health Policy and Management (HPAM: Mind the Theory-Policy Practice Gap”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Hunter

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Health systems have entered a third era embracing whole systems thinking and posing complex policy and management challenges. Understanding how such systems work and agreeing what needs to be put in place to enable them to undergo effective and sustainable change are more pressing issues than ever for policy-makers. The theory-policy-practice-gap and its four dimensions, as articulated by Chinitz and Rodwin, is acknowledged. It is suggested that insights derived from political science can both enrich our understanding of the gap and suggest what changes are needed to tackle the complex challenges facing health systems.

  12. Health Policy and Management: in praise of political science. Comment on "On Health Policy and Management (HPAM): mind the theory-policy-practice gap".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, David J

    2015-03-12

    Health systems have entered a third era embracing whole systems thinking and posing complex policy and management challenges. Understanding how such systems work and agreeing what needs to be put in place to enable them to undergo effective and sustainable change are more pressing issues than ever for policy-makers. The theory-policy-practice-gap and its four dimensions, as articulated by Chinitz and Rodwin, is acknowledged. It is suggested that insights derived from political science can both enrich our understanding of the gap and suggest what changes are needed to tackle the complex challenges facing health systems. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  13. História, saúde e seus trabalhadores: da agenda internacional às políticas brasileiras History, health and its workers: from the international agenda to the Brazilian policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Pires-Alves

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discute, em perspectiva histórica, as agendas dirigidas para a formação de trabalhadores e para a gestão do trabalho em saúde no Brasil, em especial as suas relações com os programas desenvolvidos pela Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde (OPAS e pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS. Na primeira seção, discute-se o papel da história no campo da saúde coletiva. A priorização do tema do trabalho em saúde na agenda internacional parece apontar para uma potencial renovação das relações entre história e saúde. Na segunda seção, realiza-se um balanço histórico a respeito das agendas da OMS em torno do tema recursos humanos. Na terceira parte, constrói-se balanço similar a respeito das ações da OPAS. Na quarta parte, discute-se - a partir da experiência do Programa de Preparação Estratégica de Pessoal de Saúde (PPREPS - a relação da agenda de trabalho nacional com a internacional em torno do desenvolvimento de recursos humanos, bem como se aponta para um conjunto de respostas adaptadas e soluções originais aos problemas da formação de pessoal de saúde dadas pelos técnicos brasileiros. Ao final, são levantadas algumas questões para discussão sobre a articulação entre história e as agendas de recursos humanos para a saúde discutida ao longo do artigo.This article discusses the agenda for the training and management of the health workforce in Brazil from a historical viewpoint, especially as refers to its relations with the programs in this field developed by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO and by the World Health Organization (WHO. In the first section one discusses the role of history in the field of community health. The priority given to the topic health work in the international agenda seems to point to a potential renewal of the relations between history and health. The second section provides a historical examination of the human resources programs of the WHO. In the third

  14. Power, Order, and the Politics of Social Policy in Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhuysse, Pieter

    2009-01-01

    I discuss the use of power to safeguard political stability by policymakers in four post-communist cases: Hungary and Poland, and Estonia and Latvia. My treatment is in line with traditional path dependency and 'generous' or 'emergency' welfare state interpretations, but adds a more strategic....... Building on Laitin (1998, 2007), Bloom (2008), and others, my two Baltic cases in turn discuss the use of political power along yet another dimension - ethnicity. Recent advances in political economy (Alesina and La Ferera 2005) and social capital theory (Putnam 2007) have documented the manifold negative...... effects of ethno-linguistic heterogeneity on variables such as public good provision, and other forms of social solidarity. Here I point out how the new Baltic elites proactively remodeled the distribution of transition winners and losers along ethnic lines. Power-holders thereby designed public policies...

  15. The dynamics of energy policy in Lebanon when research, politics, and policy fail to intersect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodr, Hiba; Uherova Hasbani, Katarina

    2013-01-01

    This paper is an exploratory study on energy policymaking in Lebanon aiming at investigating the contributing factors to the absence of evidence-informed policy by analyzing the relation between energy-related research and policy. It uses a qualitative approach in which two complementary types of data sources are employed. Data was mainly obtained from in-depth semi-structured interviews conducted with 40 key stakeholders. The data was further enhanced by an extensive review of related documents available in the public domain as well as research-related activities. Data were analyzed using iterative thematic content analysis which findings served to illustrate the theoretical perspectives in the relevant prevailing literature on linking policy and research. This paper suggests that the politicization of energy policy, the nature of the generated evidence and the lack of communication of evidence among policy actors as well as the weak and non-institutionalized links between researchers and policymakers have posed as an obstacle to an effective, efficient and evidence-based policy. There is a dearth of academic studies that have investigated this issue from a policy perspective. The analysis lays the foundation for much needed future studies on the country's energy policy by identifying the participants, mapping out the process and providing policy recommendations. - Highlights: • We study energy policymaking in Lebanon. • We analyze the relation between research and policy. • We identify contributing factors to the absence of evidence-informed policy. • The politicization of policy and nature of research have posed as obstacles. • Evidence of non-institutionalized links between researchers and policymakers

  16. Global Perspectives on Children's Digital Opportunities: An Emerging Research and Policy Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Sonia; Lemish, Dafna; Lim, Sun Sun; Bulger, Monica; Cabello, Patricio; Claro, Magdalena; Cabello-Hutt, Tania; Khalil, Joe; Kumpulainen, Kristiina; Nayar, Usha S; Nayar, Priya; Park, Jonghwi; Tan, Maria Melizza; Prinsloo, Jeanne; Wei, Bu

    2017-11-01

    Diverse international perspectives show that children can benefit greatly from digital opportunities. Despite widespread optimism about the potential of digital technologies, especially for information and education, the research reveals an insufficient evidence base to guide policy and practice across all continents of the world, especially in middle- and low-income countries. Beyond revealing pressing and sizeable gaps in knowledge, this cross-national review also reveals the importance of understanding local values and practices regarding the use of technologies. This leads us to stress that future researchers must take into account local contexts and existing inequalities and must share best practices internationally so that children can navigate the balance between risks and opportunities. This article documents the particular irony that while the world's poorer countries look to research to find ways to increase access and accelerate the fair distribution of digital educational resources, the world's wealthier countries look to research for guidance in managing excessive screen time, heavily commercial content, and technologies that intrude on autonomy and privacy. We conclude by recommending that digital divides should be carefully bridged with contextual sensitivity to avoid exacerbating existing disparities; that the provision of technological resources is complemented by a focus on skills enhancement, for teachers as well as students; that a keen eye is needed to ensure the balance of children's protection and participation rights, with protection now including data abuses as well as safety considerations; and that we forge collaborations among all stakeholders in seeking to enhance children's digital opportunities worldwide. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Child health and nutrition in Peru within an antipoverty political agenda: a Countdown to 2015 country case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huicho, Luis; Segura, Eddy R; Huayanay-Espinoza, Carlos A; de Guzman, Jessica Niño; Restrepo-Méndez, Maria Clara; Tam, Yvonne; Barros, Aluisio J D; Victora, Cesar G

    2016-06-01

    Peru is an upper-middle-income country with wide social and regional disparities. In recent years, sustained multisectoral antipoverty programmes involving governments, political parties, and civil society have included explicit health and nutrition goals and spending increased sharply. We did a country case study with the aim of documenting Peru's progress in reproductive, maternal, neonatal, and child health from 2000-13, and explored the potential determinants. We examined the outcomes of health interventions coverage, under-5 mortality, neonatal mortality, and prevalence of under-5 stunting. We obtained data from interviews with key informants, a literature review of published and unpublished data, national censuses, and governmental reports. We obtained information on social determinants of health, including economic growth, poverty, unmet basic needs, urbanisation, women's education, water supply, fertility rates, and child nutrition from the annual national households surveys and the Peruvian Demographic and Health Surveys. We obtained national mortality data from the Interagency Group for Child Mortality Estimation, and calculated subnational rates from 11 surveys. Analyses were stratified by region, wealth quintiles, and urban or rural residence. We calculated coverage indicators for the years 2000-13, and we used the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) to estimate the effect of changes in intervention coverage and in nutritional status on mortality. From 2000 to 2013, under-5 mortality fell by 58% from 39·8 deaths per 1000 livebirths to 16·7. LiST, which was used to predict the decline in mortality arising from changes in fertility rates, water and sanitation, undernutrition, and coverage of indicators of reproductive, maternal, neonatal, and child health predicted that the under-5 mortality rate would fall from 39·8 to 28·4 per 1000 livebirths, accounting for 49·2% of the reported reduction. Neonatal mortality fell by 51% from 16·2 deaths per 1000 livebirths

  18. Policy, politics, and water management in the Guadalquivir River Basin, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Anjali; Blomquist, William

    2004-08-01

    Among countries with river basin organizations to manage their water resources, Spain's experience is one of the longest. One of the first basin agencies established in Spain was for the Guadalquivir River in the south. A case study of that river basin and its management indicates how basin management is shaped by political economy factors such as the historical path of the agency's evolution, the basin agency's relationships with central government and with regional or local governments, the patterns of water user representation within the agency, and developments in water law and policy external to the basin agency. The case raises questions about whether and how integrated water resources management at the river basin scale is implemented, even in locations where basin agencies already exist. It also suggests that the politics of management at the river basin level will affect the implementation of national water policies intended to promote integrated management.

  19. Barriers to knowledge production, knowledge translation, and urban health policy change: ideological, economic, and political considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, Carles; Chung, Haejoo; Murphy, Kelly; Ng, Edwin

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we consider social forces that affect the processes of both knowledge production and knowledge translation in relation to urban health research. First, we briefly review our conceptual model, derived from a social-conflict framework, to outline how unequal power relations and health inequalities are causally linked. Second, we critically discuss ideological, political, and economic barriers that exist within academia that affect knowledge production related to urban health and health inequalities. Third, we broaden the scope of our analysis to examine how the ideological, political, and economic environment beyond the academy creates barriers to health equity policy making. We conclude with some key questions about the role that knowledge translation can possibly play in light of these constraints on research and policy for urban health.

  20. From Good Governance to Developmental Governance - How Policies, Institutions and Politics Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Laurids Sandager

    2012-01-01

    The present global financial and economic crisis offers an opportunity to rethink the relative roles of state and market as well as of globalisation and national development strategies in the political economy of development. It has become more difficult to argue that globalisation has rendered...... national development strategies and in particular industrial policies superfluous. The crisis also calls for a rethinking of the prevailing standard recipes for development and of the ‘institutional therapy’ that has been driven by the international development establishment. The article seeks to identify...... and outline a heterodox view on how policies, institutions and politics matter for latecomer development, and does that by juxtaposing it with the orthodox view. The central argument of the article is that the orthodox view has serious weaknesses, and that a heterodox approach – developmental governance...

  1. The Politics of Educational Policy Studies: A Preliminary Analysis of Leading Educational Policy Journal Publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Ian

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that the content, analytical approaches and institutional affiliations of authors of articles published in the latest issues of two leading educational policy studies journals provide useful insights into the contested nature of educational policy studies. The paper draws upon a selection of articles published in 2007/08 issues…

  2. Down but Not Out: The National Education Association in Federal Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marianno, Bradley D.

    2018-01-01

    This research provides new evidence on the political activity and policy-setting agenda of the largest national teachers' union during a time of political change. Using a longitudinal dataset comprised of election outcomes and campaign contributions for all candidates for federal office and the National Education Association's (NEA) official…

  3. Higher Educational Policy, Interest Politics and Crisis Management: Facets and Aspects of the Greek Case within the EHEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Nikos E.; Tsakanika, Theofano; Kyridis, Argyris

    2012-01-01

    With this paper we approach the new policy making paradigm for Europe's higher education policy, set with the Bologna Process, given emphasis to the legitimacy deficit of this political venture and the necessity of a crisis management over the implementation phase within national frames. The implementation of the Bologna's policies, using Greece…

  4. Implementing the employability agenda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Donna; Snaith, Holly Grace; Foster, Emma

    2014-01-01

    This article draws on research commissioned by the Higher Education Academy (HEA) and conducted during 2013. It interrogates the ways in which the employability agenda has been fed through to the level of individual politics departments. The project was particularly concerned with establishing...... whether, and how, colleagues in politics and international relations (IR) had taken ownership of student employability at the level of the curriculum. In the article, the key findings of the research are summarised. There is also discussion of the (sometimes troubling) professional implications...... of infusing concern for graduate outcomes within a pedagogic framework that emphasises critical engagement with the underpinning political structures of the labour market....

  5. The Policy Dystopia Model: An Interpretive Analysis of Tobacco Industry Political Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulucanlar, Selda; Fooks, Gary J; Gilmore, Anna B

    2016-09-01

    Tobacco industry interference has been identified as the greatest obstacle to the implementation of evidence-based measures to reduce tobacco use. Understanding and addressing industry interference in public health policy-making is therefore crucial. Existing conceptualisations of corporate political activity (CPA) are embedded in a business perspective and do not attend to CPA's social and public health costs; most have not drawn on the unique resource represented by internal tobacco industry documents. Building on this literature, including systematic reviews, we develop a critically informed conceptual model of tobacco industry political activity. We thematically analysed published papers included in two systematic reviews examining tobacco industry influence on taxation and marketing of tobacco; we included 45 of 46 papers in the former category and 20 of 48 papers in the latter (n = 65). We used a grounded theory approach to build taxonomies of "discursive" (argument-based) and "instrumental" (action-based) industry strategies and from these devised the Policy Dystopia Model, which shows that the industry, working through different constituencies, constructs a metanarrative to argue that proposed policies will lead to a dysfunctional future of policy failure and widely dispersed adverse social and economic consequences. Simultaneously, it uses diverse, interlocking insider and outsider instrumental strategies to disseminate this narrative and enhance its persuasiveness in order to secure its preferred policy outcomes. Limitations are that many papers were historical (some dating back to the 1970s) and focused on high-income regions. The model provides an evidence-based, accessible way of understanding diverse corporate political strategies. It should enable public health actors and officials to preempt these strategies and develop realistic assessments of the industry's claims.

  6. National-Level Wetland Policy Specificity and Goals Vary According to Political and Economic Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peimer, Alex W.; Krzywicka, Adrianna E.; Cohen, Dora B.; Van den Bosch, Kyle; Buxton, Valerie L.; Stevenson, Natalie A.; Matthews, Jeffrey W.

    2017-01-01

    Growing recognition of the importance of wetlands to human and ecosystem well-being has led countries worldwide to implement wetland protection policies. Different countries have taken different approaches to wetland protection by implementing various policies, including territorial exclusion, market-based offsetting, and incentive programs for land users. Our objective was to describe the relationship between components of national-level wetland protection policies and national characteristics, including natural resource, economic, social, and political factors. We compiled data on the wetland policies of all 193 countries recognized by the U.N. and described the relationships among wetland policy goals and wetland protection mechanisms using non-metric multidimensional scaling. The first non-metric multidimensional scaling axis strongly correlated with whether a country had a wetland-specific environmental policy in place. Adoption of a comprehensive, wetland-specific policy was positively associated with degree of democracy and a commitment to establishing protected areas. The second non-metric multidimensional scaling axis defined a continuum of policy goals and mechanisms by which wetlands are protected, with goals to protect wetland ecosystem services on one end of the spectrum and goals to protect biodiversity on the other. Goals for protecting ecosystem services were frequently cited in policy documents of countries with agriculture-based economies, whereas goals associated with wetland biodiversity tended to be associated with tourism-based economies. We argue that the components of a country's wetland policies reflect national-level resource and economic characteristics. Understanding the relationship between the type of wetland policy countries adopt and national-level characteristics is critical for international efforts to protect wetlands.

