WorldWideScience

Sample records for political advocacy groups

  1. The art and science of political advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosiorowski, Donna

    2014-01-01

    School nurses throughout the nation, individually and collectively, work to bring about change for the school nursing profession and to safeguard the health of children and the public. School nurses practice amidst education reform, health care reform, changes in society, and medical and technological advancements. School nurses must be active in decisions that affect their daily practice by involvement in the local, state, and federal political process. School nurses must craft the art and develop the science of political advocacy.

  2. Academic advocacy in public health: Disciplinary 'duty' or political 'propaganda'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K E; Stewart, E A

    2017-09-01

    The role of 'advocacy' within public health attracts considerable debate but is rarely the subject of empirical research. This paper reviews the available literature and presents data from qualitative research (interviews and focus groups conducted in the UK in 2011-2013) involving 147 professionals (working in academia, the public sector, the third sector and policy settings) concerned with public health in the UK. It seeks to address the following questions: (i) What is public health advocacy and how does it relate to research?; (ii) What role (if any) do professionals concerned with public health feel researchers ought to play in advocacy?; and (iii) For those researchers who do engage in advocacy, what are the risks and challenges and to what extent can these be managed/mitigated? In answering these questions, we argue that two deeply contrasting conceptualisations of 'advocacy' exist within public health, the most dominant of which ('representational') centres on strategies for 'selling' public health goals to decision-makers and the wider public. This contrasts with an alternative (less widely employed) conceptualisation of advocacy as 'facilitational'. This approach focuses on working with communities whose voices are often unheard/ignored in policy to enable their views to contribute to debates. We argue that these divergent ways of thinking about advocacy speak to a more fundamental challenge regarding the role of the public in research, policy and practice and the activities that connect these various strands of public health research. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Dams and transnational advocacy: Political opportunities in transnational collective action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Teng

    Possible arguments to explain the gradual decline in big dam development and its site transferring from developed to developing countries include technical, economic, and political factors. This study focuses on the political argument---the rise of transnational anti-dam advocacy and its impact on state policy-making. Under what conditions does transnational anti-dam advocacy matter? Under what conditions does transnational advocacy change state dam policies (delay, scale down, or cancel)? It examines the role of transnational anti-dam actors in big dam building in a comparative context in Asia. Applying the social movement theory of political opportunity structure (POS) and using the qualitative case-study method, the study provides both within-case and cross-case analyses. Within-case analysis is utilized to explain the changing dynamics of big dam building in China (Three Gorges Dam and proposed Nu/Salween River dam projects), and to a lesser extent, Sardar Sarovar Project in India and Nam Theun 2 Dam in Laos. Different domestic and international POS (DPOS and IPOS) impact the strategies and outcomes of anti-dam advocacies in these countries. The degree of openness of the POS directly affects the capacity of transnational efforts in influencing state dam policies. The degree of openness or closure is measured by specific laws, institutions, discourse, or elite allies (or the absence of these) for the participation of non-state actors on big dam issues at a particular moment. This degree of openness is relative, varying over time, across countries and regions. This study finds that the impact of transnational anti-dam activism is most effective when both DPOS and IPOS are relatively open. Transnational anti-dam advocacy is least effective in influencing state dam policies when both DPOS and IPOS are relatively closed. Under a relatively open DPOS and closed IPOS, transnational anti-dam advocacy is more likely to successfully change state dam policies and even

  4. Conservation Through Different Lenses: Reflection, Responsibility, and the Politics of Participation in Conservation Advocacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrash Walton, Abigail

    2010-01-01

    This essay considers the arenas of advocacy, politics, and self-reflection in strengthening conservation and resource management initiatives. It frames key questions that reflective conservation practitioners may address in seeking to enhance the results of conservation projects, including equity and more inclusive participation by nonprivileged groups. The essay touches on the importance of understanding conservation work within particular political and historic dynamics, including the need to understand non-Western and/or indigenous or traditional perspectives on conservation. The author makes the case that Western or privileged conservation practitioners are uniquely situated to advocate effectively for change.

  5. Perspective: Medical professionalism and medical education should not involve commitments to political advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddle, Thomas S

    2011-03-01

    It is increasingly suggested that political advocacy is a core professional responsibility for physicians. The author argues that this is an error. Advocacy on behalf of societal goals, even those goals as unexceptionable as the betterment of human health, is inevitably political. Claims that political advocacy are a professional responsibility are mistaken, the author argues, because (1) civic virtues are outside the professional realm, (2) even if civic virtues were professionally obligatory, it is unclear that civic participation is necessary for such virtue, and (3) the profession of medicine ought not to require any particular political stance of its members. Claims that academic health centers should systematically foster advocacy are also deeply problematic. Although advocacy may coexist alongside the core university activities of research and education, insofar as it infects those activities, advocacy is likely to subvert them, as advocacy seeks change rather than knowledge. And official efforts on behalf of advocacy will undermine university aspirations to objectivity and neutrality.American society has conferred remarkable success and prosperity on its medical profession. Physicians are deserving of such success only insofar as they succeed in offering society excellence and dedication in professional work. Mandatory professional advocacy must displace such work but cannot substitute for it. The medical profession should steadfastly resist attempts to add advocacy to its essential professional commitments.

  6. Environmental groups in politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, P.; Goyder, J.

    1983-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introduction; (Part I) the environmental movement (environmental groups and the attentive public; the episodic development of the environmental movement; the underlying values of environmentalism; the roots of environmental concern; the social limits to growth; elite manipulation of values); the organisation of environmental groups; environmental groups in national politics; environmental groups in local politics; (Part II) the Henley Society; Friends of the Earth; the National Trust; the Royal Society for Nature Conservation; the European Environmental Bureau. (U.K.)

  7. Political Action Day: A Student-Led Initiative to Increase Health Advocacy Training Among Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harbir Gill

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health advocacy is a critical aspect of the competent physician's role. It is identified as a core competency by several national physician regulatory organizations, yet few formal training programs exist. We developed an initiative to teach medical students health advocacy skills. Methods: At Political Action Day, students from Alberta medical schools lobbied the provincial government. A day of training seminars preceded Political Action Day that focused on teaching health advocacy and communication strategies. The following day, medical students met with elected representatives at the Legislative Assembly. An entry and exit survey was administered to students. Results: On October 26-27th, 2008, 40 students met with 38/83 (46% elected representatives including the Minister of Health and Wellness. Feedback from students and politicians suggests the event was effective in teaching advocacy skills. This initiative inspired students to be politically active in the future. Conclusions: Political Action Day helps fulfill the health advocacy competency objectives, and requires minimal curriculum time and resources for integration. It is an effective tool to begin teaching advocacy, and should be further expanded and replicated at other Canadian medical schools.

  8. HOW MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS USE LOBBYING AND ADVOCACY TO MITIGATE POLITICAL RISKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Iftinchi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In their international activities multinational corporations (MNCs face various risks. Political risk is one of them. Expropriations, transfer and convertibility restrictions, breach of contracts, acts of terrorism, domestic political violence or other adverse regulatory changes and/or negative government action represent forms of political risks. Incorporating political risk in their risk management strategies becomes a necessity for MNCs in their search for profits and new markets. This article presents how MNCs use lobbying and advocacy as means to engage with governments and politicians in the country of origin (home country, in the country where a MNC has operations (host country or at international level (by creating ties with international organisations in order to mitigate political risks. The case of Repsol and its investment in Argentina is used to demonstrate the application of such tools. The article presents two limitations that might determine the success or failure of MNCs’ lobbying and advocacy activities: governments' unpredictable views towards MNCs and reputational risks. The article has also identified a main difficulty in identifying and examining MNCs way of using lobbying and advocacy to engage with government officials and politicians. This difficulty comes from the informal character of such contacts which makes lobbying and advocacy almost impossible to identify.

  9. Patient advocacy groups: Need and opportunity in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal Shah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With an increasing number of corporate hospitals, healthcare related issues, research trials and undue attention by media in India, there is a need to focus more on patient′s rights and protection. In India, multiple agencies like regulatory bodies, scientific review committees, ethics committees, NGOs, etc. work toward patient rights and protection. However, these agencies are inadequate to cater to the general issues related to patient′s rights. There′s a need to have a separate group of people who provide advocacy to the patient, or simply, a patient advocacy group which will work explicitly in these areas to increase transparency and credibility of healthcare system in India. This group will provide special attention to patient care and protection of rights from the planning stage rather than at the troubleshooting stage.

  10. Advocacy for booster seat legislation in Florida: a lesson in politics and policy formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haring, R Sterling; Frattaroli, Shannon; Schneider, Eric B; Holland, M Becker; Vernick, Jon S

    2015-04-01

    MVCs are a major contributor to child injury and death. Infant restraint seats and child booster seats have been shown to reduce the odds of severe injury or death when used correctly. While all states have mandated the use of these restraint systems, the age at which a child can be legally restrained using an adult seat belt varies from state to state. Efforts to strengthen Florida's weak child restraint laws have failed for more than a decade; in the 2014 legislative session, advocates succeeded in raising the state's age requirement from 3 years to 5  years. While many factors contributed to this year's success, some key elements included efficient communication of supporting data, a strong and broad advocacy network and the leveraging of election year political rivalries. Efforts to further strengthen the law will continue into future legislative sessions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Medical humanitarianism, human rights and political advocacy: the case of the Israeli Open Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Nora; Filc, Dani; Davidovitch, Nadav

    2012-03-01

    In the context of neo-liberal retrenchments humanitarian NGOs have become alternative healthcare providers that partially fill the vacuum left by the welfare state's withdrawal from the provision of services to migrants and other marginalized populations. In many cases they thus help to build legitimacy for the state's retreat from social responsibilities. Human rights organizations play an important role in advocating for migrants' rights, but in many cases they represent a legalistic and individualized conceptualization of the right to health that limits their claims for social justice. This paper analyzes the interactions and tensions between the discourses of medical humanitarianism, human rights and political advocacy using the example of an "Open Clinic" run by an Israeli human rights organization as a case-study: In 2007 dramatically increasing patient numbers provoked an intense internal debate concerning the proposal to temporarily close the "Open Clinic" in order to press the government to take action. Based on protocols from internal meetings and parliamentary hearings and in-depth interviews, we have analyzed divergent contextualizations of the Clinic's closure. These reflect conflicting notions regarding the Clinic's variegated spectrum of roles--humanitarian, political, legitimizing, symbolic, empowering and organizational--and underlying conceptualizations of migrants' "deservingness". Our case-study thus helps to illuminate NGOs' role in the realm of migrant healthcare and points out options for a possible fruitful relationship between the divergent paradigms of medical humanitarianism, human rights and political advocacy. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. On the Relationship Between Suicide-Prevention and Suicide-Advocacy Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battin, Margaret Pabst

    Numerous advocacy groups concerned with "death with dignity" have formed in response to medical advances which extend the process of dying. Natural death legislation and the Living Will are but two examples of suicide advocacy for the terminally ill. These groups are emerging world-wide and range from conservative insistence on passive…

  13. Sustainability and Interest Group Participation in City Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent E. Portney

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Many cities across the United States have embraced programs aimed at achieving greater sustainability. This may seem surprising, particularly since adopting aggressive environmental protection programs is regarded by some as inimical to economic development. An alternative perspective is that in the modern city sustainability can be part of an economic development strategy. What is largely missing from the literature on sustainable cities’ policies and programs is systematic analysis of the political dynamics that seem to affect support for, and adoption and implementation of, local sustainability policies. To explore the actual behavior of cities with respect to sustainability and economic development policies, two original databases on 50 large U.S. cities are used. One source of data is composed of survey responses from city councilors, agency administrators, and leaders of local advocacy groups in each of these cities. The second database contains information as to what these 50 cities actually do in terms of sustainable programs and policies. In testing a series of hypotheses, findings suggest that: a high number of programs aimed at achieving sustainability is linked to the inclusion of environmental advocacy groups; that this relationship is not compromised by business advocacy; and that inclusion of environmental groups in policymaking seems to be supported, rather than impeded, by high rates of economic growth by the cities.

  14. ‘‘Why Should We Care about Marriage Equality?' : Political Advocacy as a Part of Corporate Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Wettstein, Florian; Baur, Dorothea

    2015-01-01

    More and more companies are publicly taking a stand on social and political issues such as gay marriage legislation. This paper argues that this type of engagement, which can be called ‘‘corporate political advocacy,'' raises new conceptual and normative challenges especially for theories of corporate responsibility. Furthermore, it poses practical challenges for managers who are confronted with it. This paper addresses all three challenges: first, it defines and conceptualizes corporate poli...

  15. Embracing Advocacy: How Visible Minority and Dominant Group Beginning Teachers Take Up Issues of Equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Norquay

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is from a four-year research project that followed graduates of a teacher education program from teacher certification through their first three years of teaching. It focuses on participants' narratives about their advocacy efforts in both their pre-service practicum placements and their first year as probationary teachers. Our findings indicate that while dominant group white participants chose to advocate from a position of personal conviction (often based on new knowledge of equity issues, the visible minority participants were often summoned by others to advocate. The paper concludes with a discussion about how teacher education might better address advocacy issues, alongside the focus on equity issues.

  16. The "Gay Comfort Level": Examining a Media Advocacy Group's Efforts to Combat Youth Homophobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachgal, Tara M.

    2011-01-01

    This article scrutinizes the efforts of a media advocacy group to redress the stigma of youth homosexuality among United States youth: a report published in 2003 by the Gay and Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation called, "How Youth Media Can Help Combat Homophobia Among American Teenagers." The report, authored by Rodger Streitmatter, concluded…

  17. Challenging Fundraising, Challenging Inequity: Contextual Constraints on Advocacy Groups' Policy Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winton, Sue

    2018-01-01

    School fundraising is known to reproduce inequities in schools, yet it remains common practice in Ontario, Canada; findings from a critical policy analysis of an advocacy group's efforts to change fundraising policy help explain why this is the case. Adopting a discursive understanding of policy, the study used rhetorical analysis to identify how…

  18. Self-Advocacy Groups: 1994-95 Directory for North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Mary F.; Senese, Dick

    This 1994-95 directory of disability self-advocacy groups contains listings of over 700 organizations in the United States, Mexico, and Canada. The associations are organized by country and state or province. Listings typically contain the following information: the name of a contact (the name of the member who is the chair, president, or…

  19. Working through a psychotherapy group's political cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettin, Mark F; Cohen, Bertram D

    2003-10-01

    Macropolitical evolution, starting with authoritarian monarchism, has moved through anarchistic transitions either to the totalitarianism of fascism and communism or to liberal and social democracy. We posit analogous micropolitical development in process-oriented therapy groups: "dependence" and "counterdependence" corresponding to monarchism and anarchism; and "independence" and "interdependence" to liberal and social democracy, respectively. Transition from counterdependence to independence and interdependence may be: (1) facilitated through group members' cooperative experience of rebellion, or (2) blocked by collective identification, the internalization of dystopian or utopian fantasies that coalesce as "group-self" perceptions. We explore how group therapists work clinically with and through these several "political cultures" in the service of group and self transformation.

  20. Japanese Culture and the Philosophy of Self-Advocacy: The Importance of Interdependence in Community Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Eiji

    2006-01-01

    In Japan, there is a growing network of self-advocacy groups. Some groups are involved in campaigning. Other groups are involved in social events and education. The age of de-institutionalization is gradually arriving and community living for people with learning difficulties is becoming an urgent political issue. Self-advocacy groups can help…

  1. Expert and Advocacy Group Consensus Findings on the Horizon of Public Health Genetic Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Modell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Description: Among the two leading causes of death in the United States, each responsible for one in every four deaths, heart disease costs Americans $300 billion, while cancer costs Americans $216 billion per year. They also rank among the top three causes of death in Europe and Asia. In 2012 the University of Michigan Center for Public Health and Community Genomics and Genetic Alliance, with the support of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Office of Public Health Genomics, hosted a conference in Atlanta, Georgia to consider related action strategies based on public health genomics. The aim of the conference was consensus building on recommendations to implement genetic screening for three major heritable contributors to these mortality and cost figures: hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC, familial hypercholesterolemia (FH, and Lynch syndrome (LS. Genetic applications for these three conditions are labeled with a “Tier 1” designation by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention because they have been fully validated and clinical practice guidelines based on systematic review support them. Methodology: The conference followed a deliberative sequence starting with nationally recognized clinical and public health presenters for each condition, followed by a Patient and Community Perspectives Panel, working group sessions for each of the conditions, and a final plenary session. The 74 conference participants represented disease research and advocacy, public health, medicine and nursing, genetics, governmental health agencies, and industry. Participants drew on a public health framework interconnecting policy, clinical intervention, surveillance, and educational functions for their deliberations. Results: Participants emphasized the importance of collaboration between clinical, public health, and advocacy groups in implementing Tier 1 genetic screening. Advocacy groups could help with individual and institutional

  2. Public Health and Politics: Using the Tax Code to Expand Advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorovitz, Eric

    2017-03-01

    Protecting the public's health has always been an inherently political endeavor. The field of public health, however, is conspicuously and persistently absent from sustained, sophisticated engagement in political processes, particularly elections, that determine policy outcomes. This results, in large part, from widespread misunderstanding of rules governing how, and how much, public advocates working in tax-exempt organizations can participate in public policy development. This article briefly summarizes the rules governing public policy engagement by exempt organizations. It then describes different types of exempt organizations, and how they can work together to expand engagement. Next, it identifies several key mechanisms of policy development that public health advocates could influence. Finally, it suggests some methods of applying the tax rules to increase participation in these arenas.

  3. Political Justice, Schooling and Issues of Group Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keddie, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    This article explores issues associated with schooling and political justice. Such issues are understood in light of the contention surrounding how Western schooling contexts might best represent marginalised groups--in ways that accord them a political voice. The significance of group identity politics is explored drawing on international debates…

  4. Energy efficiency advocacy groups: A study of selected interactive efforts and independent initiatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweitzer, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); English, M.; Schexnayder, S.; Altman, J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment, and Resources Center

    1994-03-01

    Non-utility groups participate in a myriad of activities--initiated by themselves and others--aimed at influencing the policies and actions of utilities and their regulators related to Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) and Demand-Side Management (DSM). Some of these activities are not directed toward a particular regulatory body or utility but are designed to influence public knowledge and acceptance of IRP and DSM. Other activities involve interaction with a particular utility or regulatory body. The traditional forum for this interaction is an adversarial debate (i.e., litigation or regulatory intervention) over the merits of a utility`s plan or proposed action. However, an increasingly common forum is one in which non-utility groups and utilities cooperatively develop plans, policies, and/or programs. Arrangements of this type are referred to in this report as ``interactive efforts``. This report presents the findings derived from ten case studies of energy efficiency advocacy groups (EEAG) activities to influence the use of cost-effective DSM and to promote IRP; nine of these ten cases involve some form of interactive effort and all of them also include other EEAG activities. The goal of this research is not to measure the success of individual activities of the various groups, but to glean from a collective examination of their activities an understanding of the efficacy of various types of interactive efforts and other EEAG activities and of the contextual and procedural factors that influence their outcomes.

  5. All hazardous waste politics is local: Grass-roots advocacy and public participation in siting and cleanup decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, R.C.

    1998-12-31

    The combined effects of federalism and interest group pluralism pose particularly difficult problems for hazardous waste siting and cleanup decisions. Most national environmental groups have only limited involvement in local hazardous waste politics, while local grass-roots advocates have very different interests and sometimes are pitted against one another. Both the Environmental protection Agency and the Department of energy recently have begun to use site-specific citizen advisory boards at cleanup sites. This approach appears to improve communications at some sites, but does not address the issues of ``not in my back yard`` politics and alleged inequitable exposure to hazardous wastes.

  6. Is Social Work Advocacy Worth the Cost? Issues and Barriers to an Economic Analysis of Social Work Political Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNutt, John

    2011-01-01

    Advocacy is central to the social work profession's commitment to social betterment and justice, yet much of what we know about it is based on conventional wisdom. We have little evidence on the effectiveness of interventions and even less on the costs and benefits of advocacy campaigns. This article discusses some of the conceptual and…

  7. Power and Politics in the Global Health Landscape: Beliefs, Competition and Negotiation Among Global Advocacy Coalitions in the Policy-Making Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Lori

    2016-01-30

    Advocacy coalitions play an increasingly prominent role within the global health landscape, linking actors and institutions to attract political attention and resources. This paper examines how coalitions negotiate among themselves and exercise hidden forms of power to produce policy on the basis of their beliefs and strategic interests. This paper examines the beliefs and behaviours of health advocacy coalitions using Sabatier's Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF) as an informal theoretical lens. Coalitions are further explored in relation to the concept of transnational advocacy networks (Keck and Sikkink) and of productive power (Shiffman). The ACF focuses on explaining how policy change takes place when there is conflict concerning goals and technical approaches among different actors. This study uses participant observation methods, self-reported survey results and semi-structured qualitative interviews to trace how a major policy project of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) era, the Global Strategy for Women's and Children's Health, was constructed through negotiations among maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH) and sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) advocacy coalitions. The Global Strategy represented a new opportunity for high-level political attention. Despite differing policy beliefs, MNCH and SRHR actors collaborated to produce this strategy because of anticipated gains in political attention. While core beliefs did not shift fundamentally and collaboration was primarily a short-term tactical response to a time-bound opportunity, MNCH actors began to focus more on human rights perspectives and SRHR actors adopted greater use of quantifiable indicators and economic argumentation. This shift emphasises the inherent importance of SRHR to maternal and child health survival. As opportunities arise, coalitions respond based on principles and policy beliefs, as well as to perceptions of advantage. Global health policy-making is an arena of

  8. Power and Politics in the Global Health Landscape: Beliefs, Competition and Negotiation Among Global Advocacy Coalitions in the Policy-Making Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Lori

    2016-01-01

    Background: Advocacy coalitions play an increasingly prominent role within the global health landscape, linking actors and institutions to attract political attention and resources. This paper examines how coalitions negotiate among themselves and exercise hidden forms of power to produce policy on the basis of their beliefs and strategic interests. Methods: This paper examines the beliefs and behaviours of health advocacy coalitions using Sabatier’s Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF) as an informal theoretical lens. Coalitions are further explored in relation to the concept of transnational advocacy networks (Keck and Sikkink) and of productive power (Shiffman). The ACF focuses on explaining how policy change takes place when there is conflict concerning goals and technical approaches among different actors. This study uses participant observation methods, self-reported survey results and semi-structured qualitative interviews to trace how a major policy project of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) era, the Global Strategy for Women’s and Children’s Health, was constructed through negotiations among maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH) and sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) advocacy coalitions. Results: The Global Strategy represented a new opportunity for high-level political attention. Despite differing policy beliefs, MNCH and SRHR actors collaborated to produce this strategy because of anticipated gains in political attention. While core beliefs did not shift fundamentally and collaboration was primarily a short-term tactical response to a time-bound opportunity, MNCH actors began to focus more on human rights perspectives and SRHR actors adopted greater use of quantifiable indicators and economic argumentation. This shift emphasises the inherent importance of SRHR to maternal and child health survival. Conclusion: As opportunities arise, coalitions respond based on principles and policy beliefs, as well as to perceptions of

  9. Power and Politics in the Global Health Landscape: Beliefs, Competition and Negotiation Among Global Advocacy Coalitions in the Policy-Making Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori McDougall

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Advocacy coalitions play an increasingly prominent role within the global health landscape, linking actors and institutions to attract political attention and resources. This paper examines how coalitions negotiate among themselves and exercise hidden forms of power to produce policy on the basis of their beliefs and strategic interests. Methods This paper examines the beliefs and behaviours of health advocacy coalitions using Sabatier’s Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF as an informal theoretical lens. Coalitions are further explored in relation to the concept of transnational advocacy networks (Keck and Sikkink and of productive power (Shiffman. The ACF focuses on explaining how policy change takes place when there is conflict concerning goals and technical approaches among different actors. This study uses participant observation methods, self-reported survey results and semistructured qualitative interviews to trace how a major policy project of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG era, the Global Strategy for Women’s and Children’s Health, was constructed through negotiations among maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH and sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR advocacy coalitions. Results The Global Strategy represented a new opportunity for high-level political attention. Despite differing policy beliefs, MNCH and SRHR actors collaborated to produce this strategy because of anticipated gains in political attention. While core beliefs did not shift fundamentally and collaboration was primarily a short-term tactical response to a time-bound opportunity, MNCH actors began to focus more on human rights perspectives and SRHR actors adopted greater use of quantifiable indicators and economic argumentation. This shift emphasises the inherent importance of SRHR to maternal and child health survival. Conclusion As opportunities arise, coalitions respond based on principles and policy beliefs, as well as to perceptions

  10. How Do Business Interest Groups Respond to Political Challenges?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paster, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    adaptation. The paper illustrates these two response strategies with four episodes of political conflict in the political-economic history of Germany: (i) the adoption of social insurance under Bismarck, (ii) the adoption of unemployment insurance in the 1920s, (iii) the adoption of board...... their interests, using four episodes of political conflict in Germany. The paper elaborates a model of response strategies and their likely impact on political outcomes. The model suggests that business interest groups can respond to political challenges in two ways: by seeking confrontation or by pursuing...

  11. Factors for success in mental health advocacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hann, Katrina; Pearson, Heather; Campbell, Doris; Sesay, Daniel; Eaton, Julian

    2015-01-01

    Background Mental health advocacy groups are an effective way of pushing the mental health agenda and putting pressure on national governments to observe the right to health; however, there is limited research that highlights best practices for such groups in low-resource settings. In an effort to improve the scaling up of mental health in Sierra Leone, stakeholders came together to form the country's first mental health advocacy group: the Mental Health Coalition – Sierra Leone. Since its inception, the group has worked towards raising the profile of mental health in Sierra Leone and developing as an advocacy organisation. Design The study's aim was to investigate views on enabling factors and barriers associated with mental health advocacy in a low-income country using a community-based participatory approach and qualitative methodology. Focus groups (N=9) were held with mental health stakeholders, and key informant interviews (N=15) were conducted with advocacy targets. Investigators analysed the data collaboratively using coding techniques informed by grounded theory. Results Investigators reveal viewpoints on key factors in networking, interacting with government actors, and awareness raising that enabled mental health advocacy aims of supporting policy, service delivery, service user rights, training for service delivery, and awareness raising. The investigators outline viewpoints on barriers for advocacy aims in framing the issue of mental health, networking, interacting with government actors, resource mobilization, and awareness raising. Conclusions The findings outline enabling factors, such as networking with key stakeholders, and barriers, such as lack of political will, for achieving mental health advocacy aims within a low-resource setting, Sierra Leone. Stakeholder coalitions can further key policy development aims that are essential to strengthen mental health systems in low-resource settings. PMID:26689456

  12. Factors for success in mental health advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hann, Katrina; Pearson, Heather; Campbell, Doris; Sesay, Daniel; Eaton, Julian

    2015-01-01

    Mental health advocacy groups are an effective way of pushing the mental health agenda and putting pressure on national governments to observe the right to health; however, there is limited research that highlights best practices for such groups in low-resource settings. In an effort to improve the scaling up of mental health in Sierra Leone, stakeholders came together to form the country's first mental health advocacy group: the Mental Health Coalition - Sierra Leone. Since its inception, the group has worked towards raising the profile of mental health in Sierra Leone and developing as an advocacy organisation. The study's aim was to investigate views on enabling factors and barriers associated with mental health advocacy in a low-income country using a community-based participatory approach and qualitative methodology. Focus groups (N=9) were held with mental health stakeholders, and key informant interviews (N=15) were conducted with advocacy targets. Investigators analysed the data collaboratively using coding techniques informed by grounded theory. Investigators reveal viewpoints on key factors in networking, interacting with government actors, and awareness raising that enabled mental health advocacy aims of supporting policy, service delivery, service user rights, training for service delivery, and awareness raising. The investigators outline viewpoints on barriers for advocacy aims in framing the issue of mental health, networking, interacting with government actors, resource mobilization, and awareness raising. The findings outline enabling factors, such as networking with key stakeholders, and barriers, such as lack of political will, for achieving mental health advocacy aims within a low-resource setting, Sierra Leone. Stakeholder coalitions can further key policy development aims that are essential to strengthen mental health systems in low-resource settings.

  13. Management, Leadership, and User Control in Self-Advocacy: An English Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a qualitative research project on an English self-advocacy organization. In light of recent political and economic developments that have threatened the sustainability of a number of self-advocacy groups for people with intellectual disability, I seek to explore how one particular organization managed to survive…

  14. The Role of Support Groups, Advocacy Groups,andOther Interested Parties in Improving the Care of Patients with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Pleas and Warnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee PeterA

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In the era of advocacy groups, it seems appropriate to contemplate how best to utilize them for patient benefit in the management of those with disorders of sex development (DSD, including those with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH. Such interactions, to be constructive, require a spirit of cooperation to optimize outcomes. A traditional view of advocacy groups as a type of defender of patients' rights appears outdated and it is time that the benefits of their participation be fully realized. Open dialogue with all patients/families, including those who feel harmed by prior care are paramount. We discuss several recent examples of interactions that illustrate how dialogue in the name of "advocacy" can have a negative impact on developing a framework for ongoing constructive dialogue and actions. Such approaches completely change the dynamics of subsequent interactions. Physicians involved in the care of individuals with DSD, including those with CAH, and patients should be aware of confrontational techniques and legal implications that may be used by some advocacy groups. Hopefully recent efforts to promote a multidisciplinary care approach for patients with DSD/CAH will continue to foster mutual cooperation between team members, where the common goal is improving patient/family outcomes and quality of life.

  15. Making a difference: Ten case studies of DSM/IRP interactive efforts and related advocacy group activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    English, M.; Schexnayder, S.; Altman, J. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center; Schweitzer, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-03-01

    This report discusses the activities of organizations that seek to promote integrated resource planning and aggressive, cost-effective demand-side management by utilities. The activities of such groups -- here called energy efficiency advocacy groups (EEAGs) -- are examined in ten detailed am studies. Nine of the cases involve some form of interactive effort between investor-owned electric utilities and non-utility to develop policies, plans, or programs cooperatively. Many but not all of the interactive efforts examined are formal collaboratives. In addition, all ten cases include discussion of other EEAG activities, such as coalition-building, research, participation in statewide energy planning, and intervention in regulatory proceedings.

  16. The political downside of dual identity: group identifications and religious political mobilization of Muslim minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinovic, Borja; Verkuyten, Maykel

    2014-12-01

    Research on the political mobilization of ethnic minorities has shown that dual ethno-national identification facilitates involvement in political action on behalf of the ethnic group. This study extends this research by proposing that a dual identity can impede political mobilization on behalf of another relevant in-group--the religious community - especially if this in-group is not accepted by the wider society. Using a sample of 641 Muslims of Turkish origin living in Germany and the Netherlands, dual ethno-national identity (Turkish-German/Turkish-Dutch) was examined in relation to religious Muslim identification and religious political mobilization. Dual identity was expected to be indirectly related to lower mobilization via decreased religious group identification. Further, this mediating process was predicted to be stronger for Turkish Muslims who perceived relatively high religious group discrimination. In both countries we found support for the mediating hypothesis, however, the moderating role of discrimination was confirmed only for the Netherlands. Turkish-Dutch identification was associated with lower support for religious political mobilization because of lower Muslim identification only for Turkish-Dutch participants who perceived high levels of discrimination. These findings indicate that a strong dual (ethno-national) identity can undermine minority members' support for political rights and actions on behalf of a third relevant in-group, and therefore qualify the social psychological benefits of the dual identity model. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  17. Politics and Business Group Formation in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik

    2012-01-01

    As a result of economic reform and administrative restructuring in China, a number of powerful state-owned business groups (“national champions”) have emerged within sectors of strategic importance. They are headed by a new corporate elite which enjoys unprecedentedly high levels of remuneration...... makes it possible to transfer/rotate business leaders to take up positions in state and Party agencies. In order to conceptualize the coexistence of the contradicting forces for further enterprise autonomy and continued central control that characterizes the evolving relationship between business groups...

  18. The Role of Support Groups, Advocacy Groups, and Other Interested Parties in Improving the Care of Patients with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Pleas and Warnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher P. Houk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the era of advocacy groups, it seems appropriate to contemplate how best to utilize them for patient benefit in the management of those with disorders of sex development (DSD, including those with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH. Such interactions, to be constructive, require a spirit of cooperation to optimize outcomes. A traditional view of advocacy groups as a type of defender of patients' rights appears outdated and it is time that the benefits of their participation be fully realized. Open dialogue with all patients/families, including those who feel harmed by prior care are paramount. We discuss several recent examples of interactions that illustrate how dialogue in the name of “advocacy” can have a negative impact on developing a framework for ongoing constructive dialogue and actions. Such approaches completely change the dynamics of subsequent interactions. Physicians involved in the care of individuals with DSD, including those with CAH, and patients should be aware of confrontational techniques and legal implications that may be used by some advocacy groups. Hopefully recent efforts to promote a multidisciplinary care approach for patients with DSD/CAH will continue to foster mutual cooperation between team members, where the common goal is improving patient/family outcomes and quality of life.

  19. Examining national and district-level trends in neonatal health in Peru through an equity lens: a success story driven by political will and societal advocacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Huicho

    2016-09-01

    , within a context of economic growth and poverty reduction, by a combination of strong societal advocacy and political will, which translated into pro-poor implementation of evidence-based interventions with a rights-based approach. Conclusions Although progress in Peru for reducing NMR has been remarkable, future challenges include closing remaining gaps for urban and rural populations and improving newborn health with qualified staff and intermediate- and intensive-level health facilities.

  20. Bridging Innovation and Outreach to Overcome Global Gaps in Radiation Oncology Through Information and Communication Tools, Trainee Advancement, Engaging Industry, Attention to Ethical Challenges, and Political Advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dad, Luqman; Royce, Trevor J; Morris, Zachary; Moran, Meena; Pawlicki, Todd; Khuntia, Deepak; Hardenbergh, Patricia; Cummings, Bernard; Mayr, Nina; Hu, Kenneth

    2017-04-01

    An evolving paradigm in global outreach in radiation oncology has been the implementation of a more region-specific, needs-based approach to help close the gap in radiation services to low- and middle-income countries through the use of innovative tools in information and communication technology. This report highlights 4 information and communication technology tools in action today: (1) the NCCN Framework for Resource Stratification of NCCN guidelines, (2) ASTRO e-Contouring, (3) i.treatsafely.org, and (4) ChartRounds.com. We also render special consideration to matters related to global outreach that we believe require distinct attention to help us meet the goals established by the 2011 United Nations׳ Declaration on noncommunicable diseases: (1) trainee advancement toward careers in global health, (2) ethical challenges of international outreach, (3) critical importance of political advocacy, and (4) collaboration with Industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Counselor Advocacy: Affecting Systemic Change in the Public Arena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Courtland C.; Rodgers, Roe A.

    2009-01-01

    This article provides direction for developing advocacy competency in the public arena. Direction for increasing public awareness, affecting public policy, and influencing legislation is presented. A process of creating change entailing establishing a sense of social/political urgency regarding an issue, organizing and educating a group of people…

  2. “Democratic Government”, Interest Groups and American Trade Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanyu Dong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of American trade politics is of great significance when interpreting U.S.A. trade policies and understanding China-U.S.A. trade relations. In order to explain the mechanism of American trade politics, this paper constructs a new analytical framework of “democratic government-interest groups”, which argues that U.S.A. trade policies are not only the choices made by the democratic government between state interests and political private benefits, but also the outcomes of interaction between the U.S.A. government and interest groups. The case study of the U.S.A. trade policies toward China since the new century also demonstrates how the interaction between the government and interest groups ultimately shapes trade policies. Therefore, we need to understand the logic of American trade politics, generate more mutual benefits for our two countries, and work together to promote the bilateral free trade as well as the bilateral relations between China and the U.S.A.

  3. Political Ideology and Its Relationship to Perceptions of Social Justice Advocacy among Members of the American Counseling Association (ACA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Janee Marie

    2010-01-01

    Social justice has become an increasingly controversial topic among members of the American Counseling Association (ACA). Specifically, concerns have been raised over what is perceived to be: (a) the liberal political agenda of social justice advocates, (b) the marginalization of conservative counselors, and (c) the inappropriate use of ACA…

  4. Nuclear controversy and the political organisations and pressure groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robin, M.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the rise of nuclear controversy in France and the organisation of pressure groups in a political context. The author points out that public opinion became alerted to the dangers of nuclear energy much later in France than for example in the United States and highlights the action of ecologist groups. He concludes that contrary to the case in Australia, the FRG and Sweden anti-nuclear pressure groups have not been successful in truly influencing French governmental policy in that area. (NEA) [fr

  5. Political complexity predicts the spread of ethnolinguistic groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Thomas E.; Mace, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    Human languages show a remarkable degree of variation in the area they cover. However, the factors governing the distribution of human cultural groups such as languages are not well understood. While previous studies have examined the role of a number of environmental variables the importance of cultural factors has not been systematically addressed. Here we use a geographical information system (GIS) to integrate information about languages with environmental, ecological, and ethnographic data to test a number of hypotheses that have been proposed to explain the global distribution of languages. We show that the degree of political complexity and type of subsistence strategy exhibited by societies are important predictors of the area covered by a language. Political complexity is also strongly associated with the latitudinal gradient in language area, whereas subsistence strategy is not. We argue that a process of cultural group selection favoring more complex societies may have been important in shaping the present-day global distribution of language diversity. PMID:19380740

  6. The state of advocacy in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, G Larry

    2015-12-01

    Non-profit advocacy organizations have been important in raising public awareness, promoting education, and enhancing political activism for issues related to cancer. Grassroots efforts aimed at fund-raising have substantially augmented federal funding for community outreach and research. The objective of this review was to evaluate successful accomplishments of several major non-profit organizations that are focused on cancer. A review of news media, medical literature, and financial records (using GuideStar) was performed to access the organizational structure and productivity of several successful cancer advocacy organizations. Compared to other cancer advocacy groups, the American Cancer Society is the oldest (>100years old) and worth the most with net assets of over $1.25 billion dollars and an annual total revenue of over $900 million dollars. The ACS also has the highest overhead at 41%. Most of the gynecologic cancer advocacy groups are approximately 20years old and have collective total annual revenue of over $17M dollars. The Ovarian Cancer Research Fund has been the most successful at raising funds and building net assets to date while maintaining an overhead of active and financially successful cancer organizations tend to be older, have higher overhead, spend less on total administration, spend more on fund-raising, have more events (rather than a limited number), and use aggressive social media strategies. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Grants to Political Groups in the Spanish Legislative Assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro González-Juliana Muñoz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes, from the perspective of Administrative Law, one of the sources of public funding of political parties in Spain: the grants to Political Groups in the Legislative Assemblies. This paper focuses on the study of the legal status of those grants, which have received little attention from the legal literature, despite its importance and despite the fact that they are poorly regulated. In this regard, this paper analyzes the legal nature of those grants and it concludes that they are authentic public subsidies. On the basis of this conclusion, the fundamental aspects of those grants become the subject of the study: the requirements and obligations of Political Groups, the procedure for the award of the grants, the control activity and the refund of the grant. As a result, this analysis makes clear the limits and errors of the meager regulation contained in parliamentary Regulations. Last, but not least, several solutions are proposed, taking the General Subsidies Act as a reference.

  8. How Do Politicians Attribute Bureaucratic Responsibility for Performance? Negativity Bias and Interest Group Advocacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Poul A.; Moynihan, Donald P.

    2017-01-01

    Voters reward or punish politicians by deeming them responsible for positive and negative outcomes, but how, in turn, do politicians attribute responsibility to those who actually deliver public services? Inattention to this question renders incomplete current perspectives on democratic processes...... to attribute causal responsibility to bureaucratic leaders, but only in cases of low performance, suggesting a negativity bias in public sector responsibility attribution processes. Additionally, we offer evidence that interest group advocates influence how elected officials use performance information...... to attribute responsibility, but contingent on ideological alignment....

  9. ``But you're just a physics booster!'' -- Why political advocacy for high school physics is crucial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottle, Paul

    2010-10-01

    There is no shortage of research-based arguments supporting the importance of high school physics. A study from the University of South Florida demonstrates the importance of high school physics for the preparation of future STEM professionals [1]. A white paper from the National Academy of Education [2] states that the usual biology-chemistry-physics sequence in high school is ``out of order'' and points out that students in 9th grade biology classes are taught concepts that make no sense to them because they ``know little about atoms and next to nothing about the chemistry and physics that can help them make sense of these structures and their functions.'' Nevertheless, in Florida the high school physics-taking rate has been declining for several years and a large fraction of the International Baccalaureate programs do not even offer IB Physics. I will argue that physicists must collectively advocate in the political arena for the expansion and improvement of high school physics. I will also provide a few examples of collective actions by scientists that may have influenced the formulation of the new high school graduation requirements in Florida. Finally, I will argue that we must lobby our colleagues in the Colleges of Education to devote their scarce resources to recruiting and training teachers in the physical sciences. [4pt] [1] W. Tyson, R. Lee, K.M. Borman, and M.A. Hanson, {Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk} 12, 243 (2007). [0pt] [2] National Academy of Education White Paper ``Science and Mathematics Education,'' (http://www.naeducation.org/Science/and/Mathematics/Education/White/Paper.pdf).

  10. Development and Assessment of the Social Issues Advocacy Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Johanna E.; Marszalek, Jacob M.; Linnemeyer, Rachel M.; Bahner, Angela D.; Misialek, Leah Hanson

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the development and the initial psychometric evaluation of the Social Issues Advocacy Scale in two studies. In the first study, an exploratory factor analysis (n = 278) revealed a four-factor scale, accounting for 71.4% of the variance, measuring different aspects of social issue advocacy: Political and Social Advocacy,…

  11. The impact of parent advocacy groups, the Internet, and social networking on rare diseases: the IDEA League and IDEA League United Kingdom example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Angela P; Baker, Marie

    2011-04-01

    The development of the Internet and subsequent evolution of social networking has significantly changed the effectiveness of patient advocacy groups for rare diseases. The greatest degree of change has occurred at the patient level, with an increased ability of affected individuals to share experiences and support, and to raise public awareness. Other changes have occurred, not only in the way rare diseases are diagnosed, studied, and treated, but also in how they are addressed at the level of legislation and public policy. The International Dravet syndrome Epilepsy Action League (IDEA League) is the leading patient advocacy organization for Dravet syndrome and related genetic ion-channel epilepsy disorders (hereafter referred to as Dravet syndrome or severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy, SMEI). The IDEA League's mission encompasses international support and outreach for patients and families, as well as collaboration with physicians, medical education, health care coordination, and research. The IDEA League is an excellent example of the impact of patient advocacy groups, the Internet, and social networking on the landscape of rare diseases. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2011 International League Against Epilepsy.

  12. Processes of Political Influence In the Field of Heath and Sexual and Reproductive Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina González Velez

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores a particular farm of understanding the political influence exercised by women's groups. Especially in the field of sexual and reproductive health, based on their advocacy experiences aimed at impacting the national and international agendas. If presents different definitions of advocacy and relates them to political concept, proposing a definition that covers several forms of influence in the public world. The author argues that advocacy leads to the exercise of citizenship and empowerment and suggests it must be based on a long-term strategic focus with concrete objectives and targets. Four types of elements are said to be essential to advocacy: tools; abilities; circumstances and maps. The latter is considered a core issue for advocacy, and therefore the text outlines a map of the various players and resources in the health sector in Colombia. Lastly, strategies for carrying out advocacy are presented with warnings about its risks and dangers.

  13. Group work is political work: a feminist perspective of interpersonal group psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, A; Ewashen, C

    2000-01-01

    When practicing as group leaders, mental health nurses often incorporate Irvin Yalom's (1995, 1998) concepts of social microcosm and here-and-now. This article examines these concepts from a feminist perspective and offers an approach to group psychotherapy that processes gender issues and fosters collective consciousness-raising. A feminist perspective in group therapy challenges us to view the social microcosm as a reenactment of sociopolitical contexts and the here-and-now as a medium for developing personal and social responsibility. Therapy is not only about individual and interpersonal change in group members, but is an opportunity for healthy social change. Therapy becomes political work, raising the social consciousness of each participant as well as the group as a whole.

  14. Management, leadership, and user control in self-advocacy: an english case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, Elizabeth

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents findings from a qualitative research project on an English self-advocacy organization. In light of recent political and economic developments that have threatened the sustainability of a number of self-advocacy groups for people with intellectual disability, I seek to explore how one particular organization managed to survive and grow. In particular, the paper explores themes of management, leadership, and user control, linking these to external perceptions about self-advocacy organizations. The organization in my study developed an "interdependent" governance model based on key organizational roles for nondisabled advisors and self-advocates, which proved popular with external funders. Despite the organization's notable achievements, its success raises questions for the wider self-advocacy movement, notably how leadership capacity can be developed among self-advocates.

  15. The political economy of diagnosis-related groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoli, Paola; Grembi, Veronica

    2017-10-01

    A well-established political economic literature has shown as multi-level governance affects the inefficiency of public expenditures. Yet, this expectation has not been empirically tested on health expenditures. We provide a political economy interpretation of the variation in the prices of 6 obstetric DRGs using Italy as a case study. Italy offers a unique institutional setting since its 21 regional governments can decide whether to adopt the national DRG system or to adjust/waive it. We investigate whether the composition and characteristics of regional governments do matter for the average DRG level and, if so, why. To address both questions, we first use a panel fixed effects model exploiting the results of 66 elections between 2000 and 2013 (i.e., 294 obs) to estimate the link between DRGs and the composition and characteristics of regional governments. Second, we investigate these results exploiting the implementation of a budget constraint policy through a difference-in-differences framework. The incidence of physicians in the regional government explains the variation of DRGs with low technological intensity, such as normal newborn, but not of those with high technological intensity, as severely premature newborn. We also observe a decrease in the average levels of DRGs after the budget constraint implementation, but the magnitude of this decrease depends primarily on the presence of physicians among politicians and the political alignment between the regional and the national government. To understand which kind of role the relevance of the political components plays (i.e., waste vs. better defined DRGs), we check whether any of the considered political economy variables have a positive impact on the quality of regional obstetric systems finding no effect. These results are a first evidence that a system of standardized prices, such as the DRGs, is not immune to political pressures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Community advocacy groups as a means to address the social environment of female sex workers: a case study in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punyam, Swarup; Pullikalu, Renuka Somanatha; Mishra, Ram Manohar; Sandri, Prashanth; Mutupuru, Balakrishna Prasad; Kokku, Suresh Babu; Parimi, Prabhakar

    2012-10-01

    To examine the association between the presence of community advocacy groups (CAGs) and female sex workers' (FSWs) access to social entitlements and outcomes of police advocacy. Data were used from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2010-2011 among 1986 FSWs and 104 NGO outreach workers from five districts of Andhra Pradesh. FSWs were recruited using a probability-based sampling from 104 primary sampling units (PSUs). A PSU is a geographical area covered by one outreach worker and is expected to have an active CAG as per community mobilisation efforts. The presence of active CAGs was defined as the presence of an active committee or advocacy group in the area (PSU). Outcome indicators included acquisition of different social entitlements and measures of police response as reported by FSWs. Multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations. Areas with active CAGs compared with their counterparts had a significantly higher mean number of FSWs linked to ration cards (12.8 vs 6.8; p<0.01), bank accounts (9.3 vs 5.9; p=0.05) and health insurance (13.1 vs 7.0; p=0.02). A significantly higher percentage of FSWs from areas with active CAGs as compared with others reported that the police treat them more fairly now than a year before (79.7% vs 70.3%; p<0.05) and the police explained the reasons for arrest when arrested the last time (95.7% vs 87%; p<0.05). FSWs from areas with active CAGs were more likely to access certain social entitlements and to receive a fair response from the police, highlighting the contributions of CAGs in community mobilisation.