  7. National-Level Wetland Policy Specificity and Goals Vary According to Political and Economic Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peimer, Alex W; Krzywicka, Adrianna E; Cohen, Dora B; Van den Bosch, Kyle; Buxton, Valerie L; Stevenson, Natalie A; Matthews, Jeffrey W

    2017-01-01

    Growing recognition of the importance of wetlands to human and ecosystem well-being has led countries worldwide to implement wetland protection policies. Different countries have taken different approaches to wetland protection by implementing various policies, including territorial exclusion, market-based offsetting, and incentive programs for land users. Our objective was to describe the relationship between components of national-level wetland protection policies and national characteristics, including natural resource, economic, social, and political factors. We compiled data on the wetland policies of all 193 countries recognized by the U.N. and described the relationships among wetland policy goals and wetland protection mechanisms using non-metric multidimensional scaling. The first non-metric multidimensional scaling axis strongly correlated with whether a country had a wetland-specific environmental policy in place. Adoption of a comprehensive, wetland-specific policy was positively associated with degree of democracy and a commitment to establishing protected areas. The second non-metric multidimensional scaling axis defined a continuum of policy goals and mechanisms by which wetlands are protected, with goals to protect wetland ecosystem services on one end of the spectrum and goals to protect biodiversity on the other. Goals for protecting ecosystem services were frequently cited in policy documents of countries with agriculture-based economies, whereas goals associated with wetland biodiversity tended to be associated with tourism-based economies. We argue that the components of a country's wetland policies reflect national-level resource and economic characteristics. Understanding the relationship between the type of wetland policy countries adopt and national-level characteristics is critical for international efforts to protect wetlands.

  8. Advancing Public Health on the Changing Global Trade and Investment Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thow, Anne Marie; Gleeson, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    Concerns regarding the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) have raised awareness about the negative public health impacts of trade and investment agreements. In the past decade, we have learned much about the implications of trade agreements for public health: reduced equity in access to health services; increased flows of unhealthy commodities; limits on access to medicines; and constrained policy space for health. Getting health on the trade agenda continues to prove challenging, despite some progress in moving towards policy coherence. Recent changes in trade and investment agendas highlight an opportunity for public health researchers and practitioners to engage in highly politicized debates about how future economic policy can protect and support equitable public health outcomes. To fulfil this opportunity, public health attention now needs to turn to strengthening policy coherence between trade and health, and identifying how solutions can be implemented. Key strategies include research agendas that address politics and power, and capacity building for both trade and health officials. PMID:28812819

  9. The Implications of Colombian Drug Industry and Death Squad Political Violence for U.S. Counternarcotics Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    34lOAording to DANE (Departamento Administrativo Nacional Estadistica ), the national statistical agency, nearly 80 percent of the criminal activity in Colombia ...death squad political violence on Colombia , and the consequences for U.S. counternarcotics policy. It was carried out as part of a larger project, Andean...drug trade, pose a grave threat to the political system in Colombia . An analysis of the political violence in Colombia shows that combined the two

  10. Taking power, politics, and policy problems seriously: the limits of knowledge translation for urban health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kelly; Fafard, Patrick

    2012-08-01

    Knowledge translation (KT) is a growing movement in clinical and health services research, aimed to help make research more relevant and to move research into practice and policy. This paper examines the conventional model of policy change presented in KT and assesses its applicability for increasing the impact of urban health research on urban health policy. In general, KT conceptualizes research utilization in terms of the technical implementation of scientific findings, on the part of individual decision-makers who can be "targeted" for a KT intervention, in a context that is absent of political interests. However, complex urban health problems and interventions infrequently resemble this single decision, single decision-maker model posited by KT. In order to clarify the conditions under which urban health research is more likely or not to have an influence on public policy development, we propose to supplement the conventional model with three concepts drawn from the social science: policy stages, policy networks, and a discourse analysis approach for theorizing power in policy-making.

  11. Sustainability, energy policy, climatic change, world food supply. Political and legal challenges of the 21th century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haertel, Ines

    2014-01-01

    The book on sustainability, energy policy, climatic change, world food supply as political challenges in the 21th century includes contributions on the following topics: sustainability and environment, energy and climatic change, agriculture and world food supply.

  12. Political Incongruity between Students' Ideological Identity and Stance on Specific Public Policies in a Predominantly White Southeastern State Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Jeremy T.; Carstens, Brittany A.; Wright, Jennifer M.; Williams, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    The study determined whether or not a predominantly Caucasian sample (N = 187) attending a southeastern state's major public university embraced political policies consistent with their self-identified political ideology. The findings showed that the highest percentage of students identified with a conservative ideology and that a much lower…

  13. The WTO Agenda and the Media Agenda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune Saugmann; Skjoldan, Lasse

    ’ (DDA) negotiations. While the DDA was set off in 2001 and was intended to be concluded by the end of 2004, the multilateral negotiations are in the end of 2007 still short of agreement. This thesis conceives of the media agenda as an important factor influencing trade policy formation and trade...... negotiation in the WTO. Combining elements from agenda-setting and institutional media theory, the study examines which issues and themes have been covered (priming) and from which angles these issue have been covered (framing). In particular, this thesis investigates the degree to which this priming...... or breakthrough and agriculture that dominate the press agendas. C) The most covered issues are in all countries framed with an increasing bias in favour of liberalisation. D) The poor are in all countries framed as the sole victims of a lack of liberalisation, and E) the rich are in all countries framed...

  14. Nuclear politics: Exploring the nexus between citizens movements and public policy in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabusa, K.

    1992-01-01

    This dissertation analyzes the relationship between the grass-roots antinuclear movement and nuclear energy policy in Japan. In particular, it seeks to explain the lack of impact of the grass-roots antinuclear movement on Japanese nuclear energy policymaking. To explain the lack of political pressure exerted, the author focuses on the lack of open-quotes political opportunitiesclose quotes for the movement. Past studies on antinuclear movements and nuclear energy policymaking of the Western countries indicate that such opportunities are provided in the processes of parliamentary politics, bureaucratic rivalries, central-local governmental conflicts, and judicial intervention in the resolution of political conflicts. The author's study argues that closed political opportunity structure of the Japanese political system has separated the grass-roots antinuclear movement from the national nuclear energy policymaking process by imposing constraints on the development and achievement of the movement. The research shows that: (1) the nature of party conflicts (balance of power and idealogy) in the Japanese parliament tends to discourage the representation of antinuclear interests by opposition parties; (2) the government has successfully prevented antinuclear groups from interfering with the licensing and regulatory processes; and (3) the local governments and courts have failed to intervene in the nuclear energy conflict on behalf of antinuclear groups. The closed opportunity structure has also led the movement to stress the mobilization of public opinion rather than manipulation of institutional access to the policymaking process as its strategy. In addition to well-publicized protest activities and mass demonstrations, electoral campaigns and litigation have also become activities primarily designed to appeal to the public, which has so far failed to indicate strong support for the antinuclear movement

  15. The politics of social policy: welfare expansion in Brazil, China, India and South Africa in comparative perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Tillin, Louise; Duckett, Jane

    2017-01-01

    This introductory essay reviews the scholarship on the politics of social policy, and shows the contribution of the special issue to explaining expanded welfare commitments in Brazil, China, India and South Africa in the twenty first century. Much literature on welfare expansion in lower- and middle income contexts views it primarily as a policy corrective to the economic dislocations produced by global economic integration. This special issue focuses on the political factors that are critica...

  16. Politics of policy learning: Evaluating an experiment on free pricing arrangements in Dutch dental care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Martijn; van de Bovenkamp, Hester; de Bont, Antoinette

    2018-01-01

    In Dutch healthcare, new market mechanisms have been introduced on an experimental basis in an attempt to contain costs and improve quality. Informed by a constructivist approach, we demonstrate that such experiments are not neutral testing grounds. Drawing from semi-structured interviews and policy texts, we reconstruct an experiment on free pricing in dental care that turned into a critical example of market failure, influencing developments in other sectors. Our analysis, however, shows that (1) different market logics and (2) different experimental logics were reproduced simultaneously during the course of the experiment. We furthermore reveal how (3) evaluation and political life influenced which logics were reproduced and became taken as the lessons learned. We use these insights to discuss the role of evaluation in learning from policy experimentation and close with four questions that evaluators could ask to better understand what is learned from policy experiments, how, and why. PMID:29568225

  17. Politics of policy learning: Evaluating an experiment on free pricing arrangements in Dutch dental care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Martijn; van de Bovenkamp, Hester; de Bont, Antoinette

    2018-01-01

    In Dutch healthcare, new market mechanisms have been introduced on an experimental basis in an attempt to contain costs and improve quality. Informed by a constructivist approach, we demonstrate that such experiments are not neutral testing grounds. Drawing from semi-structured interviews and policy texts, we reconstruct an experiment on free pricing in dental care that turned into a critical example of market failure, influencing developments in other sectors. Our analysis, however, shows that (1) different market logics and (2) different experimental logics were reproduced simultaneously during the course of the experiment. We furthermore reveal how (3) evaluation and political life influenced which logics were reproduced and became taken as the lessons learned. We use these insights to discuss the role of evaluation in learning from policy experimentation and close with four questions that evaluators could ask to better understand what is learned from policy experiments, how , and why .

  18. Political and Institutional Drivers of Social Security Policy in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    S. Ulriksen, Marianne; Plagerson, Sophie

    This paper provides an analysis of political and institutional drivers that shape social policy in South Africa with a specific focus on social security. As elsewhere in the Global South, South Africa has a quite extensive social assistance framework, whereas social insurance is limited and inade......This paper provides an analysis of political and institutional drivers that shape social policy in South Africa with a specific focus on social security. As elsewhere in the Global South, South Africa has a quite extensive social assistance framework, whereas social insurance is limited...... arrangements, positive research evidence and civil society advocacy and litigation. Moreover, the introduction of a health insurance scheme is relatively more complex (politically, institutionally and technically), compared to expanding an already existing social cash transfer programme. In our analysis, we...... of health insurance, ideological narratives are pitted against each other: the concept of health as a common good against health as a commodity, and market-oriented strategies for delivery against state-centric approaches....

  19. Alcohol control in the news: the politics of media representations of alcohol policy in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawhon, Mary; Herrick, Clare

    2013-10-01

    Media coverage of the "problems" associated with alcohol is widespread in countries of the global North and now, increasingly, in those of the global South. However, despite this mounting ubiquity, there have been very few analyses either of newspaper coverage of alcohol or of media coverage of alcohol policy, especially outside Europe and North America. This article argues that given international concern with the long-term health, economic, social, and developmental consequences of risky drinking in the global South, an exploration of newspaper coverage of nascent alcohol policy in such a context is both timely and valuable. Indeed, such analyses bring to the fore the deeply contextual and contingent nature of alcohol's problematization in politics, policy, and public life. To examine these assertions, we explore the "attention allocation" processes of two South African alcohol control policies--the Western Cape Liquor Bill and the city of Cape Town's liquor bylaws--in two regional English-language newspapers between 2007 and 2011. In so doing, the article highlights the particularities of the political valence of alcohol in the South African context. Furthermore, it also draws out the tensions between alcohol as a source of livelihoods in a context of endemic unemployment and chronic poverty and alcohol as a causal factor in poverty, crime, violence, and social disintegration. In contrast to media coverage of alcohol policy in Europe and North America, this analysis of the South African press suggests that liquor consumption is far less likely to be framed as an express health risk, forcing us to question how preventative policy efforts should best proceed.

  20. Contentious Politics and Participatory Democracy in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Wampler

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7984.2014v13n28p199 Contentious politics helps individuals and groups with limited political voice to place their ideas and interests on the political agenda. Contentious politics were long thought to occur when politically marginalized group had no other means to advance their political agenda. The June 2013 social mobilization in Brazil caught most political observers by surprise, especially given the creation of a large, wide-spread participatory architecture (national conferences, councils, participatory budgeting. The innovative institutions emerging in Brazil created a policy environment in which millions of citizens have regular access to state policymaking bodies. How does the institutionalization of a broader network of participatory institutions make it easier for citizens to engage in contentious politics? In what ways does this institutionalization make it more difficult for some citizens to engage in contentious politics? In what ways has the vast network of participatory institutions been largely irrelevant to how citizens use contentious politics? This article explore how the institutionalization of an extensive participatory democracy system in Brazil alters the incentive structures that encourage citizens to engage in contentious collective action.

  1. The global and domestic politics of health policy in emerging nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Eduardo J; Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, several emerging nations with burgeoning economies and in transition to democracy have pursued health policy innovations. As these nations have integrated into the world economy through bilateral trade and diplomacy, they have also become increasingly exposed to international pressures and norms and focused on more effective, equitable health care systems. There are several lessons learned from the case studies of Brazil, Ghana, India, China, Vietnam, and Thailand in this special issue on the global and domestic politics of health policy in emerging nations. For the countries examined, although sensitive to international preferences, domestic governments preferred to implement policy on their own and at their own pace. During the policy-making and implementation process, international and domestic actors played different roles in health policy making vis-à-vis other reform actors -- at times the state played an intermediary role. In several countries, civil society also played a central role in designing and implementing policy at all levels of government. International institutions also have a number of mechanisms and strategies in their tool box to influence a country's domestic health governance, and they use them, particularly in the context of an uncertain state or internal discordance within the state. Copyright © 2015 by Duke University Press.

  2. The Politics of Healthy Policies: Redesigning health impact assessment to integrate health in public policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P.M. Bekker (Marleen)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractPublic health issues, such as obesity, lung disease from air pollution or mental health complaints from living in an unsafe neighbourhood, are complex, intractable policy problems. The causes are dispersed at the individual and the collective level among different societal

  3. The Anabolic Steroid Control Act of 2004: a study in the political economy of drug policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denham, Bryan E

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the processes by which the Anabolic Steroid Control Act of 2004, an act that added steroid precursors such as androstenedione to the list of Schedule III Controlled Substances in the United States, came to pass in both the House of Representatives and the Senate. Grounded theoretically in political economy, the article addresses, in the abstract, how the interplay of political pressures and economic influences stands to affect the actions of public officials, and how "tougher" drug policies-those touted to be more substantive and efficacious than existing regulations-often fail to effect change. The article concludes with implications for those involved in the regulation of anabolic steroids and steroid precursors.

  4. Can we Plan. The political economy of commercial nuclear energy policy in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.L. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The dissertation is an analysis of the commercial nuclear energy sector's decline in the United States. The research attempts to reconcile the debate between Weberian-institutional and Marxist political theory about the state's inability to successfully plan industrial development in advanced capitalist countries. Synthesizing these views, the central hypothesis guiding the research is that the greater the state's relative autonomy from political and economic constraints in an institutional sense, i.e., the greater its insulation from the contradictions of capitalism and democracy, the greater its planning capacity and the more successful it will be in directing industrial performance. The research examines one industrial sector, commercial nuclear energy, and draws two major comparison. First, the French and US nuclear industries are compared, since the state's relative autonomy is much greater in the former than in the latter. This comparison is developed to identify policy areas where nuclear planning has succeeded in France but failed in America. Four areas are identified: reactor standardization, waste management, reactor safety, and financing. Second, looking particularly at the US, the policy areas are compared to analyze the development of policy and its effects on the sector's performance and to determine the degree to which planning was undermined by the structural constraints characteristic of a state with low relative autonomy

  5. Dublin’s Neoliberal Agenda and the Social Cost of Entrepreneurial Planning

    OpenAIRE

    MacLaran, Andrew; Kelly, Sinéad; Brudell, Paula

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the manner in which a neoliberal political agenda emanating from central government has increasingly infused Irish urban policy and created an entrepreneurial local-authority culture in which urban planning and regeneration policies have been pursued in a highly contentious manner. Specifically, it examines the ways in which the functioning of local-area planning, public-private partnerships in social-housing regeneration and urban gentrification strategies have operated in...

  6. The politics of electric utility regulation: Explaining energy efficiency policy in the states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, John Arthur

    Even with broad societal pressures to alter the regulatory environment in the states with regard to the efficient use of electricity, many states have not made what some conservation advocates believe are adequate reforms for increasing levels of energy efficiency. While some states have comprehensive policies that require electric utilities to engage in integrated resource planning and demand-side management (DSM), along with providing utilities with a regulatory framework that allows for the recovery of energy efficiency program costs and lost revenues, other states have no such policies. The main purpose of this inquiry is twofold: first, it discusses some of the current regulatory issues being explored at the state level in an attempt to determine how states vary in their development and application of energy efficiency regulations; and second, it attempts to explain why the states differ in their development of energy efficiency regulations. The application of the analytical framework developed in this study proves useful for assessing the various elements that affect state regulatory policy development. Organized interests, state political culture, and various state economic variables tend to exert considerable influence over regulatory policy choice. However, other factors such as government institutions, including state legislatures and regulatory agencies, were not without effect. Though the directions of some of the relationships were unexpected, various logistic regression models show that each of the approaches to the study of regulation is useful in explaining the process of developing and adopting innovative energy efficiency policies. In the area of electric utility regulation, and more specifically energy efficiency regulation, this analysis finds that, in general, the likelihood of a state adopting DSM-related lost revenue recovery and/or sharehoider incentives on DSM programs, as well as stringent cost-effectiveness tests, is greater for states

  7. POLITICAL REGIME, COMPETITIVENESS, AND FOREIGN INVESTMENT: AN EVIDENCE OF THE EURO AREAS’ FDI POLICIES TO SOUTHEAST ASIAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Warokka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Theory and previous evidences provide conflicting predictions concerning the growth effects of foreign direct investment (FDI. The mainstream ideas support FDI as an engine of employment, technological progress, productivity improvements, and ultimately economic growth. Because of these significant benefits, attracting FDI has become one of the integral parts of economic development strategies in many countries. There are two schools of thought that hypothesize the FDI determinants: economic factors and political factors. For the latter school of thought, the central questions are directed to determine whether political regime affect country’s trade policy or not. In the advanced industrial countries where labour tends to be scarce, are left political regimes more protectionist than right ones, which represent capital owners? Prior evidence had demonstrated an association between the type of political regimes and trade policies (FDI policies.

  8. Amenagement et politique linguistques: La politique des langues au Benin (Language Management and Language Policy: The Politics of Language in Benin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halaoui, Nazam

    2001-01-01

    Distinguishing between language management and language policy, examines the politics of language in Benin from independence to the present. Describes the politics of language in Dahomey, the early policies of Benin, and the Republican politics of language, arising from the national constitutional convention and striving to address the needs of…

  9. Politics of oil in Venezuela: A decision-making analysis of PDVSA's internationalisation policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena, Cesar E.

    The high degree of international vertical integration achieved by the Venezuelan state oil enterprise, Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. (PDVSA), has placed it among the most important oil multinationals (MNs). The policy of creating downstream outlets through the establishment of foreign direct investments (FDIs) in the form of refinery assets was given the term of 'internationalisation'. By analysing PDVSA's internationalisation policy, the thesis explores the difficulties encountered by a major state-owned enterprise (SOE) from a developing country in its efforts to grow beyond national borders. The study focuses on the impact of democratic bargaining on the process of oil policymaking in Venezuela, stressing the constraints posed by politics on PDVSA's efforts to expand its foreign operations. Specifically, the study examines the intricate policymaking process that shaped the origins and the development of PDVSA's internationalisation policy, underlying the events and factors that influenced each one of its three distinguishable phases: adoption, formulation, and implementation. The tensions between politics and corporate strategy are highlighted at the core of the policymaking process. The study also looks at the relationship between the oil industry and the other two key decision-making centres involved in the oil policymaking process: the executive and Congress. In exploring the ways in which each one of them sought to influence policy outcome, the study attempts to gain insight into the main factors that prompted the tensions among the policy actors involved. Three environments, or pressure-generating centres, constantly exert influence on the oil industry: the oil market, the political context and the government's financial situation. By seeking to determine the industry's response to their pervasive influence on policy formulation and implementation, this research ascertains the extent to which these variables influenced the decision-making process that

  10. Political insights on implementing the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    The author discusses the options available for implementing the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982. The author concludes that the federal and state governments must cooperate because this is a political problem. Two sites must be selected because this gets the Western states supporting the act and provides a backup if problems develop at one site. The author says once 2-4 sites are chosen as finalists, an educational campaign must be done in those states to stress safety. Solving the waste problem will give the nuclear industry a brighter future

  11. Education and Training in Madagascar: Toward a Policy Agenda for Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction. A World Bank Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    Madagascar is a poor, primarily rural country in which three-quarters of the population has subsisted below the poverty line for at least two decades. In view of the important role of education in the government's poverty reduction agenda, this report documents the current status of educational development in Madagascar and the key constraints on…

  12. Political economy of the energy-groundwater nexus in India: exploring issues and assessing policy options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Tushaar; Giordano, Mark; Mukherji, Aditi

    2012-08-01

    Indian agriculture is trapped in a complex nexus of groundwater depletion and energy subsidies. This nexus is the product of past public policy choices that initially offered opportunities to India's small-holder-based irrigation economy but has now generated in its wake myriad economic, social, and environmental distortions. Conventional `getting-the-price-right' solutions to reduce these distortions have consistently been undermined by the invidious political economy that the nexus has created. The historical evolution of the nexus is outlined, the nature and scale of the distortions it has created are explored, and alternative approaches which Indian policy makers can use to limit, if not eliminate, the damaging impacts of the distortions, are analysed.

  13. Politics, policies, pronatalism, and practice: availability and accessibility of abortion and reproductive health services in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarlane, Katrina A; O'Neil, Mary Lou; Tekdemir, Deniz; Çetin, Elvin; Bilgen, Barış; Foster, Angel M

    2016-11-01

    Turkey has maintained liberal contraception and abortion policies since the 1980s. In 2012, the government proposed to restrict abortion; a bill limiting abortion was later drafted but never passed into law. Since the proposed restriction, women have reported difficulty accessing abortion services across Turkey. We aimed to better understand the current availability of abortion and reproductive health services in Istanbul and explore whether access to services has changed since 2012. In 2015, we completed 14 in-depth interviews with women and 11 semi-structured interviews with key informants. We transcribed all interviews and completed content and thematic analyses of the data. Key informants had good knowledge about the political discourse and the current abortion law. In contrast, women were familiar with the political discourse but had mixed information about the current status of abortion and were unsure about the legality of their own abortions. There was consensus that access to services has become more limited in the last five years due to the political climate, thus advocacy to prioritize reproductive health services, and abortion care in particular, in the public health system are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Archives: New Agenda: South African Journal of Social and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 18 of 18 ... Archives: New Agenda: South African Journal of Social and Economic Policy. Journal Home > Archives: New Agenda: South African Journal of Social and Economic Policy. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  15. Concerned scientists, pragmatic politics and Australia's green drought

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Bell

    2006-01-01

    The Wentworth Group of Concerned Scientists formed in Australia in 2002 in response to calls to ‘drought-proof’ the continent. Their model of engagement between science and public policy involves: clear simple science communication, which keeps scientific uncertainty and debate out of public view; pragmatic politics, which works within rather than challenges the dominant political agenda; and a focus on providing solutions rather than describing problems. This model has been successful in ach...

  16. An Agenda for a Reformed Cohesion Policy A place-based approach to meeting European Union challenges and expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrizio Barca

    2008-01-01

    EU regional policy is an investment policy. It supports job creation, competitiveness, economic growth, improved quality of life and sustainable development. These investments support the delivery of the Europe 2020 strategy. The present paper analysis two strategically different options of EU regional policy: place-neutral versus place-based policies for economic development. Our results suggest that in many EU regions the place-neutral policies may no be the best policy response to facing n...

  17. The politics of population policy in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoodfar, H; Assadpour, S

    2000-03-01

    The Islamic Republic of Iran arguably has one of the most successful family planning programs in the developing world. This success is all the more interesting for advocates of population programs because the political leaders of the Islamic regime were once strongly opposed to family planning. Indeed, after gaining power following the 1979 revolution, they were responsible for dismantling Iran's relatively new family planning program and introducing pronatalist policies. This article provides an account of the different phases of the population policy in Iran and examines the diverse elements that led politico-religious leaders to revise their views about fertility control and to participate in creating a workable family planning program. The complex formal and informal strategies that the political experts, the media, the religious authorities, and the government of the Islamic Republic adopted in order to achieve this about-face are described. The analysis is based on data collected by the first author during anthropological field research in 1993-96, by means of informal interviews with officials, with medical personnel, with family planning clients, and with religious leaders.

  18. Public policy analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Knoepfel, Peter

    2011-01-01

    ...-institutionalist schools The relationships between the structuring of a problem and political strategies Variables for the political agenda setting of public problems Actors, resources and insti...

  19. From Global to Local and Vice Versa: On the Importance of the 'Globalization' Agenda in Continental Groundwater Research and Policy-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filimonau, Viachaslau; Barth, Johannes A C

    2016-09-01

    Groundwater is one of the most important environmental resources and its use continuously rises globally for industrial, agricultural, and drinking water supply purposes. Because of its importance, more knowledge about the volume of usable groundwater is necessary to satisfy the global demand. Due to the challenges in quantifying the volume of available global groundwater, studies which aim to assess its magnitude are limited in number. They are further restricted in scope and depth of analysis as, in most cases, they do not explain how the estimates of global groundwater resources have been obtained, what methods have been used to generate the figures and what levels of uncertainty exist. This article reviews the estimates of global groundwater resources. It finds that the level of uncertainty attached to existing numbers often exceeds 100 % and strives to establish the reasons for discrepancy. The outcome of this study outlines the need for a new agenda in water research with a more pronounced focus on groundwater. This new research agenda should aim at enhancing the quality and quantity of data provision on local and regional groundwater stocks and flows. This knowledge enhancement can serve as a basis to improve policy-making on groundwater resources globally. Research-informed policies will facilitate more effective groundwater management practices to ensure a more rapid progress of the global water sector towards the goal of sustainability.

  20. Domestic politics, citizen activism, and U.S. nuclear arms control policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knopf, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    The author seeks to ascertain whether and how citizens' movements concerning nuclear arms control and disarmament affect US arms control policy. The author employs a comparative case study methodology. He examines cases of the Eisenhower and Kennedy Administrations during the period of protest against nuclear testing, and the Reagan Administration during the nuclear weapons freeze campaign and the subsequent campaign for a comprehensive test ban. He hows there are four mechanisms through which public advocacy efforts can influence arms control policy, identifies the conditions under which each can be effective, and details the type of impact each mechanism has. Domestic activism interacts with broader public opinion in a way that creates electoral pressure; with elite-level debates in a way that removes a consensus behind presidential policy or changes the winning coalition in Congress; with bureaucratic politics, by generating ideas that have utility for some agents within the Executive; or with the public diplomacy of foreign governments, especially the Soviet Union. Citizens' movements had an impact on policy in each of the cases studied. The type and extent of impact, and the mechanisms involved in giving activism influence, are different for each case

  1. Governing the Extractive Sector: The Politics of Globalisation and Copper Policy in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jewellord T. Nem Singh

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Chile exhibits an immense continuity in its copper policy and the sector’s reliable output contributes enormously to the tax revenues of the state. Copper in Chile is thus an interesting case because it challenges the presumed failure of neoliberal reforms in Latin America. It does this in a number of different ways. First, the sector is a clear success in terms of its output and contribution to GDP. Second, private capital and foreign direct investment in particular plays a critical role in developing the mining sector. Third, state- owned CODELCO has stood firmly against multinational companies. And fourth, Chile simultaneously exhibits a stability of rules inherited from Pinochet’s neoliberalism; labour relations characterised by conflict and co-optation; and a depoliticised mode of governance marked by copper policy technopols and an indirect link between copper and social policy. This paper argues that the Chilean state under La Concertación government has played an important ‘steering’ role by defusing the various political conflicts, contradictions and tensions in copper policy.

  2. Caught in the middle: the contested politics of HIV/AIDS and health policy in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Jennifer S; Giang, Le Minh; Parker, Richard G; Duong, Le Bach

    2015-02-01

    Drawing on the changing landscape of responses to HIV in Vietnam, this article describes the key players and analyzes the relationships between global players and local interests, including both the omnipresent state and an emerging civil society presence. We discuss the critical importance of timing for policy intervention and the role of health policy in shaping the broader social terrain. The interventions of external actors such as the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) and the Global Fund were instrumental in improving both policies and programs at a critical juncture, when the national responses to the epidemic had been ineffective. At the same time, those global interventions met resistance and led to unintended consequences, both welcome and unwelcome. Furthermore, the looming specter of donor withdrawal and the very gradually emerging national ownership raise many questions about capacity for scale-up and sustainability of the significant achievements to date. Further monitoring and in-depth analysis of the Vietnamese responses to the HIV epidemic in the next few years or so, we contend, have the potential to provide unique insights into the challenges faced by developing countries caught in the complex webs of health politics and policies at both the global and the national levels. Copyright © 2015 by Duke University Press.

  3. Renewable energy action agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2000-01-01

    To assist the long-term development of the renewable energy industry, the Commonwealth Government, in partnership with industry, has developed the Renewable Energy Action Agenda. New Era -New Energy, launched in June 2000 by Minister for Industry, Science and Resources, Senator Nick Minchin, Minister for the Environment and Heritage, Senator Robert Hill, and Greg Bourne, Regional President of BP Amoco, sets an ambitious target for growth and identifies the strategies and actions necessary to achieve it. The objective of the Renewable Energy Action Agenda was to develop a policy framework underpinning growth in a commercially viable and internationally competitive Australian renewable energy industry

  4. Critical Perspective on ASEAN's Security Policy Under ASEAN Political and Security Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irawan Jati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available   Despite economic integration challenges, ASEAN faces greater security challenges. It is obvious to assert that a stable economic development requires a secure regional atmosphere. The most probable threats against ASEAN are ranging from hostile foreign entities infiltration, intra and inter states disputes, radical religious movements, human trafficking, drugs and narcotics smuggling, cybercrimes and environmental disasters. In 2009, ASEAN established the ASEAN Political and Security Community as the umbrella of ASEAN’s political and security initiatives. APSC slots in some significant fora; ASEAN Intergovernmental Commission on Human Rights (AICHR, ASEAN Foreign Ministers Meeting (AMM,  ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF, ASEAN Defense Minister’s Meeting (ADMM, ASEAN Law Ministers Meeting (ALAWMM, and ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Transnational Crimes (AMMTC. The wide array of these forums signify ASEAN efforts to confront double features of security; the traditional and nontraditional or critical security. The traditional security considers state security as the primary object security. While the critical security tends to focus on non-state aspects such as individual human being as its referent object. Even though some argue that APSC has been able to preserve the stability in the region, it still lack of confidence in solving critical issues such as territorial disputes and irregular migrants problems.Therefore, this piece would examine the fundamental questions: How does ASEAN address beyond state security issues in its security policy through APSC? To search for the answer this paper would apply critical security studies approach. Critical security posits that threats are not always for the states but in many cases for the people. Based on the examination of ASEAN security policies, this paper argues that ASEAN’s security policy has touched the non-traditional security issues but showing slow progress on its development and application. 

  5. Democracy – The Real ‘Ghost’ in the Machine of Global Health Policy; Comment on “A Ghost in the Machine? Politics in Global Health Policy”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Harmer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Politics is not the ghost in the machine of global health policy. Conceptually, it makes little sense to argue otherwise, while history is replete with examples of individuals and movements engaging politically in global health policy. Were one looking for ghosts, a more likely candidate would be democracy, which is currently under attack by a new global health technocracy. Civil society movements offer an opportunity to breathe life into a vital, but dying, political component of global health policy.