  17. Medicaid and the politics of groups: recipients, providers, and policy making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronebusch, K

    1997-06-01

    There is a substantial heterogeneity of interests within the Medicaid program. Its major beneficiary groups include the elderly, people with disabilities, children in low-income families, and adults receiving Aid to Families with Dependent Children. Providers who deliver medical services to these recipients represent another set of potential claimants. These groups are likely to be treated differently by the politics that affect the design and management of the Medicaid program. The Medicaid recipient groups vary in several important dimensions: First, the groups differ politically, a dimension that includes their political participation, their relationships to parties and electoral coalitions, the images they present to other political actors, and the legacy of public policies that affect them. Second, the groups have different medical and social needs. Third, the groups differ with respect to economic constraints, including the political economy of labor markets and of government spending programs, and they have differing relationships to the various types of medical providers. The medical providers are themselves political actors with a variety of characteristics that create political advantages relative to recipients, although there is also diversity among providers. The politics of the Medicaid program involves more than simply technical decisions about eligibility, coverage of medical services, reimbursement, and the implementation of managed care initiatives. Instead the differences between the program's multiple claimants are an important element of current Medicaid politics and the likely path of future reforms.

  18. Some may beg to differ: individual beliefs and group political claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, Martin

    2013-10-01

    While nurses can and do behave as intentional political agents, claims that nurses collectively do (empiric), should (normative) or must (regulatory) act to advance political objectives lack credibility. This paper challenges the coherence and legitimacy of political demands placed upon nurses. It is not suggested that nurses ought not to contribute to political discourse and activity. That would be foolish. However, the idea that nursing can own or exhibit a general political will is discarded. It is suggested that to protect and advance political discussion, to aid explanatory adequacy and clarity, the form in which nursing associates itself with political claims merits critical appraisal. Thus significant numbers of nurses probably reject or disagree with many of the political claims that attach to them--claims often made on their behalf. More specifically, the individual beliefs and goals of nurses can be in conflict with the political pronouncements of nursing scholars and organizations (group agents). It is proposed that nurses need not share substantive normative beliefs/goals and, if this proposal holds, group descriptors such as 'nurses' and 'nursing' cannot meaningfully or easily attach to political claims. Shared value theory is linked to the fallacy of composition and the concept of collective ascription error is introduced to explore the implausibility of using group descriptors such as 'nurses' and 'nursing' to refer to the beliefs/goals of all nurses. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The Ghost Is the Machine: How Can We Visibilize the Unseen Norms and Power of Global Health? Comment on "Navigating Between Stealth Advocacy and Unconscious Dogmatism: The Challenge of Researching the Norms, Politics and Power of Global Health".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Lisa

    2015-12-03

    In his recent commentary, Gorik Ooms argues that "denying that researchers, like all humans, have personal opinions ... drives researchers' personal opinion underground, turning global health science into unconscious dogmatism or stealth advocacy, avoiding the crucial debate about the politics and underlying normative premises of global health." These 'unconscious' dimensions of global health are as Ooms and others suggest, rooted in its unacknowledged normative, political and power aspects. But why would these aspects be either unconscious or unacknowledged? In this commentary, I argue that the 'unconscious' and 'unacknowledged' nature of the norms, politics and power that drive global health is a direct byproduct of the processes through which power operates, and a primary mechanism by which power sustains and reinforces itself. To identify what is unconscious and unacknowledged requires more than broadening the disciplinary base of global health research to those social sciences with deep traditions of thought in the domains of power, politics and norms, albeit that doing so is a fundamental first step. I argue that it also requires individual and institutional commitments to adopt reflexive, humble and above all else, equitable practices within global health research. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  20. Engaging in extreme activism in support of others’ political struggles: The role of politically motivated fusion with out-groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boos, Beverly; Kimel, Sasha Y.; Obaidi, Milan; Shani, Maor; Thomsen, Lotte

    2018-01-01

    Humans are a coalitional, parochial species. Yet, extreme actions of solidarity are sometimes taken for distant or unrelated groups. What motivates people to become solidary with groups to which they do not belong originally? Here, we demonstrate that such distant solidarity can occur when the perceived treatment of an out-group clashes with one’s political beliefs (e.g., for Leftists, oppressive occupation of the out-group) and that it is driven by fusion (or a feeling of oneness) with distant others with whom one does not share any common social category such as nationality, ethnicity or religion. In Study 1, being politically Leftist predicted European-Americans’ willingness to engage in extreme protest on behalf of Palestinians, which was mediated by fusion with the out-group. Next, in Study 2, we examined whether this pattern was moderated by out-group type. Here, Norwegian Leftists fused more with Palestinians (i.e., a group that, in the Norwegian context, is perceived to be occupied in an asymmetrical conflict) rather than Kurds (i.e., a group for which this perception is less salient). In Study 3, we experimentally tested the underlying mechanism by framing the Kurdish conflict in terms of an asymmetrical occupation (vs. symmetrical war or control conditions) and found that this increased Leftist European-Americans’ fusion with Kurds. Finally, in Study 4, we used a unique sample of non-Kurdish aspiring foreign fighters who were in the process of joining the Kurdish militia YPG. Here, fusion with the out-group predicted a greater likelihood to join and support the Kurdish forces in their fight against ISIS, insofar as respondents experienced that their political orientation morally compelled them to do so (Study 4). Together, our findings suggest that politically motivated fusion with out-groups underpins the extreme solidary action people may take on behalf of distant out-groups. Implications for future theory and research are discussed. PMID:29304156

  1. Hamas and Israel: Conflicting Strategies of Group-Based Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Justice, Durham and London: Duke University Press, 1990, pp. 189-197. 3. Many works deal with this issue. A detailed study of the city of Acre is...instructive. Rebecca L. Torstrick, The Limits of Coexistence: Identity Politics in Israel, Ann Arbor : University of Michigan Press, 2000. 4. Alisa...as with “Intifadha farms,” raising produce, chickens , and dairy cows, and boycotting Israeli products, refusing to pay taxes, and in merchants

  2. Undocumented & Unafraid: The DREAM Act 5 and the Public Disclosure of Undocumented Status as a Political Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, Rene

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, the political advocacy of undocumented immigrant students in support of the DREAM Act took a new and decisive direction when the public disclosure of undocumented status as political act was adopted. This new political strategy included the first case of civil disobedience practiced by a group of undocumented immigrant students now known…

  3. Images of Economic Integration Groups in Russian Political Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Rudenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In comparison with other countries, Russian citizens watch all the details of everything that happens outside the country, especially if it concerns economic partnerships and Russia’s participation in different organizations and associations. The official view of Russian cooperation with other countries in various formats is presented in nationwide media, though the public opinion is not usually accepted there. However, with the help of images, that are created in the political discourse, one can understand, what kind of support can the government expect, working in a certain direction, which is important, considering the aspiration to raise awareness and civil activity. 

  4. Advocacy and education in Wisconsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, M.

    1986-01-01

    Wisconsin's Radioactive Waste Review Board is required by law to advocate for and educate the public on the high-level nuclear waste issue. The goal of its education program is to empower people by giving them information and skills. Environmental advocacy and public activism are part of the State's Progressive political tradition. The Board seeks and uses public input while developing education programs, and helps local areas organize committees to develop their own programs

  5. News, Documentary and Advocacy Journalism

    OpenAIRE

    Charles, Mathew

    2013-01-01

    This chapter examines how alternative models of journalism are emerging to counter the news values associated with the so-called mainstream media - news values, which are increasingly criticised for serving only the interests of the political and economic elite. In particular, this chapter looks at advocacy journalism, which focuses on a shift away from objectivity towards the arguably more ethical practice of attachment. The neutral and detached reporter, who remains outside of events and re...

  6. Political Parties and Interest Groups Members' Patterns of Social Network Site Usage in Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elira Turdubaeva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Kyrgyzstan, with a high level of political participation and an avant-garde position regarding internet access in Central Asia, broadband and social media penetration in the population, is a critical case for studying social network sites (SNSs in relation to political participation. This study analyzes the practices and attitudes of SNS users in Kyrgyzstan. Two types of users – members of political parties and members of interest organizations – are interviewed in focus groups about their practices and attitudes towards political content in the social network site Facebook. The findings indicate that, to some extent, the political engagement is indeed occurring within the Facebook environment, suggesting that the popular social networking sites (SNSs are an avenue for young people to express and share their political views. Facebook allowed users to share their political beliefs, support specific candidates, and interact with others on political issues. Participants’ perceptions regarding the appropriateness of political activity on Facebook, as well as the specific types of political activities they engaged in and witnessed within the site, were also explored.

  7. POLITENESS ON WHATSAPP: THE RESPONSES TO GREETINGS AND CONGRATULATIONS BY ENGLISH SPEAKING GROUPS IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Purnomo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last three years, WhatsApp (WA has become one of the most popular means of instant communication between individuals and the most preferred medium for contact among people who belong to a specific group. This tool provides the opportunity to send and receive text, audio and visual messages. Guidelines for writing WA messages are not available, and people may often be unsure which politeness and languages are appropriate. This research is intended to investigate the politeness markers used by English speaking groups in Indonesia to respond greetings and congratulations. This study is of a qualitative and descriptive nature. The data were the responses on behalf of 50 group members of English Student Club, 200 ones of English Teachers and 50 ones of English Lecturers, as evidenced in the politeness markers they respond to greetings and congratulations posted on the WA. Furthermore, the data were analyzed by using the parameter of politeness markers (Spencer-Oatey, 2008. The research findings show that the group members used various politeness markers on one occasion, but violate them on another occasion. The politeness markers they used from the most to the least frequency are politeness markers to greet, to agree, to give compliments, to express gratitude, to give notice, to apologize, to request, to give alternative suggestions, to command and to refuse. The value of this study contributes towards understanding politeness in online environments, such as WA, which is used for smooth communication through the establishment and maintenance of interpersonal relationships.

  8. Advancing Global Health - The Need for (Better) Social Science Comment on "Navigating Between Stealth Advocacy and Unconscious Dogmatism: The Challenge of Researching the Norms, Politics and Power of Global Health".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanefeld, Johanna

    2016-02-06

    In his perspective "Navigating between stealth advocacy and unconscious dogmatism: the challenge of researching the norms, politics and power of global health," Ooms argues that actions taken in the field of global health are dependent not only on available resources, but on the normative premise that guides how these resources are spent. This comment sets out how the application of a predominately biomedical positivist research tradition in global health, has potentially limited understanding of the value judgements underlying decisions in the field. To redress this critical social science, including health policy analysis has much to offer, to the field of global health including on questions of governance. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  9. Politics and Power in Global Health: The Constituting Role of Conflicts: Comment on "Navigating Between Stealth Advocacy and Unconscious Dogmatism: The Challenge of Researching the Norms, Politics and Power of Global Health".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askheim, Clemet; Heggen, Kristin; Engebretsen, Eivind

    2015-10-15

    In a recent article, Gorik Ooms has drawn attention to the normative underpinnings of the politics of global health. We claim that Ooms is indirectly submitting to a liberal conception of politics by framing the politics of global health as a question of individual morality. Drawing on the theoretical works of Chantal Mouffe, we introduce a conflictual concept of the political as an alternative to Ooms' conception. Using controversies surrounding medical treatment of AIDS patients in developing countries as a case we underline the opportunity for political changes, through political articulation of an issue, and collective mobilization based on such an articulation. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  10. Social Groups, Sport and Political Engagement in New Zealand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donovan, T.; Bowler, S.; Hanneman, R.; Karp, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Many prominent social theorists contend that memberships in voluntary associations make major contributions to making citizens more engaged with democracy. Although substantial attention has been directed at the potential role of sports groups, previous studies using survey data have not found

  11. Capitalism, Identity Politics, and Queerness Converge: LGBT Employee Resource Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Githens, Rod P.

    2009-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) employee resource groups have brought about substantial organizational change within corporations. Capitalist structures have enabled these changes to occur more quickly in the private sector than within the public sector. In this article, I explore how capitalism has converged with two approaches of…

  12. New Social Media and Politics in Thailand: The Emergence of Fascist Vigilante Groups on Facebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram Schaffar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 2010, Facebook has become a battleground between competing political camps in Thailand. Facebook groups like the Social Sanction group, tellingly abbreviated as SS, and the Rubbish Collector Organization, which was founded in 2014 and has attracted more than 200,000 members, have played a crucial role in the process of political radicalization. The aim of these groups is to expose political opponents by accusing them of lèse-majesté, which can result in a prison sentence of 15 years or more. The groups also serve as fora for hate speech and are increasingly used as a tool of mobilization for state-sponsored mass events by the authoritarian regime that came to power with the coup d’état of May 2014. Contrary to its popular perception as a tool for democratization, Facebook has been successfully used by political groups reminiscent of fascist vigilante groups. This paper analyses the genesis of these groups and discusses the phenomenon in a broader political and historical context.

  13. Development of measures to evaluate youth advocacy for obesity prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Millstein, Rachel A.; Woodruff, Susan I.; Linton, Leslie S.; Edwards, Christine C.; Sallis, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Youth advocacy has been successfully used in substance use prevention but is a novel strategy in obesity prevention. As a precondition for building an evidence base for youth advocacy for obesity prevention, the present study aimed to develop and evaluate measures of youth advocacy mediator, process, and outcome variables. Methods The Youth Engagement and Action for Health (YEAH!) program (San Diego County, CA) engaged youth and adult group leaders in advocacy for school and neighb...

  14. A surgical intervention for the body politic: Generation Squeeze applies the Advocacy Coalition Framework to social determinants of health knowledge translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw, Paul; Swanson, Eric; Stucchi, Andrea

    2017-06-16

    The World Health Organization Commission on the Social Determinants of Health (SDoH) observes that building political will is central to all its recommendations, because governments respond to those who organize and show up. Since younger Canadians are less likely to vote or to organize in between elections, they are less effective at building political will than their older counterparts. This results in an age gap between SDoH research and government budget priorities. Whereas Global AgeWatch ranks Canada among the top countries for aging, UNICEF ranks Canada among the least generous OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) countries for the generations raising young children. A surgical intervention into the body politic. Guided by the "health political science" literature, the intervention builds a non-profit coalition to perform science-based, non-partisan democratic engagement to increase incentives for policy-makers to translate SDoH research about younger generations into government budget investments. All four national parties integrated policy recommendations from the intervention into their 2015 election platforms. Three referred to, or consulted with, the intervention during the election. The intervention coincided with all parties committing to the single largest annual increase in spending on families with children in over a decade. Since many population-level decisions are made in political venues, the concept of population health interventions should be broadened to include activities designed to mobilize SDoH science in the world of politics. Such interventions must engage with the power dynamics, values, interests and institutional factors that mediate the path by which science shapes government budgets.

  15. That's what friends are for: how intergroup friendships promote historically disadvantaged groups' substantive political representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkonen, Andrej; Karlsson, David

    2017-12-01

    The interests of historically disadvantaged groups risk being overlooked if they are not present in the decision-making process. However, a mere presence in politics does not guarantee political success. Often groups need allies to promote their interests successfully. We argue that one way to identify such allies is to judge politicians by whether they have friends in historically disadvantaged groups, as intergroup friendships have been shown to make people understand and feel empathy for outgroups. In other words, intergroup friendships may function as an important complement to descriptive representation. We test our argument with a unique survey that asks all elected political representatives in Sweden's 290 municipalities (response rate 79 per cent) about their friendship ties to, and their representation of, five historically disadvantaged groups: women, immigrants, youths, pensioners and blue-collar workers. We find a strong correlation between representatives' friendship ties to these groups and their commitment to represent them. The correlation is especially strong for youths and blue-collar workers, which likely can be explained by the fact that these groups usually lack crucial political resources (such as experience and education). We conclude that friendship ties function as an important complement to descriptive representation for achieving substantive representation. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  16. Anatomy of Advocacy: A Case Study of the White House Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Elizabeth; Kimmel, Sue; Dickinson, Gail

    2016-01-01

    Little research has been conducted examining advocacy efforts in the school library field despite the fact that program advocate is a prominent role for school librarians. One element of advocacy is the engagement in political initiatives that may affect school library programs. This case study investigates the effectiveness of one advocacy effort…

  17. Politics or Technocracy – What Next for Global Health?; Comment on “Navigating Between Stealth Advocacy and Unconscious Dogmatism: The Challenge of Researching the Norms, Politics and Power of Global Health”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Kickbusch

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Politics play a central part in determining health and development outcomes as Gorik Ooms highlights in his recent commentary. As health becomes more global and more politicized the need grows to better understand the inherently political processes at all levels of governance, such as ideological positions, ideas, value judgments, and power. I agree that global health research should strengthen its contribution to generating such knowledge by drawing more on political science, such research is gaining ground. Even more important is – as Ooms indicates – that global health scholars better understand their own role in the political process. It is time to acknowledge that expert-based technocratic approaches are no less political. We will need to reflect and analyse the role of experts in global health governance to a greater extent and in that context explore the links between politics, expertise and democracy.

  18. Politics or Technocracy - What Next for Global Health? Comment on "Navigating Between Stealth Advocacy and Unconscious Dogmatism: The Challenge of Researching the Norms, Politics and Power of Global Health".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kickbusch, Ilona

    2015-12-12

    Politics play a central part in determining health and development outcomes as Gorik Ooms highlights in his recent commentary. As health becomes more global and more politicized the need grows to better understand the inherently political processes at all levels of governance, such as ideological positions, ideas, value judgments, and power. I agree that global health research should strengthen its contribution to generating such knowledge by drawing more on political science, such research is gaining ground. Even more important is - as Ooms indicates - that global health scholars better understand their own role in the political process. It is time to acknowledge that expert-based technocratic approaches are no less political. We will need to reflect and analyse the role of experts in global health governance to a greater extent and in that context explore the links between politics, expertise and democracy. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  19. Disease Campaigns and the Decline of Treatment Advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Rachel Kahn

    2017-06-01

    In the past fifty years, disease advocacy organizations have multiplied and gained political influence, but they have often been reluctant to ask the government to intervene in health care provision. This article asks why. Using original quantitative and qualitative data on the goals and political claims of over one thousand organizations from 1960 through 2014, I find that many early disease advocacy organizations prioritized health care access. But unfavorable political climates discouraged new organizations from focusing on access to treatment. When health care became particularly controversial, even organizations with health care-related missions refrained from pursuing this goal politically. Eventually, politically active organizations began to drop treatment provision from their missions. Over the decades, the troubled politics of health care reshaped the field of disease advocacy, diminishing its focus on medical treatment. Copyright © 2017 by Duke University Press.

  20. Political Culture, Schooling and Subaltern Groups in the Brazilian Empire (1822-1850)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Faria Filho, Luciano Mendes; Fonseca, Marcus Vinicius

    2010-01-01

    This paper articulates the concepts of political culture, schooling and slavery in order to comprehend the process of instituting modern schools in Brazil, during the period immediately after Independence in 1822. With a view to this, it takes as its starting point the strategies and proposals of different groups disputing the direction of the…

  1. Bounded mirroring: joint action and group membership in political theory and cognitive neuroscience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keestra, M.; Vander Valk, F.

    2012-01-01

    A crucial socio-political challenge for our age is how to redefine or extend group membership in such a way that it adequately responds to phenomena related to globalization like the prevalence of migration, the transformation of family and social networks, and changes in the position of the nation

  2. Experiences of a support group for interns in the setting of war and political turmoil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Jamil, Fatima; Hamadeh, Ghassan N; Osman, Hibah

    2007-10-01

    Intern support groups have been instituted in many residency programs to improve resident well-being. In this article, we discuss the themes that emerged in intern support group meetings in a family medicine program operating in a setting of war and political instability. We held support groups, led by a family physician and a psychologist, that met monthly. Participants were residents in the family medicine program at the American University of Beirut. These residents began their training days after the commencement of the 34-day war between Israel and Hizbollah in 2006. Themes and issues discussed by the residents were noted and are reported in this article. We found that despite the stressors of the political situation, our interns focused on the usual stress of internship, such as the difficulties of functioning as interns in other departments and dealing with the time demands of internship as their main sources of stress at the beginning of internship. The stresses associated with the war did not emerge in the group until later in the year. These included tension with patients and political confrontations with staff, as well as personal struggles with the lack of political stability and depressed mood. This paper serves to share our experience and highlight some areas of concern that residents experience when training in a country or region that is at war.

  3. From War to Politics : Non-State Armed Groups in Transition, 2009 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    An earlier project (103613) resulted in the creation of a research network on the experience of non-state armed groups (NSAGs) who have made the transition from armed resistance during protracted violent conflicts to political engagement in peace negotiations and post-war state building. This project will continue the ...

  4. Weber's Critique of Advocacy in the Classroom: Critical Thinking and Civic Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Mark

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the four aspects of Max Weber's argument against including advocacy in the political science classroom. Believes that Weber's critique is a useful starting point for considering the issue in relation to contemporary education. Describes two models, critical thinking and civic education, that present advocacy in the political science…

  5. Global Health Warning: Definitions Wield Power Comment on "Navigating Between Stealth Advocacy and Unconscious Dogmatism: The Challenge of Researching the Norms, Politics and Power of Global Health".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marten, Robert

    2015-12-25

    Gorik Ooms recently made a strong case for considering the centrality of normative premises to analyzing and understanding the underappreciated importance of the nexus of politics, power and process in global health. This critical commentary raises serious questions for the practice and study of global health and global health governance. First and foremost, this commentary underlines the importance of the question of what is global health, and why as well as how does this definition matter? This refocuses discussion on the importance of definitions and how they wield power. It also re-affirms the necessity of a deeper analysis and understanding of power and how it affects and shapes the practice of global health. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  6. Philosophy + Advocacy = Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutt, Kevin; Townley, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge about music advocacy strategies has long been promoted as important for music educators, not only for the benefit of their individual programs but also for the specific benefit of music students and the general public. This article suggests an approach to advocacy grounded in the teacher's professional beliefs, phrased in terms…

  7. The Politics of Affirmation Theory: When Group-Affirmation Leads to Greater Ingroup Bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Gaven A; Gramzow, Richard H

    2015-08-01

    It has been well established in the literature that affirming the individual self reduces the tendency to exhibit group-favoring biases. The limited research examining group-affirmation and bias, however, is inconclusive. We argue that group-affirmation can exacerbate group-serving biases in certain contexts, and in the current set of studies, we document this phenomenon directly. Unlike self-affirmation, group-affirmation led to greater ingroup-favoring evaluative judgments among political partisans (Experiment 1). This increase in evaluative bias following group-affirmation was moderated by political party identification and was not found among those who affirmed a non-political ingroup (Experiment 2). In addition, the mechanism underlying these findings is explored and interpreted within the theoretical frameworks of self-categorization theory and the multiple self-aspects model (Experiments 2 and 3). The broader implications of our findings for the understanding of social identity and affirmation theory are discussed. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  8. Advocacy: exploring the concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardell, A

    1996-10-01

    The concept of the nurse as the patient's advocate is one that has become popular in the last fifteen years or so in both North America and the United Kingdom, having its basis in nursing theory. The UKCC first embraced the concept, stating in the Code of Professional Conduct that nurses must; 'act always in such a manner so as to promote and safeguard the interests and well being of patients and clients'. This is a laudable principle and one that nurses cannot dispute as there are many members of our society who are weak and vulnerable and may be unable to speak up for themselves. But are nurses always in a position to be an advocate for their patients? As the nature of nursing is so diverse then the nature of advocacy will be different in the multifarious settings in which nurses practise. Can theatre nurses ever be in a position to act as an advocate for a patient who is often anaesthetised? What precisely is advocacy and is the Concise Oxford Dictionary definition of 'one who pleads for another' appropriate in the nursing context? Then there is the position of nurses in the healthcare organisation in which they practise. In advocating for their patients, nurses may find they are pleading a case for a patient, or a group of patients, that could bring the nurse into conflict with their medical colleagues or with the management of the organisation by whom they are employed. Additionally, they may not posses the skills and knowledge to advocate effectively under such circumstances. Nursing is littered with the casualties of such conflicts over the years, the most publicised of whom, in the UK, was probably Graham Pink who lost his job as a charge nurse after drawing public attention to what he considered to be an unacceptable standard of care in the hospital in which he worked.

  9. Leadership Influence: A Core Foundation for Advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shillam, Casey R; MacLean, Lola

    As the largest segment of the health care workforce, nurses have the greatest potential for advancing systems and services to improve health care delivery in the United States. This article presents a framework for nurse administrators to use in developing direct care nurses in their leadership influence competency as a means of increasing their advocacy potential. A systematic review resulted in establishing a nurse leadership influence framework based on the Kouzes and Posner leadership model. The framework includes leadership competencies by nursing professional organizations and was validated by 2 national nurse leader focus groups. Nurse administrators have the opportunity to adopt an evidence-based leadership influence framework to ensure development of advocacy competency in direct care nurses. The impact of nurse administrators systematically adopting a standardized leadership influence framework will result in setting a strong foundation for nurse advocacy. Successful long-term impacts will result in nurses skillfully integrating leadership influence and advocacy into all aspects of daily practice.

  10. Tools Beyond Control: Social Media and the Work of Advocacy Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Hestres

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Advocacy organizations rely on social media services, such as Facebook and Twitter, to engage their supporters. These services increasingly influence how citizens and advocacy organizations engage politically online through the technical features and policies they choose to implement—a phenomenon that can sometimes disrupt the work of advocates. Interviews with digital strategists at several US advocacy organizations revealed low levels of awareness of this phenomenon, despite its potential impact on their work; substantial dependence on these services for advocacy work; and a shared sense of necessity to embrace these tools, despite their potential downsides. Implications for the scholarship and practice of Internet governance and digitally mediated advocacy are discussed.

  11. Political Ideology, Trust, and Cooperation: In-group Favoritism among Republicans and Democrats during a US National Election.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balliet, Daniel; Tybur, Joshua M; Wu, Junhui; Antonellis, Christian; Van Lange, Paul A M

    2018-04-01

    Theories suggest that political ideology relates to cooperation, with conservatives being more likely to pursue selfish outcomes, and liberals more likely to pursue egalitarian outcomes. In study 1, we examine how political ideology and political party affiliation (Republican vs. Democrat) predict cooperation with a partner who self-identifies as Republican or Democrat in two samples before ( n = 362) and after ( n = 366) the 2012 US presidential election. Liberals show slightly more concern for their partners' outcomes compared to conservatives (study 1), and in study 2 this relation is supported by a meta-analysis ( r = .15). However, in study 1, political ideology did not relate to cooperation in general. Both Republicans and Democrats extend more cooperation to their in-group relative to the out-group, and this is explained by expectations of cooperation from in-group versus out-group members. We discuss the relation between political ideology and cooperation within and between groups.

  12. Incitement to Genocide against a Political Group: The Anti-Communist Killings in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Elizabeth Pohlman

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Genocide and mass atrocities can be seen as the culminative result of extreme social exclusion. Two of the critical steps on the path to genocidal persecution are the isolation and exclusion of a particular group and the mobilisation and incitement of perpetrators. This paper examines the case of the 1965-1966 massacres in Indonesia in light of these two incipient stages of genocide. First, I discuss the Indonesian killings of 1965-1966 by situating them within the conceptual and legal understandings of genocide and argue that those persecuted belonged predominantly to a defined political group, that is, members and associates of the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI. I argue that the exclusion of political groups from the legal definition of genocide given in the UN Convention on Genocide is unsupportable when examined both within the context that it was created and the greater conceptual understandings of genocide studies. To support this argument, I then outline the political situation in Indonesia prior to the 1 October 1965 coup and explain how the country went through a process of political pillarisation, effectively creating the conditions for the creation and then eradication of the Left in Indonesia. In the final part of the paper, I examine how these killings were incited. I argue that hate propaganda was used against the PKI and its supporters by the main perpetrators of the massacres, the Indonesian military, to incite a popular, genocidal campaign. As a result of this hate-propaganda campaign, Leftists in Indonesia experienced extreme forms of dehumanisation and social death which, in turn, facilitated their eradication.

  13. Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Grants Bladder Cancer Think Tank Bladder Cancer Research Network Bladder Cancer Genomics Consortium Get Involved Ways to ... us? Who we are The Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network (BCAN) is a community of patients, caregivers, survivors, ...

  14. The Process Of Advocacy In Romanian Public Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gurgu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Influencing public policy in favor of interest groups can be achieved through advocacy associations legally constituted whose mission is to: promovate professional excellence in the application of advanced practices of advocacy, strengthen civil society participation in development of public policies and continuously develop policies to private firms.. Through advocacy associations can uphold and enforce the values of entrepreneurship and free enterprise. Any resource used in advocacy efforts associations should generate added value and impact, contribute to the progress, development and improved quality of life. Advocacy associations must primarily promotes technical and professional skills of advocacy for any civil society interested group with honesty, dignity, mutual respect, transparency and social responsibility in order to strengthen the system of participatory democracy to which they are signatories.

  15. Impact of Advocacy Initiatives on Nurses' Motivation to Sustain Momentum in Public Policy Advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Melissa R S

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to elicit insight from the public policy leaders of 2 regional professional nursing organizations on key qualities of their current advocacy initiatives that motivate nurses to sustain momentum in public policy advocacy beyond a single episode. The goal is to inform quality improvement in the development of future advocacy initiatives to increase sustained engagement of nurses. Social cognitive theory was used as the rationale for this qualitative, descriptive study. A purposive convenience sample of executive leadership and board committee members from 2 regional professional nursing organizations were recruited to complete an initial Web-based electronic survey, followed by separate semistructured interview focus groups. One organization was composed primarily of advanced practice registered nurses, and the other group composed of diverse, multispecialty nursing members with varied educational levels. Nine themes emerged, categorized as facilitators or challenges to the positive impact of advocacy initiatives on nurses' motivation. Highlighting and marketing facilitators to the positive impact of advocacy initiatives on nurses' motivation to sustain momentum in public policy advocacy, while designing and testing new initiatives that address the challenges, may increase the number of nurses who sustain engagement in the policy advocacy process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The mechanism of influence of interest groups in the European Union: political and sociological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Kanevsky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Interaction between interest groups and political institutions is one of the cornerstones of the European Union policy making process. Although majority of Russian and foreign works dedicated to lobbying and decision making in the EU, concentrate on a governmental stadial system and normative procedures that regulate interest groups access to policy making centers. Such institutional approach doesn’t clarify why the EU has concrete policies, why not all interest groups are able to win, who sets the agenda and in whose interests decisions are made. Current article, using contemporary theories and research, analyzes process of interaction between interest groups and governmental structures in the EU. It also proposes explanations of wins and losses in the policy making process, trying to answer how interest groups interacts with each other and what patterns can be identified in the process of interest aggregation by governmental structures.

  17. The health policy pathfinder: an innovative strategy to explore interest group politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nannini, Angela

    2009-10-01

    Moving a specific nursing health policy agenda forward depends on skill in building coalitions with other interest or stakeholder groups, including consumers. Often, nursing students study health policy in a discipline-specific environment without experiential opportunities to argue their views with other stakeholders in policy arenas. The health policy pathfinder, an innovative learning strategy for understanding interest group politics, will assist nursing students in meeting the following objectives: 1) analyze and articulate diverse policy arguments from various stakeholder groups; 2) identify opportunities for collaborations between stakeholder groups; 3) identify the influence of interest groups on the policy making process; and 4) critically evaluate evidence from a variety of sources ranging from peer-reviewed publications to grey literature to Internet blogs. This article describes the health policy pathfinder, including design, execution, and evaluation steps, and provides a brief excerpt from a student pathfinder. Copyright 2009, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Intra-Party Dynamics and the Political Transformation of Non-State Armed Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Dudouet

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Although non-state armed groups are primary stakeholders in contemporary political conflicts, there has been little research into their members’ perspectives on internal factors shaping radicalisation and de-radicalisation. State and international actors often assume that bringing rebel leaders to the negotiating table or “converting” them to peaceful politicians means weakening, splitting, or dismantling militant structures. This paper re-evaluates those assumptions in the light of rebel leaders’ own accounts of internal organisational dynamics before, during, and after political conflicts and peace settlements. Participatory action research with “insider experts” from armed movements in Northern Ireland, Kosovo, Nepal, Aceh, El Salvador, Colombia, and South Africa reveals insiders’ analysis of leadership and organisational dynamics during armed conflict and political talks and highlights the rational decision-making process whereby proactive leaders constantly (reassess and adjust their tactics (from unarmed to armed and vice versa as the strategic environment evolves. Horizontal and vertical communication between members is critical for enabling collective ownership of transformation processes from violent insurgency to peaceful transition and preventing internal splits and disaffection during peace negotiations. The claim that rebel organisations should be dismantled as quickly as possible during peace processes is found to be dubious, highlighting instead the importance of retaining cohesive coordination and communication structures during volatile post-war transitions.

  19. Building Strategic Business and Industry Training Partnerships that Lead to Legislative Advocacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holle, Teri L.

    2012-01-01

    Organization is essential to just about every sort of operation, but it is especially important in advocacy work. Without organization, an advocacy group may be nothing more than several individuals who agree on some large issue and try to react to threats to what they believe in. A well-functioning advocacy group has to have common goals and a…

  20. Community stakeholder responses to advocacy advertising

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.; Sinclair, J. [Elon University, Elon, NC (United States). School Community

    2009-07-01

    Focus group research was used to examine how community stakeholders, a group with local industry experience, responded to coal industry advocacy messages. The stakeholders expressed beliefs about both the advertiser and the coal industry, and while their knowledge led to critical consideration of the industry campaign, they also expressed a desire to identify with positive messages about their community. Applying a postpositivist research perspective, a new model is introduced to integrate these beliefs in terms of advertiser trust and industry accountability under the existing theoretical framework of persuasion knowledge. Agent and topic knowledge are combined in this model based on responses to the industry advocacy campaign. In doing so, this study integrates a priori theory within a new context, extending the current theoretical framework to include an understanding of how community stakeholders - a common target for marketplace advocacy - interpret industry messages.

  1. Spanish Patriotic Groups in Mexico and the 98: Patriotism, Dissidence, and Political Proselytism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimer Granados

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the political activities of the Spanish colony in Mexico during the Porfiriato, regarding the 1895-1898 war be­tween Spain and Cuba and the United States. The author focu­ses on three urban centers with Spanish residents -Mexico City, Veracruz and Merida- and analyzes the subject in relation with the colony's complex ideological, social and material interests. The patriotic activities carried out by the colony until the defeat of 1898 is not explained from the diplomatic viewpoint, which is the most common, but from the creation of  patriotic groups (juntas patrióticas, encouraged by the Spanish embassy and  by institutions such as the Casino, the interests of which were often contrary to those of the Mexican government and even entailed conflicts with Cuban secessionist groups also active in Mexico.

  2. The Tradition of Advocacy in the Yoruba Courts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asante, Molefi Kete

    1990-01-01

    Examines the extensive system of advocacy (based on the idea of group consensus) among the Yoruba in Nigeria. Gives a detailed account of communicative forms and functions of advocacy in legal proceedings and their relationship to Yoruba culture. Explores how Yoruba people argue their cases and find harmony out of a context of disputations. (SR)

  3. Treatments for Neurodevelopmental Disorders: Evidence, Advocacy, and the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, Nina C.; Whiteley, Louise; Mizgalewicz, Ania; Illes, Judy

    2013-01-01

    The Internet is a major source of health-related information for parents of sick children despite concerns surrounding quality. For neurodevelopmental disorders, the websites of advocacy groups are a largely unexamined source of information. We evaluated treatment information posted on nine highly-trafficked advocacy websites for autism, cerebral…

  4. Education and Political Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massialas, Byron G.

    1977-01-01

    Considers how education is related to politics with the focus on political socialization, political recruitment, i.e., the selection and training of political elites, and political integration or nation building of groups of people. (Author/RK)

  5. Advocacy for eye care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thulasiraj D Ravilla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of eye care service delivery is often dependant on how the different stakeholders are aligned. These stakeholders range from the ministries of health who have the capacity to grant government subsidies for eye care, down to the primary healthcare workers who can be enrolled to screen for basic eye diseases. Advocacy is a tool that can help service providers draw the attention of key stakeholders to a particular area of concern. By enlisting the support, endorsement and participation of a wider circle of players, advocacy can help to improve the penetration and effectiveness of the services provided. There are several factors in the external environmental that influence the eye care services - such as the availability of trained manpower, supply of eye care consumables, government rules and regulations. There are several instances where successful advocacy has helped to create an enabling environment for eye care service delivery. Providing eye care services in developing countries requires the support - either for direct patient care or for support services such as producing trained manpower or for research and dissemination. Such support, in the form of financial or other resources, can be garnered through advocacy.

  6. The political mobilization of corporate directors: socio-economic correlates of affiliation to European pressure groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Matthew; Glouharova, Siana; Harrigan, Nicholas

    2010-06-01

    Business has played a central role in the debate over Britain's place in the European Union. This paper examines the socio-economic characteristics of directors of Britain's largest corporations who affiliated either to Business for Sterling or Britain in Europe. It reports associations between directors' social backgrounds and their probabilities of affiliation. Elite university education, club membership, wealth and multiple directorships were all associated with higher propensities to affiliate. The associations are consistent with the idea that directors' social resources allow them to overcome collective action problems as well as supplying them with the motivations to affiliate. They also indicated that directors form a privileged group in that they have a number of very powerful actors who can take unilateral political actions.

  7. Development of measures to evaluate youth advocacy for obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millstein, Rachel A; Woodruff, Susan I; Linton, Leslie S; Edwards, Christine C; Sallis, James F

    2016-07-26

    Youth advocacy has been successfully used in substance use prevention but is a novel strategy in obesity prevention. As a precondition for building an evidence base for youth advocacy for obesity prevention, the present study aimed to develop and evaluate measures of youth advocacy mediator, process, and outcome variables. The Youth Engagement and Action for Health (YEAH!) program (San Diego County, CA) engaged youth and adult group leaders in advocacy for school and neighborhood improvements to nutrition and physical activity environments. Based on a model of youth advocacy, scales were developed to assess mediators, intervention processes, and proximal outcomes of youth advocacy for obesity prevention. Youth (baseline n = 136) and adult group leaders (baseline n = 47) completed surveys before and after advocacy projects. With baseline data, we created youth advocacy and adult leadership subscales using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and described their psychometric properties. Youth came from 21 groups, were ages 9-22, and most were female. Most youth were non-White, and the largest ethnic group was Hispanic/Latino (35.6%). The proposed factor structure held for most (14/20 youth and 1/2 adult) subscales. Modifications were necessary for 6 of the originally proposed 20 youth and 1 of the 2 adult multi-item subscales, which involved splitting larger subscales into two components and dropping low-performing items. Internally consistent scales to assess mediators, intervention processes, and proximal outcomes of youth advocacy for obesity prevention were developed. The resulting scales can be used in future studies to evaluate youth advocacy programs.

  8. The balanced ideological antipathy model: explaining the effects of ideological attitudes on inter-group antipathy across the political spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jarret T; Mallinas, Stephanie R; Furman, Bryan J

    2015-12-01

    We introduce the balanced ideological antipathy (BIA) model, which challenges assumptions that right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) and social dominance orientation (SDO) predict inter-group antipathy per se. Rather, the effects of RWA and SDO on antipathy should depend on the target's political orientation and political objectives, the specific components of RWA, and the type of antipathy expressed. Consistent with the model, two studies (N = 585) showed that the Traditionalism component of RWA positively and negatively predicted both political intolerance and prejudice toward tradition-threatening and -reaffirming groups, respectively, whereas SDO positively and negatively predicted prejudice (and to some extent political intolerance) toward hierarchy-attenuating and -enhancing groups, respectively. Critically, the Conservatism component of RWA positively predicted political intolerance (but not prejudice) toward each type of target group, suggesting it captures the anti-democratic impulse at the heart of authoritarianism. Recommendations for future research on the relationship between ideological attitudes and inter-group antipathy are discussed. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  9. Organizational Repertoires and Institutional Change: Women's Groups and the Transformation of U.S. Politics, 1890-1920.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Elisabeth S.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses social changes brought about in the United States as a result of the women's suffrage movement. Explains that groups marginalized by existing institutions must create alternative organizations if they are to be successful. Describes political innovations used by women's groups in the struggle for voting rights. (CFR)

  10. Growing Up Amid Ethno-political Conflict: Aggression and Emotional Desensitization Promote Hostility to Ethnic Out-groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Erika Y.; Boxer, Paul; Dubow, Eric; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Shikaki, Khalil; Landau, Simha; Gvirsman, Shira Dvir

    2016-01-01

    Ethno-political violence impacts thousands of youth and is associated with numerous negative outcomes. Yet little research examines adaptation to ethno-political violence over time or across multiple outcomes simultaneously. The present study examines longitudinal patterns of aggressive behavior and emotional distress as they co-occur among Palestinian (n=600) youth exposed to ethno-political violence over 3 years in 3 age cohorts (starting ages: 8, 11, 14). Findings indicate distinct profiles of aggressive behavior and emotional distress, and unique joint patterns. Further, youth among key joint profiles (e.g., high aggression-emotional desensitization) are more likely to endorse normative beliefs about aggression toward ethnic out-groups. This study offers a dynamic perspective on emotional and behavioral adaptation to ethno-political violence and the implications of those processes. PMID:27684400

  11. Intersectional Political Consciousness: Appreciation for Intragroup Differences and Solidarity in Diverse Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Ronni Michelle

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces an intersectional approach to political consciousness and presents data to demonstrate its importance for predicting solidarity in diverse social change organizations. Women activists (N = 174) completed measures of political consciousness, diversity, and solidarity. As expected, women differed in the degree to which their…

  12. Organizational Life and Political Incorporation of Two Asian Immigrant Groups: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aptekar, Sofya

    2009-10-14

    Civil society is the foundation of a healthy democracy but its immigrant element has received little attention. This paper is a case study of immigrant organizations of highly-skilled Asian Indians and Chinese immigrants in a suburban town of Edison, New Jersey. I find that civic participation of Asian Indian immigrants spills over into political incorporation while Chinese immigrant organizations remain marginalized. I argue the local processes of racialization are central in explaining differences in political incorporation of immigrants. In the local context, the Chinese are seen as successful but conformist model minorities and Asian Indians as invaders and troublemakers. The racialization of Asian Indians has resulted in more political activity and higher levels of political visibility of their organizations. The results highlight shortcomings of current assimilation theories, which give little space to civic and political incorporation and view human capital in an unqualifiedly positive light.

  13. FRACTURED CONSENSUS: Islamic Groups and the Perceived Military Politics in Post-Suharto Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukman Hakim

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Book Review:Book title:Military Politics, Islam, and the State in IndonesiaAuthor:Marcus MietznerNo. of Pages:xvi + 426Year:2009Publisher:Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Singapore

  14. Standing in the middle: Insider/outsider positionality while conducting qualitative research with opposing military veteran political groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Flores

    2018-01-01

    This case study describes the process and challenges of conducting qualitative research on two opposing military veteran political groups: Iraq Veterans Against the War and Vets for Freedom. The discussion is based on a dissertation project that compelled me to reflect on my simultaneous "insider" status as a military veteran and "outsider" status...