  6. Problematizations in Health Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Bacchi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article directs attention to the significance, for health promotion advocates, of reflecting on how “problems” are constituted, or brought into existence, as particular sorts of problems, within policies and policy proposals. To this end, it introduces a poststructural analytic strategy called “What’s the Problem Represented to be?” (WPR approach, and contrasts this perspective to the ways in which “problems” are commonly conceptualized in health policy analyses (e.g., “a problem stream,” “wicked problems”. Such a perspective offers a significant rethinking of the conventional emphasis on agenda setting and policy-making processes in considering the meaning of success or failure in health policy initiatives. The starting point is a close analysis of items that are “successful,” in the sense that they make the political agenda, to see how representations of “problems” within selected policies limit what is talked about as possible or desirable, or as impossible and undesirable. This form of analysis thus enables critical reflections on the substantive content of policy initiatives in health policy. The article takes a step back from policy process theories, frameworks, and models to offer reflections at the level of paradigms. Highlighting potential dangers and limitations in positivism, interpretivism, and critical realism, it uses international, Australian, and South Australian examples in health policy to explore what poststructural policy analysis contributes to understanding the broad political influences shaping contemporary modes of rule.

  7. Capacity Development and Strengthening for Energy Policy formulation and implementation of Sustainable Energy Projects in Indonesia CASINDO. Deliverable No. 15. Research agendas of the Indonesian partner universities. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijnker, M. [Eindhoven University of Technology TUE, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2010-09-15

    The overall objective of the CASINDO programme is to establish a self-sustaining and self-developing structure at both the national and regional level to build and strengthen human capacity to enable the provinces of North Sumatra, Yogyakarta, Central Java, West Nusa Tenggara and Papua to formulate sound policies for renewable energy and energy efficiency and to develop and implement sustainable energy projects. This report provides an overview of the status of development of research agendas at the five partner universities. The research agendas consists of a research proposals, purchasing and installation of research equipment, cooperation with industries and conducting the research proposals. Start of the development of the agendas is determining the fields of interest and formulating research projects. Research development is an ongoing process and therefore by the end of 2011 part 2 of this report will be prepared which will present the new developments in the research agendas over the coming year.

  8. "Media, politics and science policy: MS and evidence from the CCSVI Trenches".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullman, Daryl; Zarzeczny, Amy; Picard, André

    2013-02-12

    In 2009, Dr. Paolo Zamboni proposed chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) as a possible cause of multiple sclerosis (MS). Although his theory and the associated treatment ("liberation therapy") received little more than passing interest in the international scientific and medical communities, his ideas became the source of tremendous public and political tension in Canada. The story moved rapidly from mainstream media to social networking sites. CCSVI and liberation therapy swiftly garnered support among patients and triggered remarkable and relentless advocacy efforts. Policy makers have responded in a variety of ways to the public's call for action. We present three different perspectives on this evolving story, that of a health journalist who played a key role in the media coverage of this issue, that of a health law and policy scholar who has closely observed the unfolding public policy developments across the country, and that of a medical ethicist who sits on an expert panel convened by the MS Society of Canada and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research to assess the evidence as it emerges. This story raises important questions about resource allocation and priority setting in scientific research and science policy. The growing power of social media represents a new level of citizen engagement and advocacy, and emphasizes the importance of open debate about the basis on which such policy choices are made. It also highlights the different ways evidence may be understood, valued and utilized by various stakeholders and further emphasizes calls to improve science communication so as to support balanced and informed decision-making.

  9. Developing and implementing global gender policy to reduce HIV and AIDS in low- and middle-income countries: policy makers' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olinyk, Shannon; Gibbs, Andrew; Campbell, Catherine

    2014-09-01

    Gender inequalities have been recognised as central to the HIV epidemic for many years. In response, a range of gender policies have been developed in attempts to mitigate the impact and transform gender relations. However, the effects of these policies have been less than successful. In March 2010 the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) launched the Agenda for accelerated country level action on women, girls, gender equality and HIV (the Agenda), an operational plan on how to integrate women, girls and gender equality into the HIV response. This paper explores the perspectives of those involved in developing and implementing the Agenda to understand its strengths and limitations. In-depth one-on-one interviews were conducted with 16 individuals involved in the development and implementation of the Agenda. The data were analysed using thematic network analysis. Facilitators of the Agenda centred on the Agenda's ability to create political space for women and girls within the global HIV/AIDS response and the collaborative process of developing the Agenda. Barriers to the implementation and development of the Agenda include the limited financial and non-financial resources, the top-down nature of the Agenda's development and implementation and a lack of political will from within UNAIDS to implement it. We suggest that the Agenda achieved many goals, but its effect was constrained by a wide range of factors.

  10. What do human rights bring to discussions of power and politics in health policy and systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Lisa

    2017-12-13

    Scholarly interrogations of power and politics are not endemic to the disciplines primarily tasked with exploring health policy and planning in the domestic or global domains. Scholars in these domains have come late to investigating power, prompted in part by the growing focus in domestic and global health research on the intersections between governance, globalization and health inequities. Recent prominent reports in this area increasingly point to human rights as important norms capable of responding in part to power differentials that sustain and exacerbate health inequities. Yet human rights law is not traditionally incorporated into health policy scholarship or education, despite offering important normative and strategic frameworks for public and global health, with distinctive contributions in relation to identifying and challenging certain forms of power disparity. This paper overviews two of these reports and how they see power functioning to sustain health inequities. It then turns to investigate what human rights and the right to health in particular may offer in addressing and challenging power in the health policy context.

  11. Communicable disease policy development in response to changing European political frontiers in Finland, Norway and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernitz, Brita Kaltenbrunner

    2008-11-01

    The European Union (EU) enlargement of 2004 brings both opportunities and challenges for public health. It is believed that further integration will bring direct health benefits, mainly through improved socioeconomic conditions, but there are also risks associated with the EU expansion, in particular cross-border health risks, such as the impact of the internal EU market policy of free movement and migration on communicable disease patterns. Against this background, this article examines communicable disease policy development in Finland, Norway and Sweden in response to changing European political frontiers, in particular the EU accession of the Baltic States. The emphasis is on HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis. The study is based on a qualitative and quantitative approach, using two complementary methods: documentary analysis and stakeholder analysis. The article identifies a distinct pattern in communicable disease policy development between 1990 and 2005. The turn of the new millennium saw a sharp increase in national attention and the priority assigned to communicable diseases in Finland, Norway and Sweden. The article argues that this development is likely to be related to the rising national, regional and European awareness of the public health challenges associated with communicable diseases in today's borderless Europe. It also shows that the Baltic health situation is a particular concern for Finland. Although there is increasing national and regional activity within the communicable disease area, there is a need for a more effective European approach to tackle the future communicable disease challenges that may follow in an increasingly interdependent and integrated Europe.

  12. No insulation : politics and technocracy's troubled trajectory

    OpenAIRE

    Khoo, Boo Teik

    2010-01-01

    Technocracy often holds out the promise of rational, disinterested decision-making.Yet states look to technocracy not just for expert inputs and calculated outcomes but to embed the exercise of power in many agendas, policies and programs. Thus, technocracy operates as an appendage of politically constructed structures and configurations of power, and highly placed technocrats cannot be 'mere' backroom experts who supply disinterested rational-technical solutions in economic planning, resourc...

  13. The ambition of Health in All Policies in Norway: The role of political leadership and bureaucratic change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstad, Hege

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents and discusses status, challenges and future developments of Health in All Policies (HiAP) in Norway. Within the frames of the identified challenge of creating coordinated and durable policies and practices in local government, it discusses The Norwegian HiAP policy. More specifically, the paper identifies status and challenges for instituting firmer political and administrative attention to population health and health equity across administrative sectors and levels, and discusses how national authorities may stimulate more coordinated and durable HiAP policies and practices in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Management and policy: political strategies and instruments of the risk types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renn, O.; Klinke, A.

    1998-01-01

    The main objective of the risk classification is to gain an effective and feasible policy tool for the evaluation and the management or risks. The characterisation provides a platform for designing specific political strategies and measures for each risk type. The strategies pursue the goal to transform unacceptable into acceptable risks, i.e. the risks should not be reduced to zero, but they should be reduced to a level that routine risk management becomes sufficient to ensure safety and integrity. All strategies and respective measures are arranged according to priorities. In the normal case more than one strategy and more than one measure are naturally appropriate and necessary. If resources are limited, strategies and measures should be taken in line with the priority list. The following part lists the prior strategies and the prior measures recommended for each risk type. (authors)

  15. The policy and politics of the 2015 long-term care reform in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maarse, J A M Hans; Jeurissen, P P Patrick

    2016-03-01

    As of 2015 a major reform in LTC is taking place in the Netherlands. An important objective of the reform is to reign in expenditure growth to safeguard the fiscal sustainability of LTC. Other objectives are to improve the quality of LTC by making it more client-tailored. The reform consists of four interrelated pillars: a normative reorientation, a shift from residential to non-residential care, decentralization of non-residential care and expenditure cuts. The article gives a brief overview of these pillars and their underlying assumptions. Furthermore, attention is paid to the political decision-making process and the politics of implementation and evaluation. Perceptions of the effects of the reform so far widely differ: positive views alternate with critical views. Though the reform is radical in various aspects, LTC care will remain a largely publicly funded provision. A statutory health insurance scheme will remain in place to cover residential care. The role of municipalities in publicly funded non-residential care is significantly upgraded. The final section contains a few policy lessons. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Fake Populism or Real Populism: Pork Barrel Policy as Political Corruption in House of Representative During 2009-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasisto Raharjo Jati

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the practice of pork barrel politics in the level of Indonesia legislature tiers and its political management campaign. Since 2004, electoral democracy already delegate to the common people to chosen their representation directly through general election in the level executive and legislative. Those conditions oblige politician and political parties to approaching the commons in order to obtain their vote and popularize both actors into public. The paradigm of research is a pork barrel politics. This paradigm supports to understand and analyze the corruption symptoms i.e. politico corruption in legislative tier and electoral-corruption in political-campaign which become chronic problems in this country. Result of research has showed populism is pivotal key which triggered up politician and parties to corruption in order to persist their political tenure and funding their political cost in pursue to re-elect again in second office terms. No matter their corruption practice that implicate to budgeting fraud. Both actors take political favor to disguise within social aids following the governmental policy, so that, they hindered from corruption accusation. Finally, this paper wants to recommend legal improvement into our budgeting cycle wherein there are public participation to watch it and moral improvement to politician and parties to reducing their corruption if they wants to become truly populist politician figure into public.

  17. The impact of political institution and structure on health policy making and implementation: Nigeria as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewole, D A

    2015-03-01

    Typical of the political structure of the United States of America, Nigeria operates a federal presidential system of government. Political power is shared between the three levels of Federal, State and the Local Governments. The political affairs of the country at these levels are determined by elected politicians from different political parties, with different political and developmental ideologies. This scenario has implications on policy making and implementation especially in the health sector. This paper sought to discuss the type of political structures and institutions and, the effect of these on health policy implementation in selected countries, with emphasis on Nigeria. CURRENT STATUS OF FINANCING HEALTH CARE: The National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) was launched almost a decade ago but currently covers an estimated four percent of the population, majority of which are in the formal sector. The poor coverage of the scheme in Nigeria has been attributed to the type of political institution and structure it operates. This is evident with examples of some countries in the world; whereas, the scheme in Nigeria was implemented almost at the same time like in neighbouring Ghana, the scheme in Ghana has made a considerable progress. Likewise, prepayment scheme for health in Britain has been in practice for decades, the U.S.A. is just currently making progress in the implementation of a nationwide prepayment scheme despite several years of efforts. It is important to note that Nigeria and the U.S.A. has similar political institution and structure different from what Ghana and Britain have in common. The current low level of coverage of the NHIS in Nigeria is largely due to the type of adopted political institution and structure. The implications of this on the health status of the people and national development cannot be overemphasized.

  18. The composition and impact of stakeholders' agendas on US ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talamini, Edson; Eduardo Caldarelli, Carlos; Wubben, Emiel F.M.; Dewes, Homero

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to identify the macro-environmental dimensions under which journalists, scientists and policy-makers have framed the liquid biofuels in the US over time. The number of publications concerning liquid biofuels from mass media, scientific community and government with ethanol production are correlated, seeking for causality between ethanol production and those stakeholders' agendas. Text-mining techniques were used to explore 2016 mass-media news sources, 455 scientific papers and 854 government documents published between 1997 and 2006. Granger-causality tests were performed to analyse the causality concerning stakeholders' agendas. The results indicate that scientists emphasise environmental, agronomic and technological matters, while journalists are more interested in covering economic, environmental, geopolitical and political issues. Although policies on this subject appear to be more in line with science, the trend analysis indicates that the mass media are gaining prominence amongst policy-makers. The causation analysis suggests that ethanol production and public policy present a bi-directional causality at t-2 time lag. At t-1 time lag, ethanol production precedes the publication of scientific documents, which present a bi-directional causality with public policy on ethanol and precedes the mass-media news. In conclusion, ethanol production precedes the presence of liquid biofuels on the agendas of scientists, journalists and policy-makers. - Highlights: ► Composition and impact of stakeholders' agendas on ethanol production were analysed. ► 3325 documents published between 1997 and 2006 were text mined. ► Government agenda and ethanol production present a bi-directional causality. ► Science has played an advisory role in policy-making. ► Ethanol production precedes the stakeholders' agendas.

  19. How Politics Shapes the Growth of Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Mads Leth Felsager; Mortensen, Peter Bjerre

    2015-01-01

    when, why, and how political factors shape changes in the stock of rules. Furthermore, we test these hypotheses on a unique, new data set based on all Danish primary legislation and administrative rules from 1989 to 2011 categorized into 20 different policy domains. The analysis shows......This article examines the impact of politics on governmental rule production. Traditionally, explanations of rule dynamics have focused on nonpolitical factors such as the self-evolvement of rules, environmental factors, and decision maker attributes. This article develops a set of hypotheses about...... that the traditional Weberian “rules breed rules” explanations must be supplemented with political explanations that take party ideology and changes in the political agenda into account. Moreover, the effect of political factors is indistinguishable across changes in primary laws and changes in administrative rules...

  20. Creativity and Democracy in Education: Practices and Politics of Learning through the Arts. Routledge Research in Education Policy and Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jeff; Owens, Allan

    2015-01-01

    The struggle to establish more democratic education pedagogies has a long history in the politics of mainstream education. This book argues for the significance of the creative arts in the establishment of social justice in education, using examples drawn from a selection of contemporary case studies including Japanese applied drama, Palestinian…

  1. Space, place and (waiting) time: reflections on health policy and politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheard, Sally

    2018-02-19

    Health systems have repeatedly addressed concerns about efficiency and equity by employing trans-national comparisons to draw out the strengths and weaknesses of specific policy initiatives. This paper demonstrates the potential for explicit historical analysis of waiting times for hospital treatment to add value to spatial comparative methodologies. Waiting times and the size of the lists of waiting patients have become key operational indicators. In the United Kingdom, as National Health Service (NHS) financial pressures intensified from the 1970s, waiting times have become a topic for regular public and political debate. Various explanations for waiting times include the following: hospital consultants manipulate NHS waiting lists to maintain their private practice; there is under-investment in the NHS; and available (and adequate) resources are being used inefficiently. Other countries have also experienced ongoing tensions between the public and private delivery of universal health care in which national and trans-national comparisons of waiting times have been regularly used. The paper discusses the development of key UK policies, and provides a limited Canadian comparative perspective, to explore wider issues, including whether 'waiting crises' were consciously used by policymakers, especially those brought into government to implement new economic and managerial strategies, to diminish the autonomy and authority of the medical professional in the hospital environment.

  2. Lost in Translation: State Policies and Micro-politics of Water Governance in Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnegg, Michael

    Water governance in rural Namibia has profoundly changed since the early 1990s. After independence and in accordance with global environmental policies, it became a central theme of Namibia's environmental legislation to transfer the responsibility for managing natural resources to local user associations. In this article, I explore the emergence of new social forms at the intersection of existing cultural models and new rationalities for governance. Doing so combines an analysis of state legislation with the micro-politics of water governance in 60 pastoral communities. The ethnographic analysis reveals that different actors, including state bureaucrats as well as rich and poorer herd owners, have different understandings of how to share water. While the poorer often agree with the state policy that water is an economic good and should be paid for accordingly, only in about half of the communities do corresponding institutional regimes emerge. Using critical institutionalism as a theoretical guide, I offer a contribution to understanding how more than 20 years after Rio local institutions of resource governance emerge at the intersection of different, and often heterogeneous and intertwined, social fields.

  3. Public policy action and CCC implementation: benefits and hurdles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steger, Carter; Daniel, Kelley; Gurian, Gary L; Petherick, J T; Stockmyer, Chris; David, Annette M; Miller, Sara E

    2010-12-01

    Policy change continues to be an increasingly effective means of advancing the agenda of comprehensive cancer control. Efforts have moved progressively from describing how public policy can enhance the comprehensive cancer control agenda to implementation of public policy best practices at both the state and federal levels. The current political and economic contexts bring additional challenges and opportunities to the efforts surrounding comprehensive cancer control and policy. The purpose of this paper is to highlight recent policy successes, to illustrate the importance of policy as a means of advancing the comprehensive cancer control agenda, and to discuss continued policy action as we move forward in a time of healthcare reform and continuing economic uncertainty.

  4. The Politics, Policies and Progress of Basic Education in Sri Lanka. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 38

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Angela W.

    2010-01-01

    Sri Lanka is hailed internationally for her achievements in literacy, access to education and equality of educational opportunity. However, progress has not been straightforward due to the complex interactions between politics, policy formulation, and the implementation of reforms. This dynamic process has often led to contradictory outcomes. This…

  5. Hegemony and the Politics of Policy Making for Education for Sustainable Development: A Case Study of Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Stefan Lars

    2016-01-01

    Assumptions are readily made about the global nature and discourse of education for sustainable development. This study challenges assumptions made about structural power as expressed through Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) policy and politics of education. Focusing on the concept of sustainable development (SD) and ESD, the research…

  6. Politics, policies and processes: a multidisciplinary and multimethods research programme on policies on the social determinants of health inequity in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Fran; Friel, Sharon

    2017-12-21

    The development and implementation of multisectoral policy to improve health and reduce health inequities has been slow and uneven. Evidence is largely focused on the facts of health inequities rather than understanding the political and policy processes. This 5-year funded programme of research investigates how these processes could function more effectively to improve equitable population health. The programme of work is organised in four work packages using four themes (macroeconomics and infrastructure, land use and urban environments, health systems and racism) related to the structural drivers shaping the distribution of power, money and resources and daily living conditions. Policy case studies will use publicly available documents (policy documents, published evaluations, media coverage) and interviews with informants (policy-makers, former politicians, civil society, private sector) (~25 per case). NVIVO software will be used to analyse the documents to see how 'social and health equity' is included and conceptualised. The interview data will include qualitative descriptive and theory-driven critical discourse analysis. Our quantitative methodological work assessing the impact of public policy on health equity is experimental that is in its infancy but promises to provide the type of evidence demanded by policy-makers. Our programme is recognising the inherently political nature of the uptake, formulation and implementation of policy. The early stages of our work indicate its feasibility. Our work is aided by a Critical Policy Reference Group. Multiple ethics approvals have been obtained with the foundation approval from the Social and Behavioural Ethics Committee, Flinders University (Project No: 6786).The theoretical, methodological and policy engagement processes established will provide improved evidence for policy-makers who wish to reduce health inequities and inform a new generation of policy savvy knowledge on social determinants. © Article author

  7. POLITICAL DIALOGUE AS THE BASIS OF FOREIGN POLICY: A CASE STUDY OF MODERN RUSSIAN-GERMAN RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia V. Zaytseva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available His article deals with political dialogue as the basis of the progressive development of interstate cooperation and one of the few ways to diminish interstate tensions without use of military force. With the growing list of new threats and challenges it is very important to work out an effective mechanism of interstate cooperation and to use it in foreign policy. Political dialogue helps to form the basis for cooperation between states to ensure the security, political and socio-economic stability of countries. Moreover, the political dialogue in its various forms is no longer a seldom-used private practice. It is the "all-encompassing reality" now the study of which is necessary for understanding of the social, economic, and humanitarian phenomena in the international relations. The author analyzes principles, functions, rules of constructive interstate dialogue, reflects the conditions of the development of a true political dialogue and reveals the situation of its "stylization" The provisions presented in this article are presented from the viewpoint of practical use in the development of a constructive foreign policy. At the same time the author points to their philosophical basis, identifies regularities and characteristics from the standpoint of philosophical knowledge. As a practical demonstration of carrying on the political dialogue the article presents a brief description of Russian-German political relations at the present stage. Bilateral relations between these two countries, based on the rich history, consilience of main positions in resolving of international problems, largely reflect the basic terms and principles of a competent political dialogue.

  8. Political Dialogue As The Basis Of Foreign Policy: A Case Study Of Modern Russian-German Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia V. Zaytseva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available His article deals with political dialogue as the basis of the progressive development of interstate cooperation and one of the few ways to diminish interstate tensions without use of military force. With the growing list of new threats and challenges it is very important to work out an effective mechanism of interstate cooperation and to use it in foreign policy. Political dialogue helps to form the basis for cooperation between states to ensure the security, political and socio-economic stability of countries. Moreover, the political dialogue in its various forms is no longer a seldom-used private practice. It is the "all-encompassing reality" now the study of which is necessary for understanding of the social, economic, and humanitarian phenomena in the international relations. The author analyzes principles, functions, rules of constructive interstate dialogue, reflects the conditions of the development of a true political dialogue and reveals the situation of its "stylization" The provisions presented in this article are presented from the viewpoint of practical use in the development of a constructive foreign policy. At the same time the author points to their philosophical basis, identifies regularities and characteristics from the standpoint of philosophical knowledge. As a practical demonstration of carrying on the political dialogue the article presents a brief description of Russian-German political relations at the present stage. Bilateral relations between these two countries, based on the rich history, consilience of main positions in resolving of international problems, largely reflect the basic terms and principles of a competent political dialogue.

  9. Curriculum on the European Policy Agenda: Global Transitions and Learning Outcomes from Transnational and National Points of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivesind, Kirsten; Wahlström, Ninni

    2016-01-01

    This special issue examines curricula and their histories as they have evolved throughout the 21st century as part of transnational and national education policies. With a specific focus on the policy transitions that are taking place in Europe, the articles demonstrate how curriculum making processes move in different directions, following their…

  10. Political economy of renewable energy policy in Germany. A consideration of the policy making process in the electricity market under the influence of interest groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Tom

    2015-01-01

    In the research, it is argued that the targeted promotion of renewables leads to a change in the technological path dependency on the electricity market or led. The historically market depending portfolio of products in the conventional power industry will be replaced by an increasingly strong dependence on the product portfolio of Renewable Energy Sector according to this argumentation. The present work is devoted to the political explanation of the change and transition process in the electricity market. The process of policy formation in this market (especially support policies for renewable energies) will be discussed. It is examined from a public choice perspective, which political actors and instances in the past were responsible for the development and maintenance of individual policy elements. In particular, in this analysis the different private sector stakeholders in the electricity market move to center of attention. [de

  11. Dvigateli regional'nogo stroitel'stva. Vlijanie regional'nyh politicheskih organizacij na sotrudnichestvo universitetov v regione Baltijskogo morja [Motors for regional development: impact on regional political organizations on the university cooperation in the Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewert Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Educational co-operation is one of the main aspects of the regional political agenda in the Baltic Sea Region. The article analyzes the political impact of the organizations, as perceived by the universities in the region and political decision-makers on national and regional levels. Based on the success of the OECD in becoming an influential actor in educational policies, this article discusses different strategies for the regional political organizations to enhance their influence.

  12. Contextual Analysis of Hong Kong Education Policy in 20 Years: The Intention of Making Future Citizens in Political Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Chung Fun Hung

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Originally, the capitalist society in Hong Kong under communism is exceptional, but the “one country, two systems” formula was a makeshift stratagem by the Communist Chinese government. The twenty years of history witnessed the tension of ruling and policy implementation. Education policy in political conflicts is, of course, the other arena in the Hong Kong context which reveals competitions, controversies and struggles among the cultural hegemonic engineering. This paper can contribute to enigmatic understanding and interpretation of generating educational reform and implementing education policy in this twenty-year history of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.

  13. Toward implementation of an urban health agenda: The role of government

    OpenAIRE

    Tallon, James R.

    1998-01-01

    Government has several essential roles in the implementation of an urban health agenda. Government acts as a direct agent in the financing and delivery of services, as a rule maker for the financing and provision of care by others, and as a forum for political debate. Discussions of access to care, control of health care costs, and the maintenance of quality all include a role for government. A period of apparent rejection of comprehensive governmental health care policy has nevertheless incl...

  14. Public Policy and Gender Inequality in Brazilian Society: Considerations From the Realms of Labor, Politics and Science.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Xavier do Nascimento

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present text focuses on issues of gender inequality and public policy in Brazil today. My major goals are as follows: 1 to provide an analysis of gender inequality in Brazilian society through an examination of the three key arenas of labor, political representation and science and 2 to examine both the advances and the challenges that persist in confronting inequality through public policies on gender. To these ends, I employ secondary data, obtained from three different official sources (IBGE, TSE and CNPq. Lastly, I argue that while the policies that have been implemented can be linked to significant progress in the three above-mentioned arenas, we are still quite far from a real reversal of the current situation of deep inequality, persisting, above all, in the field of political representation.

  15. Moving the Agenda on Noncommunicable Diseases: Policy Implications of Mobile Phone Surveys in Low and Middle-Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariyo, George W; Wosu, Adaeze C; Gibson, Dustin G; Labrique, Alain B; Ali, Joseph; Hyder, Adnan A

    2017-05-05

    The growing burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), for example, cardiovascular diseases and chronic respiratory diseases, in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) presents special challenges for policy makers, due to resource constraints and lack of timely data for decision-making. Concurrently, the increasing ubiquity of mobile phones in LMICs presents possibilities for rapid collection of population-based data to inform the policy process. The objective of this paper is to highlight potential benefits of mobile phone surveys (MPS) for developing, implementing, and evaluating NCD prevention and control policies. To achieve this aim, we first provide a brief overview of major global commitments to NCD prevention and control, and subsequently explore how countries can translate these commitments into policy action at the national level. Using the policy cycle as our frame of reference, we highlight potential benefits of MPS which include (1) potential cost-effectiveness of using MPS to inform NCD policy actions compared with using traditional household surveys; (2) timeliness of assessments to feed into policy and planning cycles; (3) tracking progress of interventions, hence assessment of reach, coverage, and distribution; (4) better targeting of interventions, for example, to high-risk groups; (5) timely course correction for suboptimal or non-effective interventions; (6) assessing fairness in financial contribution and financial risk protection for those affected by NCDs in the spirit of universal health coverage (UHC); and (7) monitoring progress in reducing catastrophic medical expenditure due to chronic health conditions in general, and NCDs in particular. We conclude that MPS have potential to become a powerful data collection tool to inform policies that address public health challenges such as NCDs. Additional forthcoming assessments of MPS in LMICs will inform opportunities to maximize this technology. ©George W Pariyo, Adaeze C Wosu, Dustin G

  16. Political Institutions and Policy Outcomes in Colombia: The Effects of the 1991 Constitution

    OpenAIRE

    Mauricio Cárdenas; Roberto Junguito; Mónica Pachón

    2006-01-01

    The 1991 Colombian Constitution strengthened the checks and balances of the political system by enhancing the role of Congress and the Constitutional Court, while somewhat limiting the powers of the President (who nonetheless remains extremely powerful even by Latin American standards). As a consequence of the larger number of relevant players, and the removal of barriers that restricted political participation, the political system has gained in terms of representation. However, political tr...

  17. Politics of Manageability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthou, Sara Kristine Gløjmar

    This thesis revolves around ideas of social change and attempts to ameliorate the consequences of climate change at the local level. Based on extensive ethnographic fieldwork participating in the making of a Local Agenda 21 plan the thesis explores rationales and practices of planning, governing ...... as serious political support for the climate change mitigation agenda....

  18. Sustainability : Politics and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinrichs, Harald; Biermann, Frank

    2016-01-01

    he article gives an overview of global sustainability policy and politics. It is shown how international policy making on sustainable development has progressed from environmental policy toward recent approaches of Earth system governance. Key challenges of international sustainability politics are

  19. Applied ethnomusicology in Serbia: Politics and policies of Serbian ethnomusicological Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumnić Marija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with ethnomusicological research methodologies, the application of ethnomusicological knowledge outside academic institutions and ideologies which have contributed to ethnomusicological discourses in Serbia. Furthermore, state policy on ethnomusicology and folk music is analyzed. The recent institutionalisation of applied ethnomusicology, i.e. direct ethnomusicological engagement in society, which represents a turning point in the development of ethnomusicology, is particularly emphasized. The difference between contemporary applied ethnomusicology and ethnomusicology is in direct engagement: goals are changed, new strategies of (field- work are introduced, folk music as a political tool is adopted, neutrality of research positions is destabilized, resulting in the emergence of the greatest problem of the discipline - ethics. Applied ethnomusicology in Serbia is especially interesting not only because of local cultural characteristics, but also because of the specific position of Serbian ethnomusicology in the scientific world map. The activities of the Serbian Ethnomusiclogical Society are analyzed as a representative example of successful public engagement. The projects of the Society are classified according to the type of animation (cultural and scientific. The promotion of Serbian folk music, folk music of national minorities and bagpipe-playing revitalization fall into the first category, whereas the second one comprises scientific round tables and the projects dealing with the preservation of Serbian folk music heritage.

  20. Who Are the Homeless? What Is Homelessness? The Politics of Defining an Emerging Policy Issue. U.B.C. Planning Papers: Discussion Papers #10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulchanski, J. D.

    Homelessness has emerged on the public agenda of economically advanced nations but not all such issues become recognized as "legitimate" social problems. National politicians and policymakers have an interest in defining the problem narrowly in order to avoid response and implied criticism of existing policies and institutions. Local…

  1. SECCIÓN TEMÁTICA - 10. LA FUNCIÓN DE LA AGENDA-SETTING DE LOS MEDIOS DE COMUNICACIÓN Y LAS POLÍTICAS DE SANIDAD EN PORTUGAL // HEALTH POLICIES AGENDA-SETTING IN PORTUGAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Brüheim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Las noticias publicadas por los medios de comunicación reflejan los tópicos que más preocupan a las sociedades. La teoría de la agenda-setting defiende que los medios de comunicación tienen la capacidad de influir sobre lo que piensan las personas. En tiempos de crisis e incertidumbre, en Portugal, los efectos de la agenda-setting afectan a las políticas de salud. Tres de los asuntos más destacados por la prensa, cotejados a través de un análisis de contenido de un diario (“Diário de Notícias”, coinciden en los tres problemas mencionados por una encuesta de opinión pública, realizada por teléfono sobre una muestra compuesta por 300 personas, surgiendo los problemas en el mismo orden de los temas: (1 Financiamiento, (2 Acceso y Administración de Establecimientos Sanitarios y (3 Recursos Humanos. La agenda pública está determinada por la agenda mediática. El análisis de las fuentes de información mencionadas en las noticias demuestra que las instituciones gubernamentales son las más usuales, seguidas por la Sociedad Civil. Aunque la agenda mediática está muy influenciada por la agenda política, podemos emplear las ideas de Foucault sobre la gubernamentabilidad, puesto que el “poder” aparece diseminado entre los individuos que también influyen en la agenda mediática.