  15. Comments on report ''The impact of nuclear waste disposals to the marine environment'' by Political Ecology Research Group (RR-8)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-06-01

    A series of statements made by the Political Ecology Research Group in a report ''The Impact of Nuclear Waste Disposals to the Marine Environment'' are commented on by British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. Areas covered include radioactive discharges, health effects, recommendations for reducing discharge arising from the Windscale Inquiry and solid waste disposal to the deep ocean. (author)

  16. Political Science Theory for Public Health Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Tyler

    2014-01-01

    Community health educators are well versed in the behavior sciences, including intervention theories. However, most public health professionals are not familiar with the policy theories related to political advocacy. Because health educators are engaging in policy advocacy more frequently, and as a result of the profession including policy…

  17. Credibility and advocacy in conservation science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Cristi C.; Peterson, Tarla Rai; Banerjee, Paulami

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Conservation policy sits at the nexus of natural science and politics. On the one hand, conservation scientists strive to maintain scientific credibility by emphasizing that their research findings are the result of disinterested observations of reality. On the other hand, conservation scientists are committed to conservation even if they do not advocate a particular policy. The professional conservation literature offers guidance on negotiating the relationship between scientific objectivity and political advocacy without damaging conservation science's credibility. The value of this guidance, however, may be restricted by limited recognition of credibility's multidimensionality and emergent nature: it emerges through perceptions of expertise, goodwill, and trustworthiness. We used content analysis of the literature to determine how credibility is framed in conservation science as it relates to apparent contradictions between science and advocacy. Credibility typically was framed as a static entity lacking dimensionality. Authors identified expertise or trustworthiness as important, but rarely mentioned goodwill. They usually did not identify expertise, goodwill, or trustworthiness as dimensions of credibility or recognize interactions among these 3 dimensions of credibility. This oversimplification may limit the ability of conservation scientists to contribute to biodiversity conservation. Accounting for the emergent quality and multidimensionality of credibility should enable conservation scientists to advance biodiversity conservation more effectively. PMID:26041036

  18. Political Identitiy Of A Minority Group Study Of Noaulu State Community Survival Strategy In Sepa Central Maluku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Manaf Tubaka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study has five objectives. Firstly why religion of Noaulu can survive in the Midst of social change Increasingly. Secondly how the relationship that has developed between Naulu Community and the government maintains Reviews their identity. Thirdly how the government treats the minority of Noaulu along with Reviews their existence. Fourthly how the factors of social culture and politics influence the sustainability of the political dynamic of Noaulu community in Sepa. Sixthly how the shared value that has been applied by Noaulu community and the political identity as addressing the political dynamic of the social structure of society. This study used a qualitative method with the approach of verstehen or understanding to dig the data is from inside inside view of values or meanings that comes from the subject of the study through the individuals and the phenomenon of political identity in Noaulu community. Data were gained through the observation depth interview and documentation. The analysis of data begins with making the abstraction Categorization coding checking the correctness of the data and then interpreting the data is and drawing the conclusion. Results of the study Showed that firstly the religion Becomes the adhesive strength of identity that Allows the sustainability of Noaulu Community. Secondly each of the minority community it will adapt Strategically to the power of the state in the relations of Resistance in compliance. Thirdly the New Order State has made the space plurality of race religion and ethnicity in the political stability that is rigid Thus it turns off the articulation space of religion and cultural identity of each minority group. Fourthly factors of social cultural political and give impact in the area of social relations culture and politics as well. Fifthly each of minority community always possess shared values such as high trust commitment to the religion loyaity to the group and the value of reciprocity

  19. 42 Editorial ADVOCACY IN ORTHOPAEDICS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-11

    Sep 11, 2017 ... East African Orthopaedic Journal. Advocacy may be ... taxation of medical equipment and implants in Kenya. In 2013 a change ... Asia countries especially India were doing the opposite. They reduced ... Most developing countries have been dealing with communicable ... The role of advocacy is huge here.

  20. Advocacy and IPR, tutorial 4

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    With open access and repositories assuming a high profile some may question whether advocacy is still necessary. Those involved in the business of setting up and populating repositories are aware that in the majority of institutions there is still a great need for advocacy. This tutorial will give participants an opportunity to discuss different advocacy methods and approaches, including the 'top down' and 'bottom up' approach, publicity methods and the opportunities offered by funding body positions on open access. Participants will have the opportunity to share experiences of what works and what doesn't. The advocacy role often encompasses responsibility for advising academics on IPR issues. This is a particularly critical area where repository staff are engaged in depositing content on behalf of academics. The tutorial will offer an opportunity to discuss the IPR issues encountered by those managing repositories. The tutorial will draw on the experience of participants who have been engaged in advocacy act...

  1. Advocacy, communication and social mobilisation for tuberculosis control in Pakistan: a qualitative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Z; Khan, W; Rizwan, S

    2013-03-01

    A national-level study in four districts, one each in all four provinces of Pakistan, a high tuberculosis (TB) burden country. To examine how advocacy, communication and social mobilisation (ACSM) campaigns by the National Tuberculosis Programme (NTP) in Pakistan engaged the populations of interest, to what extent they were successful in promoting services and desired behaviours, and how these campaigns could be improved. This was a qualitative case study comprising 13 focus groups and 36 individual interviews in four districts. All three levels of the ACSM programme, i.e., planners, implementers and beneficiaries, were included among the respondents. Improved political commitment, availability of funds, partnership with the private sector, visibility of the NTP and access to directly observed treatment (DOT) were achieved. Individual and social environmental issues of poor patients and marginalised communities were addressed to some extent, and could be improved in the future. Empathy and respect from physicians, and better service delivery of the DOTS-based programme were desired by the patients. The strategic advocacy ensured political and financial commitment; however, identification and targeting of vulnerable populations, and carrying out context-based social mobilisation and effective counselling are crucial to increase the use of DOT. Evaluations should be built-in from the beginning to increase the evidence on effectiveness of ACSM campaigns.

  2. Latcrit Educational Leadership and Advocacy: Struggling over Whiteness as Property in Texas School Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Enrique, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author seeks to re-imagine the political and policy roles of educational leaders of color, offering an alternative method for educational leadership, advocacy, and policy analysis. The author uses critical race theory (CRT) and Latina/o critical (LatCrit) theory to problematize the way politically-active Mexican American…

  3. Relationship between a Belief in a Just World and Social Justice Advocacy Attitudes of School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Sejal B.; Post, Phyllis; Flowers, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how belief in a just world (BJW), political ideology, religious ideology, socioeconomic status of origin, and race relate to social justice advocacy attitudes among school counseling professionals. A sequential multiple regression indicated that political ideology and BJW were statistically significant…

  4. FORUM OF POLITICAL PARTIES, THINK TANKS AND NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS OF THE BRICS GROUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Gladun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Joint International Forum of Political Parties, Think Tanks and NonGovernmental Organizations of the BRICS took place in Fuzhou, China on 10–12 June 2017. The event was hosted jointly by the International Department of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, the China Council for BRICS Think Tank Cooperation and the China NGO Network for International Exchanges.For the first time in the story of BRICS cooperation the countries’ representatives witnessed the renewed format of the BRICS Academic Forum – two traditional tracks (academic conference and civil track were supplemented by the assembly of political parties. Taking its turn in chairing the multinational BRICS association in 2017, China proposed this new Forum format and joined together three dialogues that had grown out of the BRICS Academic Forum, which took place now for the ninth time.1 Another innovation on China’s part was the outreach format – representatives of 28 countries, including Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Cambodia, Egypt, Nigeria, Ethiopia, Kenya, Argentina, Chile and Mexico among others took part.The Joint International Forum was a truly large-scale international event – 37 political parties of 26 countries, 105 think tanks, and over 400 representatives of 79 civil society organizations were in attendance.2The Forum participants engaged in separate deliberations at the BRICS Academic Forum on “Pooling Wisdom and New Ideas for Cooperation,” the BRICS Civil Society Organizations Forum on “Stronger People-to-People Bond for Better Cooperation,” and the BRICS Political Parties Dialogue on the “Guiding Role of Political Parties in Promoting Cooperation.” The Forum was a complete success with broad consensus.

  5. Historical events, groups and mentors: on agents of politicization and multiple ways of entering politics in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Gené

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the processes of politicization of the elites of the Interior Ministry in Argentina. Supported by in-depth interviews, archival material, journalistic records, and specific bibliography, the paper seeks to shed light on the centrality of historical events, militancy groups, and mentors in such paths. Firstly, we reflect on the role of political events understood as milestones of politicization, which then fuel a dispute over their interpretation and appropriation. Then we refer to the multiple character of the militancy groups and the theoretical and practical knowledge there harvested. Finally, we focus on the role played by mentors in facilitating experiences and contacts, fundamental rudiments for the political profession.

  6. Tweeting on Catalonia’s Independence: The Dynamics of Political Discussion and Group Polarisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Balcells

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides evidence in favour of social media serving as facilitators of public deliberation, in contrast with the hypothesis that emphasises the dominance of the “echo chamber” effect. It focuses on conversational interactions on Twitter between supporters from opposite sides in a potentially highly polarised political issue, i.e. the debate on the independence of Catalonia, which is used as a case study. Methodologically we rely on a random sample of communications on the Twitter reply network, involving for and against independence supporters. Remarkably, despite the tendency of forming homophilic networks, we find that communication across political lines is relatively frequent. Furthermore, heterogeneous conversations (where opposing sides are engaged in a dialogue tend to be significantly longer than homogenous ones (where all participants share the same view, which can be seen as a sign of genuine deliberation based on reasonably exchanging arguments between competing viewpoints.

  7. Dimensions of Aggressiveness as a Psychological Background of Political Orientations and Ethnocentrism: a Comparison of Different Sociodemographic Groups in Vojvodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatko Šram

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The author begins with the supposition (1 that specific dimensions of aggressiveness provide a background for various political orientations and ethnocentrism, and (2 that different traits among respondents influence notably the latent configuration of dimensions pertaining to political orientations, ethnocentrism and aggressive behaviour. A sample of 628 adults was derived in a logical manner from the electoral lists of the commune of Subotica. Factor analysis revealed latent variables pertaining to political orientations, ethnocentrism and aggressiveness. Canonical correlation analysis was carried out in order to determine, on the one hand, the relations between the group of variables constituting the area of political orientations and ethnocentrism and, on the other hand, the group of variables constituting the area of aggressiveness. The model of canonical correlation analysis produced two statistically significant canonical correlations. The canonical correlation between the two groups reached 0.49, meaning that − based on knowledge of the different dimensions of aggressiveness − it is possible to explain 24% of the variants in regard to the joint appearance of certain dimensions of political orientations and ethnocentrism. The author postulates the existence of an ideological model that he calls "national exclusiveness and an anti-Western militarist-statist orientation", the background of which includes sociopathological aggressiveness. He also postulates the existence of another ideological model, which he calls "anti-Western militarist-statist", which is not based on sociopathological aggressiveness, but is primarily determined by asocial behaviour in childhood. The author likewise highlights the existence of a relationship between affective national attachment and the need for national homogenising through a certain type of aggressiveness with neurotic characteristics (impulsiveness, egocentrism, absence of empathy. The results of

  8. Relationship of locus of control, psychological distress, and trauma exposure in groups impacted by intense political conflict in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanikolaou, Vasiliki; Gadallah, Mohsen; Leon, Gloria R; Massou, Efthalia; Prodromitis, Gerasimos; Skembris, Angelos; Levett, Jeffrey

    2013-10-01

    Social and political instability have become common situations in many parts of the world. Exposure to different types of traumatic circumstances may differentially affect psychological status. The aim of this study was to compare the relationship between personal perceptions of control over the events happening in one's life and psychological distress in two groups who experienced physical trauma but differed as to whether the trauma was a result of political upheaval and violence. Views on the extent to which the state was interested in the individual were also assessed. The sample consisted of 120 patients who were injured in the Cairo epicenter and 120 matched controls from the greater Cairo area whose injuries were from other causes. The Brown Locus of Control Scale and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL 90-R) were administered approximately three months after the January 2011 start of the demonstrations and subsequent overthrow of the government. The groups did not differ on locus of control. For both groups, externality was associated with greater distress, suggesting a relationship between perceived helplessness in controlling one's life and distress. The Cairo group scored significantly higher than the control group on the SCL 90-R Global Severity Index (GSI) and Positive Symptom Total (PST). Perceptions of state interest in the population were low; overall, 78% viewed the state as having little or no interest in them. Discussion The relationship between exposure intensity and psychological distress is examined. In addition, differences in findings in populations experiencing political chaos compared with other types of disasters are considered. Beliefs regarding personal control over one's life circumstances are more closely associated with psychological distress than the circumstances in which the trauma occurred.

  9. Rivalry of Advocacy Coalitions in the Czech Pension Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potůček Martin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Czech Republic, as many other countries of Central and Eastern Europe, faced and is still facing a pension-reform challenge. The diversification of pension pillars led to the massive displacements of participant contributions from the public PAYG pension pillars to the newly constructed private, defined-contribution, fully-funded pillars. In the Czech Republic, the adoption of the relevant law was preceded by serious political conflict between supporters and opponents of this step (both among different political actors and among professionals. In an analysis of the conflict we critically apply the Advocacy Coalition Framework. We work mainly with the analysis of policy documents, public statements of the individual actors and an analysis of voting on the relevant law in both chambers of the Czech Parliament towards the identification of the crystallization process of two clear-cut coalitions between actors from both sides of the spectrum. The Advocacy Coalition Framework in exploring the dynamics of the public-policy process proved to be able to explain situations where there is sharp political conflict. Through the lens of the devil-shift of both camps (advocacy coalitions with different beliefs, each fell into extreme positions within the coalition to affirm the correctness of their arguments and positions.

  10. Engaging students in community health: a public health advocacy curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Nell; Ned, Judith; Winkleby, Marilyn

    2014-03-01

    Individual risk assessment and behavior change dominate the content of high school health education instruction whereas broader social, political, and economic factors that influence health-known as upstream causes-are less commonly considered. With input from instructors and students, we developed a 10-lesson experiential Public Health Advocacy Curriculum that uses classroom-based activities to teach high school students about the upstream causes of health and engages them in community-based health advocacy. The Curriculum, most suitable for health- or advocacy-related elective classes or after-school programs, may be taught in its entirety or as single lessons integrated into existing coursework. Although students at many schools are using the Curriculum, it has been formally evaluated with 110 predominantly Latino students at one urban and one semirural public high school in Northern California (six classes). In pre-post surveys, students showed highly significant and positive changes in the nine questions that covered the three main Curriculum domains (Upstream Causes, Community Exploration, and Public Health Advocacy), p values .02 to Curriculum is being widely disseminated without charge to local, national, and international audiences, with the objective of grooming a generation of youth who are committed to the public health perspective to health.

  11. Evidence or Advocacy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie

    2015-01-01

    and a broad range of political parties and used national and international reports on schools since 2006 (Bamford & Qvortrup, 2006; Ministry of Education, 2012a, 2012b; UNESCO, 2006, 2010; Winner, Goldstein, & Lancrin, 2013). I examine the New Common Objectives Act for visual arts in school articulated...... for visual arts reflect a development that creates a paradox between the core of visual arts (to express impressions to achieve knowledge about the world) and the demand for a cognitive learning outcome. IT and media, innovation, and entrepreneurship are now implemented in school subjects in which students...

  12. [Political psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.

  13. Competition Advocacy: the Italian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Rebecchini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Competition advocacy is considered, together with enforcement, the core business of an antitrust authority. Broadly speaking there are at least three main tasks regularly performed by most, if not all, antitrust agencies that are amenable to the advocacy function: addressing laws and regulations in order to remove unnecessary impediments to competition; engaging in sector enquiries to understand markets behavior and identify critical issues; explaining the benefits of open competitive markets to the public opinion. This article examines these three main tasks and outlines the challenges for competition agencies, with references to the experience of the Italian Competition Authority (ICA and the initiatives undertaken at international level.

  14. Advocacy for Children with Social-Communication Needs: Perspectives from Parents and School Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Meghan M.; Meadan-Kaplansky, Hedda; Patton, Kimberly A.; Pearson, Jamie N.; Cummings, Katrina P.; Lee, Chung eun

    2018-01-01

    Although parents of children with disabilities often advocate for special education services, most research has only examined advocacy from the perspectives of parents. Given that advocacy is an interpersonal exchange, it is crucial to understand the perspectives of parents and school professionals. In this study, focus groups were conducted with…

  15. The political logic of labour market reforms and popular images of target groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Albrekt

    2008-01-01

    Even though the shift from ‘passive' to ‘active' labour market policy exhibit large cross-national variations, they all seem to share two common characteristics; 1) the first group exposed to the new policies and the group exposed to the harshest policies was young people on social assistance and...... explanation for the different popular images of target groups and 2) by showing - using a national Australian sample - that these general popular images influence the way the public wants ‘active' labour market policy to be conducted....

  16. Practitioner Perceptions of School Library Advocacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    School library advocacy is increasingly important due to decreases in funding and staff. National organizations attempt to engage school librarians in advocacy and have developed resources and tools to assist with this task. However, there is little research examining how practicing school librarians engage in advocacy and how their advocacy…

  17. Addiction, agency, and the politics of self-control: doing harm reduction in a heroin users' group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowan, Teresa; Whetstone, Sarah; Andic, Tanja

    2012-04-01

    Our 2007-2009 ethnography describes and analyses the practice of harm reduction in a heroin users' group in the midwestern United States. While dominant addiction interventions conceptualize the addict as powerless - either through moral or physical weakness - this group contested such "commonsense," treating illicit drug use as one of many ways that modern individuals attempt to "fill the void." Insisting on the destigmatization of addiction and the normalization of illicit drug use, the group helped its members work on incremental steps toward self-management. Although "Connection Points" had very limited resources to improve the lives of its members, our work suggests that the users' group did much to restore self-respect, rational subjectivity, and autonomy to a group historically represented as incapable of reason and self-control. As the users cohered as a community, they developed a critique of the oppressions suffered by "junkies," discussed their rights and entitlements, and even planned the occasional political action. Engaging with literature on the cultural construction of agency and responsibility, we consider, but ultimately complicate, the conceptualization of needle exchange as a "neoliberal" form of population management. Within the context of the United States' War on Drugs, the group's work on destigmatization, health education, and the practice of incremental control showed the potential for reassertions of social citizenship within highly marginal spaces. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Global Health Warning: Definitions Wield Power; Comment on “Navigating Between Stealth Advocacy and Unconscious Dogmatism: The Challenge of Researching the Norms, Politics and Power of Global Health”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Marten

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Gorik Ooms recently made a strong case for considering the centrality of normative premises to analyzing and understanding the underappreciated importance of the nexus of politics, power and process in global health. This critical commentary raises serious questions for the practice and study of global health and global health governance. First and foremost, this commentary underlines the importance of the question of what is global health, and why as well as how does this definition matter? This refocuses discussion on the importance of definitions and how they wield power. It also re-affirms the necessity of a deeper analysis and understanding of power and how it affects and shapes the practice of global health.

  19. Coleman Advocates for Children And Youth: a pioneering child advocacy organization (1974-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnochan, Sarah; Austin, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Coleman Advocates for Youth and Children is a pioneering 30-year-old child advocacy organization founded by several affluent community members and children's service professionals to stop housing abused and neglected children in juvenile hall. Today, low-income youth and parents in families of color are now assuming leadership in developing a unique hybrid approach that integrates community organizing with more traditional child advocacy strategies and focuses on increasing affordable housing and improving the city's educational system. The strategies employed by Coleman have also evolved, shifting from insider advocacy with administrative officials to public campaigns targeting the city budget process, to local initiative campaigns, and most recently to electoral politics. This organizational history features the issues mission and structure, leadership, managing issues, advocacy strategies and community relations, and funding.

  20. Backlash: The Politics and Real-World Consequences of Minority Group Dehumanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kteily, Nour; Bruneau, Emile

    2017-01-01

    Research suggests that members of advantaged groups who feel dehumanized by other groups respond aggressively. But little is known about how meta-dehumanization affects disadvantaged minority group members, historically the primary targets of dehumanization. We examine this important question in the context of the 2016 U.S. Republican Primaries, which have witnessed the widespread derogation and dehumanization of Mexican immigrants and Muslims. Two initial studies document that Americans blatantly dehumanize Mexican immigrants and Muslims; this dehumanization uniquely predicts support for aggressive policies proposed by Republican nominees, and dehumanization is highly associated with supporting Republican candidates (especially Donald Trump). Two further studies show that, in this climate, Latinos and Muslims in the United States feel heavily dehumanized, which predicts hostile responses including support for violent versus non-violent collective action and unwillingness to assist counterterrorism efforts. Our results extend theorizing on dehumanization, and suggest that it may have cyclical and self-fulfilling consequences.

  1. Transition to Market Economy in Eastern Europe: Interest groups and political institutions in Russia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjødt, Esben Bergmann; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2002-01-01

    revolutions," the old state monopolies were not removed. State monopolies have small-group advantages in contrast to the large group of private firms, which are numerous and not yet organized. It leads to an asymmetrical pattern of lobbyism in favor of non-transition, which can only be mitigated...... out comprehensive economic reforms. Free trade with the West and potential competition may put pressure on the old state monopolies. However, lobbies in the European Union may oppose free trade to maintain their monopoly....

  2. Theorising accountability for NGO advocacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unerman, J.; O'Dwyer, B.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to develop a staged theoretical argument regarding whether non-governmental organisations (NGOs) can be considered responsible and accountable for the direct and indirect consequences, on a wide range of stakeholders, flowing from their advocacy activities.

  3. Physician advocacy in Western medicine: a 21st century challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagshaw, Philip; Barnett, Pauline

    2017-12-01

    Physician advocacy occurs when doctors speak up for the health and healthcare of patients and communities. Historically, this was strong in some Western countries with doctors finding that it enhanced their authority, prestige and power. But it weakened in the 20th century when the biomedical model of heath triumphed and medicine became a dominant profession. In the second part of the 20th century, this dominance was threatened by political, technological and socioeconomic forces. These weakened medicine's state support, brought it under managerial control and undermined the social contract on which trust between doctors and the community was based. Defence of the profession was assumed by medical colleges, societies and associations. They had some success in retaining professional autonomy but did not undertake open advocacy, particularly on social justice issues, and did not therefore enhance their standing in the community. Opinion is divided on the level of advocacy that it is ethically proper for the medical profession to employ. Some contend doctors should only advise authorities when expert opinion is requested. Others contend doctors should speak out proactively on all health issues, and that collective action of this type is a hallmark of professionalism. This lack of consensus needs to be debated. Recent developments such as clinical leadership have not revitalised physician advocacy. However, continued deterioration of the UK National Health Service has led some English medical colleges to take up open advocacy in its defence. It is to be seen whether medical colleges elsewhere follow suit, as and when their healthcare systems are similarly threatened.

  4. Political Ideology, Trust, and Cooperation: In-group Favoritism among Republicans and Democrats during a US National Election

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balliet, Daniel; Tybur, Joshua M.; Wu, Junhui; Antonellis, Christian; Van Lange, Paul A.M.

    2018-01-01

    Theories suggest that political ideology relates to cooperation, with conservatives being more likely to pursue selfish outcomes, and liberals more likely to pursue egalitarian outcomes. In study 1, we examine how political ideology and political party affiliation (Republican vs. Democrat) predict

  5. Advocacy and policy issues Tutorial 2

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    This tutorial is aimed at those who are new to the area of repositories and who want to learn more about key advocacy and policy issues. The tutorial will include information and advice on putting together an institutional advocacy campaign and developing policies for your repository. There will be opportunities for participants to share experiences and to ask questions. The tutorial will include a practical exercise in developing an advocacy presentation. Participants with experience of advocacy are welcome to attend the session to share their experiences, but should bear in mind that it is aimed primarily at those looking for help and advice in advocacy matters.

  6. Advocacy for active transport: advocate and city council perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenby Marieah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective advocacy is an important part of efforts to increase population participation in physical activity. Research about effective health advocacy is scarce, however, the health sector can learn from the experiences and knowledge of community advocates and those who are on the receiving end of this advocacy. The aim of this study is to explore advocacy for active transport from the perspectives of community advocates and representatives from City councils. Methods Cycling and walking advocates were identified from the local contact list of Cycling Advocates Network and Living Streets Aotearoa. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with cycle and walking advocates from throughout New Zealand. Advocates also nominated a suitable council officer at their local City council to be interviewed. Interviews were recorded and transcribed and categories of responses for each of the questions created. Results Several processes were used by advocates to engage with council staff, including formal council submissions, meetings, stakeholder forums and partnership in running community events promoting active transport. Several other agencies were identified as being influential for active transport, some as potential coalition partners and others as potential adversaries. Barriers to improving conditions for active transport included a lack of funding, a lack of will-power among either council staff or councillors, limited council staff capacity (time or training and a culture of providing infrastructure for motor vehicles instead of people. Several suggestions were made about how the health sector could contribute to advocacy efforts, including encouraging political commitment, engaging the media, communicating the potential health benefits of active transport to the general public and being role models in terms of personal travel mode choice and having workplaces that support participation in active transport

  7. "We Are Not Really Marketing Mental Health": Mental Health Advocacy in Zimbabwe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuben Hendler

    Full Text Available Few people with mental disorders in low and middle-income countries (LMICs receive treatment, in part because mental disorders are highly stigmatized and do not enjoy priority and resources commensurate with their burden on society. Advocacy has been proposed as a means of building political will and community support for mental health and reducing stigma, but few studies have explored the practice and promise of advocacy in LMICs.We conducted 30 semi-structured interviews with leaders in health and mental health in Zimbabwe to explore key stakeholder perceptions on the challenges and opportunities of the country's mental health system. We coded the transcripts using the constant comparative method, informed by principles of grounded theory. Few interview questions directly concerned advocacy, yet in our analysis, advocacy emerged as a prominent, cross-cutting theme across participants and interview questions.Two thirds of the respondents discussed advocacy, often in depth, returning to the concept throughout the interview and emphasizing their belief in advocacy's importance. Participants described six distinct components of advocacy: the advocates, to whom they advocate ("targets", what they advocate for ("asks", how advocates reach their targets ("access", how they make their asks ("arguments", and the results of their advocacy ("outcomes".Despite their perception that mental health is widely misunderstood and under-appreciated in Zimbabwe, respondents expressed optimism that strategically speaking out can reduce stigma and increase access to care. Key issues included navigating hierarchies, empowering service users to advocate, and integrating mental health with other health initiatives. Understanding stakeholder perceptions sets the stage for targeted development of mental health advocacy in Zimbabwe and other LMICs.

  8. "We Are Not Really Marketing Mental Health": Mental Health Advocacy in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendler, Reuben; Kidia, Khameer; Machando, Debra; Crooks, Megan; Mangezi, Walter; Abas, Melanie; Katz, Craig; Thornicroft, Graham; Semrau, Maya; Jack, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Few people with mental disorders in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) receive treatment, in part because mental disorders are highly stigmatized and do not enjoy priority and resources commensurate with their burden on society. Advocacy has been proposed as a means of building political will and community support for mental health and reducing stigma, but few studies have explored the practice and promise of advocacy in LMICs. We conducted 30 semi-structured interviews with leaders in health and mental health in Zimbabwe to explore key stakeholder perceptions on the challenges and opportunities of the country's mental health system. We coded the transcripts using the constant comparative method, informed by principles of grounded theory. Few interview questions directly concerned advocacy, yet in our analysis, advocacy emerged as a prominent, cross-cutting theme across participants and interview questions. Two thirds of the respondents discussed advocacy, often in depth, returning to the concept throughout the interview and emphasizing their belief in advocacy's importance. Participants described six distinct components of advocacy: the advocates, to whom they advocate ("targets"), what they advocate for ("asks"), how advocates reach their targets ("access"), how they make their asks ("arguments"), and the results of their advocacy ("outcomes"). Despite their perception that mental health is widely misunderstood and under-appreciated in Zimbabwe, respondents expressed optimism that strategically speaking out can reduce stigma and increase access to care. Key issues included navigating hierarchies, empowering service users to advocate, and integrating mental health with other health initiatives. Understanding stakeholder perceptions sets the stage for targeted development of mental health advocacy in Zimbabwe and other LMICs.

  9. Using group consciousness theories to understand political activism: case studies of Barack Obama, Hillary Clinton, and Ingo Hasselbach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Lauren E

    2010-12-01

    I describe and integrate several theories of group consciousness and collective action, along with 3 case studies of political activists. I have 2 goals: (1) to use the theories to help us understand something puzzling about each life and (2) to use the cases to complicate and expand the theories. Barack Obama's case raises the question of how someone with a politicized Black identity evolved into a politician working for all oppressed people and complicates racial identity development theory. Hillary Clinton's case raises the question of how a middle-class White girl raised in a conservative family became a prominent Democratic Party politician and complicates group consciousness theories by demonstrating the importance of generation and personality. Ingo Hasselbach's (a former German neo-Nazi leader) case illustrates relative deprivation theory and raises the question of whether theories developed to explain subordinate group consciousness can be applied to movements of dominant group consciousness. © 2010 The Author. Journal of Personality © 2010, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Personality, Parasites, Political Attitudes, and Cooperation: A Model of How Infection Prevalence Influences Openness and Social Group Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gordon D A; Fincher, Corey L; Walasek, Lukasz

    2016-01-01

    What is the origin of individual differences in ideology and personality? According to the parasite stress hypothesis, the structure of a society and the values of individuals within it are both influenced by the prevalence of infectious disease within the society's geographical region. High levels of infection threat are associated with more ethnocentric and collectivist social structures and greater adherence to social norms, as well as with socially conservative political ideology and less open but more conscientious personalities. Here we use an agent-based model to explore a specific opportunities-parasites trade-off (OPTO) hypothesis, according to which utility-maximizing agents place themselves at an optimal point on a trade-off between (a) the gains that may be achieved through accessing the resources of geographically or socially distant out-group members through openness to out-group interaction, and (b) the losses arising due to consequently increased risks of exotic infection to which immunity has not been developed. We examine the evolution of cooperation and the formation of social groups within social networks, and we show that the groups that spontaneously form exhibit greater local rather than global cooperative networks when levels of infection are high. It is suggested that the OPTO model offers a first step toward understanding the specific mechanisms through which environmental conditions may influence cognition, ideology, personality, and social organization. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Topics in Cognitive Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Cognitive Science Society.

  11. Advocacy for mental health: roles for consumer and family organizations and governments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Michelle; Minoletti, Alberto; Drew, Natalie; Taylor, Jacob; Saraceno, Benedetto

    2006-03-01

    The World Health Organization urges countries to become more active in advocacy efforts to put mental health on governments' agendas. Health policy makers, planners and managers, advocacy groups, consumer and family organizations, through their different roles and actions, can move the mental health agenda forward. This paper outlines the importance of the advocacy movement, describes some of the roles and functions of the different groups and identifies some specific actions that can be adopted by Ministries of Health. The mental health advocacy movement has developed over the last 30 years as a means of combating stigma and prejudice against people with mental disorders and improving services. Consumer and family organizations and related NGOs have been able to influence governments on mental health policies and laws and educating the public on social integration of people with mental disorders. Governments can promote the development of a strong mental health advocacy sector without compromising this sector's independence. For instance, they can publish and distribute a directory of mental health advocacy groups, include them in their mental health activities and help fledgling groups become more established. There are also some advocacy functions that government officials can, and indeed, should perform themselves. Officials in the ministry of health can persuade officials in other branches of government to make mental health more of a priority, support advocacy activities with both general health workers and mental health workers and carry out public information campaigns about mental disorders and how to maintain good mental health. In conclusion, the World Health Organization believes mental health advocacy is one of the pillars to improve mental health care and the human rights of people with mental disorders. It is hoped that the recommendations in this article will help government officials and activists to strengthen national advocacy movements.

  12. 'Grounded' Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Garbi

    2012-01-01

    play within one particular neighbourhood: Nørrebro in the Danish capital, Copenhagen. The article introduces the concept of grounded politics to analyse how groups of Muslim immigrants in Nørrebro use the space, relationships and history of the neighbourhood for identity political statements....... The article further describes how national political debates over the Muslim presence in Denmark affect identity political manifestations within Nørrebro. By using Duncan Bell’s concept of mythscape (Bell, 2003), the article shows how some political actors idealize Nørrebro’s past to contest the present...... ethnic and religious diversity of the neighbourhood and, further, to frame what they see as the deterioration of genuine Danish identity....

  13. 'Heated political dynamics exist ...': examining the politics of palliative care in rural British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, Valorie A; Castleden, Heather; Hanlon, Neil; Schuurman, Nadine

    2011-01-01

    Palliative care is delivered by a number of professional groups and informal providers across a range of settings. This arrangement works well in that it maximizes avenues for providing care, but may also bring about complicated 'politics' due to struggles over control and decision-making power. Thirty-one interviews conducted with formal and informal palliative care providers in a rural region of British Columbia, Canada, are drawn upon as a case study. Three types of politics impacting on palliative care provision are identified: inter-community, inter-site, and inter-professional. Three themes crosscut these politics: ownership, entitlement, and administration. The politics revealed by the interviews, and heretofore underexplored in the palliative literature, have implications for the delivery of palliative care. For example, the outcomes of the politics simultaneously facilitate (e.g. by promoting advocacy for local services) and serve as a barrier to (e.g. by privileging certain communities/care sites/provider) palliative care provision.

  14. Factors Related to Play Therapists' Social Justice Advocacy Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Sejal B.; Ceballos, Peggy; Post, Phyllis

    2013-01-01

    The authors used a correlational research design to examine how belief in a just world, political ideology, socioeconomic status of family of origin, and percentage of racial minority clients were related to social justice advocacy attitudes among play therapists. A multiple regression was used to analyze the data. Results indicated that belief in…

  15. Systems Advocacy in the Professional Practice of Early Childhood Teachers: From the Antithetical to the Ethical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenech, Marianne; Lotz, Mianna

    2018-01-01

    Dominant constructions of professionalism in early childhood education can diminish early childhood teachers' and educators' undertaking of advocacy at the systems or political level. In this paper, we propose an ethically grounded construction of professionalism that provides space for professional practice to move beyond the classroom and into…

  16. Political Activities of Social Workers: Addressing Perceived Barriers to Political Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Cynthia; Poe, Bethanie; Thomas, Veliska

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on political participation of social workers and the variables that promote or impede political advocacy. Early research in the 1980s and 1990s most often reported education, feelings of efficacy, having a macro-type job, and being a member of a national association as factors that determine greater political…

  17. The relationship between environmental advocacy, values, and science: a survey of ecological scientists' attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiners, Derek S; Reiners, William A; Lockwood, Jeffrey A

    2013-07-01

    This article reports the results ofa survey of 1215 nonstudent Ecological Society of America (ESA) members. The results pertain to three series of questions designed to assess ecologists' engagement in various advocacy activities, as well as attitudes on the relationship between environmental advocacy, values, and science. We also analyzed the effects of age, gender, and employment categories on responses. While many findings are reported, we highlight six here. First, ecologists in our sample do not report particularly high levels of engagement in advocacy activities. Second, ecologists are not an ideologically unified group. Indeed, there are cases of significant disagreement among ecologists regarding advocacy, values, and science. Third, despite some disagreement, ecologists generally believe that values consistent with environmental advocacy are more consonant with ecological pursuits than values based on environmental skepticism. Fourth, compared to males, female ecologists tend to be more supportive of advocacy and less convinced that environmentally oriented values perturb the pursuit of science. Fifth, somewhat paradoxically, ecologists in higher age brackets indicate higher engagement in advocacy activities as well as a higher desire for scientific objectivity. Sixth, compared to ecologists in other employment categories, those in government prefer a greater separation between science and the influences of environmental advocacy and values.

  18. Notes on the Analysis of Political Profiles and Careers. The study of Ruling Groups in a Hinterland Province of Argentina. (Mendoza, 1852-1900

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Valeria Fucili

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides some theses to enrich studies on the conformation and characterization of nineteenth century Argentinean ruling groups. For this purpose, the article takes as its object of study the political teams of the Mendoza province that emerged during the second half of the 19th century, and presents solid empirical evidence to identify a set of 725 political actors responsible of embodying and activating the dynamics of the provincial state. This information has been analyzed with quantitative methods and qualitative tools such as prosopography, sociological interpretations and sociability analyses, allowing us to distinguish several features of the local leadership. A wide variety of documents—official records, departmental dispatches, press of the time— was used to investigate these questions, in order to explore the variables related to the unfolding of these actors’ political careers: their socio-professional profile, their continuity or permanence in public service positions, and the projection of their itineraries. As a whole, the article constitutes a contribution to current historiographical debates about the relative complexity of the nineteenth century political system and the role of provincial and local political groups in the process of shaping the Argentine national state. This study also represents a substantive advance in regard to literature about elites and ruling teams, which has been based on meager and unsystematic data, producing hasty generalizations that have nevertheless been taken as valid indicators to define a broad political spectrum.

  19. The limits of forgiveness in International Relations: groups supporting the Yasukuni shrine in Japan and political tensions in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Pilar Álvarez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Visits (or attempts to visit to the Yasukuni Shrine by Japanese officials have generated a series of controversies and tensions between the countries occupied by imperialist Japan during the Pacific War. The central dilemma is that Yasukuni, emblem of Japanese militarism, questions the coherence and consistency of the requests for forgiveness made by different Japanese prime ministers to countries in the region in repentance for atrocities and violations of human rights committed in the past. The weakness of the apologies is not an exclusive problem of Japan. On the contrary, the official pardon granted by one state to another has become an increasingly common practice, but questioned in international relations. The limits of apologies in the process of reconciliation between states have led to a new research strand, aligned with the debates on transitional justice, which discusses dimensions of the level of forgiveness in terms of rectification processes. From this perspective, previous research shows that there is a tendency to analyse the case of Yasukuni without delving into the social groups that support the shrine and define the agenda of prominent personalities of local politics, especially linked to the ruling party, the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP, who claim Yasukuni. Faced with this gap, this article examines the characteristics and modes of action of the groups in favour of Yasukuni and the responses from China and South Korea to the visits to the shrine by officials, in order to understand the peculiarities and scope of forgiveness in East Asia.

  20. Assessing and Mobilizing Faith Organizations to Implement Childhood Obesity Prevention Advocacy Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozlak, Christine T; Kenady, James M; Becker, Adam B

    2018-01-01

    Childhood obesity remains a public health problem requiring mobilization across diverse social and political sectors. The faith-based sector can contribute to obesity prevention advocacy when existing resources are supported and leveraged. This article describes an advocacy resource assessment conducted in six Chicago faith organizations. Key administrators and congregation members were surveyed to identify organizational resources that could be mobilized for childhood obesity prevention advocacy. Survey data were analyzed using SPSS and Excel. Descriptive statistics were calculated for each organization and for all combined. Organizational resources for advocacy were identified, with varying degrees of resources within organizations. Congregation members and faith leaders expressed interest in advocacy training and activities but acknowledged competing organizational priorities. Participating organizations received a stipend to pursue recommended action items based on their assessment. Faith organizations have unique resources and human capital and can be key partners in childhood obesity prevention. Conducting an assessment prior to planning interventions and advocacy approaches can strengthen partnerships, leverage assets among partners, and ensure efforts are relevant and beneficial for faith organizations. It may also be strategic to incorporate funding in grant budgets in order to empower faith organizations to act on findings from the assessment process.

  1. Effective citizen advocacy of beneficial nuclear technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKibben, J. Malvyn; Wood, Susan

    2007-01-01

    In 1991, a small group of citizens from communities near the Savannah River Site (SRS) formed a pro-nuclear education and advocacy group, Citizens for Nuclear Technology Awareness (CNTA). Their purpose was to: (1) counter nuclear misinformation that dominated the nation's news outlets, (2) provide education on nuclear subjects to area citizens, students, elected officials, and (3) provide informed citizen support for potential new missions for SRS when needed. To effectively accomplish these objectives it is also essential to establish and maintain good relations with community leaders and reporters that cover energy and nuclear subjects. The organization has grown considerably since its inception and has expanded its sphere of influence. We believe that our experiences over these fifteen years are a good model for effectively communicating nuclear subjects with the public. This paper describes the structure, operation and some of the results of CNTA. (authors)

  2. Advocacy Communication and Social Identity: An Exploration of Social Media Outreach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciszek, Erica L

    2017-01-01

    Increasingly, advocacy organizations employ social networking sites as inexpensive and often effective ways to disseminate outreach messages. For groups working to reach lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) youth, social media provide key platforms for connecting with target audiences. Although these young people increasingly utilize social media, little is known about how digital advocacy campaigns influence their sexual identity formation. This article applies concepts of social identity to examine how LGBTQ youth understand advocacy campaigns, how they perceive LGBTQ as a social category presented in campaigns, and what values they assign to LGBTQ group membership.

  3. Gambling advocacy: lessons from tobacco, alcohol and junk food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Samantha L; David, Jennifer; Randle, Melanie; Daube, Mike; Senior, Kate

    2016-06-01

    To explore the attitudes and opinions of public health experts in gambling and related unhealthy commodity industries towards the tactics used by the gambling industry to prevent reform and the advocacy responses to these tactics. In-depth interviews (30-60 minutes) with a convenience sample of 15 public health experts and stakeholders with a public health approach to gambling (n=10), or other unhealthy commodity industries (food, alcohol, tobacco, n=5). Participants described the influences of political lobbying and donations on public policy, and industry framing of problem gambling as an issue of personal responsibility. Industry funding of, and influence over, academic research was considered to be one of the most effective industry tactics to resist reform. Participants felt there was a need to build stronger coalitions and collaborations between independent academics, and to improve the utilisation of media to more effectively shift perceptions of gambling harm away from the individual and towards the product. Gambling industry tactics are similar to the tactics of other unhealthy commodity industries. However, advocacy initiatives to counter these tactics in gambling are less developed than in other areas. The formation of national public health coalitions, as well as a strong evidence base regarding industry tactics, will help to strengthen advocacy initiatives. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  4. A pilot study evaluating the effects of a youth advocacy program on youth readiness to advocate for environment and policy changes for obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millstein, Rachel A; Woodruff, Susan I; Linton, Leslie S; Edwards, Christine C; Sallis, James F

    2016-12-01

    Youth advocacy for obesity prevention is a promising but under-evaluated intervention. The aims of this study are to evaluate a youth advocacy program's outcomes related to youth perceptions and behaviors, develop an index of youth advocacy readiness, and assess potential predictors of advocacy readiness. Youth ages 9-22 in an advocacy training program (n = 92 matched pairs) completed surveys before and after training. Youth outcomes and potential predictors of advocacy readiness were assessed with evaluated scales. All 20 groups who completed the evaluation study presented their advocacy projects to a decision maker. Two of six perception subscales increased following participation in the advocacy program: self-efficacy for advocacy behaviors (p assertiveness (p < .01), health advocacy history (p < .001), knowledge of resources (p < .01), and social support for health behaviors (p < .001). Youth increased days of meeting physical activity recommendations (p < .05). In a mixed regression model, four subscales were associated with the advocacy readiness index: optimism for change (B = 1.46, 95 % CI = .49-2.44), sports and physical activity enjoyment (B = .55, 95 % CI = .05-1.05), roles and participation (B = 1.81, 95 % CI = .60-3.02), and advocacy activities (B = 1.49, 95 % CI = .64-2.32). The youth advocacy readiness index is a novel way to determine the effects of multiple correlates of advocacy readiness. Childhood obesity-related advocacy training appeared to improve youths' readiness for advocacy and physical activity.

  5. Potential risks of "risk" language in breastfeeding advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Lora J Ebert; Taylor, Erin N

    2011-06-21

    In this article the authors analyze the use of "risks of formula language" versus "benefits of breastfeeding language" in breastfeeding advocacy texts. Feeding intentionality and 434 adult respondents' assessments of advocacy texts were examined at a mid-western university in the fall of 2009. No significant difference was observed between those who read text phrased in terms of "risks of formula feeding" and those who read text describing "benefits of breastfeeding" in feeding intentionality. Results supported the expectation that respondents would less favorably assess texts using risk language-respondents rated risk texts as less trustworthy, accurate, and helpful compared to benefit text. Texts were also varied in "medical" and "breastfeeding advocacy group" affiliations. Analyses revealed that texts including the medical logo were rated significantly more favorably compared to breastfeeding advocacy logo and no logo conditions. Findings suggest that use of risk language may not be an advantageous health promotion strategy, but may be counter-productive to the goals of breastfeeding advocates.

  6. Media advocacy: lessons from community experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, D H; Wright, P A

    1996-01-01

    Media advocacy is the strategic use of mass media and community organizing as a resource for advancing a social or public policy initiative. Across the United States, communities are using media advocacy to promote healthier public policies and environments. The U.S. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention commissioned numerous case studies of media advocacy on alcohol and tobacco issues in a diverse array of communities, including efforts in African-American and Latino communities or using computer-based electronic communication systems. The paper describes these efforts briefly, and summarizes lessons learned, including: media advocacy can lead to larger victories when used as a complement to community organizing in the context of a larger strategic vision for policy change; like policy advocacy, media advocacy is best done in the context of clear long-term goals; conscious framing, guiding the choice of spokespeople, visuals, and messages, can alter media coverage and public debate of health policies; advocates need to respect the media but also remember that they have power in relation to the media; and media advocacy is often controversial and not suited to every situation. The case studies show that media advocacy is a potent tool for public health workers, making an important contribution to campaigns to promote healthier public policies.

  7. Professor Brand Advocacy: Do Brand Relationships Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jillapalli, Ravi K.; Wilcox, James B.

    2010-01-01

    The trend among students to advocate their professors online continues to generate interest within marketing academia. Brand advocacy in products and services has played a vital role in marketing. However, no known research to date has embraced the idea of brand advocacy in marketing education. This research builds on the recent human brand…

  8. Health Advocacy--Counting the Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyall, Lorna; Marama, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Access to, and delivery of, safe and culturally appropriate health services is increasingly important in New Zealand. This paper will focus on counting the costs of health advocacy through the experience of a small non government charitable organisation, the Health Advocates Trust, (HAT) which aimed to provide advocacy services for a wide range of…

  9. Building Evidence for Music Education Advocacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorner-Johnson, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    The economic challenges facing public schools and music education are immense. In this context, music teachers and supporters will need to engage in persuasive advocacy to protect resource allocations to music programs. It is worthwhile to consider the model of music education advocacy that allowed music to be adopted into the Boston Public…

  10. Advocacy, partnership and political commitment for TB vaccine research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Ole F; Chan, Sharon; Chappell, Janice; Guo, Yan; Leite, Luciana C C

    2016-08-01

    The 4th Global Forum on TB Vaccines, convened in Shanghai, China, from 21 - 24 April 2015, brought together a wide and diverse community involved in tuberculosis vaccine research and development to discuss the current status of, and future directions for this critical effort. This paper summarizes the sessions on Advancing the Pipeline: A Vision for the Next Decade, Engaging the BRICS: Basic Research to Manufacturing, and Regulatory and Access Issues for New TB Vaccines. Summaries of all sessions from the 4th Global Forum are compiled in a special supplement of Tuberculosis. [August 2016, Vol 99, Supp S1, S1-S30]. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Political ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohm, H.

    1979-01-01

    Using facts and examples, this didactically structures textbook gives an insight into the extent and consequences of the damage to the environment, with the subjects - fundamentals of ecology; - population and food problems; - the energy problem; - economic growth; scarcity of resources, recycling; - ground, water, and air pollution, - city and traffic problems; - work protection and medical care; - political alternatives and 'soft technologies'. The analysis of the political and economic reasons is combined with social and technical alternatives from which demands to be made and measures to be taken can be derived for individuals, citizens' interest groups, political groups and trade unions. Teaching models intend to help teachers to work on specific problems of ecology. (orig.) [de

  12. Political priorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng

    2016-01-01

    …THE POLITICAL LEADERS of the local government of Chongqing, China, vigorously promote a low-carbon economy and sustainable development to mitigate environmental pollution. Accordingly, research grants focused on this issue were supported by the government, and our group obtained a grant for a pr......…THE POLITICAL LEADERS of the local government of Chongqing, China, vigorously promote a low-carbon economy and sustainable development to mitigate environmental pollution. Accordingly, research grants focused on this issue were supported by the government, and our group obtained a grant...... for a project about industrial park planning and design.…In my view, political priorities based on correct decision-making and market requirements are beneficial for researchers....