  2. Coastal erosion and beach nourishment in Scania as issues in Swedish coastal policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bontje, L.E.; Frederiksson, Caroline; Wang, Zilin; Slinger, J.H.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the dynamics of coastal policy change in Sweden, using erosion and beach nourishments as an example. The Multiple Stream Model is a theoretical model on agenda setting and policy change developed by the political scientist John Kingdon (1984, 2003). This paper applies Kingdon’s

  3. Levels of Community Cohesion: Theorizing the UK Agenda and the Implications for Policy and Practice in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker-Jenkins, Marie; Glenn, Meli

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the concept of "community engagement," a central theme within a British research project examining the issues of cultural sustainability among faith-based schools. Discussion is informed by the views of Muslim and Jewish school community stakeholders at the time when the policy of social cohesion was being legally…

  4. HIV/AIDS policies, practices and conditions in South African prisons: Criticisms and alternatives. Towards a research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyer, K C; Gow, J

    2002-01-01

    The level of HIV infection in South African prisoners is unknown. However, given that 4.2 million citizens or 20% of the adult population are infected by HIV then the problem of infection within the prison system would seem to be a large and a significant management issue. Policies to treat HIV+ prisoners and prevent HIV transmission have been developed. However, the efficacy of those programmes implemented to prevent HIV transmission is questionable. The reasons for this situation include lack of resources like condoms, lubricant, disinfectants and availability of testing. Prison conditions also militate against success especially overcrowding, poor health care and nutrition. Little research has been undertaken into HIV within the prison system and the lack of transparency in management of the system is a major hindrance in achieving better public policy outcomes. The issues of importance to policy research on HIV/AIDS in prison, which should receive early attention, include: 1) Prevalence rate determination; 2) Treatment of HIV+ prisoners; 3) Education programmes; and 4) Early release policy and practices.

  5. Cooperation between Counterparts in Parliament from an Agenda-Setting Perspective: Legislative Coalitions as a Trade of Criticism and Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Flemming Juul; Seeberg, Henrik Bech

    2016-01-01

    . By offering the opposition noteworthy policy influence in legislative coalitions, governments avoid opposition criticism in return, in addition to having initiatives passed. In order to test this argument, a large dataset is compiled on opposition criticism in parliament and the media before and after the 325...

  6. A New Agenda for Teaching Public Administration and Public Policy in Brazil: Institutional Opportunities and Educational Reasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Sandra; Almeida, Lindijane S. B.; Lucio, Magda L.

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the reasons and teaching objectives of an array of new undergraduate courses on public administration and public policy management which have emerged recently in Brazil. While in 2001 there were only two undergraduate courses teaching formal public administration in the country, by 2015, they had risen to 40, and also…

  7. Curbing the lifestyle disease pandemic : making progress on an interdisciplinary research agenda for law and policy interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toebes, Brigit; Hesselman, Marlies; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Herman, Joost

    2017-01-01

    By 2030, noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) will be the leading cause of death in every region in the world. While law and policy have an important role to play in curbing this pandemic, our current understanding of how they can most effectively be used is still limited. This contribution identifies a

  8. Political Campaigns

    OpenAIRE

    Lilleker, Darren

    2017-01-01

    Political campaigns are orchestrated attempts by political organizations to garner public support through persuasive communication in order to influence public policy in their favor. This broad definition encapsulates all forms of campaigns from those of neighborhood organizations seeking to influence local politicians to the campaigns of political parties and candidates who seek election to office in order to shape policy themselves. In pluralist democracies, campaigns are crucial for repres...

  9. Prioritizing Surgical Care on National Health Agendas: A Qualitative Case Study of Papua New Guinea, Uganda, and Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dare, Anna J; Lee, Katherine C; Bleicher, Josh; Elobu, Alex E; Kamara, Thaim B; Liko, Osborne; Luboga, Samuel; Danlop, Akule; Kune, Gabriel; Hagander, Lars; Leather, Andrew J M; Yamey, Gavin

    2016-05-01

    Little is known about the social and political factors that influence priority setting for different health services in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), yet these factors are integral to understanding how national health agendas are established. We investigated factors that facilitate or prevent surgical care from being prioritized in LMICs. We undertook country case studies in Papua New Guinea, Uganda, and Sierra Leone, using a qualitative process-tracing method. We conducted 74 semi-structured interviews with stakeholders involved in health agenda setting and surgical care in these countries. Interviews were triangulated with published academic literature, country reports, national health plans, and policies. Data were analyzed using a conceptual framework based on four components (actor power, ideas, political contexts, issue characteristics) to assess national factors influencing priority for surgery. Political priority for surgical care in the three countries varies. Priority was highest in Papua New Guinea, where surgical care is firmly embedded within national health plans and receives significant domestic and international resources, and much lower in Uganda and Sierra Leone. Factors influencing whether surgical care was prioritized were the degree of sustained and effective domestic advocacy by the local surgical community, the national political and economic environment in which health policy setting occurs, and the influence of international actors, particularly donors, on national agenda setting. The results from Papua New Guinea show that a strong surgical community can generate priority from the ground up, even where other factors are unfavorable. National health agenda setting is a complex social and political process. To embed surgical care within national health policy, sustained advocacy efforts, effective framing of the problem and solutions, and country-specific data are required. Political, technical, and financial support from

  10. Prioritizing Surgical Care on National Health Agendas: A Qualitative Case Study of Papua New Guinea, Uganda, and Sierra Leone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna J Dare

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the social and political factors that influence priority setting for different health services in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs, yet these factors are integral to understanding how national health agendas are established. We investigated factors that facilitate or prevent surgical care from being prioritized in LMICs.We undertook country case studies in Papua New Guinea, Uganda, and Sierra Leone, using a qualitative process-tracing method. We conducted 74 semi-structured interviews with stakeholders involved in health agenda setting and surgical care in these countries. Interviews were triangulated with published academic literature, country reports, national health plans, and policies. Data were analyzed using a conceptual framework based on four components (actor power, ideas, political contexts, issue characteristics to assess national factors influencing priority for surgery. Political priority for surgical care in the three countries varies. Priority was highest in Papua New Guinea, where surgical care is firmly embedded within national health plans and receives significant domestic and international resources, and much lower in Uganda and Sierra Leone. Factors influencing whether surgical care was prioritized were the degree of sustained and effective domestic advocacy by the local surgical community, the national political and economic environment in which health policy setting occurs, and the influence of international actors, particularly donors, on national agenda setting. The results from Papua New Guinea show that a strong surgical community can generate priority from the ground up, even where other factors are unfavorable.National health agenda setting is a complex social and political process. To embed surgical care within national health policy, sustained advocacy efforts, effective framing of the problem and solutions, and country-specific data are required. Political, technical, and financial

  11. Political attention to environmental issues: Analyzing policy punctuations in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeman, G.E.; Timmermans, A.

    2009-01-01

    One of the most dramatized features in Al Gore's movie The Inconvenient Truth is the effects of a rising sea-level in the Netherlands. The film is an example of how the mobilization of bias in the Netherlands resulted in sudden high levels of attention for climate change problems. We analyze agenda

  12. Climate politics in the Lower Mekong Basin: National interests and transboundary cooperation on climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Lange, Rane Baadsgaard; Mørck Jensen, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is expected to intensify water security concerns in international river basins. UNFCCC and DAC-donors have been important generators of political attention to the climate agenda among governments in the Mekong Basin in relation to regional cooperation, national policy-making and capacity building. However, the formal commitment to climate action is not necessarily reflected in the everyday business of development. In this paper we use a political economy approach to understand ...

  13. The European Union’s political relations with Latin America in the wake of the first intergovernmental conference: agenda and priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Antón Cortés

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available The summit between the European Union and Latin America and the Caribbean to be held in Madrid in May 2002 will be an event of importance for biregional relations. In his approach to the summit’s agenda and priorities, the author gives an overview of the long process of preparation, of the achievements of the first summit (Rio de Janeiro, 1999 and of the principal issues in relations between the EU and Latin America and the Caribbean: Mercosur and Chile; Mexico; the San José Dialogue (Central America; the AndeanCommunity; Colombia; and Cuba. He then concludes that the Madrid summit cannot be a mere repetition of Rio in that the institutionalization of the process will, in large measure, depend on the success of this second summit.

  14. Out on the Street: A Public Health and Policy Agenda for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth Who Are Homeless

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuroghlian, Alex S.; Shtasel, Derri; Bassuk, Ellen L.

    2014-01-01

    A disproportionate number of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) youth experience homelessness each year in the United States. LGBT youth who are homeless have particularly high rates of mental health and substance use problems, suicidal acts, violent victimization, and a range of HIV risk behaviors. Given the intense needs of LGBT youth experiencing homelessness, it is imperative that we understand their unique experiences and develop responsive practices and policies. The range and severity of health risks vary across subgroups of all homeless LGBT youth, and since the population is nonhomogeneous their particular needs must be identified and addressed. Thus the purpose of this article is to review the causes of homelessness among LGBT youth, discuss the mental health and victimization risks faced by this population, address differences among homeless LGBT subgoups, and recommend effective interventions and best practices. We conclude by discussing promising future research and public policy directions. PMID:24826829

  15. The Normality of EU Sport Policy Studies: Disciplinary Locus in Political Science, Sport Science or Elsewhere?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Kornbeck

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Normality of EU Sport Policy Studies: Disciplinary Locus in Political Science, Sport Science or Elsewhere? Mainstream European integration research has shown that research on the EU tends to follow the conjunctures of European integration itself. This realisation has led to some debate on which branch of political science – international relations or government – or indeed other academic disciplines is/are the most appropriate locus for such research. The paper takes these debates one step further by looking at the occurrence of ‘EU & sport’ studies within the wider field of EU studies. The main material used comes from the ECLAS database. Findings lead to a discussion of whether ‘EU & sport’ studies should rather be for EU specialists or for sport specialists and a plea for disciplinary normalisation whereby sport science would need to get more directly involved (without necessarily overwriting political science. Some ideas are added regarding the need for a mapping of Central & Eastern European scholarship. Normalita politických studií EU v oblasti sportu: místo v oborech politologie, sportovních vědách či jinde? Hlavní integrační proudy v evropském výzkumu dokumentují, že výzkum v EU má tendenci zkoumat evropskou integraci jako takovou. Toto poznání vedlo k diskusi, v kterém oboru politologie – mezinárodní vztahy či vláda – nebo i v jiných akademických disciplínách je nejvhodnější místo pro takový výzkum. Stať se pokouší posunout tyto diskuse o krok dále tím, že studie o „EU a sportu“ se posuzují v širším záběru EU studií. Hlavní informační zdroje pocházejí z databáze ECLAS. Naše zjištění vedou k diskusi o problematice „EU a sportu“ v tom smyslu, zda by tyto studie měly být spíše určeny odborníkům EU, nebo sportovním specialistům. Důležitá je otázka disciplinární začlenění této problematiky, s širším zapojením sportovních věd (aniž by

  16. Evaluating the Results of Quota Systems in Politics in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mala Htun

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the varying effects of quota systems, as they emerge from a scenario of women’s increased inroads into politics in Latin America, expressed in the increased number of women in elected offices, the implementation of quota systems and increased presence of the issue of gender equality in political agendas. The character of the electoral system, as based on “open” or “closed” lists; the absence or presence of a norm of a compulsory competitive position for women within political parties and political parties’ commitment to quota policies are the crucial factors that determine variation.

  17. European Migration Crisis: Positions, Polarization and Conflict Management of Slovak Political Parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihálik Jaroslav

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the different positions and the polarization among Slovak political elites due to the European migration crisis and the Union´s migration policy. The inability of collective action at the supranational level is first grounded at the national level. From this basis, the authors differentiate the various standpoints of the selected political leaders and parties towards the current migration wave. Based on this cleavage, we seek to demonstrate the patterns of modern day political party leadership in Slovakia and, secondly, to compare the political response and agendas across the Slovak party system.

  18. Effective research and innovation (R&I) policy in the EU-28: A causal and configurational analysis of political governance determinants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turkeli, S.; Kemp, R.P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Effective research and innovation (R&I) policy depends on the extent to which ideas, interests and institutional mechanisms for policy making work together rather than work against each other. In a political governance model for effective R&I policy in the EU-28, the separate influence of

  19. The spatial politics of place and health policy: Exploring Sustainability and Transformation Plans in the English NHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Jonathan; Lorne, Colin; Coleman, Anna; Allen, Pauline; Mays, Nicholas; Dam, Rinita; Mason, Thomas; Checkland, Kath

    2017-10-01

    This paper explores how 'place' is conceptualised and mobilized in health policy and considers the implications of this. Using the on-going spatial reorganizing of the English NHS as an exemplar, we draw upon relational geographies of place for illumination. We focus on the introduction of 'Sustainability and Transformation Plans' (STPs): positioned to support improvements in care and relieve financial pressures within the health and social care system. STP implementation requires collaboration between organizations within 44 bounded territories that must reach 'local' consensus about service redesign under conditions of unprecedented financial constraint. Emphasising the continued influence of previous reorganizations, we argue that such spatialized practices elude neat containment within coherent territorial geographies. Rather than a technical process financially and spatially 'fixing' health and care systems, STPs exemplify post-politics-closing down the political dimensions of policy-making by associating 'place' with 'local' empowerment to undertake highly resource-constrained management of health systems, distancing responsibility from national political processes. Relational understandings of place thus provide value in understanding health policies and systems, and help to identify where and how STPs might experience difficulties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Education Policy Reform in Sri Lanka: The Double-Edged Sword of Political Will

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Angela W.

    2011-01-01

    In 1997, the Government of Sri Lanka launched a comprehensive set of education reforms designed to promote equitable access to basic education and improvements in learning outcomes. The package of reforms arose as a political response to widespread youth unrest in the late 1980s and attracted considerable "political will", a vague but…

  1. Who's Who in Internet Politics: A Taxonomy of Information Technology Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    A decade ago, before the tech boom collapsed and the digital economy bubble burst, it seemed to some that issues surrounding information technology (IT) might be central to the politics of the early 21st century. But after September 11, 2001, with so much else on everyone's minds, "digital politics" seemed a boring sideshow. Technocrats,…

  2. The Party Politics of Legislative-Executive Relations in Security and Defence Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, W.M.; Herranz-Surralles, A.; Kaarbo, J.; Ostermann, F.

    2017-01-01

    The move from territorial defence to ‘wars of choice’ has influenced the domestic politics of military interventions. This paper examines the extent to which both the substance and the procedure of military interventions are contested among political parties. Regarding the substance, our analysis of

  3. The Origins and Consequences of democratic citizens' Policy Agendas. A Study of Popular Concern about Global Warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krosnick, J.A. [Departments of Communication, Political Science, and Psychology, Stanford University, 432 McClatchy Hall, 450 Serra Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Holbrook, A.L. [Departments of Public Administration and Psychology, Survey Research Laboratory, MC336, University of Illinois at Chicago, 412 S Peoria St., Sixth Floor, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Lowe, L. [NFO Ad: Impact, 44 Montgomery St., Suite 2090, San Francisco, CA 94104 (United States); Visser, P.S. [Department of Psychology, University of Chicago, 5848 S. University Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2006-07-15

    This article proposes and tests a model of the causes and consequences of Americans' judgments of the national seriousness of global warming. The model proposes that seriousness judgments about global warming are a function of beliefs about the existence of global warming, attitudes toward it, the certainty with which these beliefs and attitudes are held, and beliefs about human responsibility for causing global warming and people's ability to remedy it. The model also proposes that beliefs about whether global warming is a problem are a function of relevant personal experiences (with the weather) and messages from informants (in this case, scientists), that attitudes toward global warming are a function of particular perceived consequences of global warming, and that certainty about these attitudes and beliefs is a function of knowledge and prior thought. Data from two representative sample surveys offer support for all of these propositions, document effects of national seriousness judgments on support for ameliorative efforts generally and specific ameliorative policies, and thereby point to psychological mechanisms that may be responsible for institutional and elite impact on the public's assessments of national problem importance and on public policy preferences.

  4. The Origins and Consequences of democratic citizens' Policy Agendas. A Study of Popular Concern about Global Warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krosnick, J.A.; Holbrook, A.L.; Lowe, L.; Visser, P.S.

    2006-01-01

    This article proposes and tests a model of the causes and consequences of Americans' judgments of the national seriousness of global warming. The model proposes that seriousness judgments about global warming are a function of beliefs about the existence of global warming, attitudes toward it, the certainty with which these beliefs and attitudes are held, and beliefs about human responsibility for causing global warming and people's ability to remedy it. The model also proposes that beliefs about whether global warming is a problem are a function of relevant personal experiences (with the weather) and messages from informants (in this case, scientists), that attitudes toward global warming are a function of particular perceived consequences of global warming, and that certainty about these attitudes and beliefs is a function of knowledge and prior thought. Data from two representative sample surveys offer support for all of these propositions, document effects of national seriousness judgments on support for ameliorative efforts generally and specific ameliorative policies, and thereby point to psychological mechanisms that may be responsible for institutional and elite impact on the public's assessments of national problem importance and on public policy preferences

  5. Setting performance-based financing in the health sector agenda: a case study in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieleunou, Isidore; Turcotte-Tremblay, Anne-Marie; Fotso, Jean-Claude Taptué; Tamga, Denise Magne; Yumo, Habakkuk Azinyui; Kouokam, Estelle; Ridde, Valery

    2017-08-01

    More than 30 countries in sub-Saharan Africa have introduced performance-based financing (PBF) in their healthcare systems. Yet, there has been little research on the process by which PBF was put on the national policy agenda in Africa. This study examines the policy process behind the introduction of PBF program in Cameroon. The research is an explanatory case study using the Kingdon multiple streams framework. We conducted a document review and 25 interviews with various types of actors involved in the policy process. We conducted thematic analysis using a hybrid deductive-inductive approach for data analysis. By 2004, several reports and events had provided evidence on the state of the poor health outcomes and health financing in the country, thereby raising awareness of the situation. As a result, decision-makers identified the lack of a suitable health financing policy as an important issue that needed to be addressed. The change in the political discourse toward more accountability made room to test new mechanisms. A group of policy entrepreneurs from the World Bank, through numerous forms of influence (financial, ideational, network and knowledge-based) and building on several ongoing reforms, collaborated with senior government officials to place the PBF program on the agenda. The policy changes occurred as the result of two open policy windows (i.e. national and international), and in both instances, policy entrepreneurs were able to couple the policy streams to effect change. The policy agenda of PBF in Cameroon underlined the importance of a perceived crisis in the policy reform process and the advantage of building a team to carry forward the policy process. It also highlighted the role of other sources of information alongside scientific evidence (eg.: workshop and study tour), as well as the role of previous policies and experiences, in shaping or influencing respectively the way issues are framed and reformers' actions and choices.

  6. Public health agenda setting in a global context: the International Labor Organization's decent work agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Ruggiero, Erica; Cohen, Joanna E; Cole, Donald C; Forman, Lisa

    2015-04-01

    We drew on two agenda-setting theories usually applied at the state or national level to assess their utility at the global level: Kingdon's multiple streams theory and Baumgartner and Jones's punctuated equilibrium theory. We illustrate our analysis with findings from a qualitative study of the International Labor Organization's Decent Work Agenda. We found that both theories help explain the agenda-setting mechanisms that operate in the global context, including how windows of opportunity open and what role institutions play as policy entrepreneurs. Future application of these theories could help characterize power struggles between global actors, whose voices are heard or silenced, and their impact on global policy agenda setting.

  7. The Politics of Evidence Use in Health Policy Making in Germany-the Case of Regulating Hospital Minimum Volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettelt, Stefanie

    2017-06-01

    This article examines the role of scientific evidence in informing health policy decisions in Germany, using minimum volumes policy as a case study. It argues that scientific evidence was used strategically at various stages of the policy process both by individual corporatist actors and by the Federal Joint Committee as the regulator. Minimum volumes regulation was inspired by scientific evidence suggesting a positive relationship between service volume and patient outcomes for complex surgical interventions. Federal legislation was introduced in 2002 to delegate the selection of services and the setting of volumes to corporatist decision makers. Yet, despite being represented in the Federal Joint Committee, hospitals affected by its decisions took the Committee to court to seek legal redress and prevent policy implementation. Evidence has been key to support, and challenge, decisions about minimum volumes, including in court. The analysis of the role of scientific evidence in minimum volumes regulation in Germany highlights the dynamic relationship between evidence use and the political and institutional context of health policy making, which in this case is characterized by the legislative nature of policy making, corporatism, and the role of the judiciary in reviewing policy decisions. Copyright © 2017 by Stefanie Ettelt.

  8. Policy Reform: Testing Times for Teacher Education in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Tanya; Knipe, Sally

    2016-01-01

    In Australia as well as elsewhere, initial teacher education has become centre stage to a political agenda that calls for global competitiveness in the knowledge economy. The common problem cited has been declining educational standards linked with the quality of teaching and teacher education. The avalanche of review and policy reform has exposed…

  9. National Innovation Policy and Public Science in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Lyn

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, I have positioned myself with Kean Birch and explored some of the political-economic actors/actants of policy suites implicated in the biotechnologies and bioeconomy. In particular, I have considered Australia's recent National Innovation and Science Agenda and allied documents and entities (that is, Innovation and Science…

  10. Young Offending: Towards a Radical/Critical Social Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogowski, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Young offending is perceived as a serious social problem and always remains near the top of the political agenda. Over the post-war years, policy and practice moved from welfare/treatment towards punishment as the key for addressing the problem, culminating in New Labour's Crime and Disorder Act 1998. Thereafter there was increasing concern about…

  11. Securing Gender Equality through a Nexus of Energy Policy Performance and Relative Political Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins-Ozuagiemhe, Andrea Christen

    This dissertation presents what is believed to be the first empirical study that measures the effect of increasing access to modern household energy sources upon advancing gender equality within developing countries. As a powerful and fundamental public infrastructural socio-economic building block, improved access to modern energy in developing countries delivers the necessary economic ingredient of time as a major component of household production and consumption and captures the interdependence between market and household economies. Thus, because it has been empirically proven that men and women differ in their utilization of household energy with women spending more time engaged in non-market household labor than men, improving access to modern household energy in developing countries, especially in rural areas, theoretically would disproportionately affect women's lives. Essentially, the element of "time" not only extends the day for women to use towards more economically and educationally productive activities, but also lessens the burden of domestic chores from women with technological advancements in more time-efficient household appliances and cleaner modern energy sources. This dissertation introduces gender differentiation in a model in the form of a gender relative status composite measure comparing socio-economic achievements in secondary education, life expectancy, and labor force participation rates by varying degree of demographic transition, thereby, measuring the effect of improved access to modern household energy upon overall gender equality. Fixed effects panel regressions employing a Driscoll-Kraay non-parametric covariance matrix, and estimated and interpreted adjusted predictions and marginal effects of the two-way interaction between a country's available access to residential electric power (kWh per capita) and the level of relative political performance against predicted values of gender relative status are employed. The models confirm

  12. The economic burden of intimate partner violence in ecuador: setting the agenda for future research and violence prevention policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldós, María Isabel; Corso, Phaedra

    2013-08-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a widespread social structural problem that affects a great proportion of Ecuadorian women. IPV is a sexually, psychologically, or physically coercive act against an adult or adolescent woman by a current or former intimate partner. Not-for-profit groups in Ecuador report that 70% of women experience 1 of the forms of IPV sometime during their lifetime, but population-based surveys suggest that 41% of Ecuadorian women are exposed to emotional violence, 31% physical violence, and 12% sexual violence by their spouse or partner over their lifetime. Despite the high prevalence, the response of the Ecuadorian government has been insufficient to reduce the number of victims and to provide adequate legal and health services for the prevention and treatment of IPV. Given the power of economic data to influence policy making, the goal of this study is to produce the first estimate of the economic impact of IPV in Ecuador and to identify the policy paths in which these estimates would have the greatest impact for Ecuador. Using a bottom-up method for estimating the economic burden of IPV and a national prevalence of IPV based on a population-based survey in the 2003-2004 year, the total economic burden is estimated at approximately $109 million adjusted to the 2012 United States (U.S.) currency rate. Based on a prevalence of 255,267 women who were victims of IPV in the 2003-2004 year, the total economic burden is estimated at approximately $109 million adjusted to the 2012 the U.S. currency rate. The largest cost category contributing to the economic burden was the costs of healthcare services to treat injuries associated with IPV events. The asymmetry between the economic burden of IPV and the amount of government resources devoted to IPV prevention efforts suggests the need for a greater role to be played by the government and other factors in society in the area of IPV prevention.

  13. Beyond policy networks: policy framing and the politics of expertise in the 2001 Foot and Mouth Disease crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Katy; Lowe, Philip; Donaldson, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    For the past decade, the policy community/issue network typology of pressure group interaction has been used to explain policy outcomes and the policy-making process. To re-examine the validity of this typology, the paper focuses on the UK government's response to the 2001 Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) crisis, and in particular the decision to pursue contiguous culling rather than vaccination to overcome the epidemic. Rather than illustrating the emergence of an issue network in agricultural policy, the decision-making process of the FMD outbreak demonstrates continuity with prior crises. In addition, the politicization of scientific expertise is identified as an emerging trend in crisis management. Policy framing is used to explain the impetus behind the contiguous cull decision, concluding that the legacy of previous policy choices conditioned the crisis response to a far greater degree than contemporaneous pressure group action.

  14. Legitimizing Political Science or Splitting the Discipline? Reflections on DA-RT and the Policy-making Role of a Professional Association

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwartz-Shea, Peregrine; Yanow, Dvora

    2016-01-01

    We have been invited by Politics & Gender's editors to review the origins and current standing of the Data Access and Research Transparency (DA-RT) policy, an effort initiated by the eponymous American Political Science Association (APSA) Ad Hoc Committee and led primarily by Colin Elman,

  15. Regulating genetically modified food. Policy trajectories, political culture, and risk perceptions in the U.S., Canada, and EU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlers, Anton E

    2010-09-01

    This paper examines whether national differences in political culture add an explanatory dimension to the formulation of policy in the area of biotechnology, especially with respect to genetically modified food. The analysis links the formulation of protective regulatory policies governing genetically modified food to both country and region-specific differences in uncertainty tolerance levels and risk perceptions in the United States, Canada, and European Union. Based on polling data and document analysis, the findings illustrate that these differences matter. Following a mostly opportunistic risk perception within an environment of high tolerance for uncertainty, policymakers in the United States and Canada modified existing regulatory frameworks that govern genetically modified food in their respective countries. In contrast, the mostly cautious perception of new food technologies and low tolerance for uncertainty among European Union member states has contributed to the creation of elaborate and stringent regulatory policies governing genetically modified food.

  16. Energy Security and Climate Change Policy in the OECD: The Political Economy of Carbon-Energy Taxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachapelle, Erick

    Why do countries tax the same fuels at widely different rates, even among similarly situated countries in the global political economy? Given the potentially destabilizing effects of climate change, and the political and economic risks associated with a reliance on geographically concentrated, finite fossil fuels, International Organizations and economists of all political stripes have consistently called for increasing tax rates on fossil-based energy. Despite much enthusiasm among policy experts, however, politicians concerned with distributional consequences, economic performance and competitiveness impacts continue to be wary of raising taxes on carbon-based fuels. In this context, this thesis investigates the political economy of tax rates affecting the price of fossil fuels in advanced capitalist democracies. Through an examination of the political limits of government capacity to implement stricter carbon-energy policy, as well as the identification of the correlates of higher carbon-based energy taxes, it throws new light on the conditions under which carbon-energy tax reform becomes politically possible. Based on recent data collected from the OECD, EEA and IEA, I develop an estimate of the relative size of implicit carbon taxes across OECD member countries on six carbon-based fuels and across the household and industrial sectors. I exploit large cross-national differences in these carbon-energy tax rates in order to identify the correlates of, and constraints on, carbon-energy tax reform. Applying multiple regression analysis to both cross-section and time-series cross-sectional (TSCS) data, this thesis leverages considerable empirical evidence to demonstrate how and why electoral systems matter for energy and environmental tax policy outcomes. In particular, I find considerable empirical evidence to support the claim that systems of proportional representation (PR), in addition to the partisan preferences of the electorate, work together to explain

  17. The Economic Burden of Intimate Partner Violence in Ecuador: Setting the Agenda for Future Research and Violence Prevention Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phaedra Corso

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intimate partner violence (IPV is a widespread social structural problem that affects a great proportion of Ecuadorian women. IPV is a sexually, psychologically, or physically coercive act against an adult or adolescent woman by a current or former intimate partner. Not-for-profit groups in Ecuador report that 70% of women experience 1 of the forms of IPV sometime during their lifetime, but population-based surveys suggest that 41% of Ecuadorian women are exposed to emotional violence, 31% physical violence, and 12% sexual violence by their spouse or partner over their lifetime. Despite the high prevalence, the response of the Ecuadorian government has been insufficient to reduce the number of victims and to provide adequate legal and health services for the prevention and treatment of IPV. Given the power of economic data to influence policy making, the goal of this study is to produce the first estimate of the economic impact of IPV in Ecuador and to identify the policy paths in which these estimates would have the greatest impact for Ecuador.Methods: Using a bottom-up method for estimating the economic burden of IPV and a national prevalence of IPV based on a population-based survey in the 2003–2004 year, the total economic burden is estimated at approximately $109 million adjusted to the 2012 United States (U.S. currency rate. Results: Based on a prevalence of 255,267 women who were victims of IPV in the 2003–2004 year, the total economic burden is estimated at approximately $109 million adjusted to the 2012 the U.S. currency rate. The largest cost category contributing to the economic burden was the costs of healthcare services to treat injuries associated with IPV events.Conclusion: The asymmetry between the economic burden of IPV and the amount of government resources devoted to IPV prevention efforts suggests the need for a greater role to be played by the government and other factors in society in the area of IPV

  18. Hyper-stasis as opposed to hyper-activism: the politics of health policy in the USA set against England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paton, Calum

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers health policy-making in the USA with England as comparator. It contrasts policy inertia in US healthcare despite crisis with hyper-activity in perpetual 'reform' in England despite absence of crisis in the NHS. It does so from the standpoint of political science and political economy. I suggest that 'path-dependency', the view that past policy constrains future policy, lacks explanatory power and that wider and deeper explanations must be sought. The USA's apparent path dependency is in fact a story of political economy and power, buttressed by institutions. England's apparent lack of path-dependency in promulgating NHS reform is in fact a story of executive hyper-activism which is oblivious to how implementation will obviate its prescriptions. This failure of 'reform' in the NHS is not a symptom of concealed path-dependency but a sign of pragmatism by those charged with implementation. In the USA, the durability of its various systems of healthcare is by contrast a sign of pragmatism not being adequate to achieve health sector reform. In the USA, a weak state is unable to manage healthcare reform which would actually benefit US capitalism as a whole. In the UK, a strong state has created and developed the NHS to the benefit of capital through the economical provision of healthcare to the workforce. Such an 'investment state' is a testimony to the continuing validity of the neo-Marxist argument that social investment and social expenses are an important and functional component of the capitalist state. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Leadership Style, Political Interest and Rationality of Municipal Executive Bodies in the Implementation of Public Policies: the Case of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kołomycew

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: The article focuses on the circumstances influencing the political and social consequences of the rationalization of the school network with regard to the executive bodies of municipalities. The purpose of the article is to verify whether unpopular decisions made by the local authorities influence the range of political and social support. Method: The article is based on preliminary research. The analysis is mostly focused on the qualitative studies (in-depth interviews, semi-structured interviews conducted among selected actors involved in local educational policy creation and implementation. The theoretical framework of the article defines the concept of transformational leadership. Results: Making unpopular decisions is inevitable for local authorities. Although they are rational from the point of view of the municipality as a whole, they can have negative consequences for local executive bodies. However, the results of the study show that not always the unpopular decision taken by the executive body results in the loss of political support. The study identifies situations in which the leadership style and mode of action were significant. Society: The research problem presented in this article has been present for several years in the Polish public debate as well as in the academic discourse. The question of the style of leadership and its impact on public policies implementation is particularly relevant due to the reform of the education system and consequently changes in the local educational policy. Limitations / further research: The results presented in the following paper are merely initial, but reflect the problem and allow to make only preliminary conclusions. It is necessary to conduct further research focused on the relationship between leadership style and the form of the implementation of public policies in municipalities.