  13. Political Socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelweit, Hilde T.

    1983-01-01

    Described are two longitudinal studies, one British, the other American, which examined the influences of varied socializing agents--e.g., family, school, peer groups--on voting behavior. The studies emphasized the hitherto unappreciated importance of the political, social, and economic climate of society and its changes on socialization. (CS)

  14. Tobacco Control and Health Advocacy in the European Union: Understanding Effective Coalition-Building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weishaar, Heide; Collin, Jeff; Amos, Amanda

    2016-02-01

    Coalitions of supporters of comprehensive tobacco control policy have been crucial in achieving policy success nationally and internationally, but the dynamics of such alliances are not well understood. Qualitative semi-structured, narrative interviews with 35 stakeholders involved in developing the European Council Recommendation on smoke-free environments. These were thematically analyzed to examine the dynamics of coalition-building, collaboration and leadership in the alliance of organizations which successfully called for the development of comprehensive European Union (EU) smoke-free policy. An alliance of tobacco control and public health advocacy organizations, scientific institutions, professional bodies, pharmaceutical companies, and other actors shared the goal of fighting the harms caused by second-hand smoke. Alliance members jointly called for comprehensive EU smoke-free policy and the protection of the political debates from tobacco industry interference. The alliance's success was enabled by a core group of national and European actors with long-standing experience in tobacco control, who facilitated consensus-building, mobilized allies and synchronized the actions of policy supporters. Representatives of Brussels-based organizations emerged as crucial strategic leaders. The insights gained and identification of key enablers of successful tobacco control advocacy highlight the strategic importance of investing into tobacco control at European level. Those interested in effective health policy can apply lessons learned from EU smoke-free policy to build effective alliances in tobacco control and other areas of public health. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco.

  15. Political Philosophy and the Mentally Retarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanovich, Keith E.

    The effects of Social Darwinism, eugenics, and contemporary political conservatism on the status of advocacy efforts for the mentally retarded are reviewed. Provided are historical sketches of Social Darwinism, which viewed the retarded as members of an inferior race, and eugenics, which argued for sterilization of the "genetically…

  16. Twenty-First Century Pathologists' Advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Timothy Craig

    2017-07-01

    Pathologists' advocacy plays a central role in the establishment of continuously improving patient care quality and patient safety, and in the maintenance and progress of pathology as a profession. Pathology advocacy's primary goal is the betterment of patient safety and quality medical care; however, payment is a necessary and appropriate component to both, and has a central role in advocacy. Now is the time to become involved in pathology advocacy; the Medicare Access and Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) Reauthorization Act of 2015 (MACRA) and the Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014 (PAMA) are 2 of the most consequential pieces of legislation impacting the pathology and laboratory industry in the last 20 years. Another current issue of far-reaching impact for pathologists is balance billing, and yet many pathologists have little or no understanding of balance billing. Pathologists at all stages of their careers, and in every professional setting, need to participate. Academic pathologists have a special obligation to, if not become directly involved in advocacy, at least have a broad and current understanding of those issues, as well as the need and responsibility of pathologists to actively engage in advocacy efforts to address them, in order to teach residents the place of advocacy, and its value, as an inseparable and indispensable component of their professional responsibilities.

  17. Home, Office of Public Advocacy, Department of Administration, State of

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visiting Alaska State Employees State of Alaska Department of Administration Division of Office of Public Advocacy Alaska Department of Administration, Office of Public Advocacy Home Programs Sections Forms Vendor Support Search Office of Public Advocacy State of Alaska Administration > Office of Public Advocacy

  18. Nursing Actions in practicing inpatient advocacy in a Burn Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Carniato Dalle Nogario

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVEUnderstanding nursing actions in the practice of inpatient advocacy in a burn unit.METHODA single and descriptive case study, carried out with nurses working in a referral burn center in southern Brazil. Data were collected through focus group technique, between February and March 2014, in three meetings. Data was analysed through discursive textual analysis.RESULTSThree emerging categories were identified, namely: (1 instructing the patient; (2 protecting the patient; and (3 ensuring the quality of care.CONCLUSIONSThis study identified that the nurses investigated exercised patient advocacy and that the recognition of their actions is an advance for the profession, contributing to the autonomy of nurses and the effectiveness of patients' rights and social justice.

  19. Antiscience and ethical concerns associated with advocacy of Lyme disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auwaerter, Paul G; Bakken, Johan S; Dattwyler, Raymond J; Dumler, J Stephen; Halperin, John J; McSweegan, Edward; Nadelman, Robert B; O’Connell, Susan; Shapiro, Eugene D; Sood, Sunil K; Steere, Allen C; Weinstein, Arthur; Wormser, Gary P

    2015-01-01

    Advocacy for Lyme disease has become an increasingly important part of an antiscience movement that denies both the viral cause of AIDS and the benefits of vaccines and that supports unproven (sometimes dangerous) alternative medical treatments. Some activists portray Lyme disease, a geographically limited tick-borne infection, as a disease that is insidious, ubiquitous, difficult to diagnose, and almost incurable; they also propose that the disease causes mainly non-specific symptoms that can be treated only with long-term antibiotics and other unorthodox and unvalidated treatments. Similar to other antiscience groups, these advocates have created a pseudoscientific and alternative selection of practitioners, research, and publications and have coordinated public protests, accused opponents of both corruption and conspiracy, and spurred legislative efforts to subvert evidence-based medicine and peer-reviewed science. The relations and actions of some activists, medical practitioners, and commercial bodies involved in Lyme disease advocacy pose a threat to public health. PMID:21867956

  20. Peer, professional, and public: an analysis of the drugs policy advocacy community in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, Aileen; Quigley, Eoghan; Zobel, Frank; Moore, Kerri

    2014-09-01

    In recent decades a range of advocacy organisations have emerged on the drugs policy landscape seeking to shape the development of policy at national and international levels. This development has been facilitated by the expansion of 'democratic spaces' for civil society participation in governance fora at national and supranational level. However, little is known about these policy actors - their aims, scope, organisational structure, or the purpose of their engagement. Drug policy advocacy organisations were defined as organisations with a clearly stated aim to influence policy and which were based in Europe. Data on these organisations was collected through a systematic tri-lingual (English, French and Spanish) Internet search, supplemented by information provided by national agencies in the 28 EU member states, Norway and Turkey. In order to differentiate between the diverse range of activities, strategies and standpoints of these groups, information from the websites was used to categorise the organisations by their scope of operation, advocacy tools and policy constituencies; and by three key typologies - the type of advocacy they engaged in, their organisational type, and their advocacy objectives and orientation. The study identified over two hundred EU-based advocacy organisations (N=218) which included civil society associations, NGOs, and large-scale alliances and coalitions, operating at local, national and European levels. Three forms of advocacy emerged from the data analysis - peer, professional and public policy. These groups focused their campaigns on practice development (harm reduction or abstinence) and legislative reform (reducing or strengthening drug controls). The findings from this study provide a nuanced profile of civil society advocacy as a policy community in the drugs field; their legitimacy to represent cases, causes, social values and ideals; and their focus on both insider and outsider strategies to achieve their goals. The level of

  1. Advocacy: Perspectives of Future Nurse Administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OʼConnor, Mary

    Advocacy is a core competency of the nurse, and especially the nurse leader. It is a multidimensional concept that requires knowledge, experience, self-confidence, and above all, courage. This article describes and illustrates the perspectives of nursing administration graduate students, as they depict advocacy in many relationships. These include advocacy for the patient, family, self, community, organization, profession, and society. The themes that emerged from narratives written by these nurse leaders were the development of courage and the finding of their voices. Stories demonstrate participants' courage to speak up despite feeling conflicted due to issues of autonomy, moral distress, or fear of retribution. Implications for nurse administrators to support advocacy at all levels are presented.

  2. Participatory advocacy: a counter to media imperialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M

    1996-01-01

    Western media have a history of defining news worldwide, presenting news from a Western perspective which distorts and denies the truth as perceived from developing countries. Western news coverage of developing countries seems to emphasize countries' fragility, instability, and corruption, leading people to believe that the economic problems of developing countries are due to internal failures. That view is then transferred back to indigenous peoples and communities through major Western news agencies and mass media. Participatory communication is based upon the notion that people have the right to decide how they want themselves and their situations to be portrayed, to decide what information is useful to them and their community, and to be integral players in the communication process. With regard to media imperialism, the author discusses implications for advocacy activities, participatory communication approaches, participatory advocacy, participatory advocacy in South Asia, girl child drama in Nepal, drug abuse television drama in Nepal, and the advocacy challenge.

  3. A comparative content analysis of media reporting of sports betting in Australia: lessons for public health media advocacy approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Jennifer L; Thomas, Samantha L; Randle, Melanie; Bowe, Steven J; Daube, Mike

    2017-11-14

    Harmful gambling is a significant public health issue. There has been widespread discussion in the Australian media about the extent and impact of sports betting on the Australian community, particularly relating to young men and children. Given the role that the media plays in influencing policy change and political agendas, and the acknowledgement that media based advocacy is a fundamental component of successful advocacy campaigns, this research aimed to investigate how different stakeholder groups discuss sports betting within the Australian print media. The study uses this information to provide recommendations to guide public health media advocacy approaches. A quantitative content analysis of print media articles was conducted during two significant Parliamentary Inquiries about sports betting - (1) The Joint Select Committee Inquiry into the Advertising and Promotion of Gambling Services in Sport (2012/2013), and (2) 'The Review of Illegal Offshore Wagering (2015/2016). A total of 241 articles from 12 daily Australian newspapers were analysed. Statistical analysis was used to compare frequency of, and changes in, themes, voices and perspectives over time. Discussions about the marketing and communication of sports betting was a main theme in media reporting (n = 165, 68.5%), while discussions about gambling reform decreased significantly across the two time periods (p sports betting industry (p sporting code (p sports betting is important in developing effective public health advocacy approaches. This study indicates that discussions about the marketing strategies utilised by the sports betting industry was still a main theme in media articles. However, discussions relating to sports betting reforms, in particular to protect individuals who may be vulnerable to the harm associated with these products and their promotional strategies (for example children and young men) decreased during the time periods. Public health advocates may seek to address the

  4. Rejection as a call to arms: inter-racial hostility and support for political action as outcomes of race-based rejection in majority and minority groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Fiona Kate; Sibley, Chris G; Hornsey, Matthew J

    2012-03-01

    Both majority and minority group members fear race-based rejection, and respond by disparaging the groups that they expect will reject them. It is not clear, however, how this process differs in minority and majority groups. Using large representative samples of White (N= 4,618) and Māori (N= 1,163) New Zealanders, we found that perceptions of race-based rejection predicted outgroup negativity in both groups, but in different ways and for different reasons. For White (but not Māori) New Zealanders, increased intergroup anxiety partially mediated the relationship between cognitions of rejection and outgroup negativity. Māori who expected to be rejected on the basis of their race reported increased ethnic identification and, in part through this, increased support for political action benefiting their own group. This finding supports collective-action models of social change in historically disadvantaged minority groups. © 2011 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Community health centers' impact on the political and economic environment: the Massachusetts example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, James W

    2005-01-01

    Since their inception in 1965, community health centers have thrived against tough odds, including patchwork funding, an unpredictable public policy environment, and a volatile healthcare marketplace. Much of this long-term success has been attributed to the centers' ability to affect their economic and political environment. Massachusetts provides an excellent example of this outward orientation. It was here that the centers first took hold, grew rapidly as a result of grassroots activity, and came together as a group for advocacy and mutual assistance. This article examines the Massachusetts experience in light of the health centers' ability to survive and grow.

  6. The voice of Florence Nightingale on advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selanders, Louise C; Crane, Patrick C

    2012-01-31

    Modern nursing is complex, ever changing, and multi focused. Since the time of Florence Nightingale, however, the goal of nursing has remained unchanged, namely to provide a safe and caring environment that promotes patient health and well being. Effective use of an interpersonal tool, such as advocacy, enhances the care-giving environment. Nightingale used advocacy early and often in the development of modern nursing. By reading her many letters and publications that have survived, it is possible to identify her professional goals and techniques. Specifically, Nightingale valued egalitarian human rights and developed leadership principles and practices that provide useful advocacy techniques for nurses practicing in the 21st century. In this article we will review the accomplishments of Florence Nightingale, discuss advocacy in nursing and show how Nightingale used advocacy through promoting both egalitarian human rights and leadership activities. We will conclude by exploring how Nightingale's advocacy is as relevant for the 21st century as it was for the 19th century.

  7. Enhancing Advocacy for Eye Care at National Levels: What Steps to Take for the Next Decade?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiu, Muhammad Mansur; Al Rajhi, Abdulaziz; Qureshi, Mohammed Babar; Gersbeck, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The global initiative for the elimination of avoidable blindness by the year 2020-(VISION 2020- The Right to Sight), established in 1999, is a partnership of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), governments, bilateral organizations, corporate bodies and the World Health Organization. The goal is to eliminate the major causes of avoidable blindness by the year 2020. Significant progress has been made in the last decade. For example, the adoption of three major World Health Assembly resolutions (WHA 56.26, 59.25 and 62.1) requesting governments to increase support and funding for the prevention of blindness and eye care. Additionally, the approval of the VISION 2020 declaration, development of plans and establishment of prevention of blindness committees and a designation of a coordinator by most participating countries represent other major achievements. Furthermore there has been increased political and professional commitment to the prevention of visual impairment and an increase in the provision of high-quality, sustainable eye care. Most of these achievements have been attributed to the advocacy efforts of VISION 2020 at the international level. The full success of this global initiative will likely depend on the extent to which the WHA resolutions are implemented in each country. However, most ratifying countries have not moved forward with implementation of these resolutions. To date, only few countries have shown consistent government support and funding for eye care pursuant to the resolutions. One of the main reasons for this may be inadequate and inappropriate advocacy for eye care at the national level. As such it is believed that the success of VISION 2020 in the next decade will depend on intense advocacy campaigns at national levels. This review identified some of the countries and health programs that have had fruitful advocacy efforts, to determine the factors that dictated success. The review highlights the factors of successful advocacy in two

  8. The Specific of Political Fundraising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Евгений Викторович Смолянинов

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The following study is dedicated to the process of political fundraising as a subject of political science. Through the article one can find the definition of political fundraising and American political scientists' approaches to the analysis of this process. Comparative analysis of political fundraising in the U.S.A. and Russian Federation demonstrates that its' transparency has an important impact on public's control of lobby groups and other shadow political entities.

  9. Health Policy and Advocacy for New Mexico Medical Students in the Family Medicine Clerkship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole McGrew, Martha; Wayne, Sharon; Solan, Brian; Snyder, Tiffany; Ferguson, Cheryl; Kalishman, Summers

    2015-01-01

    Learners in medical education are often inadequately prepared to address the underlying social determinants of health and disease. The objective of this article is to describe the development, implementation, and evaluation of a Health Policy and Advocacy curriculum incorporated into our family medicine clerkship. We developed a Health Policy and Advocacy course for medical students within our family medicine clerkship. We evaluated the curriculum using a survey of our own design administered to students before and after their clerkship year. We created a mean score for each subscale that measured (1) physician's role, (2) knowledge, and (3) confidence in ability and calculated differences between the pre-survey and the post-survey scores for four medical school classes. We also conducted a focus group to get student input on the new curriculum. Mean scores on the pre- and post-surveys were highest for the subscale regarding attitudes about a physician's role in health policy and advocacy and did not change over time. Scores for self-reported knowledge and confidence in abilities increased significantly from the beginning to the end of the clerkship year. Students were generally positive about the curriculum but had some concerns about finding time for advocacy in their future practices. Training in health care policy and advocacy can be successfully implemented into a medical school curriculum with positive outcomes in students' self-reported knowledge and confidence in their abilities. Work remains on providing advocacy role models for students.

  10. Litigation as TB Rights Advocacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract One thousand people die every day in India as a result of TB, a preventable and treatable disease, even though the Constitution of India, government schemes, and international law guarantee available, accessible, acceptable, quality health care. Failure to address the spread of TB and to provide quality treatment to all affected populations constitutes a public health and human rights emergency that demands action and accountability. As part of a broader strategy, health activists in India employ Public Interest Litigation (PIL) to hold the state accountable for rights violations and to demand new legislation, standards for patient care, accountability for under-spending, improvements in services at individual facilities, and access to government entitlements in marginalized communities. Taking inspiration from right to health PIL cases (PILs), lawyers in a New Delhi-based rights organization used desk research, fact-findings, and the Right To Information Act to build a TB PIL for the Delhi High Court, Sanjai Sharma v. NCT of Delhi and Others (2015). The case argues that inadequate implementation of government TB schemes violates the Constitutional rights to life, health, food, and equality. Although PILs face substantial challenges, this paper concludes that litigation can be a crucial advocacy and accountability tool for people living with TB and their allies. PMID:27781000

  11. Environment, advocacy, and community participation: MOPAWI in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehm, V M

    2000-02-01

    This paper analyzes the work of Mosquitia Pawisa (MOPAWI) in relation to the development of its strategic linkages among the grassroots, the state, and ultimately the international level of politics in practice. Over the years, MOPAWI has developed a large and complex program addressing many aspects of development in La Mosquitia. Working strategically at two levels, MOPAWI has endeavored to change government policy for the region through continued lobbying and advocacy. It has also worked alongside with local communities to find ways of improving livelihoods without harming the environment. The key strength of the MOPAWI work has been the high level of community participation and mobilization by managing their own development in a time of profound change. Overall, the experience of MOPAWI suggests that nongovernmental organizations can play a strategic role in obtaining environmental protection, government recognition of ethnic diversity, and rights for indigenous people.

  12. Cultivating Political Powerhouses: TFA Corps Members Experiences That Shape Local Political Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Rebecca; White, Rachel; Reckhow, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, Teach for America (TFA) has invested in developing corps members as leaders. Although TFA asks corps members for a two-year commitment, TFA celebrates the achievements of alumni who have gone on to careers in politics, public policy, and advocacy. Thus, many community leaders see the arrival of TFA corps members as having a…

  13. Political party affiliation, political ideology and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabayo, Roman; Kawachi, Ichiro; Muennig, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Ecological and cross-sectional studies have indicated that conservative political ideology is associated with better health. Longitudinal analyses of mortality are needed because subjective assessments of ideology may confound subjective assessments of health, particularly in cross-sectional analyses. Data were derived from the 2008 General Social Survey-National Death Index data set. Cox proportional analysis models were used to determine whether political party affiliation or political ideology was associated with time to death. Also, we attempted to identify whether self-reported happiness and self-rated health acted as mediators between political beliefs and time to death. In this analysis of 32,830 participants and a total follow-up time of 498,845 person-years, we find that political party affiliation and political ideology are associated with mortality. However, with the exception of independents (adjusted HR (AHR)=0.93, 95% CI 0.90 to 0.97), political party differences are explained by the participants' underlying sociodemographic characteristics. With respect to ideology, conservatives (AHR=1.06, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.12) and moderates (AHR=1.06, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.11) are at greater risk for mortality during follow-up than liberals. Political party affiliation and political ideology appear to be different predictors of mortality. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Political Warfare and Contentious Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    the DC and PSLI Overt, Indirect • US forming a coalition with France and Britain to return Trieste to Italy control • US Urged French and British...efforts to alter Chile’s social construct by calling for the end to the Allende government, pointing out the failures of Marxism , encouraging a...political or social change. Frances Piven and Richard Cloward describe three attributes associated with group consciousness and cognitive

  15. Lifelong Political Socialization, Consciousness and Political Agency in Israel Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Dirk

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with the nexus between biographical experiences in political extraordinary times of crisis, disaster and terror and their influence on political orientations. At the centre of interest is the reconstruction of political orientations related to two different historical-political groups of Jewish Germans who had immigrated or…

  16. The Effects of Majoring in Political Science on Political Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Casey B. K.; Smith, Keith W.; Williams, J. Michael

    2017-01-01

    This study tests, and finds support, for the hypotheses that a student who majors in political science will have stronger feelings of political competence and will be more willing to engage in hypothetical political actions than two peer groups: (a) those who major in other fields and (b) those who show an interest in politics but have not studied…

  17. Legislating for advocacy: The case of whistleblowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Chanel L; O'Connor, Tom

    2017-05-01

    The role of nurses as patient advocates is one which is well recognised, supported and the subject of a broad body of literature. One of the key impediments to the role of the nurse as patient advocate is the lack of support and legislative frameworks. Within a broad range of activities constituting advocacy, whistleblowing is currently the subject of much discussion in the light of the Mid Staffordshire inquiry in the United Kingdom (UK) and other instances of patient mistreatment. As a result steps to amend existing whistleblowing legislation where it exists or introduce it where it does not are underway. This paper traces the development of legislation for advocacy. The authors argue that while any legislation supporting advocacy is welcome, legislation on its own will not encourage or enable nurses to whistleblow.

  18. The passage of tobacco control law 174 in Lebanon: reflections on the problem, policies and politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakkash, R T; Torossian, L; El Hajj, T; Khalil, J; Afifi, R A

    2018-06-01

    Progress in tobacco control policy making has occurred worldwide through advocacy campaigns involving multiple players- civil society groups, activists, academics, media and policymakers. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC)-the first ever global health treaty-outlines evidence-based tobacco control policies. Lebanon ratified the FCTC in 2005, but until 2011, tobacco control policies remained rudimentary and not evidence-based. Beginning in 2009, a concerted advocacy campaign was undertaken by a variety of stakeholders with the aim of accelerating the process of adopting a strong tobacco control policy. The campaign was successful, and Law 174 passed the Lebanese Parliament in August 2011. In this article, we analyse the policy making process that led to the adoption of Law 174 using Kingdon's model. The analysis relies on primary and secondary data sources including historical records of key governmental decisions, documentation of the activities of the concerted advocacy campaign and in-depth interviews with key stakeholders. We describe the opening of a window of opportunity as a result of the alignment of the problem, policy and politics streams. Furthermore, findings revealed that despite the challenge of persistent tobacco industry interference and established power relations between the industry, its allies and policymakers; policy entrepreneurs succeeded in supporting the alignment of the streams, and influencing the passage of the law. Kingdon's multiple stream approach was useful in explaining how tobacco control became an emerging policy issue at the front of the policy agenda in Lebanon.

  19. How to improve attitudes toward disliked groups: The effects of narrative versus numerical evidence on political persuasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wojcieszak, M.; Kim, N.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a model of how messages about groups one personally dislikes affect individual attitudes. We build upon theories of message persuasion and out-group acceptance to account for evidence type (numerical vs. narrative), facilitating conditions (encouraging empathy vs. objectivity), and the

  20. Families of Children with Disabilities in Elementary and Middle School: Advocacy Models and Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alper, Sandra; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This article describes models and methods of advocacy for families of children with disabilities in elementary and middle school, including self-advocacy, social support advocacy, interpersonal advocacy, and legal advocacy. Issues for parents during these years are discussed, as are the role and needs of siblings. Advocacy is seen as a dynamic…

  1. Advocacy as a Practice of Critical Teacher Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley-Levine, Jill

    2018-01-01

    Teacher advocacy has been examined as a practice of activism external to the school and as a practice of educational leadership. However, researchers have not merged these ideas by framing advocacy as a practice of leadership that takes place within the classroom and across the school. This article illustrates how, through advocacy on behalf of…

  2. Media framing and political advertising in the Patients' Bill of Rights debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Aaron

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to assess the influence of interest groups over news content. In particular, I explore the possibility that political advertising campaigns affect the tenor and framing of newspaper coverage in health policy debates. To do so, I compare newspaper coverage of the Patients' Bill of Rights debate in 1999 in five states that were subject to extensive advertising campaigns with coverage in five comparison states that were not directly exposed to the advocacy campaigns. I find significant differences in coverage depending on the presence or absence of paid advertising campaigns, and conclude that readers were exposed to different perspectives and arguments about managed care regulation if the newspapers they read were published in states targeted by political advertisements. Specifically, newspaper coverage was 17 percent less likely to be supportive of managed care reform in states subject to advertising campaigns designed to foment opposition to the Patients' Bill of Rights. Understanding the ability of organized interests and political actors to successfully promote their preferred issue frames in a dynamic political environment is particularly important in light of the proliferation of interest groups, the prevalence of multimillion-dollar political advertising campaigns, and the health care reform debate under President Barack Obama.

  3. Strengthening Music Programs While Avoiding Advocacy Pitfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Chad; Clauhs, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    This article examines ways in which music education advocacy efforts have become disconnected from the unified visions and declarations of music educators espoused in the Tanglewood and Housewright declarations and are thus reifying the disconnect between what we value and what we say we value. We first analyze the policies posited by the recently…

  4. Social Justice Advocacy in Graduate Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyle, Amy Gratch

    2018-01-01

    This article includes a description and analysis of a graduate teacher education course designed to engage teachers in taking action for social justice. In the course, students participate in a community of learners in which they examine their cultural identities and engage in social justice advocacy work. Students developed content knowledge and…

  5. Educational Expertise, Advocacy, and Media Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Joel R.; Lubienski, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The efforts of many advocacy organizations to advance their preferred policies despite conflicting evidence of the effectiveness of these policies raise questions about factors that shape successful policy promotion. While many may like to think that expertise on an issue in question is an essential prerequisite for influence in public policy…

  6. Employee Advocacy on Social Media : The role of management in enhancing employee advocacy

    OpenAIRE

    Latvala, Taru

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, employee advocacy has become a growing trend all over the world, especially now that social media offers new dimensions. The employee advocacy phenomenon is finally starting to gain attention in Finland as well, but businesses have yet to harness the full potential. The research focused on the managerial perspective of the phenomenon. The aim was to gain a deeper understanding of the phenomenon in the Finnish context, focusing on social media. The objective was to create ...

  7. Integrating medical and environmental sociology with environmental health: crossing boundaries and building connections through advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Phil

    2013-06-01

    This article reviews the personal and professional processes of developing an interdisciplinary approach to understanding the complex issues of environmental health in their community, political-economic, social science, and scientific contexts. This interdisciplinary approach includes a synthesis of research, policy work, and advocacy. To examine multiple forms of interdisciplinarity, I examine pathways of integrating medical and environmental sociology via three challenges to the boundaries of traditional research: (1) crossing the boundaries of medical and environmental sociology, (2) linking social science and environmental health science, and (3) crossing the boundary of research and advocacy. These boundary crossings are discussed in light of conceptual and theoretical developments of popular epidemiology, contested illnesses, and health social movements. This interdisciplinary work offers a more comprehensive sociological lens for understanding complex problems and a practical ability to join with scientists, activists, and officials to meet public health needs for amelioration and prevention of environmental health threats.

  8. CAMPAIGN JOURNALISM ON ROMANIAN TELEVISIONS: TOWARDS A NORMATIVE VIEW OF ADVOCACY IN THE MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRINA DIANA MĂDROANE

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Advocacy media campaigns, staged by Romanian television channels and focused on changing social policies, have gained increasing visibility in the Romanian public sphere. The article examines models of journalism and normative theories about the role of the press in a democracy in order to carve out a normative position from which this emerging media format can be analysed. It situates media advocacy within the frame of interpretive journalism, aimed both at facilitating democratic debate and citizen participation (civic journalism, and at social reform (radical journalism. The reassessment of media strategies based on emotions and interpretation as mediators of social reality may lead to a positive, ‘optimistic’ view of campaign journalism. However, the advanced commercialisation of the media and the struggles for political representation interfere with and make the task of socially responsible journalism an incredibly challenging one

  9. THE ROLE OF PERSONAL BRAND IN THE ADVOCACY ACTIVITY,IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Anamaria IOAN

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The advocacy activity is of significant importance for the business community, the perception of its need to influence the legislative process in order to have a transparent legislative procedure, the necessity of understanding the way in which the decisions are taken and the desire of the business community to assist the changing of laws and norms being linking elements of the advocacy activity to the business environment. The branding impact is practically immeasurable in social and cultural terms as it over exceeded the commercial origins. It has spread in education, sports, fashion, tourism, arts, theater, literature, regional and national politics and in almost all other fields that we could think of. The non-profit and charitable organizations that compete with the commercial brands in the emotional territory of the minds and hearts of people, for the money in their pockets, use branding more and more.

  10. The African cancer advocacy consortium: shaping the path for advocacy in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Although there is significant evidence of a cancer epidemic in Africa, there is limited awareness about cancer in most African countries. By partnering with international organizations and institutions such as the University of Florida and the Prostate Net, the African Organisation for Research and Training in Cancer (AORTIC) is committed to improving cancer advocacy in Africa. This paper presents some of the recent efforts on cancer advocacy in Africa, including the results of a SWOT analysis conducted for the cancer advocacy workshop and the guidelines developed by cancer advocates on best practices for cancer advocacy in Africa. One of the outcomes of these efforts is the African Cancer Advocates Consortium (ACAC) founded by cancer advocates in Africa to, “Make Cancer a Top Priority in Africa”. While we have started the work to strengthen cancer advocacy in Africa, we still have a long way to go. Our goal of making cancer a priority in Africa can mainly be achieved by: (1) increasing the manpower for cancer advocacy through education and training; and (2) strengthening the network of cancer advocates across the continent. PMID:23902674

  11. Identity Politics, Justice and the Schooling of Muslim Girls: Navigating the Tensions between Multiculturalism, Group Rights and Feminism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keddie, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the concerns expressed by three female Muslim educators who are support staff at an English comprehensive school. Consistent with the debates associated with multiculturalism, group rights and feminism, the article illuminates spaces of gender constraint and possibility within the discourses shaping these women's lives and…

  12. Nuclear power and legal advocacy: the environmentalists and the courts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, C.E.

    1980-01-01

    The US nuclear power industry began to stop growing in 1977, two years before the accident at Three Mile Island. This book examines the regulatory and judicial policymaking associated with nuclear power, with special attention given to the role of legal advocacy by interest groups. Research for the study had three goals: (1) a comparative analysis of the antinuclear environmental groups and the nuclear industry; (2) a determination of the policital strategy used by each interest group and the reasons for its choice of strategy in the course of litigation; and (3) an analysis of the role of the judiciary in the nuclear power controversy. The study focuses on the controversy surrounding the construction of a nuclear plant in Midland, Michigan as a representative case study to illustrate the role of interest groups, regulators, and the courts. The appendix lists related court cases. 170 references

  13. Stereotyped perceptions and their influence on interaction and communication of groups involved in the political planning of big technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenhardt, G.; Krebsbach, C.

    1978-01-01

    The experiences with communication problems in planning processes show that the participating groups (politicians, experts, citizens/'non-experts') do not communicate in terms of carrying out a real dialogue but tend to talk past one another. The research hypothesis of the study is that the failure of communication resp. its 'disturbance' can be attributed to a considerable degree to the auto- and hetero-assessments (stereotyped perceptions/labelings) of the participating groups. The empirical data collected in this study show clearly: that stereotyped perceptions/labelings indeed exist and that these are both central and stable, that these perceptions continue troughout the communication process, and that this process is 'disturbed' because of the non-observance of basic characteristics of communication. Consequences for problemsolving are discussed. (orig.) [de

  14. Unconventional politics of unconventional gas: Environmental reframing and policy change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kear, Andrew Robert

    The present Rocky Mountain West natural gas boom, enabled by historic pro-resource-development political, institutional, economic, and cultural structures, is a politically contested battle over values. Volatile political action, unconventional coalitions, and unconventional politics engulf this unconventional gas boom -- especially at the state level. In this comparative case study of natural gas policy in Wyoming, Colorado, and New Mexico, I measure and compare these values, expressed as frames, through textual analysis of interest group public documents and state legislative bills and statutes from 1999-2008. By developing a new measure of state legislative framing, I test the relationship between interest group and institutional framing and also provide a viable measure of policy change useful to Narrative Policy Analysis theory. Results show that competing interest group and state legislative framing efforts are dynamic, measurably different, and periodically correlative. Competing interest groups rarely engage each other, except as the conflict matures when status-quo-supporters break their silence and engage the challengers' frames that have gained legislative traction. Environmental and land-use counter-framing ensues, but status-quo-supporters remain vigilant in their economic framing. Economic frames retain their institutional privilege within Wyoming and New Mexico, but natural gas policy undergoes a complete environmental reframe in the Colorado state legislature. Although the historically dominant economy frame based on "Old West" values remains largely intact, the respective state legislatures partially reframe policy (within 4 years) using environment, alternative land-uses, and democracy frames based on "New West" and long-extant but previously marginalized status-quo-challenger definitions. This reframing is not a strictly partisan issue, but rather it is influenced by political context, policy diffusion, and long-term interest group advocacy and

  15. Comunicação, ocupação, representação: três olhares sobre a noção de advocacy em contextos de deliberação pública

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rennan Lanna Martins Mafra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to understand more systematically the notion of advocacy, particularly in contexts of public deliberation. Towards to policies and etymological origins of the key term, and recognizing that engendered advocacy by civic actors can assume meanings i skills in a communicative situation; ii technical and competent practice of occupation of political and media systems and social life; and iii practices of political representation, the papper try to point out that risks such as clenching dialogical, discursive imposition and identity essentialism may arise from practices advocacy on democratic deliberative contexts. However, extensive theming issues and the translation of demands arising in restricted contexts may indicate some possible ways for understanding the advocacy gains in enlarged processes of public deliberation.

  16. Self-advocacy training for cancer survivors. The Cancer Survival Toolbox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh-Burke, K; Marcusen, C

    1999-01-01

    With the advent of managed healthcare, self-advocacy has been identified as an essential skill for cancer survivors. This article describes a self-advocacy training program, the Cancer Survival Toolbox, developed through a unique collaborative effort by the National Coalition for Cancer Survivorship, the Association of Oncology Social Work, and the Oncology Nursing Society. Self-advocacy training is provided in audiotape format, as well as through the Internet and in interactive groups. The need for this training was established through surveys completed by 569 cancer survivors and 833 oncology professionals. Essential skills were identified through a literature review, and the content of the training was pilot tested with bicoastal groups of cancer survivors and with feedback from representatives of 15 national cancer organizations. While the majority of the 569 respondents to the survivor survey were highly educated and between the ages of 31 and 60 years, fewer than half reported that when they first received a diagnosis of cancer they were able to communicate their needs effectively, had the skills necessary to make decisions, or were able to negotiate with healthcare providers, insurers, and employers. Results of the survey of professional oncology nurses and social workers also supported the need for self-advocacy training. Fewer than one third of the 833 respondents to the professional survey reported that their patients who had received new diagnoses of cancer had essential self-advocacy skills. This self-advocacy training program is currently available on audiotape in English and Spanish. It is available in print in Chinese on the Internet. Data from the pilot groups indicate the program effectively addresses the self-advocacy skills of communication, information seeking, problem solving, decision making, and negotiating. Data are currently being collected to assess the efficacy of the audiotape format and the impact of the training on survivors and

  17. Who's Involved with Hunger: An Organization Guide for Education and Advocacy. Fifth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutzner, Patricia L.

    This document presents an annotated bibliography of organizations that battle world hunger, seek to educate the public about the problem, and/or provide advocacy services. Among the groups that are described are the United Nations and other intergovernmental organizations, U.S. federal government agencies, U.S. congressional agencies, U.S.…

  18. The Phenomenon of Legislative Advocacy among Parents of Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Meghan M.; Sandman, Linda; Perez, Beatrize; O'Leary, Meghann

    2018-01-01

    Although parents of children with disabilities have forged systemic changes for individuals with disabilities, little is known about the phenomenon of legislative advocacy (LA) including methods and barriers. In this United States-based study, 49 parents of individuals with disabilities participated in focus groups about LA reporting both positive…

  19. Comparing Political Journalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comparing Political Journalism is a systematic, in-depth study of the factors that shape and influence political news coverage today. Using techniques drawn from the growing field of comparative political communication, an international group of contributors analyse political news content drawn...... Comparing Political Journalism offers an unparalleled scope in assessing the implications for the ongoing transformation of Western media systems, and addresses core concepts of central importance to students and scholars of political communication world-wide....... from newspapers, television news, and news websites from 16 countries, to assess what kinds of media systems are most conducive to producing quality journalism. Underpinned by key conceptual themes, such as the role that the media are expected to play in democracies and quality of coverage...

  20. Deaf Culture and the Cochlear Implant Debate: Cyborg Politics and the Identity of People with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherney, James L.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the potential benefits and limitations of cyborg politics. Explores depictions of cyborgs in science fiction stories and examines the deaf culture's arguments in the cochlear-implant debate. Investigates the current viability of cyborg politics as a mode of advocacy for people with disabilities. (SC)

  1. Changes in the policy environment for infant and young child feeding in Vietnam, Bangladesh, and Ethiopia, and the role of targeted advocacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jody Harris

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited literature examining shifts in policy environments for nutrition and infant and young child feeding (IYCF over time, and on the potential contribution of targeted advocacy to improved policy environments in low- and middle-income countries. This study tracked changes in the policy environment over a four-year period in three countries, and examined the role of targeted nutrition and IYCF advocacy strategies by a global initiative. Methods Qualitative methods, including key informant interviews, social network mapping, document and literature review, and event tracking, were used to gather data on nutrition and IYCF policies and programs, actor networks, and perceptions and salience of nutrition as an issue in 2010 and 2014 in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, and Vietnam. Theoretical frameworks from the policy sciences were used to analyze policy change over time, and drivers of change, across countries. Results The written policy environment improved to differing extents in each country. By 2014, the discourse in all three countries mirrored international priorities of stunting reduction and exclusive breastfeeding. Yet competing nutrition priorities such as acute malnutrition, food insecurity, and nutrition transitions remained in each context. Key actor groups in each country were government, civil society, development partners and the private sector. Infant formula companies, in particular, emerged as key players against enforcement of IYCF legislation. The role of a targeted IYCF advocacy and policy support initiative was well-recognized in supporting multiple facets of the policy environment in each country, ranging from alliances to legislation and implementation support. Despite progress, however, government commitment to funding, implementation, and enforcement is still emerging in each country, thus challenging the potential impact of new and improved policies. Conclusion Targeted policy advocacy can catalyze

  2. Changes in the policy environment for infant and young child feeding in Vietnam, Bangladesh, and Ethiopia, and the role of targeted advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jody; Frongillo, Edward A; Nguyen, Phuong H; Kim, Sunny S; Menon, Purnima

    2017-06-13

    There is limited literature examining shifts in policy environments for nutrition and infant and young child feeding (IYCF) over time, and on the potential contribution of targeted advocacy to improved policy environments in low- and middle-income countries. This study tracked changes in the policy environment over a four-year period in three countries, and examined the role of targeted nutrition and IYCF advocacy strategies by a global initiative. Qualitative methods, including key informant interviews, social network mapping, document and literature review, and event tracking, were used to gather data on nutrition and IYCF policies and programs, actor networks, and perceptions and salience of nutrition as an issue in 2010 and 2014 in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, and Vietnam. Theoretical frameworks from the policy sciences were used to analyze policy change over time, and drivers of change, across countries. The written policy environment improved to differing extents in each country. By 2014, the discourse in all three countries mirrored international priorities of stunting reduction and exclusive breastfeeding. Yet competing nutrition priorities such as acute malnutrition, food insecurity, and nutrition transitions remained in each context. Key actor groups in each country were government, civil society, development partners and the private sector. Infant formula companies, in particular, emerged as key players against enforcement of IYCF legislation. The role of a targeted IYCF advocacy and policy support initiative was well-recognized in supporting multiple facets of the policy environment in each country, ranging from alliances to legislation and implementation support. Despite progress, however, government commitment to funding, implementation, and enforcement is still emerging in each country, thus challenging the potential impact of new and improved policies. Targeted policy advocacy can catalyze change in national nutrition and IYCF policy environments

  3. Political innovations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva

    2017-01-01

    are mainly interested in assessing and promoting innovations in public service delivery, but have paid little or no attention to the need for innovations in polity, politics and policy. This article develops a research agenda for studying innovations in political institutions, in the political process...... and in policy outputs. It proposes a number of research themes related to political innovations that call for scholarly attention, and identifies push and pull factors influencing the likelihood that these themes will be addressed in future research....

  4. Generating political priority for regulatory interventions targeting obesity prevention: an Australian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Phillip; Gill, Timothy; Friel, Sharon; Carey, Gemma; Kay, Adrian

    2017-03-01

    Effective obesity prevention requires a synergistic mix of population-level interventions including a strong role for government and the regulation of the marketing, labelling, content and pricing of energy-dense foods and beverages. In this paper we adopt the agenda of the Australian Federal Government (AFG) as a case study to understand the factors generating or hindering political priority for such 'regulatory interventions' between 1990 and 2011. Using a theoretically-guided process tracing method we undertook documentary analysis and conducted 27 interviews with a diversity of actors involved in obesity politics. The analysis was structured by a theoretical framework comprising four dimensions: the power of actors involved; the ideas the actors deploy to interpret and portray the issue; the institutional and political context; and issue characteristics. Despite two periods of sustained political attention, political priority for regulatory interventions did not emerge and was hindered by factors from all four dimensions. Within the public health community, limited cohesion among experts and advocacy groups hampered technical responses and collective action efforts. An initial focus on children (child obesity), framing the determinants of obesity as 'obesogenic environments', and the deployment of 'protecting kids', 'industry demonization' and 'economic costs' frames generated political attention. Institutional norms within government effectively selected out regulatory interventions from consideration. The 'productive power' and activities of the food and advertising industries presented formidable barriers, buttressed by a libertarian/neolibertarian rhetoric emphasizing individual responsibility, a negative view of freedom (as free from 'nanny-state' intervention) and the idea that regulation imposes an unacceptable cost on business. Issue complexity, the absence of a supportive evidence base and a strict 'evidence-based' policy-making approach were used as

  5. Moral politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapp, Carolin; Traunmüller, Richard; Freitag, Markus

    2014-01-01

    This article combines the research strands of moral politics and political behavior by focusing on the effect of individual and contextual religiosity on individual vote decisions in popular initiatives and public referenda concerning morally charged issues. We rely on a total of 13 surveys with 1...... American research on moral politics, direct democracies, and the public role of religion....

  6. Office Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Paula; Kelly, Robert; deVries, Susann

    2008-01-01

    People and organizations are inherently political. Library workplace environments have zones of tension and dynamics just like any corporation, often leading to the formation of political camps. These different cliques influence productivity and work-related issues and, at worst, give meetings the feel of the Camp David negotiations. Politics are…

  7. Developing advocacy for geothermal energy in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, P.M.

    1990-01-01

    There is little public advocacy for geothermal energy in the United States outside of the geothermal community itself. Yet, broad-based advocacy is needed to provide impetus for a nourishing economic, regulatory and R and D environment. If such an environment could be created, the prosperity of the geothermal industry would improve and positive environmental effects compared to most other energy sources would be realized. We need an organized sustained effort to provide information and education to all segments of our society, including market-makers and end users, administrators, legislators, regulators, educators, special-interest groups and the public. This effort could be provided by an organization of three main components, a network to gather and disseminate pertinent information on marketing, educational and lobbying opportunities to action committees, a repository of current information on geothermal energy, and action committees each responsible for certain parts of the total marketing, education and lobbying task. In this paper, the author suggests a mechanism for forming such an organization and making it work. The author proposes an informal organization staffed largely by volunteered labor in which no one person would have to devote more than a few percent of his or her work time

  8. Strong advocacy led to successful implementation of smokefree Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosbie, Eric; Sebrié, Ernesto M; Glantz, Stanton A

    2011-01-01

    To describe the approval process and implementation of the 100% smokefree law in Mexico City and a competing federal law between 2007 and 2010. Reviewed smokefree legislation, published newspaper articles and interviewed key informants. Strong efforts by tobacco control advocacy groups and key policymakers in Mexico City in 2008 prompted the approval of a 100% smokefree law following the WHO FCTC. As elsewhere, the tobacco industry utilised the hospitality sector to block smokefree legislation, challenged the City law before the Supreme Court and promoted the passage of a federal law that required designated smoking areas. These tactics disrupted implementation of the City law by causing confusion over which law applied in Mexico City. Despite interference, the City law increased public support for 100% smokefree policies and decreased the social acceptability of smoking. In September 2009, the Supreme Court ruled in favour of the City law, giving it the authority to go beyond the federal law to protect the fundamental right of health for all citizens. Early education and enforcement efforts by tobacco control advocates promoted the City law in 2008 but advocates should still anticipate continuing opposition from the tobacco industry, which will require continued pressure on the government. Advocates should utilise the Supreme Court's ruling to promote 100% smokefree policies outside Mexico City. Strong advocacy for the City law could be used as a model of success throughout Mexico and other Latin American countries.

  9. Antiscience and ethical concerns associated with advocacy of Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auwaerter, Paul G; Bakken, Johan S; Dattwyler, Raymond J; Dumler, J Stephen; Halperin, John J; McSweegan, Edward; Nadelman, Robert B; O'Connell, Susan; Shapiro, Eugene D; Sood, Sunil K; Steere, Allen C; Weinstein, Arthur; Wormser, Gary P

    2011-09-01

    Advocacy for Lyme disease has become an increasingly important part of an antiscience movement that denies both the viral cause of AIDS and the benefits of vaccines and that supports unproven (sometimes dangerous) alternative medical treatments. Some activists portray Lyme disease, a geographically limited tick-borne infection, as a disease that is insidious, ubiquitous, difficult to diagnose, and almost incurable; they also propose that the disease causes mainly non-specific symptoms that can be treated only with long-term antibiotics and other unorthodox and unvalidated treatments. Similar to other antiscience groups, these advocates have created a pseudoscientific and alternative selection of practitioners, research, and publications and have coordinated public protests, accused opponents of both corruption and conspiracy, and spurred legislative efforts to subvert evidence-based medicine and peer-reviewed science. The relations and actions of some activists, medical practitioners, and commercial bodies involved in Lyme disease advocacy pose a threat to public health. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Space, politics, and the political

    OpenAIRE

    dikec , mustafa

    1987-01-01

    International audience; Introduction Geography and politics'', Gottmann wrote in 1980, ``have long been in search of each other'' (page 11). Debates in the literature suggest not only that they have found each other, but also that the encounter has instigated, notably in the last decade or so, a body of literature seeking to think space politically, and to think politics spatially. This is not to suggest that previous work on space was apolitical, nor to suggest that previous work on politics...

  11. Performing Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy R. E. Paddock

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Walter Benjamin’s observation that fascism turns politics into aesthetics is, by now, a well-worn idea. This article argues that Benjamin’s critique of politics can apply just as much to the modern democratic politics of the United States. Borrowing from Benjamin, Jürgen Habermas, and Carl Schmitt, this article suggests that modern political discourse in the United States does not follow the classical liberal ideal of rational discourse in the marketplace of ideas within the public sphere. Instead, contemporary politics has become spectacle where images and slogans replace thought and debate in a 24/7 news cycle and political infotainment programs. The result is that progressives and conservatives have their own political “ecospheres” which enable them to have their own perspective reinforced, and debate is replaced by straw man arguments and personal attacks.

  12. Effective social justice advocacy: a theory-of-change framework for assessing progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klugman, Barbara

    2011-11-01

    This article offers a theory-of-change framework for social justice advocacy. It describes broad outcome categories against which activists, donors and evaluators can assess progress (or lack thereof) in an ongoing manner: changes in organisational capacity, base of support, alliances, data and analysis from a social justice perspective, problem definition and potential policy options, visibility, public norms, and population level impacts. Using these for evaluation enables activists and donors to learn from and rethink their strategies as the political context and/or actors change over time. The paper presents a case study comparing factors that facilitated reproductive rights policy wins during the transition from apartheid to democracy in South Africa and factors that undermined their implementation in the post-apartheid period. It argues that after legal and policy victories had been won, failure to maintain strong organizations and continually rethink strategies contributed to the loss of government focus on and resources for implementation of new policies. By implication, evaluating effectiveness only by an actual policy change does not allow for ongoing learning to ensure appropriate strategies. It also fails to recognise that a policy win can be overturned and needs vigilant monitoring and advocacy for implementation. This means that funding and organising advocacy should seldom be undertaken as a short-term proposition. It also suggests that the building and maintenance of organisational and leadership capacity is as important as any other of the outcome categories in enabling success. Copyright © 2011 Foundation Review. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Iranian Nurses' Attitudes and Perception towards Patient Advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamed-Jahromi, Mohadeseh; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Borhani, Fariba; Zaher, Homa

    2012-01-01

    Patient advocacy is an inherent component of professional nursing ethics; in other words, nurses' enough knowledge would be essential to gain a positive attitude towards nursing advocacy. Using a descriptive-analytic design, this study aimed to assess the correlation between nurses' perception and attitudes towards patient advocacy, amongst 385 nurses in Kerman, Iran; hence, a three-part questionnaire was applied: part I, a demographic data sheet, part II, attitude measuring instrument, and part III, perception measuring instrument in nursing advocacy. The results implied that fairly positive attitudes and perception were found amongst the participants, and nurses' attitudes, in general, were positively correlated to their perception toward nursing advocacy. This means that with an improvement in perception, the attitude would also improve. In addition to our findings, it seems that these nurses needed more advocacy educational programs and support from responsible employers.

  14. Advocacy for International Family Planning: What Terminology Works?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Douglas; Martin, Raymond; Bormet, Mona

    Advocating for international family planning while avoiding miscommunications with politically and religiously conservative policy makers and the public requires care and clarity with language. We find that terms such as "international family planning" are well received when the meaning is clearly explained, such as "enabling couples to determine the number and timing of pregnancies, including the voluntary use of methods for preventing pregnancy - not including abortion - harmonious with their beliefs and values". Family planning also helps reduce abortions - a powerful message for conservative policy makers and the public. We concur with Dyer et al. (2016) that the messenger is important; we find that many of the most effective advocates are religious leaders and faith-based health providers from the Global South. They know and validate the importance of family planning for improving family health and reducing abortions in their communities. "Healthy timing and spacing of pregnancy" is positive language for policy makers, especially when describing the health impact for women and children. Universal access to contraceptive services is emerging as vital for family health and also to help achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (UN 2015). Language on international family planning will evolve, and clarity of meaning will be foundational for effective advocacy.

  15. Who Is a Stream? Epistemic Communities, Instrument Constituencies and Advocacy Coalitions in Public Policy-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishani Mukherjee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available John Kingdon’s Multiple Streams Framework (MSF was articulated in order to better understand how issues entered onto policy agendas, using the concept of policy actors interacting over the course of sequences of events in what he referred to as the “problem”, “policy” and “politics” “streams”. However, it is not a priori certain who the agents are in this process and how they interact with each other. As was common at the time, in his study Kingdon used an undifferentiated concept of a “policy subsystem” to group together and capture the activities of various policy actors involved in this process. However, this article argues that the policy world Kingdon envisioned can be better visualized as one composed of distinct subsets of actors who engage in one specific type of interaction involved in the definition of policy problems: either the articulation of problems, the development of solutions, or their enactment. Rather than involve all subsystem actors, this article argues that three separate sets of actors are involved in these tasks: epistemic communities are engaged in discourses about policy problems; instrument constituencies define policy alternatives and instruments; and advocacy coalitions compete to have their choice of policy alternatives adopted. Using this lens, the article focuses on actor interactions involved both in the agenda-setting activities Kingdon examined as well as in the policy formulation activities following the agenda setting stage upon which Kingdon originally worked. This activity involves the definition of policy goals (both broad and specific, the creation of the means and mechanisms to realize these goals, and the set of bureaucratic, partisan, electoral and other political struggles involved in their acceptance and transformation into action. Like agenda-setting, these activities can best be modeled using a differentiated subsystem approach.

  16. Crisis and Policy Reformcraft: Advocacy Coalitions and Crisis-induced Change in Swedish Nuclear Energy Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nohrstedt, Daniel

    2007-04-01

    This dissertation consists of three interrelated essays examining the role of crisis events in Swedish nuclear energy policymaking. The study takes stock of the idea of 'crisis exceptionalism' raised in the literature, which postulates that crisis events provide openings for major policy change. In an effort to explain crisis-induced outcomes in Swedish nuclear energy policy, each essay explores and develops theoretical assumptions derived from the Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF). The introduction discusses the ACF and other theoretical perspectives accentuating the role of crisis in policymaking and identifies three explanations for crisis-induced policy outcomes: minority coalition mobilization, learning, and strategic action. Essay 1 analyzes the nature and development of the Swedish nuclear energy subsystem. The results contradict the ACF assumption that corporatist systems nurture narrow subsystems and small advocacy coalitions, but corroborate the assumption that advocacy coalitions remain stable over time. While this analysis identifies temporary openings in policymaking venues and in the advocacy coalition structure, it is argued that these developments did not affect crisis policymaking. Essay 2 seeks to explain the decision to initiate a referendum on nuclear power following the 1979 Three Mile Island accident. Internal government documents and other historical records indicate that strategic considerations superseded learning as the primary explanation in this case. Essay 3 conducts an in-depth examination of Swedish policymaking in the aftermath of the 1986 Chernobyl accident in an effort to explain the government's decision not to accelerate the nuclear power phaseout. Recently disclosed government documents show that minority coalition mobilization was insufficient to explain this decision. In this case, rational learning and strategic action provided a better explanation. The main theoretical contribution derived from the three essays is to posit

  17. Crisis and Policy Reformcraft: Advocacy Coalitions and Crisis-induced Change in Swedish Nuclear Energy Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nohrstedt, Daniel

    2007-04-15

    This dissertation consists of three interrelated essays examining the role of crisis events in Swedish nuclear energy policymaking. The study takes stock of the idea of 'crisis exceptionalism' raised in the literature, which postulates that crisis events provide openings for major policy change. In an effort to explain crisis-induced outcomes in Swedish nuclear energy policy, each essay explores and develops theoretical assumptions derived from the Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF). The introduction discusses the ACF and other theoretical perspectives accentuating the role of crisis in policymaking and identifies three explanations for crisis-induced policy outcomes: minority coalition mobilization, learning, and strategic action. Essay 1 analyzes the nature and development of the Swedish nuclear energy subsystem. The results contradict the ACF assumption that corporatist systems nurture narrow subsystems and small advocacy coalitions, but corroborate the assumption that advocacy coalitions remain stable over time. While this analysis identifies temporary openings in policymaking venues and in the advocacy coalition structure, it is argued that these developments did not affect crisis policymaking. Essay 2 seeks to explain the decision to initiate a referendum on nuclear power following the 1979 Three Mile Island accident. Internal government documents and other historical records indicate that strategic considerations superseded learning as the primary explanation in this case. Essay 3 conducts an in-depth examination of Swedish policymaking in the aftermath of the 1986 Chernobyl accident in an effort to explain the government's decision not to accelerate the nuclear power phaseout. Recently disclosed government documents show that minority coalition mobilization was insufficient to explain this decision. In this case, rational learning and strategic action provided a better explanation. The main theoretical contribution derived from the three

  18. Political Campaigns

    OpenAIRE

    Lilleker, Darren

    2017-01-01

    Political campaigns are orchestrated attempts by political organizations to garner public support through persuasive communication in order to influence public policy in their favor. This broad definition encapsulates all forms of campaigns from those of neighborhood organizations seeking to influence local politicians to the campaigns of political parties and candidates who seek election to office in order to shape policy themselves. In pluralist democracies, campaigns are crucial for repres...

  19. Political CSR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Søren; Morsing, Mette

    We engage a discussion of political CSR in SMEs in an African context. Based on critical observations on Western MNC CSR action in emerging economies that holds counterproductive implications for social development, political economists have argued that business profit far more than society...... development in local African communities. Our findings extend political CSR research by directing attention to how the corporate influence in developing economies does not only emerge from MNCs but is also established and retained by SMEs CSR work....

  20. Effects of an Advocacy Trial on Food Industry Salt Reduction Efforts-An Interim Process Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevena, Helen; Petersen, Kristina; Thow, Anne Marie; Dunford, Elizabeth K; Wu, Jason H Y; Neal, Bruce

    2017-10-17

    The decisions made by food companies are a potent factor shaping the nutritional quality of the food supply. A number of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) advocate for corporate action to reduce salt levels in foods, but few data define the effectiveness of advocacy. This present report describes the process evaluation of an advocacy intervention delivered by one Australian NGO directly to food companies to reduce the salt content of processed foods. Food companies were randomly assigned to intervention ( n = 22) or control ( n = 23) groups. Intervention group companies were exposed to pre-planned and opportunistic communications, and control companies to background activities. Seven pre-defined interim outcome measures provided an indication of the effect of the intervention and were assessed using intention-to-treat analysis. These were supplemented by qualitative data from nine semi-structured interviews. The mean number of public communications supporting healthy food made by intervention companies was 1.5 versus 1.8 for control companies ( p = 0.63). Other outcomes, including the mean number of news articles, comments and reports (1.2 vs. 1.4; p = 0.72), a published nutrition policy (23% vs. 44%; p = 0.21), public commitment to the Australian government's Food and Health Dialogue (FHD) (41% vs. 61%; p = 0.24), evidence of a salt reduction plan (23% vs. 30%; p = 0.56), and mean number of communications with the NGO (15 vs. 11; p = 0.28) were also not significantly different. Qualitative data indicated the advocacy trial had little effect. The absence of detectable effects of the advocacy intervention on the interim markers indicates there may be no impact of the NGO advocacy trial on the primary outcome of salt reduction in processed foods.

  1. Disease Advocacy Organizations Catalyze Translational Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Fontaine Terry

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Disease advocacy organizations have long played an important role in the continuum from basic science to therapy development in rare disease research. PXE International has sometimes led the field in innovative ways, venturing into specific activities that have traditionally been conducted by scientists. As lay founders, we have engaged in gene discovery, gene patenting, diagnostic development, epidemiological studies, clinical trials and therapy research and development. This article will describe the steps that we took, and the ways in which we have scaled these efforts for the larger community.

  2. A comparative content analysis of media reporting of sports betting in Australia: lessons for public health media advocacy approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. David

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Harmful gambling is a significant public health issue. There has been widespread discussion in the Australian media about the extent and impact of sports betting on the Australian community, particularly relating to young men and children. Given the role that the media plays in influencing policy change and political agendas, and the acknowledgement that media based advocacy is a fundamental component of successful advocacy campaigns, this research aimed to investigate how different stakeholder groups discuss sports betting within the Australian print media. The study uses this information to provide recommendations to guide public health media advocacy approaches. Methods A quantitative content analysis of print media articles was conducted during two significant Parliamentary Inquiries about sports betting - (1 The Joint Select Committee Inquiry into the Advertising and Promotion of Gambling Services in Sport (2012/2013, and (2 'The Review of Illegal Offshore Wagering (2015/2016. A total of 241 articles from 12 daily Australian newspapers were analysed. Statistical analysis was used to compare frequency of, and changes in, themes, voices and perspectives over time. Results Discussions about the marketing and communication of sports betting was a main theme in media reporting (n = 165, 68.5%, while discussions about gambling reform decreased significantly across the two time periods (p < 0.0001. The presence of sports betting industry (p < 0.0001, sporting code (p < 0.0001 and public health expert (p = 0.001 voices all increased significantly across the two time periods. There were very few (n = 11, 4.6% voices from those who had experienced gambling harm. Finally, while there were significantly fewer articles taking the perspective that regulation changes were needed to protect vulnerable sub-populations (p < 0.0001, articles that had a neutral perspective about the need for regulation change increased

  3. Effectiveness of narrative pedagogy in developing student nurses' advocacy role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazarian, Priscilla K; Fernberg, Lauren M; Sheehan, Kelly D

    2016-03-01

    The literature and research on nursing ethics and advocacy has shown that generally very few nurses and other clinicians will speak up about an issue they have witnessed regarding a patient advocacy concern and that often advocacy in nursing is not learned until after students have graduated and begun working. To evaluate the effectiveness of narrative pedagogy on the development of advocacy in student nurses, as measured by the Protective Nursing Advocacy Scale. We tested the hypothesis that use of a narrative pedagogy assignment related to ethics would improve student nurse's perception of their advocacy role as measured by the Protective Nursing Advocacy Scale using a quasi-experimental nonrandomized study using a pre-test, intervention, post-test design. Data collection occurred during class time from October 2012 to December 2012. The Protective Nursing Advocacy Scale tool was administered to students in class to assess their baseline and was administered again at the completion of the educational intervention to assess whether narrative pedagogy was effective in developing the nursing student's perception of their role as a patient advocate. Students were informed that their participation was voluntary and that the data collected would be anonymous and confidential. The survey was not a graded assignment, and students did not receive any incentive to participate. The institutional review board of the college determined the study to be exempt from review. School of Nursing at a small liberal arts college in the Northeastern United States. A consecutive, nonprobability sample of 44 senior-level nursing students enrolled in their final nursing semester was utilized. Results indicated significant differences in student nurse's perception of their advocacy role related to environment and educational influences following an education intervention using an ethics digital story. Using the Protective Nursing Advocacy Scale, we were able to measure the effectiveness of

  4. Fostering nurses' political knowledges and practices: education and political activation in relation to lesbian health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonnell, Judith A

    2009-01-01

    This article describes findings from a qualitative policy study focused on female nurses' activism in relation to lesbian health. Critical feminist analysis and comparative life history methodology were applied to career histories obtained from 10 diversely situated female nurses across Ontario, Canada. The findings show that nursing activist practices are informed by advocacy experiences that foster inclusive professional and community education plus formal education processes that shape their political socialization. Implications for nursing theory include the development of political knowledges and practices that support caring science, sociopolitical knowing, and primary healthcare nursing practice in a community context.

  5. Syringe Decriminalization Advocacy in Red States: Lessons from the North Carolina Harm Reduction Coalition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloud, David H; Castillo, Tessie; Brinkley-Rubinstein, Lauren; Dubey, Manisha; Childs, Robert

    2018-05-08

    Syringe access programs (SAPs) are cornerstone harm reduction interventions for combatting the national opioid epidemic. The goal of this paper is to describe effective advocacy strategies for enacting syringe decriminalization legislation to foster the expansion of SAPs in high-need areas amidst political opposition. Decades or research shows that SAPs prevent the transmission of HIV among people who inject drugs (PWID) and are a cost-effective tool for linking PWID to medical care, health education, and social services. In the USA, state laws criminalizing distribution and possession of syringes impede the expansion of SAPs into areas where they are sorely needed. In 2016, North Carolina became the first state to legalize SAPs with a Republican super majority. This paper distills strategies for community organizations seeking to advance syringe decriminalization legislation in politically conservative states with histories of prioritizing punitive sanctions over public health responses to drug use.

  6. Evaluating a Human Rights-Based Advocacy Approach to Expanding Access to Pain Medicines and Palliative Care: Global Advocacy and Case Studies from India, Kenya, and Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, Diederik; Amon, Joseph J

    2015-12-10

    Palliative care has been defined as care that is person-centered and attentive to physical symptoms and psychological, social, and existential distress in patients with severe or life-threatening illness. The identification of access to palliative care and pain treatment as a human rights issue first emerged among palliative care advocates, physicians, and lawyers in the 1990s, with a basis in the right to health and the right to be free from cruel, inhuman, and degrading treatment. Using a case study approach, we evaluate the results of a human rights-based advocacy approach on access to pain medicine and palliative care in India, Kenya, and Ukraine. In each country, human rights advocacy helped raise awareness of the issue, identify structural barriers to care, define government obligations, and contribute to the reform of laws, policies, and practices impeding the availability of palliative care services. In addition, advocacy efforts stimulated civil society engagement and high-level political leadership that fostered the implementation of human rights-based palliative care programs. Globally, access to palliative care was increasingly recognized by human rights bodies and within global health and drug policy organizations as a government obligation central to the right to health. Copyright © 2015 Lohman, Amon. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  7. Political psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Susanna; Johnson, Kate M; Beall, Erica; Meindl, Peter; Smith, Benjamin; Graham, Jesse

    2014-07-01

    Political psychology is a dynamic field of research that offers a unique blend of approaches and methods in the social and cognitive sciences. Political psychologists explore the interactions between macrolevel political structures and microlevel factors such as decision-making processes, motivations, and perceptions. In this article, we provide a broad overview of the field, beginning with a brief history of political psychology research and a summary of the primary methodological approaches in the field. We then give a more detailed account of research on ideology and social justice, two topics experiencing a resurgence of interest in current political psychology. Finally, we cover research on political persuasion and voting behavior. By summarizing these major areas of political psychology research, we hope to highlight the wide variety of theoretical and methodological approaches of cognitive scientists working at the intersection of psychology and political science. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:373-385. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1293 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Physicians and abortion: provision, political participation and conflicts on the ground--the cases of Brazil and Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Zordo, Silvia; Mishtal, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Two qualitative studies have been conducted between 2002 and 2009 in Poland and Brazil, two different geopolitical settings in which the Catholic Church has had a significant political influence and where abortion is highly restricted. In both countries, struggles for abortion rights have played an important role in challenging the current restrictive policies and bringing attention to the plight of women unable to obtain abortions. This article examines the political role that physicians play in these contestations, drawing on some findings of two larger qualitative studies. In Poland semi-structured interviews were conducted with 26 physicians in Warsaw and Krakow and with 55 women aged 18 to 45 in Gdańsk. In Brazil questionnaires were administered and semi-structured interviews conducted with 22 obstetrician-gynecologists and 23 health professionals in two public maternity hospitals in Salvador da Bahia. This article argues that gynecologists' perspectives and practices not only reflect or heed religious precepts on reproductive rights, but are also deeply influenced by inadequate medical training and by the fear of being prosecuted or stigmatized, especially in Brazil. The political non-engagement of physicians in Poland is driven by the lack of abortion rights discourse in the public arena, poor links with women's rights groups, and the lack of political unity within the medical community. Comparisons between Brazil and Poland ultimately suggest that strong liaisons between physicians and the feminist movement influence physicians' attitudes and political engagement and are most promising in abortion rights advocacy efforts. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. 77 FR 13390 - Recruitment Notice for the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Recruitment Notice for the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice of Open Season for Recruitment of IRS Taxpayer Advocacy Panel (TAP) Members. DATES: March 19, 2012 through April 27...

  10. 76 FR 12418 - Recruitment Notice for the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Recruitment Notice for the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice of Open Season for Recruitment of IRS Taxpayer Advocacy Panel (TAP) Members. DATES: March 14, 2011 through April 29...

  11. 75 FR 9028 - Recruitment Notice for the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Recruitment Notice for the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice of Open Season for Recruitment of IRS Taxpayer Advocacy Panel (TAP) Members. DATES: March 15, 2010 through April 30...

  12. Advocacy for Kids: A View from the Residential Trenches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Jon R.

    1995-01-01

    Presents the concept of advocacy in the trenches, wherein residential care staff intercede with and for dysfunctional families, dysfunctional children, and the bureaucracy. This advocacy emphasizes individualized treatment and case-by-case networking, focusing not on broad causes but on what is in the best interest of each child. (ET)

  13. Advocacy participation and brand loyalty in virtual brand communtity

    OpenAIRE

    Munnukka, Juha; Uusitalo, Outi; Jokinen, Elisa

    2014-01-01

    Brand owners use virtual communities to strengthen brand loyalty by engaging consumers in active content creation activities. Personal and reciprocal communication and consumers’ participation in virtual brand communities are the main sources through which communities contribute to brand loyalty formation. This research examines the antecedents and consequences of advocacy participation in virtual brand communities. The results show that the VBC members’ advocacy participation ...

  14. Social Justice Advocacy among Graduate Students: An Empirical Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnemeyer, Rachel McQuown

    2009-01-01

    Although social justice advocacy has increasingly been acknowledged as important in the field of psychology (e.g., Goodman et al., 2004; Toporek et al., 2006a, Vera & Speight, 2003), there is a dearth of empirical research examining social justice advocacy across graduate psychology students. This mixed-methods study examined demographic and…

  15. Advocacy for Child Wellness in High-Poverty Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Carol A.

    2014-01-01

    Child wellness needs to be understood holistically so that children and youth from high-poverty environments can succeed in schooling and life. Teachers who foster advocacy in themselves are well equipped to teach students to take ownership of their own well-being. Such advocacy can enrich the classroom curriculum and mitigate the negative effects…

  16. Promoting Systemic Change through the ACA Advocacy Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toporek, Rebecca L.; Lewis, Judith A.; Crethar, Hugh C.

    2009-01-01

    In 2003, the American Counseling Association (ACA) adopted the ACA Advocacy Competencies (J. A. Lewis, M. S. Arnold, R. House, & R. L. Toporek, 2002) to provide guidance to counselors and acknowledge advocacy as an ethical aspect of service to clients. This article provides a foundation for this special section by sharing a historical perspective…

  17. Reducing violent injuries: priorities for pediatrician advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolins, J C; Christoffel, K K

    1994-10-01

    A basic framework for developing an advocacy plan must systematically break down the large task of policy development implementation into manageable components. The basic framework described in detail in this paper includes three steps: Setting policy objectives by narrowing the scope of policy, by reviewing policy options, and by examining options against selected criteria. Developing strategies for educating the public and for approaching legislative/regulatory bodies. Evaluating the effectiveness of the advocacy action plan as a process and as an agent for change. To illustrate the variety of ways in which pediatricians can be involved in the policy process to reduce violent injuries among children and adolescents, we apply this systematic approach to three priority areas. Prohibiting the use of corporal punishment in schools is intended to curb the institutionalized legitimacy of violence that has been associated with future use of violence. Efforts to remove handguns from the environments of children and adolescents are aimed at reducing the numbers of firearm injuries inflicted upon and by minors. Comprehensive treatment of adolescent victims of assault is intended to decrease the reoccurrence of violent injuries.

  18. Medical advocacy on behalf of detained immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venters, Homer D; Foote, Mary; Keller, Allen S

    2011-06-01

    Detention of immigrants by Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) is a rapidly growing form of incarceration in the U.S. with almost 400,000 people detained in 2008 (Schriro in Immigration and Customs Enforcement, 2009, http://www.ice.gov/doclib/091005_ice_detention_report-final.pdf ). ICE detainees are predominantly from Mexico and Latin America and only a small minority of detainees are asylum seekers. Immigrant detainees lack a legal guarantee of medical care (unlike criminal arrestees and prisoners) and face challenges in receiving medical care, particularly those with chronic medical conditions (Venters and Keller in J Health Care Poor Underserved 20:951-957, 2009). Although we and others have long been involved in advocating for detained asylum seekers, few resources are dedicated to medical advocacy for the broader population of ICE detainees. At the NYU Center for Health and Human Rights (CHHR), a program of medical advocacy was initiated in 2007 on behalf of ICE detainees focused on improvement of care in detention and medical parole. Our preliminary efforts reveal a pressing need for more involvement by physicians and other health advocates in this area.

  19. Political power and health inequalities in Vieques, Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Catherine K; Pellegrini, Lawrence C; Mogro-Wilson, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between political power and the various pathways to health inequalities in Vieques, Puerto Rico, is explored. The U.S. Navy used the island for 62 years for bombing and other military exercises. The article focuses on the resulting changes to the island's socioeconomic positioning and the health inequalities over six decades. Secondary data analysis of census data using a revised World Health Organization model is used to examine the relationships of political power, labor markets, employment, material deprivation, social and family networks, and health inequalities. Findings are interpreted through a social justice lens and implications suggest the use of political advocacy for social change.

  20. Gay-Straight Alliances vary on dimensions of youth socializing and advocacy: factors accounting for individual and setting-level differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V Paul; Scheer, Jillian R; Marx, Robert A; Calzo, Jerel P; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2015-06-01

    Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs) are school-based youth settings that could promote health. Yet, GSAs have been treated as homogenous without attention to variability in how they operate or to how youth are involved in different capacities. Using a systems perspective, we considered two primary dimensions along which GSAs function to promote health: providing socializing and advocacy opportunities. Among 448 students in 48 GSAs who attended six regional conferences in Massachusetts (59.8 % LGBQ; 69.9 % White; 70.1 % cisgender female), we found substantial variation among GSAs and youth in levels of socializing and advocacy. GSAs were more distinct from one another on advocacy than socializing. Using multilevel modeling, we identified group and individual factors accounting for this variability. In the socializing model, youth and GSAs that did more socializing activities did more advocacy. In the advocacy model, youth who were more actively engaged in the GSA as well as GSAs whose youth collectively perceived greater school hostility and reported greater social justice efficacy did more advocacy. Findings suggest potential reasons why GSAs vary in how they function in ways ranging from internal provisions of support, to visibility raising, to collective social change. The findings are further relevant for settings supporting youth from other marginalized backgrounds and that include advocacy in their mission.

  1. The Teen Photovoice Project: A Pilot Study to Promote Health Through Advocacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necheles, Jonathan W.; Chung, Emily Q.; Hawes-Dawson, Jennifer; Ryan, Gery W.; Williams, La’Shield B.; Holmes, Heidi N.; Wells, Kenneth B.; Vaiana, Mary E.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Clinicians, public health practitioners, and policymakers would like to understand how youth perceive health issues and how they can become advocates for health promotion in their communities. 1,2 Traditional research methods can be used to capture these perceptions, but are limited in their ability to activate (excite and engage) youth to participate in health promotion activities. Objectives To pilot the use of an adapted version of photovoice as a starting point to engage youth in identifying influences on their health behaviors in a process that encourages the development of health advocacy projects. Methods Application of qualitative and quantitative methods to a participatory research project that teaches youth the photovoice method to identify and address health promotion issues relevant to their lives. Participants included 13 students serving on a Youth Advisory Board (YAB) of the UCLA/RAND Center for Adolescent Health Promotion working in four small groups of two to five participants. Students were from the Los Angeles, California, metropolitan area. Results Results were derived from photograph sorting activities, analysis of photograph narratives, and development of advocacy projects. Youth frequently discussed a variety of topics reflected in their pictures that included unhealthy food choices, inducers of stress, friends, emotions, environment, health, and positive aspects of family. The advocacy projects used social marketing strategies, focusing on unhealthy dietary practices and inducers of stress. The youths’ focus on obesity-related issues have contributed to the center’s success in partnering with the Los Angeles Unified School District on a new community-based participatory research (CBPR) project. Conclusion Youth can engage in a process of identifying community-level health influences, leading to health promotion through advocacy. Participants focused their advocacy work on selected issues addressing the types of unhealthy food

  2. 500 Women Scientists: Science Advocacy Through Community Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohon, W.; Bartel, B. A.; Pendergrass, A. G.; Ramirez, K. S.; Vijayaraghavan, R.; Weintraub, S. R.; Zelikova, T. J.

    2017-12-01

    500 Women Scientists is a grassroots organization formed in late 2016 to empower women to grow to their full potential in science, increase scientific literacy through public engagement, and advocate for science and equality. Our organization is global but we focus on building community relationships through local action. Our "pods," or local chapters, focus on issues that resonate in their communities, rooted in our mission and values. Pod members meet regularly, develop a support network, make strategic plans, and take action. In less than a year, 500 Women Scientists has already formed important partnerships and begun to work on local, regional and national projects. Nationally, we partnered with The Cairn Project to raise money to support girls in science. In an effort led by the DC pod, our members sent postcards sharing stories of how the EPA protects their communities in the #OurEPA postcard campaign. Pods have also participated in marches, including the Women's March, the March for Science and the People's Climate March. The "Summer of Op-Ed" campaign catalyzed pods and individuals to write to their local newspapers to speak up for funding science, climate change action, and general science advocacy. We have organized "strike-teams" that are working on local issues like education, the environment, climate change, and equal access to science. Additionally, pod members serve as mentors, participate in local events, hold workshops and partner with local organizations. As women scientists, we are in the position to take action to increase diversity in science and to draw attention to unacknowledged structural biases that negatively impact historically under-represented groups. 500 Women Scientists enables women in science to embrace this advocacy role, both within our scientific system and within our local communities.

  3. Why Advocacy and Policy Matter: Promoting Research and Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellen V. Sigal, PhD, is Chairperson and Founder of Friends of Cancer Research (Friends), a think tank and advocacy organization based in Washington, DC. Friends drives collaboration among partners from every healthcare sector to power advances in science, policy and regulation that speed life-saving treatments to patients. During the past 20 years, Friends has been instrumental in the creation and implementation of policies ensuring patients receive the best treatments in the fastest and safest way possible. Dr. Sigal is Chair of the inaugural board of directors of the Reagan-Udall Foundation, a partnership designed to modernize medical product development, accelerate innovation and enhance product safety in collaboration with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. She serves on the Board of the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health, where she chairs its Public Private Partnerships Committee. In 2001, Dr. Sigal was appointed to a six-year term on the Board of Governors of the Patient Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) as a representative of patients and health consumers. Additionally, in 2016 Dr. Sigal was named to Vice President Biden’s Cancer Moonshot Blue Ribbon Panel, to the Parker Institute for Immunotherapy Advisory Group and joined the inaugural board of advisors for the George Washington University’s Milken Institute of Public Health. She also holds leadership positions with a broad range of cancer advocacy, public policy organizations and academic health centers including: MD Anderson Cancer Center External Advisory Board, the Duke University Cancer Center Board of Overseers, and The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center Advisory Council.

  4. Political News and Political Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schertges, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with mass media in modern democratic societies, using the example of Israeli news reports in German television (TV) news. Central to this interest are processes of mediating politics: political socialisation and education; that is to say, empowering citizens via TV news to participate in democratic processes. The article…

  5. Advocating for responsible oil and natural gas extraction policies; FracTracker as a mechanism for overcoming the barriers to scientific advocacy for academics and communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrar, K. J.; Malone, S.; Kelso, M.; Lenker, B.

    2013-12-01

    The inability to translate data to scientific information that can readily be incorporated by citizens into the public arena is an obstacle for science-based advocacy. This issue is particularly poignant for shale oil and natural gas development via hydraulic fracturing, as the issue has become highly politicized. Barriers to engaging in policy debate are different but highly related for community members and scientists. For citizens and interest groups, barriers including accessibility, public awareness and data presentation limit the motivation for community involvement in political interactions. To overcome such barriers, social researchers call for public engagement to move upstream and many call for a broad engagement of scientists in science-based advocacy. Furthermore surveys have shown that citizens, interest groups, and decision-makers share a broad desire for scientists to engage in environmental policy development. Regardless, scientists face a number of perceived barriers, with academics expressing the most resistance to overcoming the tension created by adherence to the scientific method and the need to engage with the broader society, described by Schneider (1990) as the 'double ethical bind'. For the scientific community the appeal of public dissemination of information beyond the scope of academic journals is limited for a number of reasons. Barriers include preservation of credibility, peer attitudes, training, and career trajectory. The result is a lack of translated information available to the public. This systematic analysis of the FracTracker platform provides an evaluation of where the features of the public engagement, GIS platform has been successful at overcoming these barriers to public dissemination, where the platform needs further development or is ill-suited to address these issues, and the development of FracTracker as an outlet for scientific researchers to engage with citizens. The analysis will also provide insight into what

  6. Gendering transnational party politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantola, Johanna; Rolandsen-Agustín, Lise

    2016-01-01

    research traditions, we build toward an analytical framework to study gender and transnational party politics. Our empirical analysis focuses on two policy issues, the economic crisis and the sexual and reproductive health and rights, analyzing European Parliament reports, debates and voting on the issues...... from 2009 to 2014. By focusing on gender equality constructions and the way in which consensus and contestation are built around them within and between party groups, we argue that shared constructions about gender equality are issue specific and change over time. Consensus breaks down along the left......In this article, we analyze transnational party politics in the European Union from a gender perspective. This is a subject that has been neglected both by mainstream European studies on party politics and by gender scholars who work on political parties. Drawing on the insights of these two...

  7. Climate Change: On Scientists and Advocacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Gavin A.

    2014-01-01

    Last year, I asked a crowd of a few hundred geoscientists from around the world what positions related to climate science and policy they would be comfortable publicly advocating. I presented a list of recommendations that included increased research funding, greater resources for education, and specific emission reduction technologies. In almost every case, a majority of the audience felt comfortable arguing for them. The only clear exceptions were related to geo-engineering research and nuclear power. I had queried the researchers because the relationship between science and advocacy is marked by many assumptions and little clarity. This despite the fact that the basic question of how scientists can be responsible advocates on issues related to their expertise has been discussed for decades most notably in the case of climate change by the late Stephen Schneider.

  8. Political Ideology, Trust, and Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balliet, Daniel; Tybur, Joshua M.; Wu, Junhui; Antonellis, Christian; Van Lange, Paul A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Theories suggest that political ideology relates to cooperation, with conservatives being more likely to pursue selfish outcomes, and liberals more likely to pursue egalitarian outcomes. In study 1, we examine how political ideology and political party affiliation (Republican vs. Democrat) predict cooperation with a partner who self-identifies as Republican or Democrat in two samples before (n = 362) and after (n = 366) the 2012 US presidential election. Liberals show slightly more concern for their partners’ outcomes compared to conservatives (study 1), and in study 2 this relation is supported by a meta-analysis (r = .15). However, in study 1, political ideology did not relate to cooperation in general. Both Republicans and Democrats extend more cooperation to their in-group relative to the out-group, and this is explained by expectations of cooperation from in-group versus out-group members. We discuss the relation between political ideology and cooperation within and between groups. PMID:29593363

  9. Spiritual Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Rambeau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available According to Foucault, the uprising of the Iranian people in the seventies reveals how much the political force of Islam is due precisely to the fact that it is not principally located in the field of politics, but in that of ethics. Religion (Shiite Islam appears as the guarantee of real change in the very mode of existence. This spiritual politics is marginalized by Marxism, where it is understood as a discontinuity in relation to proper politics, given that the latter is necessarily linked to a strategic rationalization. By indicating, at this juncture of what is intolerable, the living source and the critical impulse of the Foucauldian ethics, this spiritual politics also leads to recognize in the concept of “subjectivation” a dimension that might escape the circle of freedom as determined by a total immanence to power. This conceptual possibility is highly present in the aporias of the Foucauldian concept of the “relation to oneself”, both as a first condition of governmentality and the ultimate point of resistance against any governmentality. It thus reveals the difficulties in relating political to ethical subjectivation.

  10. A Queer Theorist's Critique of Online Domestic Violence Advocacy: Critically Responding to the National Coalition Against Domestic Violence Web Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Samuel Z

    2018-01-01

    Since the foundations of the contemporary anti-violence movement in the 1960s and 1970s, advocates have sought to establish a critical understanding of domestic violence that we can use to direct our efforts for social change. Yet many advocates and advocacy organizations continue to rely on a problematic narrative of sameness that marginalizes and erases diverse victims' experiences and needs. In this article, I conduct a critical discourse analysis of the National Coalition Against Domestic Violence Web site to identify outcomes of this narrative for the inclusivity of advocacy efforts. I argue that despite the organization's numerous claims to represent diverse victims' experiences, Web site content reveals that its purportedly general account of domestic violence normalizes the experiences of a small group of victims-namely, heterosexual, cisgender women. Further, the Web site's content greatly limits the potential for thinking about and discussing violence across difference. I conclude with recommendations for changes in advocacy practices.

  11. Banning shisha smoking in public places in Iran: an advocacy coalition framework perspective on policy process and change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayatzadeh-Mahani, Akram; Breton, Eric; Ruckert, Arne; Labonté, Ronald

    2017-07-01

    Shisha smoking is a widespread custom in Iran with a rapidly growing prevalence especially among the youth. In this article, we analyze the policy process of enforcing a federal/state ban on shisha smoking in all public places in Kerman Province, Iran. Guided by the Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF), we investigate how a shisha smoking ban reached the political agenda in 2011, how it was framed by different policy actors, and why no significant breakthrough took place despite its inclusion on the agenda. We conducted a qualitative study using a case study approach. Two main sources of data were employed: face-to-face in-depth interviews and document analysis of key policy texts. We interviewed 24 policy actors from diverse sectors. A qualitative thematic framework, incorporating both inductive and deductive analyses, was employed to analyze our data. We found that the health sector was the main actor pushing the issue of shisha smoking onto the political agenda by framing it as a public health risk. The health sector and its allies advocated enforcement of a federal law to ban shisha smoking in all public places including teahouses and traditional restaurants whereas another group of actors opposed the ban. The pro-ban group was unable to neutralize the strategies of the anti-ban group and to steer the debate towards the health harms of shisha smoking. Our analysis uncovers three main reasons behind the policy stasis: lack of policy learning due to lack of agreement over evidence and related analytical conflicts between the two groups linked to differences in core and policy beliefs; the inability of the pro-ban group to exploit opportunities in the external policy subsystem through generating stronger public support for enforcement of the shisha smoking ban; and the nature of the institutional setting, in particular the autocratic governance of CHFS which contributed to a lack of policy learning within the policy subsystem. Our research demonstrated the utility

  12. Is the political animal politically ignorant? Applying evolutionary psychology to the study of political attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Michael Bang; Aarøe, Lene

    2012-12-20

    As evidenced by research in evolutionary psychology, humans have evolved sophisticated psychological mechanisms tailored to solve enduring adaptive problems of social life. Many of these social problems are political in nature and relate to the distribution of costs and benefits within and between groups. In that sense, evolutionary psychology suggests that humans are, by nature, political animals. By implication, a straightforward application of evolutionary psychology to the study of public opinion seems to entail that modern individuals find politics intrinsically interesting. Yet, as documented by more than fifty years of research in political science, people lack knowledge of basic features of the political process and the ability to form consistent political attitudes. By reviewing and integrating research in evolutionary psychology and public opinion, we describe (1) why modern mass politics often fail to activate evolved mechanisms and (2) the conditions in which these mechanisms are in fact triggered.

  13. Political symbols and political transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrero de Miñón, Miguel

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Politics, Law and Psychology are fields that come together in the symbolic. This text takes evidence from those three areas to develop an analysis of political symbols and political transitions. The development of the analysis goes through three stages. The first succinctly describes the concept of transition and its meaning. The second closely examines the notion of the symbol, in terms of its definition, to explain aspects that allow us to understand it, characterise it and make its functions clear. Finally, from the author's experience as a witness and as an actor, I suggest three ways of understanding symbols in the processes of political transition: as symbols of change, as symbols of acknowledgment, and as symbols of support.

  14. Child Advocacy in the United States: The Work of the Children's Defense Fund. Innocenti Essays No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weill, James D.

    This essay provides an overview of the goals and activities of the Children's Defense Fund (CDF), an advocacy group headquartered in Washington, D.C. that works to improve the well-being of American children through systemic change and whose goal is to make it unacceptable for any child in the United States to grow up homeless, hungry, sick,…

  15. Feminism: Political Actions and Power Authorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Maria Santos Roland

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of advocacy encompasses manifold and complex activities and represents many challenges. The principal challenge is political and ethical in nature. Internationalization accelerates the rhythm of work, increasing the demands and the level of requirements on leaderships and generating contradictions between the internationalized sectors of the movement and those who face greater difficulties in linking their everyday actions to the logic produced by the new communication, management and administrative techniques. A core problem is the representativeness of leadership which, in order to be addressed, requires giving up the pre-modern control over bodies and constructing relationships among juridical subjects.

  16. Economic Integration and Political Disintegration

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Alesina; Enrico Spolaore; Romain Wacziarg

    1997-01-01

    Trade liberalization and political separatism go hand in hand. In a world of trade restrictions, large countries enjoy economic benefits because political boundaries determine the size of the market. In a world of free trade and global markets even relatively small cultural, linguistic or ethnic groups can benefit from forming small and homogeneous political jurisdictions that trade peacefully and are economically integrated with others. This paper provides a formal model of the relationship ...

  17. Predator Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Louisa Cappelli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Edward Abbey’s Desert Solitaire and Barbara Kingsolver’s Prodigal Summer urges readers to see coyotes as crucial members of the natural community whose predation is essential for the maintenance of biodiversity and ecological stability. Their cultural production provides a human story of ecocritical engagement for understanding the cascading effects of removing top predators from their ecosystems. By envisioning biocentric possibilities within place-based and scientific contexts, Edward Abbey and Barbara Kingsolver share a common theme of political ecology: political processes shape ecological conditions. A close reading of Edward Abbey’s Desert Solitaire and Barbara Kingsolver’s Prodigal Summer provides a literary entryway to connect research, arguments, and discourse across disciplines tasking readers to engage in political discussions of environmental sustainability and to consider viable solutions to preserve the ecological diversity of our predator populations and ecosystems.

  18. LYNX community advocacy & service engagement (CASE) project final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-14

    This report is a final assessment of the Community Advocacy & Service Engagement (CASE) project, a LYNX-FTA research project designed : to study transit education and public engagement methods in Central Florida. In the Orlando area, as in other part...

  19. Know Violence in Childhood – India: Advocacy, communication and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Know Violence in Childhood (KVIC) is a global learning and advocacy initiative to ... Among the activities are mapping and gap analysis of existing state-level ... in India, including heat stress, water management, and climate-related migration.

  20. Handicapped Infants and Euthanasia: A Challenge to Our Advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. David

    1985-01-01

    The issue of pediatric euthanasia for handicapped newborns is examined and contrasting viewpoints emphasizing the quality and the sanctity of life are considered. The author asserts that advocacy for handicapped children involves decisions regarding the euthanasia question. (CL)

  1. Diabetes Advocacy and Care in Nigeria: A Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TNHJOURNALPH

    by the Federal Ministry of Health for the prevention and control ... Diabetes in Nigeria; the advocacy; policy and ... local healthcare policies and plan of .... considering its strategic role and importance ... strategic approach of the Government of.

  2. Using a digital storytelling assignment to teach public health advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, A B; Levesque, Salem

    2018-03-01

    The need and expectation for advocacy is central to public health nursing practice. Advocacy efforts that effectively call attention to population health threats and promote the well-being of communities rely on strategies that deliver influential messaging. The digital story is a lay method to capture meaningful, impactful stories that can be used to advocate for public health concerns. Readily available, user-friendly digital technologies allow engagement in digital media production to create digital stories. This paper describes how digital story making can be utilized as an academic assignment to teach public health advocacy within an undergraduate nursing curriculum. Providing nursing students this artistic outlet can facilitate meeting academic learning goals, while also equipping them with creative skills that can be applied in future professional practice. Nursing educators can take advantage of institutional resources and campus culture to support the use of novel digital media assignments that facilitate application of advocacy concepts. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Developing a comprehensive curriculum for public health advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Ayelet; Jernigan, David H

    2012-11-01

    There is a substantial gap in public health school curricula regarding advocacy. Development of such a curriculum faces three challenges: faculty lack advocacy skills and experience; the public health literature on effective advocacy is limited; and yet a successful curriculum must be scalable to meet the needs of approximately 9,000 public health students graduating each year. To meet these challenges, we propose a 100-hour interactive online curriculum in five sections: campaigning and organizing, policy making and lobbying, campaign communications, new media, and fund-raising. We outline the content for individual modules in each of these sections, describe how the curriculum would build on existing interactive learning and social media technologies, and provide readers the opportunity to "test-drive" excerpts of a module on "grasstops" organizing. Developing advocacy skills and expertise is critical to meeting the challenges of public health today, and we provide a blueprint for how such training might be brought to scale in the field.

  4. Feminized Power and Adversarial Advocacy: Levelling Arguments or Analyzing Them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condit, Celeste Michelle

    1989-01-01

    Examines the journalistic analysis of the 1988 Presidential Debates from a feminist perspective in order to identify the revisions needed in the debate process. Provides historical background of feminized power and adversarial advocacy. (MM)

  5. How Internal Political Efficacy Translates Political Knowledge Into Political Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This study presents evidence for the mediation effect of political knowledge through political self-efficacy (i.e. internal political efficacy) in the prediction of political participation. It employs an action theoretic approach—by and large grounded on the Theory of Planned Behaviour—and uses data from the German Longitudinal Election Study to examine whether political knowledge has distinct direct effects on voting, conventional, and/or unconventional political participation. It argues that political knowledge raises internal political efficacy and thereby indirectly increases the chance that a citizen will participate in politics. The results of mediated multiple regression analyses yield evidence that political knowledge indeed translates into internal political efficacy, thus it affects political participation of various kinds indirectly. However, internal political efficacy and intentions to participate politically yield simultaneous direct effects only on conventional political participation. Sequentially mediated effects appear for voting and conventional political participation, with political knowledge being mediated by internal political efficacy and subsequently also by behavioural intentions. The mediation patterns for unconventional political participation are less clear though. The discussion accounts for restrictions of this study and points to questions for answer by future research. PMID:27298633

  6. Political economy of renewable energy policy in Germany. A consideration of the policy making process in the electricity market under the influence of interest groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Tom

    2015-01-01

    In the research, it is argued that the targeted promotion of renewables leads to a change in the technological path dependency on the electricity market or led. The historically market depending portfolio of products in the conventional power industry will be replaced by an increasingly strong dependence on the product portfolio of Renewable Energy Sector according to this argumentation. The present work is devoted to the political explanation of the change and transition process in the electricity market. The process of policy formation in this market (especially support policies for renewable energies) will be discussed. It is examined from a public choice perspective, which political actors and instances in the past were responsible for the development and maintenance of individual policy elements. In particular, in this analysis the different private sector stakeholders in the electricity market move to center of attention. [de

  7. Young people with intellectual disability—The role of self-advocacy in a transformed Swedish welfare system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Tideman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of young people in Sweden with intellectual disability have organized themselves during the last 15 years in self-advocacy groups for socializing, empowerment, and expressing opposition to the norms and attitudes in a society that labels them as disabled. At the same time, the Swedish welfare system has transformed dramatically with processes of far-reaching individualization, closure of the major institutions, decentralization of responsibility from the state to local governments, and an emerging welfare market where service users are turned into customers. The aim of this article is to analyse and discuss the significance of self-advocacy in the new welfare context. Data were collected over a period of more than 10 years using repeated interviews with members of two self-advocacy groups and participation observations. Findings suggest that participation in self-advocacy groups opens up members for increasing health and well-being through new roles and identities, and it strengthens their control over everyday life. Support is still needed, however, but in new ways; otherwise, the restrictions of the institutions will simply be reconstructed in the new welfare system.

  8. In delicate balance: stem cells and spinal cord injury advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parke, Sara; Illes, Judy

    2011-09-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a major focus for stem cell therapy (SCT). However, the science of SCT has not been well matched with an understanding of perspectives of persons with SCI. The online advocacy community is a key source of health information for primary stakeholders and their caregivers. In this study, we sought to characterize the content of SCI advocacy websites with respect to their discussion of SCT and stem cell tourism. We performed a comprehensive analysis of SCI advocacy websites identified through a web search and verified by expert opinion. Two independent researchers coded the information for major themes (e.g., scientific & clinical facts, research & funding, policy, ethics) and valence (positive, negative, balanced, neutral). Of the 40 SCI advocacy websites that met inclusion criteria, 50% (N=20) contained information about SCT. Less than 18% (N=7) contained information on stem cell tourism. There were more than ten times as many statements about SCT with a positive valence (N=67) as with a negative valence (N=6). Ethics-related SCT information comprised 20% (N=37) of the total content; the largest proportion of ethics-related content was devoted to stem cell tourism (80%, N=30 statements). Of those, the majority focused on the risks of stem cell tourism (N=16). Given the still-developing science behind SCT, the presence of cautionary information about stem cell tourism at advocacy sites is ethically appropriate. The absence of stem cell tourism information at the majority of advocacy sites represents a lost educational opportunity.

  9. How to Teach Political Advice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritzen, Poul Erik

    in close cooperation with the ministries and the mayor’s office. Besides training students to work under pressure, to write short and precise memos, to work in groups as well as on their own, to assess the political aspects of an issue, the course had some rather positive side effects in terms of student......, staffed with permanent civil servants rather than politically appointed persons. The aim of the course is to train the students in servicing the political and administrative top leaders of a politically led organization that is exposed to daily attention from the public, media and opposition. The course...

  10. Politics 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Abraham

    1977-01-01

    This article expresses some last thoughts from Abraham Maslow on his vision of humanistic psychology. He suggests that the two main problems of creating the good person and the good society are interwoven inextricably. He gives some social and political mechanisms which would enhance desirable personal growth and considers the main tasks of…

  11. Implementation Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegland, Troels Jacob; Raakjær, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    level are supplemented or even replaced by national priorities. The chapter concludes that in order to capture the domestic politics associated with CFP implementation in Denmark, it is important to understand the policy process as a synergistic interaction between dominant interests, policy alliances...

  12. Political Rationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solhaug, Trond; Kristensen, Niels Nørgaard

    The very idea about democracies is public participation in elections, decision-making and/or public engagement. The democratic participation distributes power among ordinary people and serve to legitimize decisions in public affairs and is a vital characteristic of a political culture.”The term...

  13. Framing politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lecheler, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation supplies a number of research findings that add to a theory of news framing effects, and also to the understanding of the role media effects play in political communication. We show that researchers must think more about what actually constitutes a framing effect, and that a

  14. Perceptions of political leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Schmitz, J; Murray, Gregg R

    2017-01-01

    Partisan identification is a fundamental force in individual and mass political behavior around the world. Informed by scholarship on human sociality, coalitional psychology, and group behavior, this research argues that partisan identification, like many other group-based behaviors, is influenced by forces of evolution. If correct, then party identifiers should exhibit adaptive behaviors when making group-related political decisions. The authors test this assertion with citizen assessments of the relative physical formidability of competing leaders, an important adaptive factor in leader evaluations. Using original and novel data collected during the contextually different 2008 and 2012 U.S. presidential elections, as well as two distinct measures obtained during both elections, this article presents evidence that partisans overestimate the physical stature of the presidential candidate of their own party compared with the stature of the candidate of the opposition party. These findings suggest that the power of party identification on political behavior may be attributable to the fact that modern political parties address problems similar to the problems groups faced in human ancestral times.

  15. Identity Politics, the Ethos of Vulnerability, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunila, Kristiina; Rossi, Leena-Maija

    2018-01-01

    In this article, identity politics is understood as a form of politics stressing collective but malleable group identities as the basis of political action. This notion of identity politics also allows thinking of identity as intersectional. The focus of this article, and a problem related to identity politics, is that when discussed in the…

  16. Terrorism and Political Parties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourne, Angela

    In the paper I address the empirical puzzle arising from different responses by political authorities in Spain and the UK to the existence of political parties integrated in the terrorist groups Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA, Basque Homeland and Freedom) and the Irish Republican Army (IRA). More...... for realization of free speech rights and representation is also emphasized, and where proscription is seen as inimical to resolution of conflict underpinning violence. In the context of party competition, a winning coalition is required for one discourse to predominate. However, I also argued that both ideas...

  17. Advocacy Disabled in Publishing Newspapers Media in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazzlan Sama

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the role of news media in communicating information about Disabled news to the public. The focus of the discussion centered issue and advocacy role of the news media conducted to understand the issues of persons with disabilities. Studies conducted using the method of analysis to systematically review the library of selected journals that conduct media exposure of persons with disabilities at the global level and so focused towards media conference in Malaysia. In this research, the data was obtained through databases ERIC, google scholar, Journal of Education, Journal of Social Sciences and Journal of Communication. A total of 30 articles were based on keywords such as disabled people, newspapers, news exposure to people with disabilities. However, researchers have obtained 13 articles that met after being filtered. The results obtained showed that the press releases are also still not open and not to report the news on disabilities. This is because there is a stigma that prevents acceptance of disabilities such as discrimination and negative attitudes towards them. Outlook negative stereotypes of people with disabilities who are strangers, the great ones, defects often appear in the media. Even now there is increasing advocacy for press media publishing news on this special group but the content or dissemination of information about them is still less show. Artikel ini membincangkan peranan media akhbar dalam menyampaikan maklumat berita tentang Orang Kurang Upaya kepada masyarakat. Fokus perbincangan ditumpukan isu dan peranan advokasi media akhbar dijalankan untuk memahami isu orang kurang upaya. Kajian yang dijalankan menggunakan kaedah analisis perpustakaan secara sistematik review terhadap jurnal-jurnal terpilih yang menjalankan kajian paparan media ke atas orang kurang upaya di peringkat global dan seterusnya difokus ke arah media akhbar di Malaysia. Dalam penyelidikan ini, data-data diperolehi melalui pengkalan

  18. ``Political'' Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzak Hopkins, Laura

    2013-03-01

    Politics and policy affect all of us, both as scientists and as citizens, and issues ranging from laboratory budgets to arms control treaties clearly require research problem-solving skills and technical expertise. There is a critical role for scientists in each aspect of the political system, and in fact, we as a society need more scientists to take part in politics. Furthermore, the research we pursue has important societal applications and is fascinating! We have a right and a responsibility to share our scientific knowledge not only with each other, but with the general public as well. So, why are we as a community of scientists reticent in the public arena, hesitant to enter politics, and even at times unsupportive of our peers who transition into governmental roles? In this time of fiscal constraint, when difficult research funding (and de-funding) choices are regularly being made, we as scientists must step up to the plate, reach across the aisle, and explain why what we do is fascinating, inspiring, and important, not just to us, but to society as a whole. A range of policy-relevant roles exists inside and outside the laboratory, such as Congressional Fellowships. Each year the Congressional Fellowships program brings together approximately thirty scientists at all stages of their careers to serve as scientific advisors in a variety of offices in the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives. Although the jump from lab to lobbying meetings can be frustrating, the transition can also be intriguing. Firsthand experience with the ``how'' and ``why'' (or lack thereof) of politics and policy is invaluable and provides a unique opportunity to expand and broaden one's background. The opportunity to work on Capitol Hill is unparalleled, particularly because our nation has a definite need for scientists with the inclination and interest to inform and develop policy. But, whatever role you decide to take, from contributing scientific news to local publications to

  19. Inclusion as political mobilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anne Mette; Muwanga, Nansozi

    2016-01-01

    constituencies. Finally, there is relatively weak pressure to push through education quality-enhancing reforms, be it from civil society in general, powerful interest groups, or parliament. At the local level, we find that how a school is situated within local elite networks is important in explaining local...... to implement qualityenhancing policies, first, because the formal and informal governance arrangements allow for a system of decentralised rent management that serves to appease lower level factions. Secondly, the NRM government is caught in the rhetoric of allowing free education in an appeal to rural......Uganda has been successful in broadening access to education. However, this achievement has been undermined by low literacy and numeracy levels and high drop-out rates. A political settlement perspective sheds light on the politics of education reforms. We find that there are weak political drives...

  20. Exploring Women's Understanding of Politics, Political Contestation ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Exploring Women's Understanding of Politics, Political Contestation and Gender ... First, researchers will explore women's political leadership and the extent to ... Sign up now for IDRC news and views sent directly to your inbox each month.

  1. Women and political representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, P B

    1999-01-01

    A remarkable progress in women's participation in politics throughout the world was witnessed in the final decade of the 20th century. According to the Inter-Parliamentary Union report, there were only eight countries with no women in their legislatures in 1998. The number of women ministers at the cabinet level worldwide doubled in a decade, and the number of countries without any women ministers dropped from 93 to 48 during 1987-96. However, this progress is far from satisfactory. Political representation of women, minorities, and other social groups is still inadequate. This may be due to a complex combination of socioeconomic, cultural, and institutional factors. The view that women's political participation increases with social and economic development is supported by data from the Nordic countries, where there are higher proportions of women legislators than in less developed countries. While better levels of socioeconomic development, having a women-friendly political culture, and higher literacy are considered favorable factors for women's increased political representation, adopting one of the proportional representation systems (such as a party-list system, a single transferable vote system, or a mixed proportional system with multi-member constituencies) is the single factor most responsible for the higher representation of women.

  2. European Union: Gender and politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žunić Natalija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Political representation is the central issue in contemporary debates on the level of democracy in political institutions and processes in the European Union. Underrepresentation of particular groups in political institutions, decision-making and policy-making processes is perceived as the problem of justice, legitimacy and effectiveness in democratic societies. In this paper, the author analyzes the gender aspects of democratic decision-making processes and political representation of women in the EU member states. The social, historical and political dimension of women's efforts to obtain and promote their civil status and political rights have been the framework for developing the principle of gender equality as one of the founding EU principles. In the past hundred years, one of the most significant trends in politics has been the expansion of formal political representation of women. Yet, even though it has been more than a hundered years since women won their political rights in the 19th and the 20th century (the right to vote and the right to be voted, gender differences in political rights are still a substantial part of debate. Today, women's political representation is still inadequate and their political capacity and power have not been exercised to a sufficient extent (or proportionally through their actual representation in parliament. In March 2012, the European Commisision published a report on gender equality in different areas of social life; the Eurobarometer survey shows that women are generally underrepresented in politics. In national parliaments, only one out of four MPs is a woman. In the European Parliament, three out of ten parliamentarians are women. The statistics shows a huge discrepancy among the EU Member States in terms of women's representation in parliament (44.7% in Sweden as contrasted to 13.3% in Romania. The prevailing view in many studies is that post-industrial democracies are deficient as they have failed

  3. Underground Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galis, Vasilis; Summerton, Jane

    Public spaces are often contested sites involving the political use of sociomaterial arrangements to check, control and filter the flow of people (see Virilio 1977, 1996). Such arrangements can include configurations of state-of-the-art policing technologies for delineating and demarcating borders...... status updates on identity checks at the metro stations in Stockholm and reports on locations and time of ticket controls for warning travelers. Thus the attempts by authorities to exert control over the (spatial) arena of the underground is circumvented by the effective developing of an alternative...... infrastructural "underground" consisting of assemblages of technologies, activists, immigrants without papers, texts and emails, homes, smart phones and computers. Investigating the embedded politics of contested spatial arrangements as characteristic of specific societies one can discover not only the uses...

  4. Political Epistemology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, David Budtz

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation is intended to establish a framework for a revised picture of the loci of epistemic preferences in our complex knowledge-based society. In what ways do institutions, policies and regulations determine the conditions under which knowledge is produced and justified? This dissertat......? This dissertation argues that we can identify multiple epistemic preferences in the institutional and political settings that govern the production and distribution of knowledge....

  5. Regulating the sale of tobacco in New Zealand: A qualitative analysis of retailers' views and implications for advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Lindsay; Marsh, Louise; Hoek, Janet; McGee, Rob; Egan, Richard

    2015-12-01

    In contrast to the sale of alcohol and other psychoactive substances, the retail availability of tobacco in New Zealand (NZ) is relatively unregulated. Tobacco is almost universally available, and the absence of a licensing scheme for tobacco retailers makes enforcement of retail-level legislation challenging. As a key stakeholder group, the views of tobacco retailers are likely to influence the tobacco retail policies that gain political support. We explored NZ tobacco retailers' views towards mandatory licensing of tobacco retailers, and how they perceived policies that would reduce tobacco availability. We conducted face-to-face interviews with tobacco retail store owners and managers throughout NZ (n=21). A semi-structured interview guide was used, and interviews explored participants' views of existing tobacco retail policies, the NZ government's goal of becoming a smokefree country by 2025, possible future policies, such as licensing of tobacco retailers, and perceptions of selling tobacco. Qualitative content analysis was conducted using the interview transcripts as the data source. The tobacco retailers interviewed expressed varying views on how tobacco sales should be regulated. Around half of the study participants were positive or indifferent about mandatory retailer licensing, and several believed licensing would not have a large impact on them. The idea of restricting the sale of tobacco within 500m of a school was generally well received by participants, and had more support than policies that would prohibit certain outlet types from selling tobacco. In contrast to claims made by industry-related organisations, a proposed licensing policy is unlikely to be met with blanket opposition from tobacco retailers. Advocacy efforts may garner more support for tobacco retail policies if the purpose of policies was framed in terms of protecting young people from smoking. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Political extremism predicts belief in conspiracy theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Prooijen, J.W.; Krouwel, A.P.M.; Pollet, T. V.

    2015-01-01

    Historical records suggest that the political extremes—at both the “left” and the “right”—substantially endorsed conspiracy beliefs about other-minded groups. The present contribution empirically tests whether extreme political ideologies, at either side of the political spectrum, are positively

  7. Analyzing online political discussions: Methodological considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergeer, M.R.M.; Hermans, E.A.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Online political discussions are thought to lead to more political engagement and empowerment of peripheral groups in society and thereby contributing to deliberative citizenship. Because people have increased opportunities to voice their political opinions and publish these for a potentially large

  8. Restoring Politics to Political History

    OpenAIRE

    Kousser, J. Morgan

    1982-01-01

    If history ever was simply the study of past politics, it is no longer. Dissatisfied with narratives of Great Men, more interested in analyzing the impact of larger forces and in tracing out patterns of the lives of the masses of people, skeptical that a recounting of election campaigns and a counting of votes reveals much about social thought or action, strongly affected by currents of opinion which have long run deep in France, American historians have turned increas...

  9. The autonomy of the University and political intervention in the trajectories of leadership and academics groups in Natural Science of The Universidad Nacional de La Plata. 1930-1955

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Flavio Soprano Manzo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This article analyze two process connect in one university institution. In the first part, study the autonomy's forms of the institutional organization discipline produced for the professors and investigators of the Institute of the Museum and the Superior School/ Faculty of the Natural Sciences in the Universidad Nacional de La Plata between 1935 and 1946. In the second part, study two social situations - the university interventions of the years 1946 and 1955- where the political of the National State produced changes in the trajectories of this academics. We explore this relationship in the leadership and academics groups in geology, paleontology, zoology, botanic and anthropology.

  10. POLITICAL TRADITIONS: THE CONCEPT AND STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталья Алексеевна Мамина

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article refers to the theoretical aspects of the study of the political traditions phenomenon. The influence of traditional components of the political culture on the current political process is recognized in contemporary literature, but political traditions rarely become the original subject of a scientific research, which explains the vagueness of their interpretation and the need of their system understanding.The author analyzes existing interpretations of the concept "tradition", on which formulates the definition of "political traditions" as (1 a form of fixation for meaningful content of the nation’s socio-political experience and as (2 a mechanism of political-cultural continuity.The author identifies mental, behavioral and institutional levels in the structure of political traditions. Mental level consists of political symbols, myths and stereotypes, which form the image of political reality and authority, and values and norms, which affect the motivation of political behavior. Behavioral level includes models of behavior and patterns of action, such as political habits and rituals. Institutional level reflects historical features of interaction between branches of power and relations between the state and society.The author pays attention to the influence of structural elements of political traditions on the political consciousness and behavior of individuals and social groups. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-4-25

  11. Science Education & Advocacy: Tools to Support Better Education Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Christine; Cunningham, B.; Hehn, J. G.

    2014-01-01

    Education is strongly affected by federal and local policies, such as testing requirements and program funding, and many scientists and science teachers are increasingly interested in becoming more engaged with the policy process. To address this need, I worked with the American Association of Physics Teachers (AAPT) --- a professional membership society of scientists and science teachers that is dedicated to enhancing the understanding and appreciation of physics through teaching --- to create advocacy tools for its members to use, including one-page leave-behinds, guides for meeting with policymakers, and strategies for framing issues. In addition, I developed a general tutorial to aid AAPT members in developing effective advocacy strategies to support better education policies. This work was done through the Society for Physics Students (SPS) Internship program, which provides a range of opportunities for undergraduates, including research, education and public outreach, and public policy. In this presentation, I summarize these new advocacy tools and their application to astronomy education issues.

  12. International Dengue Vaccine Communication and Advocacy: Challenges and Way Forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Ana; Van Roy, Rebecca; Andrus, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Dengue vaccine introduction will likely occur soon. However, little has been published on international dengue vaccine communication and advocacy. More effort at the international level is required to review, unify and strategically disseminate dengue vaccine knowledge to endemic countries' decision makers and potential donors. Waiting to plan for the introduction of new vaccines until licensure may delay access in developing countries. Concerted efforts to communicate and advocate for vaccines prior to licensure are likely challenged by unknowns of the use of dengue vaccines and the disease, including uncertainties of vaccine impact, vaccine access and dengue's complex pathogenesis and epidemiology. Nevertheless, the international community has the opportunity to apply previous best practices for vaccine communication and advocacy. The following key strategies will strengthen international dengue vaccine communication and advocacy: consolidating existing coalitions under one strategic umbrella, urgently convening stakeholders to formulate the roadmap for integrated dengue prevention and control, and improving the dissemination of dengue scientific knowledge.

  13. Leadership Advocacy: Bringing Nursing to the Homeless and Underserved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter-OʼGrady, Tim

    Nurses have historically played a key role in advocacy and service for all members of the community, including those who are traditionally underserved by other providers or the health system. Nurses from a local Atlanta community health system, both clinical and administrative, have continued this tradition by developing an advocacy and service program for the downtown homeless of Atlanta. From its beginnings as a highly informal volunteer program to its current structure as a strongly integrated community health center for the underserved and homeless of Atlanta, local nurses have demonstrated their strong value of service advocacy. Their leadership, insight, discipline, and strategic development have facilitated the growth of a focused, viable health service network for marginalized people of the city of Atlanta.

  14. Brazilian women in politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, T G

    1987-01-01

    Women are gradually gaining influence in Brazilian politics, especially since recent advances in the women's movement, but they still play a limited role. There have been journals devoted to feminism and some notable feminists since 1850. In 1932 suffragettes in Brazil gained women the right to vote. Women's associations burgeoned in the 1940s and 1950s, culminating in a peak in number of women in national elected positions in 1965. A repressive military regime reversed the process, which resumed in 1975. 1975 was also significant for the Brazilian women's movement because of the U.N. Women's Year. Several large, influential feminist political action groups were formed, typically by upper class women with leftist views, although some church and union groups from lower classes also appeared. In 1979-1981, the coherence of these groups fell into schism and fragmentation, because of disagreements over the feminist political doctrines and roles, views on legality of abortion, and special interest groups such as lesbians. Another bitter dispute is opposition by leftist women to BEMFAM, the Brazilian Society of Family Welfare, which provides family planning for the poor: leftists oppose BEMFAM because it is supported by funds from "imperialist" countries such as the U.S. There are several types of feminists groups: those that emphasize health, sexuality and violence; those composed of lesbians; those originating from lower classes and unions; publicly instituted organizations. Brazilian law forbids discrimination against women holding public office, but in reality very few women actually do hold office, except for mayors of small towns and a few administrators of the Education and Social Security ministries. Political office in Brazil is gained by clientism, and since women rarely hold powerful positions in business, they are outsiders of the system. Brazilian women have achieved much, considering the low female literacy rate and traditional power system, but their

  15. No risk, no gain: invest in women and girls by funding advocacy, organizing, litigation and work to shift culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Theresa

    2013-11-01

    The new development framework aspires to merge long-term hopes for environmental, political and financial sustainability with international poverty eradication goals. Central to this agenda is the promotion and protection of the human rights of women and girls. Yet national mechanisms, donors and international development agencies often do not fully tackle these issues or confront the accompanying politically sensitive, complex issues intermingling religion, socioeconomic status, social, cultural and family life. The increasing reliance on private investment may further weaken a women's rights approach. The proposed framework described in the High-Level Panel of Eminent Persons Report could further systematize this problem, even though it improves on the MDGs by expanding targets related to women. Success will require support for a potent mix of advocacy, movement building and a complex set of ground-based strategies that shift cultural practices, laws and policies that harm women and girls. Funding for advocacy and interventions that hold firm on human rights is imperative, but given the conflicting loyalties of governments and public-private partnerships, reliance on either sector may be risky. An analysis of the status of women's rights work, infrastructure and donor support in Bangladesh and South Africa shows the need for vigilance and long-term investment in effective work. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 'Our struggles are bigger than the World Cup': civic activism, state-society relations and the socio-political legacies of the 2010 FIFA World Cup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Scarlett

    2012-06-01

    South Africa's hosting of the 2010 FIFA World Cup saw a large number of public demonstrations, strikes and other forms of civic campaigning. World Cup activism was both preceded and followed by extensive and intensifying public unrest and industrial action that in the period before the tournament, threatened to derail the event. This paper assesses the motivations, forms and implications of the activism during South Africa's staging of the FIFA finals and interprets them against the larger context of shifting state-society relations in the country. There are two purposes to the analysis. First, to explore the underlying internal social forces that gave shape to the protests at the time, and the possible influence of the exogenous politics of mega-event social mobilization. Second, the implications and outcomes of these dynamics for longer term socio-political processes in the country are considered. The activism displayed many of the features of the politics of contestation of sport mega-events today. Importantly, however, the activism stemmed from a particular systemic dynamic and reflected changing relations in the post-apartheid political community. Therefore, while the World Cup was used as a strategic opportunity by many advocacy groups, it was one that rather fleetingly and ambivalently presented an additional platform to such groups in an otherwise on-going set of political battles. Rather than a strong case study of sport's transformative capacity, the civic campaigning during South Africa's World Cup demonstrates the way a sport mega-event can be used as a strategic entry point by civil society groups in their engagement with the state, although this can occur with greater or lesser success. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2012.

  17. Political liberalism and religious claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This article gives an overview of 4 important lacunae in political liberalism and identifies, in a preliminary fashion, some trends in the literature that can come in for support in filling these blind spots, which prevent political liberalism from a correct assessment of the diverse nature of religious claims. Political liberalism operates with implicit assumptions about religious actors being either ‘liberal’ or ‘fundamentalist’ and ignores a third, in-between group, namely traditionalist religious actors and their claims. After having explained what makes traditionalist religious actors different from liberal and fundamentalist religious actors, the author develops 4 areas in which political liberalism should be pushed further theoretically in order to correctly theorize the challenge which traditional religious actors pose to liberal democracy. These 4 areas (blind spots) are: (1) the context of translation; (2) the politics of exemptions; (3) the multivocality of theology; and (4) the transnational nature of norm-contestation. PMID:28344375

  18. THE TRAJECTORY OF INDIGENEITY POLITICS AGAINST LAND DISPOSSESSION IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noer Fauzi Rachman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the New Order authoritarian regime, the state endorsed terra-nullification of the customary territories had been the basis for the stipulation of state forest (hutan negara.After the fall of the General Suharto led regime in 1998 generated a new phase for the struggles of the customary groups in different parts of the archipelago. This article examines the rise of indigeneity and counter-hegemonic indigenous legal maneuvering spearheaded by Aliansi Masyarakat Adat Nusantara (AMAN against ongoing land dispossession in Indonesia since the fall of New Order authoritarian regime which includes the indigenous mobilizations (strategy, organization and tactics in the post-authoritarian country, including the avenue of new types of legal activism when it comes to the creative destruction of global capitalism today. It focuses on two modes of policy advocacy and campaign against land dispossession: (a the production of the Constitutional Court Ruling No. 35/PUU-X/2012, a new legal landmark that establishes the constitutional norm of the citizenship status of Indonesian indigenous peoples (masyarakat hukum adat as rights bearing subjects, and the owners of their customary territory; and (b the National Inquiry on Indigenous Peoples’ Rights held by the Indonesian National Human Rights Commission (Komnas HAM. The discussion describes The Colonialism of ‘State-Izing’ Customary Communities’ Territory, Contemporary Indigeneity Politics in Indonesia, Counter-Hegemonic Indigenous Legal Maneuvering, Judicial Review against The1999 Law No. 41on Forestry, National Inquiry on Indigenous Peoples’ Rights, and Connecting Counter-Hegemonic Indigenous Legal Maneuvering with the Grassroots Struggles which focuses on Mobilizing at Multiple Scales. It is concluded from this article that the efficacy of legal struggles is very much depend on the capacity to connect  with the grassroots mobilization by continuously promulgating the resurgence of indigeneity

  19. Political electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Terence.

    1990-01-01

    This book is a non-technical exploration of the political and policy issues that have influenced the development of nuclear power. Part One describes the successes, failures, horse-trading, and infighting that make up nuclear power's history, taking nine counties as examples. Part Two reviews the main problems that now confront us, as seen in mid-June 1990; like all contemporary accounts, the book is unavoidably incomplete. However, by then it was possible to make provisional judgements about two very important recent influences: the political consequences of Chernobyl, and concerns about the greenhouse effect. The story that emerges is of a nuclear industry that has rarely been guilty of dereliction of duty, though it was undeniably complacent in not addressing sooner the causes of the public's entirely reasonable anxieties. The anti-nuclear lobby has been skilled in debate, and sometimes extraordinarily percipient; but less than fair in failing to acknowledge the industry's achievements and its willingness to learn from past mistakes. As for the politicians, the book contains many examples that show how the flames of controversy can be deliberately fanned when there are votes to be gained. The story has few heroes, but within the industry fewer villains than the public has been led to believe. (author)

  20. Street Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Shapiro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available I write from Prague, where, unlike in most urban formations, the main city street plays an iconic role; it references a history of political protest. However, before elaborating on the protest iconography of the Prague street, Vaclavske nam, I want to locate the ways in which the design of urban space is actualized in everyday life in the cities of the world. Three functions stand out; the first involves dwelling, the second seeing, and the third moving. With respect to the first function – dwelling – the design partitions and coordinates residential, commercial and leisure functions. At times these are organized to segregate different classes (Robert Moses’ redesign of much of New York stands out with respect to the segregation function. With respect to the second function – seeing – the design of urban space is allegiance-inspiring; it involves sight lines that afford urban dwellers and visitors views of iconic buildings and statues, which reference key founding moments in the past and/or authoritative political functions in the present (Here, L’Enfants design for Washington DC stands out as exemplary. Its manifest intention was to make the buildings housing executive, legislative and judicial functions visible from many vantage points. Rarely are the streets themselves iconic. Their dominant role is involved with the effectuation of movement. As for this third function: As Lewis Mumford famously points out, streets were once part of an asterisk design, radiating out from an exemplary, often spiritual center...

  1. Shaping corporate social responsibility management and reporting through engagement : The role of advocacy organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clune, C.

    2017-01-01

    Advocacy organisations have traditionally played a prominent role in shaping corporate social responsibility (CSR) management and reporting practices through organisational-level and institutional-level engagement. Recent years have seen advocacy organisations expand the nature and content of their

  2. Debate of Ethnic Identity in Nepali Politics: An Examination of the debate from the Kisan Community of Eastern Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shambhu Prasad Kattel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Kisan is an ethnic group of Nepal lived in Jhapa district only. It is a Tarai origin group with 773 populations which is traditionally organized under its own political organization, the Mahato system. The Mahato is a hereditary community head which is supported by Wokil (minister and Sipahi (Police. These traditional authorities run a well functional community court which maintains peace and harmony in the community and works for the preservation of cultural practices. Along with the establishment of multiparty democracy, the community is exposed to external situations: political parties and economic organizations, advocacy groups, donor agencies and so on. A few literate Kisans seeking employment opportunities interfaced with the advocates of National Federations of Indigenous Nationalities and Action Aid Nepal after multiparty democracy. As a result, they had motivated and established a non-governmental organization for ethnic welfare. After establishment of the Kisan Community Development Academy (club in the Kisan language, the community is formally divided into two groups: the illiterate Kisans involved in community court under their traditional authorities and the literate Kisans involved in the newly established club. The club ran literacy and sanitation programs and constructed toilets and water taps. Mainly, it was involved in socio-cultural change and identity politics by the support of the above mentioned organizations. On the contrary, the traditional authorities involve in the preservation of community culture and maintain peace and harmony. The literate Kisans involved in identity politics are motivated for salaried jobs, not for cultural preservation for Kisan identity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/dsaj.v7i0.10441 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol. 7, 2013; 157-172

  3. How social movements influence policies : Advocacy, framing, emotions and outcomes among reproductive rights coalitions in Peru.

    OpenAIRE

    Coe, Anna-Britt

    2010-01-01

    With its origins in the early 1990s, feminist advocacy directed at influencing public policies is a relatively new phenomenon in Latin America that is commonly studied at the national level. The aim of this thesis was to study feminist advocacy on reproductive rights at the sub-national level in Peru. Specifically, it explored two research questions: how do feminist movements carry out advocacy to intervene with government agencies and what effects does their advocacy have on policies. This a...

  4. Hidden consequences of political efficacy: Testing an efficacy-apathy model of political mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Danny; Yogeeswaran, Kumar; Sibley, Chris G

    2015-10-01

    Political efficacy-the belief that one can influence politics-is a key predictor of people's involvement in social movements. Political institutions that are open to change should, however, be seen as just. Thus, political efficacy may ironically undermine minority group members' support for collective action by simultaneously increasing their belief in the fairness of the system. The current study aims to examine this possibility in a national sample of Māori-New Zealand's indigenous minority population. Participants (N = 399) were Māori (Mage = 44.22; SD = 13.30) women (n = 272) and men (n = 115; unreported = 12) who completed a survey assessing their levels of (a) political efficacy, (b) system justification, and (c) support for the political mobilization of their group, as well as relevant demographic covariates. Consistent with past research, political efficacy had a positive direct effect on participants' support for the political mobilization of Māori. Nevertheless, political efficacy also had a negative indirect effect on political mobilization support via increases in system justification. These results held after controlling for participants' ethnic identification, self-efficacy, and conservatism. Our findings uncover a hidden consequence of political efficacy and show that, while believing that the political system is receptive to change predicts political mobilization, it can also undermine minorities' support for the mobilization of their group. Thus, our results uncover a previously unknown process that maintains inequality between ethnic minority and majority group members. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Advocacy and Accessibility Standards in the New "Code of Professional Ethics for Rehabilitation Counselors"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldmann, Ashley K.; Blackwell, Terry L.

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses the changes in the Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification's 2010 "Code of Professional Ethics for Rehabilitation Counselors" as they relate to Section C: Advocacy and Accessibility. Ethical issues are identified and discussed in relation to advocacy skills and to advocacy with, and on behalf of, the client; to…

  6. Women Making Politics in Rural Senegal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prag, Ebbe

    Since the Senegalese local elections in 1996, women have increasingly entered the local political arena in rural councils and municipalities. This book addresses the question of how women act politically, what interests they defend and how they influence resource allocation. The author argues...... that structural changes have opened space for resourceful women to enter local politics. However women's mobilisation does not radically break with the clientelist and factional dynamics of Senegalese politics. Women leaders often start their career in party politics as result of co-optation by male political...... leaders, but they do not continue as passive objects of male manipulation. Senegalese female politicians demonstrate that they are capable of taking up political positions using the local women's groups and the Women's Federation as political backyard and support. They create networks that can...

  7. Relative deprivation and political protest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Kliuchnyk

    2017-03-01

    Examples of anti-system political parties and movements have been given. Many of them have changed the political disposition in Europe. Lega Nord (Italy, PEGIDA (Germany, Movimento 5 Stelle (Italy, Front National (France, Ataka (Bulgaria, etc are between them. These parties and movements influence increasingly on the European political process. Nativism and populism are marked as main peculiarities of such right parties. According to the author, Anti-Trump protests in the USA are the examples of the relative deprivation of numerous groups of people that feel their rights and freedoms being threatened.

  8. Committed dis(s)idents: participation in radical collective action fosters disidentification with the broader in-group but enhances political identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Julia C; Tausch, Nicole; Spears, Russell; Christ, Oliver

    2011-08-01

    The present research examined the hypothesis that participation in radical, but not moderate, action results in disidentification from the broader in-group. Study 1 (N = 98) was a longitudinal study conducted in the context of student protests against tuition fees in Germany and confirmed that participation in radical collective action results in disidentification with the broader in-group (students) whereas participation in moderate collective action does not. Both types of action increased politicized identification. Study 2 (N = 175) manipulated the normativeness of different types of imagined collective actions in the same context and replicated this disidentification effect for radical actions, but only when this action mismatched the broader in-group's norms. This study also indicated that these effects were partially mediated by perceived lack of solidarity and perceived lack of commitment to the cause among the broader in-group. The implications of these findings for understanding radicalization within social movements are discussed.

  9. Know Violence in Childhood – India: Advocacy, communication and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Know Violence in Childhood – India: Advocacy, communication and media engagement ... the scale and nature of violence in childhood; support state governments with actionable inputs that can be integrated in strategies to prevent violence in childhood; and advocate findings from the programmatic work more widely.

  10. Domestic Violence Assessments in the Child Advocacy Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Jonathan D.; Scribano, Philip V.; Rhoda, Dale

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to identify the frequency, methods, and practices of universal assessments for domestic violence (DV) within child advocacy centers (CACs) and determine which factors are associated with CACs that conduct universal DV assessments. Methods: The study design was a cross-sectional, web-based survey distributed to…

  11. Participatory Video: Toward a Method, Advocacy and Voice (MAV) Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitter, Kathleen C.

    2012-01-01

    Using the new conceptual framework of participatory visual media as method, advocacy and voice (MAV), the author explores an action research study using an exemplar in which advocates from the disability community created and distributed a series of videos about love and sexuality as a critical human rights issue in the disability community. The…

  12. Inclusive Education National Research Advocacy Agenda: A Call to Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morningstar, Mary E.; Allcock, Heather C.; White, Julia M.; Taub, Deborah; Kurth, Jennifer A.; Gonsier-Gerdin, Jean; Ryndak, Diane L.; Sauer, Janet; Jorgensen, Cheryl M.

    2016-01-01

    The TASH Inclusive Education National Committee responded to Horner and Dunlap's call to ensure that future research integrates inclusive values with strong science by developing an inclusive education national research advocacy agenda. Qualitative methods were implemented to answer three questions: (a) "What is the state of inclusive…

  13. America's Languages: The Future of Language Advocacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, William P.; Brecht, Richard D.

    2018-01-01

    In honor of the 50th Anniversary of "Foreign Language Annals," and recognizing the seminal role this journal has in informing the language education profession about policies and programs, we sketch a future for advocacy for language education in the United States. Drawing on the Languages for All initiative and the work of the…

  14. 78 FR 24694 - Family Advocacy Command Assistance Team (FACAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... be composed of personnel from appropriate disciplines, including, medicine, psychology, and child... in all allegations of child abuse and neglect. DATES: Comments must be received by June 25, 2013... multi-disciplinary Family Advocacy Command Assistant Team to respond to allegations of child sexual...

  15. Parent Advocacy: Two Approaches to Change, One Goal

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hanlon, Elizabeth; Griffin, Amy Tetteh

    2004-01-01

    The authors describe "top-down" and "bottom-up" models of leadership in the world of advocacy; they became parent advocates after learning that their children had special needs. They argue that change in our communities--and, eventually, in our world--demands that "all" advocates for children with disabilities work together. The authors describe…

  16. Corruption of Client Advocacy in a Community Mental Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denner, Bruce

    This speech discusses client advocacy, a paraprofessional service offered in many community mental health centers to help bridge the gap between therapist and client. While having an advocate on the mental health team is an attractive idea, these client advocates are quite susceptible to "corruption." The author discusses two major causes of this…

  17. Assessment of Newspaper Advocacy for Rural Development and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of Newspaper Advocacy for Rural Development and Environmental Education in Nigeria. ... Journal of Agricultural Extension ... It analyzed five leading national newspapers for a period of twelve months to ascertain their level of coverage and reportage of environmental and rural development information and ...

  18. Latina/o School Principals: Identity, Leadership and Advocacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Elizabeth T.; Hernandez, Frank; Mendez-Morse, Sylvia; Byrne-Jimenez, Monica

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to further define and inform about the influence of Latina/o principals in schools as an alternative to traditional forms of leadership. The principals' Latina/o identity, their leadership styles and advocacy towards the improvement of student achievement were examined. This research focused on three questions: (a) How did…

  19. The Mental Health Leadership and Advocacy Program (mhLAP): a pioneering response to the neglect of mental health in Anglophone West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulmalik, Jibril; Fadahunsi, Woye; Kola, Lola; Nwefoh, Emeka; Minas, Harry; Eaton, Julian; Gureje, Oye

    2014-01-27

    Developing countries in Africa and other regions share a similar profile of insufficient human resources for mental health, poor funding, a high unmet need for services and a low official prioritisation of mental health. This situation is worsened by misconceptions about the causes of mental disorders, stigma and discrimination that frequently result in harmful practices against persons with mental illness. Previous explorations of the required response to these challenges have identified the need for strong leadership and consistent advocacy as potential drivers of the desired change. The Mental Health Leadership and Advocacy Program (mhLAP) is a project that aims to provide and enhance the acquisition of skills in mental health leadership, service development, advocacy and policy planning and to build partnerships for action. Launched in 2010 to serve the Anglophone countries of The Gambia, Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, this paper describes the components of the program, the experience gained since its initiation, and the achievements made during the three years of its implementation. These achievements include: 1) the annual training in mental health leadership and advocacy which has graduated 96 participants from 9 different African countries and 2) the establishment of a broad coalition of service user groups, non-governmental organizations, media practitioners and mental health professionals in each participating country to implement concerted mental health advocacy efforts that are focused on country-specific priorities.

  20. Political Dynamics Affected by Turncoats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Salvo, Rosa; Gorgone, Matteo; Oliveri, Francesco

    2017-11-01

    An operatorial theoretical model based on raising and lowering fermionic operators for the description of the dynamics of a political system consisting of macro-groups affected by turncoat-like behaviors is presented. The analysis of the party system dynamics is carried on by combining the action of a suitable quadratic Hamiltonian operator with specific rules (depending on the variations of the mean values of the observables) able to adjust periodically the conservative model to the political environment.

  1. The Politics of Venture Philanthropy in Charter School Policy and Advocacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Janelle

    2009-01-01

    Philanthropists have long funded a wide range of educational research, practice, and policy initiatives, primarily through namesake foundations. Some observers have criticized these efforts as doing little to change the status quo in education and have called for more aggressive action on the part of this sector. Out of this critique has emerged a…

  2. Corporate philanthropy, political influence, and health policy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary J Fooks

    Full Text Available The Framework Convention of Tobacco Control (FCTC provides a basis for nation states to limit the political effects of tobacco industry philanthropy, yet progress in this area is limited. This paper aims to integrate the findings of previous studies on tobacco industry philanthropy with a new analysis of British American Tobacco's (BAT record of charitable giving to develop a general model of corporate political philanthropy that can be used to facilitate implementation of the FCTC.Analysis of previously confidential industry documents, BAT social and stakeholder dialogue reports, and existing tobacco industry document studies on philanthropy.The analysis identified six broad ways in which tobacco companies have used philanthropy politically: developing constituencies to build support for policy positions and generate third party advocacy; weakening opposing political constituencies; facilitating access and building relationships with policymakers; creating direct leverage with policymakers by providing financial subsidies to specific projects; enhancing the donor's status as a source of credible information; and shaping the tobacco control agenda by shifting thinking on the importance of regulating the market environment for tobacco and the relative risks of smoking for population health. Contemporary BAT social and stakeholder reports contain numerous examples of charitable donations that are likely to be designed to shape the tobacco control agenda, secure access and build constituencies.Tobacco companies' political use of charitable donations underlines the need for tobacco industry philanthropy to be restricted via full implementation of Articles 5.3 and 13 of the FCTC. The model of tobacco industry philanthropy developed in this study can be used by public health advocates to press for implementation of the FCTC and provides a basis for analysing the political effects of charitable giving in other industry sectors which have an impact on

  3. 78 FR 71535 - Guidance for Tax-Exempt Social Welfare Organizations on Candidate-Related Political Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... using certain mass media (specifically, by broadcast, in a newspaper, or on the Internet), constitutes... to be political campaign activity per se, such as contributions to candidates and communications that... mutually exclusive. For example, the category of express advocacy communications may overlap with the...

  4. Orphans and political instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuning, Marijke; Ishiyama, John

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the security implications of growing orphan populations, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. Little has been written about the security implications of this especially vulnerable group of children. Are growing orphan populations associated with increases in political instability as has been suggested? Using data from several sources, we employ regression analysis to test whether Sub-Saharan African countries with larger proportions of orphans and those with increasing orphan populations experience higher rates of political instability. We find that the increase in the orphan population is related to an increasing incidence of civil conflict, but do not find a similar relationship for the proportion of orphans. In addition, we find that the causes of orphanhood matter. We conclude that increases in orphan populations (rather than simple proportions) are destabilizing. We suggest possible avenues for mediating the security risks posed by growing orphan populations.

  5. Political Crowdfunding as concept of political technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria GOLKA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Political crowdfunding is analyzed as a new concept of political science. The justification of use of crowdfunding technologies not only in business but also in the political sphere is argued. The efficiency, availability, low cost of the new forms of political investment through the development of information and communication technologies are noted. The typology of political crowdfunding is proposed. Political projects promoting domestic crowdfunding platforms are analyzed. Attention is drawn to the problem of legal gaps in the regulation of crowdfunding is studied. The foreign experience of organizing public support (mikroinvestment political projects. It is emphasized that in terms of political theory crowdfunding is based on solidarity. The crowdfunding properties of transforming social capital accumulated by social networks into financial capital are mentioned.

  6. Political Anger: The Basis for Contemporary Lack of Civility in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of political anger and its dynamics calls for concern in the political arena. It has left in its trail all forms of casualties and threat to political and democratic stability in Nigeria. This paper argued that high stakes in politics, limited avenues for ventilating anger, the tendency to focus on majority ethnic groups while ...

  7. Voice in Political Decision-Making: The Effect of Group Voice on Perceived Trustworthiness of Decision Makers and Subsequent Acceptance of Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terwel, Bart W.; Harinck, Fieke; Ellemers, Naomi; Daamen, Dancker D. L.

    2010-01-01

    The implementation of carbon dioxide capture and storage technology (CCS) is considered an important climate change mitigation strategy, but the viability of this technology will depend on public acceptance of CCS policy decisions. The results of three experiments with students as participants show that whether or not interest groups receive an…

  8. "There Isn't Kind of a White History Month or Anything Like That for Them": Equity, Schooling and the Problematics of Group Identity Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keddie, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores issues of equity and group identity at "Hamilton Court," a large comprehensive multi-faith and multi-cultural school located in England. The exploration draws on data gathered from a study that examined the conditions, structures and practices associated with productively addressing issues of justice and cultural…

  9. Political Awakenings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Franziska Brühwiler

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Le Complot contre l’Amérique de Philip Roth décrit l’initiation politique de ses deux protagonistes, le narrateur Philip et son frère aîné, Sanford. Tandis que ce dernier passe par un processus initiatique quasi classique — il se déroule conformément au schéma tripartite de van Gennep — l’apogée de l’initiation de Philip est marquée par douleur et blessure. Toutefois, tous les deux connaissent seulement une initiation partielle, car le premier doit d’abord admettre ses erreurs tandis que le second va devoir apprendre, non seulement à remettre en cause l’autorité, mais également à développer ses idées de façon indépendante.Philip Roth’s The Plot Against America traces the political awakening of its two child protagonists, the narrator Philip and his elder brother Sanford. While the latter undergoes an initiation process nearly in accordance with the classical tripartite scheme as coined by van Gennep, the height of Philip’s initiation process is marked by physical pain and injury. However, both experience only a partial initiation, since the elder brother will have to recognize his errors and the younger one will first have to learn how to go beyond the mere questioning of authority.

  10. Young deafblind adults in action: becoming self-determined change agents through advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Susan M; Parker, Amy T

    2012-01-01

    Six young deafblind adults took a 1-week course on civic engagement and advocacy, which provided the focus for a participatory action research study with a collective case study design. They selected advocacy topics, were briefed on these policy issues, and were paired with experienced mentors for meetings with legislators in Washington, DC. Eight themes were identified from constant comparative and in vivo analysis of classroom discussion notes, interviews, and journals: (a) defining advocacy and advocate, (b) rights and equality, (c) expectations, (d) role of education in change, (e) deafblind expertise, (f) characteristics of effective change agents, (g) advocacy is teamwork, (h) future advocacy. In the classroom, the participants learned about policy issues, communication considerations, and leadership, then applied this knowledge in the legislative arena. Through the advocacy process, they learned to apply their personal strengths as advocates and experienced the importance of teamwork in advocacy.

  11. A medical student leadership course led to teamwork, advocacy, and mindfulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warde, Carole M; Vermillion, Michelle; Uijtdehaage, Sebastian

    2014-06-01

    Many medical trainees seek work among underserved communities but may be unprepared to cope with the challenges. Relationship-centered qualities have been shown to promote physician resilience and prevent burnout. The UCLA-PRIME program aims to prepare medical students to work among vulnerable groups and begins with a 3-week leadership course. We describe this course and share lessons with those seeking to foster leadership, advocacy, and resiliency in our future physician workforce. Twenty students participated in our curriculum that emphasized five competencies: leadership, advocacy, teamwork, mindfulness, and self-care. Course activities complemented the students' work as they developed a community outreach project. They assessed and reflected on their leadership, relationship, and team behaviors, were coached to improve these, learned mindfulness meditation, and participated in community forums. Our evaluation assessed course quality, project completion, leadership, mindfulness, and team relational coordination. Students were very satisfied with all aspects of the course. They designed a medical student elective addressing the health challenges of an incarcerated and formerly incarcerated population. While we found no change in leadership practices scores, students had high team relational coordination scores and improved mindfulness scores upon course completion. Our course to develop medical students as resilient leaders, team members, and advocates for medically underserved groups consisted of a community-based service project, coupled with a facilitated relationship-centered curriculum. It promoted qualities in students that characterize effective and resilient physician leaders; they were more mindful, related to each other effectively, and coordinated their activities well with one another.

  12. Effects of Political Knowledge on Political Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, John Powell

    2018-01-01

    Sexual orientation continues to be an explosive issue in American classrooms. Increasing the political knowledge of students can reduce the volatility of this explosive issue by increasing tolerance toward the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender community. This relationship between political knowledge and political tolerance has been…

  13. The politics of home birth in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declercq, Eugene

    2012-12-01

    Home birth has emerged as a political issue in several states in the United States, and this essay examines two aspects of home births politics. First, legislative battles over home birth policy do not conform to our typical models of partisan (i.e., Democratic vs Republican) politics, and attempts at advocacy cannot rely on classical strategies of alignment with a dominant party in a state. Second, the debates over home birth have increasingly begun to parallel current partisan battles in their emotion and intensity with the related gridlock and reluctance to consider compromises that are often necessary to achieve policy goals. This essay calls for a greater willingness for all sides to approach home birth less as an ideological mission and more as a health policy challenge to support consumers interested in an integrated system of care. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. About green political parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlović Slobodan P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the author refers to some legal and political questions in connection with green political parties. Those questions cover: the ideology of green political parties, their number and influence, both in general and in Serbia. The first part of work is generally speaking about political parties - their definition, ideology, role and action. Main thesis in this work is that green political parties, by their appearance, were something new on the political scene. But quickly, because of objective and subjective reasons, they were changing original ideas and were beginning to resemble to all other political parties. In this way, they lost their vanguard and political alternativeness.

  15. Plotting Confucian and Disability Rights Paradigms on the Advocacy-Activism Continuum: Experiences of Chinese Parents of Children with Dyslexia in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon-McBrayer, Kim Fong; McBrayer, Philip Allen

    2014-01-01

    This study represents an initial effort to understand the advocacy journey of Chinese parents of children with dyslexia in Hong Kong. Qualitative methods involving individual and group interviews were used to solicit detailed recount and perceptions of the experiences of 25 parents. Findings revealed a largely sequenced three-stage journey of…

  16. New Education Advocacy Organizations in the U.S. States: National Snapshot and a Case Study of Advance Illinois. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Paul; Moffitt, Susan

    2014-01-01

    This executive summary describes a Wallace-commissioned report that identifies the emergence of a new kind of education advocacy organization in the United States. The report also assesses how these groups influence education policy, provides an overview of their work across the country, and offers a case study of one, Advance Illinois. The report…

  17. Analysis of misoprostol and chlorhexidine policy gains in Pakistan: the advocacy experience of Mercy Corps Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwar, Zahida; Cutherell, Andrea; Noor, Arif; Naureen, Farah; Norman, Jennifer

    2015-11-25

    While Pakistan has made progress toward achieving Millennium Development Goal 5 for maternal health, it is unlikely to achieve the target; further, it is also not on track for Millennium Development Goal 4 regarding child health. Two low-cost, temperature stable and life-saving drugs, misoprostol and chlorhexidine, can respectively avert maternal and newborn deaths, and are particularly pertinent for poor and marginalized areas which bear the brunt of maternal and newborn deaths in Pakistan. In response, Mercy Corps led focused advocacy efforts to promote changes in policies, protocols, and regulatory environments for misoprostol (2012-2014) and for chlorhexidine (2014). These short-duration advocacy projects facilitated significant policy gains, such as inclusion of misoprostol and chlorhexidine into province-specific essential drug lists, development and endorsement of clinical protocols for the two drugs by provincial health departments, inclusion of misoprostol into pre-service training curriculum for several health cadres, and application for registration of chlorhexidine (at the concentration required for newborn care) by two pharmaceutical companies. These results were achieved by a consultative and evidence-based process which generated feedback from community members, program implementers, and policymakers, and ultimately put the government in the driver's seat to facilitate change. Community Action Dialogue forums were linked with provincial-level Technical Working Groups and Provincial Steering Committees, who passed on endorsed recommendations to the Health Secretary. The key factors which facilitated change were the identification of champions within the provincial health departments, prioritization of relationship building and follow-up, focus on concrete advocacy aims rather than broad objectives, and the use of multi-stakeholder forums to secure an enabling environment for the policy changes to take root. While these advocacy initiatives resulted in

  18. Politics Backstage - Television Documentaries, Politics and Politicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ib Bondebjerg

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with "the transformation of visibility" in political discourse on and representation of politics and politicians in resent Dansih television documentaries. Drawing on the theories of Habermas, Meyrowitz and John B. Thompson, it is argued that the political persona on television is moved closer to the individual citizen, creating a sort "mediated quasi-inter- action" giving mediated communication a stronger element of face-to-face interaction. Together with the more pervasive "live" coverage of politics and politicians, this expands media coverage to both the backstage of political processes and the private and personal backstage of politicians, changing the form of democracy and public debate.

  19. Defining Political Marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.

    ’ and ‘narrow’ interpretations of political marketing, the nature of the political marketing exchange, political relationship marketing and how one can integrate the stakeholder concept into an understanding of political marketing. Finally, we propose a definition of political marketing that differs from......The aim of this working paper is to develop a definition of political marketing that builds on the political rather than commercial marketing literature. This aim is motivated by the need to make explicit our understanding of what political marketing is, a necessary exercise when discussing theory......, concepts and empirical methods in political marketing. We first present five existing definitions of political marketing that have been selected to represent advances in research from the origins of academic research into political marketing in the mid-1970’s to the present day. After this we discuss ‘wide...

  20. Politics and economics of ethanol and biodiesel production and consumption in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giersdorf, Jens

    2013-07-01

    The main assumption for the present study is that the patterns of biofuel production and utilisation in Brazil are a result of a specific institutional framework and the actions of specific groups and that these factors also change over the years To avoid of misleading generalisation, this dissertation intends to describe and analyse the current ethanol and biodiesel policies in Brazil; to explain these public policies as a result of the interactions and resources of various actors involved into the formulation and implementation of these policies and to analyse selected economic impacts of these policies. The decision-making process will be analysed with the methodological toolbox of the advocacy coalition approach by Sabatier (1993). This approach is appropriate for analysing the Brazilian biofuel policies since it enables to analyse the structure as well as the actors and the coalitions that dominate in this policy field. It will be presented briefly in chapter 2.1.2. The data on which this analysis will be based comprises primary sources like laws, regulations, official programmes and statements as well as secondary sources like scientific studies about Brazilian decision-making, political system and certain actors. In addition to that, several qualitative (semi-structured) interviews were conducted during field research in Brazil between January and September 2007. The design of the outline for the interviews as well as the realisation and interpretation of the expert interviews followed the methodological recommendations of Bogner, Littig and Menz (2005) and Laudel and Gläser (2004). The methodology will be explained briefly in chapter 2.2. The main policies that shape Brazilian ethanol and biodiesel sector shall be analysed in chapter 3 and the production, distribution and consumption of biofuels in chapter 4. Based on these assessments, the analysis of the advocacy coalitions can be realised in chapter 5.

  1. Politics and economics of ethanol and biodiesel production and consumption in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giersdorf, Jens

    2013-01-01

    The main assumption for the present study is that the patterns of biofuel production and utilisation in Brazil are a result of a specific institutional framework and the actions of specific groups and that these factors also change over the years To avoid of misleading generalisation, this dissertation intends to describe and analyse the current ethanol and biodiesel policies in Brazil; to explain these public policies as a result of the interactions and resources of various actors involved into the formulation and implementation of these policies and to analyse selected economic impacts of these policies. The decision-making process will be analysed with the methodological toolbox of the advocacy coalition approach by Sabatier (1993). This approach is appropriate for analysing the Brazilian biofuel policies since it enables to analyse the structure as well as the actors and the coalitions that dominate in this policy field. It will be presented briefly in chapter 2.1.2. The data on which this analysis will be based comprises primary sources like laws, regulations, official programmes and statements as well as secondary sources like scientific studies about Brazilian decision-making, political system and certain actors. In addition to that, several qualitative (semi-structured) interviews were conducted during field research in Brazil between January and September 2007. The design of the outline for the interviews as well as the realisation and interpretation of the expert interviews followed the methodological recommendations of Bogner, Littig and Menz (2005) and Laudel and Gläser (2004). The methodology will be explained briefly in chapter 2.2. The main policies that shape Brazilian ethanol and biodiesel sector shall be analysed in chapter 3 and the production, distribution and consumption of biofuels in chapter 4. Based on these assessments, the analysis of the advocacy coalitions can be realised in chapter 5.

  2. Editorial Advocacy Frames Explanatory Model: An Analysis of Newspapers withdrawing from Presidential Endorsements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Campbell

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the United States, newspapers are increasingly withdrawing from endorsing a candidate in presidential elections. Our qualitative analysis of frames used by U.S. newspaper editorialists to justify their newspaper’s decision finds editorialists are guided by three professional values expressed through two professional practices. The professional values are civic responsibility, consequence, and credibility; the two professional practices are informing and influencing. We propose a guide, the “Editorial Advocacy Frames Explanatory Model,” that deconstructs their decisions and distinguishes the roles of journalists and editorialists in political discourse, particularly in presidential endorsements. The model illustrates how the work of editorialists differs, or should differ, from that of reporters. News pages seek to inform; editorial pages seek to influence. Thus, news pages use journalistic frames to inform; editorial pages use advocacy frames to inform and influence. Endorsements are advocacy frames. It is not a matter of newspapers taking positions, or making arguments; it is a matter of newspapers making sense of issues and political races and promoting what they think is best. Framing research shows that all journalistic content has frames, whether news stories or editorials, whether objective or not. To avoid making an endorsement is not to avoid communicating a frame that can influence voters. The greater abundance of and easier access to information and opinions, argued by some editorialists as a reason for no longer making presidential endorsements, may actually be a prime reason not to stop it. The no-endorsement trend seems to have begun largely when American newspapers sought to stay afloat and relevant in response to declining circulation brought on by advances in technology that created more ways to get news. It is understandable that abandoning presidential endorsements, which in today’s divided political climate in the U

  3. Who Leads Advocacy through Social Media in Japan? Evidence from the “Tsukuba Civic Activities Cyber-Square” Facebook Page

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sae Okura

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Although the importance of advocacy activities by civil society organizations (CSOs in policy and decision-making procedures has been greatly emphasized in the literature of political science and social policy, we have relatively little understanding of the relevance and impact of the leading actors who structure the diverse networks and discourses through social media; further recognition is needed in both fields. The purpose of this study is to analyze civil society organizations at the local government level involved in advocacy activities through the use of social media such as Facebook and Twitter. Our study focuses on a specific Japanese Facebook community page—the “Tsukuba Civic Activities Cyber-Square”—aimed at enhancing civil society activities in Japan. This page is operated by the municipal government of Tsukuba, in collaboration with the University of Tsukuba and Intel Corporation. Our findings indicate that social networking services such as Facebook can provide civil society organizations with: (1 more political opportunities to advocate; (2 more chances to connect with the local government; and (3 create opportunities to exert greater presence, despite their limited financial and political resources.

  4. Nursing and the reality of politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Clinton E

    2009-09-01

    Notwithstanding the remarkable achievements made by medical science over the last half of the twentieth century, there is a palpable sense that a strictly medical view of human health, that is one founded on modernist assumptions, has become problematic, if not counterproductive. In this study, I argue that as nursing continues to eagerly welcome and indeed champion medical epistemology in the form of knowledge transfer, evidence-based practice, research utilization, outcomes-based practice, quantifiable efficiency and effectiveness, it risks becoming little more than a medical science addendum and indeed one that inherits the problems now facing contemporary medicine. The purpose of this study then is to attempt to resituate nursing as a discipline at work within an ontopolitical matrix of radical democratic pluralism. I begin by tracing a philosophical line from Kuhn's paradigms to Bloor's strong programme of Sociology of Scientific Knowledge. Following this, I attempt to explicate the thought of Bruno Latour as a philosophical alternative to Sociology of Scientific Knowledge. Next, I outline the radical pluralism of William Connolly in an effort to demonstrate its similarity to Latour's philosophy and finally how such a position is germane to contemporary nursing and the reality of politics. I do this with reference to the controversial issue of illicit drug use and harm reduction. In effect, I argue that such an issue cannot be dealt with using scientific evidence alone, but rather requires a philosophy of advocacy, what I term democratic advocacy, that is capable of responding to the politics of suffering, which is to say suffering that results from identity/difference.

  5. Exploring Political Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denhardt, Robert B.

    1975-01-01

    The author distinguishes between the concepts of political socialization and political education. He argues that political socialization has come to dominate both our thinking and our teaching in the area of civic education. Suggestions for promoting political education are included. (DE)

  6. Language and Politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimombo, Moira

    1999-01-01

    Surveys the interrelationship between language and politics. Touches on the context of political discourse, or political culture and ideology in new and old democracies and the reemerging manifestations of totalitarianism, censorship, and linguistic imperialism; then examines selected linguistic features of political discourse and their…

  7. Navy Family Advocacy Program. Appendix. Analysis of Central Registry Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    2/76) 2 Suspected Abuzso/Malect/Sexua1 Assault an ae2404 65.) "Suspected Abuso /Neglect/ Sexual Assault and Rape Report" 2226 60.5 NAVMED 6320/15A...ANALYSIS OF SEXUAL ASSAULT REPORTS ........... 50 HAPTER V: SUMAY ANALYSIS Or rAMILY ADVOCACY PROGRAM REPORTS . 56 APPENDIX...cont’d)I PAGE CHAPTER IV: SEXUAL ASSAULT TV-1 Fore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 IV-2 Type of Maltreatment ............... 53 IV-3

  8. Protein politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijver, Marike

    2005-01-01

    This study is part of the program of the interdisciplinary research group Profetas (protein foods, environment, technology and society). Profetas consists of technological, environmental and socio-economic research projects on protein food systems which result in the development of scenarios and

  9. Advocacy of Trafficking Campaigns: A Controversy Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz-Echezarreta, Vanesa; Alvarado, María-Cruz; Gómez-Lorenzini, Paulina

    2018-01-01

    The construction, visualization and stabilization of public problems require the mobilization of civil society groups concerned about these issues to actively engage in the demand for actions and policies. This paper explores the institutional campaigns against human trafficking and sexual exploitation in Spain between 2008 and 2017 and their role…

  10. Advocacy, support and survivorship in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, J; Casey, C; Sandoe, D; Hyde, M K; Cheron-Sauer, M-C; Lowe, A; Oliffe, J L; Chambers, S K

    2018-03-01

    Across Australia, prostate cancer support groups (PCSG) have emerged to fill a gap in psychosocial care for men and their families. However, an understanding of the triggers and influencers of the PCSG movement is absent. We interviewed 21 SG leaders (19 PC survivors, two partners), of whom six also attended a focus group, about motivations, experiences, past and future challenges in founding and leading PCSGs. Thematic analysis identified four global themes: illness experience; enacting a supportive response; forming a national collective and challenges. Leaders described men's feelings of isolation and neglect by the health system as the impetus for PCSGs to form and give/receive mutual help. Negotiating health care systems was an early challenge. National affiliation enabled leaders to build a united voice in the health system and establish a group identity and collective voice. Affiliation was supported by a symbiotic relationship with tensions between independence, affiliation and governance. Future challenges were group sustainability and inclusiveness. Study findings describe how a grassroots PCSG movement arose consistent with an embodied health movement perspective. Health care organisations who seek to leverage these community resources need to be cognisant of SG values and purpose if they are to negotiate effective partnerships that maximise mutual benefit. © 2017 The Authors. European Journal of Cancer Care Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Time to Face the Need for Advocacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Christy D.

    2012-01-01

    Today the author received the umpteenth parental request from a mother wanting help with her child who is reading far above grade level and yet remains in an on-grade-level reading group. The frustration from this and every other parent who has spoken to the author about this subject is palatable. Parents want what is best for their child, but in…

  12. A trauma-like model of political extremism: psycho-political fault lines in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laor, Nathaniel; Yanay-Shani, Alma; Wolmer, Leo; Khoury, Oula

    2010-10-01

    This study examines a trauma-like model of potentially violent political extremism among Jewish Israelis. We study the psychosocial characteristics of political extremists that may lie at the root of sociopolitical instability and assess personal (gender, stressful life events, Holocaust family background, and political activism) and psychological parameters (self- and political transcendence, perceived political threats, in/out-group identification ratio) that may predict readiness to engage in destructive political behavior. We examine the ideological zeal of various political groups, the relationship between the latter and perceived political threats, and the predictors of extreme political activism. Results showed that the extreme political poles displayed high level of ideological and morbid transcendence. Right extremists displayed higher perceived threats to physical existence and national identity. Left extremists scored highest on perceived moral integrity threat. Higher perceived threats to national identity and moral integrity, risk, and self-transcendence statistically explain morbid transcendence. When fear conjures up extremely skewed sociopolitical identifications across political boundaries, morbid transcendence may manifest itself in destructive political activity. © 2010 Association for Research in Nervous and Mental Disease.

  13. Advocacy coalitions and wind power development: Insights from Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jegen, Maya; Audet, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of wind energy acceptance in the Canadian province of Quebec and, in particular, the impact of different models of wind power development on the degree of social acceptance. We show that the dominant advocacy coalition, which favors a hard path energy development in general, enforces a large-scale development of wind energy. Two other coalitions - a soft path coalition and a nationalist coalition - oppose this development, but not wind energy per se. We argue that difference in belief systems explains their opposition rather than planning issues or NIMBY concerns. We also contend that, despite its predominance over (wind) energy policy, the hard path coalition is willing to learn and make concessions towards the soft path coalition, but not towards the nationalist coalition. - Highlights: → We address social acceptance of wind energy. → We illustrate the interaction of advocacy coalitions. → Different advocacy coalitions support different models of wind energy development. → Models of wind energy development influence the degree of social acceptance. → Opposition is not aimed at wind energy per se, but at the hard path model.

  14. Contentious Politics and Participatory Democracy in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Wampler

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7984.2014v13n28p199 Contentious politics helps individuals and groups with limited political voice to place their ideas and interests on the political agenda. Contentious politics were long thought to occur when politically marginalized group had no other means to advance their political agenda. The June 2013 social mobilization in Brazil caught most political observers by surprise, especially given the creation of a large, wide-spread participatory architecture (national conferences, councils, participatory budgeting. The innovative institutions emerging in Brazil created a policy environment in which millions of citizens have regular access to state policymaking bodies. How does the institutionalization of a broader network of participatory institutions make it easier for citizens to engage in contentious politics? In what ways does this institutionalization make it more difficult for some citizens to engage in contentious politics? In what ways has the vast network of participatory institutions been largely irrelevant to how citizens use contentious politics? This article explore how the institutionalization of an extensive participatory democracy system in Brazil alters the incentive structures that encourage citizens to engage in contentious collective action.

  15. Non-Implementation of road pricing policy in the Netherlands : An application of the "advocacy coalition framework"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ardic, O.; Annema, J.A.; van Wee, G.P.

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of road pricing policies is dependent on political support for the policy. It is frequently argued that many pricing proposals fail to be implemented due to the opposition of one or a group of policy actors (e.g. political parties, interest groups). This study considers this issue

  16. Achieving Health SDG 3 in Africa through NGO Capacity Building - Insights from the Gates Foundation Investment in Partnership in Advocacy for Child and Family Health (PACFaH) Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Judith-Ann

    2016-09-01

    As global impact investors gear up to support roll out of the Sustainable Development Goals in the developing world, African CSOs are urged to ensure that governments shift health funding sources away from aid and loans to innovative domestic funding sources which prioritize health. To do so, African CSOs require support to build their capacity for policy and budget advocacy. Governments and development partners have failed to invest in long term capacity building projects for indigenous NGOs and instead support INGOs to push the health advocacy agenda forward. In Nigeria, the Gates foundation has risen to the challenge of building capacity of indigenous NGOs for social accountability in child and family health. The 3 year pilot project - Partnership for Advocacy in Child and Family Health Project (PACFaH) mainstreams capacity building as an effective implementation strategy for 8 indigenous NGOs to deliver on - policy; budgetary; legislative; and administrative advocacy in four issue areas: 1) family planning; 2) nutrition; 3) routine immunization; and 4) reduction of under-5 deaths from diarrhea and pneumonia. This paper documents the achievements of the eight advocacy NGOs in PACFaH, at midterm and notes that while there have been challenges, working through capacity building as an implementation strategy has enabled the local groups in the delivery of evidence based advocacy.

  17. Political implications of science popularisation strategies: Frontiers of S cience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Maureen

    2016-07-01

    This examination of the mediation strategies of a very popular factual science comic strip series from the 1960s and 1970s illustrates, in this case by highlighting the ways in which women were targeted as an audience, that science popularisations are always political. For that reason, they should not be evaluated merely in terms of scientific accuracy. I demonstrate tensions between the dissemination model of communication used in the distribution of science popularisations, on the one hand, with the advocacy of a dialogue model in their content, on the other. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Fostering marginalized youths' political participation: longitudinal roles of parental political socialization and youth sociopolitical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemer, Matthew A

    2012-09-01

    This study examines the roles of parental political socialization and the moral commitment to change social inequalities in predicting marginalized youths' (defined here as lower-SES youth of color) political participation. These issues are examined by applying structural equation modeling to a longitudinal panel of youth. Because tests of measurement invariance suggested racial/ethnic heterogeneity, the structural model was fit separately for three racial/ethnic groups. For each group, parental political socialization: discussion predicted youths' commitment to produce social change and for two groups, longitudinally predicted political participation. This study contributes to the literature by examining civic/political participation among disparate racial/ethnic groups, addresses an open scholarly question (whether youths' commitment to create social change predicts their "traditional" participation), and emphasizes parents' role in fostering marginalized youths' civic and political participation.

  19. Strategic political postures and political market orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan C.

    2010-01-01

    by developing an integrated concept of political marketing strategy using two complementary frameworks, namely Strategic Political Postures (SPP) and Political Market Orientation (PMO). We introduce the two main concepts and derive for each of the strategic posture-specific PMO profiles as well as inter......Recently, the areas of strategic political marketing and political market orientation have been the subject of several conceptual articles which have provided the theoretical foundations for further empirical work. However, despite the close conceptual relatedness of the proposed concepts......, these have yet to be integrated to provide a more nuanced framework which both researchers and political marketing practitioners can utilise in the development of strategies and offerings with which to achieve their organizational goals. The aim of this conceptual paper is to address this deficit...

  20. Southern voices on climate policy choices: Analysis of and lessons learned from civil society advocacy on climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, Hannah; Ampomah, Gifty; Prera, Maria Isabel Olazabal; Rabbani, Golam; Zvigadza, Shepard

    2012-05-15

    This report provides an analysis of the tools and tactics advocacy groups use to influence policy responses to climate change at international, regional, national and sub-national levels. More than 20 climate networks and their member organisations have contributed to the report with their experiences of advocacy on climate change, including over 70 case studies from a wide range of countries - including many of the poorest - in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Pacific. These advocacy activities primarily target national governments, but also international and regional processes, donors and the private sector. Analyses and case studies show how civil society plays key roles in pushing for new laws, programmes, policies or strategies on climate change, in holding governments to account on their commitments; in identifying the lack of joined-up government responses to climate change; and in ensuring that national policy making does not forget the poor and vulnerable. The report is the first joint product of the Southern Voices Capacity Building Programme, or for short: Southern Voices on Climate Change.

  1. Self-advocacy for people with intellectual disability in Sweden – organizational similarities and differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ove Mallander

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Self-determination and the ability to express opinions and preferences are fundamental to all people. Self-advocacy (SA among people with intellectual disability (PWID presents opportunities for them to develop skills to have a say and influence changes in their local environments. The aim of this article is to explore and understand organizational similarities and differences of SA groups for PWID in Sweden by focusing their structures and activities. Within the theoretical framework of Resource-Dependency and New Institutional Perspectives, data from six Swedish SA groups belonging to two different national organizations, have been analyzed. Factors such as affinity and expectations show limited differences, while power distribution, rules and the role of support persons point to greater diversity. However, good relations within the local organizational field seems to be essential to maintain strong SA for PWID.

  2. Politics Backstage - Television Documentaries, Politics and Politicians

    OpenAIRE

    Ib Bondebjerg

    2006-01-01

    This article deals with "the transformation of visibility" in political discourse on and representation of politics and politicians in resent Dansih television documentaries. Drawing on the theories of Habermas, Meyrowitz and John B. Thompson, it is argued that the political persona on television is moved closer to the individual citizen, creating a sort "mediated quasi-inter- action" giving mediated communication a stronger element of face-to-face interaction. Together...

  3. Political entrepreneurship and bidding for political monopoly

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Wohlgemuth

    2000-01-01

    An analytical framework for dealing with political entrepreneurship and reform is proposed which is based on some new combinations of Schumpeterian political economy, an extended version of Tullock's model of democracy as franchise-bidding for natural monopoly and some basic elements of New Institutional Economics. It is shown that problems of insufficient award criteria and incomplete contracts which may arise in economic bidding schemes, also - and even more so - characterise political comp...

  4. Resource Windfalls, Political Regimes, and Political Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Caselli; Andrea Tesei

    2011-01-01

    We study theoretically and empirically whether natural resource windfalls affect political regimes. We document the following regularities. Natural resource windfalls have no effect on the political system when they occur in democracies. However, windfalls have significant political consequences in autocracies. In particular, when an autocratic country receives a positive shock to its flow of resource rents it responds by becoming even more autocratic. Furthermore, there is heterogeneity in t...

  5. Prejudice is about politics: a collective action perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, John

    2012-12-01

    In line with Dixon et al.'s argument, I contend that prejudice should be understood in broadly political rather than in narrowly psychological terms. First, what counts as prejudice is a political judgement. Second, studies of collective action demonstrate that it is in "political" struggles, where subordinate groups together oppose dominant groups, that prejudice can be overcome.

  6. Legislative responses to wrongful conviction: Do partisan principals and advocacy efforts influence state-level criminal justice policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Stephanie L; Carmichael, Jason T

    2015-07-01

    The number of discovered wrongful criminal convictions (and resulting exonerations) has increased over the past decade. These cases erode public confidence in the criminal justice system and trust in the rule of law. Many states have adopted laws that aim to reduce system errors but no study has examined why some states appear more willing to provide due process protections against wrongful convictions than others. Findings from regression estimates suggest that states with a Republican controlled legislature or more Republican voters are less likely to pass these laws while the presence of advocacy organizations that are part of the 'innocence movement' make legislative change more likely. We thus identify important differences in the political and social context between U.S. states that influence the adoption of criminal justice policies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effectiveness of the IMPACT:Ability program to improve safety and self-advocacy skills in high school students with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryden, Eileen M; Desmarais, Jeffery; Arsenault, Lisa

    2014-12-01

    Individuals with disabilities experience higher rates of abuse than the nondisabled. Few evidence-based prevention interventions have been published despite a need for such work. This study evaluated Ability, a safety and self-advocacy training for individuals with cognitive and/or physical disabilities. A quasi-experimental design was used to assess change in safety and self-advocacy knowledge, confidence, and behaviors among special education high school students in Boston, MA. Instruments were interviewer-administered at 3 time points. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare change between the intervention (N = 21) and wait-list (N = 36) groups. Repeated measures analysis was used to test change in the complete sample (N = 57). Students were diverse (58% males, 82% nonwhite) with a range of disabilities. Significantly greater improvement in key outcomes, including safety and self-advocacy knowledge, confidence, and behavior, were observed in intervention students compared to the wait-list group. Results in the complete sample showed evidence of further improvements in students' sense of safety and general self-efficacy. These findings are encouraging given the effects were demonstrated in a heterogeneous urban population. Ability may be an effective safety and self-advocacy training for students with disabilities. Further research will be required to determine effectiveness within particular subpopulations of students. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  8. Legal advocacy and nuclear power: the impact of litigation on the Midland nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, C.E.

    1979-01-01

    The use of litigation as an interest-group strategy is analyzed in relation to the controversy over the development of nuclear power. An assessment is made of the impact of the judicial process, with the litigation involving the Midland, Michigan, nuclear plant serving as a representative case study. In the construction permit hearings for the Midland nuclear plant, which began in 1970, the interest groups were Consumers Power Company, a Michigan utility, and the Saginaw and Mapleton Intervernors, environmentalists dwelling near the proposed plant site. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued a construction permit for the plant after a two-year licensing process, but the environmental groups appealed the permit to the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. In 1976, the permit was remanded by the court to the Commission for reconsideration, and Consumers Power Company appealed that decision. In 1978, the Supreme Court handed down a unanimous and definitive opinion, Consumers Power Company vs Aeschliman, that upheld the Commission's original issuance of the construction plant. The Midland case well illustrates the detrimental impact that legal advocacy has had on atomic energy by prolonging the regulatory process. The positive consequences of the Court ruling favoring the utility's position were outweighed by the expense involved in the initial ten years of thelicensing and subsequent lawsuits concerning the Midland plant. Consequently, Consumers Power Company is representative of most other American electric companies in its determination that it cannot build additional nuclear plants without mitigation of the uncertainty and duration of the regulatory process. Thus, it may be concluded that the environmental groups' use of legal advocacy at Midland and elsewhere has proven to be an effective strategy for undermining the nuclear industry and for deterring the future development of nuclear power

  9. Strategic campaigns and redistributive politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    2007-01-01

    The article investigates strategic, informative campaigning by two parties when politics concern redistribution. Voters are uncertain about whether parties favour special groups. Parties will target campaigns on groups where most votes are gained by informing about policies. In equilibrium......, campaigning will be most intensive in groups where the uncertainty is largest and where voters are most mobile, most likely to vote, most receptive to campaigns and relatively uninformed initially. These groups will become more informed about policy. Parties will therefore gain more votes by treating...... these groups well so these groups will gain from strategic campaigning. Welfare effects are assessed...

  10. Do technologies have politics? The new paradigm and pedagogy in networked learning

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Chris

    2001-01-01

    This paper explores the relationships between the technologies deployed in networked and e-Learning and the pedagogies and politics associated with them. Networked learning and the related move to e-Learning are coincident with the globalisation, commodification and massification of Higher Education. It examines the hard and soft forms of technological determinism (TD) found in the current advocacy of technological futures for Higher Education. Hard TD claims that new technologies bring about...

  11. Policy Capacity Meets Politics; Comment on “Health Reform Requires Policy Capacity”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Fafard

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult to disagree with the general argument that successful health reform requires a significant degree of policy capacity or that all players in the policy game need to move beyond self-interested advocacy. However, an overly broad definition of policy capacity is a problem. More important perhaps, health reform inevitably requires not just policy capacity but political leadership and compromise.

  12. Policy Capacity Meets Politics: Comment on "Health Reform Requires Policy Capacity".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fafard, Patrick

    2015-07-22

    It is difficult to disagree with the general argument that successful health reform requires a significant degree of policy capacity or that all players in the policy game need to move beyond self-interested advocacy. However, an overly broad definition of policy capacity is a problem. More important perhaps, health reform inevitably requires not just policy capacity but political leadership and compromise. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  13. Progress in improving provincial plans for nutrition through targeted technical assistance and local advocacy in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jody; Nguyen, Phuong H; To, Quyen; Frongillo, Edward A; Menon, Purnima

    2016-12-01

    Vietnam has been decentralizing nutrition planning to provinces, which could help with local relevance and accountability. Assessment in 2009 found a continuing top-down approach, limited human capacity, and difficulty in integrating multiple sectors. Alive and Thrive (A&T) provided targeted assistance and capacity-building for 15 provincial plans for nutrition (PPNs). We aimed to (i) assess PPN content and quality improvements 2009-2014, and (ii) explain processes through which change occurred. Data consisted of interview-based assessments of provincial planning processes, annual PPN assessments, and tracking of A&T involvement. At endline, some provinces produced higher quality plans. Local planning skills improved, but capacity remained insufficient. Awareness of and support for nutrition improved, but some policy and legal environments were contradictory. Objectives were clearer, but use of data for planning remained inconsistent. Provinces became more proactive and creative, but remained constrained by slow approval processes and insufficient funding. Targeted assistance and local advocacy can improve decentralized planning, with success dependent on policy and programming contexts and ability to overcome constraints around capacity, investment, data use and remnants of centralized planning. We recommend strong engagement with planners at the national level to understand how to unblock major constraints; solutions must take into consideration the particular political, financial and administrative context. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.

  14. Finding electronic information for health policy advocacy: a guide to improving search results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsan, Tobie H; Bianchi, Carolanne; White, Pamela; Glessner, Theresa; Mapstone, Pamela L

    2011-12-01

    The success of advanced practice registered nurses' (APRNs') health policy advocacy depends on staying well informed about key issues. Searching for high-quality health policy information, however, can be frustrating and time consuming. Busy clinicians need strategies and tips to reduce information overload and to access synthesized research for evidence-based health policy. This article therefore offers APRNs practical guidelines and resources for searching electronic health policy information. Scholarly databases and Internet sites. Electronic health policy information is generated by a wide variety of public and private organizations and disseminated in hundreds of journals and Web pages. Specialty search tools are needed to retrieve the unindexed gray literature, which includes government documents, agency reports, fact sheets, standards, and statistics not produced by commercial publishers. Further, Internet users need to examine search results with a critical eye for information quality. Expertise in searching electronic health policy information is a prerequisite for developing APRNs' leadership in political arenas to influence health policy and the delivery of healthcare services. ©2011 The Author(s) Journal compilation ©2011 American Academy of Nurse Practitioners.

  15. Preventing abuse to pregnant women: implementation of a "mentor mother" advocacy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, J; Wiist, W

    1997-01-01

    Abuse to pregnant women is common and can result in complications to maternal and child health. Although screening and detection of abuse in primary health care settings is becoming more commonplace, intervention models that include community outreach have not been developed or tested. An advocacy model was developed and tested for pregnant abused women by melding research on advocacy programs for abused women exiting shelters with the principles of home visitation used to improve outcomes to pregnant women. Advocacy was offered by "mentor mothers," who were residents of the project's service area. The advocacy consisted of weekly social support, education, and assisted referrals to pregnant women identified as abused as part of routine screening offered at the first prenatal visit to a public health clinic. Effectiveness of the advocacy intervention was measured as contact success rate, number and type of advocacy contacts, and number and type of referrals made to the first 100 women to complete the advocacy program. The mentor mother advocates were successful in contacting the abused woman 33% of the time, regardless of whether a telephone call, home visitation, or in-person meeting was attempted. The average number of advocacy contacts was 9.2 (SD = 7.6) with the majority (74%) being via the telephone. The average number of referrals per woman was 8.6 (SD = 7.6) with the largest percentage (38%) being for medical services. Outreach advocacy as an intervention model for pregnant abused women is recommended.

  16. Political learning among youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solhaug, Trond; Kristensen, Niels Nørgaard

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on students’ first political learning and explores the research question, what dynamic patterns of political learning can be explored among a selection of young, diverse Danish students’ first political interests? The authors use theories of learning in their analytical......, but are active constructors of their political life. Their emotions and social environment are highly important for their political orientation. It is recommended that further research focus on dynamic learning and on arenas for political learning rather than on “single agent studies.” Recommendations...

  17. Partisan optimism and political bargaining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Madum, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    to explore the implications of partisan optimism for political bargaining. We show that increased optimism among a partisan group leads to a stronger bargaining position for their party, but may hurt its electoral prospects. Another main finding is that even high levels of partisan optimism do...

  18. Motivation and morality: Insights into political ideology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janoff-Bulman, Ronnie; Carnes, Nate C

    2014-06-01

    Our past work linking motivation and morality provides a basis for understanding differences in political ideology and positions across the political spectrum. Conservatism is rooted in avoidance-based proscriptive morality, whereas liberalism is rooted in approach-based prescriptive morality. Two distinct, binding, group moralities reflect these different regulatory systems and emphasize social coordination through Social Order versus social cooperation through Social Justice.

  19. Involving youth with disabilities in the development and evaluation of a new advocacy training: Project TEAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Jessica; Barth, Yishai; Curtis, Katie; Livingston, Kit; O'Neil, Madeline; Smith, Zach; Vallier, Samantha; Wolfe, Ashley

    2013-04-01

    This paper describes a participatory research process in which six youth with disabilities (Youth Panel) participated in the development and evaluation of a manualized advocacy training, Project TEAM (Teens making Environment and Activity Modifications). Project TEAM teaches youth with disabilities how to identify environmental barriers, generate solutions, and request accommodations. The Youth Panel conducted their evaluation after the university researcher implemented Project TEAM with three groups of trainees. The Youth Panel designed and administered a survey and focus group to evaluate enjoyment and usefulness of Project TEAM with support from an advocate/researcher. Members of the Youth Panel analyzed survey response frequencies. The advocate/researcher conducted a content analysis of the open-ended responses. Sixteen of 21 Project TEAM trainees participated in the evaluation. The evaluation results suggest that the trainees found the interactive and individualized aspects of the Project TEAM most enjoyable and useful. Some instructional materials were difficult for trainees with cognitive disabilities to understand. The Youth Panel's involvement in the development of Project TEAM may explain the relatively positive experiences reported by trainees. Project TEAM should continue to provide trainees with the opportunity to apply concepts in real-life situations. Project TEAM requires revisions to ensure it is enjoyable and useful for youth with a variety of disabilities. • Group process strategies, picture-based data collection materials, peer teamwork, and mentorship from adults with disabilities can enable youth with disabilities to engage in research. • Collaborating with youth with disabilities in the development of new rehabilitation approaches may enhance the relevance of interventions for other youth with disabilities. • Youth with cognitive disabilities participating in advocacy and environment-focused interventions may prefer interactive and

  20. Scientists as communicators: A randomized experiment to assess public reactions to scientists' social media communication along the science-advocacy continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotcher, J.; Vraga, E.; Myers, T.; Stenhouse, N.; Roser-Renouf, C.; Maibach, E.

    2014-12-01

    The question of what type of role scientists, or experts more generally, should play in policy debates is a perennial point of discussion within the scientific community. It is often thought that communication containing some form of policy advocacy is likely to compromise the perceived credibility of the individual scientist engaged in such behavior, with the possibility that it may also harm the credibility of the scientific community more broadly. Rather than evaluating statements in a binary fashion as representing either pure objectivity or pure advocacy, one recent model proposes that public communication by scientists should instead be thought of as falling along a continuum based upon the extent of normative judgment implicit in a statement. This approach predicts that as the extent of normative judgment increases, it poses a relatively greater risk to a scientist's perceived credibility. Though such a model is conceptually useful, little empirical social science research has systematically explored how individuals form judgments about different types of advocacy to examine common assumptions about the relative risks associated with such behaviors. In this presentation, we will report results from a national online experiment (N=1200) that examines audience responses to fictional social media posts written by either a climate scientist or a television weathercaster. Following the above model, the posts represent differing degrees of advocacy defined by the extent of normative judgment implicit in each statement. In instances where a specific policy is advocated, we examine whether participants' reactions are shaped by the extent to which the policy mentioned is congruent with one's political ideology. We hope this study will serve as an exemplar of applied science communication research that can begin to help inform scientists and other experts about the potential implications of different communication options they may choose from in deciding how to engage

  1. Perceived Organisational Politics, Political Behaviour and Employee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    facing both private and public sector organisations (Nidhi & Prerna, 2015;. Gotsis & Kortezi ... These studies suggest that organisational politics often interfere with normal ..... Rawls's (1971) theory of justice provides a theoretical foundation for the relationship between ..... Ethical considerations in organisational politics: ...

  2. Celebrity politics: the politics of late modernity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsh, D.; t Hart, P.; Tindall, K.

    2010-01-01

    The academic literature on celebrity politics is rarely systematic; more often it is superficial and anecdotal. In addition, most of the literature focuses either upon classifying different types/categories of celebrity politicians and their roles in politics, or upon the question of whether the

  3. Exploring Women's Understanding of Politics, Political Contestation ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Exploring Women's Understanding of Politics, Political Contestation and Gender Transformation in the Caribbean. IDRC's Democratic Governance, Women's Rights and Gender Equality initiative is supporting a body of comparative research on whether and how democratic processes and institutions are responding to ...

  4. Political Values or the Value of Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simoska, Emilija

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay was motivated by the gap between proclaimed democratic principles and the perceptions of politics which are exhibited by the citizens in transitional countries -more specifically in the Republic of Macedonia. It is based on research data collected in the past few decades, which illustrate that, in their political actions, the citizens are highly motivated by personal benefits and profits, rather than by their internalized values and ideologies. Non-democratic, authoritarian values prevail, while politics is perceived as a value itself, in the most materialistic meaning of the word. It creates a suitable milieu for growth of corruption, nepotism and clientelism. The authors conclude that such a circulus vitsiosus is a corner stone of the Macedonian political regime, and an enormous obstacle for the advancement of the participative, democratic political culture in reality, in spite of its formal acceptance.

  5. Political Market Orientation: A Framework for Understanding Relationship Structures in Political Parties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.; Savigny, Heather

    2012-01-01

    This article is motivated by the growing need to integrate the current political science and marketing literature in order to provide a deeper understanding of the behaviour of political actors and their relationships with relevant stakeholder groups. In our article, we demonstrate how Ormrod...... strive for contextual sensitivity. By adopting this approach it is hoped that the fears noted by political scientists that political marketing is solely concerned with applying standard management models to political parties with the resulting emphasis on communication tactics at election time, together......’s conceptual model of political market orientation complements political science models of party organization by drawing attention to the competing interests of stakeholders in shaping party strategy and organizational structure. We treat parties as a multitude of actors rather than as monolithic entities...

  6. Sustainability : Politics and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinrichs, Harald; Biermann, Frank

    2016-01-01

    he article gives an overview of global sustainability policy and politics. It is shown how international policy making on sustainable development has progressed from environmental policy toward recent approaches of Earth system governance. Key challenges of international sustainability politics are

  7. Political Economy of Finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.

    2013-01-01

    This survey reviews how a recent political economy literature helps explaining variation in governance, competition, funding composition and access to credit. Evolution in political institutions can account for financial evolution, and appear critical to explain rapid changes in financial structure,

  8. Politics, Security, Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæver, Ole

    2011-01-01

    theory is found to ‘act politically’ through three structural features that systematically shape the political effects of using the theory. The article further discusses – on the basis of the preceding articles in the special issue – three emerging debates around securitization theory: ethics......This article outlines three ways of analysing the ‘politics of securitization’, emphasizing an often-overlooked form of politics practised through theory design. The structure and nature of a theory can have systematic political implications. Analysis of this ‘politics of securitization......’ is distinct from both the study of political practices of securitization and explorations of competing concepts of politics among security theories. It means tracking what kinds of analysis the theory can produce and whether such analysis systematically impacts real-life political struggles. Securitization...

  9. Bridging dermatologists with patient advocacy organizations through smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourosh, A Shadi; Schoenberg, Evan D; Dejace, Jean M; Bergstresser, Paul R

    2014-03-01

    Patient advocacy organizations seek to increase their benefits for patients with skin disease; low awareness and patient referrals among dermatologists have presented an obstacle to this. To determine whether the Skin Advocate iPhone App would increase awareness and referrals to patient advocacy organizations in the Coalition of Skin Diseases (CSD) among Texas dermatologists and dermatology residents and patient registrations among CSD member organizations. We present results of an institutional review board-exempted investigation conducted among member organizations of the CSD and among dermatologists and dermatology residents in Texas from April 1, 2011, through March 31, 2013. Effects were measured in a blinded fashion subjectively through pre-intervention and post-intervention surveys and objectively through internal analytics that tracked downloads and use of the iPhone app, as well as pre-intervention and post-intervention numbers of registrations for CSD member organizations. The Skin Advocate iPhone App. Awareness and referrals to patient advocacy organizations in the CSD among Texas dermatologists and dermatology residents and patient registrations among CSD member organizations. Throughout the study, mean app use ranged from 3.3 to 3.6 uses per user per month, maintaining the 3-fold improvement compared with self-reported referral for 90% of the study population and a 12-fold improvement for 64% of the study population. Our data revealed substantial improvement in self-reported physician awareness and referrals, and increased patient registrations for CSD organizations. The Skin Advocate iPhone App improved physician awareness and subsequent referrals to CSD member organizations.

  10. Advocacy in the Western Hemisphere Region: some FPA success stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, D J

    1996-01-01

    The International Planned Parenthood Federation's Vision 2000 Strategic Plan has emphasized advocacy and the training of family planning associations (FPAs) in the Western Hemisphere region. During the summer of 1995 training programs in advocacy leadership management were sponsored for six FPAs in the Bahamas, Suriname, Belize, Colombia, Honduras, and Brazil. At the Western Hemisphere Regional Council Meeting in September 1995 awards were presented to FPAs for media outstanding projects. These FPAs used outreach to the community to promote the goals of Vision 2000. The Bahamas FPA won the Rosa Cisneros Award for articles published in a magazine that is distributed in primary and secondary schools and deals with the activities, achievements, and opinions of students. Issues include: love, relationships, responsibility, and teen pregnancy. A weekly television talk show also addresses the issues facing youth including education, music, community work, sexuality, pregnancy, and the relationship between teenagers and adults. The Family Planning Association of Honduras was also nominated for the award for a radio show on the health of mothers and children, the problems of adolescents, and FP. The newspaper Tiempo received the award for feature articles on social issues and FP. In 1994 the Association distributed thousands of booklets on contraceptives as well as fliers on vasectomy, female sterilization, oral contraceptives, IUDs, condoms, responsible parenthood, high-risk pregnancy, vaginal cytology, and cervical cancer. Similar posters were placed in hospitals and health centers, in 1997 FP posts, and 400 commercial outlets. The Family Planning Association of Suriname also carried out an impressive advocacy program during the period of 1968-93 with the goals of establishing a balance between population growth and the available resources to achieve well-being with regard to education, health care, nutrition, and housing.

  11. Advocacy and Awareness: Integrating LGBTQ Health Education Into the Prelicensure Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNiel, Paula L; Elertson, Kathleen M

    2018-05-01

    An identified gap in the curriculum related to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) health needs prompted nursing faculty to implement a collaborative educational offering. LGBTQ individuals experience significant health disparities, compared with heterosexual counterparts. Enhancing established LGBTQ population-specific training to highlight health disparities and awareness of special health care needs was piloted with two clinical groups of senior baccalaureate nursing students (N = 16). Didactic, simulated, and panel discussion related to LGBTQ terminology, current health standards of care, and the importance of advocacy was provided by campus advocates, experienced health care providers, and a student panel identifying as LGBTQ. Health specific learning outcomes were established and evaluated. Posteducation, anonymous surveys, and journaling were completed. Survey respondents (n = 13) reported increased awareness and understanding of health disparities specific to the LGBTQ population. LGBTQ-specific health education has been implemented as a permanent curriculum change. [J Nurs Educ. 2018;57(5):312-314.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Comparing Political Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Pfetsch, Barbara; Esser, Frank

    2012-01-01

    This chapter describes the maturation of comparative political communications as a sub-discipline and defines its conceptual core. It then lays out the concept of “political communication system”. At the macro-level, this model captures the patterns of interaction between media and politics as social systems; at the micro-level it captures the interactions between media and political actors as individuals or organizations. Comparative research in this tradition focuses on the structure of pol...

  13. Inspired Leadership: Engaging the Voice and Embodying Advocacy

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, Kamra Angelica

    2017-01-01

    The journey of finding my voice has forced me to show up and be seen in my work. I silenced my own voice at a dehumanizing call center, as a faceless target for frustrated customers. l discovered the power of connection by embodying advocacy and engaging my voice and body in my work. Primarily, I listen to my gut and trust my intuition. Secondly, I advocate by speaking up for those who cannot advocate for themselves. During the Streamers production process, when I felt the twinge in my gut,...

  14. Advocacy opportunities for pediatricians caring for maltreated children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford-Jakubiak, James E

    2014-10-01

    Pediatricians are advocates for children. It is one of the central elements of the job description. In the course of their work, pediatricians have many opportunities to advocate for abused and neglected children. The most effective form of advocacy that most pediatricians will engage in with regard to child abuse and neglect is by being highly skilled doctors who provide excellent clinical care to children and families, knowing how to recognize child abuse and what to do when they encounter it, and being familiar with the resources of their communities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Bangladesh pharmaceutical policy and politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, M R

    1994-06-01

    An analysis of the politics of Bangladesh pharmaceutical policy in the 1980s shows how significant health policy reforms in developing countries depend on political conditions both inside and outside the country. Bangladesh's drug policy of 1982 illustrates that governments can sometimes change public policy in ways unfavourable to multinational corporations, while the failed health policy reform of 1990 shows that reforms unfavourable to powerful domestic interest groups can be more difficult to achieve, even contributing to a government's downfall. The case provides evidence of basic changes in how the international agenda for health policy is set, especially the growing role of non-governmental organizations in international agencies and national policy debates. Understanding the political patterns of policy reform in Bangladesh has important implications for strategies to affect health policy in developing countries.

  16. Ethnicization in Welfare State Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Frederik Georg

    , but also why it is more likely for some issues (such as European integration or crime) than others (such as welfare). The dissertation includes four stand-alone articles illustrating the influence of group identities in political cognition. Compared to the existing literature, they suggest...... is to a significant extent shaped by studies of American public opinion, where public opinion on some issues is widely considered 'racialized', i.e. in part based on attitudes toward racial outgroups. The dissertation examines whether by the same token, political attitudes in universal welfare states can become...... 'ethnicized', i.e. in part based on attitudes toward ethnic outgroups. The existing literature has tended to focus on the issue of welfare, where the expectation is that ethnic diversity will diminish public support. I outline a theoretical framework which explains why political attitudes can be ethnicized...

  17. Cultural legacies and political preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siroky, David S.; Mueller, Sean; Hechter, Michael

    2017-01-01

    crucial in explaining the decision to secede, but not in a conventional pocketbook manner. To examine this theory, we analyze the 2013 referendum on the secession of the Jura Bernois region from the Canton of Berne in Switzerland, using municipal level census and referendum data. The results lend support......, ecological constraints such as geography and topography affect social interaction with like-minded individuals. On the basis of both these political preferences and ecological constraints, individuals then make rational choices about the desirability of secession. Instrumental considerations are therefore...... to the theory and suggest one way in which the politics of identity, based on factors like language and religion, can be fused with the politics of interest (preferences for more or less state intervention into the polity and economy) to better understand group behavior....

  18. Advocacy Interventions to Reduce or Eliminate Violence and Promote the Physical and Psychosocial Wellbeing of Women Who Experience Intimate Partner Abuse: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivas, C

    2016-01-01

    had considerable clinical heterogeneity in relation to staff delivering advocacy; setting (community, shelter, antenatal, healthcare; advocacy intensity (from 30 minutes to 80 hours; and abuse severity. Three trials evaluated advocacy within multi-component interventions. Eleven measured some form of abuse (eight scales, six assessed quality of life (three scales, and six measured depression (three scales. Countries and ethnic groups varied (one or more minority ethnic groups in the USA or UK, and local populations in Hong Kong and Peru. Setting was associated with intensity and duration of advocacy. Risk of bias was high in five studies, moderate in five, and low in three. The quality of evidence (considering multiple factors such as risk of bias, study size, missing data was moderate to low for brief advocacy and very low for intensive advocacy. Incidence of abuse Physical abuse Moderate quality pooled data from two healthcare studies (moderate risk of bias and one community study (low risk of bias, all with 12-month follow-up data, showed no effect on physical abuse for brief (< 12 hours advocacy interventions (standardised mean difference (SMD 0.00, 95% confidence interval (CI - 0.17 to 0.16; n = 558. One antenatal study (low risk of bias showed an association between brief advocacy and reduced minor physical abuse at one year (mean difference (MD change - 1.00, 95% CI - 1.82 to - 0.18; n = 110. An antenatal, multi-component study showed a greater likelihood of physical abuse ending (odds ratio (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.75 immediately after advocacy (number needed to treat (NNT = 8; we cannot exclude impact from other components. Low to very low quality evidence from two intensive advocacy trials (12 hours plus duration showed reduced severe physical abuse in women leaving a shelter at 24 months (OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.77; NNT = 8, but not at 12 or 36 months. Sexual abuse Meta-analysis of two studies (n = 239 showed no effect of advocacy on sexual abuse (SMD

  19. Evaluation of resident attitudes and self-reported competencies in health advocacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fok Mark C

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The CanMEDS Health Advocate role, one of seven roles mandated by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons Canada, pertains to a physician's responsibility to use their expertise and influence to advance the wellbeing of patients, communities, and populations. We conducted our study to examine resident attitudes and self-reported competencies related to health advocacy, due to limited information in the literature on this topic. Methods We conducted a pilot experience with seven internal medicine residents participating in a community health promotion event. The residents provided narrative feedback after the event and the information was used to generate items for a health advocacy survey. Face validity was established by having the same residents review the survey. Content validity was established by inviting an expert physician panel to review the survey. The refined survey was then distributed to a cohort of core Internal Medicine residents electronically after attendance at an academic retreat teaching residents about advocacy through didactic sessions. Results The survey was completed by 76 residents with a response rate of 68%. The majority agreed to accept an advocacy role for societal health needs beyond caring for individual patients. Most confirmed their ability to identify health determinants and reaffirmed the inherent requirements for health advocacy. While involvement in health advocacy was common during high school and undergraduate studies, 76% of residents reported no current engagement in advocacy activity, and 36% were undecided if they would engage in advocacy during their remaining time as residents, fellows or staff. The common barriers reported were insufficient time, rest and stress. Conclusions Medical residents endorsed the role of health advocate and reported proficiency in determining the medical and bio-psychosocial determinants of individuals and communities. Few residents, however, were

  20. Western Political Consulting Techniques and Post-Soviet Political Technology in Political Campaigns in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Bērziņa, Ieva

    2012-01-01

    Western Political Consulting Techniques and Post-Soviet Political Technology in Political Campaigns in Latvia Ieva Dmitričenko Keywords: political campaignsm political consulting, political technology, parties, marketing, media Political campaigning is an international phenomenon, because there is a free flow of information, knowledge and human resource among practitioners of political campaigning in various countries. As a result political campaigning techniques that have proven to ...

  1. Analyzing Political Television Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burson, George

    1992-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan to help students understand that political advertisements often mislead, lie, or appeal to emotion. Suggests that the lesson will enable students to examine political advertisements analytically. Includes a worksheet to be used by students to analyze individual political advertisements. (DK)

  2. Political institutions since 1820

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foldvari, Peter; Buzasi, Katalin

    2014-01-01

    Political institutions determine the degree of freedom people enjoy and their capacity to influence their social and political environment. This chapter provides historical evidence on the evolution of political institutions drawing upon two major research projects: the PolityIV dataset and the

  3. Political Education in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dag, Nilgun; Sozer, Mehmet Akif; Sel, Burcu

    2015-01-01

    Political education is a term with negative associations and triggering prejudiced approaches and discourses--maybe some paranoid thoughts--like "keep politics away from education!" in the minds of several people. This article deals with "political education" phenomenon almost never discussed and made subject to scientific…

  4. What is Political Psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Morton

    1983-01-01

    Political psychology is the study of the bidirectional interaction of political and psychological processes. This academic discipline was founded after the First World War by Harold D. Lasswell. The content of political psychology is discussed and illustrative studies of the field are briefly summarized. (CS)

  5. Tracking Politics with POWER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Silvio; Batista, David S.; Carvalho, Paula; Couto, Francisco M.; Silva, Mario J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: POWER is an ontology of political processes and entities. It is designed for tracking politicians, political organizations and elections, both in mainstream and social media. The aim of this paper is to propose a data model to describe political agents and their relations over time. Design/methodology/approach: The authors propose a data…

  6. Kentucky physicians and politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VonderHaar, W P; Monnig, W B

    1998-09-01

    Approximately 19% of Kentucky Physicians are KEMPAC members or contribute to state legislative and Gubernatorial candidates. This limited study of political activity indicates that a small percentage of physicians participate in the political process. Despite the small number of contributors to state legislative candidates, KMA's legislative and lobbying effort is highly effective and members receive high quality service and representation in the political arena.

  7. Politically Active Home Economists: Their Socialization to Politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, Connie J.

    1980-01-01

    A nationwide study identified a pattern of political socialization for home economists who were politically active. The most outstanding feature of the politically active subjects was their perception that political activity is a professional role. (SK)

  8. Being and doing politics: an outdated model or 21st century reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnegie, Elaine; Kiger, Alice

    2009-09-01

    This paper presents a discussion of how critical social theory can be used as a tool for research, reflection and exploration of the political role of the nurse. Sociological theory can be used to examine ideologies within nursing systems in order to contribute to the future development of the profession. The importance of critical social theory has been identified in the literature as being directly relevant to holism which is central to the nature of nursing. Texts published in English were identified from 1990 to 2008 using the keywords critical social theory, community nursing, political advocacy, social justice, sociological theory, health inequalities, health democracy, equity and inequality. Critical social theory can be used as a tool to highlight ethical ways to practise nursing. One reason for examination of the community nurse's political role is a shift in focus from the individual as patient to communities experiencing health inequalities. Nursing needs to decide whether the profession will work at the political level, and where advocacy and citizenship are located within a community role. Nurse educators must prepare nurses for political participation, and nurse managers need to focus on national and local contexts in order to encourage policy analysis and community engagement within nursing practice. An understanding of critical social theory can aid decision-making in relation to global and local policy, enable the nursing profession to respond to social injustice, and permit nurses to work with communities in the pursuit of community health.

  9. Political economy of agrarian change: Some key concepts and questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Bernstein

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws on lectures given in recent years at the China Agricultural University, on author’s book Class Dynamics of Agrarian Change [1] and on a recent article [3]. The author supplied as few references as possible to very large literature in English on agrarian change both historical and contemporary; there is an ample bibliography in [1], which is expanded in [2-5]. The paper outlines in schematic fashion some key concepts in the political economy of agrarian change with special reference to capitalism historically and today; some key questions posed by the political economy of agrarian change, and how it seeks to investigate and answer them; two sets of more specific questions about agrarian transition to capitalism and agrarian change within capitalism (internal to the countryside, bringing in rural-urban interconnections, pointing towards the place of agriculture within larger ‘national’ economies, and concerning the character and effects of the capitalist world economy. With the aid of the last group of questions, the author discusses three themes, which they are deployed to investigate: the agrarian origins of capitalism, the distinction between farming and agriculture generated by capitalism, and the fate(s of peasant farmers in the modern world of capitalism. The author believes that one cannot conceive the emergence and functioning of agriculture in modern capitalism without the centrality and configurations of new sets of dynamics linking agriculture and industry, and the rural and urban, and the local, national and global. The three themes all feed into the fourth and final theme, that of investigating the fate(s of the peasantry in capitalism today, which resonates longstanding debates of the ‘disappearance’ or ‘persistence’ of the peasantry, albeit now in the conditions of contemporary ‘globalization’. The author does not deny some of the critique of the contemporary globalization, or at least its effects

  10. Political Science and Political Geography: Neglected Areas, Areas for Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laponce, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    Since at least the 1950s, political scientists have tended to ignore the possible contributions of political geography to political science because of a move away from considering spatial factors on political structure. Political scientists need to use more information from geography to enhance their understanding of political power and conflict.…

  11. Understanding Parent Advocacy during the Transition to School of Children with Developmental Disabilities: Three Canadian Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Nancy L.; Pyle, Angela; Villeneuve, Michelle; Dods, Jennifer; Dalton, C. J.; Minnes, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown the benefits of parent involvement for student participation in education. Parent advocacy is a critical form of involvement by parents for children who are young, have disabilities, and are making transitions. Studies have classified forms of parent advocacy but have not illuminated the components necessary for effective parent…

  12. Fostering Skills in Self-Advocacy: A Key to Access in School and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckner, John L.; Becker, Sharon J.

    2013-01-01

    Self-advocacy occurs when deaf or hard of hearing individuals explain to hearing teachers, classmates, bosses, and officemates the nature of their hearing loss, their language skills, and the accommodations they require in order to effectively do their work, participate in conversations, and get involved in other activities. Self-advocacy may be…

  13. Learning about Advocacy, A Case-Study of Challenges, Everyday Practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ringsing, B.; Leeuwis, C.

    2008-01-01

    Advocacy has become an important area of development support. Simultaneously, the interest in learning-oriented monitoring of advocacy programmes has increased. Starting from the premise that learning has sociopolitical dimensions, this article explores how the challenges and contradictions of such

  14. Assessing the Efficacy of a School Health Education Advocacy Lesson with College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallen, Michele; Chaney, Beth H.; Birch, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The researchers evaluated the efficacy of an advocacy lesson to assess change in intentions to advocate for school health education. This study also measured changes in participants' understanding the importance of school health education and perceived effectiveness in applying advocacy skills. Methods: A convenience sample of college…

  15. Civil Society Advocacy for Construction of Education Legislation in Brazil: Education Diplomacy in a National Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cara, Daniel; Pellanda, Andressa

    2018-01-01

    Advocacy efforts often contribute to broader Education Diplomacy goals. The Brazilian Campaign for the Right to Education coordinated an effort among diverse civil society stakeholders to ensure their voice was included in developing Brazil's National Education Plan (NEP). As a result of their advocacy strategy, civil society participated in…

  16. College Student Narratives about Learning and Using Self-Advocacy Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly-Cano, Meada; Vaccaro, Annemarie; Newman, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Self-advocacy is the ability to communicate one's needs and wants and to make decisions about the supports needed to achieve them (Stodden, Conway, & Chang, 2003). Research shows self-advocacy skills are related to academic performance and successful adaptation to college (Adams & Proctor, 2010; Getzel & Thoma, 2008; Hadley, 2006;…

  17. Advocacy Narratives and Celebrity Engagement: the Case of Ben Affleck in Congo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budabin, Alexandra Cosima; Richey, Lisa Ann

    2018-01-01

    Global celebrities are increasingly important in human rights--promoting causes, raising awareness, and interacting with decision-makers—as communicators to mass and elite audiences. Deepening the literature on transnational advocacy and North-South relations, this article argues that celebrities...... Initiative. The study explains how the ability for celebrities to contend with narratives reflects elite practices in human rights advocacy....

  18. 75 FR 7540 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Volunteer Income Tax Assistance Issue Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Volunteer Income Tax Assistance Issue Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION... Tax Issue Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comment, ideas...

  19. 75 FR 4139 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Volunteer Income Tax Assistance Issue Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Volunteer Income Tax Assistance Issue Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Volunteer Income Tax Issue...

  20. 76 FR 45004 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Volunteer Income Tax Assistance Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Volunteer Income Tax Assistance Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Volunteer Income Tax...

  1. 77 FR 67735 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Tax Forms and Publications Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Tax Forms and Publications Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Tax Forms and Publications...

  2. 75 FR 62631 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Volunteer Income Tax Assistance Issue Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Volunteer Income Tax Assistance Issue Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Volunteer Income Tax Issue...

  3. 78 FR 78516 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Tax Forms and Publications Project Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Tax Forms and Publications Project Committee. AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Tax Forms and Publications...

  4. 76 FR 45007 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Tax Forms and Publications Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Tax Forms and Publications Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Tax Forms and Publications...

  5. 78 FR 41193 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Tax Forms and Publications Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Tax Forms and Publications Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Tax Forms and Publications...

  6. 75 FR 33895 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Volunteer Income Tax Assistance Issue Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Volunteer Income Tax Assistance Issue Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Volunteer Income Tax Issue...

  7. 75 FR 47348 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Volunteer Income Tax Assistance Issue Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Volunteer Income Tax Assistance Issue Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Volunteer Income Tax Issue...

  8. 75 FR 39332 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Volunteer Income Tax Assistance Issue Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Volunteer Income Tax Assistance Issue Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Volunteer Income Tax Issue...

  9. 75 FR 55406 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Volunteer Income Tax Assistance Issue Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Volunteer Income Tax Assistance Issue Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Volunteer Income Tax Issue...

  10. 75 FR 25317 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Volunteer Income Tax Assistance Issue Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Volunteer Income Tax Assistance Issue Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Volunteer Income Tax Issue...

  11. Pension reform in the European periphery: the role of EU reform advocacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stepan, M.; Anderson, K.A.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY: This paper analyzes the impact of international reform advocacy on national pension reforms. We analyze European Union (EU) reform advocacy in two EU member states: Greece and Hungary. Although the EU has articulated a fairly coherent template for sustainable pensions, its use of soft

  12. 75 FR 11998 - Open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Issue Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Issue Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Issue... Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Issue Committee will be held Tuesday, April 20, 2010 from 8 a.m. to...

  13. 76 FR 22171 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit...

  14. 76 FR 32024 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit...

  15. 76 FR 10944 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee will be held Tuesday...

  16. 75 FR 33894 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit...

  17. 76 FR 2197 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee. AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit...

  18. 75 FR 7540 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit...

  19. 76 FR 17995 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit...

  20. 75 FR 18955 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee. AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit...

  1. 75 FR 25316 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit...

  2. 75 FR 4140 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION... Tax Credit Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public... Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee will be held Wednesday, February 24, 2010, at 1 p...

  3. What History Is Teaching Us: 100 Years of Advocacy in "Music Educators Journal"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedgecoth, David M.; Fischer, Sarah H.

    2014-01-01

    As "Music Educators Journal" celebrates its centennial, it is appropriate to look back over the past century to see how advocacy in music education has evolved. Of the more than 200 submitted articles on advocacy, four main themes emerged: music education in community, the relevancy of music education, the value of music education, and…

  4. International Contexts for Political Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harber, Clive

    1991-01-01

    Uses international examples of the ways in which political learning takes place--indoctrination, political socialization, and political education--to suggest that open and democratic political education is not common, even in democracies. (SK)

  5. Listening for Noise in Political Thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Buchan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The acoustic dimension of political philosophy has rarely attracted serious attention, in part because scholars have tended to assume that political theories, ideas, and concepts, exist as abstract entities that are often noiselessly communicated in written texts. And yet, the noisy communication of political ideas whether in the form of Socratic dialogues, Churchillian orations, or in the hushed tones of focus group conversations treasured by deliberative democrats today, has a rich political history and a continuing relevance. This paper will focus on five performative modes for the communication of political ideas: the monologue, the dialogue, the oration, the interjection, and the noisy crowd. While this list may not be exhaustive, it will be used here as a starting point for further exploration. I will contend that in each of these performative modes, the communication of political ideas is framed by the noise of actual, or textually imagined kinds of political speech designed to underscore the validity of the ideas conveyed. One of the most important reasons for traversing this variable performative and acoustic terrain today is to enable us to hear and to listen to political speech amid the potentially polluting hum of political white noise.

  6. Cognitive Engagement and Online Political Participation on Social Media among Youths in Malaysia: The Moderating role of Political Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrauf Aishat Adebisi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of political knowledge in engendering political participation among youths in a society cannot be overstated. Yet, there is scarcity of research in this area. Thus, this study assessed the moderating role of political knowledge in the relationship between Access to Political Information on Facebook and Twitter (APIFT, Political Interest (PI and Policy Satisfaction (PS with Online Political Participation on Facebook and Twitter (OPPFT. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 238 undergraduate students of Universiti Utara Malaysia. Questionnaire was used to collect data which was analysed using Partial Least Squares-MultiGroup Analysis (PLS-MGA. Results revealed that political knowledge moderated the relationship between access to political information on Facebook and Twitter and political interest with youth online political participation on Facebook and Twitter. However, it did not moderate the relationship between policy satisfaction with youth online political participation on Facebook and Twitter. Generally, these findings suggests that political knowledge plays a significant role in youth online political participation in Malaysia. Consequently, this study has added empirical evidence to predictors of political participation while at the same time contributing to the body of knowledge on online political participation.

  7. A Politics of Marginability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Cecil Marie

    2015-01-01

    always been contested and to some extent vulnerable. However, the Indian communities are strong socially and economically, and the vast majority of its people have great international networks and several potential plans or strategies for the future, should the political climate in Tanzania become......In the end of the 19th century, Indians began settling in East Africa. Most of them left Gujarat because of drought and famine, and they were in search for business opportunities and a more comfortable life. Within the following decades, many of them went from being small-scale entrepreneurs to big...... hostile towards them. I argue that this migrant group is unique being marginalized and strong at the same time, and I explain this uniqueness by several features in the Indian migrants’ cultural and religious background, in colonial and post-colonial Tanzania, and in the Indians’ role as middlemen between...

  8. Putting politics first.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Jacob S

    2008-01-01

    The greatest lesson of the failure of comprehensive health reform in the early 1990s is that politics comes first. Even the best-laid policy plans are worthless if they lack the political support to pass. Putting politics first means avoiding the overarching mistake of the Clinton reformers: envisioning a grand policy compromise rather than hammering out a real political compromise. It also means addressing the inevitable fears of those who believe that they are well protected by our eroding employment-based system. And it means formulating political strategies that are premised on the contemporary realities of the hyperpolarized U.S. political environment, rather than wistfully recalled images of the bipartisan politics of old.

  9. Religion and Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandak, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Religion and politics provide an interesting juxtaposition. On the one hand, both may initially come across as rather self-evident categories, with religion dealing with human perceptions and what people hold as sacred, and politics addressing the control and governance of fellow human beings....... Nonetheless, such a simple opposition should only work as a starting point for an interrogation of both terms and how they have come to look and function as empirical and analytical categories. Focusing on the ways that religion is played out in relation to politics reveals different historical and cultural...... constellations and positions, which can be highlighted as variations of religion as politics, religion in politics, religion out of politics, and religion not politics....

  10. Political Budget Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaskoven, Lasse; Lassen, David Dreyer

    2017-01-01

    The political budget cycle—how elections affect government fiscal policy—is one of the most studied subjects in political economy and political science. The key theoretical question is whether incumbent governments can time or structure public finances in ways that improve their chances of reelec......The political budget cycle—how elections affect government fiscal policy—is one of the most studied subjects in political economy and political science. The key theoretical question is whether incumbent governments can time or structure public finances in ways that improve their chances...... on political budget cycles have recently focused on conditions under which such cycles are likely to obtain. Much recent research focuses on subnational settings, allowing comparisons of governments in similar institutional environments, and a consensus on the presences of cycles in public finances...

  11. The politics of researching global health politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Simon

    2015-01-01

    In this comment, I build on Shiffman’s call for the global health community to more deeply investigate structural and productive power. I highlight two challenges we must grapple with as social scientists carrying out the types of investigation that Shiffman proposes: the politics of challenging the powerful; and the need to investigate types of expertise that have traditionally been thought of as ‘outside’ global health. In doing so, I argue that moving forward with the agenda Shiffman sets out requires social scientists interested in the global politics of health to be reflexive about our own exercise of structural and productive power and the fact that researching global health politics is itself a political undertaking. PMID:25905482

  12. Redistributive Politics in a Political Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele; Justesen, Mogens Kamp

    One of the main functions of centralized budgets in federal and political unions is to act as an equalizing mechanism to support economic cohesion. This is also the case with the European Union’s budget, which operates as a redistributive mechanism that counteracts the cross-national and cross...... remarkably over the last decades. In this paper, we investigate how and why the net fiscal position of each member state towards the rest of the EU changes over time. Using a novel panel dataset (1979-2014), we study how some key national and EU-level political and economic variables affect the EU...... find that the political orientation of national governments does not per se influence redistributive politics with in the EU. However, when the unemployment rate is rising, right-wing governments are able to extract significantly larger budgetary benefits....

  13. Political Ideology: A Comparative Study of Three Chicano Youth Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Richard A.

    The study investigated the political ideology of three Chicano youth groups in El Paso, Texas: Mexican American Youth Association (MAYA), Mexican American Political Association (MAPA), and the Alianza. Purpose of the study was to identify and compare the political ideas and attitudes of the three organizations. Questionnaires were administered to…

  14. Was Mackenbach right? Towards a practical political science of redistribution and health inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrecker, Ted

    2017-07-01

    In 2010, Mackenbach reflected on England's lack of success in reducing health inequalities between 1997 and 2010, asserting that "it is difficult to imagine a longer window of opportunity for tackling health inequalities"; asking "[i]f this did not work, what will?"; and concluding that reducing health inequalities was not politically feasible at least in that jurisdiction. Exploring the empirics of that observation offers a window into the politics of reducing health inequalities. For purposes of future comparative research, I outline three (not mutually exclusive) perspectives on political feasibility, identify their implications for a political science of health inequalities, and explore what they mean for advocacy in support of reducing those inequalities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. On the nature of advocacy as an institution of civil society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rauf O. Mamedov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to determine the nature of advocacy in terms of the interests of society and the state. Methods dialectical approach to cognition of social phenomena allowing to analyze them in the context of the totality of objective and subjective factors determined the use of research methods such as systematic comparativelegal and formallogical. Results it is shown that taking into account the implementation of public interests advocacy promotes the administration of justice within the frameworks of the legal assistance guaranteed by the Constitution of the Russian Federation. However the public interest embodied in the human rights nature of the legal profession and ensuring the adversarial nature of the judicial process does not allow to consider advocacy solely the civil society institution. The conclusion is made about the narrowness of interpretation of the advocacy status as the institution of civil society in the Federal Law No 63FZ quotOn advocacy activity and advocacy in Russian Federationquot of 31.05.2002. The concept of advocacy is proposed not so much as an institution of civil society but as an important public institution participating in implementation of public interests thus promoting the administration of justice and thereby participating in the formation of the system of checks and balances in relations between the state and the civil society in Russia. Scientific novelty in the Russian scientific literature the study of advocacy as an institution of civil society is not addressed adequately. Innbspthis article the author attempts to comprehend the possibility of considering the advocacy to be a civil society institution in the light of implementation of public interests. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and pedagogical activity in studying of institutions of civil society in Russia in general and advocacy in particular. nbsp

  16. The Effects of Advocacy Advertising and Situational Crisis on Perceptions of Social Responsibility, Potential Supportive Behavior and Attitudes Toward Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozby, Jeanie G.; And Others

    Data were collected from 176 college students in a study of the effects of corporate advocacy advertising in crisis situations. The subjects read one of two sets of oil company advertisements, one set using a low advocacy and the other set using a high advocacy approach to explain company activities in relation to current events and social issues.…

  17. School of Political Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Voskresensky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Out of all the departments of political sciences in Russia - the Department at MGIMO-University is probably the oldest one. In fact it is very young. While MGIMO-University is celebrating its 70th anniversary the Department of Political Sciences turns 15. Despite the fact that political analyst is a relatively new profession in Russia, it acquired a legal standing only in the 1990s, the political science school at MGIMO-University is almost as old as the university itself. Unlike many other universities, focused on the training teachers of political science or campaign managers MGIMO-University has developed its own unique political science school of "full cycle", where students grow into political sciences from a zero level up to the highest qualifications as teachers and researchers, and campaign managers, consultants and practitioners. The uniqueness of the school of political science at MGIMO-University allows its institutional incarnation -the Department of Political Science - to offer prospective studentsa training in a wide range of popular specialties and specializations, while ensuring a deep theoretical and practical basis of the training. Studying at MGIMO-University traditionally includes enhanced linguistic component (at least two foreign languages. For students of international relations and political science learning foreign languages is particularly important.It allows not only to communicate, but also to produce expertise and knowledge in foreign languages.

  18. Politics, Media and Youth: Understanding Political Socialization via Video Production in Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunsmore, Kate; Lagos, Taso G.

    2008-01-01

    Research on the lack of civic and political engagement on the part of today's youth has relied on traditional, often quantitative, measures of political knowledge that may miss important elements of the process. Using an ethnographic approach with a group of inner-city high school students, our study reveals a richer construction of students'…

  19. Establishing Political Deliberation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; Sæbø, Øystein

    2008-01-01

    The extension and transformation of political participation is dependent on widespread deliberation supported by information and communication technologies.  The most commonly found examples of these eParticipation systems are political discussion forums.  Though much of the discussion...... of these technologies is conducted in the eGovernment and (particularly) the eDemocracy literature, political discussion forums present a distinct set of design and management challenges which relate directly to IS concerns. In this article we analyze problems in establishing political deliberation systems under five...... headings: stakeholder engagement, web platform design, web platform management, political process re-shaping and evaluation and improvement. We review the existing literature and present a longitudinal case study of a political discussion forum: the Norwegian DemokratiTorget (Democracy Square).  We define...

  20. The competing meanings of "biopolitics" in political science. Biological and postmodern approaches to politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesen, Laurette T; Walsh, Mary Barbara

    2012-01-01

    The term "biopolitics" carries multiple, sometimes competing, meanings in political science. When the term was first used in the United States in the late 1970s, it referred to an emerging subdiscipline that incorporated the theories and data of the life sciences into the study of political behavior and public policy. But by the mid-1990s, biopolitics was adopted by postmodernist scholars at the American Political Science Association's annual meeting who followed Foucault's work in examining the power of the state on individuals. Michel Foucault first used the term biopolitics in the 1970s to denote social and political power over life. Since then, two groups of political scientists have been using this term in very different ways. This paper examines the parallel developments of the term "biopolitics," how two subdisciplines gained (and one lost) control of the term, and what the future holds for its meaning in political science.

  1. Muslim Political Elite and the Revival of the Left in Indonesian Politics (1996-2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Suhelmi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Based upon elite interviews, document analysis and library research, this study analyses the responses of the Indonesian Muslim political elite to the phenomena of the emergence of the alleged communist Partai Rakyat Demokratik (People’s Democratic Party and the flourishing of the Leftist books in Indonesia during 1996-2001 which is one of the most critical historical phases in Indonesian politics that witnessed significant political changes affecting the life of Indonesians in general and Muslims in particular. The adverse responses of most Muslim political elite to the revival of the Left are basically driven by the interweaving of theological, historical and political factors as well as traumatic historical experience. With the passage of time, there have been significant changes, and strained relations between Islamic political groups and the Leftists have thawed but not eliminated.

  2. Rethinking political correctness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Robin J; Meyerson, Debra E; Davidson, Martin N

    2006-09-01

    Legal and cultural changes over the past 40 years ushered unprecedented numbers of women and people of color into companies' professional ranks. Laws now protect these traditionally underrepresented groups from blatant forms of discrimination in hiring and promotion. Meanwhile, political correctness has reset the standards for civility and respect in people's day-to-day interactions. Despite this obvious progress, the authors' research has shown that political correctness is a double-edged sword. While it has helped many employees feel unlimited by their race, gender, or religion,the PC rule book can hinder people's ability to develop effective relationships across race, gender, and religious lines. Companies need to equip workers with skills--not rules--for building these relationships. The authors offer the following five principles for healthy resolution of the tensions that commonly arise over difference: Pause to short-circuit the emotion and reflect; connect with others, affirming the importance of relationships; question yourself to identify blind spots and discover what makes you defensive; get genuine support that helps you gain a broader perspective; and shift your mind-set from one that says, "You need to change," to one that asks, "What can I change?" When people treat their cultural differences--and related conflicts and tensions--as opportunities to gain a more accurate view of themselves, one another, and the situation, trust builds and relationships become stronger. Leaders should put aside the PC rule book and instead model and encourage risk taking in the service of building the organization's relational capacity. The benefits will reverberate through every dimension of the company's work.

  3. Chaos theory in politics

    CERN Document Server

    Erçetin, Şefika; Tekin, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The present work investigates global politics and political implications of social science and management with the aid of the latest complexity and chaos theories. Until now, deterministic chaos and nonlinear analysis have not been a focal point in this area of research. This book remedies this deficiency by utilizing these methods in the analysis of the subject matter. The authors provide the reader a detailed analysis on politics and its associated applications with the help of chaos theory, in a single edited volume.

  4. The Politics of Dissent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak Jørgensen, Martin; Agustin, Oscar Garcia

    2015-01-01

    In Politics of Dissent the framework for analysing politics of dissent is outlined. The outlined framework problematizes the conventional understandings of dissent as something characterising individual historical figures. The chapter provides both a theoretical underpinning of dissent as well...... as an approach to investigate the current contestations taking place on a global level. Politics of dissent entails the questioning of consensus. It conceptualises dissent as a collective process taking place on everyday level. It conceptualises moments of dissent. Finally it investigates the emergent...

  5. "Being a Therapist Doesn't Exclude You From Real Life": Family Therapists' Beliefs and Barriers to Political Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Lorien S; Seponski, Desiree M

    2018-01-01

    A crucial and overlooked facet of social justice in family therapy is political and policy advocacy. Family therapists have unique insight into how social policies and political discourse shapes clients' lives and the life of our profession. Such knowledge can inform policymakers and political debate, yet few family therapists are trained to engage in political action. In this randomized, national survey of licensed family therapists' (N = 174), we explore beliefs about and barriers to engagement in political and policy processes. The findings suggest that there are significant barriers and uncertainties surrounding family therapists' engagement, including time, feelings of efficacy, and interest. Given these barriers we discuss practical suggestions for clinicians and family therapy training programs. © 2017 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  6. Restoring rape survivors: justice, advocacy, and a call to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Mary P

    2006-11-01

    Rape results in mental and physical health, social, and legal consequences. For the latter, restorative justice-based programs might augment community response, but they generate controversy among advocates and policy makers. This article identifies survivors' needs and existing community responses to them. Survivors feel their legal needs are most poorly met due to justice system problems that can be summarized as attrition, retraumatization, and disparate treatment across gender, class, and ethnic lines. Empirical data support each problem and the conclusion that present justice options are inadequate. The article concludes by identifying common ground in advocacy and restorative justice goals and calls for a holistic approach to the needs of rape survivors that includes advocating for expanded justice alternatives. A call to action is issued to implement restorative alternatives to expand survivor choice and offender accountability. Conventional and restorative justice are often viewed as mutually exclusive whereas the author argues they are complementary.

  7. Astronomy and Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, John M.

    The relationship between astronomy and politics is a complex but important part of understanding the practice of astronomy throughout history. This chapter explores some of the ways that astronomy, astrology, and politics have interacted, placing particular focus on the way that astronomy and astrology have been used for political purposes by both people in power and people who wish to influence a ruler's policy. Also discussed are the effects that politics has had on the development of astronomy and, in particular, upon the recording and preservation of astronomical knowledge.

  8. Defining political community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sladeček Michal M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the concept of political community, its constitution and value. The starting point is that the concept of community is not sufficiently recognized in modern political theories, as well as in contemporary liberal theory. In the last two decades communitarian and republican political theory attempted to revitalize this notion. The first part of the paper elaborates on the polemics between these three theoretical orientations. The concluding part examines the possibilities and prospect for stable political community in conditions of pluralism of particular social communities and ethnocultural heterogeneity.

  9. Cosmopolitan political science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Edgar

    2006-03-01

    Until recently, the term cosmopolitism could rarely be found in modern political science literature. It was only in the 1990s that the term was rediscovered by political scientists in the critical discourse on globalization. In this article, I will explore the full potential of cosmopolitism as an analytical concept for empirical political science. I will argue that the concept of cosmopolitism should not be restricted to the analysis of global politics. Indeed, cosmopolitism has much more to offer for political scientists. Properly understood, it enables--and necessitates--a re-invention of political science in the age of globalization, comparable to the behavioural revolution in political science in the 1950s. Such a paradigmatic shift should be based on a twofold transformation of existing disciplinary boundaries: A removal of the boundary between national (and comparative) and international politics on the one hand; and a re-definition of the boundaries between empirical and normative approaches on the other. As a result, cosmopolitism may serve as a new, critical theory of politics based on the integration of hitherto separated fields and sub-fields.

  10. Benchmarking government action for obesity prevention--an innovative advocacy strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J; Peeters, A; Honisett, S; Mavoa, H; Swinburn, B; de Silva-Sanigorski, A

    2014-01-01

    Successful obesity prevention will require a leading role for governments, but internationally they have been slow to act. League tables of benchmark indicators of action can be a valuable advocacy and evaluation tool. To develop a benchmarking tool for government action on obesity prevention, implement it across Australian jurisdictions and to publicly award the best and worst performers. A framework was developed which encompassed nine domains, reflecting best practice government action on obesity prevention: whole-of-government approaches; marketing restrictions; access to affordable, healthy food; school food and physical activity; food in public facilities; urban design and transport; leisure and local environments; health services, and; social marketing. A scoring system was used by non-government key informants to rate the performance of their government. National rankings were generated and the results were communicated to all Premiers/Chief Ministers, the media and the national obesity research and practice community. Evaluation of the initial tool in 2010 showed it to be feasible to implement and able to discriminate the better and worse performing governments. Evaluation of the rubric in 2011 confirmed this to be a robust and useful method. In relation to government action, the best performing governments were those with whole-of-government approaches, had extended common initiatives and demonstrated innovation and strong political will. This new benchmarking tool, the Obesity Action Award, has enabled identification of leading government action on obesity prevention and the key characteristics associated with their success. We recommend this tool for other multi-state/country comparisons. Copyright © 2013 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Political Science of Information. Pratt Portfolio No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Patricia Senn, Ed.

    This collection of essays focuses on group social and political action as it relates to libraries and their environments. The introduction discusses the group-concept approach to studying library and information science. The essays are case studies of interest group politics, including: (1) the imprisonment of a librarian who refused to give…

  12. Does public health advocacy seek to redress health inequities? A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Benita E; Marshall, Shelley G

    2017-03-01

    The public health (PH) sector is ideally situated to take a lead advocacy role in catalysing and guiding multi-sectoral action to address social determinants of health inequities, but evidence suggests that PH's advocacy role has not been fully realised. The purpose of this review was to determine the extent to which the PH advocacy literature addresses the goal of reducing health and social inequities, and to increase understanding of contextual factors shaping the discourse and practice of PH advocacy. We employed scoping review methods to systematically examine and chart peer-reviewed and grey literature on PH advocacy published from January 1, 2000 to June 30, 2015. Databases and search engines used included: PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Social Sciences Citation Index, Google Scholar, Google, Google Books, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, Grey Literature Report. A total of 183 documents were charted, and included in the final analysis. Thematic analysis was both inductive and deductive according to the objectives. Although PH advocacy to address root causes of health inequities is supported theoretically and through professional practice standards, the empirical literature does not reflect that this is occurring widely in PH practice. Tensions within the discourse were noted and multiple barriers to engaging in PH advocacy for health equity were identified, including a preoccupation with individual responsibilities for healthy lifestyles and behaviours, consistent with the emergence of neoliberal governance. If the PH sector is to fulfil its advocacy role in catalysing action to reduce health inequities, it will be necessary to address advocacy barriers at multiple levels, promote multi-sectoral efforts that implicate the state and corporations in the production of health inequities, and rally state involvement to redress these injustices. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Political Ideology and Perceptions of Bias Among University Faculty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Bullers

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the study was to examine the political ideology and perceptions of bias among the faculty in a university in the southeast U.S.A. Findings regarding the overall dominance of a liberal political ideology as well as ideological differences among disciplines are consistent with previous research. Respondents did distinguish between political dominance and political bias and were relatively accurate in their perceptions of a liberal dominance. Reports of bias were much lower overall but all groups were more likely to report a bias against conservatives than against Liberal and Moderates. Reports of bias against conservatives were quite high among conservatives themselves (48.7%. Conservatives were more likely to report a need to conceal their political beliefs, while Moderates and Liberals were slightly more likely to report harassment or attacks for their political beliefs. The gender differences in political ideology show that women are significantly more likely to hold a liberal political ideology.

  14. The legitimate role of advocacy in environmental education: how does it differ from coercion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Cairns

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This paper examines the controversy in the field of environmental education over the role of advocacy versus presentation of scientific information. The former involves a view of education as process, while the latter perceives education solely as content. Environmental issues involve ethical concerns and value judgments. Scientific information cannot give us the answers to our environmental questions, as these questions have all the inherent complexity of any social issue. Advocacy differs from coercion, bias, and prejudice. Coercion, bias, and prejudice have no place in environmental education, while advocacy for ecological systems does.

  15. A conceptual model of political market orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.

    2005-01-01

    . The remaining four constructs are attitudinal, designed to capture the awareness of members to the activities and importance of stakeholder groups in society, both internal and external to the organisation. The model not only allows the level of a party's political market orientation to be assessed, but also......This article proposes eight constructs of a conceptual model of political market orientation, taking inspiration from the business and political marketing literature. Four of the constructs are 'behavioural' in that they aim to describe the process of how information flows through the organisation...

  16. Forming of political opinion and decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, K.

    1980-01-01

    Taking the SNR-300 reactor in Kalkar as an example, the process of forming of political opinion and decision is reconstructed in order to get a picture of typical consensus- and conflict patterns in the discussion of safety problems. On this basis, it should be possible to derive a freedom of action for the political and administrative managing of safety matters by means of feed back with social groups. As a crucial point the aspects concerning the steps of the forming of political opinion and decision are examined. (DG) [de

  17. Politeness Strategies Used in Text Messaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Eshghinejad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available One aspect of short message service (SMS communication through a cell phone is use of politeness strategies. As it is extensively argued that females are more polite language users, the present study sought to describe the strategies used by these two groups and to find out whether there is any significant difference between male and female English as a foreign language (EFL learners in the use of positive and negative politeness strategies in sending SMS to their professors, considering that there is an asymmetric power relation and social distance between them. To this end, a corpus of 300 L1 (Persian and L2 (English request messages was compiled. Results of qualitative and quantitative data analysis showed no significant difference between the two groups. Results of the study have implication in politeness research.

  18. Nationalism, territory and extremism in party politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourne, Angela

    In the paper I address the empirical puzzle arising from different responses by political authorities in Spain and the UK to the existence of political parties integrated in the terrorist groups Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA, Basque Homeland and Freedom) and the Irish Republican Army. More specifica......In the paper I address the empirical puzzle arising from different responses by political authorities in Spain and the UK to the existence of political parties integrated in the terrorist groups Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA, Basque Homeland and Freedom) and the Irish Republican Army. More...... for realization of free speech rights and representation is also emphasized, and where proscription is seen as inimical to resolution of conflict underpinning violence. In the context of party competition, a winning coalition is required for one discourse to predominate. However, I also argued that both ideas...

  19. Usage of marketing in politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-party political system led to competition between political parties which caused the need for marketing in politics that improves political reputation. Politics, based on rich experience of political practice, used existing, developed methods and techniques of commercial marketing. Political marketing openly admits that politics and politicians are simply goods that are being sold on a political market. Political marketing is a whole way of operation by political parties which ask these questions: how do the voters choose; what affects their preference and how that preference can be influenced. Usage of political marketing in Bosnia and Herzegovina is still not on a satisfactory level but the knowledge about the importance of political marketing is increasing.

  20. Centre for Political and

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    and definitions will be published and the data translated into the official ... The Centre provides a terminological and subject-related service to lecturers and ... postgraduate students in international politics, political studies and .... obtain financial contributions (cf. .... making of authoritative and enforceable rules (laws) for.