  20. Using Human Rights to Hold the US Accountable for its Anti-Sex Trafficking Agenda: The Universal Periodic Review and new directions for US policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Lerum

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the passing of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000, anti-trafficking efforts have grown in funding, political strength, and popular-culture appeal in the United States and globally. Particularly influential in shaping anti-trafficking policy in the United States are anti-prostitution advocates who are primarily concerned with rehabilitating sex workers and eradicating sexual commerce. Simultaneous to the development of prohibitionist anti-trafficking and anti-prostitution efforts in the US, movements for sex worker rights have also grown in strength and visibility, influencing a variety of cultural, academic, and public health arenas. While sex worker activists have widened the dialogue around sex workers’ rights, their

  1. Interest group satisfaction with the European Commission's consultation agendas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansson, Henrik Alf Jonas

    2016-01-01

    of a "call for consultation" which interest groups attempt to influence. Groups that have had a role in setting the Commission's agenda will likely show most satisfaction with the agenda, used here as a way to examine their agenda-setting power. Based on a novel dataset covering 190 policy issues and 469...

  2. Political Terrorism in Southeast Asia and US Policy Issues: Case Studies of Thailand and Indonesia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McDonald, George

    1998-01-01

    ... and regional Southeast Asian relations. The main purpose of this thesis is to examine political terrorism in Southeast Asia, with particular attention paid to terrorism conducted by separatist groups in Thailand and Indonesia...

  3. Conclusions and a Research Agenda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    a. Lisa Ann Richey, Roskilde University and Stefano Ponte, Danish Institute for International Studies - Brand Aid and Africa b. Fantu Cheru, Nordic Africa Institute - The Right to Consume: Compassion and the Intricate New Phase of Capitalism and Africa c. Rita Abrahamsen, University of Ottawa...... - Africa in a Global Political Economy of Symbolic Goods d. Graham Harrison, University of Sheffield - Images and Representations of Africa: Old, New and Beyond e. Claire Mercer, London School of Economics and Political Science - The Privatisation of Aid? f. Dan Brockington, University of Manchester...... - Celebrity Interventions g. Lisa Ann Richey, Roskilde University and Stefano Ponte, Danish Institute for International Studies – Conclusions and a Research Agenda...

  4. SECCIÓN TEMÁTICA - 10. LA FUNCIÓN DE LA AGENDA-SETTING DE LOS MEDIOS DE COMUNICACIÓN Y LAS POLÍTICAS DE SANIDAD EN PORTUGAL // HEALTH POLICIES AGENDA-SETTING IN PORTUGAL

    OpenAIRE

    Michele Brüheim; Vitória Mourão

    2012-01-01

    Las noticias publicadas por los medios de comunicación reflejan los tópicos que más preocupan a las sociedades. La teoría de la agenda-setting defiende que los medios de comunicación tienen la capacidad de influir sobre lo que piensan las personas. En tiempos de crisis e incertidumbre, en Portugal, los efectos de la agenda-setting afectan a las políticas de salud. Tres de los asuntos más destacados por la prensa, cotejados a través de un análisis de contenido de un diario (“Diário de Notícias...

  5. NGOs, Trust, and the Accountability Agenda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keating, Vincent Charles; Thrandardottir, Erla

    2017-01-01

    on theoretical innovations in trust research to put forward three arguments. First, the proponents of the accountability agenda are implicitly working with a rational model of trust. Second, this model does not reflect important social characteristics of trust between donors and NGOs. Third, this mismatch means......NGOs are undergoing an alleged crisis of trustworthiness. The past decades have seen an increase in both academic and practitioner skepticism, particularly given the transformations many NGOs have undergone in size, professionalism, and political importance. The accountability agenda, which...... that the accountability agenda might do more to harm trust in NGOs than to help it....

  6. Software and IT services policy in Brazil: social, political and economical conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Albini Pinheiro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes, from a historical perspective, conditions and characteristics of Brazilian’s software and IT services policy from the military governments to the recent period, trying to understand its conformation and connection to the industrial and science and technology policies and its participating actors. Through literature review, it was observed that, during the military period, the instruments and objectives of an industrial policy was prevalent in information technology policy. The software policy and it services in the 1990s prioritized external competitiveness and export of private enterprises. In the 2000s, except for two programs, the policy had general support measures for R&D in enterprises and university-industry relationship. Recently, the it Maior Program was created, focusing on software and it services industry, with S&T policy features and integrated with industrial policy instruments.

  7. Belonging together: dealing with the politics of disenchantment in Australian Indigenous policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    .... Advancing the body of knowledge in the field of the anthropology of policy and public administration, this empirical study is a must-read for policy-makers, academics, and indigenous peoples alike.

  8. Belonging together: dealing with the politics of disenchantment in Australian Indigenous policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    .... It provides a unique overview of the trajectory of current policy, advancing a new consolidated approach to Indigenous policy that moves beyond the debate over self-determination and assimilation...

  9. The politics of homelessness. A call to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foscarinis, M

    1991-11-01

    This article reviews the problem of homelessness from the perspective of an advocate who has been working to change national policy. The Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act, an important initial step supported by advocates and (now) political leaders, is described as providing too few resources and limited programs. An agenda for policy change is proposed to deal with the dual problems of rapidly dwindling low-cost housing and inadequate income among the poor and homeless. It is hoped that psychologists and other professionals will get actively involved in creating such policy change.

  10. Electoral reform and public policy outcomes in Thailand: the politics of the 30-Baht health scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selway, Joel Sawat

    2011-01-01

    How do changes in electoral rules affect the nature of public policy outcomes? The current evidence supporting institutional theories that answer this question stems almost entirely from quantitative cross-country studies, the data of which contain very little within-unit variation. Indeed, while there are many country-level accounts of how changes in electoral rules affect such phenomena as the number of parties or voter turnout, there are few studies of how electoral reform affects public policy outcomes. This article contributes to this latter endeavor by providing a detailed analysis of electoral reform and the public policy process in Thailand through an examination of the 1997 electoral reforms. Specifically, the author examines four aspects of policy-making: policy formulation, policy platforms, policy content, and policy outcomes. The article finds that candidates in the pre-1997 era campaigned on broad, generic platforms; parties had no independent means of technical policy expertise; the government targeted health resources to narrow geographic areas; and health was underprovided in Thai society. Conversely, candidates in the post-1997 era relied more on a strong, detailed national health policy; parties created mechanisms to formulate health policy independently; the government allocated health resources broadly to the entire nation through the introduction of a universal health care system, and health outcomes improved. The author attributes these changes in the policy process to the 1997 electoral reform, which increased both constituency breadth (the proportion of the population to which politicians were accountable) and majoritarianism.

  11. The Gaming of Policy and the Politics of Gaming: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Igor S.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the foundations of gaming and related concepts, such as policy exercises and serious gaming, in a public policy making context. Examining the relevant publications in "Simulation & Gaming" since 1969, the author looks back at the development of gaming simulation for purposes such as public policy analysis and planning, and…

  12. Reflexivity, Position, and the Ambivalent Public Space: The Politics of Educational Policy in Taiwan's Local Governments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Teng; Ou, Yung-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    The rise of reflexivity and neoliberalism has led to a change in the nature of the public sphere and policy management. Thus, focusing only on analyses of state-initiated policy and the actions of central government is not conducive to understanding the complex process of policy implementation today. Hence, this study aims to analyse the politics…

  13. Genetic non-discrimination policy in Canada: Assessing windows of opportunity for policy change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caggiano, Adriana V; Al Kindi, Said Y; Randall, Glen E

    2017-11-01

    As the ease of obtaining genetic information for both the diagnosis and treatment of diseases has become increasingly common, so have concerns about the misuse of such information. The obstacles Canada faces in adopting genetic non-discrimination legislation have left health leaders with a lack of clear direction. Using the Kingdon agenda-setting framework, this article will identify lost opportunities for policy change and will analyze the potential for the adoption of a genetic non-discrimination policy in Canada. Windows of opportunity for policy change have existed in the past, but these windows have closed prior to a policy being adopted. More recently, the alignment of problem, policy, and politics streams in the agenda-setting process has resulted in a new window of opportunity. The adoption of a clear and coherent policy will provide the public with protection and health leaders with greater direction around genetic information.

  14. Personal and political histories in the designing of health reform policy in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Alissa

    2017-03-01

    While health policies are a major focus in disciplines such as public health and public policy, there is a dearth of work on the histories, social contexts, and personalities behind the development of these policies. This article takes an anthropological approach to the study of a health policy's origins, based on ethnographic research conducted in Bolivia between 2010 and 2012. Bolivia began a process of health care reform in 2006, following the election of Evo Morales Ayma, the country's first indigenous president, and leader of the Movement Toward Socialism (Movimiento al Socialism). Brought into power through the momentum of indigenous social movements, the MAS government platform addressed racism, colonialism, and human rights in a number of major reforms, with a focus on cultural identity and indigeneity. One of the MAS's projects was the design of a new national health policy in 2008 called The Family Community Intercultural Health Policy (Salud Familiar Comunitaria Intercultural). This policy aimed to address major health inequities through primary care in a country that is over 60% indigenous. Methods used were interviews with Bolivian policymakers and other stakeholders, participant observation at health policy conferences and in rural community health programs that served as models for aspects of the policy, and document analysis to identify core premises and ideological areas. I argue that health policies are historical both in their relationship to national contexts and events on a timeline, but also because of the ways they intertwine with participants' personal histories, theoretical frameworks, and reflections on national historical events. By studying the Bolivian policymaking process, and particularly those who helped design the policy, it is possible to understand how and why particular progressive ideas were able to translate into policy. More broadly, this work also suggests how a uniquely anthropological approach to the study of health policy

  15. Reframing political violence and mental health outcomes: outlining a research and action agenda for Latin America and the Caribbean region Reformulando a violência política e efeitos na saúde mental: esboçando uma agenda de pesquisa e ação para a América Latina e região do Caribe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Pedersen

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the number of people exposed to traumatic events has significantly increased as various forms of violence, including war and political upheaval, engulf civilian populations worldwide. In spite of widespread armed conflict, guerrilla warfare and political violence in the Latin American and Caribbean region, insufficient attention had been paid in assessing the medium and long-term psychological impact and additional burden of disease, death, and disability caused by violence and wars amongst civilian populations. Following a review of the literature, a few central questions are raised: What is the short, medium and long-term health impact of extreme and sustained forms of violence in a given population? How political violence is linked to poor mental health outcomes at the individual and collective levels? Are trauma-related disorders, universal outcomes of extreme and sustained violence? These questions lead us to reframe the analysis of political violence and mental health outcomes, and reexamine the notions of trauma, after which a research and action agenda for the region is outlined. In the concluding sections, some basic principles that may prove useful when designing psychosocial interventions in post-conflict situations are reviewed.Em décadas recentes, o número de pessoas expostas a eventos traumáticos tem aumentado significativamente, bem como formas de violência como guerras e revoluções políticas, que subjugam populações civis em todo o mundo. Apesar da dispersão dos conflitos armados, guerrilhas e violência política na América Latina e Caribe, atenção insuficiente tem sido dada para avaliar o impacto psicológico a médio e longo prazo e o peso das doenças, mortes, e invalidez provocadas pela violência e guerra contra populações civis. Algumas perguntas centrais são levantadas, a partir de revisão da literatura: qual o impacto na saúde da população, a curto, médio e longo prazo, ao

  16. Political Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Casey B. Mulligan; Kevin K. Tsui

    2006-01-01

    Political competitiveness - which many interpret as the degree of democracy - can be modeled as a monopolistic competition. All regimes are constrained by the threat of "entry," and thereby seek some combination of popular support and political entry barriers. This simple model predicts that many public policies are unrelated to political competitiveness, and that even unchallenged nondemocratic regimes should tax far short of their Laffer curve maximum. Economic sanctions, odious debt repudi...

  17. Political Ecology

    OpenAIRE

    DeFriez, Joshua; Larsen, Justine; Hilton, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Environmental legislation is commonly accepted as an altruistic approach to land management. A closer examination however, reveals that political incentives and flawed arguments consistently shape U.S. environmental policy at high public costs. As student fellows at the Institute of Political Economy at Utah State University, we have had the opportunity to research this subject under the direction of Professor Randy Simmons. Political Ecology is his upcoming book that explores a variety of en...

  18. The Impact of the New Nationalism and Identity Politics on Cultural Policy-Making In Europe and Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duelund, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Fuelled by factors such as globalisation, European integration and migration, there is evidence of a resurgence of nationalism in Europe and beyond. This trend is being increasingly revitalised in national and regional cultural policy-making, often linked to a new focus on politics of national...... identity. At worst a future scenario of Europe might be an internationalization of nationalism which tends to colonize art, culture and "the whole way of life". To change this cultural lens requires a new narrative of Europe. It requires scientific cultural research, knowledge and insight, if the ghosts...

  19. Regime Adaptability and Political Reconfigurations following the “Arab Spring”. New Challenges for EU Foreign Policies towards the Mediterranean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses the post-Arab Spring scenario in the MENA region and the EU policies in relation to the changing realities. I contend that the authoritarian states have demonstrated abilities to adapt to the new challenges. Through political reconfigurations the Arab states are able...... with the situation. The article concludes that an EU consensus in connection with the recent significant developments in the Arab Mediterranean states is only partly a reality and that to some degree this can be explained by the constant changes in the situation of several MENA states, all of which effectively seem...

  20. Agenda setting and framing of gender-based violence in Nepal: how it became a health issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombini, Manuela; Mayhew, Susannah H; Hawkins, Ben; Bista, Meera; Joshi, Sunil Kumar; Schei, Berit; Watts, Charlotte

    2016-05-01

    Gender-based violence (GBV) has been addressed as a policy issue in Nepal since the mid 1990s, yet it was only in 2010 that Nepal developed a legal and policy framework to combat GBV. This article draws on the concepts of agenda setting and framing to analyse the historical processes by which GBV became legitimized as a health policy issue in Nepal and explored factors that facilitated and constrained the opening and closing of windows of opportunity. The results presented are based on a document analysis of the policy and regulatory framework around GBV in Nepal. A content analysis was undertaken. Agenda setting for GBV policies in Nepal evolved over many years and was characterized by the interplay of political context factors, actors and multiple frames. The way the issue was depicted at different times and by different actors played a key role in the delay in bringing health onto the policy agenda. Women's groups and less powerful Ministries developed gender equity and development frames, but it was only when the more powerful human rights frame was promoted by the country's new Constitution and the Office of the Prime Minister that legislation on GBV was achieved and a domestic violence bill was adopted, followed by a National Plan of Action. This eventually enabled the health frame to converge around the development of implementation policies that incorporated health service responses. Our explicit incorporation of framing within the Kindgon model has illustrated how important it is for understanding the emergence of policy issues, and the subsequent debates about their resolution. The framing of a policy problem by certain policy actors, affects the development of each of the three policy streams, and may facilitate or constrain their convergence. The concept of framing therefore lends an additional depth of understanding to the Kindgon agenda setting model. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions