WorldWideScience

Sample records for polished standards reductions

  1. Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society - update. Sonomammography examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, Wiesław; Dobruch-Sobczak, Katarzyna; Migda, Bartosz

    2012-09-01

    The use of BIRADS classification has been recommended in sonomammography examinations in Poland since the year 2010. It was developed by the Polish Ultrasound Society and published in Ultrasound Examinations Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society. Standards, based on BIRADS-usg classification, introduced uniformity in breast ultrasound examination descriptions and in the terminology of pathological lesions in breasts. BIRADS-usg classification takes into account breast morphological structure elements and pathological focal lesions in them. It enables the distinction between benign lesions and lesions suspected of being malignant. It contains information on the malignancy risk of focal lesions and proposals of diagnostic-therapeutic algorithms (including biopsy) in relation to lesions of different character. The Polish Ultrasound Society recommends performing prophylactic sonomammography examinations every 12 months in women over the age of 30 because of the increasing breast cancer morbidity in women from all age groups. In this article a spectrum of focal changes in breasts are presented within the relevant BIRADS-usg classification categories. The features of ultrasound morphology, enabling them to be classified to particular categories of BIRADS-usg classification are discussed. Management algorithms which may help clinicians to diagnose breast cancer and to treat it are proposed. Elements of medical history, physical examination, recommended techniques of sonomammography examination performance, technical parameters of ultrasound machine and examination description standards are presented. This article was prepared based on the Ultrasound Examination Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society which was published in 2011 and updated. It contains numerous pictures visualizing BIRADS-usg classification.

  2. Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society – update. Sonomammography examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, Wiesław; Migda, Bartosz

    2012-01-01

    The use of BIRADS classification has been recommended in sonomammography examinations in Poland since the year 2010. It was developed by the Polish Ultrasound Society and published in Ultrasound Examinations Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society. Standards, based on BIRADS-usg classification, introduced uniformity in breast ultrasound examination descriptions and in the terminology of pathological lesions in breasts. BIRADS-usg classification takes into account breast morphological structure elements and pathological focal lesions in them. It enables the distinction between benign lesions and lesions suspected of being malignant. It contains information on the malignancy risk of focal lesions and proposals of diagnostic-therapeutic algorithms (including biopsy) in relation to lesions of different character. The Polish Ultrasound Society recommends performing prophylactic sonomammography examinations every 12 months in women over the age of 30 because of the increasing breast cancer morbidity in women from all age groups. In this article a spectrum of focal changes in breasts are presented within the relevant BIRADS-usg classification categories. The features of ultrasound morphology, enabling them to be classified to particular categories of BIRADS-usg classification are discussed. Management algorithms which may help clinicians to diagnose breast cancer and to treat it are proposed. Elements of medical history, physical examination, recommended techniques of sonomammography examination performance, technical parameters of ultrasound machine and examination description standards are presented. This article was prepared based on the Ultrasound Examination Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society which was published in 2011 and updated. It contains numerous pictures visualizing BIRADS-usg classification. PMID:26673579

  3. [The issue of harm reduction in Polish legislation concerning drug addiction. A comparative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobeyko, Justyna

    2008-01-01

    The aim of work is the assessment of legal permissibility for health and social harm reduction programmes resulting from drug use in the context of the polish legislation on narcotic drug use and drug addiction. The thesis outlines harm reduction programmes implemented worldwide, role of penal code in counteracting both narcotic drug supply and demand, attitude of United Nations and European Union to the drug problem including harm reduction programmes, solutions adopted in the selected European Union member states. The main part of the thesis presents the evolution of polish legislation regarding drug use and analysis of legal permissibility for harm reduction programmes in this context. The conclusion inferred is the statement that implementation of the harm reduction programmes requires a certain minimal depenalisation of the drug use by a legislator and the fact that restrictive legal system impedes programme realization. Thus the thesis postulates depenalisation of small drug quantities for personal use.

  4. X-Ray Fluorescence On-Stream Analysis of Standard Reference Solution Concentrations of Chromium Plating and Polishing Solutions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sopok, Samuel

    1991-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence is evaluated as a means to quantitatively analyze standard reference solution concentrations of chromium plating and polishing solutions for chromium, sulfur, phosphorus, and iron...

  5. Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society – update. Sonomammography examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Jakubowski

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of BIRADS classification has been recommended in sonomammography exami‑ nations in Poland since the year 2010. It was developed by the Polish Ultrasound Society and published in Ultrasound Examinations Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society. Standards, based on BIRADS-usg classification, introduced uniformity in breast ultra‑ sound examination descriptions and in the terminology of pathological lesions in breasts. BIRADS-usg classification takes into account breast morphological structure elements and pathological focal lesions in them. It enables the distinction between benign lesions and lesions suspected of being malignant. It contains information on the malignancy risk of focal lesions and proposals of diagnostic-therapeutic algorithms (including biopsy in relation to lesions of different character. The Polish Ultrasound Society recommends performing prophylactic sonomammography examinations every 12 months in women over the age of 30 because of the increasing breast cancer morbidity in women from all age groups. In this article a spectrum of focal changes in breasts are presented within the relevant BIRADS-usg classification categories. The features of ultrasound morphol‑ ogy, enabling them to be classified to particular categories of BIRADS-usg classification are discussed. Management algorithms which may help clinicians to diagnose breast cancer and to treat it are proposed. Elements of medical history, physical examination, recommended techniques of sonomammography examination performance, technical parameters of ultrasound machine and examination description standards are presented. This article was prepared based on the Ultrasound Examination Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society which was published in 2011 and updated. It contains numerous pic‑ tures visualizing BIRADS-usg classification.

  6. Evaluation of enamel surfaces following interproximal reduction and polishing with different methods: A scanning electron microscope study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eenal Bhambri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Interproximal reduction was introduced as an alternative to tooth extraction in patients with mild-to-moderate crowding, the beneficial outcomes of interdental reduction have been well documented, but nevertheless, possible detrimental effects on enamel have also been an issue of debate. Interproximal reduction generates the formation of grooves and valleys creating plaque retentive areas, predisposing teeth to caries, and periodontal disease. Various proximal stripping techniques, it is postulated, produce varying grades of roughness of the enamel surface; it is in this area that the research in this paper was focused. Aim: The aim is to evaluate enamel surface roughness after various interproximal reduction and polishing methods. Materials and Methods: 16-blade tungsten carbide bur, diamond disc, diamond-coated metal strip, fine Sof-Lex disc, and fine diamond bur were used for interproximal reduction and polishing on extracted human premolars. The specimens were then evaluated under scanning electron microscope (SEM and surface plots of images were made using Image J software. Statistical Analysis: The data obtained were subjected to ANOVA and posthoc multiple tests. Results: Under the SEM, all interproximal reduction protocols resulted in roughened and grooved enamel surfaces. The use of diamond-coated metal strip followed by polishing with fine Sof-Lex disc created surfaces that were reasonably smooth. Conclusions: The enamel surfaces after reduction with diamond-coated metal strip and polishing by fine Sof-Lex disc (group F were the smoothest.

  7. Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society – update. Sonography of the lower extremity veins

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    Grzegorz Małek

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article has been prepared on the basis of the Ultrasonography Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society (2011 and updated based on the latest findings and reports. Ultrasound examination of the lower extremity veins is relatively easy and commonly used to confirm or rule out venous thrombosis. However, a relatively easy compression test frequently requires experience, particularly in situations when imaging is difficult (due to lymphedema, dressing or thick tissues. The technique is time-consuming and requires assessment of each deep vein every 1 cm. Lesions in the deep veins cannot be ruled out when the vessels are assessed in only 2–3 points – a full examination is needed. The value of the method is the highest when the proximal section is assessed and the lowest when crural veins are evaluated. Doppler sonography is the basic method used when patients are prepared for a surgery of varicose veins. The assessment of the superficial veins prior to this procedure is tedious and requires knowledge of anatomy together with numerous variants. A considerable challenge is posed by re-assessment of recurrent varicose veins following a previous surgery. The Standards include anatomic nomenclature proposed by the Polish Society for Vascular Surgery and Polish Society of Phlebology, which should facilitate communication with clinicians. The most beneficial patient positions have been thoroughly discussed in terms of safety and effectiveness of the examination. Sometimes during such an examination, no venous pathology is found, but other changes with symptoms that suggest deep thrombophlebitis are detected. In such a situation, it is necessary to conduct an initial (or complete, if possible assessment of lesions as well as provide recommendations connected with further, more detailed diagnosis.

  8. Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society – update. Sonography of the lower extremity veins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicki, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    This article has been prepared on the basis of the Ultrasonography Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society (2011) and updated based on the latest findings and reports. Ultrasound examination of the lower extremity veins is relatively easy and commonly used to confirm or rule out venous thrombosis. However, a relatively easy compression test frequently requires experience, particularly in situations when imaging is difficult (due to lymphedema, dressing or thick tissues). The technique is time-consuming and requires assessment of each deep vein every 1 cm. Lesions in the deep veins cannot be ruled out when the vessels are assessed in only 2–3 points – a full examination is needed. The value of the method is the highest when the proximal section is assessed and the lowest when crural veins are evaluated. Doppler sonography is the basic method used when patients are prepared for a surgery of varicose veins. The assessment of the superficial veins prior to this procedure is tedious and requires knowledge of anatomy together with numerous variants. A considerable challenge is posed by re-assessment of recurrent varicose veins following a previous surgery. The Standards include anatomic nomenclature proposed by the Polish Society for Vascular Surgery and Polish Society of Phlebology, which should facilitate communication with clinicians. The most beneficial patient positions have been thoroughly discussed in terms of safety and effectiveness of the examination. Sometimes during such an examination, no venous pathology is found, but other changes with symptoms that suggest deep thrombophlebitis are detected. In such a situation, it is necessary to conduct an initial (or complete, if possible) assessment of lesions as well as provide recommendations connected with further, more detailed diagnosis. PMID:26675992

  9. The reduction of atmospheric emissions after the implementation of first Polish nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholewiński, Maciej

    2018-04-01

    In this work the environmental benefits in the atmospheric emissions after the implementation of 3,000 MW nuclear power plants were assessed and presented. To determine the quantity of avoided emissions of CO2, NOx, SO2 and Hg compounds, harmonised stoichiometric combustion model dedicated to solid fuel fired power plant was created. To increase the credibility of the studies, future strict emission standards (Directive 2010/75/EU, BAT documents for LCP) were included as well. In conducted studies, representative samples of 3 different Polish solid fuels were examined (by comprehensive proximate and ultimate analysis) and used in assessment. It was proven that by the replacement of thermal solid fuel power plant by nuclear unit (with annual production rate of 22.4 TWh net) up to 16.4 million tonnes of lignite, 8.9 million tonnes of hard coal or 13.1 million tonnes of solid biomass can be saved. Further, for the case of lignite, the emission, at least, of 21.29 million tonnes of CO2 (6.9% of all Polish emission in 2015), 1,610 tonnes of dust (0.4%), 16,102 tonnes of NOx (2.2%), 16,102 tonnes of SO2 (2.0%) and 564 kg of mercury (5.9%) can be avoided. For selected hard coal, calculated emission savings were equal to 17.60 million tonnes of CO2 (5.7%), 1,357 tonnes of dust (0.4%), 13,566 tonnes of NOx (1.9%), 13,566 tonnes of SO2 (1.7%), 271 kg of mercury (2.9%), and for biomass - equal to 20.04 million tonnes of CO2 (6.5%), 1,471 tonnes of dust (0.4%), 14,712 tonnes of NOx (2.0%), 14,712 tonnes of SO2 (1.8%) and 294 kg of mercury (3.1%).

  10. The reduction of atmospheric emissions after the implementation of first Polish nuclear power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cholewiński Maciej

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the environmental benefits in the atmospheric emissions after the implementation of 3,000 MW nuclear power plants were assessed and presented. To determine the quantity of avoided emissions of CO2, NOx, SO2 and Hg compounds, harmonised stoichiometric combustion model dedicated to solid fuel fired power plant was created. To increase the credibility of the studies, future strict emission standards (Directive 2010/75/EU, BAT documents for LCP were included as well. In conducted studies, representative samples of 3 different Polish solid fuels were examined (by comprehensive proximate and ultimate analysis and used in assessment. It was proven that by the replacement of thermal solid fuel power plant by nuclear unit (with annual production rate of 22.4 TWh net up to 16.4 million tonnes of lignite, 8.9 million tonnes of hard coal or 13.1 million tonnes of solid biomass can be saved. Further, for the case of lignite, the emission, at least, of 21.29 million tonnes of CO2 (6.9% of all Polish emission in 2015, 1,610 tonnes of dust (0.4%, 16,102 tonnes of NOx (2.2%, 16,102 tonnes of SO2 (2.0% and 564 kg of mercury (5.9% can be avoided. For selected hard coal, calculated emission savings were equal to 17.60 million tonnes of CO2 (5.7%, 1,357 tonnes of dust (0.4%, 13,566 tonnes of NOx (1.9%, 13,566 tonnes of SO2 (1.7%, 271 kg of mercury (2.9%, and for biomass - equal to 20.04 million tonnes of CO2 (6.5%, 1,471 tonnes of dust (0.4%, 14,712 tonnes of NOx (2.0%, 14,712 tonnes of SO2 (1.8% and 294 kg of mercury (3.1%.

  11. Polish country study to address climate change: Strategies of the GHG`s emission reduction and adaptation of the Polish economy to the changed climate. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The Polish Country Study Project was initiated in 1992 as a result of the US Country Study Initiative whose objective was to grant the countries -- signatories of the United Nations` Framework Convention on Climate Change -- assistance that will allow them to fulfill their obligations in terms of greenhouse gases (GHG`s) inventory, preparation of strategies for the reduction of their emission, and adapting their economies to the changed climatic conditions. In February 1993, in reply to the offer from the United States Government, the Polish Government expressed interest in participation in this program. The Study proposal, prepared by the Ministry of Environmental Protection, Natural Resources and Forestry was presented to the US partner. The program proposal assumed implementation of sixteen elements of the study, encompassing elaboration of scenarios for the strategy of mission reduction in energy sector, industry, municipal management, road transport, forestry, and agriculture, as well as adaptations to be introduced in agriculture, forestry, water management, and coastal management. The entire concept was incorporated in macroeconomic strategy scenarios. A complementary element was the elaboration of a proposal for economic and legal instruments to implement the proposed strategies. An additional element was proposed, namely the preparation of a scenario of adapting the society to the expected climate changes.

  12. Creating Bibliographic and Cataloging Standards and Developing Cooperation in Polish Academic Libraries after the Implementation of VTLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroka, Marek

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the process of creating bibliographic and cataloging standards, after the implementation of the VTLS (Virginia Tech Library System) integrated library system, in major Polish academic libraries. Examines the adoption of the USMARC bibliographic data exchange format; authority control; subject cataloging; topical and name heading…

  13. Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society – update. The liver, gallbladder and bile ducts examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Krystyna Walas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonography, which usually constitutes an initial imaging method of the gallbladder, liver and bile ducts diseases, allows for final diagnosis or determines another diagnostic step. The continuously progressing technological advancement forces to broaden the indications for ultrasound diagnostics and enables easier and more precise imaging of the tested structures. Performing the examination in accordance with current standards allows for the optimization of the sensitivity and specificity parameters of ultrasound examinations in the diagnosis of the liver, gallbladder and bile ducts pathologies as well as minimizes the probability of error-making. This article presents a recommended liver, gallbladder and bile ducts ultrasound technique which indicates an optimal positioning of the patient for the exam as well as the sites of the ultrasound transducer application. Minimum technical parameters of the apparatus have been specified with respect to the requirements of modern ultrasound techniques which enable imaging with the use of contrast agents and elastography. Furthermore, the article proposes a standard exam description containing essential patient-related data and provides required ultrasound evaluation parameters for the tested organs. Attention has been drawn to the appropriate manner of preparing the patient for the examination and the features of the tested structures have been presented. The article also contains a brief description of the liver, gallbladder and bile ducts diseases which are most often diagnosed by ultrasound examinations. Moreover, the use of elastography as well as contrast-enhanced examinations in the diagnostics of fibrosis and focal changes in the liver have been discussed. This article has been prepared on the basis of the Ultrasound Examination Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society (2011 and updated with reference to the latest findings in pertinent literature.

  14. The standardization of urine particle counting in medical laboratories--a Polish experience with the EQA programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwiklińska, Agnieszka; Kąkol, Judyta; Kuchta, Agnieszka; Kortas-Stempak, Barbara; Pacanis, Anastasis; Rogulski, Jerzy; Wróblewska, Małgorzata

    2012-02-01

    Given the common problems with the standardization of urine particle counting methods and the great variability in the results obtained by Polish laboratories under international Labquality External Quality Assessment (EQA), we initiated educational recovery activities. Detailed instructions on how to perform the standardized examination were sent to EQA participants, as was a questionnaire forms which enabled information to be gathered in respect to the procedures being applied. Laboratory results were grouped according to the method declared on the EQA 'Result' form or according to a manual examination procedure established on the basis of the questionnaire. The between-laboratory CVs for leukocyte and erythrocyte counts were calculated for each group and compared using the Mann-Whitney test. Significantly lower between-laboratory CVs (p = 0.03) were achieved for leukocyte counting among the laboratories that analysed control specimens in accordance with standardized procedures as compared with those which used non-standardized procedures. We also observed a visible lower variability for erythrocyte counting. Unfortunately despite our activities, only a few of the Polish laboratories applied the standardized examination procedures, and only 29% of the results could have been considered to be standardized (16% - manual methods, 13% - automated systems). The standardization of urine particle counting methods continues to be a significant problem in medical laboratories and requires further recovery activities which can be conducted using the EQA scheme.

  15. [POLISH CITIZENS' OPINIONS CONCERNING CO-PAYMENT FOR HOSPITALIZATION AND SUBSIDIES FOR NON-STANDARD BENEFITS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemicer-Chmielewska, Ewa; Rotter, Iwona; Kotwas, Artur; Karakiewicz, Beata

    2014-01-01

    Co-payment in the health sector operates in most healthcare systems in European countries. The aim of this study was knowledge of Polish citizens' opinions concerning healthcare services co-payment with respect to selected socio-demographic factors. The study was conducted using a diagnostic survey of 636 respondents, representing residents of the West Pomeranian region, Poland. The majority of respondents did not accept co-payment for health services. Material situation and educational background impact on decisions concerning co-payment for hospital treatment.

  16. Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society – update. Ultrasound examination of thyroid gland and ultrasound-guided thyroid biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Trzebińska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonography is a primary imaging technique in patients with suspected thyroid disease. It allows to assess the location, size and echostructures of the thyroid gland as well as detect focal lesions, along with indication of their size, echogenicity, echostructure and vascularity. Based on these features, ultrasound examination allows to predict abnormal focal lesions for biopsy and monitor the biopsy needle track. This paper presents the standards of thyroid ultrasound examination regarding ultrasound apparatus technical requirements, scanning techniques, readings, measurements, and the description of the examination. It discusses the ultrasound features of increased malignancy risk in focal lesions (nodules found in the thyroid gland. It presents indications for fine needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid gland for the visibility of single nodules (focal lesions and numerous lesions as well as discusses contraindications for thyroid biopsy. It describes the biopsy technique, possible complications and rules for post-biopsy monitoring of benign lesions. The paper is an update of the Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society issued in 2011. It has been prepared on the basis of current literature, taking into account the information contained in the following publications: Thyroid ultrasound examination and Recommendations of the Polish Ultrasound Society for the performance of the FNAB of the thyroid.

  17. Non-standard dictionary definitions: What they cannot tell native speakers of Polish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Lew

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a new defining format has been gaining in popularity in abstract noun entries of monolingual English learners’ dictionaries: a single-clause when-definition. The present study attempts to investigate the role of the definition of this format, placed in a complete microstructure, in conveying information on the syntactic class of nominal headwords. To achieve this aim, tests were designed and run on several groups of Polish learners of English at the intermediate level. Balanced parallel forms were employed, where single-clause when-definitions were contrasted with their closest analytical analogs in full dictionary entries. It was found that both the new and the classical definition formats resulted in comparably frequent correct POS identification of the headword nouns. This is in stark contrast to the results yielded by Lew & Dziemianko’s research (in press, which has inspired the present analysis, where the definition formats were investigated in isolation from other components of the microstructure. Analysis of the consultation behaviour suggests that the syntactic label was the only element of the entry consulted with any frequency, which suggests that the subjects may have approached the task as a metalexicographic exercise.

  18. Engineering-Geological Data Model - The First Step to Build National Polish Standard for Multilevel Information Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryżyński, Grzegorz; Nałęcz, Tomasz

    2016-10-01

    The efficient geological data management in Poland is necessary to support multilevel decision processes for government and local authorities in case of spatial planning, mineral resources and groundwater supply and the rational use of subsurface. Vast amount of geological information gathered in the digital archives and databases of Polish Geological Survey (PGS) is a basic resource for multi-scale national subsurface management. Data integration is the key factor to allow development of GIS and web tools for decision makers, however the main barrier for efficient geological information management is the heterogeneity of data in the resources of the Polish Geological Survey. Engineering-geological database is the first PGS thematic domain applied in the whole data integration plan. The solutions developed within this area will facilitate creation of procedures and standards for multilevel data management in PGS. Twenty years of experience in delivering digital engineering-geological mapping in 1:10 000 scale and archival geotechnical reports acquisition and digitisation allowed gathering of more than 300 thousands engineering-geological boreholes database as well as set of 10 thematic spatial layers (including foundation conditions map, depth to the first groundwater level, bedrock level, geohazards). Historically, the desktop approach was the source form of the geological-engineering data storage, resulting in multiple non-correlated interbase datasets. The need for creation of domain data model emerged and an object-oriented modelling (UML) scheme has been developed. The aim of the aforementioned development was to merge all datasets in one centralised Oracle server and prepare the unified spatial data structure for efficient web presentation and applications development. The presented approach will be the milestone toward creation of the Polish national standard for engineering-geological information management. The paper presents the approach and methodology

  19. Management of inguinal hernia on peritoneal dialysis: an audit of current Polish practice and call for a standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smietański, M; Renke, M; Bigda, J; Smietańska, I; Rutkowski, B; Witkowski, P; Sledziński, Z

    2006-06-01

    Peritoneal dialysis is becoming more and more common as a method of treating patients at the final stage of renal failure. In the year 2002 the number of patients treated with this method in Poland amounted to 1324. Studies have demonstrated that inguinal and abdominal hernias develop more frequently in chronic renal failure patients. The percentage of patients with hernia diagnosed within the first five years of dialysis is about 10%. Continuation of dialysis with the hernia condition left untreated may result in severe complications which are the third most frequent cause of converting treatment method into hemodialysis in PD patients. Currently in Poland there is no national standard in existence as to the management of hernias, and the only British standard from 1998 does not reflect the present expertise of either surgical treatment or dialysis methods. The aim of the current questionnaire based study investigating Polish peritoneal dialysis centers was to assess the treatment when hernia had been diagnosed in the PD patient. Of 49 dialysis centers in Poland, 39 do have protocols on managing the patient before and after the operation. A considerable diversity has been found as to surgical techniques used and the ways the patients are managed in hospital. Following the need expressed by 33 dialysis centers in Poland for some standard for relevant procedures, the authors formulated principles of modern hernia treatment in PD patients. Accordingly, the main principles include: 1) consulting a surgeon collaborating with the center before qualifying for peritoneal dialysis and when hernia symptoms have manifested; 2) Tension-free methods used in a treatment of choice (recommended by PHS); 3) Application of antibiotic prophylaxis (preferably first generation cephalosporin); 4) Induction of local or epidural anesthesia; 5) Peritoneal dialysis programme does not need to be discontinued but low volume dwells or preferably intermittent APD is recommended immediately

  20. Standards of Conditions During Preparations for the Summer Paralympic Games Between 2004 and 2012 Assessed by Polish Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobiecka Joanna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The quality of training conditions affects sporting success, injuries and health. The aim of the work was to present the conditions during the preparations of Polish athletes for the Summer Paralympic Games 2004-2012. The study encompassed 271 paralympians: Athens (91, Beijing (89 and London (91, competing in 13 disciplines. The research was based on a two-part questionnaire by Kłodecka-Różalska adjusted for disabled sports, and was conducted one month before each PG. Part 1 contained 20 closed-ended questions regarding conditions during preparations, while Part 2 concerned socio-demographic and sports-related data. Three levels of conditions: good, satisfactory and poor, were identified. The analysis showed that while the relationships between the athletes were good in all the preparatory periods, the co-operation with the paralympic coaches worsened. The standards of accommodation, food and sports facilities lowered. Personal orthopaedic supply was satisfactory in London; personal sporting equipment was good at all PG. The quality of medical care was the highest in London. The co-operation with physicians, physiotherapists and massage therapists was satisfactory. Consultations with the dietician were sporadic and assessed as poor. Psychological consultations were rare but satisfactory in Beijing and London. Contacts with the mass media were poor at all PG. Although combining private life, work, and education with sport was satisfactory, it was increasingly difficult to manage, particularly before London. The conditions during preparations for the PG 2004-2012 varied. Improvement was noticed only in the quality of medical care and personal orthopaedic supply.

  1. Standards of Conditions During Preparations for the Summer Paralympic Games Between 2004 and 2012 Assessed by Polish Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobiecka, Joanna; Gawroński, Wojciech; Kądziołka, Marta; Kruszelnicki, Paweł; Kłodecka-Różalska, Jadwiga; Plinta, Ryszard

    2015-11-22

    The quality of training conditions affects sporting success, injuries and health. The aim of the work was to present the conditions during the preparations of Polish athletes for the Summer Paralympic Games 2004-2012. The study encompassed 271 paralympians: Athens (91), Beijing (89) and London (91), competing in 13 disciplines. The research was based on a two-part questionnaire by Kłodecka-Różalska adjusted for disabled sports, and was conducted one month before each PG. Part 1 contained 20 closed-ended questions regarding conditions during preparations, while Part 2 concerned socio-demographic and sports-related data. Three levels of conditions: good, satisfactory and poor, were identified. The analysis showed that while the relationships between the athletes were good in all the preparatory periods, the co-operation with the paralympic coaches worsened. The standards of accommodation, food and sports facilities lowered. Personal orthopaedic supply was satisfactory in London; personal sporting equipment was good at all PG. The quality of medical care was the highest in London. The co-operation with physicians, physiotherapists and massage therapists was satisfactory. Consultations with the dietician were sporadic and assessed as poor. Psychological consultations were rare but satisfactory in Beijing and London. Contacts with the mass media were poor at all PG. Although combining private life, work, and education with sport was satisfactory, it was increasingly difficult to manage, particularly before London. The conditions during preparations for the PG 2004-2012 varied. Improvement was noticed only in the quality of medical care and personal orthopaedic supply.

  2. Reduction of Residual Stresses in Sapphire Cover Glass Induced by Mechanical Polishing and Laser Chamfering Through Etching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Jeh Wu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Sapphire is a hard and anti-scratch material commonly used as cover glass of mobile devices such as watches and mobile phones. A mechanical polishing using diamond slurry is usually necessary to create mirror surface. Additional chamfering at the edge is sometimes needed by mechanical grinding. These processes induce residual stresses and the mechanical strength of the sapphire work piece is impaired. In this study wet etching by phosphate acid process is applied to relief the induced stress in a 1” diameter sapphire cover glass. The sapphire is polished before the edge is chamfered by a picosecond laser. Residual stresses are measured by laser curvature method at different stages of machining. The results show that the wet etching process effectively relief the stress and the laser machining does not incur serious residual stress.

  3. Polish visit

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    On 6 October, Professor Michal Kleiber, Polish Minister of Science and Chairman of the State Committee for Scientific Research, visited CERN and met both the current and designated Director General, Luciano Maiani and Robert Aymar. Professor Kleiber visited the CMS and ATLAS detector assembly halls, the underground cavern for ATLAS, and the LHC superconducting magnet string test hall. Michal Kleiber (left), Polish minister of science and Jan Krolikowski, scientist at Warsaw University and working for CMS, who shows the prototypes of the Muon Trigger board of CMS.

  4. Emissions reductions from expanding state-level renewable portfolio standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeremiah X; Novacheck, Joshua

    2015-05-05

    In the United States, state-level Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) have served as key drivers for the development of new renewable energy. This research presents a method to evaluate emissions reductions and costs attributable to new or expanded RPS programs by integrating a comprehensive economic dispatch model and a renewable project selection model. The latter model minimizes incremental RPS costs, accounting for renewable power purchase agreements (PPAs), displaced generation and capacity costs, and net changes to a state's imports and exports. We test this method on potential expansions to Michigan's RPS, evaluating target renewable penetrations of 10% (business as usual or BAU), 20%, 25%, and 40%, with varying times to completion. Relative to the BAU case, these expanded RPS policies reduce the CO2 intensity of generation by 13%, 18%, and 33% by 2035, respectively. SO2 emissions intensity decreased by 13%, 20%, and 34% for each of the three scenarios, while NOx reductions totaled 12%, 17%, and 31%, relative to the BAU case. For CO2 and NOx, absolute reductions in emissions intensity were not as large due to an increasing trend in emissions intensity in the BAU case driven by load growth. Over the study period (2015 to 2035), the absolute CO2 emissions intensity increased by 1% in the 20% RPS case and decreased by 6% and 22% for the 25% and 40% cases, respectively. Between 26% and 31% of the CO2, SO2, and NOx emissions reductions attributable to the expanded RPS occur in neighboring states, underscoring the challenges quantifying local emissions reductions from state-level energy policies with an interconnected grid. Without federal subsidies, the cost of CO2 mitigation using an RPS in Michigan is between $28 and $34/t CO2 when RPS targets are met. The optimal renewable build plan is sensitive to the capacity credit for solar but insensitive to the value for wind power.

  5. Influence of prenatal physical activity on the course of labour and delivery according to the new Polish standard for perinatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szumilewicz, Anna; Wojtyła, Andrzej; Zarębska, Aleksandra; Drobnik-Kozakiewicz, Izabela; Sawczyn, Michał; Kwitniewska, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal physical activity has been increasingly recommended in recent years as the fundamental condition of physiological pregnancy and birth by health promoting organizations throughout the world. To determine the influence of prenatal physical activity on the course of labour and delivery. The practical purpose was to present prenatal physical activity as an effective tool in the implementation of the new Polish standard for perinatal care. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE STATE OF KNOWLEDGE: Reviewed publications report either a positive impact or no impact of physical activity on selected parameters of labour and delivery. The most frequently cited benefits of physical exercise during pregnancy include: shorter delivery, less frequent need for anesthesia, reduced risk of operative births, a lower rate of induction of labor, amniotomy, episiotomy and perineum lacerations, and improved neonatal outcome. A review of the literature shows that regular prenatal physical activity can help reduce medical interventions during labour, without having negative consequences for either the mother or the foetus. It should be an important tool to implement the Polish standard for perinatal care. There is a need to promote regular prenatal physical activity among women, medical personnel, and physical education staff. Detailed instructions for designing prenatal exercise programmes should be included in the new guidelines for physical activity during pregnancy, both in Poland and abroad. To support or negate the hypothesis of the positive effects of physical activity on the course of labour and delivery, well-designed research trials should be conducted with the properly structured prenatal exercise programmes in the intervention groups.

  6. The measures for achieving nZEB standard of retrofitted educational building for specific polish location - case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Jerzy; Mijakowski, Maciej; Trząski, Adrian

    2017-11-01

    Most of the EU member states have already set a definition of nZEB for new buildings and some of the countries also done it for existing buildings. As there is no definition of nZEB for existing buildings in Poland, the paper will include various considerations of such a standard. Next, a case study of educational building retrofitting to a proposed nZEB standard will be presented. The aim of the paper is to present what measures can be used in order to decrease energy consumption in existing building. The measures are divided into three parts: architectural and construction, installations and energy sources. Thus a complexity of the solutions are presented. As the nZEB standard is related to available energy sources, also an influence of local condition will be considered. Building chosen for analysis is located in an area under historic protection which makes the work even more difficult. It was proved that used solutions were chosen not only to reduce energy demand or increase energy production from renewable energy sources, but also to increase social and aesthetic features of the building.

  7. Visible Light Activated Photocatalytic Water Polishing System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal targets development of a LED light activated photocatalytic water polishing system that enables reduction of organic impurities (TOC and...

  8. Coset Space Dimensional Reduction approach to the Standard Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farakos, K.; Kapetanakis, D.; Koutsoumbas, G.; Zoupanos, G.

    1988-01-01

    We present a unified theory in ten dimensions based on the gauge group E 8 , which is dimensionally reduced to the Standard Mode SU 3c xSU 2 -LxU 1 , which breaks further spontaneously to SU 3L xU 1em . The model gives similar predictions for sin 2 θ w and proton decay as the minimal SU 5 G.U.T., while a natural choice of the coset space radii predicts light Higgs masses a la Coleman-Weinberg

  9. Effect of RYR1T Gene Polymorphism on the Initial Growth and Fattening and Slaughter Values of Polish Synthetic Line 990 Pigs Reared in Standardized Litters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pietruszka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the ryanodine receptor gene - RYR1T polymorphism on the initial growth and fattening and slaughter values of Polish Synthetic Line 990 pigs reared in standardized litters. The study was carried on 276 offspring of hyperprolific sows. The sows gave birth to at least 12 live-born piglets. On the first day after birth, litters were equalised to 12 piglets in litter. The body weight was examined on the 21st (21BW, 28th (28BW, 63rd (63BW and 180th (180BW days of life. During evaluation, the live average daily gain (LADG from birth to day 180 of life and the average daily gain (ADG from day 63 to day 180 of life were determined. The percentage meat content (PMC, backfat thickness (BFT and loin eye thickness (LET was determined using PIGLOG 105 ultrasound apparatus. Two alleles of the RYR1 gene (RYR1C, RYR1T and three genotypes (C/C, C/T and T/T were identified. The 21BW and 28BW of the T/T genotype were significantly lower than that of the C/C and C/T. The highest PMC was characteristic of the T/T genotype, whereas the lowest one of the C/C genotype (p ⪬ 0.05. The T/T genotype had a higher LET than the C/C genotype (p ⪬ 0.05. No significant differences with respect to LADG, ADG and BFT between RYR1 genotypes were found. It can be stated that early identification of homozygous animals with respect to the RYR1T gene may allow the prediction of the body weight of animals in the initial period of their rearing.

  10. Metal polish poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metal polishes are used to clean metals, including brass, copper, or silver. This article discusses the harmful effects from swallowing metal polish. This article is for information only. DO NOT use ...

  11. Williamson Polishing & Plating Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson Polishing & Plating Co. Inc. was a plating shop located in the Martindale-Brightwood neighborhood of Indianapolis. The facility conducted job shop polishing and electroplating services. The vacant site contains a 14,651-square-foot building.

  12. Primary Aluminum Reduction Industry - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    National emission standards for each new or existing potline, paste production operation, and anode bake furnace associated with a primary aluminum reduction plant. Includes rule history, implementation information and additional resources.

  13. Polish Cartographical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedjeljko Frančula

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Polish Cartographical Review (PCR journal has been published in English four times a year since 2015. The journal is in open access and it is published by De Gruyter Open. It is edited by Polish scientists in collaboration with international experts.

  14. Electro Polishing of Niobium Cavities at DESY

    CERN Document Server

    Matheisen, A; Morales, H; Petersen, B; Schmoekel, M; Steinhau-Kühl, N

    2004-01-01

    At DESY a facility for electro polishing (EP) of the super conducting (s.c.) TESLA/TTF cavities have been built and is operational since summer 2003. The EP infrastructure is capable to handle single-cell structures and the standard TESLA/ TTF nine-cell cavities. Several electro polishing processes have been made since and acceleration voltage up to 40 MV/m have been reached in nine cell structures. We report on measurements and experiences gained since 2003 as well as on handling procedures developed for the preparation of electro polished resonators. Specific data like heat production, variation of current density and bath aging will be presented. Another important point for reproducible results is the quality control of the electro polishing process. First quality control steps to be implanted in the EP procedure for large-scale production will be described.

  15. Assessing postoperative reduction following acetabular fracture surgery: A standardized digital CT-based method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, Diederik O; van der List, Jelle P; Moloney, Gele B; Wellman, David S; Helfet, David L

    2018-02-23

    Quality of reduction following acetabular fracture surgery is an important predictor for clinical outcome. Computed tomography likely superior to plain pelvic radiography for assessment of postoperative reduction but interobserver reliability may be limited in the absence of a widely adopted technique. We describe a standardized digital CT-based method for measuring residual (gap and step) displacement on CT following acetabular fracture surgery. In a selection of patients, we determined the interobserver reliability for measuring displacement and grading quality of reduction on postoperative pelvic radiography and CT with and without the use of this novel technique.

  16. FINANCIAL SECURITY OF POLISH HOUSEHOLDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kozera

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available  A household’s fi nancial security is essential for the satisfaction of the needs and wants of its members, both communal and individual. It constitutes a kind of foundation for all of a household’s fi nancial decisions that impact its standard of living. The article aims to assess the level of fi nancial security of Polish households in 2005–2013. The research draws on data from Genworth Index, HBS conducted by the Central Statistical Offi ce (GUS and Social Diagnosis (Diagnoza społeczna overseen by the Social Monitoring Council. The study shows that Poland is characterized by a low level of fi nancial security relative to other European countries, especially Western and Scandinavian. More than three-quarters of Polish households experience fi nancial problems and exhibit both a low propensity to save, and low savings rates.

  17. Standard test method for measurement of oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) of soil

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a procedure and related test equipment for measuring oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) of soil samples removed from the ground. 1.2 The procedure in Section 9 is appropriate for field and laboratory measurements. 1.3 Accurate measurement of oxidation-reduction potential aids in the analysis of soil corrosivity and its impact on buried metallic structure corrosion rates. 1.4 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  18. Characterization and Streptococcus mutans adhesion on air polishing dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Kazuhiro; Oda, Hirotake; Inatomi, Michitomo; Sato, Soh

    2014-07-01

    Air polishing is known as an effective and time saving tooth cleaning method. However, this method increased surface roughness and bacterial adhesion on dentin surface. The aim of this study was to characterize and examine Streptococcus mutans adhesion on dentin surface after air polishing as compared to the conventional method. The dentin blocks (4 × 4 × 1 mm) were polished by a rubber cup with polishing material (Polishing) and air-polished by 25 μm glycine (G25), 65 μm glycine (G65), and 65 μm sodium bicarbonate (NHC65) microparticles. Surface roughness (Ra) was measured by a laser electron microscope. The amount of adhered S. mutans was quantified using a resazurin reduction assay (alamarBlue(®)). The Ra of G25 and G65 was significantly (p < 0.01) smaller than that of NHC65 and greater than that of Polishing. However, there was no significant difference in S. mutans adhesion among Polishing, G25, and G65, while NHC65 showed significantly (p < 0.01) higher S. mutans adhesion. Within the limitations of this in vitro study, air polishing using glycine microparticles conditioned S. mutans adhesion on dentin surface in a similar fashion than the conventional method, and less than air polishing using sodium bicarbonate microparticles.

  19. One-electron standard reduction potentials of nitroaromatic and cyclic nitramine explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchimiya, Minori; Gorb, Leonid; Isayev, Olexandr; Qasim, Mohammad M.; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2010-01-01

    Extensive studies have been conducted in the past decades to predict the environmental abiotic and biotic redox fate of nitroaromatic and nitramine explosives. However, surprisingly little information is available on one-electron standard reduction potentials (E o (R-NO 2 /R-NO 2 - )). The E o (R-NO 2 /R-NO 2 - ) is an essential thermodynamic parameter for predicting the rate and extent of reductive transformation for energetic residues. In this study, experimental (linear free energy relationships) and theoretical (ab initio calculation) approaches were employed to determine E o (R-NO 2 /R-NO 2 - ) for nitroaromatic, (caged) cyclic nitramine, and nitroimino explosives that are found in military installations or are emerging contaminants. The results indicate a close agreement between experimental and theoretical E o (R-NO 2 /R-NO 2 - ) and suggest a key trend: E o (R-NO 2 /R-NO 2 - ) value decreases from di- and tri-nitroaromatic (e.g., 2,4-dinitroanisole) to nitramine (e.g., RDX) to nitroimino compound (e.g., nitroguanidine). The observed trend in E o (R-NO 2 /R-NO 2 - ) agrees with reported rate trends for reductive degradation, suggesting a thermodynamic control on the reduction rate under anoxic/suboxic conditions. - Reduction of explosives becomes less thermodynamically favorable as the one-electron standard reduction potential decreases from di- and tri-nitroaromatic, nitramine, to nitroimino compounds.

  20. Potential reductions in ambient NO2 concentrations from meeting diesel vehicle emissions standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Schneidemesser, Erika; Kuik, Friderike; Mar, Kathleen A.; Butler, Tim

    2017-11-01

    Exceedances of the concentration limit value for ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2) at roadside sites are an issue in many cities throughout Europe. This is linked to the emissions of light duty diesel vehicles which have on-road emissions that are far greater than the regulatory standards. These exceedances have substantial implications for human health and economic loss. This study explores the possible gains in ambient air quality if light duty diesel vehicles were able to meet the regulatory standards (including both emissions standards from Europe and the United States). We use two independent methods: a measurement-based and a model-based method. The city of Berlin is used as a case study. The measurement-based method used data from 16 monitoring stations throughout the city of Berlin to estimate annual average reductions in roadside NO2 of 9.0 to 23 µg m-3 and in urban background NO2 concentrations of 1.2 to 2.7 µg m-3. These ranges account for differences in fleet composition assumptions, and the stringency of the regulatory standard. The model simulations showed reductions in urban background NO2 of 2.0 µg m-3, and at the scale of the greater Berlin area of 1.6 to 2.0 µg m-3 depending on the setup of the simulation and resolution of the model. Similar results were found for other European cities. The similarities in results using the measurement- and model-based methods support our ability to draw robust conclusions that are not dependent on the assumptions behind either methodology. The results show the significant potential for NO2 reductions if regulatory standards for light duty diesel vehicles were to be met under real-world operating conditions. Such reductions could help improve air quality by reducing NO2 exceedances in urban areas, but also have broader implications for improvements in human health and other benefits.

  1. Reduction of CO/sub 2/ emissions through fuel economy standards for diesel cars in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, L.A.; Mehlia, T.M.I.; Hassan, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    In Pakistan, like many developing countries, the increasing prosperity and population growth are resulting in accelerated growth in vehicle population and vehicle kilometers traveled. This causes air pollution due to huge CO/sub 2/ emissions. Automobile fuel economy standards have proven to be one of the most effective tools to control oil demand thereby reducing the GHG (Green House Gas) emissions like CO/sub 2/, This study presents the investigation to apply fuel economy standards in Pakistan, in order to predict the potential reduction in CO/sub 2/ emissions and saving in fuel demand. The study is focused on only diesel cars and the data of diesel car owners for previous fifteen years is obtained from the related sources in Pakistan. A growth trend of diesel car owners was analyzed and the number of diesel car owners in future was predicted by applying database computer software. Calculations were made to study the effect of fuel economy standards in terms of saving in fuel demand and the reduction in CO/sub 2/ emissions. The results reveal the potential application of fuel economy standards and it was found that a cumulative amount of fuel 39266775 liters can be saved and CO/sub 2/ emissions can be reduced by 106021 tons at the end of 2011-2012, if fuel economy standards are implemented in 2008-2009. (author)

  2. One-electron standard reduction potentials of nitroaromatic and cyclic nitramine explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchimiya, Minori, E-mail: sophie.uchimiya@ars.usda.go [Environmental Laboratory, U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS 39180 (United States); Gorb, Leonid [SpecPro Inc, 3909 Halls Ferry Road, Vicksburg, MS 39180 (United States); Isayev, Olexandr [Department of Chemistry, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Qasim, Mohammad M. [Environmental Laboratory, U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS 39180 (United States); Leszczynski, Jerzy [Environmental Laboratory, U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS 39180 (United States); Interdisciplinary Center for Nanotoxicity, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS 39217 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Extensive studies have been conducted in the past decades to predict the environmental abiotic and biotic redox fate of nitroaromatic and nitramine explosives. However, surprisingly little information is available on one-electron standard reduction potentials (E{sup o}(R-NO{sub 2}/R-NO{sub 2}{sup -})). The E{sup o}(R-NO{sub 2}/R-NO{sub 2}{sup -}) is an essential thermodynamic parameter for predicting the rate and extent of reductive transformation for energetic residues. In this study, experimental (linear free energy relationships) and theoretical (ab initio calculation) approaches were employed to determine E{sup o}(R-NO{sub 2}/R-NO{sub 2}{sup -}) for nitroaromatic, (caged) cyclic nitramine, and nitroimino explosives that are found in military installations or are emerging contaminants. The results indicate a close agreement between experimental and theoretical E{sup o}(R-NO{sub 2}/R-NO{sub 2}{sup -}) and suggest a key trend: E{sup o}(R-NO{sub 2}/R-NO{sub 2}{sup -}) value decreases from di- and tri-nitroaromatic (e.g., 2,4-dinitroanisole) to nitramine (e.g., RDX) to nitroimino compound (e.g., nitroguanidine). The observed trend in E{sup o}(R-NO{sub 2}/R-NO{sub 2}{sup -}) agrees with reported rate trends for reductive degradation, suggesting a thermodynamic control on the reduction rate under anoxic/suboxic conditions. - Reduction of explosives becomes less thermodynamically favorable as the one-electron standard reduction potential decreases from di- and tri-nitroaromatic, nitramine, to nitroimino compounds.

  3. Functional Median Polish

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Ying

    2012-08-03

    This article proposes functional median polish, an extension of univariate median polish, for one-way and two-way functional analysis of variance (ANOVA). The functional median polish estimates the functional grand effect and functional main factor effects based on functional medians in an additive functional ANOVA model assuming no interaction among factors. A functional rank test is used to assess whether the functional main factor effects are significant. The robustness of the functional median polish is demonstrated by comparing its performance with the traditional functional ANOVA fitted by means under different outlier models in simulation studies. The functional median polish is illustrated on various applications in climate science, including one-way and two-way ANOVA when functional data are either curves or images. Specifically, Canadian temperature data, U. S. precipitation observations and outputs of global and regional climate models are considered, which can facilitate the research on the close link between local climate and the occurrence or severity of some diseases and other threats to human health. © 2012 International Biometric Society.

  4. Polishing for glass ceramics: which protocol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tânia Mara da; Salvia, Ana Carolina Rodrigues Danzi; Carvalho, Rodrigo Furtado de; Pagani, Clovis; Rocha, Daniel Maranha da; Silva, Eduardo Galera da

    2014-07-01

    The execution of adjustments on ceramic restorations is sometimes necessary for either correction of occlusion and/or inadequate contours or esthetical improvements. Clinically, the surfaces undergo weariness through fine grinding diamond burs which remove the superficial glazing layer. Several materials for ceramic polishing have been used in an attempt to reach a satisfactory surface smoothness. The aim of this study was to perform a literature review on different polishing protocols of several dental ceramics. This is a literature review performed through scientific articles published between 2004 and 2012, indexed in MEDLINE, PubMed and Scielo databases. The study selected and analyzed a total of 20 relevant articles that evaluated different types of ceramics, polishing treatment and surface roughness. After an extensive literature review, this study observed: 1 - after the rupture of the glazing layer due to the adjustments of the restorations, the best choice for the polishing of the surface will depend on the type of ceramics used; 2 - glazing procedure provide excellent results regarding to the superficial smoothness; however, if reglazing is impossible, either abrasive rubber cups/points or sandpaper discs followed by the use of diamond polishing pastes results in a satisfactory superficial smoothness; 3 - clinical studies that take into account the behavior of the protocols polishing are scarce and should be encouraged; 4 - the large number of variables influence the final outcome of polishing should be considered. The necessity in standardization of methodologies to enable a comparison among researches. Copyright © 2014 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The wear of polished and glazed zirconia against enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janyavula, Sridhar; Lawson, Nathaniel; Lawson, Nathaniel; Cakir, Deniz; Beck, Preston; Ramp, Lance C; Burgess, John O

    2013-01-01

    The wear of tooth structure opposing anatomically contoured zirconia crowns requires further investigation. The purpose of this in vitro study was to measure the roughness and wear of polished, glazed, and polished then reglazed zirconia against human enamel antagonists and compare the measurements to those of veneering porcelain and natural enamel. Zirconia specimens were divided into polished, glazed, and polished then reglazed groups (n=8). A veneering porcelain (Ceramco3) and enamel were used as controls. The surface roughness of all pretest specimens was measured. Wear testing was performed in the newly designed Alabama wear testing device. The mesiobuccal cusps of extracted molars were standardized and used as antagonists. Three-dimensional (3D) scans of the specimens and antagonists were obtained at baseline and after 200 000 and 400 000 cycles with a profilometer. The baseline scans were superimposed on the posttesting scans to determine volumetric wear. Data were analyzed with a 1-way ANOVA and Tukey Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) post hoc tests (α=.05) Surface roughness ranked in order of least rough to roughest was: polished zirconia, glazed zirconia, polished then reglazed zirconia, veneering porcelain, and enamel. For ceramic, there was no measureable loss on polished zirconia, moderate loss on the surface of enamel, and significant loss on glazed and polished then reglazed zirconia. The highest ceramic wear was exhibited by the veneering ceramic. For enamel antagonists, polished zirconia caused the least wear, and enamel caused moderate wear. Glazed and polished then reglazed zirconia showed significant opposing enamel wear, and veneering porcelain demonstrated the most. Within the limitations of the study, polished zirconia is wear-friendly to the opposing tooth. Glazed zirconia causes more material and antagonist wear than polished zirconia. The surface roughness of the zirconia aided in predicting the wear of the opposing dentition

  6. Buffered Electrochemical Polishing of Niobium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciovati, Gianluigi [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Tian, Hui [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Corcoran, Sean [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2011-03-01

    The standard preparation of superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities made of pure niobium include the removal of a 'damaged' surface layer, by buffered chemical polishing (BCP) or electropolishing (EP), after the cavities are formed. The performance of the cavities is characterized by a sharp degradation of the quality factor when the surface magnetic field exceeds about 90 mT, a phenomenon referred to as 'Q-drop.' In cavities made of polycrystalline fine grain (ASTM 5) niobium, the Q-drop can be significantly reduced by a low-temperature (? 120 °C) 'in-situ' baking of the cavity if the chemical treatment was EP rather than BCP. As part of the effort to understand this phenomenon, we investigated the effect of introducing a polarization potential during buffered chemical polishing, creating a process which is between the standard BCP and EP. While preliminary results on the application of this process to Nb cavities have been previously reported, in this contribution we focus on the characterization of this novel electrochemical process by measuring polarization curves, etching rates, surface finish, electrochemical impedance and the effects of temperature and electrolyte composition. In particular, it is shown that the anodic potential of Nb during BCP reduces the etching rate and improves the surface finish.

  7. Polish Toxic Currency Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Gontarski

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Toxic currency options are defined on the basis of the opposition to the nature (essence of an option contract, which is justified in terms of norms founded on the general law clause of characteristics (nature of a relation (which represents an independent premise for imposing restrictions on the freedom of contracts. So-understood toxic currency options are unlawful. Indeed they contravene iuris cogentis regulations. These include for instance option contracts, which are concluded with a bank, if the bank has not informed about option risk before concluding the contract; or the barrier options, which focus only on the protection of banks interests. Therefore, such options may appear to be invalid. Therefore, performing contracts for toxic currency options may be qualified as a criminal mismanagement. For the sake of security, the manager should then take into consideration filing a claim for stating invalidity (which can be made in a court verdict. At the same time, if the supervisory board member in a commercial company, who can also be a subject to mismanagement offences, commits an omission involving lack of reaction (for example, if he/she fails to notify of the suspected offence committed by the management board members acting to the companys detriment when the management board makes the company conclude option contracts which are charged with absolute invalidity the supervisory board member so acting may be considered to act to the companys detriment. In the most recent Polish jurisprudence and judicature the standard of a good host is treated to be the last resort for determining whether the managers powers resulting from criminal regulations were performed. The manager of the exporter should not, as a rule, issue any options. Issuing options always means assuming an obligation. In the case of currency put options it is an absolute obligation to purchase a given amount in euro at exchange rate set in advance. On the other hand issuing

  8. The gold standard: linking the CDM to development and poverty reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlup, M. [Hamburg Inst. of International Economics (HWWA), Hamburg (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    This paper introduces to the objectives, methodologies and procedures of the gold standard, a tool to generate high-quality emission reduction projects with a strong development component. It is discussed how this tool can be used to create sound synergies between climate policy, private sector and non-ODA government involvement in the CDM and development and poverty alleviation objectives. Recommendations are given to direct more CDM investments towards sustainable and additional projects. It is concluded that renewable energy and energy efficiency projects need to become more dominant under the current CDM regime and that both developing as well as industrialised country actors have different but common responsibilities to achieve this. (orig.)

  9. Generic rules for high temperature dimensional reduction and their application to the standard model

    CERN Document Server

    Kajantie, Keijo; Rummukainen, K; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail E

    1996-01-01

    We formulate the rules for dimensional reduction of a generic finite temperature gauge theory to a simpler three-dimensional effective bosonic theory in terms of a matching of Green's functions in the full and the effective theory, and present a computation of a generic set of 1- and 2-loop graphs needed for the application of these rules. As a concrete application we determine the explicit mapping of the physical parameters of the standard electroweak theory to a three-dimensional SU(2)xU(1) gauge-Higgs theory. We argue that this three-dimensional theory has a universal character and appears as an effective theory for many extensions of the Standard Model.

  10. Reducing the population's sodium intake: the UK Food Standards Agency's salt reduction programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyness, Laura A; Butriss, Judith L; Stanner, Sara A

    2012-02-01

    To describe the UK Food Standards Agency's (FSA) salt reduction programme undertaken between 2003 and 2010 and to discuss its effectiveness. Relevant scientific papers, campaign materials and evaluations and consultation responses to the FSA's salt reduction programme were used. Adult salt intakes, monitored using urinary Na data collected from UK-wide surveys, indicate a statistically significant reduction in the population's average salt intake from 9·5 g/d in 2000-2001 to 8·6 g/d in 2008, which is likely to have health benefits. Reducing salt intake will have an impact on blood pressure; an estimated 6 % of deaths from CHD in the UK can be avoided if the number of people with high blood pressure is reduced by 50 %. Salt levels in food, monitored using commercial label data and information collected through an industry self-reporting framework, indicated that substantial reductions of up to 70 % in some foods had been achieved. The FSA's consumer campaign evaluation showed increased awareness of the benefits of reducing salt intake on health, with 43 % of adults in 2009 claiming to have made a special effort to reduce salt in their diet compared with 34 % of adults in 2004, before the campaign commenced. The UK's salt reduction programme successfully reduced the average salt intake of the population and increased consumers' awareness. Significant challenges remain in achieving the population average salt intake of 6 g/d recommended by the UK's Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition. However, the UK has demonstrated the success of its programme and this approach is now being implemented elsewhere in the world.

  11. Unitary standard model from spontaneous dimensional reduction and weak boson scattering at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hong-Jian; Xianyu, Zhong-Zhi

    2013-04-01

    Spontaneous dimensional reduction (SDR) is a striking phenomenon predicted by a number of quantum gravity approaches which all indicate that the spacetime dimensions get reduced at high energies. In this work, we formulate an effective theory of electroweak interactions based upon the standard model, incorporating the spontaneous reduction of space-dimensions at TeV scale. The electroweak gauge symmetry is nonlinearly realized with or without a Higgs boson. We demonstrate that the SDR ensures good high-energy behavior and predicts unitary weak boson scattering. For a light Higgs boson of mass 125GeV, the TeV scale SDR gives a natural solution to the hierarchy problem. Such a light Higgs boson can have induced anomalous gauge couplings from the TeV scale SDR. We find that the corresponding WW scattering cross sections become unitary at TeV scale, but exhibit different behaviors from that of the 4d standard model. These can be discriminated by the WW scattering experiments at the LHC.

  12. Effects of dose reduction on the detectability of standardized radiolucent lesions in digital panoramic radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dula, K; Sanderink, G; van der Stelt, P F; Mini, R; Buser, D

    1998-08-01

    Dose reduction in digital panoramic radiography was studied. Intentional underexposure was performed with the Orthophos DS while six different human mandibles were radiographed. Exposure settings were 69 kV/15 mA (standard), 64 kV/16 mA, and 60 kV/16 mA. Standardized spherical defects, each either 1 or 1.25 mm in diameter, were simulated in 288 of 432 images, and seven observers decided whether defects were present or not. Areas under the receiver operating characteristics curves were calculated. They showed no significant differences in the detectability of the 1-mm defect at 69, 64, or 60 kV. For the 1.25-mm defect, no difference was found between the 69 and 60 kV images, but a statistically significant different detectability was found for 64 kV images in comparison with both 69 and 60 kV images. A dose reduction of up to 43% was ascertained with a Pedo-RT-Humanoid phantom when panoramic radiography was performed at 60 kV/16 mA. The conclusion is that with the Orthophos DS, it seems possible to reduce the dose rate of x-rays without loss of diagnostic quality in the case of radiolucent changes.

  13. How to improve the standardization and the diagnostic performance of the fecal egg count reduction test?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levecke, Bruno; Kaplan, Ray M.; Thamsborg, Stig M.

    2018-01-01

    Although various studies have provided novel insights into how to best design, analyze and interpret a fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT), it is still not straightforward to provide guidance that allows improving both the standardization and the analytical performance of the FECRT across...... a variety of both animal and nematode species. For example, it has been suggested to recommend a minimum number of eggs to be counted under the microscope (not eggs per gram of feces), but we lack the evidence to recommend any number of eggs that would allow a reliable assessment of drug efficacy. Other...... the UI methodology that yields the most reliable assessment of drug efficacy (coverage of TDE) and detection of reduced drug efficacy, and (iii) to determine the required sample size and number of eggs counted under the microscope that optimizes the detection of reduced efficacy. Our results confirm...

  14. Polish Semantic Parser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Grudzinska

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Amount of information transferred by computers grows very rapidly thus outgrowing the average man's capability of reception. It implies computer programs increase in the demand for which would be able to perform an introductory classitication or even selection of information directed to a particular receiver. Due to the complexity of the problem, we restricted it to understanding short newspaper notes. Among many conceptions formulated so far, the conceptual dependency worked out by Roger Schank has been chosen. It is a formal language of description of the semantics of pronouncement integrated with a text understanding algorithm. Substantial part of each text transformation system is a semantic parser of the Polish language. It is a module, which as the first and the only one has an access to the text in the Polish language. lt plays the role of an element, which finds relations between words of the Polish language and the formal registration. It translates sentences written in the language used by people into the language theory. The presented structure of knowledge units and the shape of understanding process algorithms are universal by virtue of the theory. On the other hand the defined knowledge units and the rules used in the algorithms ure only examples because they are constructed in order to understand short newspaper notes.

  15. A Model of Cost Reduction and Standardization: Improved Cost Savings While Maintaining the Quality of Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Michael J; Gitelis, Matthew E; Linn, John G; Ujiki, Michael B; Waskerwitz, Matthew; Umanskiy, Konstantin; Muldoon, Joseph P

    2015-11-01

    Surgeon instrument choices are influenced by training, previous experience, and established preferences. This causes variability in the cost of common operations, such as laparoscopic appendectomy. Many surgeons are unaware of the impact that this has on healthcare spending. We sought to educate surgeons on their instrument use and develop standardized strategies for operating room cost reduction. We collected the individual surgeon instrument cost for performing a laparoscopic appendectomy. Sixteen surgeons were educated about these costs and provided with cost-effective instruments and techniques. This study was conducted in a university-affiliated hospital system. Patients included those undergoing a laparoscopic appendectomy within the hospital system. Patient demographics, operating room costs, and short-term outcomes for the fiscal year before and after the education program were then compared. During fiscal year 2013, a total of 336 laparoscopic appendectomies were performed compared with 357 in 2014. Twelve surgeons had a ≥5% reduction in average cost per case. Overall, the average cost per case was reduced by 17% (p day readmissions, postoperative infections, operating time, or reoperations. This retrospective study is subject to the accuracy of the medical chart system. In addition, specific instrument costs are based on our institution contracts and vary compared with other institutions. In this study we demonstrate that operative instrument costs for laparoscopic appendectomy can be significantly reduced by informing the surgeons of their operating room costs compared with their peers and providing a low-cost standardized instrument tray. Importantly, this can be realized without any incentive or punitive measures and does not negatively impact outcomes. Additional work is needed to expand these results to more operations, hospital systems, and training programs.

  16. Absolute standard hydrogen electrode potential measured by reduction of aqueous nanodrops in the gas phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, William A; Leib, Ryan D; O'Brien, Jeremy T; Bush, Matthew F; Williams, Evan R

    2008-03-19

    In solution, half-cell potentials are measured relative to those of other half cells, thereby establishing a ladder of thermochemical values that are referenced to the standard hydrogen electrode (SHE), which is arbitrarily assigned a value of exactly 0 V. Although there has been considerable interest in, and efforts toward, establishing an absolute electrochemical half-cell potential in solution, there is no general consensus regarding the best approach to obtain this value. Here, ion-electron recombination energies resulting from electron capture by gas-phase nanodrops containing individual [M(NH3)6]3+, M = Ru, Co, Os, Cr, and Ir, and Cu2+ ions are obtained from the number of water molecules that are lost from the reduced precursors. These experimental data combined with nanodrop solvation energies estimated from Born theory and solution-phase entropies estimated from limited experimental data provide absolute reduction energies for these redox couples in bulk aqueous solution. A key advantage of this approach is that solvent effects well past two solvent shells, that are difficult to model accurately, are included in these experimental measurements. By evaluating these data relative to known solution-phase reduction potentials, an absolute value for the SHE of 4.2 +/- 0.4 V versus a free electron is obtained. Although not achieved here, the uncertainty of this method could potentially be reduced to below 0.1 V, making this an attractive method for establishing an absolute electrochemical scale that bridges solution and gas-phase redox chemistry.

  17. Resource reduction in pediatric chest pain: Standardized clinical assessment and management plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleeb, Susan F; McLaughlin, Sarah R; Graham, Dionne A; Friedman, Kevin G; Fulton, David R

    2018-01-01

    Using a Standardized Clinical Assessment and Management Plan (SCAMP) for pediatric patients presenting to clinic with chest pain, we evaluated the cost impact associated with implementation of the care algorithm. Prior to introduction of the SCAMP, we analyzed charges for 406 patients with chest pain, seen in 2009, and predicted 21% reduction of overall charges had the SCAMP methodology been used. The SCAMP recommended an echocardiogram for history, examination, or ECG findings suggestive of a cardiac etiology for chest pain. Resource utilization was reviewed for 1517 patients (7-21 years) enrolled in the SCAMP from July 2010 to April 2014. Compared to the 2009 historic cohort, patients evaluated by the SCAMP had higher rates of exertional chest pain (45% vs 37%) and positive family history (5% vs 1%). The SCAMP cohort had fewer abnormal physical examination findings (1% vs 6%) and abnormal electrocardiograms (3% vs 5%). Echocardiogram use increased in the SCAMP cohort compared to the 2009 historic cohort (45% vs 41%), whereas all other ancillary testing was reduced: exercise stress testing (4% SCAMP vs 28% historic), Holter (4% vs 7%), event monitors (3% vs 10%), and MRI (1% vs 2%). Total charges were reduced by 22% ($822 625) by use of the Chest Pain SCAMP, despite a higher percentage of patients for whom echocardiogram was recommended compared to the historic cohort. The Chest Pain SCAMP effectively streamlines cardiac testing and reduces resource utilization. Further reductions can be made by algorithm refinement regarding echocardiograms for exertional symptoms. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Polish 2012 growth references for preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kułaga, Zbigniew; Grajda, Aneta; Gurzkowska, Beata; Góźdź, Magdalena; Wojtyło, Małgorzata; Swiąder, Anna; Różdżyńska-Świątkowska, Agnieszka; Litwin, Mieczysław

    2013-06-01

    Growth references are useful in monitoring a child's growth, which is an essential part of child care. The aim of this paper is to provide updated growth references for Polish preschool children and to assess how well children in Poland match or diverge from the World Health Organization (WHO) growth standards/references and recent German height-for-age references. The height-, weight-, body mass index-for-age, and weight-for-height references were constructed with the LMS method using data from a recent, large, population-representative sample of 4,941 preschool children aged 3 to 6 years (the OLA study). In the case of boys, the third, 50th, and 97th height percentiles of new Polish and German references overlap almost completely, whereas the WHO growth standards/references percentiles are systematically lower. In the case of girls, comparison between the new Polish and German height references showed conformity on the third and 50th percentile, whereas body height values of the WHO standards/references are shorter. Polish children aged 3 to 6 years from for the nation representative sample, had significantly greater than zero mean z scores of height-, weight-, and BMI-for-age and weight-for-height, relative to the WHO growth standards/references. The number of children in the sample with height-for-age below -2 SD was significantly lower than expected and number of children with height-for-age above +2 SD was significantly higher than expected. The OLA study growth references can be recommended as national references for preschool children in Poland.

  19. Laser polishing of 3D printed mesoscale components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhaduri, Debajyoti, E-mail: debajyoti.bhaduri@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Penchev, Pavel; Batal, Afif; Dimov, Stefan; Soo, Sein Leung [Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Sten, Stella; Harrysson, Urban [Digital Metal, Höganäs AB, 263 83 Höganäs (Sweden); Zhang, Zhenxue; Dong, Hanshan [School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • Process optimisation for laser polishing novel 3D printed SS316L parts. • Evaluating the effects of key polishing parameters on SS316L surface roughness. • Detailed spectroscopic analysis of oxide layer formation due to laser polishing. • Comparative surface integrity analysis of SS parts polished in air and argon. • A maximum reduction in roughness of over 94% achieved at optimised polishing settings. - Abstract: Laser polishing of various engineered materials such as glass, silica, steel, nickel and titanium alloys, has attracted considerable interest in the last 20 years due to its superior flexibility, operating speed and capability for localised surface treatment compared to conventional mechanical based methods. The paper initially reports results from process optimisation experiments aimed at investigating the influence of laser fluence and pulse overlap parameters on resulting workpiece surface roughness following laser polishing of planar 3D printed stainless steel (SS316L) specimens. A maximum reduction in roughness of over 94% (from ∼3.8 to ∼0.2 μm S{sub a}) was achieved at the optimised settings (fluence of 9 J/cm{sup 2} and overlap factors of 95% and 88–91% along beam scanning and step-over directions respectively). Subsequent analysis using both X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES) confirmed the presence of surface oxide layers (predominantly consisting of Fe and Cr phases) up to a depth of ∼0.5 μm when laser polishing was performed under normal atmospheric conditions. Conversely, formation of oxide layers was negligible when operating in an inert argon gas environment. The microhardness of the polished specimens was primarily influenced by the input thermal energy, with greater sub-surface hardness (up to ∼60%) recorded in the samples processed with higher energy density. Additionally, all of the polished surfaces were free of the scratch marks, pits, holes

  20. Dimensional reduction of the CPT-even electromagnetic sector of the standard model extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casana, Rodolfo; Carvalho, Eduardo S.; Ferreira, Manoel M., Jr.

    2011-08-01

    The CPT-even Abelian gauge sector of the standard model extension is represented by the Maxwell term supplemented by (KF)μνρσFμνFρσ, where the Lorentz-violating background tensor, (KF)μνρσ, possesses the symmetries of the Riemann tensor. In the present work, we examine the planar version of this theory, obtained by means of a typical dimensional reduction procedure to (1+2) dimensions. The resulting planar electrodynamics is composed of a gauge sector containing six Lorentz-violating coefficients, a scalar field endowed with a noncanonical kinetic term, and a coupling term that links the scalar and gauge sectors. The dispersion relation is exactly determined, revealing that the six parameters related to the pure electromagnetic sector do not yield birefringence at any order. In this model, the birefringence may appear only as a second order effect associated with the coupling tensor linking the gauge and scalar sectors. The equations of motion are written and solved in the stationary regime. The Lorentz-violating parameters do not alter the asymptotic behavior of the fields but induce an angular dependence not observed in the Maxwell planar theory.

  1. [Lysenkoism in Polish botany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Piotr

    2008-01-01

    Lysenkoism in Poland was never an autonomous phenomenon. The whole array of reasons for which it appeared in Polish science would require a separate study--here it only needs to be pointed out that the major reasons included terror on the part of the security service, lawlessness, the ubiquitous atmosphere of intimidation and terror, censorship, the diminishing sphere of civil liberties, political show trials, propaganda and denunciations. An important role in facilitating the introduction of Lysenkoism was played also by the reorganization of science after World War Two, the isolation of Polish science from science in the West, as well as the damage it had suffered during the war. At first, Lysenkoism was promoted in Poland by a small group of enthusiastic and uncritical proponents. A overview of the events connected with the ten years of Lysenkoism in Poland (end of 1948--beginning of 1958) shows a two-tier picture of how the 'idea' was propagated. The first tier consisted in the activities of the Association of Marxist Naturalists [Koło Przyrodników-Marksistów], which it engaged in since the end of 1948. The Association was later transformed into a Union of Marxist Naturalists, and this in turn merged, in 1952, with the Copernican Society of Polish Naturalists [Polskie Towarzystwo Przyrodników im. Kopernika]. It was that society which promoted Lysenkoism longest, until the end of 1956. The propaganda and training activities of the circle and the society prepared ground for analogous activities of the newly formed Polish Academy of Science (PAN), which--since its very establishment in 1952--engaged in promoting Lysenkoism through its Second Division. These activities were aimed at naturalists, initially at those who were prominent scientists (eg. the conference at Kuźnice, 1950/1951), and then at those who were only starting their academic career (including national courses in new biology at Dziwnów, 1952, or Kortowo, 1953 and 1955). The end to promoting

  2. 40 CFR 503.25 - Operational standards-pathogens and vector attraction reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... vector attraction reduction. 503.25 Section 503.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... § 503.25 Operational standards—pathogens and vector attraction reduction. (a) Pathogens—sewage sludge... active sewage sludge unit, unless the vector attraction reduction requirement in § 503.33(b)(11) is met...

  3. 40 CFR 503.15 - Operational standards-pathogens and vector attraction reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... vector attraction reduction. 503.15 Section 503.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... § 503.15 Operational standards—pathogens and vector attraction reduction. (a) Pathogens—sewage sludge... reclamation site. (c) Vector attraction reduction—sewage sludge. (1) One of the vector attraction reduction...

  4. 40 CFR 426.113 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Television Picture... applicable to the abrasive polishing and acid polishing waste water streams. Effluent characteristic Effluent...

  5. Subjective Quality of Life of Polish, Polish-Immigrant, and Polish-American Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdes, Celia; Zych, Adam A.

    2000-01-01

    Compares subjective quality of life of elderly Poles living in Poland, and Polish immigrants and Polish-American ethnics living in Chicago as part of a secondary data analysis of a study initially conducted in Poland. Conclusions lend support to the idea that U.S.-born elderly people and elderly immigrants to the United States have a significantly…

  6. Tooth polishing: The current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri Alankar Sawai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Healthy teeth and gums make a person feel confident and fit. As people go about their daily routines and with different eating and drinking habits, the tooth enamel turns yellowish or gets stained. Polishing traditionally has been associated with the prophylaxis procedure in most dental practices, which patients know and expect. However, with overzealous use of polishing procedure, there is wearing of the superficial tooth structure. This would lead to more accumulation of local deposits. Also, it takes a long time for the formation of the fluoride-rich layer of the tooth again. Hence, now-a-days, polishing is not advised as a part of routine oral prophylaxis procedure but is done selectively based on the patients′ need. The article here, gives an insight on the different aspects of the polishing process along with the different methods and agents used for the same.

  7. Lysenko affair and Polish botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the slight impact of Lysenkoism upon Polish botany. I begin with an account of the development of plant genetics in Poland, as well as the attitude of scientists and the Polish intelligentsia toward Marxist philosophy prior to the World War II. Next I provide a short history of the introduction and demise of Lysenkoism in Polish science, with a focus on events in botany, in context with key events in Polish science from 1939 to 1958. The article outlines the little effects of Lysenkoism upon botanists and their research, as well as how botanists for the most part rejected what was often termed the "new biology." My paper shows that though Lysenko's theories received political support, and were actively promoted by a small circle of scientists and Communist party activists, they were never accepted by most botanists. Once the political climate in Poland altered after the events of 1956, Lysenko's theories were immediately abandoned.

  8. Production of rare earth polishing powders in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosynkin, V.D.; Ivanov, E.N.; Kotrekhov, V.A.; Shtutza, M.G.; Grabko, A.I.

    1998-01-01

    in a suspension; polishing powder Ftoropol with addition of fluorine and higher contents of cerium dioxide (at least 70% by mass) that has a higher polishing ability and is attrition-proof, used for high-speed treatment of optical lenses, mirrors, TV screens and eyeglasses. The rare earth polishing powders made in Russia possess the following physico-chemical properties and performance characteristics; cerium dioxide content in solid REE solution - 50-90% by mass; F-ion content (in Ftoropol powder) - 8-14% by mass; non-REE content of sodium, calcium, strontium and iron impurities - at most 0.1% by mass of each element; natural radionuclide content of thorium, uranium, actinium, potassium-40 series, total standard specific activity - 0.45-0.85 Bq/g; - average particle size, 2.0-3.5 μm; density - 6.3-6.8 g/cm 3 ; pH of aqueous extract, 6-7; sedimentary stability - 10-20 minutes; polishing ability - 45-60 mg per 31 minutes (for polishing resin); abrasive inclusions - none. The report gives analysis of the. Russian powders compared against the best world analogues such as Cerox (Rhone Poulenc Company, France), Regipol (London and Scandinavian Division Chemical Company, England), etc. The analysis results imply, that the chief characteristics (granulometric composition, polishing ability and service life) of the Russian samples do not yield to the best foreign analogues, and in some properties (radionuclide content, sedimentary stability and scratching inclusions quantity) even surpass them

  9. Elastic emission polishing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewenthal, M.; Loseke, K.; Dow, T.A.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01

    Elastic emission polishing, also called elastic emission machining (EEM), is a process where a stream of abrasive slurry is used to remove material from a substrate and produce damage free surfaces with controlled surface form. It is a noncontacting method utilizing a thick elasto-hydrodynamic film formed between a soft rotating ball and the workpiece to control the flow of the abrasive. An apparatus was built in the Center, which consists of a stationary spindle, a two-axis table for the workpiece, and a pump to circulate the working fluid. The process is controlled by a programmable computer numerical controller (CNC), which presently can operate the spindle speed and movement of the workpiece in one axis only. This apparatus has been used to determine material removal rates on different material samples as a function of time, utilizing zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) particles suspended in distilled water as the working fluid. By continuing a study of removal rates the process should become predictable, and thus create a new, effective, yet simple tool for ultra-precision mechanical machining of surfaces.

  10. THE POLISH RECIPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.F. Spinu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-six years ago the international community witnessed one of the most dramatic changes in economic systems. Naturally, the fall of communism in Eastern Europe and its consequences were events difficult to judge and anticipate in their immediate aftermath. Today, we have gained a much more coherent perspective on their meaning. The political liberalization of Poland in 1989 and its transition to the market economy was generally perceived as the most successful of all post-communist countries. From 1990 to 2013, Poland experienced the most outstanding economic growth within the former communist bloc. It doubled its GDP in real terms and became the only country to experience economic growth during the financial crisis of 2008-09. However, the polish secret recipe lies in the "shock therapy" adopted at the beginning of the 90's. The aim of this paper is to examine the importance of the Balcerowicz's program in creating the basis for economic stability and growth through privatization, liberalization of foreign trade, monetary reform and an open economy. We will also review the impact of this unprecedented transformation in shaping a strong, market-oriented economy.

  11. Chemical vapor generation sample introduction for the determination of As, Cd, Sb, Hg, and Pb in nail polish by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fan-Feng; Jiang, Shiuh-Jen; Chen, Yen-Ling; Sahayam, A. C.

    2018-02-01

    This paper describes a flow injection vapor generation (VG) method using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for determining As, Cd, Sb, Hg, and Pb in nail polish. The samples for VG were prepared as aqueous slurries of a nail polish (0.5% m/v), thiourea (1% m/v), Co(II) (0.75 μg mL- 1), and HCl (1.2% v/v). Chemical VG of As, Cd, Sb, Hg, and Pb ions, by reduction with tetrahydroborate (3% m/v in 0.2% m/v NaOH), enabled their separation from the slurry. With VG sample introduction, As, Cd, Sb and Hg signals were increased by 1-2 orders (except Pb) compared to solution nebulization due to better sample introduction. Quantifications were performed by VG ICP-MS using isotope dilution and standard addition methods as slopes of calibration plots of analytes in the slurries were higher. Using the reported procedure, samples of three nail polishes purchased locally were analyzed for their levels of As, Cd, Sb, Hg, and Pb. The results obtained were in good agreement with those measured using electrothermal vaporization ICP-MS. In the original nail polish sample, the detection limits, calculated as 3σ of blank measurements, for As, Cd, Sb, Hg, and Pb, estimated from standard addition curves, were 0.06, 0.12, 0.14, 0.2, and 12 ng g- 1, respectively.

  12. Acoustics. Measurement of sound insulation in buildings and of building elements. Laboratory measurements of the reduction of transmitted impact noise by floor coverings on a heavyweight standard floor

    CERN Document Server

    British Standards Institution. London

    1998-01-01

    Acoustics. Measurement of sound insulation in buildings and of building elements. Laboratory measurements of the reduction of transmitted impact noise by floor coverings on a heavyweight standard floor

  13. Reduction and standardization of surgical instruments in pediatric inguinal hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyle, Martin A; AlQarni, Naif; Odeh, Rakan; Butt, Hissan; Alkahtani, Mohammed M; Konstant, Louis; Pendergast, Lisa; Koyle, Leah C C; Baker, G Ross

    2018-02-01

    To standardize and reduce surgical instrumentation by >25% within a 9-month period for pediatric inguinal hernia repair (PIHR), using "improvement science" methodology. We prospectively evaluated instruments used for PIHR in 56 consecutive cases by individual surgeons across two separate subspecialties, pediatric surgery (S) and pediatric urology (U), to measure actual number of instruments used compared with existing practice based on preference cards. Based on this evaluation, a single preference card was developed using only instruments that had been used in >50% of all cases. A subsequent series of 52 cases was analyzed to assess whether the new tray contained the ideal instrumentation. Cycle time (CT), to sterilize and package the instruments, and weights of the trays were measured before and after the intervention. A survey of operating room (OR) nurses and U and S surgeons was conducted before and after the introduction of the standardized tray to assess the impact and perception of standardization. Prior to creating the standardized tray, a U PIHR tray contained 96 instruments with a weight of 13.5 lbs, while the S set contained 51, weighing 11.2 lbs. The final standardized set comprised 28 instruments and weighed 7.8 lbs. Of 52 PIHRs performed after standardization, in three (6%) instances additional instruments were requested. CT was reduced from 11 to 8 min (U and S respectively) to instrumentation for other common surgeries. Standardization of surgical equipment can be employed across disciplines with the potential to reduce costs and positively impact quality, safety, and efficiencies. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Laser polishing of 3D printed mesoscale components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaduri, Debajyoti; Penchev, Pavel; Batal, Afif; Dimov, Stefan; Soo, Sein Leung; Sten, Stella; Harrysson, Urban; Zhang, Zhenxue; Dong, Hanshan

    2017-05-01

    Laser polishing of various engineered materials such as glass, silica, steel, nickel and titanium alloys, has attracted considerable interest in the last 20 years due to its superior flexibility, operating speed and capability for localised surface treatment compared to conventional mechanical based methods. The paper initially reports results from process optimisation experiments aimed at investigating the influence of laser fluence and pulse overlap parameters on resulting workpiece surface roughness following laser polishing of planar 3D printed stainless steel (SS316L) specimens. A maximum reduction in roughness of over 94% (from ∼3.8 to ∼0.2 μm Sa) was achieved at the optimised settings (fluence of 9 J/cm2 and overlap factors of 95% and 88-91% along beam scanning and step-over directions respectively). Subsequent analysis using both X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES) confirmed the presence of surface oxide layers (predominantly consisting of Fe and Cr phases) up to a depth of ∼0.5 μm when laser polishing was performed under normal atmospheric conditions. Conversely, formation of oxide layers was negligible when operating in an inert argon gas environment. The microhardness of the polished specimens was primarily influenced by the input thermal energy, with greater sub-surface hardness (up to ∼60%) recorded in the samples processed with higher energy density. Additionally, all of the polished surfaces were free of the scratch marks, pits, holes, lumps and irregularities that were prevalent on the as-received stainless steel samples. The optimised laser polishing technology was consequently implemented for serial finishing of structured 3D printed mesoscale SS316L components. This led to substantial reductions in areal Sa and St parameters by 75% (0.489-0.126 μm) and 90% (17.71-1.21 μm) respectively, without compromising the geometrical accuracy of the native 3D printed samples.

  15. Efficient polishing of aspheric optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, J.S.; Piscotty, M.A.; Nguyen, N.Q.; Landram, C.S.; Ng, L.C.

    1997-04-15

    The objectives of this project are to develop, evaluate, and optimize novel designs for a polishing tool intended for ultra-precise figure corrections on aspheric optics with tolerances typical of those required for use in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) projection lithography. This work may lead to an enhanced US industrial capability for producing optics for EUV, x-ray and, other high precision applications. LLNL benefits from developments in computer-controlled polishing and the insertion of fluid mechanics modeling into the precision manufacturing area. Our accomplishments include the numerical estimation of the hydrodynamic shear stress distribution for a new polishing tool that directs and controls the interaction of an abrasive slurry with an optical surface. A key milestone is in establishing a correlation between the shear stress predicted using our fluid mechanics model and the observed removal footprint created by a prototype tool. In addition, we demonstrate the ability to remove 25 nm layers of optical glass in a manner qualitatively similar to macroscopic milling operations using a numerically- controlled machine tool. Other accomplishments include the development of computer control software for directing the polishing tool and the construction of a polishing testbed.

  16. Abrasive properties of modified oxides for finish polishing of steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroleva, L. F.

    2017-12-01

    The study of modified chromium and aluminum oxides, demonstrates that finish polishing by modified hydroxocomplexes based on a solid solution of iron and aluminum oxides provide a surface nanoroughness of 0.02 to 0.005 µm for the hardened ShKh15 steel (American Standard AISI 52100).

  17. Cannabinoids cases in polish athletes

    OpenAIRE

    A Pokrywka; Z Obmiński; D Kwiatkowska; R Grucza

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the number of cases and the profiles of Polish athletes who had occasionally been using marijuana or hashish throughout the period of 1998-2004, with respect to: sex, age, and discipline of sport as well as the period of testing (in- and out-of-competition). Results of the study were compared with some data reported by other WADA accredited anti-doping laboratories. Totally, 13 631 urine samples taken from Polish athletes of both sexes, aged 10-67 year...

  18. HIV, Hepatitis C, TB, Harm Reduction, and Persons Deprived of Liberty: What Standards Does International Human Rights Law Establish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Gen; Lines, Rick

    2016-12-01

    HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV), and TB in prisons and other places of detention are serious public health concerns, with prevalence and incidence considerably higher than in the general community because of the overrepresentation of risky behavior, substandard conditions, overcrowding, people who inject drugs, and the wholly inadequate prevention, care, and treatment of these conditions, including the denial of harm reduction services. This is not only a severe public health crisis but also a serious human rights concern. This article works to clarify the standards established by human rights law with regards to HIV, HCV, TB, and harm reduction in prisons by examining international and regional case law, minimum standards on the treatment of prisoners and public health, as well as the work of UN treaty bodies, Special Rapporteurs, and prison monitoring bodies. It is imperative that urgent steps are taken to close the gap between human rights and public health standards on the one hand, and effective implementation in prison settings on the other.

  19. Polish-Bulgarian-Russian, Bulgarian-Polish-Russian or Russian-Bulgarian-Polish dictionary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Koseska-Toszewa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Polish-Bulgarian-Russian, Bulgarian-Polish-Russian or Russian-Bulgarian-Polish dictionary? The trilingual dictionary (M. Duszkin, V. Koseska, J. Satoła and A. Tzoneva is being elaborated based on a working Polish-Bulgarian-Russian electronic parallel corpus authored by Maksim Duszkin, Violetta Koseska-Toszewa and Joanna Satoła-Staśkowiak, and works by A. Tzoneva. It is the first corpus comparing languages belonging to three different Slavic language groups: western, southern and eastern. Works on the dictionary are based on Gramatyka konfrontatywna bułgarsko-polska (Bulgarian-Polish confrontative grammar and the proposed there semantic-oriented interlanguage. Two types of classifiers have been introduced into the dictionary: classic and semantic. The trilingual dictionary will present a consistent and homogeneous set of facts of grammar and semantics. The Authors point out that in a traditional dictionary it is not clear for example whether aspect should be understood as imperfective / perfective form of a verb or as its meaning. Therefore in the dictionary forms and meaning are separated in a regular way. Imperfective verb form has two meanings: state and configuration of states and events culminating in state. Also perfective verb form has two meanings: event and configuration of states and events culminating in event. These meanings are described by the semantic classifiers, respectively, state and event, state1 and event1. The way of describing language units, mentioned in the article, gives a possibility to present language material (Polish, Bulgarian, Russian in any required order, hence the article’s title.

  20. Cannabinoids cases in polish athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Pokrywka

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the number of cases and the profiles of Polish athletes who had occasionally been using marijuana or hashish throughout the period of 1998-2004, with respect to: sex, age, and discipline of sport as well as the period of testing (in- and out-of-competition. Results of the study were compared with some data reported by other WADA accredited anti-doping laboratories. Totally, 13 631 urine samples taken from Polish athletes of both sexes, aged 10-67 years, performing 46 disciplines of sport were tested. Cannabinoids were detected in 267 samples. Among Polish athletes the relative number of positive THC (tetrahydrocannabinol samples was one of the highest in Europe. The group of young Polish athletes (aged 16-24 years was the most THC-positive. THC-positive cases were noted more frequently in male athletes tested during out of competitions. The so-called contact sports (rugby, ice hockey, skating, boxing, badminton, body building and acrobatic sports were those sports, where the higher risk of cannabis use was observed. The legal interpretation of some positive cannabinoids results would be difficult because of some accidental and unintentional use of the narcotics by sportsmen. It was concluded that national anti-doping organizations (NADO’s, which are competent to judge whether the anti-doping rules were violated, should take into account the possibility of non-intentional doping use of cannabinoids via passive smoking of marijuana.

  1. Sensing roughness and polish direction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Olesen, Anders Sig; Larsen, Henning Engelbrecht

    2016-01-01

    needs information about the RMS-value of the surface roughness and the current direction of the scratches introduced by the polishing process. The RMS-value indicates to the operator how far he is from the final finish, and the scratch orientation is often specified by the customer in order to avoid...... structures and light scattered from scratches....

  2. An intensive nurse-led, multi-interventional clinic is more successful in achieving vascular risk reduction targets than standard diabetes care.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    MacMahon Tone, J

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this research was to determine whether an intensive, nurse-led clinic could achieve recommended vascular risk reduction targets in patients with type 2 diabetes as compared to standard diabetes management.

  3. Polish energy-system modernisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdz, M.

    2003-01-01

    The Polish energy-system needs intensive investments in new technologies, which are energy efficient, clean and cost effective. Since the early 1990s, the Polish economy has had practically full access to modern technological devices, equipment and technologies. Introducing new technologies is a difficult task for project teams, constructors and investors. The author presents a set of principles for project teams useful in planning and energy modernisation. Several essential features are discussed: Energy-efficient appliances and systems; Choice of energy carriers, media and fuels; Optimal tariffs, maximum power and installed power; Intelligent, integrated, steering systems; Waste-energy recovery; Renewable-energy recovery. In practice there are several difficulties connected with planning and realising good technological and economic solutions. The author presents his own experiences of energy-system modernisation of industrial processes and building new objects. (Author)

  4. Energy savings in Polish buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markel, L.C.; Gula, A.; Reeves, G.

    1995-12-31

    A demonstration of low-cost insulation and weatherization techniques was a part of phase 1 of the Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficient Project. The objectives were to identify a cost-effective set of measures to reduce energy used for space heating, determine how much energy could be saved, and foster widespread implementation of those measures. The demonstration project focused on 4 11-story buildings in a Krakow housing cooperative. Energy savings of over 20% were obtained. Most important, the procedures and materials implemented in the demonstration project have been adapted to Polish conditions and applied to other housing cooperatives, schools, and hospitals. Additional projects are being planned, in Krakow and other cities, under the direction of FEWE-Krakow, the Polish Energie Cities Network, and Biuro Rozwoju Krakowa.

  5. Earnings Management in Polish Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Brzeszczyński, Janusz; Gajdka, Jerzy; Schabek, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents results of the investigation of a phenomenon known as "earnings management'' (EM) among the companies listed on the Polish stock market. The distribution of earnings per share (EPS) for the stocks around the threshold value of "zero" and the threshold of "recent performance" was analyzed in the period of years 1997-2010. Moreover, the changes of earnings for the stocks, which are suspected to manipulate their earnings, were also investigated. The results, which indicate as...

  6. LOVE in English and Polish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Brożyna Reczko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available LOVE in English and Polish The paper presents a sample contrastive analysis of the linguistic picture of love in English and Polish. The material used in the survey is drawn from lexicographic data, including the British National Corpus and Narodowy Korpus Języka Polskiego [National Corpus of Polish]. The paper focuses on the similarities and differences in conceptualizing the abstract concept of love in the English and Polish languages. An analytical method, developed by Bartmiński and associates, serves as the theoretical basis for the reconstruction of the linguistic picture of the world.   MIŁOŚĆ w języku angielskim i polskim Niniejszy artykuł to próba kontrastywnego porównania językowego obrazu świata MIŁOŚCI w języku angielskim i polskim. Materiał badawczy pochodzi głównie ze źródeł leksykograficznych: słowników oraz korpusów (Narodowego Korpusu Języka Polskiego oraz z korpusu języka angielskiego British National Corpus. Celem badania było poszukiwanie podobieństw i różnic w konceptualizacji MIŁOŚCI w tych dwóch językach. Metoda badawcza została zaczerpnięta z prac J. Bartmińskiego i dotyczy rekonstrukcji językowego obrazu świata różnych pojęć.

  7. 19th Polish Control Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Kacprzyk, Janusz; Oprzędkiewicz, Krzysztof; Skruch, Paweł

    2017-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the KKA 2017 – the 19th Polish Control Conference, organized by the Department of Automatics and Biomedical Engineering, AGH University of Science and Technology in Kraków, Poland on June 18–21, 2017, under the auspices of the Committee on Automatic Control and Robotics of the Polish Academy of Sciences, and the Commission for Engineering Sciences of the Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences. Part 1 deals with general issues of modeling and control, notably flow modeling and control, sliding mode, predictive, dual, etc. control. In turn, Part 2 focuses on optimization, estimation and prediction for control. Part 3 is concerned with autonomous vehicles, while Part 4 addresses applications. Part 5 discusses computer methods in control, and Part 6 examines fractional order calculus in the modeling and control of dynamic systems. Part 7 focuses on modern robotics. Part 8 deals with modeling and identification, while Part 9 deals with problems related to security, fault ...

  8. Directly polished lightweight aluminum mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Horst, Rik; Tromp, Niels; de Haan, Menno; Navarro, Ramon; Venema, Lars; Pragt, Johan

    2017-11-01

    During the last ten years, Astron has been a major contractor for the design and manufacturing of astronomical instruments for Space- and Earth based observatories, such as VISIR, MIDI, SPIFFI, X-Shooter and MIRI. Driven by the need to reduce the weight of optically ultra-stiff structures, two promising techniques have been developed in the last years: ASTRON Extreme Lightweighting [1][2] for mechanical structures and an improved Polishing Technique for Aluminum Mirrors. Using one single material for both optical components and mechanical structure simplifies the design of a cryogenic instrument significantly, it is very beneficial during instrument test and verification, and makes the instrument insensitive to temperature changes. Aluminum has been the main material used for cryogenic optical instruments, and optical aluminum mirrors are generally diamond turned. The application of a polishable hard top coating like nickel removes excess stray light caused by the groove pattern, but limits the degree of lightweighting of the mirrors due to the bi-metal effect. By directly polishing the aluminum mirror surface, the recent developments at Astron allow for using a non-exotic material for light weighted yet accurate optical mirrors, with a lower surface roughness ( 1nm RMS), higher surface accuracy and reduced light scattering. This paper presents the techniques, obtained results and a global comparison with alternative lightweight mirror solutions. Recent discussions indicate possible extensions of the extreme light weight technology to alternative materials such as Zerodur or Silicon Carbide.

  9. Clear and compelling evidence: the Polish tribunal on abortion rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Françoise; Nowicka, Wanda

    2002-05-01

    On 25 July 2001 the Polish Federation for Women and Family Planning organised a Tribunal on Abortion Rights in Warsaw, to publicize the negative consequences of the criminalization of abortion in Poland. A panel of Polish and foreign experts heard the testimonials of seven Polish women's experiences under the 1993 "Anti-Abortion Act". Only two of the seven women were able to tell their stories in person. One died in 2001, at the age of 21, of an unsafe abortion. One is legally blind after having carried her last pregnancy to term. One is in prison for infanticide, which in all likelihood was committed by her boyfriend. National and foreign journalists were in attendance, as well as observers from all walks of life--writers, students, mothers, activists, feminists, husbands. The evidence was clear and compelling. Restrictive abortion laws make abortion unsafe by pushing it underground, endanger women's health, create a climate where even those services that are allowed by law-become unavailable, and contravene standards set by international human rights law. The restrictive abortion law in Poland has not increased the number of births; it has only caused women and their families suffering. The Tribunal brought the issue of abortion into the media prior to an election campaign and galvanised Polish and other Eastern European women's groups to become more active in defence of abortion rights.

  10. Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) of sapphire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Honglin

    The concept of chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) was examined for finishing sapphire. In this study sapphire was used as a model system for oxide ceramics. The removal rates were determined by weight loss. Surface quality and structure were characterized with surface probe microscopy (SPM). Polishing experiments were designed to test the chemically modified surface layer. A series of abrasives with various hardnesses including mono-crystalline and polycrystalline diamond, alpha and gamma alumina, zirconia, ceria and silica were used. Diaspore was also evaluated. The results indicated that, with similar particle size and shape, harder abrasives do not necessarily cause faster material removal and better surface finish, and abrasives with hardness equal to or less than sapphire such as alpha alumina and gamma alumina achieved the best surface finish and efficient material removal. A hypothesis was proposed that the sapphire surface was modified by water to form a thin hydration laver with structure and hardness close to diaspore. Abrasives with a hardness between diaspore and sapphire polished the c-plane of sapphire with good surface finish and efficient removal. SPM indicated the hydration layer on the c-plane surface was about 1 nm thick. Removal rate and surface finish as a function of pH were also examined on c-plane sapphire with nano-alumina abrasives. The removal rate as a function of pH was compared to the solubility behavior of alumina. The results showed the deviation of pH from the lowest solubility pH for alumina (pH = 5) was a driving force for the surface reaction to form a hydration layer. The anisotropy of sapphire strongly affects removal rate and surface quality in CMP. The relationships among orientation. pH and abrasive were studied for sapphire with c (0001), a (11-20), and m (10-10) planes. Based on the results, the CMP process for sapphire includes chemical reaction of the surface to form a thin reaction layer that is softer than sapphire

  11. Study on Laws, Regulations and Standards on Energy Efficiency, Energy Conserving and Emission Reduction of Industrial Boilers in EU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ren; Zhao, Yuejin; Chen, Haihong; Liang, Xiuying; Yang, Ming

    2017-12-01

    Industrial boilers are widely applied in such fields as factory power, building heating, and people’s lives; China is the world’s largest producer and user of industrial boilers, with very high annual energy consumption; clear requirements have been put forward by China on the energy efficiency since the “11th Five-year Plan” with the hope to save energy and reduce emission by means of energy efficiency standards and regulations on the supervision and control of various special equipment. So far, the energy efficiency of industrial boilers in China has been improved significantly but there is still a gap with the EU states. This paper analyzes the policies of energy efficiency, implementation models and methods of supervision and implementation at the EU level from laws, regulations, directives as well as standards; the paper also puts forward suggestions of energy conserving and emission reduction on the improvement of energy conserving capacity of industrial boilers in China through studying the legislations and measures of the developed countries in energy conserving of boilers.

  12. An Overview of Polish Martial Arts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech J. Cynarski

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explain the revival of Polish martial arts from the perspectives of cultural sociology, the sciences of physical culture, and the humanistic theory of martial arts. The Polish Martial Arts (Polskie Sztuki Walki are a subject still requiring serious scientific examination, even in Poland. There are few works concerning the history of Polish weapons, and most only describe techniques for wielding specific types of edged weapons. Nevertheless, there is a large group of enthusiasts trying to restore and cultivate the old Polish tradition, a tradition with heavy emphasis on the art of fencing. The author knows many of the people and facts presented here, from personal observation and from direct participation in these arts. As a disciple of the late Master Yoshio Sugino (10th-dan Kobudo Katori Shinto-ryu, he fought against the Polish saber champion, and he has taken part in joint exhibitions of Polish and Japanese fencing.

  13. The tourism attractiveness of Polish libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Miedzińska, Magdalena; Tanaś, Sławoj

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the article is to draw the reader's attention to the tourism attractiveness of renowned Polish libraries. These have attained a tourism function due to tourism exploration and penetration, but remain in the shadow of other Polish cultural assets. The article outlines the historical geography of Polish libraries, an analysis of tourism assets and an attempt to classify and catalogue libraries in Poland.

  14. Perceptions of and Attitudes towards Regional Varieties of Polish: Views from Two Polish Provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milobog, Magdalena; Garrett, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports a study of perceptions and attitudes relating to regional varieties of Polish. The methodology followed folk linguistic approaches to attitudes research. Respondents in two Polish provinces were asked to draw on a map of Poland where they thought the main regional varieties of Polish were spoken, and then to name and…

  15. History of Polish gastrointestinal radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanik, A

    2003-12-01

    As early as several days after the publication of the information concerning Roentgen's discovery the first radiological examinations were performed in Poland. The new method was immediately introduced into medical practice, including gastroenterology. In that pioneer period the most important works were those by Walery Jaworski who was the first man in the world to perform an X-ray of gall stones as well as the stomach with the use of a contrast medium. In its more-than-a-hundred-year history Polish gastrointestinal radiology has attempted not only to catch up with the world science, but it also has made a considerable contribution to its development.

  16. Corporate Politics on Polish Millennials

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Roślik

    2017-01-01

    In the very beginning of this particular paper, an author is trying to determine and describe who Millennials actually are. Then, the basis of Millennials definition is analysing corporation’s activity over the past years regarding this age group. The main goal of the thesis is to bring their specific futures out and describe what corporations on Polish job market are doing to encourage them to work in their offices. Especially in Poland within the last years, it is observed that big multinat...

  17. Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency (FEWE) was established in Poland at the end of 1990. FEWE, as an independent and non-profit organization, has the following objectives: to strive towards an energy efficient national economy, and to show the way and methods by use of which energy efficiency can be increased. The activity of the Foundation covers the entire territory of Poland through three regional centers: in Warsaw, Katowice and Cracow. FEWE employs well-known and experienced specialists within thermal and power engineering, civil engineering, economy and applied sciences. The organizer of the Foundation has been Battelle Memorial Institute - Pacific Northwest Laboratories from the USA.

  18. The effect of finishing and polishing on surface roughness of a processed resilient denture liner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loney, R W; Moulding, M B

    1993-01-01

    A raised ridge on a Molloplast-B sample was removed using one of three burs, four stones, or a coarse sandpaper disc. Samples were polished using pumice alone, tin oxide alone, or both agents. A flat, unfinished sample served as a control. The average surface roughness was measured after reductions and subsequent polishings. The length of time required for initial reduction was recorded. Average surface roughness measurements ranged from 16.0 to 1.4 microns, with the control measuring 0.66 micron. Without polishing, burs produced rougher surfaces than stones and required longer times for reduction. Bur samples also remained rougher than stone samples after pumicing. No significant differences were found between treatments or controls after the use of either a combination of pumice and tin oxide or tin oxide alone.

  19. Sexual activity of Polish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastwa-Wojciechowska, Beata; Izdebski, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore the subject of sexual activity in the Polish population, with special focus on age and gender differences, and sexual infidelity. Sexual activity is one of the basic factors in initiating and maintaining relationships. On the one hand, sexual activity enables us to meet natural needs and maintain an intimate relationship with another human being; on the other, it may allow us to overcome loneliness and social isolation by providing the opportunity to express feelings of closeness and unity. The research was conducted on a representative group of 3,200 Poles aged between 15-49, with the support of a well-known Polish research company - TNS OBOP. Face-to-face and Pencil and Paper (PAPI) interviews were carried out. The results focus on two main issues: the age and motives of sexual initiation among teenagers (with a significant percentage starting their sexual activity at the age of 15), and the quality of the sexual lives of adults (average number of sexual partners, sexual infidelity and sexual satisfaction). There is dependence between the type of relationship and the performance or non-performance of sexual activity, as well as the quality of the relationship. Among both adolescents and adults, remaining in a stable relationship (partnership or marriage) promotes loyalty. The performance of sexual goals turns out to be an important mechanism regulating the interpersonal aspects of a relationship, influencing their perception and evaluation.

  20. Sexual activity of Polish adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Pastwa-Wojciechowska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The purpose of this research was to explore the subject of sexual activity in the Polish population, with special focus on age and gender differences, and sexual infidelity. Sexual activity is one of the basic factors in initiating and maintaining relationships. On the one hand, sexual activity enables us to meet natural needs and maintain an intimate relationship with another human being; on the other, it may allow us to overcome loneliness and social isolation by providing the opportunity to express feelings of closeness and unity. Material and method. The research was conducted on a representative group of 3,200 Poles aged between 15–49, with the support of a well-known Polish research company – TNS OBOP. Face-to-face and Pencil and Paper (PAPI interviews were carried out. Results. The results focus on two main issues: the age and motives of sexual initiation among teenagers (with a significant percentage starting their sexual activity at the age of 15, and the quality of the sexual lives of adults (average number of sexual partners, sexual infidelity and sexual satisfaction. Conclusion. There is dependence between the type of relationship and the performance or non-performance of sexual activity, as well as the quality of the relationship. Among both adolescents and adults, remaining in a stable relationship (partnership or marriage promotes loyalty. The performance of sexual goals turns out to be an important mechanism regulating the interpersonal aspects of a relationship, influencing their perception and evaluation.

  1. Method of polishing nickel-base alloys and stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeves, Arthur F.; Buono, Donald P.

    1981-01-01

    A chemical attack polish and polishing procedure for use on metal surfaces such as nickel base alloys and stainless steels. The chemical attack polish comprises Fe(NO.sub.3).sub.3, concentrated CH.sub.3 COOH, concentrated H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 and H.sub.2 O. The polishing procedure includes saturating a polishing cloth with the chemical attack polish and submicron abrasive particles and buffing the metal surface.

  2. Assessment of the image contrast improvement and dose reduction in mammography with synchrotron radiation compared to standard units

    CERN Document Server

    Moeckli, R; Fiedler, S; Pachoud, M; Hessler, C; Meuli, R; Valley, J F

    2001-01-01

    An objective method was used to evaluate image quality and dose in mammography with synchrotron radiation and to compare them to standard units. It was performed systematically in the energy range of interest for mammography through the evaluation of the contrast and the measurement of the mean glandular dose. Synchrotron radiation measurements were performed at the ESRF and a slit was placed between the test object and the screen-film system in order to reduce scatter. The conventional films were obtained on mammography units with an anti-scatter grid. In a recent paper, it was shown that the use of synchrotron radiation leads to a noticeable improvement of the image quality-dose relationship (Moeckli et al. Phys. Med. Biol. 45(12)3509). The reason of that enhancement is partly due to the monochromaticity of the synchrotron beam and partly due to the use of a slit instead of a grid. The dose reduction with synchrotron radiation can be attributed to a better X-ray total transmission of the slit and the contra...

  3. Advanced techniques for computer-controlled polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinhaerl, Markus; Stamp, Richard; Pitschke, Elmar; Rascher, Rolf; Smith, Lyndon; Smith, Gordon; Geiss, Andreas; Sperber, Peter

    2008-08-01

    Computer-controlled polishing has introduced determinism into the finishing of high-quality surfaces, for example those used as optical interfaces. Computer-controlled polishing may overcome many of the disadvantages of traditional polishing techniques. The polishing procedure is computed in terms of the surface error-profile and the material removal characteristic of the polishing tool, the influence function. Determinism and predictability not only enable more economical manufacture but also facilitate considerably increased processing accuracy. However, there are several disadvantages that serve to limit the capabilities of computer-controlled polishing, many of these are considered to be issues associated with determination of the influence function. Magnetorheological finishing has been investigated and various new techniques and approaches that dramatically enhance the potential as well as the economics of computer-controlled polishing have been developed and verified experimentally. Recent developments and advancements in computer-controlled polishing are discussed. The generic results of this research may be used in a wide variety of alternative applications in which controlled material removal is employed to achieve a desired surface specification, ranging from surface treatment processes in technical disciplines, to manipulation of biological surface textures in medical technologies.

  4. Polish Industry and Art at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    On 17 October 2000 the second Polish industrial and technological exhibition opened at CERN. The first one was held five years ago and nine of the companies that were present then have come back again this year. Six of those companies were awarded contracts with CERN in 1995. Three Polish officials were present at the Opening Ceremony today: Mrs Malgorzata Kozlowska, Under-secretary of State in the State Committee for Scientific Research, Mr Henryk Ogryczak, Under-secretary of State in Ministry of Economy and Prof. Jerzy Niewodniczanski, President of National Atomic Energy Agency. Professor Luciano Maiani welcomed the Polish delegation to CERN and stressed the important contribution of Polish scientists and industrialists to the work of the laboratory. Director General Luciano Maiani (back left) and head of SPL division Karl-Heinz Kissler (back right) visit the Poland at CERN exhibition… The exhibition offers Polish companies the opportunity to establish professional contacts with CERN. Nineteen companies...

  5. [Mortality of Polish actors in 1981-1999].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poznańska, Anna; Gajewski, Antoni K

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the mortality of Polish actors (males and females) with the general Polish population for the period 1981-1999 and for two sub-periods: 1981-1991 and 1992-1998. Initially the studied cohort included 3992 dramatic actors (2161 males, 1831 females) of age 18-80 years (at the moment of cohort entrance). After detailed data verification statistical analysis was made for 2120 actors and 1767 actresses, contributing 29477.1 and 24886.2 person-years of observation, respectively. A total of 633 deaths (368 males and 265 females) were noted during the analyzed period. Statistical approach based on the follow-up method. Comparison with the reference population (Polish males and females from urban areas) was made by means of the standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and their 95% confidence intervals. Direct comparison of the selected subgroups' mortality based on the rate ratio analysis. Standardized mortality ratios were 0.739 (95%CI: 0.666-0.819) for the actors and 0.887 (95%CI: 0.784-1.001) for actresses. Mortality of the actors' cohort was found to be significantly lower than in the reference population during total analyzed period, whereas for actresses no significant differences were found. Age-specific SMR dependence was found. Statistically significant lowering of SMR was observed for actors up to 80 years old. Finally, it could be concluded that in contrast to the actresses' cohort the actors' mortality in 1992-1999 significantly decreased in relation to 1981-1991 period. Moreover, the decrease of the actors' mortality exceeded tendencies observed for Polish urban population.

  6. Corporate Politics on Polish Millennials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Roślik

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the very beginning of this particular paper, an author is trying to determine and describe who Millennials actually are. Then, the basis of Millennials definition is analysing corporation’s activity over the past years regarding this age group. The main goal of the thesis is to bring their specific futures out and describe what corporations on Polish job market are doing to encourage them to work in their offices. Especially in Poland within the last years, it is observed that big multinational companies are paying special attention to Millennials and trying to hire them before competitors will do so. As a part of this paper, an author will describe corporate politics and practices on Thomson Reuters and BNY Mellon examples. Within this work, an author is also discussing key features and differences between this generation and Millennials parent’s generation. Additionally, there is a reference to corporate social responsibility concept and work-life balance issues.

  7. Thermodynamical motivation of the Polish energy policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziębik Andrzej

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Basing on the first and second law of thermodynamics the fundamental trends in the Polish energy policy are analysed, including the aspects of environmental protection. The thermodynamical improvement of real processes (reduction of exergy losses is the main way leading to an improvement of the effectivity of energy consumption. If the exergy loss is economically not justified, we have to do with an error from the viewpoint of the second law analysis. The paper contains a thermodynamical analysis of the ratio of final and primary energy, as well as the analysis of the thermo-ecological cost and index of sustainable development concerning primary energy. Analyses of thermo-ecological costs concerning electricity and centralized heat production have been also carried out. The effect of increasing the share of high-efficiency cogeneration has been analyzed, too. Attention has been paid to an improved efficiency of the transmission and distribution of electricity, which is of special importance from the viewpoint of the second law analysis. The improvement of the energy effectivity in industry was analyzed on the example of physical recuperation, being of special importance from the point of view of exergy analysis.

  8. Smoking characteristics of Polish immigrants in Dublin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zatonski Witold

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined two main hypotheses: a Polish immigrants' smoking estimates are greater than their Irish counterparts (b Polish immigrants purchasing cigarettes from Poland smoke "heavier" (≥ 20 cigarettes a day when compared to those purchasing cigarettes from Ireland. The study also set out to identify significant predictors of 'current' smoking (some days and everyday among the Polish immigrants. Methods Dublin residents of Polish origin (n = 1,545 completed a previously validated Polish questionnaire in response to an advertisement in a local Polish lifestyle magazine over 5 weekends (July–August, 2007. The Office of Tobacco Control telephone-based monthly survey data were analyzed for the Irish population in Dublin for the same period (n = 484. Results Age-sex adjusted smoking estimates were: 47.6% (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 47.3%; 48.0% among the Poles and 27.8% (95% CI: 27.2%; 28.4% among the general Irish population (p 24 months were significant predictors of current smoking among the Poles. An objective validation of the self-reported smoking history of a randomly selected sub-sample immigrant group, using expired carbon monoxide (CO measurements, showed a highly significant correlation coefficient (r = 0.64 of expired CO levels with the reported number of cigarettes consumed (p Conclusion Polish immigrants' smoking estimates are higher than their Irish counterparts, and particularly if employed, with only primary-level education, and are overseas >2 years.

  9. Super-polishing of Zerodur aspheres by means of conventional polishing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, Jaroslav; Klepetková, Eva; Pošmourný, Josef; Šulc, Miroslav; Procháska, František; Tomka, David; Matoušek, Ondřej; Poláková, Ivana; Šubert, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a quest to find simple technique to superpolish Zerodur asphere (55μm departure from best fit sphere) that could be employed on old fashion way 1-excenter optical polishing machine. The work focuses on selection of polishing technology, study of different polishing slurries and optimization of polishing setup. It is demonstrated that either by use of fine colloidal CeO2 slurry or by use of bowl-feed polishing setup with CeO2 charged pitch we could reach 0.4nm RMS roughness while removing <30nm of surface layer. This technique, although not optimized, was successfully used to improve surface roughness on already prepolished Zerodur aspheres without necessity to involve sophisticated super-polishing technology and highly trained manpower.

  10. Comparative study of performance of shoe polishes formulated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GARZALI

    This should make the polish remains as discrete solid particles held mechanically within the leather. This work intends to explore the use of polyethylene pigment in the production of shoe polish. The shoe polish produced will be applied alongside shoe polish from carbon black (CI black Pigment 7) on finished black leather ...

  11. New Environmental Practices in Polish Production Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kræmer, Trine Pipi

    2002-01-01

    Based on five case studies in Poland, the paper discusses, how a specific environmental policy influences the firms? industrial environmental practices. The study illustrates, how the Polish environmental policy, dominated by environmental charges on emissions, is extremely effective in improving...

  12. Semiological analysis of Polish theater posters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Nikolić

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Through the application of semiological analysis to theater posters made by two Polish authors, the paper uncovers signs, meanings, codes and specifics of the „Polish school of poster-making“ and contemporary Polish posters. Aside from this, I suggest a methodological framework for studying the issue of coding and shaping a theater poster as a culturally specific form of visual communication. The aesthetic and semiotic outlook of the Polish theater posters which were chosen is analyzed using the semiological method which highlights their differences and similarities. By pointing out the system of codes through the examples given here, a graphic designer is informed about the existence and the possibilities of a more systematic approach to shaping a theater poster.

  13. Report on Polish Public Libraries 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Bednarek-Michalska, Bożena; Szatkowska, Olga

    2001-01-01

    Report is an overview of polish public libraries, services to a variety of communities, it also provides statistics, n explanation of the funding policy for public libraries in Poland and information about the governance of public libraries in the country.

  14. The role of the Polish Financial Supervision Authority in the new European architecture of supervision over the financial market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Fedorowicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the main provisions of the regulation of European financial supervision from the perspective of the competencies and functions of the Polish Financial Supervision Authority (KNF. It was also considered necessary by the Authors to present the current tasks, aims and competencies of the KNF. The implementation of a new supervisory structure in the EU brought about changes to the functioning of the KNF. These changes are particularly visible in the regulatory functions as domestic supervisory authorities are obliged to introduce uniform supervisory standards defined on a European level. The current reform of the European financial markets has shown that the role of national supervisors in the financial safety net requires a new approach. It is obvious that in these times of financial crisis, national supervisors must incur significant costs, namely the functional reduction of regulatory independence in some matters. This paper is a contribution to the discussion on the course of the development of Polish and EU financial markets supervision.

  15. Electrolytic polishing system for space age materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coons, W.C.; Iosty, L.R.

    1976-01-01

    A simple electrolytic polishing technique was developed for preparing Cr, Co, Hf, Mo, Ni, Re, Ti, V, Zr, and their alloys for structural analysis on the optical microscope. The base electrolyte contains 5g ZnCl 2 and 15g AlCl 3 . 6H 2 O in 200 ml methyl alcohol, plus an amount of H 2 SO 4 depending on the metal being polished. Five etchants are listed

  16. Trace element analysis of nail polishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, G.; Mittal, V.K.; Sahota, H.S.

    1999-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique was used to measure the concentrations of various trace elements in nail polishes of popular Indian and foreign brands. The aim of the present experiment was to see whether trace elements could distinguish nail polishes of different Indian and foreign brands from forensic point of view. It was found that cesium can act as a marker to differentiate foreign and Indian brands. (author)

  17. Interlocking directorships in Polish joint stock companies:

    OpenAIRE

    Pawlak, Marek

    2008-01-01

    Studies concerning interlocking directorships have been carried out among Polish joint stock corporations. The main source of data have been the announcements that are to be published by corporations regularly in a journal called Business and Court Gazette (BCG). Interlocking directorships constitute a network among corporations the use of which enables co-ordinated management of the whole group. The phenomenon of interlocking directorships in Polish joint stock companies can be compared to t...

  18. Jewish problem in the Polish Communist Party

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cimek Henryk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Jews accounted for approx. 8-10% of the population of the Second Republic and in the communist movement (Polish Communist Party and Polish Communist Youth Union the rate was approx, 30%, while in subsequent years it much fluctuated. The percentage of Jews was the highest in the authorities of the party and in the KZMP. This had a negative impact on the position of the KPP on many issues, especially in its relation to the Second Republic.

  19. Attack polish for nickel-base alloys and stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Not Available

    1980-05-28

    A chemical attack polish and polishing procedure for use on metal surfaces such as nickel base alloys and stainless steels is described. The chemical attack polich comprises FeNO/sub 3/, concentrated CH/sub 3/COOH, concentrated H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and H/sub 2/O. The polishing procedure includes saturating a polishing cloth with the chemical attack polish and submicron abrasive particles and buffing the metal surface.

  20. Experimental Polish-Lithuanian Corpus with the Semantic Annotation Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Roszko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental Polish-Lithuanian Corpus with the Semantic Annotation Elements In the article the authors present the experimental Polish-Lithuanian corpus (ECorpPL-LT formed for the idea of Polish-Lithuanian theoretical contrastive studies, a Polish-Lithuanian electronic dictionary, and as help for a sworn translator. The semantic annotation being brought into ECorpPL-LT is extremely useful in Polish-Lithuanian contrastive studies, and also proves helpful in translation work.

  1. Conformal polishing approach: Tool footprint analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A Dieste

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Polishing process is one of the most critical manufacturing processes during a metal part production because it determines the final quality of the product. Free-form surface polishing is a handmade process with lots of rejected parts, scrap generation and time and energy consumption. Two different research lines are being developed: prediction models of the final surface quality parameters and an analysis of the amount of material removed depending on the polishing parameters to predict the tool footprint during the polishing task. This research lays the foundations for a future automatic conformal polishing system. It is based on rotational and translational tool with dry abrasive in the front mounted at the end of a robot. A tool to part concept is used, useful for large or heavy workpieces. Results are applied on different curved parts typically used in tooling industry, aeronautics or automotive. A mathematical model has been developed to predict the amount of material removed in function of polishing parameters. Model has been fitted for different abrasives and raw materials. Results have shown deviations under 20% that implies a reliable and controllable process. Smaller amount of material can be removed in controlled areas of a three-dimensional workpiece.

  2. Laser polishing of additive manufactured Ti alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, C. P.; Guan, Y. C.; Zhou, W.

    2017-06-01

    Laser-based additive manufacturing has attracted much attention as a promising 3D printing method for metallic components in recent years. However, surface roughness of additive manufactured components has been considered as a challenge to achieve high performance. In this work, we demonstrate the capability of fiber laser in polishing rough surface of additive manufactured Ti-based alloys as Ti-6Al-4V and TC11. Both as-received surface and laser-polished surfaces as well as cross-section subsurfaces were analyzed carefully by White-Light Interference, Confocal Microscope, Focus Ion Beam, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive Spectrometer, and X-ray Diffraction. Results revealed that as-received Ti-based alloys with surface roughness more than 5 μm could be reduce to less than 1 μm through laser polishing process. Moreover, microstructure, microhardness and wear resistance of laser-polished zone was investigated in order to examine the thermal effect of laser polishing processing on the substrate of additive manufactured Ti alloys. This proof-of-concept process has the potential to effectively improve the surface roughness of additive manufactured metallic alloy by local polishing method without damage to the substrate.

  3. Interculutral Polish-Chinese QQing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Gajek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Working in tandem with the use of information and communication technologies is well-known and frequently used as a method of supporting learning of foreign languages in authentic communication. It is based on a constructivist approach to teaching. In the reported case study Polish and Chinese students discussed in English preprepared topics. The work shows the potential of e-learning at the micro level, as the language and intercultural task is implemented into an academic course without modification of the objectives and learning outcomes of the course. Evaluation carried out at the end of the project indicates that both groups perceived the task as a significant linguistic, cultural and personal experience. They stressed the importance of sharing “culture for culture” as the partner culture was new for most of them. The ability to talk and respond to information which was often strange, from the point of view of their own culture, allowed for learning intercultural competence ̔in action’.

  4. Smoking characteristics of Polish immigrants in Dublin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kabir, Zubair

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study examined two main hypotheses: a) Polish immigrants\\' smoking estimates are greater than their Irish counterparts (b) Polish immigrants purchasing cigarettes from Poland smoke "heavier" (>\\/= 20 cigarettes a day) when compared to those purchasing cigarettes from Ireland. The study also set out to identify significant predictors of \\'current\\' smoking (some days and everyday) among the Polish immigrants. METHODS: Dublin residents of Polish origin (n = 1,545) completed a previously validated Polish questionnaire in response to an advertisement in a local Polish lifestyle magazine over 5 weekends (July-August, 2007). The Office of Tobacco Control telephone-based monthly survey data were analyzed for the Irish population in Dublin for the same period (n = 484). RESULTS: Age-sex adjusted smoking estimates were: 47.6% (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 47.3%; 48.0%) among the Poles and 27.8% (95% CI: 27.2%; 28.4%) among the general Irish population (p < 0.001). Of the 57% of smokers (n = 345\\/606) who purchased cigarettes solely from Poland and the 33% (n = 198\\/606) who purchased only from Ireland, 42.6% (n = 147\\/345) and 41.4% (n = 82\\/198) were "heavy" smokers, respectively (p = 0.79). Employment (Odds Ratio [OR]: 2.89; 95% CI: 1.25-6.69), lower education (OR: 3.76; 95%CI: 2.46-5.74), and a longer stay in Ireland (>24 months) were significant predictors of current smoking among the Poles. An objective validation of the self-reported smoking history of a randomly selected sub-sample immigrant group, using expired carbon monoxide (CO) measurements, showed a highly significant correlation coefficient (r = 0.64) of expired CO levels with the reported number of cigarettes consumed (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Polish immigrants\\' smoking estimates are higher than their Irish counterparts, and particularly if employed, with only primary-level education, and are overseas >2 years.

  5. Effect of liquid-polish coating on in vitro biofilm accumulation on provisional restorations: Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidi, Michael Perez; Beyth, Nurit; Weiss, Ervin I; Weiss, Ervin I; Eilat, Yuval; Feuerstein, Osnat; Sterer, Nir

    2008-01-01

    In part 1 of this study, the authors showed that coating polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) provisional restorations with bonding resin (BR) or liquid polish (LP) significantly reduced early in vivo biofilm formation on these restorations. The aim of the present study was to determine the mechanism through which these materials inhibit biofilm formation. The antimicrobial properties of the tested materials were examined using the agar diffusion test (ADT) and the direct contact test (DCT). Surface energy was determined using contact angle measurements; salivary protein adsorption was analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). ADT and DCT showed that the tested materials had no antimicrobial properties. Contact angle measurements revealed that liquid polish and PMMA have a similar contact angle, tending toward the hydrophobic region, and that bonding resin was more hydrophilic. SDS-PAGE analysis showed a significant reduction in salivary protein adsorption to the tested materials compared with that to the PMMA control. Liquid polish prevents biofilm formation by preventing protein adsorption.

  6. Polish Adult Reading Test (PART) - construction of Polish test for estimating the level of premorbid intelligence in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakuła-Juchnowicz, Hanna; Stecka, Mariola

    2017-08-29

    In view of unavailability in Poland of the standardized methods to measure PIQ, the aim of the work was to develop a Polish test to assess the premorbid level of intelligence - PART(Polish AdultReading Test) and to measureits psychometric properties, such as validity, reliability as well as standardization in the group of schizophrenia patients. The principles of PART construction were based on the idea of popular worldwide National Adult Reading Test by Hazel Nelson. The research comprised a group of 122 subjects (65 schizophrenia patients and 57 healthy people), aged 18-60 years, matched for age and gender. PART appears to be a method with high internal consistency and reliability measured by test-retest, inter-rater reliability, and the method with acceptable diagnostic and prognostic validity. The standardized procedures of PART have been investigated and described. Considering the psychometric values of PART and a short time of its performance, the test may be a useful diagnostic instrument in the assessment of premorbid level of intelligence in a group of schizophrenic patients.

  7. APS 3D: a new benchmark in aspherical polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauch, Daniel; Mikulic, Dalibor; Veit, Christian

    2017-10-01

    The APS 3D system performs polishing and form correction in one step in order to reduce overall process time, reduce the number of polishing steps required and eliminate the need for highly skilled operators while providing a repeatable polishing process. This new 3D Polishing system yields better surface quality, and a better slope error, automatically determining the optimum speeds, feed rates and polish pressures to achieve a deterministic process based on the required quality parameters input by the operator. The process flow is always the same to ensure consistent quality and target quality values are defined before polishing begins.

  8. Antagonist wear by polished zirconia crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartkamp, Oliver; Lohbauer, Ulrich; Reich, Sven

    The aim of this in vivo study was to measure antagonist wear caused by polished monolithic posterior zirconia crowns over a 24-month period using the intraoral digital impression (IDI) technique. Thirteen zirconia crowns were placed in nine patients. The crowns and adjacent teeth were captured using an intraoral scanner (Lava C.O.S.). The corresponding antagonist teeth and the respective neighboring teeth were also scanned. Scanning was performed immediately after the restoration (baseline) as well as 12 and 24 months after crown placement. Geomagic Qualify software was used to superimpose the follow-up data sets onto the corresponding baseline data set, identify wear sites, and measure maximum vertical height loss in each individual wear site. Overall antagonist wear was then determined as the mean of wear rates measured in all of the individual antagonist units. In addition, wear rates in enamel and ceramic antagonists were analyzed as part of the scope of this study. The maximum mean wear with standard deviation (SD) in the overall sample with a total of nine patients, 13 antagonist units, and 98 evaluable wear sites was 86 ± 23 µm at 12 months, and 103 ± 39 µm at 24 months. The maximum mean wear in the enamel antagonist subgroup was 87 ± 41 µm at 12 months, and 115 ± 71 µm at 24 months; and in the ceramic antagonist subgroup 107 ± 22 µm at 12 months, and 120 ± 27 µm at 24 months. The wear rates determined in this study are comparable to those of existing studies. The IDI technique of wear analysis can be carried out in a practical manner and produces useful results.

  9. QUALITY ASSURANCE SYSTEMS IN POLISH AND UKRAINIAN HIGHER EDUCATION. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Tutko

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the progress made to develop external and internal quality assurance systems in Polish and Ukrainian higher education in the European Higher Education Area background. The focus of the paper is on the extent to which quality assurance systems in these countries are following the Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance in the European Higher Education Area. Furthermore, internal and external quality assur-ance in the European context is presented in the article. The authors of the article also conducted a comparative analysis of quality assurance systems in Polish and Ukrainian higher education.

  10. Material removal mechanisms in abrasive vibration polishing of complex molds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinksmeier, E.; Riemer, O.; Schulte, H.

    2010-10-01

    Optical and medical industries are demanding a large variety of optical elements exhibiting complex geometries and multitude opto-functional areas in the range of a few millimeters [1]. Therefore, mold inserts made of steel or carbides must be finished by polishing for the replication of glass and plastic lenses [2]. For polishing theses complex components in the shape of localized cavities or grooves the application of rotating polishing pads is very limited. Established polishing processes are not applicable, so state of the art is a time consuming and therefore expensive polishing procedures by hand. An automated process with conventional polishing machines is impossible because of the complex mold insert geometry. The authors will present the development of a new abrasive polishing process for finishing these complex mold geometries to optical quality. The necessary relative velocity in the contact area between polishing pad and workpiece surface is exclusively realized by vibration motions which is an advantage over vibration assisted rotating polishing processes. The absence of rotation of the pad opens up the possibility to machine new types of surface geometries. The specific influence factors of vibration polishing were analyzed and will be presented. The determination of material removal behavior and polishing effect on planar steel samples has shown that the conventional abrasive polishing hypothesis of Preston is applicable to the novel vibration polishing process. No overlaid chemical material removal appears.

  11. Polish Academy of Sciences Great Dictionary of Polish [Wielki słownik języka polskiego PAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Žmigrodzki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a lexicographical project involving the development of the newest general dictionary of the Polish language: the Polish Academy of Sciences Great Dictionary of Polish [Wielki słownik języka polskiego PAN]. The project is coordinated by the Institute of Polish Language at the Polish Academy of Sciences and carried out in collaboration with linguists and lexicographers from several other Polish academic centres. The paper offers a brief description of the genesis of the project and the scope of information included in the dictionary, the organisation of work, the life of the dictionary on the Web as well as the plans for the future.

  12. A quantitative method to estimate high gloss polished tool steel surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebeggiani, S; Rosen, B-G [Halmstad University, The Functional Surfaces Research Group, Box 823, SE-301 18 HALMSTAD (Sweden); Sandberg, A, E-mail: sabina.rebeggiani@hh.se [Uddeholms AB, SE-683 85 Hagfors (Sweden)

    2011-08-19

    Visual estimations are today the most common way to assess the surface quality of moulds and dies; a method that are both subjective and, with today's high demands on surfaces, hardly usable to distinguish between the finest surface qualities. Instead a method based on non-contact 3D-surface texture analysis is suggested. Several types of tool steel samples, manually as well as machine polished, were analysed to study different types of surface defects such as pitting, orange peel and outwardly features. The classification of the defect structures serves as a catalogue where known defects are described. Suggestions of different levels of 'high surface quality' defined in numerical values adapted to high gloss polished tool steel surfaces are presented. The final goal is to develop a new manual that can work as a 'standard' for estimations of tool steel surfaces for steel producers, mould makers, polishers etc.

  13. Surface Roughness and Gloss of Actual Composites as Polished With Different Polishing Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues-Junior, S A; Chemin, P; Piaia, P P; Ferracane, J L

    2015-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the effect of polishing with different polishing systems on the surface roughness and gloss of commercial composites. One hundred disk-shaped specimens (10 mm in diameter × 2 mm thick) were made with Filtek P-90, Filtek Z350 XT, Opallis, and Grandio. The specimens were manually finished with #400 sandpaper and polished by a single operator using three multistep systems (Superfix, Diamond Pro, and Sof-lex), one two-step system (Polidores DFL), and one one-step system (Enhance), following the manufacturer's instructions. The average surface roughness (μm) was measured with a surface profilometer (TR 200 Surface Roughness Tester), and gloss was measured using a small-area glossmeter (Novo-Curve, Rhopoint Instrumentation, East Sussex, UK). Data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance and Tukey's test (α=0.05). Statistically significant differences in surface roughness were identified by varying the polishing systems (pGrandio when polished with Sof-Lex and Filtek Z250 and Opallis when polished with Enhance. Gloss was influenced by the composites (p<0.0001), the polishing systems (p<0.0001), and the interaction between them (p<0.0001). The one-step system, Enhance, produced the lowest gloss for all composites. Surface roughness and gloss were affected by composites and polishing systems. The interaction between both also influenced these surface characteristics, meaning that a single polishing system will not behave similarly for all composites. The multistep systems produced higher gloss, while the one-step system produced the highest surface roughness and the lowest gloss of all.

  14. Analysis of the Motor Activities of Professional Polish Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzejewski Marcin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aims of the present study were to determine the activity profiles of a large sample of Polish Premier League soccer players during elite-standard soccer matches depending on their position on the pitch and the intensity range of physical activity. Material and methods. The study sample comprised 1,178 players in 5 outfield positions: external defenders (ED, n = 289, central defenders (CD, n = 307, central midfield players (CM, n = 327, external midfield players (EM, n = 152, and forwards (F, n = 103. Altogether, 81 Polish League games held during four domestic seasons (2010-2011, 2011-2012, 2012-2013, and 2013-2014 were used in the analysis. A semi-automatic computerised player tracking system (Amisco Pro®, version 1.0.2, Nice, France was applied to create the match activity profiles of the teams. Results. The results of statistical analysis revealed that the average total distance covered by all the players (n = 1,178 was 11,313 ± 852 m. With respect to the players’ position on the pitch, the central midfielders travelled the longest average distance (11,894 ± 765 m during the game. The longest distance was covered in the V1 intensity range (62%, followed by V2 (15%, V3 (10%, V4 (8%, V5 (3%, and V6 (2%. Conclusions. The objective of this study was to verify the differences among playing positions and to quantify the demands placed on elite Polish soccer players in each individual position during match play. While analysing elite-level match play in terms of the overall distance covered in different categories of intensity, we found a number of statistically significant differences between different playing positions. The data presented in this study can be regarded as norms for elite soccer players, serve for present and future comparison, and represent the scientific basis for developing position-specific conditioning/training protocols in soccer.

  15. Physical fitness classification standards for polish early education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The EETs scores were significantly poorer than early elementary school children in 4x10m shuttle run, sit-ups in 30s, bent arm hang on bar and a 1-minute Burpee test. The results of the EETs were significantly below those of FEEUSs in the standing long jump, 4x10m shuttle run, sit-ups in 30s, medicine ball backward throw ...

  16. The association of the original OSHA chemical hazard communication standard with reductions in acute work injuries/illnesses in private industry and the industrial releases of chemical carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleinick, Arthur

    2014-02-01

    OSHA predicted the original chemical Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) would cumulatively reduce the lost workday acute injury/illness rate for exposure events by 20% over 20 years and reduce exposure to chemical carcinogens. JoinPoint trend software identified changes in the rate of change of BLS rates for days away from work for acute injuries/illnesses during 1992-2009 for manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries for both chemical, noxious or allergenic injury exposure events and All other exposure events. The annual percent change in the rates was used to adjust observed numbers of cases to estimate their association with the standard. A case-control study of EPA's Toxic Release Inventory 1988-2009 data compared carcinogen and non-carcinogens' releases. The study estimates that the HCS was associated with a reduction in the number of acute injuries/illnesses due to chemical injury exposure events over the background rate in the range 107,569-459,395 (Hudson method/modified BIC model) depending on whether the HCS is treated as a marginal or sole factor in the decrease. Carcinogen releases have declined at a substantially faster rate than control non-carcinogens. The previous HCS standard was associated with significant reductions in chemical event acute injuries/illnesses and chemical carcinogen exposures. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Effects of air-polishing powders on color stability of composite resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    GÜLER, Ahmet Umut; DURAN, Ibrahim; YÜCEL, Ali Çagin; ÖZKAN, Pelin

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different air-polishing powders on the color stability of different types of composite resin restorative materials. Material and methods Thirty cylindrical specimens (15×2 mm) were prepared for each of 7 composite resin restorative materials. All specimens were polished with a series of aluminum oxide polishing discs (Sof-Lex). The prepared specimens of each composite resin were randomly divided into 3 groups of 10 specimens each, for control (Group-C) and two air-powder applications (Group-CP: Cavitron Prophy-Jet; Group-PS: Sirona ProSmile prophylaxis powder). A standard air-polishing unit (ProSmile Handly) was used. All specimens were air-powdered for 10 s at 4-bar pressure. The distance of the spray nosel from the specimens was approximately 10 mm and angulation of the nosel was 90º. Specimens were stored in 100 mL of coffee (Nescafe Classic) for 24 h at 37ºC. Color measurement of all specimens was recorded before and after exposure to staining agent with a colorimeter (Minolta CR-300). Color differences (∆E*) between the 2 color measurements (baseline and after 24 h storage) were calculated. The data were analyzed with a 2-way ANOVA test, and mean values were compared by the Tukey HSD test (p≤0.05). Results According to the 2-way ANOVA results, composite resin restorative materials, air-polishing powders, and their interaction were statistically significant (pGrandio, CeramX Mono, and Quixfil composite resin restorative materials, no significant difference was observed between Group-PS and Group-CP (p>.05) and these groups demonstrated the highest ∆E* values. For Filtek Silorane and IntenS, the highest ∆E* values were observed in Group-PS. The lowest ∆E* values for all composite resin groups were observed in Group-C. When comparing the 7 composite resin restorative materials, Aelite Aesthetic Enemal demonstrated significantly less ∆E* values than the other composite resins

  18. Microbiological flora and nail polish: a brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayan, G M; Flournoy, D J; Schlageter, P

    1994-11-01

    Removing nail polish and prosthetic nails from operating room (OR) personnel prior to scrubbing and from patients prior to hand surgery is recommended but not practiced in many hospitals. There is concern that nail polish can act as a vehicle for the transfer of infectious agents. This study was designed to determine the incidence of microbiological flora of nail polish in a clinical setting.

  19. Monitoring of Robot Assisted Polishing through parameters of acoustic emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarev, Ruslan; Top, Søren; Bilberg, Arne

    The polishing process is essential for the surface generation of machine tooling components in advanced manufacturing. While robot assisted polishing is faster and more consistent than manual polishing, it can still consume a significant part of ma- chining time and operator presence time...

  20. 21 CFR 872.6030 - Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent. 872.6030... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6030 Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent. (a) Identification. An oral cavity abrasive polishing agent is a device in paste or powder form...

  1. Professional Training of Economists at Polish Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogienko, Olena

    2016-01-01

    Polish experience in professional training of economists at university has been generalized. Structural, content and procedural peculiarities of the training have been defined. It has been proved that key factors for reforming economic education in Poland are globalization, internationalization, integration, technologization and informatization.…

  2. Knowledge Mobilisation in the Polish Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazlagic, Jan; Erkol, Arif

    2015-01-01

    Poland has made substantial progress in improving the quality of its education system in recent years. This paper aims to describe the situation of the Polish education system from a knowledge management perspective and, to some extent, through innovation policies in education. The many challenges, this paper argues, can be tackled only through…

  3. Sexual Health of Polish Athletes with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Plinta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine sexual functioning of Polish athletes with disabilities (including paralympians. The study encompassed 218 people with physical disabilities, aged between 18 and 45 (149 men and 69 women. The entire research population was divided into three groups: Polish paralympians (n = 45, athletes with disabilities (n = 126 and non-athletes with disabilities (n = 47. The quality of sexual life of Polish paralympians was measured by using the Polish version of Female Sexual Function Index and International Index of Erectile Function. Clinically significant erectile dysfunctions were most often diagnosed in non-athletes (83.33% with 50% result of severe erectile dysfunctions, followed by athletes and paralympians with comparable results of 56.98% and 54.17% respectively (p = 0.00388. Statistically significant clinical sexual dysfunctions concerned lubrication, orgasm as well as pain domains, and prevailed among female non-athletes (68.42%, 68.42% and 57.89%. Practising sports at the highest level has a favourable effect on the sexuality of men and women with physical disabilities. Men with physical disabilities manifest more sexual disorders than women, an aspect which should be considered by health-care professionals working with people with disabilities.

  4. Technological Advances of Robot Assisted Polishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarev, Ruslan; Top, Søren; Grønbæk, Jens

    The efficient polishing of surfaces is very important in mould and die industry. Fine abrasive processes are widely used in industry for the first steps for the production of tools of high quality in terms of finishing accuracy, form and surface integrity. While manufacturing of most components r...

  5. Polish Complementary Schools in Iceland and England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinska, Malgorzata; Kowzan, Piotr; Ragnarsdóttir, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Since 2004, the opening of labour markets has spurred a considerable number of Poles to emigrate e.g. to Iceland and England. Families with school age children have had the challenge of adapting to foreign environments and school systems. Polish complementary schools have played an important, albeit ambivalent, role in this process. Through focus…

  6. Self-phase modulation induced transmission penalty reduction in a 5 Gbit/s FM/AM conversion system experiment over 205 km of standard fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Bo Foged; Pedersen, Rune Johan Skullerud; Jørgensen, Carsten Gudmann

    1994-01-01

    The transmission penalty of a standard non-dispersion shifted fiber is experimentally demonstrated to be reduced by self-phase modulation due to the optical Kerr effect. A 2 dB reduction of transmission penalty is achieved in a 5 Gbit/s FM/AM conversion system experiment over 205 km of fiber. The....... The origin of the transmission penalty change is discussed for clarification of the important interaction between modulation induced frequency chirp, self-phase modulation and group velocity dispersion in systems with high-power transmitters...

  7. Transformation of the Polish Banking Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Stefański

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In the post-war period the banking system in Poland underwent two important system transitions: after 1946 and after 1989. The third transformation began after May 1, 2004, but it did not have a systemic character. The Polish banking sector started to operate on the Single European Market. The first part of the paper is devoted to the problems of the banks transformations after 1989 with a special focus on the quantitative development of banks in 19892008, and on subsequent privatisation and consolidation processes. The former intensified in 19891999, and the latter in 19992002. The consolidation process was very noticeable in the sector of cooperative banks after 1994. The second part of the paper includes an economic and financial analysis of the banks. A lot of attention was paid to the liquidity of the banking sector. It was assessed as good, which was confirmed by a short-term rating of Moodys and by the Financial Stability Report 2009, published by the National Bank of Poland in June 2009. The comparison of the net profit of the banking sector in 19972008 shows its dependence on the economic situation and policy. The number of banks with capital adequacy ratio well above the minimum required by the banking supervision is rising. The financial power ratings are not favorable for the domestic banks. The third part of the paper focuses on the development directions of the Polish banking sector. It may be concluded on the basis of the analysis that privatisation and consolidation processes will be continued. They will concentrate on the capital of foreign banks already operating in Poland. As compared with individual foreign banks, the potential of the Polish banking sector is week. The fourth part of the paper focuses on the presentation Polish banking sector in the context of European Union banking sector. The paper finishes with conclusions. Generally, Polish banks have to implement a strategy to enable them to compete on the Single

  8. Leakage Power Reduction with Various IO Standards and Dynamic Voltage Scaling in Vedic Multiplier on Virtex-6 FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pandey, Bishwajeet; Rehman, M. Atiqur; Hussain, Dil muhammed Akbar

    2016-01-01

    , SSTL and LVCMOS family respectively. Device static power and design static power are two types of static power dissipation. Device static power is also known as Leakage power when the device is on but not configured. Design static power is power dissipation when bit file of design is downloaded on FPGA......The 8-bit design is able to process 256 times input combination in compare to 4-bit vedic multiplier, using approximates 6 times basic elements, 2 times IO buffers, approximate 1.5 times total power dissipation. HSTL_I_12, SSTL18_I and LVCMOS12 are the most energy efficient IO standards in HSTL...... but there is no switching activity. Design static power dissipation of 8-bit Vedic multiplier is almost double of design static power dissipation of 4-bit Vedic multiplier. Device static (leakage) power dissipation of 8-bit Vedic multiplier is almost equal to device static power dissipation of 4-bit Vedic multiplier on 40...

  9. Canada’s highest court unchains injection drug users; implications for harm reduction as standard of healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Small Dan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract North America’s only supervised injection facility, Insite, opened its doors in September of 2003 with a federal exemption as a three-year scientific study. The results of the study, evaluated by an independent research team, showed it to be successful in engaging the target group in healthcare, preventing overdose death and HIV infections while increasing uptake and retention in detox and treatment. The research, published in peer-reviewed medical and scientific journals, also showed that the program did not increase public disorder, crime or drug use. Despite the substantial evidence showing the effectiveness of the program, the future of Insite came under threat with the election of a conservative federal government in 2006. As a result, the PHS Community Services Society (PHS, the non-profit organization that operates Insite, launched a legal case to protect the program. On 30 September 2011, Supreme Court of Canada ruled in favour of Insite and underscored the rights of people with addictions to the security of their person under section 7 of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms (Charter of Rights. The decision clears the ground for other jurisdictions in Canada, and perhaps North America, to implement supervised injection and harm reduction where it is epidemiologically indicated. The legal case validates the personhood of people with addictions while metaphorically unchaining them from the criminal justice system.

  10. Overcoming trends in irregularly spaced locations by regional polish - exemplified by estimation of the range of influence between Salmonella Dublin-seropositive cattle herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersbøll, A K; Ersbøll, B K

    2010-10-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a procedure to remove spatial trends in irregularly spaced data, with trends partly due to regional differences. Median polish is often used on regularly spaced (lattice) data where column and row medians are removed. For irregularly spaced data a low-resolution map of the spatial locations is often used where data locations are assigned to the nearest lattice node followed by median polish. In this study regional polish was developed. The inverse distance weighted median was calculated based on observations from locations in the neighbourhood of the actual observation. The regional polish residual is obtained as the difference between the observed value and the weighted median. The regional polish procedure was applied to Salmonella Dublin data showing strong regional trends. Estimation of the range of influence between cattle herds with positive S. Dublin herd status was considerably improved with a stable parameter estimate and reduced standard error.

  11. New Approach to Remuneration Policy for Investment Firms: a Polish Capital Market Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymon Okoń

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The experience of the recent financial crisis leads to reflections on the relevant mechanisms of risk reduction of an investment firms activity. Within the European Union, the Directive 2010/76/EU (CRD III has introduced new rules regarding the remuneration policy for investment firms. The main goal was to reduce the risk of investment firms’ activity. This is a prudential regulation. The purpose of this article is to evaluate, from the point of view of an investment firm, proposed by the EU legislator approach to remuneration policy aimed at reducing the risk of the operation of this type of financial institutions. The aim was to identify the key problems with which Polish investment firms may face in the future in connection with new remuneration policy rules. As far as the methodology is concerned, the author carried out in-depth and standardized interviews with the representatives of several investment firms in Poland. In addition, the method of observation has been applied. The results of the research demonstrates that the abovementioned regulations will have limited impact on reducing the risk of the activities of these financial institutions as well as their implementation will be difficult for them in practice.

  12. Chemical mechanical glass polishing with cerium oxide: Effect of selected physico-chemical characteristics on polishing efficiency

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janoš, P.; Ederer, J.; Pilařová, V.; Henych, Jiří; Tolasz, Jakub; Milde, D.; Opletal, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 362, SEP (2016), s. 114-120 ISSN 0043-1648 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015073 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Chemical mechanical polishing * Ceria-based polishing powders * Polishing efficienc Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.531, year: 2016

  13. STUDY OF POLISHING AISI 316L WITH STRUCTURED ABRASIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François GOOSSENS

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Finishing process like polishing is usually used to obtain high quality mechanical surface characteristics such as texture and roughness. These operations are mainly handmade and need highly trained operators thus limiting their repeatability and profitability. To optimize the industrialization of the polishing process, it is therefore necessary to modelize the process to built efficient parameter database. The aim of this study is to characterise the polishing of 316L stainless steel with structured abrasive belts. The geometric data of the belts are given, and we then propose a model to determine material removal. An experimental test bench is set up to test this model and characterise the polishing process in terms of forces. It produces samples for different polishing conditions. The different polished surfaces are then analyzed thanks to the roughness and the wettability. Using experimental designs, we are able to validate the proposed model and identify the parameters that influence a polishing operation.

  14. The corpus-driven revolution in Polish Sign Language: the interview with Dr. Paweł Rutkowski

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iztok Kosem

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Dr. Paweł Rutkowski is head of the Section for Sign Linguistics at the University of Warsaw. He is a general linguist and a specialist in the field of syntax of natural languages, carrying out research on Polish Sign Language (polski język migowy — PJM. He has been awarded a number of prizes, grants and scholarships by such institutions as the Foundation for Polish Science, Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education, National Science Centre, Poland, Polish–U.S. Fulbright Commission, Kosciuszko Foundation and DAAD. Dr. Rutkowski leads the team developing the Corpus of Polish Sign Language and the Corpus-based Dictionary of Polish Sign Language, the first dictionary of this language prepared in compliance with modern lexicographical standards. The dictionary is an open-access publication, available freely at the following address: http://www.slownikpjm.uw.edu.pl/en/. This interview took place at eLex 2017, a biennial conference on electronic lexicography, where Dr. Rutkowski was awarded the Adam Kilgarriff Prize and gave a keynote address entitled Sign language as a challenge to electronic lexicography: The Corpus-based Dictionary of Polish Sign Language and beyond. The interview was conducted by Dr. Victoria Nyst from Leiden University, Faculty of Humanities, and Dr. Iztok Kosem from the University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Arts.

  15. Effects of air-polishing powders on color stability of composite resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Umut Güler

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different air-polishing powders on the color stability of different types of composite resin restorative materials. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty cylindrical specimens (15×2 mm were prepared for each of 7 composite resin restorative materials. All specimens were polished with a series of aluminum oxide polishing discs (Sof-Lex. The prepared specimens of each composite resin were randomly divided into 3 groups of 10 specimens each, for control (Group-C and two air-powder applications (Group-CP: Cavitron Prophy-Jet; Group-PS: Sirona ProSmile prophylaxis powder. A standard air-polishing unit (ProSmile Handly was used. All specimens were air-powdered for 10 s at 4-bar pressure. The distance of the spray nosel from the specimens was approximately 10 mm and angulation of the nosel was 90°. Specimens were stored in 100 mL of coffee (Nescafe Classic for 24 h at 37°C. Color measurement of all specimens was recorded before and after exposure to staining agent with a colorimeter (Minolta CR-300. Color differences (∆E* between the 2 color measurements (baseline and after 24 h storage were calculated. The data were analyzed with a 2-way ANOVA test, and mean values were compared by the Tukey HSD test (p.05 and these groups demonstrated the highest ∆E* values. For Filtek Silorane and IntenS, the highest ∆E* values were observed in Group-PS. The lowest ∆E* values for all composite resin groups were observed in Group-C. When comparing the 7 composite resin restorative materials, Aelite Aesthetic Enemal demonstrated significantly less ∆E* values than the other composite resins tested. The highest ∆E* values were observed in Quixfil. CONCLUSION: Except for Quixfil, all control groups of composite resins that were polished Sof-Lex exhibited clinically acceptable ∆E values (<3.7. Air-polishing applications increased the color change for all composite resin restorative materials

  16. SPECTRAL METHODS IN POLISH EMOTIONAL SPEECH RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Powroźnik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article the issue of emotion recognition based on Polish emotional speech signal analysis was presented. The Polish database of emotional speech, prepared and shared by the Medical Electronics Division of the Lodz University of Technology, has been used for research. Speech signal has been processed by Artificial Neural Networks (ANN. The inputs for ANN were information obtained from signal spectrogram. Researches were conducted for three different spectrogram divisions. The ANN consists of four layers but the number of neurons in each layer depends of spectrogram division. Conducted researches focused on six emotional states: a neutral state, sadness, joy, anger, fear and boredom. The averange effectiveness of emotions recognition was about 80%.

  17. Polish normalization of the Body Esteem Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Lipowska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Physical attractiveness plays an important part in one’s social functioning. The interest in one’s own appearance have been documented as widespread among the female population, but over the recent years it is more and more often emphasized that concentrating on body appearance concerns men as well. Franzoi and Shields (1984 created the Body Esteem Scale which allows to qualify the subject’s attitude towards his or her own body. The aim of the study was to create a Polish version of the Body Esteem Scale along with the norms for age and sex clusters. Participants and procedure The normalization sample consisted of 4298 participants: 1865 women aged 16 to 80 (M = 29.92; SD = 12.85 and 2433 men aged 16 to 78 (M = 28.74; SD = 11.50. Education levels among the participants were also controlled for. In order to create a Polish version of the Body Esteem Scale, translation was adopted as the adaptation strategy. Like the original one, the Polish scale comprises 35 items grouped into three gender specific subscales. The subscales for women include Sexual Attractiveness, Weight Concern, and Physical Condition, whereas the body esteem of is examined with regards to Physical Attractiveness, Upper Body Strength, and Physical Condition. Results Reliability of subscales was high both for females (Cronbach’s alpha from 0.80 to 0.89 and males (Cronbach’s alpha from 0.85 to 0.88. The given coefficients of reliability cover the original division into subscales adopted by the authors of BES. Conclusions We confirmed high reliability of the Polish version of the Body Esteem Scale, thus we recommend it as a diagnostic tool. Created norms allowed to refer results obtained in the course of research carried out on people with various disorders (e.g. eating disorders or body dysmorphic disorder with population data for corresponding age brackets.

  18. Polish Martial Law: The Crisis of Communism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Roman Catholic Church continued to exist, and a comparatively liberal cultural policy was in place, which continued a legitimate practice of most of...intervention. Their answers verify that for most Poles the fear 29 of losing sovereignty and Polish culture to Russian aggression overshadows all else, even...they going in? They did not,” Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, http://www.wilsoncenter.org/news/ docs/ Historia -Jachranka%20-%20Stan

  19. Proficiency Testing and Language Teaching: Russian and Polish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimma Garn

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the potential application of proficiency testing in U.S. colleges and universities. Specific consideration is giv-en to: the Oral Proficiency Interview, based on ILR or ACTFL guidelines, administered on a large scale at the Defense Language In-stitute and occasionally employed in American academia; the Diag-nostic Assessment Interview, the assessment tool of choice at DLI, basically unheard of in academia; and the new Polish proficiency test, which is part and parcel of the standardized series of language tests administered throughout Europe, based on Language Testers of Eu-rope guidelines. The author proposes that introducing the underlying principles of proficiency testing into American academia and promot-ing a better awareness of level tasks and expectations on the part of language teachers could help to eliminate the disconnect between testing and teaching. It could benefit instruction from early to ad-vanced stages.

  20. The Polish Cyborg. A Reflection on the Relationship between Man and Machine in Early Polish Modernism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Ranocchi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Far from being enthusiastic “modernolatry” of Italian futurism, Polish futurism demonstrates an attitude of ambivalence toward modernity. This is particularly evident in the Polish approach to that very synecdoche of modernity which is the machine. In his essay of 1923, the leader of the group, Bruno Jasieński, compares the fetishistic cult of the machine, which characterizes the Italian approach, with the utilitarian one of the Russians, exemplified by a quote from Majakovskij. To these two propositions, as a sort of Hegelian synthesis, he adds a Polish one consisting in the conception of the machine as a prosthesis, a continuation of the human body. Thereby he introduces an idea later known as “cyborg”. The category of cyborg is also useful to understand the work of another today almost forgotten Polish writer of the Twenties, Jerzy Sosnkowski. He was the author of a short novel, A Car, You and Me (Love of Machines, in which a whole chapter concerns the chief character’s dystopian nightmare wherein machines take control over the world. The third section of the essay deals with the idea of man a machine – an old, 18th century conception, which became actual anew in the 20th century and whose traces we can find among others in a well-known poem by Tytus Czyżewski. Thirty years before N. Wiener, Polish modernists seem to have sensed the social, political and anthropological implications of the mechanization of work.

  1. Effects of polishing procedures on color stability of composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güler, Ahmet Umut; Güler, Eda; Yücel, Ali Cağin; Ertaş, Ertan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different polishing methods on color stability of posterior, universal and nanohybrid composite resin restorative materials upon exposure to a staining agent. Twenty-five specimens were prepared for each of 5 different composite resins (Filtek Z250, Filtek P60, Quadrant LC, Grandio and Filtek Supreme). Specimens were divided into 5 groups and different polishing procedures, including polishing discs (Pd), polishing discs then diamond polishing paste (PdP), polishing discs then a liquid polishing system (Biscover) (PdB), and combinations of these (PdPB) were used. Unpolished specimens served as the control (C). The specimens were stored for 48 h in a coffee solution. The color of all specimens was measured before and after exposure with a colorimeter, and total color change (DeltaE*) were calculated. The data were analyzed with a two-way ANOVA and the means were compared by Tukey HSD test (alpha=0.05). The lowest color difference was observed in the groups PdP and C, while the highest color difference was observed in PdPB, and PdB. When comparing the five different restorative materials, no significant difference was observed between FiltekP60 and FiltekZ250, and these materials demonstrated significantly less color change than Quadrant LC and the nanohybrid materials (Grandio, Filtek Supreme). The posterior (Filtek P60) and universal (Filtek Z250) composite resin restorative materials, which do not contain tetraethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA), were found to be less stainable than the nanohybrid (Grandio, Filtek Supreme) and universal (Quadrant LC) composite resins, which contain TEGDMA. The use of diamond polishing paste after polishing with polishing discs significantly decreased staining when compared to the groups that used polishing discs alone, for all restorative materials tested. The highest color change values were obtained for the specimens that were polished with the Biscover liquid polish

  2. Effects of polishing procedures on color stability of composite resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Umut Güler

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different polishing methods on color stability of posterior, universal and nanohybrid composite resin restorative materials upon exposure to a staining agent. Twenty-five specimens were prepared for each of 5 different composite resins (Filtek Z250, Filtek P60, Quadrant LC, Grandio and Filtek Supreme. Specimens were divided into 5 groups and different polishing procedures, including polishing discs (Pd, polishing discs then diamond polishing paste (PdP, polishing discs then a liquid polishing system (Biscover (PdB, and combinations of these (PdPB were used. Unpolished specimens served as the control (C. The specimens were stored for 48 h in a coffee solution. The color of all specimens was measured before and after exposure with a colorimeter, and total color change (DE* were calculated. The data were analyzed with a two-way ANOVA and the means were compared by Tukey HSD test (a=0.05. The lowest color difference was observed in the groups PdP and C, while the highest color difference was observed in PdPB, and PdB. When comparing the five different restorative materials, no significant difference was observed between FiltekP60 and FiltekZ250, and these materials demonstrated significantly less color change than Quadrant LC and the nanohybrid materials (Grandio, Filtek Supreme. The posterior (Filtek P60 and universal (Filtek Z250 composite resin restorative materials, which do not contain tetraethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA, were found to be less stainable than the nanohybrid (Grandio, Filtek Supreme and universal (Quadrant LC composite resins, which contain TEGDMA. The use of diamond polishing paste after polishing with polishing discs significantly decreased staining when compared to the groups that used polishing discs alone, for all restorative materials tested. The highest color change values were obtained for the specimens that were polished with the Biscover liquid polish

  3. Standard wide local excision or bilateral reduction mammoplasty in large-breasted women with small tumours: Surgical and patient-reported outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Micco, R; O'Connell, R L; Barry, P A; Roche, N; MacNeill, F A; Rusby, J E

    2017-04-01

    Oncoplastic breast surgery is used to extend the role of breast-conserving surgery (BCS) to women with an unfavourable tumour to breast volume ratio. However, large-breasted women with a relatively small breast cancer may be offered bilateral reduction mammoplasty (BRM) despite being suitable for standard BCS as the more complex surgery may have advantages in terms of patient satisfaction and reduced adverse effects of radiotherapy. This retrospective study evaluated surgical and patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) in large-breasted women with early ( 0.05). Limitations of this study mean it can only be regarded as hypothesis-generating. Nonetheless, the trends merit a prospective study to investigate the optimal management of smaller breast cancers in larger-breasted women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  4. Advanced space optics development in freeform optics design, ceramic polishing, rapid and extreme freeform polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyl, R.; Leplan, H.; Ruch, E.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper Safran-Reosc wants to share with the space community its recent work performed in the domain of space optics. Our main topic is a study about the advantages that freeform optical surfaces can offer to advanced space optics in term of compactness or performances. We have separated smart and extreme freeform in our design exploration work. Our second topic is to answer about the immediate question following: can we manufacture and test these freeform optics? We will therefore present our freeform optics capability, report recent achievement in extreme aspheric optics polishing and introduce to the industrialisation process of large off axis optics polishing for the ESO Extremely Large Telescope primary mirror segments. Thirdly we present our R-SiC polishing layer technology for SiC material. This technique has been developed to reduce costs, risks and schedule in the manufacturing of advanced SiC optics for Vis and IR applications.

  5. Accelerated rehabilitation compared with a standard protocol after distal radial fractures treated with volar open reduction and internal fixation: a prospective, randomized, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehmer, Jess L; Husband, Jeffrey B

    2014-10-01

    There are relatively few studies in the literature that specifically evaluate accelerated rehabilitation protocols for distal radial fractures treated with open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). The purpose of this study was to compare the early postoperative outcomes (at zero to twelve weeks postoperatively) of patients enrolled in an accelerated rehabilitation protocol with those of patients enrolled in a standard rehabilitation protocol following ORIF for a distal radial fracture. We hypothesized that patients with accelerated rehabilitation after volar ORIF for a distal radial fracture would have an earlier return to function compared with patients who followed a standard protocol. From November 2007 to November 2010, eighty-one patients with an unstable distal radial fracture were prospectively randomized to follow either an accelerated or a standard rehabilitation protocol after undergoing ORIF with a volar plate for a distal radial fracture. Both groups began with gentle active range of motion at three to five days postoperatively. At two weeks, the accelerated group initiated wrist/forearm passive range of motion and strengthening exercises, whereas the standard group initiated passive range of motion and strengthening at six weeks postoperatively. Patients were assessed at three to five days, two weeks, three weeks, four weeks, six weeks, eight weeks, twelve weeks, and six months postoperatively. Outcomes included Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) scores (primary outcome) and measurements of wrist flexion/extension, supination, pronation, grip strength, and palmar pinch. The patients in the accelerated group had better mobility, strength, and DASH scores at the early postoperative time points (zero to eight weeks postoperatively) compared with the patients in the standard rehabilitation group. The difference between the groups was both clinically relevant and statistically significant. Patients who follow an accelerated rehabilitation

  6. Validation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Polish version of the Oswestry Disability Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miekisiak, Grzegorz; Kollataj, Marta; Dobrogowski, Jan; Kloc, Wojciech; Libionka, Witold; Banach, Mariusz; Latka, Dariusz; Sobolewski, Tomasz; Sulewski, Adam; Nowakowski, Andrzej; Kiwic, Grzegorz; Pala, Adam; Potaczek, Tomasz; Gierlotka, Maciej

    2013-02-15

    Validation of a translated, culturally adapted questionnaire. To translate and culturally adapt a Polish version of the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and to validate its use in Polish patients. The ODI is among the most popular questionnaires used to evaluate back pain-related disability. To our knowledge no validated Polish version of the index was available at the time our study was initiated. The questionnaire was translated and culturally adapted by 2 independent translators and approved by expert committee. Final version was included in the booklet consisting in addition of a previously validated Roland-Morris disability questionnaire, VAS for low back and leg and 3 Likert scale questions (pain medications, pain frequency, disability). It was tested on 169 patients with chronic low back pain, 164 (97%) of them were enrolled, and 84 of 164 (53%) returned the completed retest booklet within 2 to 14 days after the baseline test. There were no differences between the 2 groups in demographic and clinical parameters. Test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and construct validity were investigated. The mean ODI (standard deviation [SD]) was 48.45 (18.94); minimum 2, maximum 94. The Cronbach α for baseline questionnaires (n = 164) was 0.90. Concurrent validity, measured by comparing ODI responses with the results of the Roland-Morris disability questionnaire score was very good (r = 0.607, P disability in Polish-speaking patients with lower back pain.

  7. Evaluation of surface roughness of three different composite resins with three different polishing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abzal, Mohammed S; Rathakrishnan, Mensudar; Prakash, Venkatachalam; Vivekanandhan, Paramasivam; Subbiya, Arunajatesan; Sukumaran, Vridhachalam Ganapathy

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the surface roughness of three composites with three different polishing systems. Composite specimens were made from the Teflon mold with a standardized cavity size (6 mm diameter and 3 mm height). Group I - Filtek Z350XT (Nano clusters), group II - T-Econom plus (Microhybrid), group III - G-aenial Flo (True Nano). The samples were cured for 30 s from both sides with the matrices in place. The 60 samples were divided into 3 groups (N = 20), which accounted for 40 surfaces, (n = 20 × 2 = 40) in each groups. Each group were subdivided into four subgroups based on the type polishing material, subgroup A - Control, subgroup B - Astrobrush, subgroup C - Astropol, and subgroup D - Soflex spiral wheel. The samples of all groups except group A (control) were finished and polished according to the manufacture's instruction. After polishing, the roughness (Ra) of the resin composite of all the specimens were measured using a profilometer. Soflex spiral wheel (group D) significantly had the least roughness (Ra) value as compared to the other groups. Among the three resin composites tested, G-aenial Flo exhibited least Ra value due to its reduced filler size and its uniform distribution.

  8. Hydrodynamic modelling in the Polish Zone of the Baltic Sea - an overview of Polish achievements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Jasińska

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a general overview of Polish experience and achievements with regard to hydrodynamic modelling in the Polish zone of the Baltic Sea. The first work started already at the end of the sixties when the first 1D and 2D hydrodynamic models were set up. With the development of numerical methods and increasing computational power a number of 1D, 2D and 3D models were set up and tested. Global, regional and local models cover the most important water bodies,i.e. the Pomeranian Bay - Szczecin Lagoon and Gulf of Gdansk - Vistula Lagoon systems.

  9. Subgingival plaque removal using a new air-polishing device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moëne, Raphaël; Décaillet, Fabien; Andersen, Elene; Mombelli, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety, patient acceptance, and short-term microbiologic effect of a new air-polishing device in subjects in maintenance care with residual pockets > or =5 mm. This was an examiner-masked, randomized, split-mouth clinical trial. A new disposable nozzle, allowing the subgingival application of amino acid glycine powder at a limited pressure, was compared to scaling and root planing (SRP) in 50 subjects with residual pockets during the maintenance phase. After removing supragingival deposits, the spray was applied for 4 to 5 seconds in all sites > or =5 mm in the test quadrant, whereas SRP was used in the control quadrant. Microbiologic samples were taken from one treated test and one control site 2 days before and 7 days after treatment. Total bacterial counts and the counts of six periodontal pathogens were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. No adverse event was noted in any subject for the test or control treatment. Using a visual analog scale, the patients perceived the test treatment to be significantly less painful/uncomfortable than the hand instrumentation (P control quadrants (P = 0.019 and P bacterial load and the counts of six periodontal pathogens between the test and control sites did not reach statistical significance. The longitudinal reduction was significant in control sites for total bacteria load (P <0.001), Porphyromonas gingivalis (P = 0.01), Treponema denticola (P <0.001), and Tannerella forsythia (previously T. forsythensis) (P <0.001). Subgingival air polishing with a new device was safe (no adverse events were noted), perceived to be more acceptable by the patients, and was more time-efficient than SRP; however, on a microbiologic level, it was not superior to conventional SRP.

  10. Measurement of surface roughness changes of unpolished and polished enamel following erosion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Mullan

    Full Text Available To determine if Sa roughness data from measuring one central location of unpolished and polished enamel were representative of the overall surfaces before and after erosion.Twenty human enamel sections (4x4 mm were embedded in bis-acryl composite and randomised to either a native or polishing enamel preparation protocol. Enamel samples were subjected to an acid challenge (15 minutes 100 mL orange juice, pH 3.2, titratable acidity 41.3mmol OH/L, 62.5 rpm agitation, repeated for three cycles. Median (IQR surface roughness [Sa] was measured at baseline and after erosion from both a centralised cluster and four peripheral clusters. Within each cluster, five smaller areas (0.04 mm2 provided the Sa roughness data.For both unpolished and polished enamel samples there were no significant differences between measuring one central cluster or four peripheral clusters, before and after erosion. For unpolished enamel the single central cluster had a median (IQR Sa roughness of 1.45 (2.58 μm and the four peripheral clusters had a median (IQR of 1.32 (4.86 μm before erosion; after erosion there were statistically significant reductions to 0.38 (0.35 μm and 0.34 (0.49 μm respectively (p<0.0001. Polished enamel had a median (IQR Sa roughness 0.04 (0.17 μm for the single central cluster and 0.05 (0.15 μm for the four peripheral clusters which statistically significantly increased after erosion to 0.27 (0.08 μm for both (p<0.0001.Measuring one central cluster of unpolished and polished enamel was representative of the overall enamel surface roughness, before and after erosion.

  11. Tribological approach to study polishing of road surface under traffic

    OpenAIRE

    KANE, Malal; DO, Minh Tan

    2007-01-01

    The polishing phenomenon of road pavements under the vehicle traffic constitutes the main mechanism inherent to the loss of skid resistance over time. A better understanding of this phenomenon would allow an improvement of road safety. This study comprises a review of laboratory test and a model simulating the polishing of road surfaces. The laboratory test uses a polishing machine so called 'Wehner-Schulze' which can reproduce the evolution of the road texture from specimens taken directly f...

  12. Polish Phoneme Statistics Obtained On Large Set Of Written Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Ziółko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The phonetical statistics were collected from several Polish corpora. The paper is a summaryof the data which are phoneme n-grams and some phenomena in the statistics. Triphonestatistics apply context-dependent speech units which have an important role in speech recognitionsystems and were never calculated for a large set of Polish written texts. The standardphonetic alphabet for Polish, SAMPA, and methods of providing phonetic transcriptions are described.

  13. Adaptation and Validation of the Foot Function Index-Revised Short Form into Polish

    OpenAIRE

    Rutkowski, Radosław; Gałczyńska-Rusin, Małgorzata; Gizińska, Małgorzata; Straburzyński-Lupa, Marcin; Zdanowska, Agata; Romanowski, Mateusz Wojciech; Romanowski, Wojciech; Budiman-Mak, Elly; Straburzyńska-Lupa, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the present study was to adapt the Foot Function Index-Revised Short Form (FFI-RS) questionnaire into Polish and verify its reliability and validity in a group of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods The study included 211 patients suffering from RA. The FFI-RS questionnaire underwent standard linguistic adaptation and its psychometric parameters were investigated. The enrolled participants had been recruited for seven months as a convenient sample from the rheu...

  14. Preparing polished crystal slices with high precision orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, S. Ipsen; Gerward, Leif; Pedersen, O.

    1974-01-01

    A polishing procedure is described which utilizes a high precision Laue technique for crystal orientation. Crystal slices with their final polished surfaces parallel to a crystallographic plane within 0.02° can be prepared. ©1974 The American Institute of Physics......A polishing procedure is described which utilizes a high precision Laue technique for crystal orientation. Crystal slices with their final polished surfaces parallel to a crystallographic plane within 0.02° can be prepared. ©1974 The American Institute of Physics...

  15. Assessing operability of a novel polisher arrangement using MMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shor, S.W.W.

    1987-01-01

    A condensate polisher is intended to remove both particulate matter and ionic material from the condensate. Condensate polishers have normally been placed directly in the condensate system downstream of the condensate pumps. This inline location has certain disadvantages. These disadvantages are discussed. Placing the polisher in a sidestream location, where water is removed from the condensate system, pumped through the polisher, and then returned to the condensate system provides a solution to these disadvantages. Several possible types of sidestream installations is described. This has a polisher taking unpolished condensate from one compartment from one compartment of a divided hotwell in a specially modified condenser and returning polished condensate to the other compartment. The polisher is supplied by its own dedicated pumps, which have a head requirement sufficient only to overcome the pressure drop through the polisher circuit at a flow rate of 110% of maximum condensate flow. This concept is very attractive but has not yet been tested even though it is being installed in several new units. A simulation was, therefore, performed using MMS to provide confidence that this particular sidestream polisher arrangement was operationally viable

  16. Bacterial Colonization in the Marginal Region of Ceramic Restorations: Effects of Different Cement Removal Methods and Polishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Smb; Anami, L C; Pereira, C A; Souza, Roa; Kantorski, K Z; Bottino, M A; Jorge, Aoc; Valandro, L F

    This study evaluated the effects of excess cement removal techniques, with or without subsequent polishing, on biofilm formation and micromorphology in the marginal region of the tooth/restoration. From bovine teeth, 96 dentin blocks (4 × 8 × 2 mm) were produced, molded, and reproduced in type IV gypsum, on which 96 pressed ceramic blocks (Vita PM9, Vita Zahnfabrik; 4 × 8 × 2 mm) were produced via the lost wax technique. The dentin blocks and their respective ceramic blocks were cemented with a self-adhesive resin cement (RelyX U200, 3M ESPE), and cement excess was removed from the margin using four different techniques, followed or not by polishing with silicone rubber tips: MBr, removal with microbrush and photoactivation; MBr-Pol, MBr + polishing; Br, removal with brush and photoactivation; Br-Pol, Br + polishing; Photo-Expl, 5 seconds of initial photoactivation, removal with explorer, and final curing; Photo-Expl-Pol, Photo-Expl + polishing; Photo-SB, 5 seconds of initial photoactivation, removal with scalpel, and final curing; and Photo-SB-Pol, Photo-SB + polishing. After 24 hours, the roughness in the marginal region was analyzed using a profilometer (three measurements on each sample). Micromorphological analyses of the region were performed by stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Then the samples were contaminated with sucrose broth standardized suspension with Streptococcus mutans , Staphylococcus aureus , and Candida albicans and incubated for a period of 48 hours. The samples were quantitatively analyzed for bacterial adherence in the marginal region by confocal laser scanning microscopy and counting of colony-forming units (CFUs/mL) and qualitatively analyzed using SEM. Roughness data (Ra) were submitted to two-way analysis of variance, Tukey test at a confidence level of 95%, and Student t-tests. CFU, biomass, and biothickness data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, and Dunn tests. The removing technique

  17. Plasma electrolytic polishing of metalized carbon fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falko Böttger-Hiller

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Efficient lightweight structures require intelligent materials that meet versatile functions. Especially, carbon-fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRPs are gaining relevance. Their increasing use aims at reducing energy consumption in many applications. CFRPs are generally very light in weight, while at the same time being extremely stiff and strong (specific strength: CFRPs: 1.3 Nm kg–1, steel: 0.27 Nm kg–1; specific stiffness: CFRPs: 100 Nm kg–1, steel: 25 Nm kg–1. To increase performance and especially functionality of CFRPs, the integration of microelectronic components into CFRP parts is aspired. The functionalization by sensors, actuators and electronics can enable a high lightweight factor and a new level of failure-safety. The integration of microelectronic components for this purpose requires a working procedure to provide electrical contacts for a reliable connection to energy supply and data interfaces. To overcome this challenge, metalized carbon fibers are used. Metalized fibers are, similar to the usual reinforcing fibers, able to be soldered and therefore easy to incorporate into CFRPs. Unfortunately, metalized fibers have to be pre-treated by flux-agents. Until now, there is no flux which is suitable for mass production without destroying the polymer of the CFRP. The process of plasma electrolytic polishing (PeP could be an option, but is so far not available for copper. Thus, in this study, plasma electrolytic polishing is transferred to copper and its alloys. To achieve this, electrolytic parameters as well as the electrical setup are adapted. It can be observed that the gloss and roughness can be adjusted by means of this procedure. Finally, plasma electrolytic polishing is used to treat thin copper layers on carbon fibers.

  18. Detection of Giardia intestinalis infections in Polish soldiers deployed to Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Konior, Monika; Augustynowicz, Alina; Lass, Anna; Kowalska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Members of the Polish Military Contingent (PMC) have been stationed in Afghanistan since 2002. They typically serve in areas characterised by low standards of sanitation which often leads to the development of food- and waterborne diseases. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of Giardia intestinalis infections among Polish soldiers deployed to Afghanistan. The research study was conducted as part of a programme for prevention of parasitic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract run by the Polish Armed Forces. The study was carried out in August 2011; it involved 630 asymptomatic Polish soldiers serving in the Forward Operational Base (FOB) Ghazni in eastern Afghanistan. Stool specimens obtained from members of the PMC were first tested in FOB Ghazni (detection of Giardia intestinalis by Rida Quick Giardia immunochromatographic tests and Ridascreen Giardia immunoenzymatic tests - single samples). Next, the same biological material and two other faecal specimens fixed in 10% formalin were transported to the Military Institute of Medicine in Poland, where they were tested for Giardia intestinalis under light microscopy (direct smear, decantation in distilled water). Parasitological tests performed under light microscopy showed that 2.7% (17/630) of the study group were infected with Giardia intestinalis. Some of these results were confirmed by immunochromatographic tests (6/630). In contrast, immunoenzymatic tests (ELISA) demonstrated a significantly higher detection rate reaching 18.1% (114/630). Immunoenzymatic tests confirmed all the positive results given by light microscopy and by immunochromatographic tests. The prevalence rate of Giardia intestinalis infections in Polish soldiers deployed to Afghanistan was found to be high. Microscopic methods exhibit low sensitivity and therefore may result in the underestimation of the true parasite prevalence. Immunoenzymatic tests (ELISA) showing a much higher sensitivity in comparison to light microscopy

  19. Competence of Irish and Polish Teachers in the Opinions of Young Polish Immigrants in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustyniak, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Since 2004, Ireland has experienced the arrival of immigrants from various countries from all over the world including Poland. The Polish came to Ireland with their families including children of school age obliged to attend compulsory education. These children have attended schools dissimilar from the ones they are accustomed to in their home…

  20. Wind Directions in the Polish Tatras,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-26

    The study of anemometric conditions in the iatra Aoun- tains with the usually available observation data presents a rather difficult problem for two...year are presented in Table 2 and Fig. 1. Analysis of the anemometric conditions in the Polish Ta- tras and at 2odhale, on the basis of the observational...Vol. 29, 1947. 9. Milata, W. "The Foehn," Wierchy, Vol. 20, 1950. 10. Orlicz, M. " Anemometric Conditions on Peaks in the 2atras," Wiad. Sluzhby Hydro

  1. Polish students' opinion about medicinal cannabis

    OpenAIRE

    Mazur, Rafał; Masternak, Sebastian; Pająk, Michał; Parszewska, Katarzyna; Skórzyńska-Dziduszko, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    Mazur Rafał, Masternak Sebastian, Pająk Michał, Parszewska Katarzyna, Skórzyńska-Dziduszko Katarzyna. Polish students’ opinion about medicinal cannabis. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2017;7(9):233-242. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.894710 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/4839 The journal has had 7 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. Part B item 1223 (26....

  2. Dose reduction in abdominal computed tomography: intraindividual comparison of image quality of full-dose standard and half-dose iterative reconstructions with dual-source computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Matthias S; Wüst, Wolfgang; Brand, Michael; Stahl, Christian; Allmendinger, Thomas; Schmidt, Bernhard; Uder, Michael; Lell, Michael M

    2011-07-01

    We sought to evaluate the image quality of iterative reconstruction in image space (IRIS) in half-dose (HD) datasets compared with full-dose (FD) and HD filtered back projection (FBP) reconstruction in abdominal computed tomography (CT). To acquire data with FD and HD simultaneously, contrast-enhanced abdominal CT was performed with a dual-source CT system, both tubes operating at 120 kV, 100 ref.mAs, and pitch 0.8. Three different image datasets were reconstructed from the raw data: Standard FD images applying FBP which served as reference, HD images applying FBP and HD images applying IRIS. For the HD data sets, only data from 1 tube detector-system was used. Quantitative image quality analysis was performed by measuring image noise in tissue and air. Qualitative image quality was evaluated according to the European Guidelines on Quality criteria for CT. Additional assessment of artifacts, lesion conspicuity, and edge sharpness was performed. : Image noise in soft tissue was substantially decreased in HD-IRIS (-3.4 HU, -22%) and increased in HD-FBP (+6.2 HU, +39%) images when compared with the reference (mean noise, 15.9 HU). No significant differences between the FD-FBP and HD-IRIS images were found for the visually sharp anatomic reproduction, overall diagnostic acceptability (P = 0.923), lesion conspicuity (P = 0.592), and edge sharpness (P = 0.589), while HD-FBP was rated inferior. Streak artifacts and beam hardening was significantly more prominent in HD-FBP while HD-IRIS images exhibited a slightly different noise pattern. Direct intrapatient comparison of standard FD body protocols and HD-IRIS reconstruction suggest that the latest iterative reconstruction algorithms allow for approximately 50% dose reduction without deterioration of the high image quality necessary for confident diagnosis.

  3. The Evaluation of Efficiency of Polish Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bórawski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper was to recognize the efficiency of Polish agriculture. We have studied data from Main Statistical Office (MSO and compared the efficiency in the years 2000–2010. The data proved that the efficiency of Polish agriculture improved in the analyzed period. To measure the impact of macroeconomic variables we introduced these into the regression model. The macroeconomic factors included: X1 (nominal prices of land, X2 (land prices expressed in dt, X3 (inflation, X4 (investment in agriculture and hunting, X5 (balance of trade and X6 (GDP. We wanted to recognize the impact of macroeconomic factors on: Y1 (gross output, Y2 (intermediate consumption, Y3 (gross value added. Multiple regression was used to measure the impact of macroeconomic factors on global production of agriculture. The strongest impact on gross value added had: X4 (investment in agriculture and horticulture and X4 (trade balance. Poland is a member of European Union and the Common Agricultural Policy has improved the situation in agriculture. There are about 2 100 000 farms in Poland but only 300 000–400 000 are producing for the market. Other farms have social functions and are place for work for rural inhabitants.

  4. Food patterns of Polish older people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadolowska, L.; Danowska-Oziewicz, M.; Niedzwiedzka, E.

    2006-01-01

    Food patterns of Polish older people were separated and described. The research included 422 people aged 65+ years, living in 5 geographical locations. Participants of the study were selected in quota sampling. Criteria for recruitment included sex, age (65-^74 or 75+ years) and family status (li...... and small number of products fonning joint food patterns speak in advocacy of relatively small reciprocal relationship between different food items consumed by the seniors in Poland.......Food patterns of Polish older people were separated and described. The research included 422 people aged 65+ years, living in 5 geographical locations. Participants of the study were selected in quota sampling. Criteria for recruitment included sex, age (65-^74 or 75+ years) and family status...... (living alone or living with other people). Respondents were asked questions about consumption of 55 food products. The factor analysis allowed for separating 21 food patterns. They included from 1 to 3 groups of products, intake of which was mutually dependant. Big number of separated food patterns...

  5. Farmers' pensions and the Polish economic crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanis, J G

    1983-04-01

    The Polish Government, in 1977, inaugurated a new pension program that made old-age and invalidity benefits available for the first time to most farmers in that country. The evolution and eventual failure of that program were closely intertwined with a growing national economic crisis, manifested in widespread popular unrest and culminating in emergence of the Solidarity movement. The farmers' pension program was originally presented as both a social security measure and a vehicle for improving agricultural efficiency. The economic situation was expected to benefit as farms of older owners were passed to younger, presumably more efficient, successors, with the state sometimes acting as intermediary. A further step to bind the social security concept to agricultural efficiency came through relating the pension amount to the quantity of produce the individual farmer sold to the state over a number of years. The failure of these provisions and other unpopular features of the new program was aggravated by inflation and continuing deterioration of the Polish economy.

  6. Robotic Automation in Computer Controlled Polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D. D.; Yu, G.; Bibby, M.; Dunn, C.; Li, H.; Wu, Y.; Zheng, X.; Zhang, P.

    2016-02-01

    We first present a Case Study - the manufacture of 1.4 m prototype mirror-segments for the European Extremely Large Telescope, undertaken by the National Facility for Ultra Precision Surfaces, at the OpTIC facility operated by Glyndwr University. Scale-up to serial-manufacture demands delivery of a 1.4 m off-axis aspheric hexagonal segment with surface precision use of robots to automate currently-manual operations on CNC polishing machines, to improve work-throughput, mitigate risk of damage to parts, and reduce dependence on highly-skilled staff. Second is the use of robots to pre-process surfaces prior to CNC polishing, to reduce total process time. The third draws the threads together, describing our vision of the automated manufacturing cell, where the operator interacts at cell rather than machine level. This promises to deliver a step-change in end-to-end manufacturing times and costs, compared with either platform used on its own or, indeed, the state-of-the-art used elsewhere.

  7. Analytic tendencies in modern Polish and Russian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Sosnowski

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Analytic tendencies in modern Polish and Russian Modern Polish and Russian are characterized by some features which demonstrate an increasing level of analitism. In the process of transformation from synthetic to analytical language, a crucial role is played by prepositional units. In this research, analitism is understood in a traditional way as a morphological and syntactic phenomenon. The fact that the synthetic structure of a language may, in some conditions, turn into an analytical one, as happened in the case of Bulgarian and Macedonian, has been intriguing linguists ever since, and has made me attempt to answer the question: What is the condition of modern Polish and Russian, which are languages with a rich literary tradition and solid grammatical norms, which belong to a group of synthetic languages? The analytical tendencies in morphology include the following: a decrease in the number of cases in all inflected parts of speech; a more frequent use of uninflected nouns and adjectives; the growing importance of nouns with common gender, and, in particular, the use of forms of masculine gender to depict feminine gender; differences in expressing collectiveness in a group of nouns (using collective meaning for forms that have singular meaning; substituting case forms with prepositions; substituting case forms with subordinate clauses; substituting case forms with “helper” words. Analytical tendencies in the area of numeral functioning include: substituting inflected forms of ordinal numerals with cardinal ones; the gradual disappearing inflection of numerals; confusing the forms of noun cases after numerals; the disappearing declination of collective numerals; displacing other cases with so-called simple cases; changing the syntactical position which the numeral should be inflected in; abandoning the declination of first elements of collective numerals. During the study of analytic tendencies in morphology, it was necessary to examine

  8. The level of health education in the Polish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, Magdalena; Chudek, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    The study assessed factors influencing awareness of Poles concerning lifestyle factors that affect development of obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). A questionnaire survey covering awareness of lifestyle factors performed by general practitioners in 37,557 unselected patients. 96.1% of respondents believed that lifestyle has an impact on the occurrence of CVDs, especially: tobacco smoking (91.4%), excessive intake of fat (81.3%), alcohol (67.5%), salt (64.9%), and stress (64.9%). 79.0% respondents believed the smoking cessation, 77.5% weight loss and 66.8% healthy diet are most important to prevent diseases. Additionally, the belief in the need for an early weight reduction decreased with increasing BMI (82.9% with normal weight vs. 77.5% overweight and 70.4% obese). The most common source of health education was a physician (75.8%), the mass media, such as television and the press (62.0% and 64.8%, respectively), less often were educational materials (37.8%) and books (20.3 %), the Internet (3.8%) and radio (0.8%). Younger respondents presented a higher level of awareness about all analysed aspects of healthy lifestyle. The multiple regression analysis revealed that low education level and rural residence are the most important factors decreasing awareness of the lifestyle effect on health. 1. The level of knowledge about non-pharmacological methods of preventing lifestyle diseases in the Polish population is high except of the role of physical activity and daily vegetables consumption. This, however, has no impact on reducing the percentage of overweight and obese people and on increasing the tendency to pursue lifestyle changes. 2. Frustrating is the fact that more than one fifth of the study population is unaware that excessive weight reduction prevents development of cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, the convince to early weight decreases with increasing BMI. 3. The highest level of the knowledge among younger subjects reflect

  9. Global Citizenship Education in School Curricula. A Polish Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leek, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present global citizenship education from a Polish perspective. Analyzing the issue, the first part of this paper presents the development of citizenship education, followed by the current status of global citizenship education in Polish schools. In the second part of the study I draw attention to national curricula…

  10. Comparative study of performance of shoe polishes formulated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polyethylene pigment was generated from “pure water sachets” (one of the major environmental nuisance today) and used in the formulation of shoe polish using paraffin wax, white spirit, turpentine oil, and nitrocellulose. The polish was found to exhibit similar wrinkle resistance, inferior gloss, rub resistance; resistance to ...

  11. Polish anthropology on the eve of the new millennium

    OpenAIRE

    Drozdowski, Zbigniew

    1999-01-01

    Author summarizes the main achievements of Polish anthropology in the 20th century, presents the main research problems of this discipline in contemporary Poland and points at the potential dangers which may be faced by Polish anthropology in the forthcoming years.

  12. Influence of melt treatments and polished CVD diamond coated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Performances of the turning inserts (uncoated and polished CVD diamond coated) were evaluated in machining Al–7Si and Al–7Si–2.5Cu cast alloys under dry environment using a lathe. The polished CVD diamond coated insert outperformed the uncoated cutting insert which suffered from sizeable edge buildup leading to ...

  13. Social Obstacles Towards Success of Pupils in Polish Primary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakielska, Zofia

    In 1973, the Polish Minister of Education ordered objective competitions at the primary school level in the fields of Polish studies, Russian language, and math. In order to determine whether such subject competitions were justified and if they contributed equally to the development of interests and abilities among the rural and urban and…

  14. Etymology in the Polish Academy of Sciences Great Dictionary of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article offers an insight into etymological information provided in the Polish Academy of Sciences Great Dictionary of Polish (Pol. Wielki słownik języka polskiego PAN, WSJP PAN). The dictionary and the rules of producing the entries are briefly presented. These rules influence the way of working on etymology within ...

  15. The Czechoslovak-Polish Club in Brno (1925–1939)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baron, Roman

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 1 (2011), s. 43-64 ISSN 1803-6546 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80150510 Keywords : Czechoslovak-Polish solidarity * Czechoslovak-Polish relations * Brno * associations * Interwar Period Subject RIV: AB - History

  16. The systemic changes to improve efficiency in Polish Primary Health Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Holecki

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Primary health care is an important part of any health care system. In highly developed countries it secures the population's most elementary health needs, with particular emphasis on preventive care and early intervention. Polish PHC model is currently undergoing a thorough transformation, associated with the need to adapt to standards designated based on the WHO's criteria, and with reference to the experience of other European countries. The paper describes the process of changes being carried out, in the context of previous experiences of reform relating to the sphere of organization, processes and efficiency. A review and systematization has been made, with regard to the undertaken activities in the field of deregulation and change of legal provisions, which are aimed at achieving the improvement of the efficiency of treatment and resource allocation. A set of recommendations based on expert's discourse have also been provided, with respect to future directions of Polish PHC transformation.

  17. The Effect of Grinding and Polishing Procedure of Tool Steels in Sheet Metal Forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindvall, F.; Bergström, J.; Krakhmalev, P.

    2010-01-01

    The surface finish of tools in sheet metal forming has a large influence on the performance of the forming tool. Galling, concern of wear in sheet metal forming, is a severe form of adhesive wear where sheet material is transferred on to the tool surface. By polishing the tools to a fine surface ...... 40 and Vanadis 6 and up to ten different grinding and polishing treatments were tested against AISI 316 stainless steel. The tests showed that an optimum surface preparation might be found at the transition between abrasive and adhesive wear.......The surface finish of tools in sheet metal forming has a large influence on the performance of the forming tool. Galling, concern of wear in sheet metal forming, is a severe form of adhesive wear where sheet material is transferred on to the tool surface. By polishing the tools to a fine surface...... finish, material pick-up has traditionally been reduced, but some surface preparations withstand adhesive wear better. To investigate the effect on galling performance of different surface preparations lubricated tests have been performed using a strip reduction rig. Two different tool materials, Vancron...

  18. Brewing test with puffed polished rice. : Sake brewing with puffed polished rive (II)

    OpenAIRE

    家村, 芳次; 永田, 興四郎; 田端, 昇; 佐無田, 隆; 吉沢, 淑; YOSHITSUGU, IEMURA; KOSHIROU, NAGATA; NOBORU, TABATA; TAKASHI, SAMUTA; KIYOSHI, YOSHIZAWA; 菊正宗酒造株式会社; 山邑酒造株式会社; 灘五郷酒造組合; 熊本国税局鑑定官室; 国税庁醸造試験所

    1985-01-01

    Polished rice was puffed by continuous puffing equipment, then part of it was contracted under a vapor stream. These samples were used for sake brewing.Fermentation took place normally in very tested mash. Each sake produced differed slightly in alcohol concentration, nihonshudo, and acidity; they differed greatly in the content of amino acids, with that of sake made from puffed rice was lower than that of sake made from steamed rice, and that of sake made from contracted rice after puffing t...

  19. Plurilingualism and polish teenage learners of english

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Otwinowska‑Kasztelanic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Using several languages has become a norm for those who want to learn and work in the European Union. However, teaching for plurilingualism is also a challenge. The present paper first clarifies the notions of plurilingualism and multilingualism, then discusses the role of crosslinguistic similarity in language learning in the case of European languages. It also shows how lexical crosslinguistic similarity can be used in teaching typologically related and unrelated languages, and discusses the key factors in noticing such similarity. The research presented reports on examining and raising language awareness of Polish‑‑ English cognate vocabulary in the case of a group of Polish teenage learners of English. It presents the results of a small‑‑ scale study in quasi‑‑ experimental design, as well as qualitative research on the learners’ opinions and attitudes. Finally, the paper presents implications for language pedagogy and focuses on the fact that awareness raising may affect the learners’ plurilingual competence.

  20. Antigenic typing Polish isolates of canine parvovirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizak, B. [National Veterinary Research Institute, Pulawy (Poland); Plucienniczak, A. [Polish Academy ofd Sciences. Microbiology and Virology Center, Lodz (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    Polish strains of canine parvovirus isolated between 1982 and 1993 were examined to determine the extent to which the virus has evolved antigenically and genetically over eleven years. Two CPV isolates obtained in Warsaw in 1982 and Pulawy in 1993, were examined using monoclonal antibody typing, restriction analysis and sequencing VP-2 protein gene. Five other isolates from Warsaw and Pulawy were tested with the panel of monoclonal antibodies specific to CPV-2, CPV-2a and common for canine parvovirus, feline panleukopenia virus and milk enteritis virus. Results of the studies demonstrated that all isolates tested represented CPV-2a antigenic type. Rapid antigenic strain replacement recorded by Parrish and Senda in the U.S.A and Japan was not confirmed in Poland. (author). 30 refs, 2 tabs.

  1. Attitudes of Polish Consumers Toward Experiential Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Skorek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The experience economy is a concept that can be defned as a new way of perceiving the market offer of an enterprise, focusing on the customer experience. Enterprises, both in the production and service industries, are becoming similar to one another on a massive scale, which makes it increasingly diffcult to stand out. The response to this can be to offer the consumer an unforgettable experience related to a product or service provided by a company. Methodology: This study analysed the results of qualitative research on the attitudes and opinions of Polish consumers on experience marketing. Results/fndings: The results showed that participants of the study were prepared to transition from the economy based on products or services to an economy based on experiences at a moderate level. They declared a willingness to participate in experiences offered by companies but at the same time focus on the cost and utility of them

  2. Droughts in historical times in Polish territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limanowka, Danuta; Cebulak, Elzbieta; Pyrc, Robert; Doktor, Radoslaw

    2015-04-01

    Climate change is one of the key environmental, social and economical issues, and it is also followed by political consequences. Impact of climate conditions on countries' economy is increasingly recognized, and a lot of attention is given, both in the global scale and by the individual national governments. In years 2008-2010, at the Poland -Institute of Meteorology and Water Management-National Research Institute was realized the KLIMAT Project on Impact of climate change on environment, economy and society (changes, effects and methods of reducing them, conclusions for science, engineering practice and economic planning) No. POIG01-03-01-14-011/08. The project was financed by the European Union and Polish state budget in frame of Innovative Economy Operational Programme. A very wide range of research was carried out in the different thematic areas. One of them was "Natural disasters and internal safety of the country (civil and economical)." The problem of drought in Poland was developed in terms of meteorology and hydrology. "Proxy" Data Descriptions very often inform about dry years and seasons, hot periods without precipitation. Analysis of historical material allowed to extract the years that have experienced prolonged periods of high temperatures and rainfall shortages. Weather phenomenon defined as drought belongs to extreme events. This information was very helpful in the process of indexing and thus to restore the course and intensity of climatic elements in the past. The analysis covered the period from year 1000 to modern times. Due to the limited information from the period of 1000-1500 the authors focused primarily on the period from 1500 to 2010. Analysis of the collected material has allowed the development of a highly precise temporal structure of the possible occurrence of dry periods to Polish territory.

  3. Energy-saving belt conveyors installed in Polish collieries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy ANTONIAK

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An important problem of reducing energy consumption and dioxide emissions in the stage of construction and operation of mine belt conveyors is connected with their broad use in the industry. However, this notion is related to a reduction of electric energy consumption for conveyor drive and for production of conveyor components and assemblies (belts, rollers, load-bearing structure etc.. An essential role is played by an increased life of belt conveyors assemblies and components, principally belts. A reduced electric energy consumption results in a decreased CO2 emissions, e.g. hard coal – fired power station issues 0.28 kg CO2 per production of 1 kWh, in to answer production of 1 t steel accounts for 3.2 t CO2 emissions. The subject-matter presented in the paper concerning energy-saving in the horizontally and inclined mine belt conveyors installed in a Polish colliery – Anna, Jankowice and Marcel, has a big economic significance and it is important from the point of view of environmental protection.

  4. Direct polishing of aluminum mirrors with higher quality and accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ziqiang; Yi, Zhang

    2015-09-10

    Diamond-turned aluminum mirrors have been widely used in modern optical systems. However, the machined surfaces have characteristic periodic tool marks, which contribute to reduced optical performance by creating effects such as scattering and distortion. This paper develops a new polishing technology to polish aluminum mirrors directly to remove tool marks and improve surface quality and surface accuracy. A Taguchi experiment was used to obtain optimal polishing conditions for reducing surface roughness, and computer-controlled optical surfacing technology was employed for form correction of aluminum mirrors.

  5. Reel-to-reel substrate tape polishing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selvamanickam, Venkat; Gardner, Michael T.; Judd, Raymond D.; Weloth, Martin; Qiao, Yunfei

    2005-06-21

    Disclosed is a reel-to-reel single-pass mechanical polishing system (100) suitable for polishing long lengths of metal substrate tape (124) used in the manufacture of high-temperature superconductor (HTS) coated tape, including multiple instantiations of a polishing station (114) in combination with a subsequent rinsing station (116) arranged along the axis of the metal substrate tape (124) that is translating between a payout spool (110a) and a take-up spool (110b). The metal substrate tape obtains a surface smoothness that is suitable for the subsequent deposition of a buffer layer.

  6. Quality in Air transport process of LOT Polish Airlines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Rozenberg

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the air transport process on scheduled long-haul flights of LOT Polish Airlines. Main focus is taken on price development of these routes. The introduction consists of a brief profile characterized LOT Polish Airlines. Next chapter summarizes the air transport process on scheduled longhaul flights. The frame of article is formed by price development statistics for scheduled long-haul flights to / from Beijing of LOT Polish Airlines and two other competing companies. Conclusion contains results of analysis and puts forward proposals to streamline of the air transport process on reviewed routes.

  7. Presentation of the verbs in Bulgarian-Polish electronic dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Dimitrova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Presentation of the verbs in Bulgarian-Polish electronic dictionary This paper briefly discusses the presentation of the verbs in the first electronic Bulgarian-Polish dictionary that is currently being developed under a bilateral collaboration between IMI-BAS and ISS-PAS. Special attention is given to the digital entry classifiers that describe Bulgarian and Polish verbs. Problems related to the correspondence between natural language phenomena and their presentations are discussed. Some examples illustrate the different types of dictionary entries for verbs.

  8. Profilometric analysis of root surfaces after using various polishing agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjan Jana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polishing is an important step in oral prophylaxis procedure which retards further accumulation of plaque on the root surfaces. Though polishing was done with various abrasive particles with different sizes over a long period of time, it was never been highlighted to evaluate the ideal polishing material and the particle size that would produce the ideal surface smoothness (Ra 5 μm are not able to produce the surface smoothness <0.2 μm. Only, submicron sized particles are able to produce the desired smoothness.

  9. Study on the influence of the rotational speed of polishing disk on material removal in aspheric surface compliant polishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyong Hu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available When a soft polishing tool is compressed on a stiff workpiece of curved surface, the contact area is a piece of the curved surface. In the process of aspheric surface polishing, the machining speed is always provided by the rotational speed of the spindle of a computer numerical control lathe. Yet, the polishing tool is usually made rotating to remove cutting scraps and broken abrasives from the contact area. The rotational speed of the polishing tool would change the distribution state of the relative speed in the whole contact area, and it would definitely change the volume of material removal in the surface of the workpiece. This article studies how the rotational speed of the polishing tool changes the distribution state of the relative speed in the whole contact area and material removal in the volume of the surface of the workpiece. The computing results show that the volume of material removal increases with the increase in both the rotational speed of polishing disk and the rotational speed of lathe spindle, but the polishing quality is totally not in this case.

  10. Effect of polishing and glazing on the color and spectral distribution of monolithic zirconia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Kyung; Kim, Sung-Hun; Lee, Jai-Bong; Han, Jung-Suk; Yeo, In-Sung

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of polishing and glazing on the color and spectral distribution of monolithic zirconia. Forty-five monolithic zirconia specimens (16.3 mm × 16.4 mm × 2.0 mm) were fabricated and divided into 5 groups according to the number of A2-coloring liquid applications (Group I to V). Each group was divided into 3 subgroups according to the method of surface treatments (n=3): N: no treatment; P: polishing; G: glazing. Color and spectral distribution of five different areas of each specimen were measured according to CIELAB color space in the reflectance mode relative to the standard illuminant D65 on a reflection spectrophotometer. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's HSD test, Pearson correlation and regression analysis (α=.05). There was a significant difference in CIE L (*) between Subgroup N and P, and in CIE b (*) between Subgroup P and G in each group. Spectral reflectance generally decreased in Subgroup P and G in comparison with Subgroup N. Color differences between Subgroup P and G were within the perceptibility threshold (ΔE (*) abapplications increased (R (2)>0.88, Pmonolithic zirconia. Polishing decreases the lightness, and glazing also decreases the lightness, but increases the yellowness of monolithic zirconia.

  11. Adaptation and Validation of the Foot Function Index-Revised Short Form into Polish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Rutkowski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the present study was to adapt the Foot Function Index-Revised Short Form (FFI-RS questionnaire into Polish and verify its reliability and validity in a group of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Methods. The study included 211 patients suffering from RA. The FFI-RS questionnaire underwent standard linguistic adaptation and its psychometric parameters were investigated. The enrolled participants had been recruited for seven months as a convenient sample from the rheumatological hospital in Śrem (Poland. They represented different sociodemographic characteristics and were characterized as rural and city environments residents. Results. The mean age of the patients was 58.9±10.2 years. The majority of patients (85% were female. The average final FFI-RS score was 62.9±15.3. The internal consistency was achieved at a high level of 0.95 in Cronbach’s alpha test, with an interclass correlation coefficient ranging between 0.78 and 0.84. A strong correlation was observed between the FFI-RS and Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI questionnaires. Conclusion. The Polish version of FFI-RS-PL indicator is an important tool for evaluating the functional condition of patients’ feet and can be applied in the diagnosis and treatment of Polish-speaking patients suffering from RA.

  12. Adaptation and Validation of the Foot Function Index-Revised Short Form into Polish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Radosław; Gałczyńska-Rusin, Małgorzata; Gizińska, Małgorzata; Straburzyński-Lupa, Marcin; Zdanowska, Agata; Romanowski, Mateusz Wojciech; Romanowski, Wojciech; Budiman-Mak, Elly; Straburzyńska-Lupa, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to adapt the Foot Function Index-Revised Short Form (FFI-RS) questionnaire into Polish and verify its reliability and validity in a group of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The study included 211 patients suffering from RA. The FFI-RS questionnaire underwent standard linguistic adaptation and its psychometric parameters were investigated. The enrolled participants had been recruited for seven months as a convenient sample from the rheumatological hospital in Śrem (Poland). They represented different sociodemographic characteristics and were characterized as rural and city environments residents. The mean age of the patients was 58.9 ± 10.2 years. The majority of patients (85%) were female. The average final FFI-RS score was 62.9 ± 15.3. The internal consistency was achieved at a high level of 0.95 in Cronbach's alpha test, with an interclass correlation coefficient ranging between 0.78 and 0.84. A strong correlation was observed between the FFI-RS and Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI) questionnaires. The Polish version of FFI-RS-PL indicator is an important tool for evaluating the functional condition of patients' feet and can be applied in the diagnosis and treatment of Polish-speaking patients suffering from RA.

  13. Prospects for the Use of Social Media Marketing Instruments in Health Promotion by Polish Marshal Offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrkiewicz-S Witała, Magdalena; Romaniuk, Piotr; Strzelecka, Agnieszka; Lar, Katarzyna; Holecki, Tomasz

    2018-01-01

    To investigate whether the Polish Marshal Offices use instruments for social media marketing activities in the field of health promotion. 14 Polish Marshal Offices participated. The Computer-Assisted Web Interview and Computer-Assisted Telephone Interview were used along with a proprietary questionnaire. Standard statistical methods were employed. The number of people using the Internet and social media in Poland is steadily growing. The majority of the offices (93%) performed health promotion activities. The authorities collaborated with other units of local government and non-governmental organizations in these activities. According to respondents, the most convincing form of health promotion is direct communication (46%). More than half of the surveyed offices (56%) did not use portals or social networking sites in health campaigns. The rest of the offices indicated using Facebook (25%) or YouTube (6%). Half of them did not apply the tools of social media marketing. The other half was involved in discussions on health-related online forums (moderation or consulting). Relatively few offices use social media and social media marketing in health promotion campaigns. The use of social media by the Marshal Offices may result in a potential increase in effectiveness of the pro-health campaigns. It is recommended that Polish Marshal Offices recognize the potential benefits of social media marketing campaign instruments in the field of health promotion in order to reach out the digital recipients.

  14. Prospects for the Use of Social Media Marketing Instruments in Health Promotion by Polish Marshal Offices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Syrkiewicz-S´witała

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available PurposeTo investigate whether the Polish Marshal Offices use instruments for social media marketing activities in the field of health promotion.Methodology14 Polish Marshal Offices participated. The Computer-Assisted Web Interview and Computer-Assisted Telephone Interview were used along with a proprietary questionnaire. Standard statistical methods were employed.FindingsThe number of people using the Internet and social media in Poland is steadily growing. The majority of the offices (93% performed health promotion activities. The authorities collaborated with other units of local government and non-governmental organizations in these activities. According to respondents, the most convincing form of health promotion is direct communication (46%. More than half of the surveyed offices (56% did not use portals or social networking sites in health campaigns. The rest of the offices indicated using Facebook (25% or YouTube (6%. Half of them did not apply the tools of social media marketing. The other half was involved in discussions on health-related online forums (moderation or consulting. Relatively few offices use social media and social media marketing in health promotion campaigns.ValueThe use of social media by the Marshal Offices may result in a potential increase in effectiveness of the pro-health campaigns. It is recommended that Polish Marshal Offices recognize the potential benefits of social media marketing campaign instruments in the field of health promotion in order to reach out the digital recipients.

  15. [Validation of the Polish version of The Authentic Leadership Questionnaire for the of evaluation purpose of nursing management staff in national hospital wards].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierpińska, Lidia

    2013-09-01

    The Authentic Leadership Questionnaire (ALQ) is a standardized research instrument for the evaluation of individual elements of leader's conduct which contribute to the authentic leadership. The application of this questionnaire in Polish conditions required to carry out the validation process. The aim of the study was to evaluate of validity and reliability of the Polish version of the American research instrument for the needs of evaluation of authenticity of leadership of the nursing management in Polish hospitals. The study covered 286 nurses (143 head nurses and 143 of their subordinates) employed in 45 hospitals in Poland. Theoretical validity of the instrument was evaluated using Fisher's transformation (r-Person correlation coefficient), while the criterion validity of the ALQ was evaluated using rho-Spearman correlation coefficient and the BOHIPSZO questionnaire. The reliability of the ALQ was assessed by means of the Cronbach-alpha coefficient. The ALQ questionnaire applied for the evaluation of authenticity of leadership of the nursing management in Polish hospital wards shows an acceptable theoretical and criterion validity and reliability (Cronbach-alpha coefficient 0.80). The Polish version of the ALQ is valid and reliable, and may be applied in studies concerning the evaluation of authenticity of leadership of the nursing management in Polish hospital wards.

  16. Strategy for development of the Polish electricity sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dybowski, J. [Polish Power Grid Co., Warsaw (Poland)

    1995-12-01

    This paper represents the strategy for development of the Polish Electricity Sector dealing with specific problems which are common for all of East Central Europe. In 1990 Poland adopted a restructuring program for the entire energy sector. Very ambitious plans were changed several times but still the main direction of change was preserved. The most difficult period of transformation is featured by several contradictions which have to be balanced. Electricity prices should increase in order to cover the modernization and development program but the society is not able to take this burden in such a short time. Furthermore the new environment protection standards force the growth of capital investment program which sooner or later has to be transferred through the electricity prices. New economic mechanisms have to be introduced to the electricity sector to replace the old ones noneffective, centrally planned. This process has to follow slow management changes. Also, introduction of new electricity market is limited by those constraints. However, this process of change would not be possible without parallel governmental initiation like preparation of new energy law and regulatory frames.

  17. An in vivo evaluation of surface polishing of TAN intermedullary nails for ease of removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JS Hayes

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Fractures of the tibia and femoral diaphysis are commonly repaired by intra-medullary (IM nailing. Currently IM nails are available in either electropolished stainless steel (SS or in Titanium-Aluminium-Niobium (TAN. After healing, removal of the nails still is common but removal of TAN IM nails often has complications whereas SS IM nails of the same design are less often associated with problems. We believe the differences in removal are due to the ability of TAN to promote strong bone on-growth. We have previously shown in vivo that polishing cortical screws reduces removal torque and the percentage of bone-implant contact. Therefore, we postulate that bony on-growth onto IM nails can be reduced by means of surface polishing, for ease of removal. Here we aim to compare the pull-out forces for removal of standard TAN (TAN-S compared to experimental paste polished TAN (TAN-PP IM nails from a bilateral non-fracture sheep tibia model after 12 months implantation. Histological analysis was also performed to assess tissue on-growth to the nails. We show that polishing significantly reduces (p=0.05 the extraction force required for TAN IM nail removal. This effect in part is attributable to the distinct tissue-material reaction produced. For TAN-S nails direct bone contact was observed while for TAN-PP nails a fibrous tissue interface was noted. Since TAN is preferred over SS for IM nailing due to superior biocompatibility and mechanical properties, we believe these findings could be used to recommend changes to current surface technologies of intramedullary nails to reduce complications seen with nail removal especially in rapidly growing bone in children.

  18. Quality pharmacy services and key performance indicators in Polish NICUs: a Delphi approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyżaniak, Natalia; Pawłowska, Iga; Bajorek, Beata

    2018-03-31

    Background Currently, there is no literature describing what a quality level of practice entails in Polish neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), nor are there any means of currently measuring the quality of pharmaceutical care provided to NICU patients. Objective To identify a set of essential pharmacist roles and pharmacy-relevant key performance indicators (KPI's) suitable for Polish neonatal intensive units (NICUs). Setting Polish hospital pharmacies and NICUs. Method Using a modified Delphi technique, potential KPI's structured along Donabedian's domains as well as pharmacy services were presented to an expert panel of stakeholders. Two online, consecutive Delphi rounds, were completed by panellists between August and September 2017. Main outcome measure To identify the minimum level of pharmacy services that should be consistently provided to NICU patients. Results A total of 16 panellists contributed to the expert panel. Overall, consensus of 75% was reached for 23 indicators and for 28 roles. When considering pharmacy services for the NICU, the experts were found to highly value traditional pharmacy roles, such as dispensing and extemporaneous compounding, however, they were still eager for roles in the other domains, such as educational and clinical services, to be listed as essential for NICU practice. Panellists were found to positively value the list of indicators presented, and excluded only 9 out of the total list. Conclusion There is a need for future research to establish a minimum standard of practice for Polish pharmacists to encourage the progression and standardisation of hospital pharmacy services to meet the level of practice seen in NICUs worldwide.

  19. Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ – Psychometric properties of selected scales in the Polish version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Widerszal-Bazyl

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionniare (COPSOQ has many advantages as compared to other similar instruments, i.a., it is not related to one single theoretical model and it measures a wide spectrum of psychosocial working conditions that have shown proven impact on health. The aim of the article is to summarize information on psychometric properties of 11 scales in the Polish version: Quantitative Demands, Emotional Demands, Influence at Work, Social Support, Possibilities for Development, Meaning of Work, Role Clarity, Quality of Leadership, Job Insecurity, Job Satisfaction, and General Health. Material and Methods: Analyses were based on the results of 4 research projects, in which the Polish version of the COPCOQ scales has been used: on a representative sample of Polish nurses (N = 4354, job insecurity in 2 groups of civil servants (N = 295, N = 724, mobbing among teachers (N = 1037 and psychological consequences of restructuring (N = 1396. The following psychometric characteristics were analysed: internal reliability, theoretical validity, and factorial validity. Results: Internal reliability of the following 8 scales was found satisfactory: Quantitative Demands, Influence at Work, Social Support, Possibilities for Development, Meaning of Work, Quality of Leadership, Job Satisfaction, and General Health (Cronbach’s α = 0.7–0.91, depending on the scale. The results of exploratory factor analyses indicated factorial separateness of the above mentioned scales. Theoretical validity of 11 scales was confirmed; they were associated with variables that can be regarded as their validity criteria. Conclusions: The 8 COPSOQ scales, in the Polish version, can be recommended for using in the research involving psychosocial job characteristics. Mean scores on these scales and standard deviations given in the article can serve as reference points during an evaluation of received results. Med Pr 2017;68(3:329–348

  20. Mechanical polishing to improve uniformity of beam sampling grating and its effects on laser-induced damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Huanle; Liu, Zhengkun; Liu, Ying; Fu, Shaojun

    2012-01-01

    As an important optical element, beam sampling grating (BSG) is used in the terminal of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) drivers. It can provide a very slight sampling beam for the precision diagnosing of laser energy and wavefront distortion. However, in practice, its non-uniform diffraction efficiency seriously influences the accurate signal of sampling beam, and finally affects diagnostic ability. BSG is usually fabricated by holographic ion beam etched (HIBE) process. In this paper, a mechanical polishing processing technology was used to improve uniformity of the diffraction efficiency of BSG after HIBE. In the processing, cerium oxide (CeO2) was used to polish the local areas of grating where exhibit higher diffraction efficiency with the purpose of changing the depth of grating profile, and then they have similar efficiency with the surrounding areas. By iteration of the above process, BSG finally achieve the improved uniformity of diffraction efficiency over the area of a 430 x 430 mm2. The RMS of diffraction efficiency of BSG after mechanical polishing shows great reduction down to 4.8% as compared with that of the as-polished RMS of 21%. The effects of this processing on laser damage was characterized by the measuring the LIDT for the laser radiations of 355nm.

  1. Effect of Polishing Systems on Surface Roughness and Topography of Monolithic Zirconia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goo, C L; Yap, Auj; Tan, Kbc; Fawzy, A S

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different chairside polishing systems on the surface roughness and topography of monolithic zirconia. Thirty-five monolithic zirconia specimens (Lava PLUS, 3M ESPE) were fabricated and divided into five groups of seven and polished with the following: Group 1 (WZ)-Dura white stone followed by Shofu zirconia polishing kit; Group 2 (SZ)-Shofu zirconia polishing kit; Group 3 (CE)-Ceramiste porcelain polishers; Group 4 (CM)-Ceramaster porcelain polishers; and Group 5 (KZ)-Komet ZR zirconia polishers. All specimens were ground with a fine-grit diamond bur prior to polishing procedures to simulate clinical finishing. Baseline and post-polishing profilometric readings were recorded and delta Ra values (difference in mean surface roughness before and after polishing) were computed and analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Scheffe post hoc test (pzirconia.

  2. A preliminary study in zero anaphora coreference resolution for Polish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Jan Kaczmarek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study in zero anaphora coreference resolution for Polish Zero anaphora is an element of the coreference resolution task that has not yet been directly addressed in Polish and, in most studies, it has been left as the most challenging aspect for further investigation. This article presents an initial study of this problem. The preparation of a machine learning approach, alongside engineering features based on linguistic study of the KPWr corpus, is discussed. This study utilizes existing tools for Polish coreference resolution as sources of partial coreferential clusters containing pronoun, noun and named entity mentions. They are also used as baseline zero coreference resolution systems for comparison with our system. The evaluation process is focused not only on clustering correctness, without taking into account types of mentions, using standard CoNLL-2012 measures, but also on the informativeness of the resulting relations. According to the annotation approach used for coreference to the KPWr corpus, only named entities are treated as mentions that are informative enough to constitute a link to real world objects. Consequently, we provide an evaluation of informativeness based on found links between zero anaphoras and named entities. For the same reason, we restrict coreference resolution in this study to mention clusters built around named entities.   Wstępne studium rozwiązywania problemu koreferencji anafory zerowej w języku polskim Koreferencja zerowa, w języku polskim, jest jednym z zagadnień rozpoznawania koreferencji. Dotychczas nie była ona bezpośrednim przedmiotem badań, gdyż ze względu na jej złożoność była pomijana i odsuwana na dalsze etapy badań. Artykuł prezentuje wstępne studium problemu, jakim jest rozpoznawanie koreferencji zerowej. Przedstawiamy podejście wykorzystujące techniki uczenia maszynowego oraz proces tworzenia cech w oparciu o analizę lingwistyczną korpusu KPWr. W przedstawionej

  3. Polish electoral geography and its methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Rykiel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Differences in the understanding of electoral geography between social sciences are discussed in the article. Main fields and spatial scales of Polish electoral geography are identified. Main methods of multidimensional statistics are discussed. A necessity of a proper choice, based on theories of voting behaviour, of explaning variables to statistical models are emphasised. Regression analysis indicates only a formal usefulness in electoral geography, for quantitative relationships between variables in the model can be evidenced, which may be meaningless not only essentially, but even statistically. The application of canonical analysis in electoral geography brought a methodological turning-point to the statistical approach. This method allowed to combine: (1 the foundation of the selection of input variables on theories of voting behaviour; (2 the analysis of dependence of the electoral results on socio-economic characteristics of areas; (3 an identification of electoral options; (4 a quantification of the role of the historical heritage in the contemporary voting behaviour; and (5 the analysis of the stability of the electoral space. A well grounded opinion was weakened about the general competitiveness of right- and left-wing parties in Poland’s political space. Parties with similar rather than different programmes compete in given areas. It was indicated that elections have only formal influence on the structure of Parliament while the electoral system is decisive. Electoral, including territorial, manipulations also play their part. The empirical analysis indicated that Poland’s political space is polarised between the right-wing-oriented areas of the south-eastern half of the country and the left-wing-oriented areas of the north-western half. The political competition between the left and the right operates merely on the national scale, while it is not reflected territorially.The quantification of the influence of the nineteenth

  4. Polish Defense Policy in the Context of National Security Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    Antoni Podolski, Polska Strategia Bezpieczenstwa jako Praktyczna Implementacja Europejskiej Strategii Bezpeczenstwa –miedzy teoria a praktyka (Warszawa...Implementacja Europejskiej Strategii Bezpeczenstwa –miedzy teoria a praktyka (Warszawa: Center for International Relations, 2005), 13. Polish Ministry

  5. Super Polishing of Aluminum 6061-T6 Mirrors, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An innovative 2D super-polishing process for Aluminum 6061-T6 planar mirrors which removes diamond point turning (DPT) grooves and attains rms surface finishes below...

  6. The resettlement of Polish refugees after the second world war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Blaszczyk

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The passing of the Polish Resettlement Act and the creation of the different agencies related to it undoubtedly represented an unprecedented response to the challenge of mass migration in the UK.

  7. British and American English for Polish University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, Waldemar; Preston, Dennis R.

    1975-01-01

    This article attempts to assess the validity of dividing Polish students of English into British and American groups. The tests of the various hypotheses regarding linguistic and non-linguistic results of such divisions are described. (AM)

  8. Polish Defense Policy in the Context of National Security Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bieniek, Piotr S

    2006-01-01

    ...) and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Polish security policy and strategy is shaped by its geographical location, which places Poland in NATO's main strategic area opposite the Russian Federation and Belarus...

  9. Borel hierarchies in infinite products of Polish spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    with two product topologies: (i) the product of copies of the Polish topology on X, so that H is again a Polish space and (ii) the product of copies of the discrete topology on X. Define now the Borel hierarchy in the larger topology on H. To do so, we need some notation. An element of H will be denoted by h = (x1,x2,...,xn,.

  10. Evaluation of the COMSOL software electro-polishing of samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruchon, M.

    2007-01-01

    The niobium electro-polishing is efficient if a viscous layer exists at the surface. In order to define parameters of samples electro-polishing, opened with difficulty to the experiments, the simulation is essential. This report presents works realized with the COMSOL software. The Nernst Planck equations have been associated to the Navier Stockes ones for an incompressible fluid. The study of the potential behaviour on the viscous layer and the mobility value have been detailed. (A.L.B.)

  11. Borel hierarchies in infinite products of Polish spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E-mail: rana@isical.ac.in; maitra@stat.umn.edu. MS received 22 August 2005; revised 28 August 2006. Abstract. Let H be a product of countably infinite number of copies of an uncountable. Polish space X. Let ξ ( ξ ) be the class of Borel sets of additive class ξ for the product of copies of the discrete topology on X (the Polish ...

  12. Stem subsidence of polished and rough double-taper stems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kengo; Hirosaki, Kenichi; Takano, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Tadami

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose Many clinical reports have indicated that polished hip stems show better clinical results than rough stems of the same geometry. It is still unknown, however, what the mechanical effects are of different surface finishes on the cement at the cement-bone interface. We compared mechanical effects in an in vitro cemented hip arthroplasty model. Methods Two sizes of double-taper polished stems and matt-processed polished stems (rough stems) were fixed into composite femurs. A 1-Hz dynamic load was applied to the stems for 1 million cycles. An 8-h no-load period was set after every 16 h of load. Stem subsidence within the cement, and compressive force and horizontal cement creep at the cement-bone interface, were measured. Results Compared to rough stems, stem subsidence, compressive force and cement creep for polished stems were a maximum of 4, 12, and 7-fold greater, respectively. There was a strong positive correlation between stem subsidence and compressive force for polished stems. In contrast, a strong negative correlation was found between stem subsidence and compressive force for rough stems. There was also a statistically significant relationship between compressive force on the cement and cement creep for the polished stems, but no significant relationship was found for rough stems. Interpretation This is the first evidence that different surface finishes of stems can have different mechanical effects on the cement at the cement-bone interface. Stem subsidence in polished stems resulted in compressive force on the cement and cement creep. The mechanical effects that polished taper stems impart on cement at the cement-bone interface probably contribute to their good long-term fixation and excellent clinical outcome. PMID:19421909

  13. Lexical exponents of hypothetical modality in Polish and Lithuanian

    OpenAIRE

    Roman Roszko

    2015-01-01

    Lexical exponents of hypothetical modality in Polish and Lithuanian The article focuses on the lexical exponents of hypothetical modality in Polish and Lithuanian. The purpose for comparing and contrasting the lexical exponents of hypothetical modality is not only to identify all the lexemes in both languages but also find the answer to the following question: whether the morphological exponents of hypothetical modality (so-called modus relativus) familiar to the Lithuanian language have/...

  14. Reusing Ceramic Tile Polishing Waste In Paving Block Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Giordano Penteado; Carmenlucia Santos; de Carvalho; Eduardo Viviani; Cecche Lintz; Rosa Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Ceramic companies worldwide produce large amounts of polishing tile waste, which are piled up in the open air or disposed of in landfills. These wastes have such characteristics that make them potential substitutes for cement and sand in the manufacturing of concrete products. This paper investigates the use of ceramic tile polishing waste as a partial substitute for cement and sand in the manufacturer of concrete paving blocks. A concrete mix design was defined and then the sand was replaced...

  15. Color stability of nanocomposites polished with one-step systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergücü, Zeynep; Türkün, L Sebnem; Aladag, Akin

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the color changes of five novel resin composites polished with two one-step polishing systems when exposed to coffee solution. The resin composites tested were Filtek Supreme XT, Grandio, CeramX, Premise and Tetric EvoCeram. A total of 150 discs (30/resin composites, 10 x 2 mm) were fabricated. Ten specimens/resin composites cured under Mylar strips served as the control. The other samples were polished with PoGo and OptraPol discs for 30 seconds using a slow speed handpiece and immersed in coffee (Nescafé) for seven days. Color measurements were made with Vita Easyshade at baseline and after one and seven days. Repeated Measures ANOVA and Bonferroni tests were used for statistical analyses (pGrandio, there were no significant differences between the Mylar and PoGo groups, while the most stain resistant surfaces were attained with OptraPol. Removing the outermost resin layer by polishing procedures is essential to achieving a stain resistant, more esthetically stable surface. One-step polishing systems can be used successfully for polishing nanocomposites.

  16. Factors influencing the surface quality of polished tool steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebeggiani, S; Rosén, B-G

    2014-01-01

    Today’s demands on surface quality of moulds for injection moulding of plastic components involve no/low defect contents and roughness levels in the nm-range for high gloss applications. Material properties as well as operating conditions influence the mould finish, and thus the final surface of moulded products. This paper focuses on how particle content and different polishing strategies influence final surface qualities of moulds. Visual estimations of polished tool steel samples were combined with non-contact 3D-surface texture analysis in order to correlate traditional assessments to more quantitative methods, and to be able to analyse the surfaces at nanometre-level. It was found that steels with a lower proportion of particles, like carbides and oxides, gave rise to smoother polished surfaces. In a comparative study of polishers from different polishing shops, it was found that while different surface preparation strategies can lead to similar final roughness, similar preparation techniques can produce high-quality surfaces from different steel grades. However, the non-contact 3D-surface texture analysis showed that not all smooth polished surfaces have desirable functional topographies for injection moulding of glossy plastic components. (paper)

  17. Advanced method for the characterization of polishing suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trum, Christian J.; Sitzberger, Sebastian; Rascher, Rolf

    2017-06-01

    The industrial production of components for applications in the area of precision optics has a long-standing tradition in Germany. As in almost all branches of industry, the external circumstances, processes and products have changed over time. Large lots are becoming less frequent and the demand for special components is growing. In order to meet these requirements, it is necessary to adapt the production processes quickly and flexibly. In the field of chemo-mechanical polishing (CMP), this means that in addition to the process parameters such as speed, pressure and feed, the task-specific adaptation of suspension and polishing pad carriers gain in importance. Along with these changes, it is becoming increasingly important to compare and evaluate the properties of the various polishing suspensions. The procedures according to DIN 58750-3 and DIN 58750-4 are suitable for this purpose. Due to the clearly defined procedures and the constant boundary conditions, different suspensions can be compared and evaluated. The study presented here shows that this method can also lead to misinterpretations. Known relationships, such as the influence of the polishing pad, the concentration of the suspension and the influence of the processed materials play an important role. An extension of the procedure of DIN 58750-3 for the test of a polishing agent can help in a task-specific characterization of polishing slurries.

  18. Polish university as an (unattractive potential employer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baruk, Agnieszka Izabela

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents issues associated with the reasons for the fact that young potential employees are not interested in starting work at Polish universities. The article is theoretical-empirical in character. The theoretical part highlights the importance of a situation in which an entity is regarded as an attractive employer, which allows attracting the best employees. Particular attention is paid to the fact that a university needs to build its image as an employer, which results from its characteristics. The article strives to achieve three research goals, among others, identifying the reasons why respondents are not interested in starting work at a university and arranging these reasons hierarchically. Two research hypotheses were subject to preliminary verification: H1 – the main reason for the unwillingness to start work at a university are financial aspects; H2 – the main reason for the unwillingness to start work at a university are the aspects of prestige. The data collected in course of primary research were subject to quantitative analysis based on the method of average assessment analysis and the method of factor analysis. Their results show that the respondents were not interested in work at a university mainly because they wanted to test the knowledge and skills acquired during studies in other branches. At the same time, the aspects of finances and prestige didn’t play a major role. Thus, in case of the surveyed sample of respondents both research hypotheses have to be recognized as untrue.

  19. ECOLOGICAL IDEAS IN POLISH ARCHITECTURE - ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

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    Magdalena SZPYTMA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Solutions in the field of ecological architecture appear more and more often in Poland. There are two approaches to eco-design: high-tech and low-tech. High-tech focuses on the use of the latest technological solvings. These means are often used in newly designed commercial buildings, such as the first Polish office building which uses passive technology, built in Katowice, in Euro-Centrum Science and Technology Park. It is intended especially for companies focusing on energy observance issues. Low-tech is usually used in small-scale buildings (for example a cottage in Jartypory village, and is focused on the use of inexpensive, traditional technologies and the daily conscious management of natural resources. Thinking about the impact on the environment and principles of sustainable development is also present in urban planning. In Siewierz, near Katowice, Poland’s first eco-village is being built, with full infrastructure, high-quality residential buildings, shops, offices and hotels. The range of applied solutions will allow residents for the economical exploitation of these buildings.

  20. Personality of Polish gay men and women

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    Marcin Kwiatkowski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Sexuality is a part of one’s identity and personality that is shaped under the influence of biological and environmental factors and interactions with society. The results of research conducted so far and concerning the personality traits of gay men and women are not consistent, and only a small number of them concern the Polish population. Hence the objective of the present research was to provide personality profiles of men and women with different sexual orientations. Participants and procedure The participants (N = 346 included 84 gay women, 82 gay men, 95 heterosexual women and 85 heterosexual men. The following measures were used: a survey developed by the author, the Kinsey Scale, the EPQ-R (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised adapted by Brzozowski and Drwal (1995, and the Sixteen-factor Personality Questionnaire of Cattell adapted by Nowakowska (1970. Results The results support the hypothesis that gay women and heterosexual men share similar personality traits, while gay men have more diverse traits, similar to the traits typical for heterosexual women and men. In particular, personalities of gay men are described by such traits as progressive attitude, independence, or willingness to take risks, which means traits linked to factor Q1. The highest values of that factor are observable in the case of gay men, as compared to gay women, and also in comparison with heterosexual men and women. Conclusions Sexual orientation is responsible for differences in personality traits of the studied group to a greater extent than their biological sex.

  1. Marketing Globalisation – Polish Market Experience

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    Robert Nowacki

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of the 21st century has been yielded with an acceleration of transformations occurring in economies of the whole world. These changes relate to all the areas of economic life functioning. The most important manifestation thereof is a reinforcement of competitive phenomena. Among the most important reasons for such a state of affairs, there is mentioned globalisation. The course of its processes forces the organisation operating in the market to undertake adaptive actions. One of them is reorientation of marketing activities. The need to modify the previous marketing concepts results, first of all, from far reaching alterations in the sphere of consumption, just triggered by globalisationís impact. These trends are noticed in all the markets, also in the Polish one. The foreign enterprises operating in it more and more often use the concept of global marketing. This makes us to have reflection on what is the real effectiveness of such actions and what are the possibilities to form oneís competitive position owing to that. The article constitutes an attempt to provide answers to these questions.

  2. Automated visual inspection for polished stone manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Melvyn L.; Smith, Lyndon N.

    2003-05-01

    Increased globalisation of the ornamental stone market has lead to increased competition and more rigorous product quality requirements. As such, there are strong motivators to introduce new, more effective, inspection technologies that will help enable stone processors to reduce costs, improve quality and improve productivity. Natural stone surfaces may contain a mixture of complex two-dimensional (2D) patterns and three-dimensional (3D) features. The challenge in terms of automated inspection is to develop systems able to reliably identify 3D topographic defects, either naturally occurring or resulting from polishing, in the presence of concomitant complex 2D stochastic colour patterns. The resulting real-time analysis of the defects may be used in adaptive process control, in order to avoid the wasteful production of defective product. An innovative approach, using structured light and based upon an adaptation of the photometric stereo method, has been pioneered and developed at UWE to isolate and characterize mixed 2D and 3D surface features. The method is able to undertake tasks considered beyond the capabilities of existing surface inspection techniques. The approach has been successfully applied to real stone samples, and a selection of experimental results is presented.

  3. Elemental and isotopic characterization of Japanese and Philippine polished rice samples using instrumental neutron activation analysis and isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pabroa, Preciosa Corazon B.; Sucgang, Raymond J.; Mendoza, Norman dS.; Ebihara, Mitsuru

    2011-01-01

    Rice is a staple food for most Asian countries such as the Philippines and Japan and as such its elemental and isotopic content are of interest to the consumers. Its elemental content may reflect the macro nutrient reduction during milling or probable toxic elements uptake. Three Japanese and four Philippine polished rice samples in his study mostly came from rice bought from supermarkets.These rice samples were washed, dried and ground to fine powder. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), a very sensitive non-destructive multi-element analytical technique, was used for the elemental analysis of the samples and isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) was used to obtain the isotopic signatures of the samples. Results show that compared with the unpolished rice standard NIES CRM10b, the polished Japanese and Philippine rice sampled show reduced concentrations of elements by as much as 1/3 to 1/10 of Mg, Mn, K and Na. Levels of Ca and Zn are not greatly affected. Arsenic is found in all the Japanese rice tested at an average concentration of 0.103 μg/g and three out of four of the Philippine rice at an average concentration of 0.070 μg/g. Arsenic contamination may have been introduced from the fertilizer used in rice fields. Higher levels of Br are seen in two of the Philippine rice at 14 and 34 μg/g with the most probable source being the pesticide methyl bromide. Isotopic ratio of ae 13 C show signature of a C3 plant with possible narrow distinguishable signature of Japanese rice within -27.5 to -28.5 while Philippine rice within -29 to -30. More rice samples will be analyzed to gain better understanding of isotopic signatures to distinguish inter-varietal and/or geographical differences. Elemental composition of soil samples of rice samples sources will be determined for better understanding of uptake mechanisms. (author)

  4. Study on chemical mechanical polishing of silicon wafer with megasonic vibration assisted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Ke; He, Qing; Li, Liang; Ren, Yi

    2017-09-01

    Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) is the primary method to realize the global planarization of silicon wafer. In order to improve this process, a novel method which combined megasonic vibration to assist chemical mechanical polishing (MA-CMP) is developed in this paper. A matching layer structure of polishing head was calculated and designed. Silicon wafers are polished by megasonic assisted chemical mechanical polishing and traditional chemical mechanical polishing respectively, both coarse polishing and precision polishing experiments were carried out. With the use of megasonic vibration, the surface roughness values Ra reduced from 22.260nm to 17.835nm in coarse polishing, and the material removal rate increased by approximately 15-25% for megasonic assisted chemical mechanical polishing relative to traditional chemical mechanical polishing. Average Surface roughness values Ra reduced from 0.509nm to 0.387nm in precision polishing. The results show that megasonic assisted chemical mechanical polishing is a feasible method to improve polishing efficiency and surface quality. The material removal and finishing mechanisms of megasonic vibration assisted polishing are investigated too. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. QUALITY ASSURANCE SYSTEMS IN POLISH AND UKRAINIAN HIGHER EDUCATION. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Tutko; Vitalii Naumov

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with the progress made to develop external and internal quality assurance systems in Polish and Ukrainian higher education in the European Higher Education Area background. The focus of the paper is on the extent to which quality assurance systems in these countries are following the Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance in the European Higher Education Area. Furthermore, internal and external quality assur-ance in the European context is presented in the article. T...

  6. Comparison of Titration ICP and XRF Spectrometry Methods in Determination of Cerium in Lens Polishing Powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninlaphruk, Sumalee; Pichestapong, Pipat; Mungpayabal, Harinate; Jiyavaranant, Thitima; Srisukho, Supapan; Chaisai, Prapassurn

    2004-10-01

    Three analytical methods in determination of cerium in cerium oxide separated from monazite ore for producing lens polishing powder were compared. These methods are titration ICP and XRF spectrometry techniques. The cerium oxide sample with estimated 45% cerium content needed to be digested and converted into solution before the analysis. The analytical results shown significantly no difference between each method. However, the titration method was found to be more convenient and suitable for quality control in the production of cerium oxide as it does not require standard cerium and the complicated analytical instruments

  7. MCNP variance reduction overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, J.S.; Booth, T.E.

    1985-01-01

    The MCNP code is rich in variance reduction features. Standard variance reduction methods found in most Monte Carlo codes are available as well as a number of methods unique to MCNP. We discuss the variance reduction features presently in MCNP as well as new ones under study for possible inclusion in future versions of the code

  8. Effect of various polishing systems on the surface roughness and phase transformation of zirconia and the durability of the polishing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan; Vang, Mong-Sook; Park, Sang-Won; Lim, Hyun-Pil

    2017-03-01

    Although many systems are used to polish zirconia, a comparison of the performance of zirconia and feldspathic porcelain polishing systems is lacking. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the effects of 3 polishing systems on surface roughness, zirconia phase transformation, and durability of the polishing systems when applied to zirconia and feldspathic porcelain. Three polishing systems were evaluated: Z1, a zirconia polishing system; Z2, a zirconia polishing system, and F1, a feldspathic porcelain polishing system. Three ceramic systems were evaluated: PR and ZM zirconia specimens (diameter 15 mm, height 2 mm; 23 specimens each) and CB feldspathic porcelain specimens of the same size (15 specimens). A rough surface was created on the 3 types of specimens (15 specimens each) to model an occlusal adjustment under the same conditions. Polishing was carried out with the 3 polishing systems for 2 minutes each. Surface roughness was measured with a 3-dimensional (3D) optical profiler. The surface was also observed with a scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis was performed for 8 PR or ZM zirconia specimens polished by using the Z1 and Z2 systems for 8 minutes to evaluate the phase transformation of zirconia before, during, and after polishing. These specimens were compared and analyzed for phase transformation that might have occurred during the polishing of the specimens. After finishing the surface roughness experiment and the phase transformation experiment, the volumes of the polishers were measured with a 3D volume scanner and compared with those before the experiments to evaluate the durability of the polishing system. A statistical analysis of all data was performed using 2-way ANOVA and the Tukey honest significant difference test (α=.05). The 2 zirconia polishing systems (Z1, Z2) created a significantly (Pzirconia specimens for 8 minutes, the maximum percentages of monoclinic phase increased by 0.03% in the Z1 system and by 0

  9. Computer-Controlled Cylindrical Polishing Process for Development of Grazing Incidence Optics for Hard X-Ray Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Gufran Sayeed; Gubarev, Mikhail; Speegle, Chet; Ramsey, Brian

    2010-01-01

    The presentation includes grazing incidence X-ray optics, motivation and challenges, mid spatial frequency generation in cylindrical polishing, design considerations for polishing lap, simulation studies and experimental results, future scope, and summary. Topics include current status of replication optics technology, cylindrical polishing process using large size polishing lap, non-conformance of polishin lap to the optics, development of software and polishing machine, deterministic prediction of polishing, polishing experiment under optimum conditions, and polishing experiment based on known error profile. Future plans include determination of non-uniformity in the polishing lap compliance, development of a polishing sequence based on a known error profile of the specimen, software for generating a mandrel polishing sequence, design an development of a flexible polishing lap, and computer controlled localized polishing process.

  10. Effects of air-polishing devices with different abrasives on bovine primary and second teeth and deciduous human teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalefa, Mohammad; Finke, Christian; Jost-Brinkmann, Paul-Georg

    2013-09-01

    The present study investigates the effect of air polishing using different combinations of devices and abrasive powders on bovine secondary and primary dentition and on human deciduous teeth. Lower incisors of freshly slaughtered calves and cows were partially embedded in polyurethane and polished flat. Human deciduous incisors and second molars were subjected to the same procedure. These various tooth types (bovine secondary, bovine primary, human deciduous) were then randomly assigned to 22 groups containing 10 teeth each. The specimens in each group were treated by a specific combination of an air-polishing device (n=2; PROPHYflex 3®, Air-Flow® Handy 2+) and an abrasive (n=3; Air-Flow® Pulver Classic, ClinPro™ Prophy Powder, PROPHYpearls®) applied from a distance of 5±0.5 mm at maximum setting for 60 s. Additional groups of specimens were polished with CCS® 40 or Cleanic® pastes applied with a rotating brush at low speed. A Perthometer PCV profilometer was used to analyze the degrees of surface roughness and enamel reduction in each group. PROPHYpearls® created significantly (pteeth than on bovine primary or human deciduous teeth, with no significant difference between the latter two. The degrees of surface roughness induced by air polishing surpassed the effect of CCS® 40 paste but resembled the effect of Cleanic® paste. Both Air-Flow® Handy 2+ and PROPHYflex 3® are appropriate devices to remove plaque and discoloration from the surface of deciduous teeth. PROPHYpearls® powder is excessively aggressive.

  11. Outlined history of the development of the world and Polish cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziatkowiak, A J

    2006-04-01

    new facilities for the Department of Cardiac Surgery of Cracow consecrated on June 9, 1997 by pope John Paul II, have been discussed. The contribution of the Club of Polish Cardiac Surgeons to the integration of surgical community and to development of the Polish cardiac surgery has been emphasized. In summary, it has been outlined that the contemporary standards of the Polish cardiac surgery do not differ from cardiac and vascular surgery and transplantology in developed countries.

  12. Germanium content in Polish hard coals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makowska Dorota

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the policy of the European Union, it is necessary to search for new sources of scarce raw materials. One of these materials is germanium, listed as a critical element. This semi-metal is widely used in the electronics industry, for example in the production of semiconductors, fibre optics and solar cells. Coal and fly ash from its combustion and gasification for a long time have been considered as a potential source of many critical elements, particularly germanium. The paper presents the results of germanium content determination in the Polish hard coal. 23 coal samples of various coal ranks were analysed. The samples were collected from 15 mines of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin and from one mine of the Lublin Coal Basin. The determination of germanium content was performed with the use of Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with Electrothermal Atomization (GFAAS. The investigation showed that germanium content in the analysed samples was at least twice lower than the average content of this element in the hard coals analysed so far and was in the range of 0.08 ÷ 1.28 mg/kg. Moreover, the content of Ge in the ashes from the studied coals does not exceed 15 mg/kg, which is lower than the average value of Ge content in the coal ashes. The highest content of this element characterizes coals of the Lublin Coal Basin and young coals type 31 from the Vistula region. The results indicate a low utility of the analysed coal ashes as a source of the recovery of germanium. On the basis of the analyses, the lack of the relationship between the content of the element and the ash content in the tested coals was noted. For coals of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, the relationship between the content of germanium in the ashes and the depth of the seam was observed.

  13. Studies on polishing of Ti and Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloy with five dental abrasives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, T; Nakamura, T; Takashima, F; Maruyama, T; Taira, M; Takahashi, J

    2001-08-01

    Titanium (Ti) and Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloy were examined for their polishing behaviour by conducting manually controlled polishing tests using five dental abrasives [carborundum point (CR) and silicone points (R1 and R2)] driven by a high torque micromotor with rotational speeds ranging from 2000 to 15 000 r.p.m. Polishing of Ti resulted in less volume of removal upon polishing, a rougher surface and larger loss of abrasives, compared with polishing of Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloy. Polishing of Ti with a rotational speed of 15 000 r.p.m. led to the largest volume of removal upon polishing, whilst that of 10 000 r.p.m. produced the optimal volume for Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloy. It was concluded that Ti was much more difficult to polish, requiring special care (e.g. frequent exchange of abrasives). Development of new abrasives for polishing Ti is required.

  14. The study of optimization on process parameters of high-accuracy computerized numerical control polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei-Ren; Huang, Shih-Pu; Tsai, Tsung-Yueh; Lin, Yi-Jyun; Yu, Zong-Ru; Kuo, Ching-Hsiang; Hsu, Wei-Yao; Young, Hong-Tsu

    2017-09-01

    Spherical lenses lead to forming spherical aberration and reduced optical performance. Consequently, in practice optical system shall apply a combination of spherical lenses for aberration correction. Thus, the volume of the optical system increased. In modern optical systems, aspherical lenses have been widely used because of their high optical performance with less optical components. However, aspherical surfaces cannot be fabricated by traditional full aperture polishing process due to their varying curvature. Sub-aperture computer numerical control (CNC) polishing is adopted for aspherical surface fabrication in recent years. By using CNC polishing process, mid-spatial frequency (MSF) error is normally accompanied during this process. And the MSF surface texture of optics decreases the optical performance for high precision optical system, especially for short-wavelength applications. Based on a bonnet polishing CNC machine, this study focuses on the relationship between MSF surface texture and CNC polishing parameters, which include feed rate, head speed, track spacing and path direction. The power spectral density (PSD) analysis is used to judge the MSF level caused by those polishing parameters. The test results show that controlling the removal depth of single polishing path, through the feed rate, and without same direction polishing path for higher total removal depth can efficiently reduce the MSF error. To verify the optical polishing parameters, we divided a correction polishing process to several polishing runs with different direction polishing paths. Compare to one shot polishing run, multi-direction path polishing plan could produce better surface quality on the optics.

  15. Psychometric evaluation of the Polish adaptation of the Hill-Bone Compliance to High Blood Pressure Therapy Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchmanowicz, Izabella; Jankowska-Polańska, Beata; Chudiak, Anna; Szymańska-Chabowska, Anna; Mazur, Grzegorz

    2016-05-10

    Development of simple instruments for the determination of the level of adherence in patients with high blood pressure is the subject of ongoing research. One such instrument, gaining growing popularity worldwide, is the Hill-Bone Compliance to High Blood Pressure Therapy. The aim of this study was to adapt and to test the reliability of the Polish version of Hill-Bone Compliance to High Blood Pressure Therapy Scale. A standard guideline was used for the translation and cultural adaptation of the English version of the Hill-Bone Compliance to High Blood Pressure Therapy Scale into Polish. The study included 117 Polish patients with hypertension aged between 27 and 90 years, among them 53 men and 64 women. Cronbach's alpha was used for analysing the internal consistency of the scale. The mean score in the reduced sodium intake subscale was M = 5.7 points (standard deviation SD = 1.6 points). The mean score in the appointment-keeping subscale was M = 3.4 points (standard deviation SD = 1.4 points). The mean score in the medication-taking subscale was M = 11.6 points (standard deviation SD = 3.3 points). In the principal component analysis, the three-factor system (1 - medication-taking, 2 - appointment-keeping, 3 - reduced sodium intake) accounted for 53 % of total variance. All questions had factor loadings > 0.4. The medication-taking subscale: most questions (6 out of 9) had the highest loadings with Factor 1. The appointment-keeping subscale: all questions (2 out of 2) had the highest loadings with Factor 2. The reduced sodium intake subscale: most questions (2 out of 3) had the highest loadings with Factor 3. Goodness of fit was tested at chi(2) = 248.87; p High Blood Pressure Therapy Scale proved to be suitable for use in the Polish population. Use of this screening tool for the assessment of adherence to BP treatment is recommended.

  16. Infestation of Polish Agricultural Soils by Plasmodiophora Brassicae Along The Polish-Ukrainian Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jędryczka Małgorzata

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There has been a rapid, worldwide increase in oilseed rape production that has resulted in enormous intensification of oilseed rape cultivation, leading to tight rotations. This in turn, has caused an accumulation of pests as well as foliar and soil-borne diseases. Recently, clubroot has become one of the biggest concerns of oilseed rape growers. Clubroot is caused by the soil-borne protist Plasmodiophora brassicae Woronin. The pathogen may be present in groundwater, lakes, and irrigation water used in sprinkling systems. It can be easily transmitted from one field to another not only by water, but also by soil particles and dust transmitted by wind and on machinery. The aim of our overall study was to check for P. brassicae infestation of Polish agricultural soils. This paper presents the 2012 results of a study performed along the Polish-Ukrainian border in two provinces: Lublin (Lubelskie Voivodeship and the Carpathian Foothills (Podkarpackie Voivodeship, in south-east Poland. Monitoring was done in 11 counties, including nine rural and two municipal ones. In total, 40 samples were collected, out of which 36 were collected from fields located in rural areas and four from municipal areas, with two per municipal region. Each sample was collected at 8-10 sites per field, using a soil auger. The biotest to detect the presence of P. brassicae was done under greenhouse conditions using seedlings of the susceptible Brassicas: B. rapa ssp. pekinensis and the Polish variety of oilseed rape B. napus cv. Monolit. Susceptible plants grown in heavily infested soils produced galls on their roots. A county was regarded as free from the pathogen, if none of the bait plants became infected. The pathogen was found in three out of 40 fields monitored (7.5% in the Carpathian Foothill region. The fields were located in two rural counties. The pathogen was not found in Lublin province, and was also not detected in any of the municipal counties. The detection with

  17. Changes in Polish foreign trade in agri-food products under accession to the European Union Zmainy w polskim handlu zagranicznym produktami rolno-spożywczymi w warunkach integracji z Unią Europejską

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Pawlak

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to assess main trends and changes in commodity structure of Polish agri-food trade in 2003-2006. Joining in the Common Market and adopting the Common Trade Policy rules caused the significant growth of Polish agri-food trade values and improvement in the positive trade balance. Taking into account loss or reduction of some cost advantages, as well as liberalization of world agricultural trade, next years can be much more difficult for Polish exporters. The highest export potential applies to trade in animal origin products. Considering commodity structure of Polish agri-food trade, it should be said that processed products dominate both in export and in import.

  18. Delayed polishing technique on glass–ionomer restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masao Irie

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This in vitro study evaluated the effect of polishing after 1-day storage in water on the gap-formation around a Class V and Class I restorations, using a resin-modified glass–ionomer and a conventional glass–ionomer materials. The study also examined the gap-formation in another two different cervical restorations, a cervical cavity: incisally bordered by enamel and cervically by dentin and a root surface cavity of these restorative materials, which may be effects of this polishing procedure. This study evaluated the effects of delayed versus immediate polishing to permit maturation on: (1 interfacial gap-formation around resin-modified (RMGIC and conventional (CGIC in three types of cervical restorations, (2 interfacial gap-formation around highly viscous conventional glass–ionomer cement (HCGIC in Class I restorations. After polishing procedure, either: (i immediately (3 or 6 min after setting or (ii after 24 h storage, the maximum the restored teeth were sectioned in a mesio-distal direction through the center of the restorations. The presence or absence of interfacial-gaps was measured at 14 points (each 0.5-mm apart along the cavity restoration interface. For various restorative cases, significant differences (p < 0.05 in gap-width or gap-incidence, were observed between polishing (i immediately and (ii after 1-day storage.

  19. Nail polish as a source of exposure to triphenyl phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelsohn, Emma; Hagopian, Audrey; Hoffman, Kate; Butt, Craig M; Lorenzo, Amelia; Congleton, Johanna; Webster, Thomas F; Stapleton, Heather M

    2016-01-01

    Triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) is primarily used as either a flame retardant or plasticizer, and is listed as an ingredient in nail polishes. However, the concentration of TPHP in nail polish and the extent of human exposure following applications have not been previously studied. We measured TPHP in ten different nail polish samples purchased from department stores and pharmacies in 2013-2014. Concentrations up to 1.68% TPHP by weight were detected in eight samples, including two that did not list TPHP as an ingredient. Two cohorts (n=26 participants) were recruited to assess fingernail painting as a pathway of TPHP exposure. Participants provided urine samples before and after applying one brand of polish containing 0.97% TPHP by weight. Diphenyl phosphate (DPHP), a TPHP metabolite, was then measured in urine samples (n=411) and found to increase nearly seven-fold 10-14h after fingernail painting (pexposure, ten participants also painted their nails and painted synthetic nails adhered to gloves on two separate occasions, and collected urine for 24h following applications. Urinary DPHP was significantly diminished when wearing gloves, suggesting that the primary exposure route is dermal. Our results indicate that nail polish may be a significant source of short-term TPHP exposure and a source of chronic exposure for frequent users or those occupationally exposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields in the Polish Armed Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobiech, Jaromir; Kieliszek, Jarosław; Puta, Robert; Bartczak, Dagmara; Stankiewicz, Wanda

    2017-06-19

    Standard devices used by military personnel that may pose electromagnetic hazard include: radars, missile systems, radio navigation systems and radio transceivers. The aim of this study has been to evaluate the exposure of military personnel to electromagnetic fields. Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields was analyzed in the work environment of personnel of 204 devices divided into 5 groups (surface-to-air missile system radars, aircraft and helicopters, communication devices, surveillance and height finder radars, airport radars and radio navigation systems). Measurements were carried out at indicators, device terminals, radio panels, above vehicle seats, in vehicle hatches, by cabinets containing high power vacuum tubes and other transmitter components, by transmission lines, connectors, etc. Portable radios emit the electric field strength between 20-80 V/m close to a human head. The manpack radio operator's exposure is 60-120 V/m. Inside vehicles with high frequency/very high frequency (HF/VHF) band radios, the electric field strength is between 7-30 V/m and inside the radar cabin it ranges between 9-20 V/m. Most of the personnel on ships are not exposed to the electromagnetic field from their own radar systems but rather by accidental exposure from the radar systems of other ships. Operators of surface-to-air missile systems are exposed to the electric field strength between 7-15 V/m and the personnel of non-directional radio beacons - 100-150 V/m. In 57% of military devices Polish soldiers work in the occupational protection zones. In 35% of cases, soldiers work in intermediate and hazardous zones and in 22% - only in the intermediate zone. In 43% of devices, military personnel are not exposed to electromagnetic field. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(4):565-577. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  1. Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields in the Polish Armed Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Kieliszek

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Standard devices used by military personnel that may pose electromagnetic hazard include: radars, missile systems, radio navigation systems and radio transceivers. The aim of this study has been to evaluate the exposure of military personnel to electromagnetic fields. Material and Methods: Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields was analyzed in the work environment of personnel of 204 devices divided into 5 groups (surface-to-air missile system radars, aircraft and helicopters, communication devices, surveillance and height finder radars, airport radars and radio navigation systems. Measurements were carried out at indicators, device terminals, radio panels, above vehicle seats, in vehicle hatches, by cabinets containing high power vacuum tubes and other transmitter components, by transmission lines, connectors, etc. Results: Portable radios emit the electric field strength between 20–80 V/m close to a human head. The manpack radio operator’s exposure is 60–120 V/m. Inside vehicles with high frequency/very high frequency (HF/VHF band radios, the electric field strength is between 7–30 V/m and inside the radar cabin it ranges between 9–20 V/m. Most of the personnel on ships are not exposed to the electromagnetic field from their own radar systems but rather by accidental exposure from the radar systems of other ships. Operators of surface-to-air missile systems are exposed to the electric field strength between 7–15 V/m and the personnel of non-directional radio beacons – 100–150 V/m. Conclusions: In 57% of military devices Polish soldiers work in the occupational protection zones. In 35% of cases, soldiers work in intermediate and hazardous zones and in 22% – only in the intermediate zone. In 43% of devices, military personnel are not exposed to electromagnetic field. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(4:565–577

  2. Elaboration of a quantitative job-exposure matrix for historical exposure to airborne exposures in the Polish rubber industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vocht, F; Sobala, W; Peplonska, B; Wilczynska, U; Gromiec, J; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N; Kromhout, H

    2008-11-01

    A job-exposure matrix (JEM) for inhalable aerosols, aromatic amines, and cyclohexane soluble matter (CSM) was elaborated based on measurements collected routinely between 1981 and 1996. The data were grouped based on similarities in exposure levels and time trends in different departments, and were analyzed using smoothing splines and mixed effects models. Although higher than in western European countries, inhalable aerosol exposure decreased after changes in production volume and implementation of exposure reduction measures in mid-1980s. Aromatic amines concentrations first increased following the factory's production volume, but subsequently decreased in more recent years. CSM concentrations were uniformly distributed between departments. This JEM provides an overview of historical exposure levels in a large Polish rubber factory and will enable estimation of lifetime exposure for individual workers in a Polish rubber workers cohort and further investigation of the associations between specific exposures and cancer risk. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Impact of Regulation Change on Half-Court Offence in the Polish Basketball League

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gryko Karol

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Each change in the rules of a sport affects the way it is performed. Therefore, changes in regulations require that new training models be developed. The aim of the study was to determine whether FIBA’s introduction of new regulations in the 2010/2011 season pertaining to the dimensions of certain parts of the playing area, which changed the conditions under which the game was played, impacted the offensive actions of the top three teams in the Polish Basketball League. Material and methods. The study analysed qualitative data describing the offences (n = 16,694 performed during 200 matches of the Polish Basketball League, that is the highest-level men’s professional basketball league in Poland, during two periods: the 2009/2010 season (110 matches; n = 9,343 offences, before the regulations were modified, and the 2010/2011 season (90 matches; n = 7,351 offences, after they were changed. The research involved the players of three teams who received the gold, silver, and bronze medals in the final standings of the Polish National Championship in the 2009/2010 season. Results. The study found a statistically significant (p < 0.001 decrease in the overall number of tactical offensive actions of 3.84% and a significant (p < 0.05 5% decrease in the mean number of points scored. A significant (p < 0.05 decrease in half-court offences, amounting to almost 2% was also observed. This offensive system was characterised by a minor shift toward individual offences with the back to the basket and pick-and-roll offences; these changes, however, did not cause an increase in the level of effectiveness. Conclusions. The direction of the changes observed have been determined, which consisted in a reduction in the overall number of offensive actions and a shift in the place where they were completed, from the three-point area in particular, to the two-point area.

  4. Standard specification for blended uranium oxides with 235U content of less than 5 % for direct hydrogen reduction to nuclear grade uranium dioxide

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01

    1.1 This specification covers blended uranium trioxide (UO3), U3O8, or mixtures of the two, powders that are intended for conversion into a sinterable uranium dioxide (UO2) powder by means of a direct reduction process. The UO2 powder product of the reduction process must meet the requirements of Specification C 753 and be suitable for subsequent UO2 pellet fabrication by pressing and sintering methods. This specification applies to uranium oxides with a 235U enrichment less than 5 %. 1.2 This specification includes chemical, physical, and test method requirements for uranium oxide powders as they relate to the suitability of the powder for storage, transportation, and direct reduction to UO2 powder. This specification is applicable to uranium oxide powders for such use from any source. 1.3 The scope of this specification does not comprehensively cover all provisions for preventing criticality accidents, for health and safety, or for shipping. Observance of this specification does not relieve the user of th...

  5. [Polish medical ethics in the period 1945-1980].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichrowski, Marek

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this article is o present that main currents of Polish medical ethics in the years 1945-1980, which the author treats as the 'prehistory' of Poland's contemporary bioethics. The author begins by ascertaining the post-war disappearance of two Polish traditions--that of the Warsaw school of philosopher-physicians (known in the West as the Polish School of Philosophy of Medicine) and the Lwów-Warsaw School of Philosophy. The political system that come into being after 1945 was not conducive to the development of medical ethics, but several clear orientations may be discerned in the utterances of physicians, lawyers, moral technologlans and academic philosophers. The analysis begins with Catholic ethics in its archaic 1950s-vintage form. The author then presents the thinking of ethicians Independent of both the Church and Marxism (the milieu of the journal 'Etyka') as well as the deontological writings of physicians.

  6. Body conformation comparison of Czech and Polish Hucul horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zita Matoušová Malbohanová

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of 17 body measures and 11 indices of body conformation on 209 breeding individuals of the Hucul horse were used to analyse the effect of country of origin (Poland and the Czech Republic, sex (stallions and mares, age (5 classes and sire line (Gurgul, Goral, Oušor, Hroby, Polan, Pietrosu, Prislop. All horses were measured by one person. Measures and indexes were analysed by the GLM procedure. The main effect was the country of origin. Highly significant differences were found between both Polish and Czech horses in two thirds of measurements and in more than half of indices. The Czech Hucul horses are significantly higher, longer, wider in pelvis and have longer head than Polish horses. On the contrary to the Czech horses are Polish horses more compact, massive and have deeper chest. Their cannon bone in relation to height of wither is wider.

  7. Human Factors in Nuclear Power Engineering in Polish Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kaczmarek-Kacprzak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper “Human factors in nuclear power engineering in Polish conditions” focuses on analysis of dynamics of preparing Polish society to build fi rst nuclear power plant in XXI century in Poland. Authors compare experience from constructing nuclear power plant Sizewell B (Great Britain and Sizewell C, which is in preparation phase with polish nuclear power program. Paper includes aspects e.g. of creating nuclear safety culture and social opinion about investment. Human factors in nuclear power engineering are as well important as relevant economical and technical factors, but very often negligible. In Poland where history about Czarnobyl is still alive, and social opinion is created on emotions after accident in Fukushima, human factors are crucial and should be under comprehensive consideration.

  8. The social shaping of innovation in polish companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Anne

    2003-01-01

    The paper deals with strategies of innovation in Polish manufacturing companies. The point of departure is a theoretical framework of enterprise level innovation, and of the factors forming strategies of innovation on enterprise level. The paper analyses evidence from 23 Polish companies...... and presents two cases more in detail. The analysis shows that the Polish companies have all been quite innovative, mostly in relation to product innovation. They choose innovation strategies, which are incremental more than radical, and they tend to differentiate their product range rather than to specialise....... They consider quality development a must in the fight for market shares and they adapt equipment and organisation to this goal. The factors forming and determining the strategies of the companies count the technological knowledge and expertise of the owner/founder, the structural changes of the market...

  9. Polish Gynecological Society Recommendations for Labor Induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomba-Opoń, Dorota; Drews, Krzysztof; Huras, Hubert; Laudański, Piotr; Paszkowski, Tomasz; Wielgoś, Mirosław

    2017-01-01

    Labor induction involves artificial stimulation of childbirth before the natural, spontaneous onset of labor. It is one of the most common procedures in modern obstetrics. The frequency of labor induction has doubled in recent decades due to the development of perinatology and methods of monitoring fetal well-being in particular. Currently, one in five pregnant women and 30-40% of women delivering vaginally undergo this procedure. Reasons for induction include reduction of the perinatal mortality and morbidity of the fetus and newborn, as well as the reduction of maternal complications. However, as every medical intervention, labor induction is associated with a risk of complications.

  10. Standard test method for uranium by Iron (II) reduction in phosphoric acid followed by chromium (VI) titration in the presence of vanadium

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This test method, commonly referred to as the Modified Davies and Gray technique, covers the titration of uranium in product, fuel, and scrap materials after the material is dissolved. The test method is versatile and has been ruggedness tested. With appropriate sample preparation, this test method can give precise and unbiased uranium assays over a wide variety of material types (1, 2). Details of the titration procedure in the presence of plutonium with appropriate modifications are given in Test Method C1204. 1.2 Uranium levels titrated are usually 20 to 50 mg, but up to 200 mg uranium can be titrated using the reagent volumes stated in this test method. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determ...

  11. [The historical significance of the Polish medical faculty in Edinburgh].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, K

    1999-01-01

    The Polish Medical Faculty at the University of Edinburgh was a unique phenomenon in the history of universities. Established during the Second World War in 1941 as an entirely autonomous Polish academic institution, the Faculty trained 228 doctors and awarded 19 PhD degrees during its nine years of formal existence (1941-1949). In reviewing its almost 60-year old history, seen in the context of the involvement of the elite of both the political and academic establishments, the splendour of various celebrations and its graduates devotion in keeping the "Edinburgh experiment" alive, the author makes a case for the long-term historical and psychological significance of events well outlasting the period of formal activity of the Faculty. The history of the Faculty is well documented, but the long term outcome in terms of its lasting historical importance is gradually emerging with the passage of time. It has become an indisputable testimony to the generosity and hospitality of the Scottish (political and) academic establishment and a lasting proof of the special liaison between the Scots and the Poles. The Faculty's importance and psychological significance to the rich historical heritage of Polish medicine and the notion of patriotism and loyalty to Polishness have become apparent in the ensuing decades of its carefully maintained tradition. The existence of the Polish Medical Faculty has become an extraordinary asset in the history of Scottish universities, but for the Polish tradition both in Poland and throughout its rich diaspora it constitutes an increasingly valuable historical event which deserves to be cultivated and passed on to younger generations so that it may continue bringing further dividends, so important to national identity, achievement, dignity and pride.

  12. Verbalization the Concept of Dignity in Polish Dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaban Vasylyna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The object of the study is the concept of DIGNITY. The justification of the research is predetermined by the lack of such investigation in Polish linguistics. The background for the article is also determined by the lack of similar studies in the sphere of Cognitive Linguistics. Purpose: The article aims at analysing the cultural concept of DIGNITY in the minds of the bearers of the Polish language and culture based on the data incorporated from the lexicographical sources and collection of folk sayings and proverbs. Results: The article dwells upon the most important features of this concept in the Polish language and culture. The study investigates the language conceptualization of this concept in the system of the Polish language and folk maxims and sayings. The definition of the lexeme of dignity reveals the compliance with higher moral principles and the understanding of value; good name, good character claiming attention and respect; the last name. DIGNITY is the principal regulating mechanism of behaviour and development of positive human values which become apparent in the process of human interaction. A man of worth respects himself and is as well proud to be an honourable man. DIGNITY concerns both a separate human and the society in general; it could be regarded as both individual and collective notion. Discussion: The suggested analysis revealed cultural and linguistic peculiarities of the concept of DIGNITY in the Polish language and culture. The conducted research is not exhaustive since it provides potential perspectives for further research of the Polish concept of DIGNITY, in particular, in terms of comparative studies with correlative concepts in Ukrainian and English languages and cultures with the help of the cognitive definition method.

  13. Evolution of polish E-commerce - main trends and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Chodak, Grzegorz

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present main phases of Polish e-commerce development and to show its major trends. The author also tries to predict future directions of its development. The whole e-commerce process of development is divided into five phases. The first part of the paper presents the beginnings of Polish e-commerce. Then the following stages of development are discussed with presentation of some key figures e.g. percentage of individuals who ordered goods or services over the Inter...

  14. Polish as a Foreign Language: New Context, Regulations and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popławska Anna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article provides an overview of the developments in Poland after the collapse of communism in 1989 from the point of view of foreign language teaching, including a swift reorientation and transition from a public school system with Russian as the main foreign language, to a diversified language teaching market focused on teaching English and other languages. A particular stress is placed on a relatively new phenomenon, being an increased demand and new opportunities for teaching Polish as a foreign language to be further promoted as a result of anticipated amendments to legal regulations governing the status and certification of the Polish language.

  15. Laser polishing for topography management of accelerator cavity surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Liang [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Klopf, J. Mike [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Reece, Charles E. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Kelley, Michael J. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2015-07-20

    Improved energy efficiency and reduced cost are greatly desired for advanced particle accelerators. Progress toward both can be made by atomically-smoothing the interior surface of the niobium superconducting radiofrequency accelerator cavities at the machine's heart. Laser polishing offers a green alternative to the present aggressive chemical processes. We found parameters suitable for polishing niobium in all surface states expected for cavity production. As a result, careful measurement of the resulting surface chemistry revealed a modest thinning of the surface oxide layer, but no contamination.

  16. Mechanistic, kinetic, and processing aspects of tungsten chemical mechanical polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, David

    This dissertation presents an investigation into tungsten chemical mechanical polishing (CMP). CMP is the industrially predominant unit operation that removes excess tungsten after non-selective chemical vapor deposition (CVD) during sub-micron integrated circuit (IC) manufacture. This work explores the CMP process from process engineering and fundamental mechanistic perspectives. The process engineering study optimized an existing CMP process to address issues of polish pad and wafer carrier life. Polish rates, post-CMP metrology of patterned wafers, electrical test data, and synergy with a thermal endpoint technique were used to determine the optimal process. The oxidation rate of tungsten during CMP is significantly lower than the removal rate under identical conditions. Tungsten polished without inhibition during cathodic potentiostatic control. Hertzian indenter model calculations preclude colloids of the size used in tungsten CMP slurries from indenting the tungsten surface. AFM surface topography maps and TEM images of post-CMP tungsten do not show evidence of plow marks or intergranular fracture. Polish rate is dependent on potassium iodate concentration; process temperature is not. The colloid species significantly affects the polish rate and process temperature. Process temperature is not a predictor of polish rate. A process energy balance indicates that the process temperature is predominantly due to shaft work, and that any heat of reaction evolved during the CMP process is negligible. Friction and adhesion between alumina and tungsten were studied using modified AFM techniques. Friction was constant with potassium iodate concentration, but varied with applied pressure. This corroborates the results from the energy balance. Adhesion between the alumina and the tungsten was proportional to the potassium iodate concentration. A heuristic mechanism, which captures the relationship between polish rate, pressure, velocity, and slurry chemistry, is presented

  17. Implementation of the Bulgarian-Polish online dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Dimitrova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of the Bulgarian-Polish online dictionary The paper describes the implementation of an online Bulgarian-Polish dictionary as a technological tool for applications in digital humanities. This bilingual digital dictionary is developed in the frame of the joint research project “Semantics and Contrastive Linguistics with a focus on a bilingual electronic dictionary” between IMI-BAS and ISS-PAS, supervised by L. Dimitrova (IMI-BAS and V. Koseska-Toszewa (ISS-PAS. In addition, the main software tools for web-presentation of the dictionary are described briefly.

  18. Confocal Raman spectrocopy for the analysis of nail polish evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, Maria; Vaz, Joana; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2015-06-01

    Nail polishes are cosmetic paints that may be susceptible of forensic analysis offering useful information to assist in a crime reconstruction. Although the nail polish appearance could allow a quick visual identification of the sample, this analysis is subjected to the perception and subjective interpretation of the forensic examiner. The chemical analysis of the nail polishes offers great deal of information not subjected to analyst interpretation. Confocal Raman spectroscopy is a well-suited technique for the analysis of paints due to its non-invasive and non-destructive nature and its ability to supply information about the organic and inorganic components of the sample. In this work, 77 regular and gel nail polishes were analyzed with confocal Raman spectroscopy using two laser wavelengths (532 and 780 nm). The sample behavior under the two laser wavelengths and the differences in the spectra taken at different points of the sample were studied for each nail polish. Additionally, the spectra obtained for all the nail polishes were visually compared. The results concluded that the longer laser wavelength prevents sample burning and fluorescence effects; the similarity among the spectra collected within the sample is not directly related with the presence of glitter particles; and 64% of the samples analyzed showed a characteristic spectrum. Additionally, the use of confocal Raman spectroscopy for the forensic analysis of nail polishes evidence in the form of flakes or smudges on different surfaces were studied. The results showed that both types of evidence can be analyzed by the technique. Also, two non-invasive sampling methods for the collection of the evidence from the nails of the suspect or the victim were proposed: (i) to use acetone-soaked cotton swabs to remove the nail varnishes and (ii) to scrape the nail polish from the nail with a blade. Both approaches, each exhibiting advantages and drawbacks in terms of transport and handling were appropriate

  19. Standard pentostatin dose reductions in renal insufficiency are not adequate: selected patients with steroid-refractory acute graft-versus-host disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poi, Ming J; Hofmeister, Craig C; Johnston, Jeffrey S; Edwards, Ryan B; Jansak, Buffy S; Lucas, David M; Farag, Sherif S; Dalton, James T; Devine, Steven M; Grever, Michael R; Phelps, Mitch A

    2013-08-01

    Pentostatin is an irreversible inhibitor of adenosine deaminase and has been used to prevent graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and to treat both acute and chronic GVHD. Dose reduction equations for patients with renal insufficiency are based on few patients with limited pharmacokinetic and clinical results. This phase II study (NCT00201786) was conducted to assess pentostatin efficacy and infectious complications seen from our previous phase I study in steroid-refractory acute GVHD (aGVHD). Hospitalized patients with steroid-refractory aGVHD were given pentostatin 1.5 mg/m(2)/day intravenously on days 1-3 of each 14-day cycle. Prior to each dose, dose modifications were based on Cockcroft-Gault estimated creatinine clearance (eCrCL) with 30-50 mL/min/1.73 m(2) leading to a 50 % dose reduction and eCrCL less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m(2) leading to study removal. Plasma pentostatin area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) and incidence of infectious complications were evaluated. Two of the eight patients treated demonstrated excessive pentostatin exposure as determined by measurement of AUC. One of these patients had renal impairment, whereas the other patient demonstrated borderline renal function. Despite dose reduction to 0.75 mg/m(2), AUCs were significantly increased compared to the other patients in this study. Seven of eight patients treated with pentostatin had cytomegalovirus (CMV) viremia after pentostatin treatment; however none developed proven CMV disease. A 50 % dose reduction in patients with eCrCL 30-50 mL/min/1.73 m(2) seems reasonable. However, the eCrCL should be interpreted with extreme caution in patients who are critically ill and/or with poor performance status. Renal function assessment based on the Cockcroft-Gault method could be significantly overestimated thus risking pentostatin overdosing. These results imply a need to closely monitor pentostatin exposure in patients with renal insufficiency.

  20. Removing Mid-Spatial Frequency (MSF) Errors Using Stress-Polishing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This IRAD proposes to evaluate how stress polishing can be used to extend the application of super-polishing to fast aspheres and freeforms, removing sub-aperture...

  1. Bibliography of English-Polish Contrastive Studies in Poland (as of August 1976).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieszek, Aleksandra

    This bibliography lists books, articles, papers, theses and dissertations describing English-Polish contrastive studies conducted in Poland. There are 403 works listed in both languages, divided into two groups: General Works and English-Polish Contrastive Studies. (CHK)

  2. Effective reduction of fluoroscopy duration by using an advanced electroanatomic-mapping system and a standardized procedural protocol for ablation of atrial fibrillation: 'the unleaded study'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knecht, Sven; Sticherling, Christian; Reichlin, Tobias; Pavlovic, Nikola; Mühl, Aline; Schaer, Beat; Osswald, Stefan; Kühne, Michael

    2015-11-01

    It is recommended to keep exposure to ionizing radiation as low as reasonably achievable. The aim of this study was to determine whether fluoroscopy-free mapping and ablation using a standardized procedural protocol is feasible in patients undergoing pulmonary vein isolation (PVI). Sixty consecutive patients were analysed: Thirty consecutive patients undergoing PVI using Carto3 were treated using a standardized procedural fluoroscopy protocol with X-ray being disabled after transseptal puncture (Group 1) and compared with a set of previous 30 consecutive patients undergoing PVI without a specific recommendation regarding the use of fluoroscopy (Group 2). The main outcome measures were the feasibility of fluoroscopy-free mapping and ablation, total fluoroscopy time, total dose area product (DAP), and procedure time. Sixty patients (age 60 ± 10 years, 73% male, ejection fraction 0.55 ± 0.09, left atrium 42 ± 8 mm) were included. In Group 1, total fluoroscopy time was 4.2 (2.6-5.6) min and mapping and ablation during PVI without using fluoroscopy was feasible in 29 of 30 patients (97%). In Group 2, total fluoroscopy time was 9.3 (6.4-13.9) min (P fluoroscopy after transseptal puncture using a standardized procedural protocol is feasible in almost all patients and is associated with markedly decreased total fluoroscopy duration and DAP. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Nutrition and nourishment status of Polish students in comparison with students from other countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczuko, Małgorzata; Gutowska, Izabela; Seidler, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Although Poland belongs to the economically developed countries, social transformations affect people's incomes and, consequently, their diets, what in many cases caused development of diet-related diseases. Results of epidemiological studies among students show symptoms of certain civilization diseases. The aim of this study was to compare the intake of nutrients by Polish students in our study with the nutrients intake by students from other university centres abroad and the determination of the direct impact on health parameters of educated people. The study involved 329 Polish students. The dietary information was collected by interview on food intake during the last 24 hours. The index of BMI and WHR were calculated using anthropometric method. 27 nutrients, dietary fibre and daily total cholesterol intake with the computer program "Dietetyk 2" (National Food and Nutrition Institute, Warsaw, Poland). Both women and men consume inadequate amounts of milk and dairy products, fruits, vegetables, vitamin C and iron. The average daily intake of vitamin C and iron was below the standard of nutrition. Diets in men was characterized by excessive content of meat and in women sucrose. 35% of the students surveyed were overweight or obese. There was a lot of irregularities in the diet of both women and men, but men's diet was more balanced in terms of nutrient content than the diet of women. The delivery of thiamine, riboflavin, calcium, and vitamin C is less in Polish students than in other populations compared. Nutritional mistakes and dietary habits during studies can influence the development of disease in young educated people.

  4. IS GNB3 C825T POLYMORPHISM ASSOCIATED WITH ELITE STATUS OF POLISH ATHLETES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sawczuk

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The GNB3 gene encodes the beta 3 subunit of heterotrimeric G-proteins that are key components of intracellular signal transduction between G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR and intracellular effectors and might be considered as a potential candidate gene for physical performance. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare frequency distribution of the common C to T polymorphism at position 825 (C825T of the GNB3 gene between athletes and nonathletic controls of the Polish population as well as to compare the genotype distribution and allele frequency of C825T variants within a group of athletes, i.e. between athletes of sports of different metabolic demands and competitive levels. Methods: The study was performed in a group of 223 Polish athletes of the highest nationally competitive standard (123 endurance-oriented athletes and 100 strength/power athletes. Control samples were prepared from 354 unrelated, sedentary volunteers. Results: The χ2 test revealed no statistical differences between the endurance-oriented athletes and the control group or between sprint/strength athletes and the control group across the GNB3 825C/T genotypes. There were no male-female genotype or allele frequency differences in controls or in either strength/power or endurance-oriented athletes. No statistically significant differences in either allele frequencies or genotype distribution were noted between the top-elite, elite or sub-elite of endurance-oriented and strength/power athletes and the control group. Conclusions: No association between elite status of Polish athletes and the GNB3 C825T polymorphic site has been found.

  5. Provenance validation of polished rice samples using nuclear and isotopic analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pabroa, P.C.B.; Sucgang, R.J.; Mendoza, N.D.S.; Ebihara, M.; Peña, M.

    2015-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) has been considered the best staple food among all cereals and is the staple food for over 3 billion people, constituting over half of the world’s population. Elemental and isotopic analysis revealed variance between Philippine and Japanese rice. Rice samples collected in Japan and in the Philippines (market survey samples from Metro Manila, and farm harvests from Aklan province and Central Luzon) were washed, dried and ground to fine powder. Elemental analyses of the samples were carried out using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) while isotopic signatures of the samples were determined using the isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). Results show that compared with the unpolished rice standard NIES CRM10b, the polished Japanese and Philippine rice sampled show reduced concentrations of elements by as much as 1/10. 1/4 , 1/5 and 1/3 for Mg, Mn, K and Na, respectively. Levels of Ca and Zn are not greatly affected. Arsenic, probably introduced from fertilizers used in rice fields is found in all the Japanese rice tested at an average concentration of 0.103 μg/g and three out of four of the Philippine rice at an average concentration of 0.70μg/g. Higher levels of Br seen in two of the Philippine rice at 14 and 34μg/g indicated probable contamination source from the pesticide methyl bromide during quarantine. Good correlation of isotopic signatures with geographical location of polished, but not for unpolished, rice samples from Central Luzon and Aklan indicated that provenance studies are best done on polished rice samples. Isotopic with of ω’”13C show signature that of a C3 plant with possible narrow distinguishable signature with Japanese rice falling within -27.5 to -28.5 while Philippine rice within -29 to -30. Rice provenance can be ascertained using elemental analysis and isotopic abundance determination as shown by the study.(author)

  6. Psychometric properties of the Polish version of the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (OLBI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Baka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study was to test the psychometric properties of the Polish version of the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (OLBI – its factor structure, reliability, validity and standard norms. Material and Methods: The study was conducted on 3 independent samples of 1804, 366 and 48 workers employed in social service and general service professions. To test the OLBI structure the exploratory factor analysis was conducted. The reliability was assessed by means of Cronbach’s α coefficient (the internal consistent and test–retest (the stability over time method, with a 6-week follow-up. The construct validity of the OLBI was tested by means of correlation analysis, using perceived stress and work engagement as the criterion variables. Results: The result of the factor analysis confirmed a 2-factor structure of the Inventory but the construction of each factor differed from that in the OLBI original version. Therefore, 2 separate factor analyses – each for the single component of job burnout (exhaustion and disengagement from work – were conducted. The analyses revealed that each of the components consisted of 2 subscales. The reliability of the OLBI was supported by 2 methods. It was also proved that job burnout and its 2 components, exhaustion and disengagement from work, were positively correlated with perceived stress and negatively correlated with work engagement and its 3 components – vigor, absorption and dedication. Conclusions: Despite certain limitations the Polish version of the OLBI shows satisfactory psychometric properties and it can be used to measure job burnout in Polish conditions. Med Pr 2016;67(1:29–41

  7. [Psychometric properties of the Polish version of the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (OLBI)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baka, Łukasz; Basińska, Beata A

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the psychometric properties of the Polish version of the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (OLBI) - its factor structure, reliability, validity and standard norms. The study was conducted on 3 independent samples of 1804, 366 and 48 workers employed in social service and general service professions. To test the OLBI structure the exploratory factor analysis was conducted. The reliability was assessed by means of Cronbach's α coefficient (the internal consistent) and test-retest (the stability over time) method, with a 6-week follow-up. The construct validity of the OLBI was tested by means of correlation analysis, using perceived stress and work engagement as the criterion variables. The result of the factor analysis confirmed a 2-factor structure of the Inventory but the construction of each factor differed from that in the OLBI original version. Therefore, 2 separate factor analyses - each for the single component of job burnout (exhaustion and disengagement from work) - were conducted. The analyses revealed that each of the components consisted of 2 subscales. The reliability of the OLBI was supported by 2 methods. It was also proved that job burnout and its 2 components, exhaustion and disengagement from work, were positively correlated with perceived stress and negatively correlated with work engagement and its 3 components - vigor, absorption and dedication. Despite certain limitations the Polish version of the OLBI shows satisfactory psychometric properties and it can be used to measure job burnout in Polish conditions. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  8. Simulation and analysis of an alternative kinematics for improving the polishing uniformity over the surface of polished tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weingaertner, W. L.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigates the possibility of adopting a new kinematics at the industrial polishing lines of porcelain stoneware tile. An alternative motion of the transverse oscillation of the polishing heads is proposed, in which no radical changes in the industries facilities are required. The basic idea is to replace the purely sinus motion of the polishing heads by a rather trapezoid wavelike motion. In theory this could be achieved simply by adopting regular delays at the transverse oscillation motion. Consequences of this alternative kinematics were quantitatively analyzed considering the spatial homogeneity of polishing expected for tiles. Such homogeneity was represented by the coefficient of variation of the distribution of polishing time over the surface, which was in turn determined by means of computational simulations, taking into account the effect of multiple polishing heads.

    El presente trabajo investiga la posibilidad de adoptar una nueva cinemática en las líneas de pulido industrial de baldosas de gres porcelánico. Se propone una propuesta alternativa de la oscilación transversal de los cabezales pulidores, en el que no hay cambios radicales en las instalaciones de las industrias son necesarias. La idea básica consiste en sustituir el movimiento totalmente del seno de los cabezales pulidores por un movimiento ondulatorio trapezoide. En teoría, esto podría lograrse sólo mediante la adopción de los habituales retrasos en el movimiento de oscilación transversal. las consecuencias de esta cinemática fueron analizados cuantitativamente, teniendo en cuenta la homogeneidad espacial de pulido. Tal homogeneidad fora representada por el coeficiente de variación de la distribución de lo tiempo de pulido en la superficie, determinada por medio de simulaciones computacionales, teniendo también en cuenta el efecto de pulido de las cabezas múltiples.

  9. Radioactive recontamination on mechanically polished piping at Shimane-1 Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umeda, K.; Komoto, I.; Imamura, K.; Kataoka, I.; Uchida, S.

    1998-01-01

    In a series of preventive maintenance tasks for an aging plant, recirculation pipes of Shimane-1 NPP have been replaced by newly fabricated type 316 NG stainless steel pipes. Suppression of shutdown dose rate caused by 60 Co recontamination on the newly replaced piping was one of the major concerns in the recirculation pipe replacement. In order to suppress the shutdown dose rate, control of the 60 Co deposition rate coefficient as well as 60 Co radioactivity in the reactor water are essential. The deposition rate coefficient depends on surface roughness. The coefficient is suppressed by reduction of the effective surface area of pipes through mechanical polishing. Then the inner surface of the pipes was polished mechanically to reduce roughness prior to application in the plant. After measuring and evaluating radioactive recontamination, it was estimated that deposited amounts of radioactive corrosion products on the pipe inner surface would reach the saturated value in a few years, and would not exceed the level before replacement unless water chemistry is degraded. (author)

  10. The role of coal consumption in the economic growth of the Polish economy in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurgul, Henryk; Lach, Lukasz

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is an analysis of the causal links between quarterly coal consumption in the Polish economy and GDP. For the sake of accurate computation an additional variable - employment - was also taken into account. Computations conducted for the period Q1 2000 to Q4 2009 by means of recent causality techniques confirmed the neutrality of hard coal usage with respect to economic growth. On the other hand, calculations for the pairs lignite-GDP and total coal consumption-GDP showed the existence of a significant nonlinear causality from coal usage to economic growth. This is clear evidence for claiming that lignite plays an important role in the economic growth of the Polish economy. Furthermore, each coal-related variable was found to have a nonlinear causal impact on employment. Because of the relatively short length of available time series we additionally applied bootstrap critical values. The empirical results computed by both methods did not exhibit significant differences. These results have important policy implications. In general, our findings support the hypothesis that closing hard coal mines in Poland should have no significant repercussions on economic growth. However, this does not seem to be true for lignite mines. - Research highlights: → The reduction of hard coal consumption should not hamper economic growth in Poland. → Lignite consumption is an important factor determining economic growth in Poland. → The usage of lignite and hard coal has a causal impact on employment in Poland.

  11. Present and future role of chemical mechanical polishing in wafer bonding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gui, C.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Lambeck, Paul

    Almost all direct wafer bonding has been conducted between chemical-mechanically polished substrates or between thin films that were present on top of the polished substrates. Introducing chemical mechanical polishing in the wafer bonding will make a large range of materials suitable for direct

  12. Development of a multisensory arm for process monitoring in Robot Assisted Polishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilny, Lukas; Dalla Costa, Giuseppe; Bissacco, Giuliano

    2015-01-01

    Robot Assisted Polishing (RAP) process is capable of achieving surface roughness down to Sa 10 nm on industrial components. In RAP, a robot arm carries a polishing module with controlled contact force utilizing oscillating or rotating tools. In this work a multisensory polishing arm with integrated...

  13. Influence of the brittle behavior of work materials on polishing characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Satoshi; Gemma, Masaya; Hayashi, Keitoku; Kondo, Yasuo; Yamaguchi, Kenji; Yakou, Takao; Arakawa, Susumu

    2017-09-01

    Diamond electrodeposited wire tools are frequently used to cut thin wafers from hard and brittle materials. However, microcracks sometimes appear during the slicing process. The appearance of microcracks adversely affects slicing efficiency and slicing accuracy. In this study, we examine the influence of brittle behavior on the polishing characteristics such as polishing depth and tool wear. This is the first step toward investigating the influence of the brittle behavior of work materials on slicing characteristics. Ceramics such as alumina, silicon carbide, and zirconia are used as work materials. Even with the same degree of hardness, we found that the polishing depth values were greater for materials exhibiting brittle behavior. In the polishing of high-hardness materials, abrasive grains were badly damaged during the initial stages of polishing. Damage to the abrasive paper was less in wet polishing as compared with dry polishing. Moreover, wet polishing had a greater polishing depth than dry polishing. The polishing characteristics of the brittle materials were similar to the grooving characteristics produced using wire tools; however, both these characteristics depend on the brittle behavior of the work materials. Therefore, by performing simple polishing tests, estimating the state of grooving or slicing using wire tools is possible.

  14. Patterns of Language Use: Polish Migrants from the 1980s and Their Children in Melbourne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuner, Beata

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the retention of Polish language and culture by first generation Polish migrants from the 1980s and their second generation offspring (aged 15-24) from endogamous and exogamous marriages. We examine various domains such as the home, social networks, visits to Poland, institutions of learning, the Polish media, the Polish…

  15. Polish Migrant Parents of Secondary School Boys in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkacz, Daria; McGhee, Derek

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the parents of secondary school Polish boys and their capacity to realise their educational and professional aspirations for their children. Our primary finding is that although many Polish parents face considerable challenges in manoeuvring through the educational system, some Polish parents display a level of agency…

  16. In-situ photopatterning of hydrogel microarrays in polished microchips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gümüscü, B.; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    2015-01-01

    We present a fabrication method which enables simple and eproducible photopatterning of micron- sized hydrogel arrays inside closed microchips. To achieve this, the glass cover of the microchip is thinned by mechanical grinding and polishing. This procedure reduces the spacing between the photomask

  17. Diamond turning and polishing tests on new RSP aluminium alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, R. ter; Haan, M. de; Gubbels, G.P.H.; Senden, R.; Venrooy, B.W.H. van; Hoogstrate, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    For years now conventional aluminium 6061 T6 has widely been used for mirrors in astronomical instruments, being diamond turned or since a few years also being optically polished. This allows the development of optical systems that can be tested and operated at any temperature, without being

  18. [Surveillance of hospital acquired pneumonia in Polish hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rózańska, Anna; Wójkowska-Mach, Jadwiga; Bulanda, Małgorzata; Heczko, Piotr B

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze epidemiology of hospital acquired infections in Polish hospitals, according to type and size of hospital. Data gathered between year 2002 and 2004 in the Active Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System, developed and conducted by Polish Society of Hospital Infections, were used in the analysis. Epidemiology of PNEU was described with the usage of cumulative incidence and incidence density rates. The average cumulative incidence rate was 0.29%; incidence density rate: 0.41 per thousand, and incidence density among ventilated patients: 1.57 per thousand. Differences in morbidity detected in hospitals were statistically important only in hospitals of different size. Morbidity of PNEU in intensive care units was much higher than in other wards, and differences were statistically important. PNEU and VAP epidemiology in Polish intensive care units indicates serious problems in hospital infections control: high values of morbidity in non-teaching ICUs reflect the huge risk of developing infections in Polish hospitals. Low rates in ICUs of teaching hospitals reflect lack of surveillance and detection of infections in such hospitals.

  19. Advanced surface polishing using gas cluster ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insepov, Z.; Hassanein, A.; Norem, J.; Swenson, D. R.

    2007-08-01

    The gas cluster ion beam (GCIB) treatment can be an important treatment for mitigation of the Q-slope in superconducting cavities. The existing surface smoothening methods were analyzed and a new surface polishing method was proposed based on employing extra-large gas cluster ions (X-GCIB).

  20. Detection of Polish clinical Aspergillus fumigatus isolates resistant to triazoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nawrot, Urszula; Kurzyk, Ewelina; Arendrup, Maiken Cavling

    2018-01-01

    We studied the presence of triazole resistance of 121 Aspergillus fumigatus clinical isolates collected in two Polish cities, Warsaw and Wrocław, to determine if resistance is emerging in our country. We identified five itraconazole resistant isolates (4.13%) carrying the TR34/L98H alteration in ...

  1. [Polish doctors graves at the cemeteries in Edinburgh].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebertt, S

    1994-01-01

    The first part of the text reviews the cultural links between Poland and Scotland. These links were originated in the 14th century and were created by scottish students travelling to Poland to seek learning in the then polish centre of excellence Jagiellonian University in Cracow. There were also some learned Scots who ventured to Poland, seeking work. Some of them achieved positions of distinction. The first Polish medical men attended the University of Edinburgh in the 18th century. In the 19th century, following the suppression of the polish uprising against Russia, there were a small group of Poles seeking asylum in Scotland. A few of them enlisted at the University of Edinburgh at the medical faculty. The above history is described in detail in Annotations. In the second part of the paper all the polish medical and veterinary doctors whose graves are located in various cemeteries in Edinburgh are listed in chronological order of their deaths. As full as possible personal data, the kind of medical work, and location of their graves are given. Greater details, whenever obtainable, are dealt with in Annotations. The total of thirty deceased between 1942 and 1993 are described.

  2. An operational map of the Polish Coastal Front 1970

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Theis; Svenningsen, Stig Roar; Tinning, Morten

    2016-01-01

    The map of the Operational Plan for the Coastal Front, from Poland 1970 forms the basis for this paper. The map portraits the blueprint of the combined operational war plans for the Polish military in the late 1960’s and 70’s. It details the offensive against NATO countries and their forces in No...

  3. The Teaching of English in Polish Educational Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Teresa Ann; Butler, Norman L.; Kritsonis, William Allan; Herrington, David

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the strengths and weaknesses of native and non-native teachers of English in Polish schools, and is the result of the Dr. Butler's experience as a teacher of English in Poland. It is argued that native teachers of English should be employed in Poland because they teach in their own language, use current idioms, provide…

  4. The Meanings of Learning as Described by Polish Migrant Bloggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popow, Monika

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the meanings given to learning by Polish migrant bloggers. It presents the result of an analysis of ten blogs, written by Poles living abroad. The blogs under analysis were chosen on the basis of random sample. The analysed material was categorised by recurring themes, which included: learning in Poland, language acquisition,…

  5. Bioethanol productions from rice polish by optimization of dilute acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lignocellulose materials are abundant renewable resource for the production of biofuel from fermentative organism (Sacchromyces cervesiae). Rice polish is cheapest and abundant lignocelluloses resource and has potential to produce bioethanol. The main steps for the conversion of biomass into glucose required dilute ...

  6. Using Nail Polish to Teach about Gender and Homophobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Nelta M.

    2010-01-01

    How might teachers help students investigate the relationship between gender and homophobia? This article describes an exercise that uses fingernail polish to do just that. The authors uses anecdotal evidence to describe the exercise in which students pair with someone of the opposite gender and paint each other's fingernails. Additionally, the…

  7. Polish scientists in fish immunology: a short history : review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muiswinkel, van W.B.; Pilarczyk, A.

    2015-01-01

    This review describes the role played by Polish scientists in the field of fish immunology and vaccination starting around 1900. In the early days, most publications were dealing with a description of relevant cells and organs in fish. Functional studies (phagocytosis, antibody response) came later

  8. Heavy Metal Contamination of Popular Nail Polishes in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golnaz Karimi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxic and hazardous heavy metals like arsenic, lead, mercury, zinc, chromium and iron are found in a variety of personal care products, e.g. lipstick, whitening toothpaste, eyeliner and nail color. The nails absorb the pigments of nail polishes and vaporized or soluble metals can easily pass it. The goal of this survey was to assess whether the different colors of nail polishes comply with maximum concentrations of heavy metals in the EPA’s guidelines. Methods: 150 samples of different popular brands of nail polishes in 13 colors (yellow, beige, silver, pink, white, violet, brown, golden, green, black, colorless, red and blue were randomly purchased from beauty shops in Tehran City, Iran, in 2014. Microwave digestion EPA method 3051 was used by a microwave oven to determine the amount of 5 heavy metals; Nickel, Chromium, Lead, Arsenic and Cadmium. One-way ANOVA, Two-way ANOVA, hierarchical cluster, and principal component analyses were applied by Statistica 7.0 software. Results: The concentrations of chrome, lead, nickel and arsenic showed significant differences between the colors (p<0.05. In all studied samples, the level of cadmium was beyond the safe maximum permissible limit (MPS, but no significance difference in the cadmium content was identified. Conclusion: Due to the high concentrations of toxic metals in many brands of nail polishes, meticulous quality control is recommended for these beauty products.

  9. Polish adaptation of scoliosis research society-22 questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacki, Maciej; Misterska, Ewa; Laurentowska, Maria; Mankowski, Przemyslaw

    2009-05-01

    Polish adaptation of the original version of Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) instrument. The transcultural adaptation of SRS-22 and evaluation of its internal consistency. High psychometric value of the SRS-22 Questionnaire has made it an effective evaluation instrument in clinically assessing the functional status of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. First, 2 translators translated the original version into Polish. Afterwards, the translators identified differences between the translations and produced a consensus version. In the third stage, 2 native English speakers produced back translations. Finally, a team of 2 orthopedic surgeons, translators, a statistician and a psychologist reviewed all the translations to produce a prefinal version. The questionnaire was administered to 60 girls at the age of 16.6, SD 2.0 with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis treated with the Cotrel-Dubousset method in Pediatric Orthopaedics and Traumatology Clinic in Poznań. The internal consistency in the Polish version equaled 0.89 for the overall result and 0.81 for function, 0.81 for pain, 0.80 for mental health, 0.77 for self-image, and 0.69 for treatment satisfaction domains, respectively. The Polish version of SRS-22 is characterized by high internal consistency for all domains and for the overall score, which makes it an evaluation tool after surgical treatment compatible with the original SRS-22.

  10. Jules Verne - a new polishing technique related to FJP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, S.M.; Fähnle, O.W.; Meeder, M.; Wons, T.; Braat, J.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    A variation on the fluid jet polishing (FJP) technique, arbitrarily named Jules Verne (JV), will be described in this article. Jules Verne is a glass processing technique that removes material due to the fact that the tool and the surface are in close contact, and a slurry moves in between the tool

  11. Great Britain and German-Polish Relations, 1929–1931

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zotova Ekaterina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the study of British-German relations during the period of exacerbation of territorial disputes between Germany and Poland in 1929-1931. Germany was making plans for revising the eastern borders. It sought to enlist the support of the new Labour government. Britain didn’t only approve of Germany's intention to carry out revision of the Treaty of Versailles (reparation issue, the evacuation of the Rhineland and the change in the German-Polish border, but also supported the strengthening of the political and economic situation in Germany as a whole. Assistance to Germany was advantageous for Britain. Firstly, the British support helped to improve the capacity of the purchasing power of the German market as one of the traditional markets of the English sale. Secondly, the strengthening of the position of the German cabinet meant failure of the French policy in Europe at this stage. The defeat of France in a dispute on the issue of early evacuation of the Rhineland would seriously devalue the foreign policy initiatives of Paris. Thirdly, the British government hoped that Germany will go into orbit of British political influence. The identity of the positions of the German and the British cabinets were considered as the components of British policy success not only in relations with France and Italy, but also with Czechoslovakia and Poland. Since the formation of the MacDonald’s cabinet, anti-Polish moods increased in the British course for the settlement of German-Polish relations. However, the threat of an attack on Poland by Germany was regarded by the government of Britain as unacceptable way of resolving the German-Polish conflict. Britain tried to follow the traditional foreign policy concept of “balance of power”, but the inefficiency of British policy “mediation” in European affairs was clearly shown in times of growing financial and economic crisis. The issue of the German-Polish border remained unsolved.

  12. Polish Geophysical Solid Earth Infrastructure Contributing to EPOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debski, W.; Mutke, G.; Suchcicki, J.; Jozwiak, W.; Wiejacz, P.; Trojanowski, J.

    2012-04-01

    In this poster we present the current state of the main polish solid-earth-orientated infrastructures and shortly described history of their development, current state, and some plans for their future development. The presen- tation concentrates only on the classical infrastructure leaving aside for the while the the geodetic-orientated infrastructure, like GPS network and the GPS processing data centers, gravimetric infrastructure and others of this type. Polish broadband seismic infrastructure consists of 7 permanent broadband stations incorporated into the VEBSN initiative running at the polish territory and one operated in collaboration with NORSAR is settled at the Hornsund (Svalbard) polish polar station. All stations are equipped with STS-2 seismometers and polish MK-6 seismic stations providing 120 dB dynamics 100Hz sampling and data transmission in a real time to processing center. Besides this permanent broadband seismic network (PLSN) the Central Institute of Mining is running the permanent regional, short period network at the Upper Silesia area dedicated to the detailed monitoring of seismicity induced by the black coal mining activity in this area. The network consists of As the mining activity is the main source of seismicity in Poland also all mines are running underground short period networks, like for example Rudna-Polkowice copper mine seismic network consisting of 64 underground located short period seimometers. In that area, especially around the Zelazny Most: the huge post-floating artificial lake the, IGF PAS is running the local seismic array consisting of 4 short period seismometers. Besides these permanent network IGF PAN is running the portable seismic network for detailed mapping a possible natural seismic activity in selected regions of Poland. Important contribution to classical geophysical observation in the electro-magnetic field are provided by three permanent geomagnetic observatories (one at Hornsund) and supporting set of 10

  13. Comparative analysis of features of Polish and Lithuanian Day-ahead electricity market prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobinaite, Viktorija; Juozapaviciene, Aldona; Staniewski, Marcin; Szczepankowski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this article is to better understand the processes of electricity market price formation in Poland and Lithuania through an analysis of the features (volatility and spikes) of Lithuanian and Polish day-ahead electricity market prices and to assess how acquired electricity price features could affect the achievement of the main goals of the national energy policy. The following indicators have been calculated to determine electricity market price volatility: the oscillation coefficient, the coefficient of variation, an adjusted coefficient of variation, the standard deviation indicator, the daily velocity indicator (based on the overall average price) and the daily velocity indicator (based on the daily average price). Critical values for electricity market price have been calculated to evaluate price spikes. This analysis reveals that electricity market-price volatility is moderate in Poland and high in Lithuania. Electricity price spikes have been an observable phenomenon both in Lithuanian and in Polish day-ahead electricity markets, but they are more common in Lithuania, encompassing 3.15% of the time period analysed in Poland and 4.68% of the time period analysed in Lithuania. Volatile, spiking and increasing electricity prices in day-ahead electricity markets in Lithuania and Poland create preconditions and substantiate the relevance of implementation of the national energy policies and measures. - Highlights: • Moderate and seasonal volatility. • spiking market price and. • stable average price

  14. Understanding Foreign Future and Deconstructing Polish Past: The Experiences of Schooling under a Communist Rule Recollected by Contemporary Polish Migrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustulka, Paula; Slusarczyk, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The article elaborates on the recollections of schooling under the communist rule in Poland as presented in biographical interviews with contemporary Polish migrants living in the United Kingdom, Germany, and Norway. An analysis of childhood and schooling nexus is elicited on two platforms, specifically as (1) interviewees' first-hand experiences…

  15. Symmetry or asymmetry? Cross-border openness of service providers in Polish-Czech and Polish-German border towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dołzbłasz Sylwia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The symmetry and/or asymmetry in terms of cross-border openness of service providers is examined in this article, for the cases of two border twin towns: Cieszyn/Český Těšín at the Polish-Czech border, and Gubin/Guben at the Polish-German border. To assess the level of openness of firms towards clients from the other side of the border, four trans-border categories were examined: neighbour’s language visible at store location; business offers in the language of the neighbour; the possibilities of payment in the neighbour’s currency; and the staff’s knowledge of the language. This enabled a comparison of both parts of the particular twin towns in relation to the character of cross-border openness, as well as an assessment of their symmetry/asymmetry. Comparisons of Gubin/Guben and Cieszyn/Český Těšín with respect to the analysed features were also carried out. The analysis shows significant variation in the level of cross-border openness towards clients from neighbouring countries. Whereas in the Polish-Czech town a relative symmetry was observed, in the Polish-German case, significant asymmetry was noted.

  16. Pseudo-random tool paths for CNC sub-aperture polishing and other applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Christina R; Walker, David D

    2008-11-10

    In this paper we first contrast classical and CNC polishing techniques in regard to the repetitiveness of the machine motions. We then present a pseudo-random tool path for use with CNC sub-aperture polishing techniques and report polishing results from equivalent random and raster tool-paths. The random tool-path used - the unicursal random tool-path - employs a random seed to generate a pattern which never crosses itself. Because of this property, this tool-path is directly compatible with dwell time maps for corrective polishing. The tool-path can be used to polish any continuous area of any boundary shape, including surfaces with interior perforations.

  17. Strain-free polished channel-cut crystal monochromators: a new approach and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasman, Elina; Montgomery, Jonathan; Huang, XianRong; Assoufid, Lahsen

    2017-08-23

    The use of channel-cut crystal monochromators has been traditionally limited to applications that can tolerate the rough surface quality from wet etching without polishing. We have previously presented and discussed the motivation for producing channel cut crystals with strain-free polished surfaces [1]. Afterwards, we have undertaken an effort to design and implement an automated machine for polishing channel-cut crystals. The initial effort led to inefficient results. Since then, we conceptualized, designed, and implemented a new version of the channel-cut polishing machine, now called C-CHiRP (Channel-Cut High Resolution Polisher), also known as CCPM V2.0. The new machine design no longer utilizes Figure-8 motion that mimics manual polishing. Instead, the polishing is achieved by a combination of rotary and linear functions of two coordinated motion systems. Here we present the new design of C-CHiRP, its capabilities and features. Multiple channel-cut crystals polished using the C-CHiRP have been deployed into several beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). We present the measurements of surface finish, flatness, as well as topography results obtained at 1-BM of APS, as compared with results typically achieved when polishing flat-surface monochromator crystals using conventional polishing processes. Limitations of the current machine design, capabilities and considerations for strain-free polishing of highly complex crystals are also discussed, together with an outlook for future developments and improvements.

  18. Strain-free polished channel-cut crystal monochromators: a new approach and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasman, Elina; Montgomery, Jonathan; Huang, XianRong; Lerch, Jason; Assoufid, Lahsen

    2017-08-01

    The use of channel-cut crystal monochromators has been traditionally limited to applications that can tolerate the rough surface quality from wet etching without polishing. We have previously presented and discussed the motivation for producing channel cut crystals with strain-free polished surfaces [1]. Afterwards, we have undertaken an effort to design and implement an automated machine for polishing channel-cut crystals. The initial effort led to inefficient results. Since then, we conceptualized, designed, and implemented a new version of the channel-cut polishing machine, now called C-CHiRP (Channel-Cut High Resolution Polisher), also known as CCPM V2.0. The new machine design no longer utilizes Figure-8 motion that mimics manual polishing. Instead, the polishing is achieved by a combination of rotary and linear functions of two coordinated motion systems. Here we present the new design of C-CHiRP, its capabilities and features. Multiple channel-cut crystals polished using the C-CHiRP have been deployed into several beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). We present the measurements of surface finish, flatness, as well as topography results obtained at 1-BM of APS, as compared with results typically achieved when polishing flat-surface monochromator crystals using conventional polishing processes. Limitations of the current machine design, capabilities and considerations for strain-free polishing of highly complex crystals are also discussed, together with an outlook for future developments and improvements.

  19. Influence of polishing on surface roughness following toothbrushing wear of composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla-Vecchia, Karine Battestin; Taborda, Talita Damas; Stona, Deborah; Pressi, Heloísa; Burnett Júnior, Luiz Henrique; Rodrigues-Junior, Sinval Adalberto

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of different polishing systems on the surface roughness of composite resins following procedures to simulate the effects of toothbrushing over time. Four currently available commercial composites were used to make 128 cylindrical specimens. The specimens were randomly allocated to polishing with a 1-step polisher or 1 of 3 multistep polishers (n = 8 per group). The baseline surface roughness was measured, and the specimens were submitted to 5000, 10,000, and 20,000 brushing cycles to represent toothbrushing throughout 6, 12, and 24 months, respectively. Results showed that surface roughness was influenced by the type of composite and polishing system and was not influenced by the simulated toothbrushing time. However, the surface roughness, as challenged by toothbrushing wear, was affected by the interaction among the composite, the polisher, and the toothbrushing time. The 1-step polisher produced the highest surface roughness and influenced toothbrushing wear resistance of some composites.

  20. Between Cultural Memory and Communicative Memory – the Dilemmas of Reconstruction of Annihilated Past of Polish Jews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Malicki

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This text presents briefly some of the elements of Polish discourse about collective memory of Holocaust during transformations. I refer to Assmann’s concept of communicative and cultural memories, which seems to help to explain the phenomenon of present memory, which can be observed. This text concentrates not on Polish memory of annihilation of Jews (so different from the memory of victims or perpetrators, not to mention different memory of other nations but on its internal divisions and dilemmas which it generates. Along with war generation passing away, the decisive role of creating Polish memory about Shoah will be taken over by specialised institutions and rituals commemorating the past. In the early post -war period the transfer of memory happened mainly by the witness. The role of specialised institutions was marginal. From the beginning of XX century along with last witnesses passing away, the memory of Shoah became the focus of institutions (scientific institutions gathering documents including witnesses’ reports and anniversaries. It is a very important moment to look again at the memory distributed from the roots and confront it with models and standards of commemorating the past, which will create the memory of the next generations.

  1. Enamel demineralization after different methods of interproximal polishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellak, Andreas F; Riepe, Esther M; Seubert, Andreas; Korbmacher-Steiner, Heike M

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the demineralization rate in human enamel after interproximal polishing (IPP) and to detect possible correlations with the IPP method used, with special emphasis on the surface characteristics of the enamel being treated. This in vitro study tested five IPP systems (Profin Directional System®, Intensiv ProxoStrip®, OS discs®, ARS Safe-Tipped Bur Kit® and Ortho-Strips Set®) that are currently available on the market. Each of the five examination groups comprised 12 randomly selected teeth, while the control group consisted of six teeth. The teeth were placed in an artificial model for each group. The proximal contacts were then resolved by IPP. To allow detection of any surface characteristics, one surface was not further processed after IPP, while the other side was additionally polished. After IPP, the teeth were exposed to a pH-cycling model with alternating phases of demineralization and remineralization. Substance loss was analyzed using optical emission spectrometry. Data were subjected to simple analysis of variance (ANOVA) performed with Tukey's test. Comparison between the groups with and without polishing was conducted using the t test for independent samples. The significance level was set at p Rotor Stripping® system (ARS; 145.34 ± 20.37 μm). In all of the examination groups, subsequent polishing of the surfaces did not significantly reduce the amount of demineralization (polished 119.64 ± 28.61 μm; unpolished 114.16 ± 28.61 μm). No correlation between surface morphology and the degree of susceptibility of human enamel was detected. However, it must be taken into consideration that there was no potential bacterial colonization in this in vitro erosive set-up. Thus, in contrast to previous explanations, the outermost fluorapatite layer and the individual composition of the enamel may have a greater impact on the solubility of the enamel and the amount of enamel loss after IPP than

  2. Efficiency of three different polishing methods on enamel and cementum: A scanning electron microscope study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhary, Zoya; Mohan, Ranjana

    2018-01-01

    Tooth polishing is an integral part of clinical dentistry. The main purpose of polishing is to smoothen the surface of the tooth and minimize the deposition of plaque to allow a healthy periodontal maintenance postscaling. Today, polishing by different methods is available to a clinician. Traditional bristle brush and rubber-cup polishing are being widely practiced and gradually getting replaced by novel air polisher. Pros and cons of each method should be weighed before its clinical applications. To evaluate and compare the efficiency of three different polishing systems on enamel as well as on cementum surfaces by scanning electron microscope (SEM). A total of 120 samples were divided into three groups randomly - Group 1 (bristle brush), Group 2 (rubber cup), and Group 3 (air polisher) - with 20 samples each of enamel and cementum, which were subdivided into 10 control and 10 test group (subjected to polishing). The samples were analyzed by SEM at ×1000 magnification, and the data obtained were compiled and subjected to statistical analysis. Polishing with bristle brush demonstrated less surface roughness and debris when compared to air polisher at P = 0.58, P = 0.03 for enamel surface and P = 0.003, P = 0.21 for cementum, respectively. The surface roughness was reduced considerably by rubber cup at P = 0.03 for enamel and P = 0.003 for cementum, compared to air polisher at P = 0.99 and P = 0.21 for enamel and cementum, respectively. The results indicate that polishing with rubber cup was more effective and statistically significant when compared to bristle brush polishing and air polisher for the crown and root surface smoothening and debris removal.

  3. Interactive System for Polish Signed Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Olga Nurzyńska

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to present an overview about computer singed language course with module for automatic signed language recognition as a part of language acquisition test. The idea to create an interactive sign language learning system seems to be a new one. We hope that this solution helps to overcome the barrier between the silent and hearing world. On the other hand, we concentrate our efforts to create a system for a home use that will not need any sophisticated hardware. Moreover, we put pressure on utilization of already proposed and popular description scheme. The MPEG-7 standard formally called the Multimedia Content Description Interface has been chosen. This standard provides a rich set of tools for complete multimedia content description. The most important application for sign language is the possibilities to describe static and dynamic features of objects in image sequences both. This description schema gives the opportunity to create description of signing person on required level of granularity. In the article a brief description of many suggested solutions for semiautomatic or automatic sign language recognition systems is given. Besides, there are described some implemented learning application which aim was to learn sign languages. The main groups, which could be distinguished are: animated avatars observation, messenger for deaf people, testing progress in learning sign languages by using education platforms.

  4. Chemical mechanical polishing of tantalum and tantalum nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjam, Sathish Babu S. V.

    There is a continuing need in the semiconductor industry to clear residual copper (Cu) and planarize the tantalum (Ta)/tantalum nitride (TaN) barrier/etch stop layer with a higher removal rate using the technique of Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP). Obtaining high removal rates for Ta/TaN is very challenging as the films are very hard, and hence it is difficult to achieve high Ta/TaN removal rates by just relying on an increase in the mechanical forces (operating pressure) alone during CMP. Ta/TaN is an inert metal, therefore, obtaining high Ta/TaN removal rates by using chemical additives is also challenging. Not only Ta/TaN needs to be removed at a higher rate in the second step of polishing, but also remaining Cu should be cleared. It is important to search for novel chemicals that can form a thin film on the Ta/TaN surface which can be easily abraded by the polishing pad with very less pressure. In this work, oxalic and tartaric acids have been investigated as the complexing agents in slurries for Ta/TaN CMP. Oxalic and tartaric acids appear to be reactive with Ta in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. A dispersion of the Oxalic acid (OA)/Tartaric Acid (TA) - peroxide mixtures with silica (fumed/colloidal) can be used to achieve Ta removal rates that are ˜ 90 nm/min at pH between 3 to 6 by applying a down force of 6.3 psi, where as at a lower down force of 2 psi, a removal rate of ˜ 40 nm/min has been achieved at pH = 3. It was shown earlier that a high Cu removal rate can be obtained using OA-peroxide based slurries with/without the addition of abrasives at pH = 3 [1]. So, in the first step, Cu could be removed at high rates at pH = 3 and by changing the pH to 5 or 6, Ta/TaN can be removed as mentioned above. Hence these slurries could be used as "single dispersion slurries " that could be used for both the first and second steps of Cu CMP. During the second step (barrier layer polish), Cu removal rates are low but not low enough to minimize dishing with

  5. Consistent Reduction in Periprocedural Myocardial Infarction With Cangrelor as Assessed by Multiple Definitions: Findings From CHAMPION PHOENIX (Cangrelor Versus Standard Therapy to Achieve Optimal Management of Platelet Inhibition).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavender, Matthew A; Bhatt, Deepak L; Stone, Gregg W; White, Harvey D; Steg, Ph Gabriel; Gibson, C Michael; Hamm, Christian W; Price, Matthew J; Leonardi, Sergio; Prats, Jayne; Deliargyris, Efthymios N; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Harrington, Robert A

    2016-09-06

    Cangrelor is an intravenous P2Y12 inhibitor approved to reduce periprocedural ischemic events in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention not pretreated with a P2Y12 inhibitor. A total of 11 145 patients were randomized to cangrelor or clopidogrel in the CHAMPION PHOENIX trial (Cangrelor versus Standard Therapy to Achieve Optimal Management of Platelet Inhibition). We explored the effects of cangrelor on myocardial infarction (MI) using different definitions and performed sensitivity analyses on the primary end point of the trial. A total of 462 patients (4.2%) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention had an MI as defined by the second universal definition. The majority of these MIs (n=433, 93.7%) were type 4a. Treatment with cangrelor reduced the incidence of MI at 48 hours (3.8% versus 4.7%; odds ratio [OR], 0.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67-0.97; P=0.02). When the Society of Coronary Angiography and Intervention definition of periprocedural MI was applied to potential ischemic events, there were fewer total MIs (n=134); however, the effects of cangrelor on MI remained significant (OR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.46-0.92; P=0.01). Similar effects were seen in the evaluation of the effects of cangrelor on MIs with peak creatinine kinase-MB ≥10 times the upper limit of normal (OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.45-0.91) and those with peak creatinine kinase-MB ≥10 times the upper limit of normal, ischemic symptoms, or ECG changes (OR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.48-0.84). MIs defined by any of these definitions were associated with increased risk of death at 30 days. Treatment with cangrelor reduced the composite end point of death, MI (Society of Coronary Angiography and Intervention definition), ischemia-driven revascularization, or Academic Research Consortium definite stent thrombosis (1.4% versus 2.1%; OR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.51-0.92). MI in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, regardless of definition, remains associated with increased risk of death

  6. OVERCONSUMPTION AND DECONSUMPTION AS CONTEMPORARY MARKET TRENDS. POLISH CONSUMERS’ BEHAVIOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Jasiulewicz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Marketers are trying t o meet contemporary market trends, such as overconsumption and sustainable consumption, that stand in opposition to each other. The article presents a review of the literature and the results of the research, conducted with the help of a questionnaire, regarding issues of contemporary consumer trends, such as overconsumption and deconsumption. An attempt was made to assess whether the behaviours of Polish consumers are a part of sustainable and responsible consumption trend, which has become increasingly noticeable in many developed market economies. The results of the study indicate that it is impossible to state clearly that Polish consumers do not consume in a sustainable way, although many of their behaviours indicate overconsumption. However, their behaviour in the market in some areas is consistent with the idea of deconsumption

  7. Legal aspects of Polish Tax and Social Security in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Parlińska

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper are describing legal aspects of treatment of farming sector in the tax and social security system in Poland. Tax System in Polish Agriculture is an integral part of Polish Tax System. Most taxes paid by farmers are property taxes, which supplied the budget of main local authority in Poland (municipality. In some cases farmers pay also personal income tax and value added tax like those, who run specific agricultural production as well individual farmers who operate through a limited liability company are subject to corporate income tax. The social security fund for farmers (known as KRUS was speared in 1990 from the social security system (ZUS. Farmers receive similar benefits with regard to health care, education, and social welfare although the contributions into the farmers system are lower then under the ZUS system.

  8. Restaurants and hotels expenditure in Polish households of the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piekut Marlena

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The age of household members is an important factor for expenditures. The aim of the study is to investigate the level of expenditure on restaurants and hotels incurred in Polish households of the elderly in 2004-2013 and to identify the factors affecting such expenditures. The source of information used in the study was the household budget survey of the Central Statistical Office of Poland. The main methods used in this study were variance analysis and regression analysis. Restaurants and hotels expenditure increases every year together with their share in total household expenditure. The most important factors affecting the restaurants and hotels spending in Polish households of the elderly are: income per capita and the level of education of the head of the family. The study on consumption determinants at different groups leads to better understanding of consumer behavior circumstances and thereby ensuring a good quality of life for the people of the elderly.

  9. Africa and Its People in the Polish Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Średziński Paweł

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The African continent is treated by the Polish media marginally and usually seen through the lens of four domains of stereotypical perceptions that are associated with difficult life conditions, threats and dangers, beautiful and wild nature, as well as original and diverse cultures. Monitoring of the Polish media has become very important in this situation. That is why the results of first media monitoring report were published in 2011 by ‘Africa Another Way’ Foundation. Five years later the monitoring was repeated. It is hard to resist the impression that Africa is still viewed as this poor, underdeveloped and dangerous continent. And the way it is presented translates into the way individuals of African descent are perceived.

  10. E-TOURISM SERVICES IN POLISH TOURISTS' OPINIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Papińska-Kacperek

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available E-tourism is most often related only with web pages of travel agencies or aggregators offering many services, where it is possible to make transactions electronically. Whereas many applications and devices are applied in tourism, like the audio guides and mobile guides (sometimes with augmented reality functions, electronic cards in museums, 2D codes systems, web pages for individual tourists, geographic information systems (e.g. Google Street View, social network sites recommendation, and profiles of cities on social networks sites like Facebook. Polish tourists' opinions about mentioned innovative tools will be presented as the report from the survey conducted among students and graduates from three Polish universities. The objectives of the study are: investigating the popularity of e-tourist services in Poland and verifying whether municipal authorities promote e-tourism initiatives.

  11. Edge effect modeling of small tool polishing in planetary movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi-xin; Ma, Zhen; Jiang, Bo; Yao, Yong-sheng

    2018-03-01

    As one of the most challenging problems in Computer Controlled Optical Surfacing (CCOS), the edge effect greatly affects the polishing accuracy and efficiency. CCOS rely on stable tool influence function (TIF), however, at the edge of the mirror surface,with the grinding head out of the mirror ,the contact area and pressure distribution changes, which resulting in a non-linear change of TIF, and leads to tilting or sagging at the edge of the mirror. In order reduce the adverse effects and improve the polishing accuracy and efficiency. In this paper, we used the finite element simulation to analyze the pressure distribution at the mirror edge and combined with the improved traditional method to establish a new model. The new method fully considered the non-uniformity of pressure distribution. After modeling the TIFs in different locations, the description and prediction of the edge effects are realized, which has a positive significance on the control and suppression of edge effects

  12. POLISH EMOTIONAL SPEECH RECOGNITION USING ARTIFICAL NEURAL NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Powroźnik

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the issue of emotion recognition based on polish emotional speech analysis. The Polish database of emotional speech, prepared and shared by the Medical Electronics Division of the Lodz University of Technology, has been used for research. The following parameters extracted from sampled and normalised speech signal has been used for the analysis: energy of signal, speaker’s sex, average value of speech signal and both the minimum and maximum sample value for a given signal. As an emotional state a classifier fof our layers of artificial neural network has been used. The achieved results reach 50% of accuracy. Conducted researches focused on six emotional states: a neutral state, sadness, joy, anger, fear and boredom.

  13. Finishing and polishing of a poly (fluoroalkoxyphosphazene) resilient denture liner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loney, R W; Moulding, M B; Hacker, C H; Ritsco, R G

    1994-01-01

    A raised ridge of Novus resilient denture liner was removed from samples using one of three burs, three stones, or a coarse sandpaper disc. Samples were polished using pumice alone, tin oxide alone, or both agents. A flat, unfinished sample served as a control. Average surface roughness of control samples was 0.96 microns. Average surface roughness measurements for reduced samples ranged from 7.21 microns (sandpaper disc) to 3.34 microns (Prolastic wheel). Without polishing, sandpaper discs and serrated burs produced rougher surfaces than stones or the nonserrated bur. The sandpaper disc reduced the liner the quickest. There were no significant differences between treatments or controls after the use of pumice alone or after the use of a combination of pumice and tin oxide. An acceptable finishing protocol for this poly(fluoroalkoxyphosphazene) resilient liner appears to differ from that previously established for a silicone resilient denture liner.

  14. A new strategy for the restructuring of Polish energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowski, R.H.; Tallat, J.

    2006-01-01

    In accordance with strategic planning in the military, the leader (in this case the Minister of Economy) is responsible for setting goals, finding the right people to accomplish these goals (those working in the energy sector), analysing the current situation (state of the energy sector) and evaluating available resources (conventional and renewable energy resources). In terms of economic planning (this term is proper for an economy that sets numerous laws and quotas), the goal is to get the Polish economy out of economic slump, which is the result of seventeen years of improper government practices, into a state of prosperity corresponding to no less than the European average. The only way of accomplishing this goal of high economic growth and catching up with highly-developed countries is to develop local inexpensive energy resources. This study focuses on the potential to develop abundant Polish geothermal resources as well as natural gas based co-generation. (author)

  15. Polish epistolography in Ukrainian polemic of the 17th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhareva Svitlana Volodymyrivna

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The block of Polish epistolary in the system of polemical prose of the 17th century is analyzed in the article. It's indicated in its genre features, holistic character, publicistic and artistic level. Special attention is paid to the epistolary style of Hypatij Potij, Andrew Muzhylovski and Klyryk from Ostrog. Innovative and classical elements of epistolary heritage of the Baroque epoch are identified.

  16. Fracking in the Polish press: Geopolitics and national identity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaspal, Rusi; Nerlich, Brigitte; Lemańcyzk, Szczepan

    2014-01-01

    In a context of resource scarcity and political instability, new energy sources and technologies are being explored in many parts of the world and exploited in some. One of these new energy sources is shale gas and one of the countries seeking to decrease its energy dependence and increase its energy security is Poland which is largely dependent on gas and oil imports from Russia. This article presents the results of a thematic content analysis of articles reporting on shale gas/fracking published in Gazeta Wyborcza and Rzeczpospolita, two leading Polish newspapers, from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2012. Findings suggest that in media reporting the geopolitical dimension of fracking overrides the technological/scientific dimension and that representations are overwhelmingly positive. Positive representations are bolstered through particular linguistic framings. It is argued that the Polish press has polarized the debate on fracking in a particular (positive) direction, which has silenced an open and constructive debate concerning energy policy in Poland and constructed criticism of fracking as counter-normative and “un-Polish.” The potential socio-political and policy implications of these media representations are discussed. - Highlights: • The general tone of Polish media reporting is positive and emphatic about the benefits of fracking. • The geopolitical dimension of fracking overrides the technological/scientific dimension. • The implementation of fracking is constructed as a national priority. • Opposition to fracking is constructed as counter-normative and “anti-Polish”. • Representations impede open and constructive dialogue about energy policy

  17. Ion beam polishing for three-dimensional electron backscattered diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saowadee, Nath; Agersted, Karsten; Ubhi, H.S.

    2013-01-01

    averaging and/or poor 3D-EBSD data quality. In this work a low kV focused ion beam was successfully implemented to automatically polish surfaces during 3D-EBSD of La- and Nb-doped strontium titanate of volume 12.6 × 12.6 × 3.0 μm. The key to achieving this technique is the combination of a defocused low k...

  18. Surface layer softing in mechanically polished molybdenum monocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivashchenko, R.K.; Kostyuchenko, V.G.; Lotsko, D.V.; Lukinov, I.V.; Mil'man, Yu.V.; Novikov, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    Softening of the surface layer together with growth of dislocation density is found in molybdenum single crystals mechanically polished with diamond suspension in water solution of CuSO 4 . The penetration of small amount of copper into molybdenum is observed by SIMS. A supposition has been made about molybdenum solid solution softening influenced by copper penetrating into molybdenum by means of a dynamic dislocation mechanism

  19. MeV ion beam polishing of anodically grown alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daudin, B.; Martin, P.

    1988-01-01

    When bombarded with 1 MeV N + ions, the surface of anodically grown alumina films is smoothened. This polishing effect was studied as a function of the ion bombardment fluence and of the substrate temperature in the range 80 - 650 K. The techniques used to characterize the surface roughness were Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry, Scanning Electron Microscopy and small angle X-rays diffusion. It is suggested that atomic and/or electronic sputtering is responsible for the smoothing effect which was observed

  20. Mutual Fund Performances of Polish Domestic Equity Fund Managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ömer faruk tan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: The main purpose of the paper is empirically evaluating selectivity skills and market timing ability of Polish fund managers during the period from January 2009 to November 2014. After the global financial crisis of 2008, in this period of quantitative easing (QE, thanks to an increase in the money supply, a capital flow from developed countries to developing countries was observed. In this study, we try to analyse that although the financial market in Poland made an incredible progress, whether fund managers show better or worse performance than the market. Methodology/Methods: In order to evaluate fund manager performances, Jensen alpha (1968 is computed, which depicts selectivity skills of fund managers. For determining market timing ability of fund managers, Treynor & Mazuy (1966 regression analysis and Henriksson & Merton (1981 regression analysis are applied. Fund performances are evaluated using Warsaw Stock Exchange Index as the benchmark index. Scientific aim: In this study, we have tried to evaluate selectivity skills and market timing ability of Polish fund managers. A total of 14 equity fund managers’ performances are analysed. The study can be guiding especially for investors who are interested in Polish equity fund performances in a period where emerging stock markets outperformed with quantitative easing. Findings: Jensen (1968 alphas indicate that over this period fund managers did not have selective ability, as none of the 14 funds had statistically significant positive alphas. Furthermore, Treynor & Mazuy (1966 and Henriksson & Merton (1981 regression analysis indicate that over the same period fund managers did not also have market timing ability, as again none of the 14 funds had statistically significant positive coefficients. Conclusions: In this work, we can detect that in the era of quantitative easing, although the financial market in Poland made an incredible progress, the fund returns were

  1. Health status among French, Polish and Romanian students

    OpenAIRE

    Baumann, Michèle; Le Bihan, Etienne; Amara, Marie-Emmanuelle; Bucki, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Research question. Students face many school and living difficulties which alter health status and favour substance use which were assessed in this study among university students from France, Poland and Romania. Methods. In total 934 French, 480 Polish, and 195 Romanian students from the Universities of Metz, Iaşi, and Silésie, completed a self-administred questionnaire. The data were analyzed using adjusted odds ratios (OR) and variance analysis taking age and sex into account, vs. French. ...

  2. Cogeneration – development and prospect in Polish energy sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matuszewska Dominika

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Next 10-15 years are crucial for condition of Polish energy sector in light of challenges arising mainly from increasing demand for electric energy, need of reducing greenhouse gases emissions and shutdowns of old units. In this situation cogeneration can be one of the most rational way to meet those circumstances. This paper analyzes present development of cogeneration in Poland and its prospect for future.

  3. Generic types of competitive strategies in the polish retail industry

    OpenAIRE

    Pilarczyk, B.; Stefanska, М.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to indicate the evolution of competitive strategies implemented by retail chains (particularly foreign ones) on the Polish market. The basic incentive to choose them is aiming at achieving competitive advantage on international and global scale. Generic strategies defined by M. Porter – strategies of cost leadership, product differentiation and focus constitute the theoretical background for the discussion. Work is funded by the NCN grant based on the decision number D...

  4. Analysis of Cooling Capability in Polish District Heating Substations

    OpenAIRE

    Markowicz, Catarina

    2012-01-01

    For a district heating company it is of importance to have an efficient and well performing system. A central part in the work to lower temperature levels in district heating networks is to acknowledge and improve cooling capability in substations. The aim of this thesis is to analyse substations in Polish district heating systems in order to identify reasons of poor cooling and to present suggestions of implementable measures. Furthermore, the economical saving potential from an improved coo...

  5. Sludge accumulation in polishing ponds treating anaerobically digested wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, P; van Haandel, A; Lettinga, G

    2002-01-01

    When ponds are used for wastewater treatment, settleable solids will form a steadily growing bottom sludge layer, which reduces their effective volume. Eventually this sludge must be removed to ensure that the pond maintains the required retention time to keep performing properly. The settleable solids may either be present in the influent or they are formed during the treatment as a result of algal flocculation. An experimental investigation was carried out to evaluate bottom sludge accumulation in a polishing pond used for treatment of UASB effluent. The mass and composition of the bottom sludge formed in a polishing pond was evaluated after the pilot scale pond had been in operation for 1 year and about 60 m3 of digested wastewater had been treated per m3 of pond. The bottom sludge mass represented a solids accumulation of 70 g per m3 of digested wastewater. About half of these solids were the result of settling of influent solids in the first part of the pond, while the other half was attributable to settling of algae, formed in the pond. It is concluded that the bottom sludge growth in a polishing pond is so low, that desludging during the useful life span of the pond will most likely not be necessary. This leads to the important conclusion that excess sludge discharge from UASB reactors (a major factor in operational costs) may be omitted, if a polishing pond is used for post-treatment. The bottom sludge had a high volatile solids concentration (58%) and the macronutrient fractions were also high (3.9% N and 1.1% P of the TSS mass). The bottom sludge was stable and could be dried directly without problems. The hygienic quality of the bottom sludge was very poor: about half the influent helminth eggs during one year of operation were found in the bottom sludge and the faecal coliform concentration was very high.

  6. Between Positivism, Narrativism and Idealisation in Polish Methodology of History

    OpenAIRE

    Brzechczyn, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    This paper has two main purposes. Its primary purpose is to present the reception of the discussion between positivism and narrativism in Polish methodology of history. A secondary one is to paraphrase, using the notion apparatus of the idealisational theory of science, the issue of the accuracy of explanation. The paper consists of six parts. In the first, Hempel’s deductive-nomological (or covering law) model of explanation is presented. In the second part, the main tenets and assumptions o...

  7. Future industrial and municipal waste management in poland the polish challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowakowskl, J.; Sorum, L.; Hustad, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    Poland now face a very interesting discussion on modern waste treatment methods, although the waste problems are very oil. This paper presents a total waste management view from the formation process to recycling, utilisation and land filling. The average municipal solid waste (MSW) annual per capita generation in poland is 250 kg per person, which is half of the waste amount generated in norway and one third of the amount in Usa. The present low per capita generation, large variations in MSW properties and an expected growth in the standard of living make the decisions regarding future polish waste management systems very important. Waste management must be handled carefully to prevent a rapid growth of waste generation - this is the p olish challenge , both mow and for the future. Three different possibilities for future waste management systems for rural areas, small cities and larger cities are discussed in the paper. 4 figs., 1 tab

  8. The prevalence of burnout syndrome in Polish anaesthesiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiołek, Aleksandra; Gorczyca, Piotr; Misiołek, Hanna; Gierlotka, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    Burnout syndrome is a psychological response to chronic work-related stress characterized by low enthusiasm towards the job, high psychological exhaustion, indolence and guilt. Being a medical doctor, both in Poland and in other countries, is one of the most stressful occupations and anaesthesiology is considered one of the most stressful specializations, which justify carrying out of the study on Polish anaesthesiologists. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of burnout syndrome in Polish anaesthesiologists Non-randomized cross-sectional study was carried out and data were gathered through a self-administrated questionnaire. The sample consisted of 373 Polish anaesthesiologists, 57.6% were women and 42.4% were men. A 66% response rate was achieved. The Burnout Syndrome was measured by the Spanish Burnout Inventory. The prevalence burnout risk was almost 70%. The percentage of participants who indicated very high levels of burnout was 18%; 5.9% of whom fell into profile 2 considered to be clinical. The instrument applied was reliable with Cronbach's alphas exceeding 0.70. The sample is characterized by high burnout risk with 5.9% of clinical cases. Participation in prevention programs is recommended.

  9. The Gradual Transformation of the Polish Public Science System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinecke, Steffi

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates institutional change in the Polish public science system (PPSS) in the past twenty years. Employing macro-statistical data, the paper argues that this change process has unfolded stepwise and relatively late despite major political and economic transformations in post-socialist Poland. Using a historical-institutionalist perspective, the paper focuses on processes of institutional change, including layering, displacement, and dismantling. One major finding is that the speed and depth of the gradual transformation differs considerably between the three research performing sectors of the Polish public science system. As the Polish Academy of Sciences was reproduced institutionally, the former governmental units for applied R&D were partly dismantled and displaced by private sector R&D units. In contrast, the Higher Education sector underwent a strong expansion and, thus, layering of new research activities and fields. Since policy shifts within the PPSS occurred relatively late, the more than two decades following the collapse of communism are of special interest to scholars of incremental, yet cumulative, institutional change. PMID:27077386

  10. The Persistence of Abnormal Returns: Analysis of Polish Manufacturing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Puziak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The ultimate goal of a company is to build the enterprise value, which is achievable thanks to abnormal profits generated in particular period. Moreover, firms are expected to take measures to maintain abnormal profit in the future. On the other hand, abnormal profits attract competitors, who increase competition and as a result abnormal profits disappear. The persistence of profit is a term that describes a situation, when the company is successful in maintaining the abnormal profit over time. The main aim of this paper is to investigate the persistence of abnormal profit in Polish manufacturing sector. In other words, the question is whether Polish manufacturing companies are able to maintain their abnormal profits over time. The persistence of abnormal profits is investigated using dynamic panel model with generalized method-of-moments estimators. The method is applied to a panel of 5303 Polish companies from manufacturing sector observed over the period 2006-2014. This paper contributes to the existing literature in two ways. First, analysis is performed for developing country. Second, analysis is performed both at the level of entire sector and at division level. Three main conclusions can be drawn from the conducted research: there are significant differences between profit rates within the same industry at division level; estimated persistence of abnormal profit coefficients are at moderate level; there are substantial differences between estimated persistence of profit coefficients for divisions in the same industry.

  11. The Phonetics and Phonology of the Polish Calling Melodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvaniti, Amalia; Żygis, Marzena; Jaskuła, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Two calling melodies of Polish were investigated, the routine call, used to call someone for an everyday reason, and the urgent call, which conveys disapproval of the addressee's actions. A Discourse Completion Task was used to elicit the two melodies from Polish speakers using twelve names from one to four syllables long; there were three names per syllable count, and speakers produced three tokens of each name with each melody. The results, based on eleven speakers, show that the routine calling melody consists of a low F0 stretch followed by a rise-fall-rise; the urgent calling melody, on the other hand, is a simple rise-fall. Systematic differences were found in the scaling and alignment of tonal targets: the routine call showed late alignment of the accentual pitch peak, and in most instances lower scaling of targets. The accented vowel was also affected, being overall louder in the urgent call. Based on the data and comparisons with other Polish melodies, we analyze the routine call as LH* !H-H% and the urgent call as H* L-L%. We discuss the results and our analysis in light of recent findings on calling melodies in other languages, and explore their repercussions for intonational phonology and the modeling of intonation. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Preparation of cerium oxide for lens polishing powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Injarean, Uthaiwan; Rodthongkom, Chouvana; Pichestapong, Pipat; Changkrurng, Kalaya

    2003-10-01

    Cerium is an element of rare earth group which is called lanthanide series. It is found in the ores like monazite and xenotime which are the tailings of tin mines in the south of Thailand. Cerium is used mostly as lens polishing powder besides the applications in other industries. In this study, cerium extracted from monazite ore breakdown by alkaline process was used for the preparation of lens polishing powder. Cerium hydroxide cake from the process was dissolved by hydrochloric acid and precipitated with oxalic acid. The oxalate precipitate then was calcined to oxide powder and its particle size was measured. Precipitation conditions being studied are concentration of feed cerium chloride solution, concentration of oxalic acid used for the precipitation, concentration of sulfuric acid used as precipitation control reagent and the precipitation temperature. It was found that the appropriate precipitation conditions yielded the fine oxide powder with particle size about 12μm. The oxide powder can be ground to the size of 1-3 μm which is suitable for making lens polishing powder

  13. Bio-polishing sludge adsorbents for dye removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaini Muhammad Abbas Ahmad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to evaluate the removal of methylene blue dye by bio-polishing sludge-based adsorbents. The adsorbents were characterized according to the specific surface area, pH upon the treatment and surface functional groups. The adsorption of dye was carried out at room temperature, and the adsorption data were analyzed using the isotherm and kinetics models. The bio-polishing sludge is rich in ash content, and the presence of surface functional groups varied with the treatment strategies. The specific surface area of adsorbents is between 7.25 and 20.8 m2/g. Results show that the maximum removal of methylene blue by sludge adsorbents was observed to have the following order: untreated sludge (SR > zinc chloride-treated (SZ > microwave-dried (SW = potassium carbonate-treated (SK > acid-washed (SH. The maximum adsorption capacities for SR and SZ as predicted by the Langmuir model are 170 and 135 mg/g, respectively. Although SR demonstrates a higher maximum removal than SZ, the latter exhibits greater removal intensity and rate constant even at high dye concentration. The bio-polishing sludge is a promising adsorbent for dye wastewater treatment.

  14. Mirror surface metrology and polishing for AXAF/TMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slomba, A.; Babish, R.; Glenn, P.

    1985-01-01

    The achievement of the derived goals for mirror surface quality on the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), Technology Mirror Assembly (TMA) required a combination of state-of-the-art metrology and polishing techniques. In this paper, the authors summarize the derived goals and cover the main facets of the various metrology instruments employed, as well as the philosophy and technique used in the polishing work. In addition, they show how progress was measured against the goals, using the detailed error budget for surface errors and a mathematical model for performance prediction. The metrology instruments represented a considerable advance on the state-of-the-art and fully satisfied the error budget goals for the various surface errors. They were capable of measuring the surface errors over a large range of spatial periods, from low-frequency figure errors to microroughness. The polishing was accomplished with a computer-controlled process, guided by the combined data from various metrology instruments. This process was also tailored to reduce the surface errors over the full range of spatial periods

  15. IPO timing determinants: empirical evidence on the Polish capital market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Meluzín

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the determinants influencing the IPO timing by enterprises under the conditions in force on the Polish capital market. In the study we asked CFOs Polish enterprises divided into two groups to formulate their insights in the area of IPO timing. The first group consisted of the entities that have previously executed an initial public offering, the second one included the entities that have not executed an IPO (but considered doing so in the past or were candidates for doing it in the future. The survey results can be summarised as follows. First, in choosing an opportune time for an IPO, both subsamples of companies take into considerations the current need of external equity capital for continuing their growth. Second, managers also take advantage of macroeconomic development and effort conducting IPOs when present and projected state of the national and global economy is favorable. Overall stock market conditions, conditions in the business sector and investors´ interest in the business sector were identified as determinants of IPOs timing with a very strong support. Finally, Polish CFOs attach less importance to the interest that other companies operating in the same type of business may have in IPOs. The interest that firms from other business sectors may have in going public does not have an appreciable effect on timing as well.

  16. Cleaning, abrasion, and polishing effect of novel perlite toothpaste abrasive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo

    2013-01-01

    This study was intended to optimize perlite particle size and morphology for better tooth cleaning and lower tooth abrasion, and to evaluate the performance of a whitening toothpaste containing the optimized perlite abrasive for tooth cleaning, abrasion, and polishing. Perlite toothpaste abrasive samples were prepared by air classifying a commercial expanded perlite product. The tooth cleaning and abrasion properties for these classified perlite samples were reported via the pellicle cleaning ratio (PCR) and relative dentin abrasion (RDA). Performance of the whitening toothpaste containing the optimized perlite abrasive in tooth cleaning, polishing, and abrasion was evaluated against a widely used synthetic high-cleaning silica. Air classification removes large perlite particles and also physically changes perlite particle morphology from mostly three dimensional and angular particles to mainly two dimensional and platy particles. All the classified samples show good tooth cleaning effect, but tooth abrasion decreases significantly with decreasing particle size. Compared to high-cleaning silica whitening toothpaste, the whitening toothpaste containing the optimized perlite abrasive (PerlClean) is slightly better at tooth cleaning, lower in tooth abrasion, and significantly better at tooth polishing. Fine platy perlite particles are effective in tooth cleaning with low tooth abrasion. The enhanced performance of optimized perlite toothpaste abrasive compared to high-cleaning silica in a whitening toothpaste is attributed to the optimized particle size distribution and the unique platy particle geometry.

  17. A Comparative Analysis of Polish and Czech International New Ventures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Danik

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to compare the characteristics of Polish and Czech companies which follow the Born Global internationalization model. More concretely, the analysis aims to discover the differences or similarities in terms of the internationalization paths of Polish and Czech SMEs in the characteristics of their managers in terms of the so-called “international vision” and in their innovativeness level. The introductory part of article provides a description of this internationalization model and the International New Ventures traits (INV and summarizes the recent studies on this topic conducted in Poland and Czech Republic. In the empirical part, the International New Ventures from the two countries are compared. The Polish sample includes 105 companies which were surveyed with use of computer assisted telephone interviews in autumn 2014. For the Czech Republic, the sample consists of 54 small and medium-sized companies, which were surveyed using the computer assisted web interviews from November 2013 till January 2014. The surveyed companies in both countries fulfilled the definition of Born Globals. Descriptive statistics, cross-tabulation analysis and non-parametric tests are applied to accomplish the goals of the paper.

  18. Conventional methods and emerging wastewater polishing technologies for palm oil mill effluent treatment: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Wai Loan; Kassim, Mohd Azraai; Muda, Khalida; Loh, Soh Kheang; Affam, Augustine Chioma

    2015-02-01

    The Malaysian palm oil industry is a major revenue earner and the country is ranked as one of the largest producers in the world. However, growth of the industry is synonymous with a massive production of agro-industrial wastewater. As an environmental protection and public health concern, the highly polluting palm oil mill effluent (POME) has become a major attention-grabber. Hence, the industry is targeting for POME pollution abatement in order to promote a greener image of palm oil and to achieve sustainability. At present, most palm oil mills have adopted the ponding system for treatment. Due to the successful POME pollution abatement experiences, Malaysia is currently planning to revise the effluent quality standards towards a more stringent discharge limits. Hence, the current trend of POME research focuses on developing tertiary treatment or polishing systems for better effluent management. Biotechnologically-advanced POME tertiary (polishing) technologies as well as other physicochemical methods are gaining much attention as these processes are the key players to push the industry towards the goal of environmental sustainability. There are still ongoing treatment technologies being researched and the outcomes maybe available in a while. However, the research completed so far are compiled herein and reported for the first time to acquire a better perspective and insight on the subject with a view of meeting the new standards. To this end, the most feasible technology could be the combination of advanced biological processes (bioreactor systems) with extended aeration, followed by solids separation prior to discharge. Chemical dosing is favoured only if effluent of higher quality is anticipated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Clinical quality standards for radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Aim of the study The technological progress that is currently being witnessed in the areas of diagnostic imaging, treatment planning systems and therapeutic equipment has caused radiotherapy to become a high-tech and interdisciplinary domain involving staff of various backgrounds. This allows steady improvement in therapy results, but at the same time makes the diagnostic, imaging and therapeutic processes more complex and complicated, requiring every stage of those processes to be planned, organized, controlled and improved so as to assure high quality of services provided. The aim of this paper is to present clinical quality standards for radiotherapy as developed by the author. Material and methods In order to develop the quality standards, a comparative analysis was performed between European and Polish legal acts adopted in the period of 1980-2006 and the universal industrial ISO 9001:2008 standard, defining requirements for quality management systems, and relevant articles published in 1984-2009 were reviewed, including applicable guidelines and recommendations of American, international, European and Polish bodies, such as the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), the European Society for Radiotherapy & Oncology (ESTRO), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and the Organisation of European Cancer Institutes (OECI) on quality assurance and management in radiotherapy. Results As a result, 352 quality standards for radiotherapy were developed and categorized into the following three groups: 1 – organizational standards; 2 – physico-technical standards and 3 – clinical standards. Conclusion Proposed clinical quality standards for radiotherapy can be used by any institution using ionizing radiation for medical purposes. However, standards are of value only if they are implemented, reviewed, audited and improved, and if there is a clear mechanism in place to monitor and address failure to meet agreed standards. PMID:23788854

  20. On the Dictionary of Semantic Equivalents in Polish, Bulgarian and Russian"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Paweł Sosnowski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available On the Dictionary of Semantic Equivalents in Polish, Bulgarian and Russian Leksykon odpowiedniości semantycznych w języku polskim, bułgarskim i rosyjskim [The Dictionary of Semantic Equivalents in Polish, Bulgarian and Russian] is the first Polish dictionary which compares semantic equivalents in the largest languages of each Slavic subgroup: The West Slavic group (Polish, the South Slavic group (Bulgarian and the East Slavic group (Russian. The content of the dictionary reflects the social processes, changes and trends which have taken place over recent years. The dictionary consists of 5 volumes, with approximately 5000 entries for each language. What sets it apart from other dictionaries is that it ventures beyond the standard vocabulary one might expect from a dictionary of this sort. Leksykon also contains neologisms as well as realogisms - words which do not often have perfect equivalents in other languages because they are so deeply embedded in a nation’s culture. Each entry in the dictionary offers state-of-the-art semantic and syntactic categorisers, developed by Polish experts in Slavic semantics and aspectology. We consider the dictionary to be an innovation in lexicography, because its open structure enables more languages to be added in the future, including non-Slavic languages. Developed with the use of the most recent methodologies available, the dictionary will constitute a sound basis for lexicographic research in the future, in particular for the development of multilingual electronic dictionaries. In the 21st century, we face two great challenges: to make academic research more interdisciplinary and to build an integrated multinational European community. We hope that our dictionary will help address these challenges by promoting multilingualism and facilitating intercultural communication.The primary language of the dictionary is Polish - the largest Slavic language in the European Union. During the Polish

  1. Evaluation of dose reduction versus standard dosing for maintenance of remission in patients with spondyloarthritis and clinical remission with anti-TNF (REDES-TNF): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, Caridad; Gratacós, Jordi; Torres, Ferran; Avendaño, Cristina; Sanz, Jesús; Vallano, Antoni; Juanola, Xavier; de Miguel, Eugenio; Sanmartí, Raimon; Calvo, Gonzalo

    2015-08-20

    Dose reduction schedules of tumor necrosis factor antagonists (anti-TNF) as maintenance therapy in patients with spondyloarthritis are used empirically in clinical practice, despite the lack of clinical trials providing evidence for this practice. To address this issue the Spanish Society of Rheumatology (SER) and Spanish Society of Clinical Pharmacology (SEFC) designed a 3-year multicenter, randomized, open-label, controlled clinical trial (2 years for inclusion and 1 year of follow-up). The study is expected to include 190 patients with axial spondyloarthritis on stable maintenance treatment (≥4 months) with any anti-TNF agent at doses recommended in the summary of product characteristics. Patients will be randomized to either a dose reduction arm or maintenance of the dosing regimen as per the official labelling recommendations. Randomization will be stratified according to the anti-TNF agent received before study inclusion. Patient follow-up, visit schedule, and examinations will be maintained as per normal clinical practice recommendations according to SER guidelines. The study aims to test the hypothesis of noninferiority of the dose reduction strategy compared with standard treatment. The first patients were recruited in July 2012, and study completion is scheduled for the end of April 2015. The REDES-TNF study is a pragmatic clinical trial that aims to provide evidence to support a medical decision now made empirically. The study results may help inform clinical decisions relevant to both patients and healthcare decision makers. EudraCT 2011-005871-18 (21 December 2011).

  2. Poverty Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz, Isabel

    2007-01-01

    The paper reviews poverty trends and measurements, poverty reduction in historical perspective, the poverty-inequality-growth debate, national poverty reduction strategies, criticisms of the agenda and the need for redistribution, international policies for poverty reduction, and ultimately understanding poverty at a global scale. It belongs to a series of backgrounders developed at Joseph Stiglitz's Initiative for Policy Dialogue.

  3. The Impact of the Russian Civil Judicial Proceedings Act of 1864 on the Polish Civil Proceedings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Rylski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the influence, which had already been exerted, and which is still exerted by the Russian Civil Judicial Proceedings Act of November 20, 1864 (CJPA on the Polish civil proceedings. First, the authors present the history of CJPA’s presence in the Polish territories. Next, they discuss the general significance of this act and its solutions for the process of shaping the Polish civil procedure in the interwar period. Finally, they present selected examples of the regulations and solutions that demonstrate the CJPA’s impact on the Polish civil proceedings. The authors conclude that CJPA exerted a minor impact on the pre-war and present Polish procedural regulations in comparison to the other codes, i.e. the Austrian and German codes. Even today, however, one can find in the Polish Code of Civil Procedure some provisions patterned after the CJPA.

  4. Effect of liquid-polish coating on in vivo biofilm accumulation on provisional restorations: part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Davidi, Michael; Beyth, Nurit; Sterer, Nir; Feuerstein, Osnot; Weiss, Ervin I

    2007-01-01

    Biofilm accumulation on provisional restorations may affect the surrounding tissues' integrity. The purpose of this study was to test in vivo biofilm formation on polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) self-cured acrylic resin provisional crowns. Three types of PMMA surfaces were tested: (1) polished, (2) polished and coated with bonding agent, and (3) polished and coated with light-cured liquid polish. After 12 hours in the oral cavity, the crown was removed and examined by confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Biofilm, 250 Mum thick, was observed with CLSM on the polished acrylic surface. Significantly less bacterial accumulation was observed on the crowns coated with bonding agent, whereas no biofilm was observed on the crowns coated with liquid polish (P provisional restorations.

  5. General Military Training: Standardization and Reduction Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Employee Anti- discrimination and Retaliation Act (No FEAR Act), survivor assistance awareness, homosexu - ality policy, ethics, and the Lautenberg...complete a two-week training period during the year. Therefore, although the time it takes to perform mandatory GMT is equal for the AC and RC, the time...engage with training-topic sponsors to validate training requirements. For example, the DoD equal opportunity (EO) office is in charge of the DoD EO

  6. The Rise and Decline of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth due to Grain Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Olszewski, Krzysztof

    2007-01-01

    In this paper I present the cause of the rise and decline of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The main driving force was Polish grain trade over the Baltic. At the beginning, Polish grain was vital for Western Europe thus the Commonwealth was able to make significant profits and obtain economical growth. However, once the cultivation of grain was not any more profitable, the Commonwealth missed to adopt its economy to the new situation and fell behind. I present the main politi...

  7. Poland, a workforce in transition: Exploring leadership styles and effectiveness of Polish vs. Western expatriate managers

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenberg, Jacob; Pieczonka, Artur; Eisenring, Martin; Mironski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Given the cultural differences between Western Europe and Poland, differences are expected in leadership styles and behaviours between Polish and Western managers. Our study explored Polish employees’ perceptions and attitudes toward expatriate Western versus local managers. The main method was surveying Polish employees working under Western managers in three mid-size companies. We supplemented the survey with in-depth interviews with five West European middle managers working in Poland. We ...

  8. Evaluation of various polishing systems and the phase transformation of monolithic zirconia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Yoon-Hyuk; Park, Chan-Jin; Cho, Lee-Ra

    2016-09-01

    Although a well-polished monolithic zirconia surface is essential, insufficient comparative studies on the constituents and efficacy of polishing systems have been conducted. The purpose of this in vitro study was to analyze the abrasive constituents and compare the polishing effectiveness of 6 zirconia polishing systems, including their potential influence on the phase transformation of monolithic zirconia. The compositions of 6 zirconia polishing systems were analyzed using energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Sintered and high-speed ground monolithic zirconia specimens were used as control groups (n=14 specimens per group). Test groups (n=168) were pretreated identically to the control group and arbitrarily divided into 12 groups to examine 6 polishing systems for 2 polishing periods (60 or 120 seconds). The surfaces were characterized by a surface profiler and various analytic techniques, including x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The data were analyzed using 2-way ANOVA and multiple comparisons and the Bonferroni method (α=.05). The abrasives were primarily composed of C, O, and Si. Diamond was identified as the main abrasive and SiC as the supplementary abrasive in the polishing systems. No significant differences were observed for the 60- or 120-second polishing times (P>.05). Four products had significantly lower surface roughness values than the other 2 (Pzirconia specimens. The monolithic zirconia polishing systems contained diamond and SiC abrasives. All zirconia polishing systems showed clinically acceptable results, and 4 systems exhibited lower surface roughness. Phase transformation did not occur during polishing procedure. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Neologisms in bilingual digital dictionaries (on the example of Bulgarian-Polish dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Dimitrova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Neologisms in bilingual digital dictionaries (on the example of Bulgarian-Polish dictionary The paper discusses the presentation of neologisms in the recent version of the Bulgarian-Polish digital dictionary. We also continue the discussion of important problems related to the classifiers of the verbs as headwords of the digital dictionary entries. We analyze some examples from ongoing experimental version of the Bulgarian-Polish digital dictionary.

  10. Research on Laser Micro Polishing of SLS Technology Sintered Iron-Based Powder Surface

    OpenAIRE

    Gerda Vaitkūnaitė; Vladislav Markovič; Olegas Černašėjus

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes laser micro polishing of 1.2083 steel samples produced applying selective laser sintering (SLS) method. The study has evaluated the distribution of the shape, size and temperature of the laser beam treated area in the surface layer of sintered and laser polished samples. Experimental tests have shown the impact of the technical parameters of laser micro polishing on the width and hardness of the impact zone of the treated sample. The microstructure analysis of laser treat...

  11. How to Investigate Polish Clusters’ Attractiveness for Inward FDI? Addressing Ambiguity Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Götz Marta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to assess whether, and in what fashion, managers of Polish cluster organizations perceive the attractiveness of foreign direct investment in Polish clusters This research is exploratory and qualitative in nature. The complex nature of Polish clusters, which can benefit from and be competitively challenged by, FDI are identified and a conceptual framework for assessing that nature is proposed; specifically, research using the grounded theory method (GTM.

  12. Effects of Polishing Bur Application Force and Reuse on Sintered Zirconia Surface Topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, N G; Tsujimoto, A; Baruth, A G

    2018-03-16

    Limited information is available on how to polish and finish zirconia surfaces following computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM), specifically, how differing application forces and reuse of zirconia polishing systems affect zirconia topography. To determine the effect of differing, clinically relevant, polishing application forces and multiple usages of polishing burs on the surface topography of CAD/CAM zirconia. One hundred twenty 220-grit carbide finished zirconia disks were sintered according to manufacturer's directions and divided into two groups for the study of two coarse polishing bur types. Each group was divided into subgroups for polishing (15,000 rpm) at 15 seconds for 1.0 N, 4.5 N, or 11 N of force using a purpose-built fixture. Subgroups were further divided to study the effects of polishing for the first, fifth, 15th, and 30th bur use, simulating clinical procedures. Unpolished surfaces served as a control group. Surfaces were imaged with noncontact optical profilometry (OP) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to measure average roughness values (Ra). Polishing burs were optically examined for wear. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed on burs and zirconia surfaces. One-way ANOVA with post hoc Tukey HSD (honest significant difference) tests (α=0.05) were used for statistical analyses. AFM and OP Ra values of all polished surfaces were significantly lower than those of the unpolished control. Different polishing forces and bur reuse showed no significant differences in AFM Ra. However, significant differences in OP Ra were found due to differing application forces and bur reuse between the first and subsequent uses. SEM and optical micrographs revealed notable bur wear, increasing with increasing reuse. SEM and AFM micrographs clearly showed polished, periodic zirconia surfaces. Nanoscale topography, as analyzed with kurtosis and average groove depth, was found dependent on the specific polishing bur type. These in

  13. Surface roughness and morphology of three nanocomposites after two different polishing treatments by a multitechnique approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janus, J; Fauxpoint, G; Arntz, Y; Pelletier, H; Etienne, O

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the surface roughness and morphology of three nanocomposites polished with two different polishing systems. Specimens made of hybrid composite (Tetric Ceram [TC] as control) and nanocomposites: nanofilled (Filtek Supreme [FS]), nanofilled hybrid (Grandio [Gr]), complex nanofilled hybrid (Synergy D6 [Syn]) were polished with CompoSystem [CS] or Sof-Lex [SL] polishing discs. The average surface roughness (Ra) before and after polishing was measured using optical profilometry. Both AFM and SEM techniques were additionally used to analyze the surface morphology after polishing with the aim of relating the surface morphology and the surface roughness. Statistical analysis was done by ANOVA using a general linear model (alpha=0.05) with an adjustment for multiple comparisons. Within the same polishing system, FS exhibited the smoothest surface, followed by Syn, TC and Gr (p<0.0001). Sof-Lex polishing discs produced the smoothest surface compared to CompoSystem (p<0.0001). AFM and SEM observations confirmed that the surface roughness was related to the surface morphology and to the average filler size. Positive correlation between the average filler size and the surface roughness suggest that using nanoparticles in the formulation does not necessary improve the surface texture. The nanofilled composite FS, which contains only nanofillers, showed the best results when associated to Sof-Lex polishing discs. 2010 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Damage-free polishing of monocrystalline silicon wafers without chemical additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biddut, A.Q.; Zhang, L.C.; Ali, Y.M.; Liu, Z.

    2008-01-01

    This investigation explores the possibility and identifies the mechanism of damage-free polishing of monocrystalline silicon without chemical additives. Using high resolution electron microscopy and contact mechanics, the study concludes that a damage-free polishing process without chemicals is feasible. All forms of damages, such as amorphous Si, dislocations and plane shifting, can be eliminated by avoiding the initiation of the β-tin phase of silicon during polishing. When using 50 nm abrasives, the nominal pressure to achieve damage-free polishing is 20 kPa

  15. Surface analysis of polished fused-silica laser lenses by ion-scattering spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orvek, K.; Steward, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    New advances in high-powered glass lasers, particularly the NOVA system, have resulted in a need for lenses having higher damage threshold values than those now available. It is currently thought that surface contaminants on the lenses are responsible for initiating part of the damage. These contaminants are apparently introduced during the final polishing stages. In this study, we used ion-scattering spectrometry (ISS) to identify contaminants arising through the use of different polishing techniques. Five lenses were studied, each having undergone different polishing procedures. The first lens was not polished after receiving it from the manfacturer (No. 381). Ion microprobe data were available for this lens, and they were compared to ISS results. The second lens had been polished with rouge, a polishing compound no longer in use (No. 796). This sample served as a further check on the ISS results. The third lens was studied as received from the manufacturer - with no handling or cleaning (No. 802). The final two lenses had both been polished using high-purity ceria, cerium oxide (No. 800 and No. 801). The difference between these two was that No. 800 was polished using a nylon lap, and No. 801 was polished using pitch as a lap. The 800-series lenses were all made from the same batch, and constituted the major part of the investigation

  16. Translation, Cultural Adaptation and Validation of Polish Version of Foot and Ankle Outcomes Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boszczyk, Andrzej; Błoński, Marcin; Pomianowski, Stanisław

    2015-01-01

    The Polish orthopaedic literature lacks a tool to measure patient reported treatment outcomes in the foot and ankle. The translation and cultural adaptation of the Foot and Ankle Outcomes Questionnaire was performed in accordance with relevant guidelines. The Polish version of the questionnaire was tested to check its test retest reliability, internal consistency and construct validity. The Polish version of the questionnaire was prepared. Testing of the questionnaire revealed acceptable test retest reliability, internal consistency and construct validity. The translation, cultural adaptation and testing of the Polish version of patient related outcome measuring tool for the foot and ankle is described.

  17. Towards Recognition of Spatial Relations between Entities for Polish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Mirosław Marcińczuk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Towards Recognition of Spatial Relations between Entities for Polish In this paper, the problem of spatial relation recognition in Polish is examined. We present the different ways of distributing spatial information throughout a sentence by reviewing the lexical and grammatical signals of various relations between objects. We focus on the spatial usage of prepositions and their meaning, determined by the ‘conceptual’ schemes they constitute. We also discuss the feasibility of a comprehensive recognition of spatial relations between objects expressed in different ways by reviewing the existing tools and resources for text processing in Polish. As a result, we propose a heuristic method for the recognition of spatial relations expressed in various phrase structures called spatial expressions. We propose a definition of spatial expressions by taking into account the limitations of the available tools for the Polish language. A set of rules is used to generate candidates of spatial expressions which are later tested against a set of semantic constraints. The results of our work on recognition of spatial expressions in Polish texts were partially presented in (Marcińczuk, Oleksy, & Wieczorek, 2016. In that paper we focused on a detailed analysis of errors obtained using a set of basic morphosyntactic patterns for generating spatial expression candidates - we identified and described the most common sources of errors, i.e. incorrectly recognized or unrecognized expressions. In this paper we focused mainly on the preliminary stages of spatial expression recognition. We presented an extensive review on how the spatial information can be encoded in the text, types of spatial triggers in Polish and a detailed evaluation of morphosyntactic patterns which can be used to generate spatial expression candidates.   Rozpoznawanie relacji przestrzennych między obiektami fizycznymi w języku polskim Artykuł dotyczy zagadnienia rozpoznawania relacji

  18. Database for content of mercury in Polish brown coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrząb, Krzysztof

    2018-01-01

    Poland is rated among the countries with largest level of mercury emission in Europe. According to information provided by the National Centre for Balancing and Management of Emissions (KOBiZE) more than 10.5 tons of mercury and its compounds were emitted into the atmosphere in 2015 from the area of Poland. Within the scope of the BazaHg project lasting from 2014 to 2015 and co-financed from the National Centre of Research and Development (NCBiR) a database was set up with specification of mercury content in Polish hard steam coal, coking coal and brown coal (lignite) grades. With regard to domestic brown coal the database comprises information on coal grades from Brown Coal Mines of `Bełchatów', `Adamów', `Turów' and `Sieniawa'. Currently the database contains 130 records with parameters of brown coal, where each record stands for technical analysis (content of moisture, ash and volatile particles), elemental analysis (CHNS), content of chlorine and mercury as well as net calorific value and combustion heat. Content of mercury in samples of brown coal grades under test ranged from 44 to 985 μg of Hg/kg with the average level of 345 μg of Hg/kg. The established database makes up a reliable and trustworthy source of information about content of mercury in Polish fossils. The foregoing details completed with information about consumption of coal by individual electric power stations and multiplied by appropriate emission coefficients may serve as the background to establish loads of mercury emitted into atmosphere from individual stations and by the entire sector of power engineering in total. It will also enable Polish central organizations and individual business entities to implement reasonable policy with respect of mercury emission into atmosphere.

  19. Variation in the Ace Gene in Elite Polish Football Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cięszczyk Paweł

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. A common polymorphism in the angiotensin converting enzyme I gene (the ACE I/D variant represents one of the first characterized and the most widely studied genetic variants in the context of elite athletes status and performance related traits. The aim of the study was to determine the genotype and allele distribution of the allele and genotype of the ACE gene in Polish male football players. Methods. The total of 106 Polish male professional football players were recruited. They were divided into groups according to the position in the field: forwards, defenders, midfielders, and goalkeepers. For controls, samples were prepared with 115 unrelated volunteers. DNA was extracted from the buccal cells donated by the subjects, and the PCR amplification of the polymorphic region of the ACE gene containing either the insertion (I or deletion (D fragment was performed. Results. The genotype distribution and allele frequencies among all football players did not differ significantly when compared with sedentary control individuals (p = 0.887, p = 0.999, respectively. Likewise, the analysis of forwards, defenders, midfielders, and goalkeepers revealed no significant differences in either ACE genotype or allele frequencies. Conclusions. We did not provide evidence for difference of variation of the ACE I/D polymorphism between Polish football players and controls, as we did not obtain any statistically significantly higher frequency of either of the analysed alleles (I and D or genotypes (DD, ID, and II in the studied subgroups. It may be suspected that harbouring of I/D allelic variants of the ACE gene neither decreases nor increases the probability of being a professional football player in Poland.

  20. Dietary fiber sources consumption and overweight among Polish male students. A cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krusińska, Beata; Wuenstel, Justyna Weronika; Kowalkowska, Joanna; Wądołowska, Lidia; Słowińska, Małgorzata Anna

    There has been an increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescents and young adults, especially in men than women. Many adolescents have a sedentary lifestyle and consume more processed, low-fiber foods. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of fiber intake and its selected dietary source consumption in relation to the overweight among Polish male students. This cross-sectional study involved 1,233 male students aged 13.0-24.9 years from northern, eastern and central Poland. The respondents completed a self-administered Block Screening Questionnaire for Fruit/Vegetable/Fiber Intake and measurements of their body mass and height were performed. The overweight and obesity prevalence was assessed using international standards. The most frequently consumed foods by students included: white bread and potatoes, fruit and fruit or vegetable juices. The odds of overweight (including obesity) were lower from 28% (OR=0.72; 95%CI:0.56-0.93) to 31% (OR=0.69; 95%CI:0.50-0.95) with a daily consumption of white bread compared to non-daily consumption of white bread. Consumption ≥4 times/week of prepared vegetables (cooked, preserved or marinated) was associated with 51% lower odds of overweight (OR=0.49; 95%CI:0.27-0.97) compared to consumption less than 4 times/week of these foods. The odds of overweight for the level of fiber intake was insignificant. This study provides surprising insights regarding high-fiber and low-fiber food consumption and overweight in Polish male students. A lower odds of overweight was associated with a higher frequency consumption of relatively low in fiber foods as white bread and cooked, preserved or marinated vegetables. Most of the students consumed fiber at an unacceptable level, so a beneficial impact of high-fiber foods on overweight prevalence was not shown.

  1. ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF THE AMERICAN-POLISH PROGRAM FOR ELIMINATION OF LOW EMISSIONS IN KRAKOW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BUTCHER,T.A.; PIERCE,B.

    1998-11-05

    In 1991, US and Polish officials signed a Memorandum of Understanding formally initiating and directing the Cracow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Program. Developing a program approach for the most effective use of the available funds required considerable effort on the part of all project participants. The team recognized early that the cost of solving the low emissions problem even in only one city far exceeded the amount of available US funds. Economic conditions in Poland limited availability of local capital funds for environmental projects. Imposing environmental costs on struggling companies or city residents under difficult conditions of the early 1990's required careful consideration of the economic and political impacts. For all of these reasons the program sought to identify technologies for achieving air quality goals which, through improved efficiency and/or reduced fuel cost, could be so attractive economically as to lead to self-sustaining activities beyond the end of the formal project. The effort under this program has been focused into 5 main areas of interest as follows: (1) Energy Conservation and Extension of Central Station District Heating; (2) Replacement of Coal- and Coke-Fired Boilers with Natural Gas-Fired Boilers; (3) Replacement of Coal-Fired Home Stoves with Electric Heating Appliances; (4) Reduction of Emissions from Stoker-Fired Boiler Houses; and (5) Reduction of Emissions from Coal-Fired Home Heating Stoves.

  2. Theorizing Polish migration across Europe: perspectives, concepts, and methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta M. Goździak

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Theorizing Polish migration across Europe: perspectives, concepts, and methodologies With the focus on the post-2004 mobility of Polish citizens, in this article we discuss two interrelated questions; namely, what are the most productive ways to theorize contemporary Polish migration, and what are the most fruitful methodologies aimed at understanding Polish migration and Poles on the move? In the first part of this article we unpack three interrelated theoretical frameworks: ‘liquid migration’, ‘regimes of mobility,’ and ‘transnationalism’. The methodological discussion in the second part of the article focuses mainly on outlining and contextualizing the most common approaches to migration phenomena. By critically introducing quantitative and qualitative methodologies, we explore and indicate the advantages of the ethnographic perspective and the merits and predicaments of research engagement in multiple sites.   Polskie migracje w Europie: perspektywy, koncepcje, metodologie Z naciskiem na mobilność obywateli polskich po przyłączeniu Polski do Unii Europejskiej w 2004 roku, w niniejszym artykule staramy się odpowiedzieć na dwa powiązane ze sobą pytania: jakie są najbardziej wydajne sposoby teoretyzowania współczesnej migracji polskiej oraz jakie są najbardziej owocne metody badawcze mające na celu zrozumienie polskiej migracji po akcesji do UE? W pierwszej części artykułu przedstawiamy więc trzy powiązane ze sobą koncepcje teoretyczne: „płynna migracja”, „reżimy mobilności” oraz transnarodowość. Dyskusja metodologiczna w drugiej części artykułu skupia się natomiast głównie na przedstawieniu najczęściej stosowanej metodyki i metodologii w badaniach zjawisk migracyjnych. Wprowadzając krytyczną perspektywę na temat ilościowych i jakościowych metod badawczych, staramy się wskazać wartość poznawczą perspektywy etnograficznej oraz wady i zalety etnograficznego zaangażowania badawczego w

  3. Specificity of Geotechnical Measurements and Practice of Polish Offshore Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogumil Laczynski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As offshore market in Europe grows faster and faster, new sea areas are being managed and new ideas on how to use the sea potential are being developed. In North Sea, where offshore industry conducts intensive expansion since late 1960s, numerous wind farms, oil and gas platforms and pipelines have been put into operation following extensive research, including geotechnical measurement. Recently, a great number of similar projects is under development in Baltic Sea, inter alia in Polish EEZ, natural conditions of which vary from the North Sea significantly. In this paper, those differences are described together with some solutions to problems thereby arising.

  4. TRADITIONS IN DIALOGUE: CELEBRATION PATTERNS AMONG POLISH MIGRANTS IN ICELAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Wojtyńska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Migration, living in another country exposes one to culture contact and initiates the integration process. The integration of migrants is usually discussed using an acculturation model in the form proposed for example by John Berry. Instead, in this article, I take the concept of intercultural communication as it better renders integration as a dynamic practice of reconstructing and redefining culture forms in the culturally diverse environment, where different lifestyles and values coexist. Importantly, as I try to show, taking the example of Polish migrants in Iceland, changing patterns of celebrations are not only influenced by the receiving culture but also by global images.

  5. RISK IDENTIFICATION TOOLS – POLISH MSMES COMPANIES PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Gorzeń-Mitka

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to present risk identification tools in Polish micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs. Risk identification is a key element of the risk management process in companies. Correctly fitting risk identification tools affect the accuracy of management decisions. The result of research is to identify the leading risk identification tools used by MSMEs. The study was conducted in 2010-2012 using a mixed survey-monographic method and questionnaires. The qualitative data were obtained during the study.

  6. Lexical exponents of hypothetical modality in Polish and Lithuanian

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    Roman Roszko

    2015-11-01

    To analyse both the languages there is used the method of theoretical contrastive studies, which the most important features are: (1 orienting the studies from the content grounds to the formal grounds, (2 using a semantic interlanguage as tertium comparationis. First of all, the content of hypothetical modality and its definition and paraphrase is given here. Next, the gradational character of this category is discussed. There are distinguished six groups of lexemes expressing the corresponding degrees of hypothetical modality — from a shadow of uncertainty (minimal degree of probability to an almost complete certainty (maximum degree of probability. The experimental Polish-Lithuanian corpus is widely applied in the studies.

  7. Discriminant analysis in Polish manufacturing sector performance assessment

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    Józef Dziechciarz

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a presentation of the preliminary results of a larger project on the determination of the attractiveness of manufacturing branches. Results of the performance assessment of Polish manufacturing branches in 2000 (section D „Manufacturing” – based on NACE – Nomenclatures des Activites de Communite Europeene are shown. In the research, the classical (Fisher’s linear discriminant analysis technique was used for the analysis of the profit generation ability by the firms belonging to a certain production branch. For estimation, the data describing group level was used – for cross-validation, the classes data.

  8. Polish Decadence: Leopold Staff's Igrzysko in the European Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Przybos

    2012-03-01

    expression. It is my hypothesis that taken out of its secular context, religious revisionism of the kind practiced by French decadents may be seen as shocking transgression in a fiercely catholic country like Poland. In the country that lost its independence in 1794 and was ever since seeking to regain it, Catholic Church was perceived as an essential ally in the struggle against main occupying powers: Orthodox Russia, and Protestant Prussia. In the course of the 19th century Catholicism and patriotism had been effectively fused in Polish national conscience. In this charged political context a Polish author revisiting Church dogma or tradition was at risk of being perceived not only as a religious outcast but also as a traitor to the cause of Polish independence. To test my hypothesis I propose to examine Igrzysko (Game, a forgotten play by Leopold Staff. Admired today chiefly as a poet, the young Staff wrote Igrzysko in Poland after a long sojourn in Paris where he had lived among the international crowd of fin de siècle writers and artists. The play was first produced in Lemberg in 1909 and after a few performances vanished forever from Polish theatrical repertoire. Leopold Staff's play is set in ancient Rome and depicts tribulations of an actor who, while impersonating a Christian awaiting crucifixion, converts to Christianity. In his play, Staff revives the legend of Saint Genesius, an actor in Arles who died a martyr's death in 286 under Diocletian. In Spain, Saint Genesius's legend inspired Lope de Vega who wrote Acting is Believing (Lo fingido verdadero, 1607. In France, it was the source for Jean Rotrou's Saint Genest (1646. All told, the legend of Genesius is a popular theme for artists who wish to explore the distinction between art and life. An important addition to this old tradition, Staff's play contains, however, a decadent and potentially scandalous twist. Unlike in Acting is Believing and Saint Genest, the protagonist's conversion is very short

  9. Between positivism and narrativism in Polish methodology of history

    OpenAIRE

    Brzechczyn, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    This paper has two main purposes. Its primary purpose is to present the reception of the discussion between positivism and narrativism in the Polish methodology of history. A secondary one is to paraphrase, using the notion apparatus of the idealisational theory of science, the issue of the accuracy of explanation. The article consists of six parts. In the first part, Hempel’s deductive-nomological (or covering-law) model of explanation is presented. In the second part, the main tenets and as...

  10. Development of computer program for the economic evaluation of the volume reduction system for the low-level radwaste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jin Yeong

    1994-02-01

    This study provides the basis for investigating the benefits of purchasing volume reduction equipment and includes the establishment of a volume reduction data base, the creation of the volume reduction cost analysis computer program PEEVR (Program of Economic Evaluation for the Volume Reduction), and a generic analysis designed to identify the major costs influencing the economics of the various equipment options. In treating the plant types and the wastes, this study considers that condensate polishing system is included or not in PWR and precoat condensate polishing system, deep bed condensate polishing system in BWR and the 5 waste streams, i.e., compatible trash (COTRASH), ion exchange resin (IXRESIN), concentrate liquid (CONCLIQ), filter sludge (FSLUDGE), non compatible trash (COTRASH). This study uses the PVRR and LRR methods to create cost analysis and performs sensitivity analysis for the each cost variable and shows that future burial costs increases are the major factors in the economic evaluation

  11. Development of computer program for the economic evaluation of the volume reduction system for the low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jin Yeong; Lee, Kun Jai

    1994-01-01

    This study provides the basis for investigating the benefits of purchasing volume reduction equipment and includes the establishment of a volume reduction data base, the creation of the volume reduction cost analysis computer program PEEVR (Program of Economic Evaluation for the Volume Reduction), and a generic analysis designed to identify the major costs influencing the economics of the various equipment options. In treating the plant types and the wastes, this study considers that condensate polishing system is included or not in PWR and precoatcondensate polishing system, deep bed condensate polishing system in BWR and the 5 waste streams, i. e., compactibIe trash (COTRASH), ion exchange resin (IXRESIN), concentrate liquid (CONCLIQ), filter sludge (FSLUDGE), non compactible trash (COTRASH). This study uses the PVRR and LRR methods to create cost analysis and performs sensitivity analysis for the each cost variables and shows that future burial costs increases are the major factors in the economic evaluation

  12. Effect of implantoplasty on fracture resistance and surface roughness of standard diameter dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Berenguer, Xavier; García-García, Marta; Sánchez-Torres, Alba; Sanz-Alonso, Mariano; Figueiredo, Rui; Valmaseda-Castellón, Eduard

    2018-01-01

    To assess the effect of implantoplasty on the fracture resistance, surface roughness, and macroscopic morphology of standard diameter (4.1 mm) external connection dental implants. An in vitro study was conducted in 20 screw-shaped titanium dental implants with an external connection. In 10 implants, the threads and surface were removed and polished with high-speed burs (implantoplasty), while the remaining 10 implants were used as controls. The final implant dimensions were recorded. The newly polished surface quality was assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and by 3D surface roughness analysis using a confocal laser microscope. Finally, all the implants were subjected to a mechanical pressure resistance test. A descriptive analysis of the data was made. Also, Student's t tests were employed to detect differences regarding the compression tests. Implantoplasty was carried out for a mean time of 10 min and 48 s (standard deviation (SD) of 1 min 22 s). Macroscopically, the resulting surface had a smooth appearance, although small titanium shavings and silicon debris were present. The final surface roughness (S a values 0.1 ± 0.02 μm) was significantly lower than that of the original (0.75 ± 0.08 μm S a ) (p = .005). There was minimal reduction in the implant's inner body diameter (0.19 ± 0.03 mm), and no statistically significant differences were found between the test and control implants regarding the maximum resistance force (896 vs 880 N, respectively). Implantoplasty, although technically demanding and time-consuming, does not seem to significantly alter fracture resistance of standard diameter external connection implants. A smooth surface with S a values below 0.1 μm can be obtained through the use of silicon polishers. A larger sample is required to confirm that implantoplasty does not significantly affect the maximum resistance force of standard diameter external connection implants. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published

  13. The effect of aggregate type and mix design on the wet skid resistance of bituminous pavement : recommendations for Virginia's Wet Accident Reduction Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This report (1) identified and characterized Virginia's nonpolishing aggregates in terms of their wet skid resistance, (2) compared the standard ASTM E 274-90 skid test to the British Accelerated Polishing Machine (BAPM) and British PendulumTester (B...

  14. Polishing of Monolithic Zirconia Crowns—Results of Different Dental Practitioner Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Kozmacs

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This pilot study evaluates the surface roughness of monolithic zirconia crowns after chairside polishing by different dental practitioner groups. Four practitioner groups (group I: dental clinical students (n = 6; group II: dentists < 2 years post-qualification experience (n = 6; group III: dentists > 2 years post-qualification experience (n = 6 and group IV: dental technicians (n = 6 were asked to polish two CAD/CAM-fabricated full-contour zirconia crowns (48 in total. A two-step zirconia polishing kit was used in both trials. The first trial (T1 was conducted without a time limitation. In the second trial (T2, the polish was restricted to 15 seconds for each polisher. Two blinded investigators (I1 and I2 analyzed the surface roughness (Ra before and after polishing (Alicona measuring system. No statistically significant difference in surface roughness was found between the polishing results of the dental practitioner groups. Major difference in surface finish was achieved by dental technicians, with a median value of 25.4 nm (interquartile range 10.15–35.26 nm for I1 in T1. The lowest difference was achieved by dental students, with a median value of Ra = 6.72 nm (interquartile range 4.7–17.9 nm in T1. In T2, experienced dentists showed the highest difference in surface finish, with a median value of 41.35 nm (interquartile range 7.77–54.11. No significant correlation was found between polishing time and polishing results. The polishing of monolithic zirconium dioxide crowns can be performed with the present polishing set directly chairside after occlusal adjustment, regardless of the practitioner’s experience level.

  15. Polishing of Monolithic Zirconia Crowns-Results of Different Dental Practitioner Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozmacs, Carla; Hollmann, Britta; Arnold, Wolfgang H; Naumova, Ella; Piwowarczyk, Andree

    2017-11-14

    This pilot study evaluates the surface roughness of monolithic zirconia crowns after chairside polishing by different dental practitioner groups. Four practitioner groups (group I: dental clinical students ( n = 6); group II: dentists 2 years post-qualification experience ( n = 6) and group IV: dental technicians ( n = 6)) were asked to polish two CAD/CAM-fabricated full-contour zirconia crowns (48 in total). A two-step zirconia polishing kit was used in both trials. The first trial (T1) was conducted without a time limitation. In the second trial (T2), the polish was restricted to 15 seconds for each polisher. Two blinded investigators (I1 and I2) analyzed the surface roughness (Ra) before and after polishing (Alicona measuring system). No statistically significant difference in surface roughness was found between the polishing results of the dental practitioner groups. Major difference in surface finish was achieved by dental technicians, with a median value of 25.4 nm (interquartile range 10.15-35.26 nm) for I1 in T1. The lowest difference was achieved by dental students, with a median value of Ra = 6.72 nm (interquartile range 4.7-17.9 nm) in T1. In T2, experienced dentists showed the highest difference in surface finish, with a median value of 41.35 nm (interquartile range 7.77-54.11). No significant correlation was found between polishing time and polishing results. The polishing of monolithic zirconium dioxide crowns can be performed with the present polishing set directly chairside after occlusal adjustment, regardless of the practitioner's experience level.

  16. Removing the residual cellulase by graphene oxide to recycle the bio-polishing effluent for dyeing cotton fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Yang, Chao; Fang, Kuanjun; Cai, Yuqing; Hao, Longyun

    2018-02-01

    In this research, a stable graphene oxide (GO) suspension was prepared by chemical reduction method from graphite powder. By TEM, the irregular GO sheets with single-atom-layered structure could be observed. The zeta potentials measurement indicated the surface charges of GO were strongly related to pH. BET analysis showed the GO had a specific surface area of 30.7 m 2 /g and pore volume of 0.10 cm 3 /g. When the GO was used to remove the residual cellulase in bio-polishing effluent, it was found the removal capacity reached its maximum value at the pH 4-5. The kinetics studies showed that the removal process of cellulase followed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model with a rate constant (k 2 ) of 0.276 × 10 -3  g/mg min and equilibrium adsorption capacity of 278.55 mg/g, respectively. By plotting the adsorption isotherms, it was found the Langmuir model fitted the experimental data well with a cellulase adsorption capacity of 574.71 mg/g, indicating the adsorption of cellulase by GO in a monolayer manner. When dyeing the cotton fabrics with reactive dyes, it was found that the cotton fabrics could acquire similar color properties in the recycled bio-polishing effluent as in fresh water, meaning the effectiveness of removing cellulase by GO and the feasibility of recycling the bio-polishing effluent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Minister Council decree about conditions for to bring into the Polish customs area, to take away from the Polish customs area, and to transit through this area nuclear materials, radioactive sources and device including such sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.

    2002-01-01

    The decree refers to conditions for to bring into the Polish customs area, to take away from the Polish customs area, and to transit through this area nuclear materials, radioactive sources and devices containing such sources

  18. Application of aerobic granular sludge in polishing the UASB effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L L; Zhang, B; Huang, Y F; Cai, W M

    2005-12-01

    Stable aerobic granules were successfully developed in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) fed with glucose and sodium acetate as the main carbon sources, and then they were acclimatized to polish the effluent from an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. It was found that more than 95% chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 85% suspended solids (SS) in the UASB effluent could be removed by an aerobic granular SBR as a post treatment unit. The performance of the SBR was stable over the whole experimental period. At an organic loading rate (OLR) of 4.5 to 5.4 g l(-1) d(-1), the acclimatized aerobic granules had an average diameter of 3.5 to 6.0 mm and a minimal settling velocity of 72 m h(-1). The biomass concentration in the SBR was as high as 8.4 g (dry weight) l(-1). This study showed for the first time that aerobic granular sludge in SBR would be an effective means to polish the effluent from UASB reactor.

  19. PTSD prevalence among Polish World War II survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis-Turlejska, Maja; Łuszczyńska, Aleksandra; Szumiał, Szymon

    2016-10-31

    Over the past decade research has been published in several Western European countries on the prevalence of PTSD among World War II survivors, mostly civilians. Prevalence rates ranged from 1.9% to 10.8 %. The aim of the study was to measure the frequency of PTSD occurrence among Polish WWII survivors. Data from 96 persons: 59 women and 37 men, aged 70-96 were analyzed. All participants were born before 1945. They completed Polish adaptations of: Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS), Impact of Events Scale (IES), Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI) and WWII trauma related questionnaire. Prevalence rate of potential PTSD was 32,3% Mean values of both number and severity of symptoms of PTSD were significantly higher for respondents with at least one war related trauma comparing to the participants who did note relate any such trauma. Comparing to other studies on WWII related PTSD the prevalence rate of possible PTSD was very high. Looking for possible explanation of such results seems to be an important challenge.

  20. FOOD SAFETY SYSTEMS’ FUNCTIONING IN POLISH NETWORKS OF GROCERY STORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł NOWICKI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the way how the food safety systems are functioning in Polish networks of grocery stores. The study was conducted in the fourth quarter of 2012 in the south‐eastern Poland. There were chosen three organizations that meet certain conditions: medium size Polish grocery network without participation of foreign capital and up to 30 retail locations within the group. Studies based on a case study model. The research found that regular and unannounced inspections carried out to each store's, impact on increasing safety of food offered and the verification of GHP requirements on the headquarters level has a significant impact on the safety of food offered as well as on the knowledge and behavior of employees. In addition it was found that the verification and analysis of food safety management system is an effective tool for improving food safety. It was also shown that in most cases there is no formal crisis management system for the food protection in the surveyed companies and employees are only informed of what to do in case of an emergency.

  1. Evaluation of landslide monitoring in the Polish Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Brian D.; Baum, Rex L.; Mrozek, Teresa; Nescieruk, Piotr; Perski, Zbigniew; Raczkowski, Wojciech; Graniczny, Marek

    2011-01-01

    In response to the June 15, 2010 request from the Polish Geological Institute (PGI) to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for assistance and advice regarding real-time landslide monitoring, landslide specialists from the USGS Landslide Hazard Program visited PGI headquarters and field sites in September 2010. During our visit we became familiar with characteristics of landslides in the Polish Carpathians, reviewed PGI monitoring techniques, and assessed needs for monitoring at recently activated landslides. Visits to several landslides that are monitored by PGI (the Just, Hańczowa, Szymbark, Siercza and Łasńica landslides) revealed that current data collection (monthly GPS and inclinometer surveys, hourly piezometers readings) is generally sufficient for collecting basic information about landslide displacement, depth, and groundwater conditions. Large landslides are typically hydrologically complex, and we would expect such complexity in Carpathian landslides, given the alternating shale and sandstone stratigraphy and complex geologic structures of the flysch bedrock. Consequently groundwater observations could be improved by installing several piezometers that sample the basal shear zone of each landslide being monitored by PGI. These could be supplemented by additional piezometers at shallower depths to help clarify general flow directions and hydraulic gradients. Remedial works at Hańczowa

  2. Endogenous or exogenous origin of vaginal candidiasis in Polish women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnichowska-Polanowskai, Magdalena; Wojciechowska-Koszko, Iwona; Klimowicz, Bogumia; Szymaniak, Ludmia; Krasnodebska-Szponder, Barbara; Szych, Zbigniew; Giedrys-Kalemba, Stefania

    2013-01-01

    Vaginal candidiasis is a common problem of clinical practice. Many studies have been conducted to explain its origin but only a few have included Polish women. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and similarity of oral, anal and vaginal Candida albicans strains isolated from Polish women with vaginal candidiasis. The study involved 20 from 37 recruited women. Swab samples were collected from their vagina, anus, and oral cavity at two-month intervals. All the women were treated with nystatin. Yeast were recovered and identified by the germ-tube test, API /Vitek system, typed by API ZYM and RAPD-PCR. Chi-square test was used to analyze the data. A total of 170 Candida albicans isolates were recovered from 180 samples collected 3 times from 3 sites of 20 women. Positive yeast vaginal cultures were found in all patients before administration of nystatin. Vaginal yeast recovery rate was decreased statistically significant in both follow-up visits (p= 0.001; p= 0.003). The same and different genotypes/biotypes were found concomitantly in a few body sites and/ or repeatedly at time interval from the same body site. The results support the concept of dynamic exchange of yeast within one woman and endogenous or exogenous origin of vaginal candidiasis.

  3. Calibration of a Credit Rating Scale for Polish Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Wójcicka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing number of bankruptcy announcements means that even greater attention is being paid to the correct evaluation of the probability of default (PD and decisions made on the basis of it. Reliable estimation of the likelihood of a company's bankruptcy reduces risk, not only for the company itself but also for all co-operating companies and financial institutions. The financial crisis has led to a tightening up of the conditions for gaining finance from banks. However, it is not only the evaluation of PD itself that is so important but also the correct classification of companies according to their PD level ("good" or "bad" companies. There is very little consideration about possible adjustments of the credit risk scale, as usually the American scale is adopted with no changes which seems incorrect.This paper stresses the importance of correct calibration of the credit rating scale. It should not be assumed (as it was in the past that once a scale is defined it remains fixed and independent of the country. Therefore, the research carried out on Polish companies shows that the credit rating scale should be changed and the default point (i.e. "cut-off" point should be higher than in the past. The author uses a modified classification matrix based on the probability of default. The paper compares the classification of quoted Polish companies according to their credit risk level (PD with the actual occurrence of default when various default "cut-off" points are used. (original abstract

  4. Historical Roots of Generalized Trust in Polish Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borowiecki Łukasz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses how historical events shape generalized trust in contemporary Polish society. The analysis consists of a set of logistic regression models. The impact of historical variables is controlled for age, sex, education and the size of the municipality. This is the first quantitative study on Poland that links historical events with the current levels of trust among Polish citizens. The common knowledge is that the Partitions of Poland had negative impact on trust. Literature on the topic hints that historical demo? graphics should play a role too. The findings suggest that Partitions had little impact with only Greater Poland and Pomerania having lower levels of generalized trust. Historical literacy rate and the presence of Ukrainian or Belarusian population are negatively associated with generalized trust while the abrupt migrations after the World War I are positively associated. The rapid character of migration is supposed to positively impact generalized trust by forcing individuals to cooperate and rely on people with whom they have no personal ties.

  5. THE LOW PRICE EFFECT ON THE POLISH MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Zaremba

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the characteristics of the low price anomaly, which implies higher returns to stocks with a low nominal price. The research aims to broaden academic knowledge in a few ways. Firstly, we deliver some fresh evidence on the low price effect from the Polish market. Secondly, we analyze the interdependence between the low price effect and other return factors: value, size and liquidity. Thirdly, we investigate whether the low price effect is present after accounting for liquidity. Fourthly, we check to see whether the low price effect is robust to transaction costs. The paper is composed of three main sections. In the beginning, we review the existing literature. Next, we present the data sources and research methods employed. Finally, we discuss our research findings. Our computations are based on all the stocks listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange (WSE in the years 2003-2013. We have concluded that the low price effect is present on the Polish market, although the statistical significance is very weak and it disappears entirely after accounting for transaction costs and liquidity.

  6. GMOs IN THE POLISH FRUIT AND VEGETABLES CONSUMER AWARENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilianna Jabłońska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of GMOs brings numerous benefi ts at the same time raising fears of threats to human health and the environment. The aim of this study is to present the way GMOs are perceived by fruit and vegetables consumers, their attitude to genetic manipulations and knowledge of the presence of GMOs on the Polish food market. A survey conducted among 200 people served to accomplish this aim. The research shows that the majority of the respondents see GM foods as hazardous to health and they refuse to buy transgenic fruit and vegetables. At the same time 80% of them do not have suffi cient knowledge about GMOs, their cultivation and presence on the market as GM food. This also refers to a group of people with a university degree. As many as 1/3 of the surveyed do not know whether GMOs are present on the Polish market, and only 9% indicated GMOs share of over 60% of the market, while nearly 70% of the respondents pointed to the presence of transgenic fruit and vegetables, listing a number of their species. This shows the need for widespread education and dissemination activities. 

  7. Pertussis outbreak in Polish shooters with adverse event analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Skrzypiec-Spring

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In addition to different injuries, infections are the most common reason for giving up training altogether or reducing its volume and intensity, as well as a lack of opportunities to participate in sports competitions. Nowadays, a slow but constant re‑emergence of pertussis, especially among teenagers and young adults, including athletes, can be observed. This paper describes an outbreak of pertussis among professional Polish shooters, focusing on the transmission of Bordetella pertussis infection between members of the national team, its influence on performance capacity and adverse event analysis. From 9 June, 2015 to 31 July, 2015, a total of 4 confirmed and suspected cases of pertussis were reported among members of the Polish Sport Shooting National Team, their relatives and acquaintances. Pertussis significantly decreased exercise performance of the first athlete, a 35-year-old woman, interrupted her training, and finally resulted in failure to win a medal or quota place. Pertussis also significantly decreased performance of the second athlete, a 25-year-old shooter. The other cases emerged in their families. Whooping cough is a real threat to athletes and should be prevented. Preventive measures include appropriate immunization, constant medical supervision, as well as early isolation, diagnostic tests and treatment of all infected sport team members. Regular administration of booster doses of the acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdpa every 5 years seems reasonable.

  8. WHAT MOTIVATES POLISH COMMUNITY PHARMACISTS TO PURSUIT OF POSTGRADUATE EDUCATION?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinska-Stroschein, Magdalena; Kurczewska, Urszula; Orszulak-Michalak, Daria

    2017-03-01

    Due to increasing importance of the advisory role for physicians and patients played by the pharmacist over the last decade, it seems appropriate to evaluate if and why pharmacists are interested in postgraduate medical education. The purpose of the study was to develop and validate an instrument to assess such motives, with special interest to Polish community pharmacists. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by a sample of participants of community pharmacist specialization programs and it was analyzed in relation to participants of other postgraduate courses. They were asked to rank their motives on a Likert-like scale and the underlying dimensions for study motives were identified using exploratory and confirmatory techniques. The reasons for taking specialization for community pharmacists were similar as compared to participants of other postgraduate studies. However, the autotelic factor was not so strong and the crucial reason was that such postgraduate training was required to be promoted in work. Basing on Polish results, we propose the division of motives into three groups - autotelic, instrumental and coincidental. The validated self-administered questionnaire based on this division displayed acceptable construct validity and internal consistency, and therefore can be proposed as an example tool to assess the particular motives and expectations of potential postgraduate students and employees in the pharmaceutical job market. The promotion of postgraduate education among pharmacists can improve the quality of pharmaceutical service.

  9. Analysis of the exposure of Polish lakes to flood risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasiecznik-Dominiak Anna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Flooding constitutes one of the main natural hazards in Poland, which causes enormous social, economic and environmental losses. The main causes of the occurrence of floods include intensive rainfall, rapid melting of snow and ice cover, as well as strong gusts of wind from the sea. Based on the resilience theory (resistance, elasticity, which constitutes an efficient tool for the description of the social-ecological system capability or components thereof to mitigate the effects of dangerous events, as well as the capability of reconstructing and adapting the system to new conditions, the authors have analysed the exposure of Polish lakes to flood risks with a probability of occurrence Q0.2%, Q1% and Q10%. In order to determine the level of exposure of lakes to the risk of flooding by flood waters, studies were conducted using the flood hazard and flood risk maps which were developed under the Project entitled “IT System of the Country’s Protection against Extreme Hazards”. The result of the efforts of the group of authors is the determination of the number of lakes, which are located in the flood risk area Q0.2%, Q1% and Q10%, including division into risk level groups (low, moderate and high. The results presented in the paper may constitute a contribution to further, more detailed studies concerning assessment of the vulnerability of Polish lakes located in the flood prone area.

  10. Patient monitoring in Polish assisted reproductive technology centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Krawczak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2014, the Polish non-governmental patient association ‘Our Stork’ (Nasz Bocian introduced the ‘Patient monitoring in ART centres’ research project to gather previously unrecorded information on the situation of infertile people and the provision of assisted reproductive treatment in Poland. When the research project began, assisted reproductive treatment centres were unregulated by the state, a situation that had existed for more than 28 years following the birth of the first Polish test-tube baby in 1987. Patients signed civil contracts, remaining unprotected in terms of safety of treatment and recognition of their rights, and their presumed social position was described by doctors as ‘disciplined patients’ – a reflection of what Michele Foucault described as biopolitics. The research project comprised patient questionnaires (responses from 722 patients provided the basis for the document ‘Patient Recommendations in Infertility Treatment’, analysis of civil contracts and their accuracy in the context of patients’ legal rights in Poland, and in-depth interviews with assisted reproductive treatment centres’ owners, doctors, midwives, and patients to explore patient care. The data reveal that there is a lack of patient-centred care among doctors and medical staff in Poland and that following the passing into law of the 2015 Infertility Act, which introduced state regulation of assisted reproductive treatment centres, the situation for patients worsened.

  11. [The Polish adaptation of the public speaking anxiety questionnaire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodkiewicz, Jan; Miniszewska, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was the Polish adaptation of the shortened Public Speaking Anxiety Questionnaire GFER by Spitznagel and co-workers. GFER is a self-assessment method which consists of 16 statements and is designed to assess emotions, physiological reactions, and thoughts that appear in a situation of public speaking. GFER was used to examine 320 students from Lodz's universities. The State/Trait Anxiety Inventory - STAI by Spielberger, The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale by Zigmunt and Snaith and TCI by Cloninger were also used. The Polish version of GFER is a reliable and valid tool. The factor structure is similar to the original structure. As a result of the conducted analyses, there was obtained the 9-item version of the tool, which has a 2-factor structure - factor I: emotional and physiological reactions, factor II: worrying. The results obtained with GFER present a statistically significant correlation with other measures of anxiety and with the dimension of temperament: harm avoidance. The obtained results indicate that GFER may be used in both scientific research and therapeutic practice.

  12. Five Martyr Brothers. First Polish hermits and their worship

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    Kinga Blaschke

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Brothers Benedict and John, students of Romuald, came to Poland at the invitation of Otto III to convert pagans. Soon the Italian hermits were joined by Polish brothers Isaac and Matthew, who helped them in learning the Slavic language. The hermits, as well as Christinus, well killed in 1003 by thugs who wanted to steal money given by Duke Boleslav to an expedition to Rome, which was aimed at obtaining papal consent for conducting missionary work. Although the hermits died as victims of a robbery, killed by fellow Christians, the pope canonized them as martyrs. Their lives are relatively well-documented: the earliest and the most credible story of the five brothers by Bruno of Querfurt was written as early as five years after their death, although remained unknown until 1883. Another early account is the life of St. Romuald by Piotr Damiani of 1041. The martyrs have been also associated with yet another mysterious work – a gravestone unearthed in 1959 at the external wall of the north Roman apse of the Gniezno Cathedral, considered by most researchers the oldest epigraphic item on the Polish soil. However, the identification of the warriors mentioned in the inscription with 11th century martyrs raises many doubts. The article discusses the above matters, as well as the subject of the development of the worship of the martyr brothers.

  13. Evaluation of Rock Bolt Support for Polish Hard Rock Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypkowski, Krzysztof

    2018-03-01

    The article presents different types of rock bolt support used in Polish ore mining. Individual point resin and expansion rock bolt support were characterized. The roof classes for zinc and lead and copper ore mines were presented. Furthermore, in the article laboratory tests of point resin rock bolt support in a geometric scale of 1:1 with minimal fixing length of 0.6 m were made. Static testing of point resin rock bolt support were carried out on a laboratory test facility of Department of Underground Mining which simulate mine conditions for Polish ore and hard coal mining. Laboratory tests of point resin bolts were carried out, especially for the ZGH Bolesław, zinc and lead "Olkusz - Pomorzany" mine. The primary aim of the research was to check whether at the anchoring point length of 0.6 m by means of one and a half resin cartridge, the type bolt "Olkusz - 20A" is able to overcome the load.The second purpose of the study was to obtain load - displacement characteristic with determination of the elastic and plastic range of the bolt. For the best simulation of mine conditions the station steel cylinders with an external diameter of 0.1 m and a length of 0.6 m with a core of rock from the roof of the underground excavations were used.

  14. Breast reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007405.htm Breast reduction To use the sharing features on this page, please enable ... discharge Images Mammoplasty References Fisher J, Higdon KK. Reduction mammaplasty. In: Neligan PC, ed. Plastic Surgery . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013: ...

  15. Rich Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niebuhr, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    evidence on articulatory prosodies and the involvement of reduction in conveying communication functions both suggest the next steps along the line of argument opened up by Lindblom. Specifically, we need to supplement Lindblom's explanatory framework and revise the speaker-listener conflict that lies...... corresponding to the time domain of the reduction variation....

  16. Anthology of Polish Poetry. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 1998 (Hungary/Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Thomas A.

    This anthology, of more than 225 short poems by Polish authors, was created to be used in world literature classes in a high school with many first-generation Polish students. The following poets are represented in the anthology: Jan Kochanowski; Franciszek Dionizy Kniaznin; Elzbieta Druzbacka; Antoni Malczewski; Adam Mickiewicz; Juliusz Slowacki;…

  17. Word Boundaries in L2 Speech: Evidence from Polish Learners of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Geoffrey

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic and perceptual studies investgate B2-level Polish learners' acquisition of second language (L2) English word-boundaries involving word-initial vowels. In production, participants were less likely to produce glottalization of phrase-medial initial vowels in L2 English than in first language (L1) Polish. Perception studies employing word…

  18. The effect of European integration on exchange rate dependence: the Polish accession to the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiel, J.H.; van Giersbergen, N.P.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of the Polish accession to the European Union (EU) on the dependence between the euro-US dollar and Polish zloty-US dollar exchange rate. The dependence is estimated by means of copulas as suggested by Patton (2006). This approach allows to first specify and

  19. A novel vibration assisted polishing device based on the flexural mechanism driven by the piezoelectric actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilian Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The vibration assisted polishing has widely application fields because of higher machining frequency and better polishing quality, especially the polishing with the non-resonant mode that is regarded as a kind of promising polishing method. This paper reports a novel vibration assisted polishing device, consisting of the flexible hinge mechanism driven by the piezoelectric actuators, which is suitable for polishing planes or curve surfaces with slow curvature. Firstly, the generation methods of vibration trajectory are investigated for the same frequency and different frequency signals’ inputs, respectively, and then the types of elliptic and Lissajous’s vibration trajectories are generated respectively. Secondly, a flexural mechanism consisting of the right circular flexible hinges and the leaf springs is developed to produce two-dimensional vibration trajectory. Statics and dynamics investigating of this flexible mechanism are finished in detail. The analytical models about input and output compliances of the flexural mechanism are established according to the matrix-based compliance modeling, and the dynamic model of the flexural mechanism based on the Euler-Lagrange equation is also presented. The finite element model of the flexural mechanism was established to carry out the numerical simulation in order to testify the rationality of device design. Finally, the polishing experiment is carried out to prove the effectiveness of the vibration device. The experimental results show that this novel vibration assisted polishing device developed in this study can remove more effectively the cutting marks left by last process and obviously reduce the workpiece surface roughness.

  20. Effects of Wet and Dry Finishing and Polishing on Surface Roughness and Microhardness of Composite Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negin Nasoohi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to assess the effect of wet and dry finishing and polishing on microhardness and roughness of microhybrid and nanohybrid composites.Materials and Methods: Thirty samples were fabricated of each of the Polofil Supra and Aelite Aesthetic All-Purpose Body microhybrid and Grandio and Aelite Aesthetic Enamel nanohybrid composite resins. Each group (n=30 was divided into three subgroups of D, W and C (n=10. Finishing and polishing were performed dry in group D and under water coolant in group W. Group C served as the control group and did not receive finishing and polishing. Surface roughness of samples was measured by a profilometer and their hardness was measured by a Vickers hardness tester. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA (P<0.05.Results: The smoothest surfaces with the lowest microhardness were obtained under Mylar strip without finishing/polishing for all composites (P<0.0001. The highest surface roughness was recorded for dry finishing/polishing for all composites (P<0.0001. Dry finishing/polishing increased the microhardness of all composites (P<0.0001.Conclusions: Dry finishing and polishing increases the microhardness and surface roughness of microhybrid and nanohybrid composite resins. Keywords: Composite Resins; Dental Polishing; Hardness

  1. Surface texture and roughness of polished nanofill and nanohybrid resin composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Tatsuo; Finger, Werner J; Kanehira, Masafumi; Utterodt, Andreas; Komatsu, Masashi

    2010-03-01

    Nanofiller-containing resin composites have gained appreciable market share in dentistry due to their claims of high mechanical strength and low polymerization contraction. In this study, the polishability of one nanofill (Filtek Supreme XT/FIL) and three nanohybrid materials (Grandio/GRA, Tetric EvoCeram/TET, Venus Diamond/VED) was investigated using surface profilometry and SEM. After the specimens were cured under a Mylar strip or pre-ground with 600-grit SiC paper, three polishing systems were applied and their polishing effects compared: diamond polishing points, a diamond paste, and urethane-backed aluminum oxide disks. Except for the profilometry results obtained by glass filler-containing GRA and VED with one polishing system that comprised the consecutive application of diamond particles and a diamond polishing paste, the final roughness (Ra) of all other specimens were lower than the clinically acceptable 0.2 microm threshold. The surface textures of the polished nanofill FIL and nanohybrid TET were uniformly smooth, whereas relief polishing effects and filler extrusion of varying extents were seen on the nanohybrid composites GRA and VED.

  2. 'Polished' cinema : Over de receptie van het werk van Andrzej Kondratiuk in Polen en het groteske

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gusc, I.

    2012-01-01

    Despite being brutally slated at times, Andrzej Kondratiuk’s films were also often admired and praised by Polish film critics. Their inability to uniformly categorise and value Kondratiuk’s highly unconventional work has led to him being set aside, and labelled as, a ‘separate’ filmmaker in Polish

  3. Efficacy of polishing kits on the surface roughness and color stability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Different polishing kits may have different effects on the composite resin surfaces. The aim of this study was to evaluate the surface roughness and color stability of four different composites which was applied different polishing technique. Materials and Methods: Thirty specimens were made for each composite ...

  4. Knowledge and knowledge bases in the learning process of Polish companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Anne

    2004-01-01

    The article discusses how Polish companies face the trend of globalisation and cope with competition from companies in the West, and innovate their production continuously......The article discusses how Polish companies face the trend of globalisation and cope with competition from companies in the West, and innovate their production continuously...

  5. A novel vibration assisted polishing device based on the flexural mechanism driven by the piezoelectric actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guilian; Zhou, Xiaoqin; Ma, Peiqun; Wang, Rongqi; Meng, Guangwei; Yang, Xu

    2018-01-01

    The vibration assisted polishing has widely application fields because of higher machining frequency and better polishing quality, especially the polishing with the non-resonant mode that is regarded as a kind of promising polishing method. This paper reports a novel vibration assisted polishing device, consisting of the flexible hinge mechanism driven by the piezoelectric actuators, which is suitable for polishing planes or curve surfaces with slow curvature. Firstly, the generation methods of vibration trajectory are investigated for the same frequency and different frequency signals' inputs, respectively, and then the types of elliptic and Lissajous's vibration trajectories are generated respectively. Secondly, a flexural mechanism consisting of the right circular flexible hinges and the leaf springs is developed to produce two-dimensional vibration trajectory. Statics and dynamics investigating of this flexible mechanism are finished in detail. The analytical models about input and output compliances of the flexural mechanism are established according to the matrix-based compliance modeling, and the dynamic model of the flexural mechanism based on the Euler-Lagrange equation is also presented. The finite element model of the flexural mechanism was established to carry out the numerical simulation in order to testify the rationality of device design. Finally, the polishing experiment is carried out to prove the effectiveness of the vibration device. The experimental results show that this novel vibration assisted polishing device developed in this study can remove more effectively the cutting marks left by last process and obviously reduce the workpiece surface roughness.

  6. Effect of Degree of Polish on Milling and Nutritive Qualities of Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All the wheat varieties absorbed appreciable amount of water (ABPT=60%) and above, irrespective of polishing time while T222 absorbed slightly less (56%) water. The quality parameters involving gluten content, farinograph tests, baking volumes, inferred that 20 minutes of polishing time was the best for all the varieties.

  7. Polish Foreign Trade: The Quality Catch-up and the Influence of Foreign Direct Investments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates how the Polish transition process has expressed itself in export and inward foreign direct investments (FDI), and the relations between export and FDI. Since 1988, the number of Polish products able to compee in export markets has steadily increased. The quality level...

  8. Are Polish Primary School Pupils in Favor of Wearing Uniforms? Snapshot Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asotska, Julia; Butler, Norman L.; Davidson, Barry S.; Griffith, Kimberly Grantham; Brown, Veda E.; Kritsonis, Wiilliam Allan

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss whether Polish primary school pupils want to wear uniforms, and it is motivated by the Polish government's recently proposed policy: Zero Tolerance for Violence at School. Seventy one pupils, who attend Podstawowka Nr30 school in Cracow, were surveyed, and the authors found that most pupils are not in…

  9. Polish Experts’ Communication Encounters with Locals in a Chinese Subsidiary of a Western MNC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilczewski, Michał; Søderberg, Anne-Marie; Gut, Arkadiusz

    This exploratory study investigates Polish expatriate experts´ accounts of encounters with local personnel when building a Chinese subsidiary of a Western MNC between 2011 and 2015. Semi-structured, narrative interviews were conducted with Polish experts, drawing on qualitative methodology and th...

  10. Wear characteristics of polished and glazed lithium disilicate ceramics opposed to three ceramic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, Osamu; Koizumi, Hiroyasu; Akazawa, Nobutaka; Kodaira, Akihisa; Okamura, Kentaro; Matsumura, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the wear characteristics of a heat-pressed lithium disilicate ceramic material opposed to feldspathic porcelain, a lithium disilicate glass ceramic, and zirconia materials. Ceramic plate specimens were prepared from feldspathic porcelain (EX-3 nA1B), lithium disilicate glass ceramics (e.max CAD MO1/C14), and zirconia (Katana KT 10) and then ground or polished. Rounded rod specimens were fabricated from heat-pressed lithium disilicate glass ceramic (e.max press LT A3) and then glazed or polished. A sliding wear testing apparatus was used for wear testing. Wear of glazed rods was greater than that of polished rods when they were abraded with ground zirconia, ground porcelain, polished porcelain, or polished lithium disilicate ceramics. For both glazed and polished rods, wear was greater when the rods were abraded with ground plates. The findings indicate that application of a polished surface rather than a glazed surface is recommended for single restorations made of heat-pressed lithium disilicate material. In addition, care must be taken when polishing opposing materials, especially those used in occlusal contact areas. (J Oral Sci 58, 117-123, 2016).

  11. Effect of finishing/polishing techniques and time on surface roughness of esthetic restorative materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanthi Sampath Madhyastha

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: It might be concluded that: (i Filtek P90 showed least Ra values followed by < Z100 < Dyract < GIC; (ii immediate (24 h finishing/polishing of materials is better than delayed; and (iii among all these polishing systems, diamond bur–Astropol and Astrobrush showed good surface finish.

  12. OSSM2008 Polish Moessbauer Community Meeting: Program, Abstracts and List of Participants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The Polish Moessbauer Community Meeting - OSSM2008 has been organized by Polish scientists using the Moessbauer spectroscopy in their research. Main subjects of the meeting are investigations of modern materials electronic structure by means of Moessbauer effect (ME), using ME in biological test of tissue diseases and ME investigation of physical properties of different steels

  13. Holocaust Education in Polish Public Schools: Between Remembrance and Civic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milerski, Boguslaw

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzes the historical and political context of Holocaust education, and its implementation in Polish schools. Perceptions of the Holocaust continue to change, influenced by Poland's social and political situation. The Polish historical context is quite specific; it includes the long history of Poles and Jews as neighbors, with local…

  14. Fighting alcoholism among railway workers in the light of early 20th Century Polish-language temperance publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Krasińska

    2016-12-01

    Discussion and conclusions: The Polish-language temperance periodicals provide, among other things, valuable information referring to as yet unknown though essential problem of fighting alcoholism among railway workers in Europe, USA and the Polish territories of the Three Partitions.

  15. Polishing and toothbrushing alters the surface roughness and gloss of composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamonkhantikul, Krid; Arksornnukit, Mansuang; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Kanehira, Masafumi; Finger, Werner J

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the surface roughness and gloss of composite resins after using two polishing systems and toothbrushing. Six composite resins (Durafill VS, Filtek Z250, Filtek Z350 XT, Kalore, Venus Diamond, and Venus Pearl) were evaluated after polishing with two polishing systems (Sof-Lex, Venus Supra) and after toothbrushing up to 40,000 cycles. Surface roughness (Ra) and gloss were determined for each composite resin group (n=6) after silicon carbide paper grinding, polishing, and toothbrushing. Two-way ANOVA indicated significant differences in both Ra and gloss between measuring stages for the composite resins tested, except Venus Pearl, which showed significant differences only in gloss. After polishing, the Filtek Z350 XT, Kalore, and Venus Diamond showed significant increases in Ra, while all composite resin groups except the Filtek Z350 XT and Durafill VS with Sof-Lex showed increases in gloss. After toothbrushing, all composite resin demonstrated increases in Ra and decreases in gloss.

  16. Mathematical modelling of a self-polishing antifouling paint exposed to seawater: A parameter study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Søren; Pedersen, M. S.; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2002-01-01

    A Fundamental mathematical model for a self-polishing antifouling paint was used to conduct a parameter study. The aims were to show how a mathematical model can reduce the amount of experimental work needed to estimate the behaviour of self-polishing antifouling paints at different conditions......, and to suggest ways of controlling biocide release rates. A case study with an antifouling paint based on the well-known tributyltin self-polishing copolymer system showed that the rate of paint polishing was influenced, to various degrees, by the following parameters: seawater pH and concentration of Na......Cl, pigment particle size. pigment volume concentration of the paint, the rate of pigment dissolution, and the pore size distribution of the leached layer. The modelling approach can be applied to any type of self-polishing antifouling paint provided that kinetic, solubility and diffusivity data are available...

  17. Use of a continual sweep motion to compare air polishing devices, powders and exposure time on unexposed root cementum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, Mandy L; DeLong, Ralph; Li, Yuping; Lunos, Scott A; Stoltenberg, Jill L

    2017-07-01

    Low abrasive air polishing powders are a viable method for subgingival biofilm removal. This in vitro study evaluated the effects of air polishing using a standard tip on cementum following clinically recommended protocols. Forty-eight teeth were randomly divided into eight groups with six teeth per group. Teeth were treated using either a Hu-Friedy EMS or DENTSPLY Cavitron ® air polishing device. One of three glycine powders (Air-flow 25 µm, Clinpro 45 μm, Clinpro+TCP 45 μm) or a sodium bicarbonate powder (NaHCO 3  85 μm) was sprayed on cementum using a clinically relevant sweeping motion. Volume and depth of cementum removed after 5 and 90 s exposures were calculated. Surface texture was evaluated using SEMs taken following the last exposure. After 5 s exposures, neither unit nor powder had a substantial effect on volume loss or defect depth. After 90 s exposures, differences between powders existed only for the DENTSPLY unit (p powders (p powders (p powders; however, exposed tubules were larger and more prevalent for NaHCO 3 85 μm. Root surface loss was similar for glycine powders evaluated in this study. Differences in powder performance between units may be related to tip apertures and spray patterns. Additional research is needed to determine if cementum loss is greater than what occurs with conventional biofilm removal methods, such as curets and ultrasonic scalers.

  18. The Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument for a Polish sample with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: psychometric properties of proxy version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misterska, Ewa; Adamczak, Karolina; Kaminiarczyk-Pyzałka, Dominika; Adamczyk, Katarzyna; Głowacki, Jakub; Niedziela, Marek; Glowacki, Maciej

    2017-12-01

    The aims of the study were to investigate the psychometric properties of the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI) for parents of children aged 2-10 years, in a Polish sample of juvenile idiopathic arthritis and to compare the results from children with chronic arthritis to the results from a normative sample. The sample consisted of the parents of 29 (72.5%) girls and 11 (27.5%) boys. The ages of the children ranged from 2 to 10 years (mean 6.50, standard deviation [SD] 2.63). Disease course was classified as oligoarticular (n = 26, 65%) and polyarticular (n = 14, 35%). Parents who took part in the intrarater reliability study completed the Polish version of PODCI twice. The PODCI consists of the following subscales: Upper Extremity and Physical Function, Transfer and Mobility Tasks, Sports/Physical Functioning, Pain/Comfort, and Happiness. A Global Functioning Scale consists of the mean of the 'mean of items' values for the first four scales. The mean standarized Global Functioning Scale was 81.79 (SD 13.45), whereas the mean normative Global Functioning Scale score equaled 33.65 (SD 18.19). Cronbach's alpha value of the Global Functioning Scale was excellent and equaled 0.81. The effect size concerning the Global Functioning Scale equaled 0.123. Test-retest reliability equaled 0.98, whereas intrarater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient) equaled 0.99. The translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the PODCI questionnaire provides a Polish equivalent to assess physical function in children with chronic arthritis. © 2015 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. POLYMORPHISM OF PROLACTIN RECEPTOR GENE (PRLR IN THE POLISH LANDRACE AND POLISH LARGE WHITE SWINE POPULATION AND REPRODUCTIVE TRAITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGATA ZIÓŁKOWSKA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prolactin receptor gene was found in pig chromosome 16, and it is one of the genes with a significant effect on reproduction traits in sows. The objective of the research was to determine polymorphism of the prolactin receptor gene in pigs of two maternal breeds: Polish Landrace and Polish Large White, as well as analyse relations between particular allelomorphic variants, and reproduction traits of examined sows. Two PRLR gene alleles, A and B, were isolated, they were obtained after AluI restriction gene digestion of the PCR product with the length of 163 bp; furthermore, three genotypes were identified: PRLRAA – 85, 59, 19 bp; PRLRAB – 104, 85, 59, 19 bp; PRLRBB – 104, 59 bp. We assessed 122 sows, in terms of their age at the first farrowing, as well as the sizes of the two subsequent litters. No statistically significant differences were found in the examined reproduction traits in sows with different allelomorphic relations, both within each breed and between breeds. Obtained results indicate that it is necessary to conduct further research on a larger animal group.

  20. Height loss with advancing age in a hospitalized population of Polish men and women: magnitude, pattern and associations with mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chmielewski Piotr

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The connection between the rate of height loss in older people and their general health status has been well documented in the medical literature. Our study was aimed at furthering the characterization of this interrelationship in the context of health indices and mortality in a hospitalized population of Polish adults. Data were collated from a literature review and from a longitudinal study of aging carried out in the Polish population which followed 142 physically healthy inmates, including 68 men and 74 women, for at least 25 years from the age of 45 onwards. Moreover, cross-sectional data were available from 225 inmates, including 113 men and 112 women. These subjects were confined at the same hospital. ANOVA, t-test, and regression analysis were employed. The results indicate that the onset of height loss emerges in the fourth and five decade of life and there is a gradual acceleration of reduction of height at later stages of ontogeny in both sexes. Postmenopausal women experience a more rapid loss of height compared with men. The individuals who had higher rate of loss of height (≥3 cm/decade tend to be at greater risk of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. In conclusion, our findings suggest that a systematic assessment of the rate of loss of height can be useful for clinicians caring for elderly people because of its prognostic value in terms of morbidity and mortality.

  1. Surface changes of metal alloys and high-strength ceramics after ultrasonic scaling and intraoral polishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyung-In; Noh, Hyo-Mi; Park, Eun-Jin

    2017-06-01

    This study was to evaluate the effect of repeated ultrasonic scaling and surface polishing with intraoral polishing kits on the surface roughness of three different restorative materials. A total of 15 identical discs were fabricated with three different materials. The ultrasonic scaling was conducted for 20 seconds on the test surfaces. Subsequently, a multi-step polishing with recommended intraoral polishing kit was performed for 30 seconds. The 3D profiler and scanning electron microscopy were used to investigate surface integrity before scaling (pristine), after scaling, and after surface polishing for each material. Non-parametric Friedman and Wilcoxon signed rank sum tests were employed to statistically evaluate surface roughness changes of the pristine, scaled, and polished specimens. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Surface roughness values before scaling (pristine), after scaling, and polishing of the metal alloys were 3.02±0.34 µm, 2.44±0.72 µm, and 3.49±0.72 µm, respectively. Surface roughness of lithium disilicate increased from 2.35±1.05 µm (pristine) to 28.54±9.64 µm (scaling), and further increased after polishing (56.66±9.12 µm, P scaling (from 1.65±0.42 µm to 101.37±18.75 µm), while its surface roughness decreased after polishing (29.57±18.86 µm, P scaling significantly changed the surface integrities of lithium disilicate and zirconia. Surface polishing with multi-step intraoral kit after repeated scaling was only effective for the zirconia, while it was not for lithium disilicate.

  2. Computer-Controlled Cylindrical Polishing Process for Large X-Ray Mirror Mandrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Gufran S.; Gubarev, Mikhail; Speegle, Chet; Ramsey, Brian

    2010-01-01

    We are developing high-energy grazing incidence shell optics for hard-x-ray telescopes. The resolution of a mirror shells depends on the quality of cylindrical mandrel from which they are being replicated. Mid-spatial-frequency axial figure error is a dominant contributor in the error budget of the mandrel. This paper presents our efforts to develop a deterministic cylindrical polishing process in order to keep the mid-spatial-frequency axial figure errors to a minimum. Simulation software is developed to model the residual surface figure errors of a mandrel due to the polishing process parameters and the tools used, as well as to compute the optical performance of the optics. The study carried out using the developed software was focused on establishing a relationship between the polishing process parameters and the mid-spatial-frequency error generation. The process parameters modeled are the speeds of the lap and the mandrel, the tool s influence function, the contour path (dwell) of the tools, their shape and the distribution of the tools on the polishing lap. Using the inputs from the mathematical model, a mandrel having conical approximated Wolter-1 geometry, has been polished on a newly developed computer-controlled cylindrical polishing machine. The preliminary results of a series of polishing experiments demonstrate a qualitative agreement with the developed model. We report our first experimental results and discuss plans for further improvements in the polishing process. The ability to simulate the polishing process is critical to optimize the polishing process, improve the mandrel quality and significantly reduce the cost of mandrel production

  3. Validation of the Polish language version of the SF-36 Health Survey in patients suffering from lumbar spinal stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Kłosiński

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [b]introduction and objective[/b]. Patient-reported outcome (PRO questionnaires have become the standard measure for treatment effectiveness after spinal surgery. One of the most widely used generic PROs is the SF-36 Health Survey. The aim of this study was to specifically focus on validating the SF-36 Health Survey to confirm that the tool is an acceptable and psychometrically robust measure to collect HRQoL data in Polish patients with spinal stenosis. [b]materials and methods[/b]. Patients were eligible if they were above 18 years of age and had been qualified for spine surgery of the lumbar region due to either discopathy or non-traumatic spinal stenosis. All patients filled-in the Polish version of the SF-36 and a demographic questionnaire. Standard validity and reliability analyses were performed. [b]results.[/b] 192 patients (83 women – 43.2% agreed to take part in the study (mean age: 57.5±11.4 years. In 47 patients (24.5%, using MRI, ossification of the ligamenta flava were found. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients showed positive internal consistency (0.70–0.92. Interclass correlations for the SF-36 ranged from 0.72 – 0.86 and proved appropriate test-retest reliability. Satisfactory convergent and discriminant validity in multi-trait scaling analyses was seen. [b]conclusions.[/b] The Polish version of the SF-36 is a reliable and valid tool for measuring HRQoL in patients with spinal stenosis. It can be recommended for use in clinical and epidemiological settings in the Polish population. However, caution is warranted when interpreting the results of the ‘role limitations due to physical health problems’ and the ‘role limitations due to emotional problems’ scales because of floor and ceiling effects.

  4. Harm reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Normand, Jacques; Li, Jih-Heng; Thomson, Nicholas; Jarlais, Don Des

    2013-01-01

    The “Harm Reduction” session was chaired by Dr. Jacques Normand, Director of the AIDS Research Program of the U.S. National Institute on Drug Abuse. The three presenters (and their presentation topics) were: Dr. Don Des Jarlais (High Coverage Needle/Syringe Programs for People Who Inject Drugs in Low and Middle Income Countries: A Systematic Review), Dr. Nicholas Thomson (Harm Reduction History, Response, and Current Trends in Asia), and Dr. Jih-Heng Li (Harm Reduction Strategies in Taiwan).

  5. Italian, French, Polish: in the Bermuda Triangle of linguistic interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Balicka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing contacts between nations make people learn foreign languages. Unfortunately, the use of more than one language system may cause errors due to linguistic interference. In the present paper we consider different definitions of this phenomenon and describe the conditions reąuired for its presence, along with proposals on how to eliminate interference mistakes. A specific case is false friends, words similar in form but different in meaning, which can lead to misunderstandings or even disgrace. As interference implies the knowledge of at least two languages, bilingualism is another problem discussed in the paper. We present different approaches to interference and study the relation between bilingualism and interference. Finally, we discuss loanwords as one of the results of interference. With all these considerations in mind we can make a specific study of interference mistakes made by Polish students of Italian philology.

  6. Perspective on precision machining, polishing, and optical requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanger, G.M.

    1981-08-18

    While precision machining has been applied to the manufacture of optical components for a considerable period, the process has, in general, had its thinking restricted to producing only the accurate shapes required. The purpose of this paper is to show how optical components must be considered from an optical (functional) point of view and that the manufacturing process must be selected on that basis. To fill out this perspective, simplistic examples of how optical components are specified with respect to form and finish are given, a comparison between optical polishing and precision machining is made, and some thoughts on which technique should be selected for a specific application are presented. A short discussion of future trends related to accuracy, materials, and tools is included.

  7. Polish Accession to the European Union: Participating Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaszewski Waldemar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In May 2014 it was aready ten years since Poland’s accession to the European Union. The accession was preceded by a long period of political action and negotiations between the Polish and the EU institutions. The process of integration was extremely complex. It covered almost all areas of economic, legal and civil aspects of the aspiring country’s economy, in which all necessary requirements had to be met. The aim of the article was to present the institutional framework created for efficient implementation of the process of accession. The considerations involved especially an institutional method. The research resulted in poining out both the actually efficient and less efficient bodies participating in the process of integration.

  8. Uranium in the Bunter sediments of the Polish area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saldan, M.; Strzelecki, R.

    1980-01-01

    Uranium mineralization occurring in the Triassic sediments in the Polish area is discussed. Systematic work conducted for over ten years revealed the presence of uranium mineralization in the following geological units: Peribaltic syneclize, Fore-Sudetic monocline, Zary pericline and Pomerania trough. Out of three uranium-bearing horizons which can be correlated with each other two (the lower and the middle) are connected with the Middle Bunter, while the upper horizon is related to the Upper Bunter. Mineralization was found in sandstones, conglomerates, mudstones and claystones and, in the Fore-Sudetic monocline, also in carbonates. Among uranium minerals uranium black and coffinite were identified. In addition to uranium, increased vanadium, selenium and molybdenum contents were found in the sandstones. Some of the uranium-bearing horizons are of economic value. (author)

  9. Work Engagement – A Systematic Review of Polish Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollak Anita

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade work engagement has gained both business and academia attention. With growing number of studies and meta-analyses the concept of work engagement is one of the pillars of positive work and organizational psychology. This systematic review presents the current state of research on work engagement in Poland. Results confirmed that work-engagement studies have not yet reached the threshold to conduct meta-analysis. The review of measurement methods and synthesis of findings allows to identify strengths and gaps in Polish studies. Discussion of limitations and biases in current research is accompanied with urge to overcome them and develop thriving stream of research on work engagement.

  10. Constraints on Negative Prefixation in Polish Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe a negative prefix, NEG-, in Polish Sign Language (PJM) which appears to be indigenous to the language. This is of interest given the relative rarity of prefixes in sign languages. Prefixed PJM signs were analyzed on the basis of both a corpus of texts signed by 15 deaf PJM users who are either native or near-native signers, and material including a specified range of prefixed signs as demonstrated by native signers in dictionary form (i.e. signs produced in isolation, not as part of phrases or sentences). In order to define the morphological rules behind prefixation on both the phonological and morphological levels, native PJM users were consulted for their expertise. The research results can enrich models for describing processes of grammaticalization in the context of the visual-gestural modality that forms the basis for sign language structure. PMID:26619066

  11. Strategies for sustainable development of the Polish electric power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janiczek, R.

    1996-01-01

    The key features of sustainable development of the Polish electric power industry are discussed. Priorities and limitations for changes and power demand forecasts are described. Results of least-cost planning for existing power plants' modernization and generation expansion with environmental impacts are presented. The least-cost strategy is given by the optimal upgrades of older plants until year 2002 and by expansion of gas-fired units. The limited availability of gas after 2010 will lead to the construction of new coal-fired plants. For the next planning process, an integrated resource planning methodology is proposed, which includes dynamic optimization of supply and demand side options. Innovative mechanisms are shown to overcome barriers of development like long-terms contracts and decentralization of the power system planning process. (author)

  12. Constraints on Negative Prefixation in Polish Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe a negative prefix, NEG-, in Polish Sign Language (PJM) which appears to be indigenous to the language. This is of interest given the relative rarity of prefixes in sign languages. Prefixed PJM signs were analyzed on the basis of both a corpus of texts signed by 15 deaf PJM users who are either native or near-native signers, and material including a specified range of prefixed signs as demonstrated by native signers in dictionary form (i.e. signs produced in isolation, not as part of phrases or sentences). In order to define the morphological rules behind prefixation on both the phonological and morphological levels, native PJM users were consulted for their expertise. The research results can enrich models for describing processes of grammaticalization in the context of the visual-gestural modality that forms the basis for sign language structure.

  13. Old age in Polish and American tv series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOANNA ANIOŁ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The educational and socialization role of the media is not the latest novelty, however there are niches that have not been developed yet. Realizing the opinion-forming role of the mass media, which may be reflected in social behaviours, the authors of this article will analyse the content of chosen media products. The image of elderly people presented by the most popular Polish and American series will be examined. The research aims to find whether Desperate Housewives and Colours of happiness (original title: Barwy szczęścia adjust the image of old age to the social-demographic situation, which is constantly changing in the majority of countries. Does the colossus – television promote stereotypes which make age discrimination morally approved – or just the opposite – a well thought out image, shaping the recognition and respect for people in their “third age”?

  14. 16th French-German-Polish Conference on Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Korytowski, Adam; Maurer, Helmut; Szymkat, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    This book contains extended, in-depth presentations of the plenary talks from the 16th French-German-Polish Conference on Optimization, held in Kraków, Poland in 2013. Each chapter in this book exhibits a comprehensive look at new theoretical and/or application-oriented results in mathematical modeling, optimization, and optimal control. Students and researchers involved in image processing, partial differential inclusions, shape optimization, or optimal control theory and its applications to medical and rehabilitation technology, will find this book valuable. The first chapter by Martin Burger provides an overview of recent developments related to Bregman distances, which is an important tool in inverse problems and image processing. The chapter by Piotr Kalita studies the operator version of a first order in time partial differential inclusion and its time discretization. In the chapter by Günter Leugering, Jan Sokołowski and Antoni Żochowski, nonsmooth shape optimization problems for variational inequa...

  15. Gender-dependent language anxiety in Polish communication apprehensives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Piechurska-Kuciel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the relationship between communication apprehension and language anxiety from the perspective of gender. As virtually no empirical studies have addressed the explicit influence of gender on language anxiety in communication apprehensives, this paper proposes that females are generally more sensitive to anxiety, as reflected in various spheres of communication. For this reason, language anxiety levels in communication apprehensive females should be higher, unlike those of communication apprehensive males. Comparisons between them were made using a student t test, two-way ANOVA, and post-hoc Tukey test. The results revealed that Polish communication apprehensive secondary grammar school males and females do not differ in their levels of language anxiety, although nonapprehensive males experience significantly lower language anxiety than their female peers. It is argued that the finding can be attributed to developmental patterns, gender socialization processes, classroom practices, and the uniqueness of the FL learning process, which is a stereotypically female domain.

  16. Grinding and polishing of conformal windows and domes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fess, Edward; Ross, James; Matthews, Greg

    2017-05-01

    Conformal optics require special manufacturing techniques to produce them to optical tolerances. In many cases the materials used are very hard optical ceramics that present additional manufacturing challenges due to their hardness and grain structure. OptiPro has developed grinding technologies such as OptiSonic grinding, as well as sub-aperture polishing technologies like UltraForm Finishing (UFF) to manufacture these challenging components. We have also developed a custom computer aided manufacturing (CAM) software package, ProSurf, to generate the complex tool paths for both grinding and polishing processes. One of the main advantages of ProSurf over traditional CAM software packages is that it uses metrology feedback for deterministic corrections. The metrology input can be obtained from OptiPro's 5-axis UltraSurf metrology system, which is capable of measuring these complex shapes to sub-micron accuracies. Through the development of these technologies much work has been performed in creating, measuring and analyzing the alignment fiducials or datum's used to qualify the location of the optical surfaces. Understanding the sensitivity of the optical surface to any datum misalignment is critical to knowing not only where the part is in space, but how good the optical surfaces are to each other. Working with the optical designer to properly tolerance surfaces to these datums is crucial. This paper will present the technologies developed by OptiPro to manufacture conformal windows as well as information related to the optical surfaces sensitivity to datums and how accurately those datums can be measured.

  17. Sexual development and behaviour issues in Polish teenage magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopacz, Marek S

    2006-12-01

    Adolescents often look to mass media for information regarding issues of sexuality. As one form of media, teenage magazines have long constituted a pervasive and effective element of adolescent media exposure. Teenage magazines discuss a number of aspects concerning adolescent sexuality. Considering their potential impact on health related behaviors, the information they provide and the message(s) they send warrant attention. The aim of this study is to perform a content analysis of sexual development and behavior information presented in Polish teenage magazines. Social Cognitive Theory was used as a theoretical basis for this analysis. The media chosen for this study were general-themed publications targeting an adolescent female audience: Bravo Girl!, Filipinka and Dziewczyna. Each entry was analyzed using a structured key. The specific categories of behavior and development used for this study are: biological information, pedagogic instruction, topics of moral-ethical concern, results of sexual activity, and interpersonal relationships. Each category was then subdivided into separate units. The findings indicate that Polish teenage magazines predominantly focus on relationships, contraception and sex education. Relationships were most often of a romantic nature and discussed sexual activity or the potential of sexual activity. Non-prescription contraceptive methods were most often discussed, with attention given to pregnancy prevention. Sex education offered detailed information on sexual practices and behaviors with much discussion on losing one's virginity. The general approach of the analyzed magazines is that adolescents currently are, or soon will be, sexually active. As a result, certain sexual behavior and development issues are discussed in great detail, while other topics are somewhat neglected. Accepting information-seeking during adolescence as commonplace, these findings suggest that teenage magazines hold the potential for influencing adolescent

  18. Settlement Networks in Polish Spatial Development Regional Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sołtys, Jacek

    2017-10-01

    In 1999, ten years after the great political changes in Poland, 16 self-governed regions (in Polish: voivodeship) were created. According to Polish law, voivodeship spatial development plans, or regional plans in short, determine basic elements of the settlement network. No detailed regulations indicate the specific elements of the settlement network or what features of these elements should be determined. For this reason, centres as elements of the settlement network are variously named in different regions and take the form of various models. The purposes of the research described in this article are: (1) recognition and systematization of settlement network models determined in regional plans; and (2) assessment of the readability of determination in planning and its usefulness in the practice of regional policy. Six models of settlement networks in regional plans have been identified and classified into types and sub-types. Names of specific levels of centres indicate that they were classified according to two criteria: (1) level of services, which concerns only 5 voivodships; and (2) importance in development, which concerns the 11 other voivodships. The hierarchical model referring to the importance of development is less understandable than the one related to services. In the text of most plans, centres of services and centres of development are treated independently from their names. In some plans the functional types of towns and cities are indicated. In some voivodships, specifications in the plan text are too general and seem to be rather useless in the practice of regional policy. The author suggests that regional plans should determine two kinds of centres: hierarchical service centres and non-hierarchical centres of development. These centres should be further distinguished according to: (1) their role in the activation of surroundings; (2) their level of development and the necessity of action for their development; and (3) the types of actions

  19. The knowledge of Polish primary care physicians about bariatric surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Major

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The general practitioner (GP can play a key role in this multi-disciplinary team, coordinating care provided by dietitians and surgeons, maximizing the potential benefits of surgery. Therefore, it seems important to verify changes in GPs’ knowledge about surgical treatment of obesity. Aim : To reassess knowledge of obesity surgical treatment among Polish primary care physicians and their willingness to improve it in the future. Material and methods: To assess the knowledge of Polish primary care physicians about surgical treatment of obesity, a prospective study, which included an anonymous online questionnaire, was conducted in the years 2015–2016. Results : Two hundred and six physicians answered the invitation. One hundred and sixty-six (81.8% respondents were familiar with the indications for bariatric operation. The great majority of respondents, 198 (96.6%, were aware that bariatric surgery is efficient in the treatment of the metabolic syndrome. The study revealed a disproportion between the number of patients who would be potential candidates for bariatric treatment, who are currently under care of participating physicians, and the number of patients who are referred to a bariatric surgeon. Conclusions : Our study demonstrates that nowadays bariatric surgery is a recognized method of treatment, but physicians remain reluctant to refer their patients for surgical treatment of obesity. It was found that there is a large disproportion between the number of patients who are referred to a bariatric surgeon and the number of patients who require this treatment. It may be a result of lack of knowledge in the field of bariatric surgery.

  20. Retrospective multi-institutional study on hemangiopericytoma in Polish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bien, Ewa; Stachowicz-Stencel, Teresa; Godzinski, Jan; Balcerska, Anna; Izycka-Swieszewska, Ewa; Kazanowska, Bernarda; Madziara, Wojciech; Perek-Polnik, Marta; Mankowski, Przemysław; Nurzynska-Flak, Joanna; Rybczynska, Aleksandra; Prokurat, Andrzej

    2009-02-01

    Pediatric hemangiopericytoma (HPC) is an extremely rare vascular tumor with little data available on its clinical course and management. Fourteen children with HPC registered in Polish Pediatric Rare Tumors and Polish Pediatric Soft-tissue Sarcomas Studies between 1992 and 2002 are reported. Seven patients (F/M: 5/2, age 2-10 months) had infantile HPC, four of whom had primary tumors affecting superficial tissues of the trunk and upper limbs. No child had initial nodal or organ metastases. Primary excision (PE) was performed only in three patients with superficial lesions. They received no supplemental treatment. The remaining four children responded well to chemotherapy (CHT), entering complete remission after CHT alone (n= 2) or after delayed resection (n= 2). No relapses occurred and all patients were alive 48-146 months after treatment. Seven patients (F/M: 2/5, age 3.2-16.5 years) had adult-type HPC, five of whom had tumors localized in superficial tissues of the lower limbs or head/neck. All patients presented with locally advanced disease. PE was performed in five children (complete in four); all patients were alive at follow up of 40-127 months. Three patients died of recurrence after incomplete PE despite supplemental chemo- and radiotherapy. Complete surgical excision remains the mainstay of treatment for both HPC types. In unresectable adult-type HPC adjuvant chemo- and radiotherapy should be administered in macro- and microscopic tumor residues, but the prognosis is poor despite supplemental treatment. High chemo-responsiveness of infantile-type HPC produces a favorable outcome even in cases of unresectable, life-threatening tumors.

  1. Professional activity of Polish peri- and postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Żołnierczuk-Kieliszek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The menopausal transition as one of the stages in women’s life can bring many ailments which complicate the accomplishment of professional duties. The situation of women on the Polish job market is determined by many barriers and stereotypes which impede women’s access to jobs and professional promotions. Material and methods : The aim of the study was to estimate the professional status and job satisfaction of women aged 40-65. The research was carried out by a survey method, a poll technique in the period from January to March 2016. An original questionnaire consisting of 35 questions was used as a research tool. Results: The analysis of obtained results shows that the arithmetic mean of the age of women in full-time employment was 51.84 years whereas the arithmetic mean of the age of women in part-time or seasonal employment was 52.64. Women aged 45-60 were characterised by a significantly lower job satisfaction than women over 60 years of age. The highest percentage of women in full-time employment lived in large cities. The financial situation of working women determined their job satisfaction. Well-off respondents were more pleased with their jobs than women in a worse financial situation. Conclusions : There is a strong need of education about counteraction of gender and age discrimination on the Polish labour market. The struggle against discrimination requires support on each level of the state administration through the implementation of numerous regulations facilitating the final period and resumption of women’s professional activity.

  2. Dissolved air flotation of polishing wastewater from semiconductor manufacturer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J C; Lien, C Y

    2006-01-01

    The feasibility of the dissolved air flotation (DAF) process in treating chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) wastewater was evaluated in this study. Wastewater from a local semiconductor manufacturer was sampled and characterised. Nano-sized silica (77.6 nm) with turbidity of 130 +/- 3 NTU was found in the slightly alkaline wastewater with traces of other pollutants. Experimental results indicated removal efficiency of particles, measured as suspended particle or turbidity, increased with increasing concentration of cationic collector cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). When CTAB concentration was 30 mg/L, pH of 6.5 +/- 0.1 and recycle ratio of 30%, very effective removal of particles (> 98%) was observed in saturation pressure range of 4 to 6 kg/cm2, and the reaction proceeded faster under higher pressure. Similarly, the reaction was faster under the higher recycle ratio, while final removal efficiency improved slightly as the recycle ratio increased from 20 to 40%. An insignificant effect of pH on treatment efficiency was found as pH varied from 4.5 to 8.5. The presence of activator, Al3+ and Fe3+, enhanced the system performance. It is proposed that CTAB adsorbs on silica particles in polishing wastewater through electrostatic interaction and makes particles more hydrophobic. The increase in hydrophobicity results in more effective bubble-particle collisions. In addition, flocculation of silica particles through bridging effect of collector was found; it is believed that flocculation of particles also contributed to flotation. Better attachment between gas bubble and solid, higher buoyancy and higher air to solid ratio all lead to effective flotation.

  3. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Poland [Polish version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Poland has made commendable efforts to develop a solid energy policy framework over the last years. As energy security is a high policy priority, the country is enhancing gas supply security by building an LNG terminal, expanding underground storage capacity and increasing domestic gas production. Polish plans for developing electricity and gas cross-border links will also contribute to regional security of supply. In addition, the government has announced an ambitious nuclear programme by 2030, envisaging the first unit to enter operation by 2022. Other achievements include energy intensity improvements, an increased share of renewables and a stronger focus on energy research and development (R&D). Despite these positive developments, there is room for improving Poland’s energy strategy. First, a more integrated energy and climate policy is needed to put Poland firmly on a low-carbon path while enhancing energy security. Second, energy policy could put more emphasis on promoting competition to make the energy markets more efficient. Decarbonising Poland’s power sector will be a particularly significant challenge requiring huge investments. Coal accounts for 55% of Polish primary energy supply and 92% of electricity generation, raising significant climate change and environmental challenges. To this end, Poland’s efforts to improve energy efficiency and to diversify the country’s energy mix are praiseworthy and should be pursued. The government’s attention to R&D on clean coal technologies, including carbon capture and storage (CCS) is also encouraging. The government could put more focus on the positive role that gas can play in decarbonising the electricity mix, especially if Poland’s potential resources of unconventional gas are confirmed. To tap these resources, it will be vital to put the necessary legal and regulatory framework in place. This in-depth review analyses the energy challenges facing Poland and provides sectoral critiques and

  4. Book-tax conformity in Polish private companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Białek-Jaworska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to identify whether financial income differs significantly from the tax base in Poland and what determines these differences between accounting and taxable results in Polish private entities that are not listed on the stock exchange. In this paper, besides examining the level of book-tax conformity in Poland, we investigate the determinants of book-tax differences in the one-book and twobook accounting systems, with deferred income tax. We use the single factor ANOVA variance analysis, robust fixed effects estimator and the fixed effects linear model with an AR(1 disturbance estimator for panel data of 26,657 private limited liability and non-public joint-stock companies for the period of 2003–2014 (177,667 firm-year observations. The originality of this paper results from the deep quantita-tive analysis of the determinants of book-tax conformity on a novel dataset of Polish private firms. We confirm a strong significant influence of tax law on the shape of the one-book accounting system in Poland. Larger enterprises show fewer book-tax differences. Book-tax conformity is lower in private companies that incur financial losses and in private companies conducting the one-book accounting system. Family-owned companies have higher mean and median book-tax conformity than businessgroups members, due to higher demand for information from their accounts to support stewardship func-tions and to monitor the activities of the management board in the business groups.

  5. Secondary electron yields of carbon-coated and polished stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzic, D.; Moore, R.; Manos, D.; Cohen, S.

    1982-01-01

    To increase the power throughput to a plasma of an existing lower hybrid waveguide, secondary electron production on the walls and subsequent electron multiplication must be reduced. Since carbon has a low secondary electron coefficient (delta), measurements were performed for several UHV compatible carbon coatings (Aquadag/sup X/, vacuum pyrolyzed Glyptal/sup X/, and lamp black deposited by electrophoresis) as a function of primary beam voltage (35 eV to 10 keV), surface roughness (60 through 600 grit mechanical polishing and electropolishing), coating thickness, and angle of incidence (theta). Also measured were uncoated stainless steel, Mo, Cu, Ti, TiC, and ATJ graphite. The yields were obtained by varying the sample bias and measuring the collected current while the samples were in the electron beam of a scanning Auger microprobe. This technique allows delta measurements of Auger characterized surfaces with < or =0.3 mm spatial resolution. Results show delta to have a typical energy dependence, with a peak occurring at 200 to 300 eV for normal incidence, and at higher energy for larger theta. In general, delta increases with theta more for smooth surfaces than for rough ones. Ninety percent of the secondary electrons have energies less than 25 eV. Some carbonized coating and surface treatment combinations give delta/sub max/ = 0.88 +- 0.01 for normal electron beam incidence: a reduction of almost 40% compared to untreated stainless steel

  6. BIOMASS UTILIZATION AS A RENEVABLE ENERGY SOURCE IN POLISH POWER INDUSTRY – CURRENT STATUS AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Gołuchowska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The depletion of the conventional energy sources, as well as the degradation and pollution of the environment by the exploitation of fossil fuels caused the development of renewable energy sources (RES, including biomass. In Poland, biomass is the most popular renewable energy source, which is closely related to the obligations associated with the membership in the EU. Biomass is the oldest renewable energy source, and its potential, diversity and polymorphism place it over other sources. Besides, the improvement in its parameters, including an increase in its calorific value, resulted in increasing use of biomass as energy source. In the electric power industry biomass is applied in the process of co-combustion with coal. This process may contribute, inter alia, to the reduction in the emissions of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur oxides. The article presents the characteristics of the biomass burned in power boilers of one of the largest Polish power plants, located in Opole Province (Southern Poland. Besides, the impact of biomass on the installation of co-combustion, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the co-combustion process not only in technological, but also environmental, economic and social aspects were described.

  7. Separation of mercury in industrial processes of Polish hard steam coals cleaning

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    Wierzchowski Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal use is regarded as one of main sources of anthropogenic propagation of mercury in the environment. The coal cleaning is listed among methods of the mercury emission reduction. The article concerns the statistical assessment of mercury separation between coal cleaning products. Two industrial processes employed in the Polish coal preparation plants are analysed: coal cleaning in heavy media vessels and coal cleaning in jigs. It was found that the arithmetic mean mercury content in coarse and medium coal size fractions for clean coal from heavy media vessels, amounts 68.9 μg/kg, and most of the results lay below the mean value, while for rejects it amounts 95.5 μg/kg. It means that it is for around 25 μg/kg greater than in the clean coal. The arithmetic mean mercury content in raw coal smalls amounts around 118 mg/kg. The cleaning of smalls in jigs results in clean coal and steam coal blends characterized by mean mercury content 96.8 μg/kg and rejects with mean mercury content 184.5 μg/kg.

  8. Obstacles to introduce restorative justice procedures and ways to overcome them from the experience of Polish juridical practice

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    Platek Monika

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important developments in crime and its control over recent decades has been the emergence of a dynamic campaign promoting restorative justice as an alternative to standard ways of responding to crime, i.e. to traditional prosecution, court and state punishment. Accompanying this has been a rapidly growing literature and practice on the subject, from New Zealand, North America, the UK, Western Europe, Russia, and Australasia. In Poland until recently very little was known and written on the subject of Restorative Justice. This paper focuses on process and strategy to make the restorative justice known and practice in Poland, including criminal justice process. The author discusses the importance of presenting the roots of the similar institutions in the Polish legal culture, getting acquainted with the influential contributions to the restorative justice both from its theory and philosophy as well as from the dogmatic field of criminal law. The author also discusses the importance of letting both proponents of restorative justice and by opponents to be heard for in fact it helps the restorative justice movement. The author concludes by presenting the variety of practical application of the concepts, both its successes and failures in Polish practice.

  9. Chosen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of enamel formation genes and dental caries in a population of Polish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerreth, Karolina; Zaorska, Katarzyna; Zabel, Maciej; Borysewicz-Lewicka, Maria; Nowicki, Michał

    2017-09-01

    It is increasingly emphasized that the influence of a host's factors in the etiology of dental caries are of most interest, particularly those concerned with genetic aspect. The aim of the study was to analyze the genotype and allele frequencies of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in AMELX, AMBN, TUFT1, TFIP11, MMP20 and KLK4 genes and to prove their association with dental caries occurrence in a population of Polish children. The study was performed in 96 children (48 individuals with caries - "cases" and 48 free of this disease - "controls"), aged 20-42 months, chosen out of 262 individuals who had dental examination performed and attended 4 day nurseries located in Poznań (Poland). From both groups oral swab was collected for molecular evaluation. Eleven selected SNPs markers were genotyped by Sanger sequencing. Genotype and allele frequencies were calculated and a standard χ2 analysis was used to test for deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The association of genetic variations with caries susceptibility or resistance was assessed by the Fisher's exact test and p ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Five markers were significantly associated with caries incidence in children in the study: rs17878486 in AMELX (p caries occurrence in Polish children.

  10. Influence of Duroc breed inclusion into Polish Landrace maternal line on pork meat quality traits

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    DOMINIKA GUZEK

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Crossbreeding with Duroc breed allows to improve meat quality, but no data is available regarding specific influence of Duroc breed on characteristics of meat in the case of crossbreeding with various breeds. The aim of the present research was to evaluate the effect of crossbreeding Polish Landrace dames with Duroc sires on quality features of meat in reference to Polish Landrace breed. The objects of the study were Longissimus dorsi lumborum pork muscles obtained from Polish Landrace breed and Polish Landrace x Duroc crossbreed animals. Sarcomere length measurements were conducted using microscopic method and basic chemical composition measurement was analyzed using spectrophotometric scanning. Texture analysis of meat samples, performed after thermal treatment was expressed by Warner-Bratzler shear force and color analysis was obtained using CIE L*a*b* color system. No differences in sarcomere length, shear force as well as components of color values between pork meat originated from Polish Landrace breed and Polish Landrace x Duroc crossbreed were observed. Analysis of basic chemical composition revealed higher fat and lower ash contents in the case of meat of Polish Landrace breed animals. It was concluded that the actual impact of breed on meat characteristics is possibly altered by other factors. It may be suggested that influence of basic chemical composition on color of meat is breed-related.

  11. Influence of Duroc breed inclusion into Polish Landrace maternal line on pork meat quality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzek, Dominika; Głąbska, Dominika; Głąbski, Krzysztof; Wierzbicka, Agnieszka

    2016-05-31

    Crossbreeding with Duroc breed allows to improve meat quality, but no data is available regarding specific influence of Duroc breed on characteristics of meat in the case of crossbreeding with various breeds. The aim of the present research was to evaluate the effect of crossbreeding Polish Landrace dames with Duroc sires on quality features of meat in reference to Polish Landrace breed. The objects of the study were Longissimus dorsi lumborum pork muscles obtained from Polish Landrace breed and Polish Landrace x Duroc crossbreed animals. Sarcomere length measurements were conducted using microscopic method and basic chemical composition measurement was analyzed using spectrophotometric scanning. Texture analysis of meat samples, performed after thermal treatment was expressed by Warner-Bratzler shear force and color analysis was obtained using CIE L*a*b* color system. No differences in sarcomere length, shear force as well as components of color values between pork meat originated from Polish Landrace breed and Polish Landrace x Duroc crossbreed were observed. Analysis of basic chemical composition revealed higher fat and lower ash contents in the case of meat of Polish Landrace breed animals. It was concluded that the actual impact of breed on meat characteristics is possibly altered by other factors. It may be suggested that influence of basic chemical composition on color of meat is breed-related.

  12. Antecedents of Accelerated Internationalisation of Polish and Czech Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

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    Izabela Kowalik

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study goal was the investigation of relationships between accelerated internationalisation descriptors and antecedent firm- and entrepreneur-related factors in Polish and Czech SMEs. Research Design & Methods: In order to compare Polish and Czech companies, the data collected in two independent studies were used. The study of 233 Polish companies was conducted with the use of CATI method in 2014; 108 Czech companies were surveyed in 2013/2014 with the use of CAWI method. In both samples half of the surveyed SME-exporters were conforming to the accelerated internationalisation criteria. Findings: In both samples the “global vision” elements and company internationalisation scale and speed were interrelated. In the Polish companies this relationship was moderated by company size. There was the lack of strong positive relationships between innovativeness and internationalisation speed and scale in both samples. Implications & Recommendations:The managerial mindset has a decisive role for accelerated internationalisation in both Czech and Polish SMEs. The innovativeness of offering is not indispensable for fast foreign expansion. Larger companies may expand abroad faster if they have internationally oriented managers. Contribution & Value Added:This work addresses a research gap concerning idiosyncrasies of internationalisation antecedents in Polish and Czech enterprises. As the results show, there is no common internationalisation pattern for Polish and Czech SMEs.

  13. Novel cavitation fluid jet polishing process based on negative pressure effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fengjun; Wang, Hui; Tang, Yu; Yin, Shaohui; Huang, Shuai; Zhang, Guanghua

    2018-04-01

    Traditional abrasive fluid jet polishing (FJP) is limited by its high-pressure equipment, unstable material removal rate, and applicability to ultra-smooth surfaces because of the evident air turbulence, fluid expansion, and a large polishing spot in high-pressure FJP. This paper presents a novel cavitation fluid jet polishing (CFJP) method and process based on FJP technology. It can implement high-efficiency polishing on small-scale surfaces in a low-pressure environment. CFJP uses the purposely designed polishing equipment with a sealed chamber, which can generate a cavitation effect in negative pressure environment. Moreover, the collapse of cavitation bubbles can spray out a high-energy microjet and shock wave to enhance the material removal. Its feasibility is verified through researching the flow behavior and the cavitation results of the negative pressure cavitation machining of pure water in reversing suction flow. The mechanism is analyzed through a computational fluid dynamics simulation. Thus, its cavitation and surface removal mechanisms in the vertical CFJP and inclined CFJP are studied. A series of polishing experiments on different materials and polishing parameters are conducted to validate its polishing performance compared with FJP. The maximum removal depth increases, and surface roughness gradually decreases with increasing negative outlet pressures. The surface becomes smooth with the increase of polishing time. The experimental results confirm that the CFJP process can realize a high material removal rate and smooth surface with low energy consumption in the low-pressure environment, together with compatible surface roughness to FJP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Polish students at the Académie Julian until 1919

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    Zgórniak, Marek

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the article is the presence of Polish students in the most important private artistic school in Paris in the second half of the 19thcentury. The extant records regarding the atelier for male students made it possible to compile a list of about 165 Polish painters and sculptors studying there in the period from 1880 to 1919. The text presents the criteria used when preparing the list and the diagrams show the fluctuations in registration and the number of Polish artists in particular ateliers in successive years. The observations contained in the article have a summary nature and are illustrated only with selected examples.

  15. Development of a multisensory arm for process monitoring in Robot Assisted Polishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilny, Lukas; Dalla Costa, Giuseppe; Bissacco, Giuliano

    2015-01-01

    A multisensory polishing arm with integrated three component force sensor, a miniature acoustic emission (AE) sensor and an accelerometer was developed for process monitoring in Robot Assisted Polishing (RAP) process. The arm design was optimized for integration of a force and an AE sensor...... for measurement bias caused by the inertial component due to the mass of the oscillating arm, acceleration is measured, inertia component calculated and subtracted from the measurements. The results demonstrate the suitability of the custom designed multisensory polishing arm for process monitoring in all RAP...

  16. Development of on the machine process monitoring and control strategy in Robot Assisted Polishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilny, Lukas; Bissacco, Giuliano

    2015-01-01

    Robot Assisted Polishing (RAP) can be used to polish rotational symmetric and free form components achieving surface roughness down to Sa 10 nm. With the aim to enable unmanned robust and cost efficient application of RAP, this paper presents the development of a monitoring and control strategy...... for automatic detection of process end point as well as on the machine total surface characterization and local defects identification. The approach is based on a multisensory polishing arm allowing measurement of Acoustic Emission and process forces and a scattered light sensor mounted on the machine...

  17. Wear and roughness of the metal surface at polishing by bound abrasive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spasskij, M.R.; Lokhov, Yu.N.; Ashkerov, Yu.V.

    1987-01-01

    The model is proposed of the process of polishing of plastic metals by a resin polisher with the surface-saturated layer of abrasive. The model is based on the idea about a net independent effect of individual grains on the metal surface. A linear dependence of the wear rate on the applied pressure is substantiated. It is shown that a determining characteristic of metal in the process of polishing is elastic modulus rather than hardness or yield point. The dependence of a maximally attainable roughness of the metal surface on its plasticity, pressure, concentration and dimension of the abrasive is found

  18. Electroluminescence Analysis by Tilt Polish Technique of InP-Based Semiconductor Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Kouichi; Hamada, Kotaro; Yamaguchi, Akira

    2010-03-01

    We developed an effective electroluminescence (EL) analysis method to specify the degraded region of InP-based semiconductor lasers. The EL analysis method is one of the most important methods for failure analysis. However, EL observation was difficult because opaque electrodes surround an active layer. A portion of each electrode had to be left intact for wiring to inject the current. Thus, we developed a partial polish technique for the bottom electrode. Tilt polish equipment with a rotating table was introduced; a flat polished surface and a sufficiently wide remaining portion of the bottom electrode were obtained. As a result, clear EL from the back surface of the laser was observed.

  19. Sword of Christ. Christian inspirations of Polish socialism before the January Uprising

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    Piotr Kuligowski

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the history of the Christian fraction of Polish socialism against the background of the era, from the very beginning until its end after the January Uprising. On the basis of the texts from the era the understanding of socialism, the principles of the program of Clusters of the Polish People and the anatomy of Fr. Piotr Ściegienny’s conspiracy have been reconstructed. The text reproduces the utopian ideas of social reconstruction by Zenon Świętosławski and Ludwik Królikowski and based on these the text also shows the place of Christian socialism in the Polish socialist thought.

  20. Interpretation of Ukrainian and Polish Adverbial Word Equivalents Form and Meaning Interaction in National Explanatory Lexicography

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    Alla Luchyk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Interpretation of Ukrainian and Polish Adverbial Word Equivalents Form and Meaning Interaction in National Explanatory Lexicography The article proves the necessity and possibility of compiling dictionaries with intermediate existence status glossary units, to which the word equivalents belong. In order to form the Ukrainian-Polish dictionary glossary of this type the form and meaning analysis of Ukrainian and Polish word equivalents is done, the common and distinctive features of these language system elements are described, the compiling principles of such dictionary are clarified.

  1. Applicability of chemical vapour polishing of additive manufactured parts to meet production-quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, D. B.; Hansen, H. N.; Nielsen, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    The Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) method is the most rapidly growing Additive Manufacturing (AM) method[1]. FDM employs a 2.5D deposition scheme which induce a step-ladder shaped surface definition [2], with seams of the individual layers clearly visible[3]. This paper investigate to which...... extend chemical vapour polishing can be applied to eliminate the layered surfaces from FDM, so that a polished surface quality is obtained. It is quantified to what extend parts can be vapour polished and how geometrical and mechanical properties alter. The fundamental question is whether the surfaces...... of FDM manufactured parts can be taken from their current quality into the precision engineering domain....

  2. Research on Laser Micro Polishing of SLS Technology Sintered Iron-Based Powder Surface

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    Gerda Vaitkūnaitė

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes laser micro polishing of 1.2083 steel samples produced applying selective laser sintering (SLS method. The study has evaluated the distribution of the shape, size and temperature of the laser beam treated area in the surface layer of sintered and laser polished samples. Experimental tests have shown the impact of the technical parameters of laser micro polishing on the width and hardness of the impact zone of the treated sample. The microstructure analysis of laser treated and untreated areas of the material has been made.

  3. Effects of different polishing techniques on the surface roughness of dental porcelains

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    Işil Sarikaya

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of different polishing techniques on the surface roughness of dental porcelains. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty-five cylindirical specimens (15x2 mm were prepared for each feldspathic (Vita VMK 95, Ceramco III and low-fusing dental porcelain (Matchmaker. Fifty-five specimens of machinable feldspathic porcelain blocks (Vitablocs Mark II, (12x14x18 mm were cut into 2-mm-thick slices (12x14 mm with low speed saw. The prepared specimens were divided into 11 groups (n=5 representing different polishing techniques including control ((C no surface treatment, glaze (G and other 9 groups that were finished and polished with polishing discs (Sof-Lex (Sl, two porcelain polishing kits (NTI (Pk, Dialite II (Di, a diamond polishing paste (Sparkle (Sp, a zirconium silicate based cleaning and polishing prophy paste (Zircate (Zr, an aluminum oxide polishing paste (Prisma Gloss (Pg, and combinations of them. The surface roughness of all groups was measured with a profilometer. The data were analyzed with a 2-way analysis of variance, and the mean values were compared by the Tukey Honestly Significant Difference test (a=0.05. RESULTS: For all porcelain material groups, the lowest Ra values were observed in Group Gl, Group Sl, Group Pk, and Group Di, which were not significantly different from each other (p>0.05.When comparing the 4 different porcelain materials, the machinable feldspathic porcelain block group (Mark II demonstrated statistically significantly less Ra values than the other porcelain materials tested (p<0.05. No significant difference was observed between the VMK 95 and Ceramco III porcelain groups (p=0.919, also these groups demonstrated the highest Ra values. CONCLUSION: Subjected to surface roughness, the surfaces obtained with polishing and/or cleaning-prophy paste materials used alone were rougher compared to the surfaces finished using Sof-lex, Dialite, and NTI polishing kit

  4. Modelling of atmospheric transport of heavy metals emitted from Polish power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zysk, Janusz

    2016-01-01

    reactive gaseous and particulate forms of mercury air concentrations and deposition fluxes were noted. This study shows that many components of the developed model have crucial impacts on the results. In the model of mercury chemistry, the most effective pathway in the gaseous phase are the oxidation of gaseous elemental mercury by hydroxyl radical, ozone and most of all bromine oxide radicals, while in the aqueous phase the reduction reactions of elemental mercury dominate. These reactions have a crucial influence on the mass balance of reactive mercury, but a rather low influence on gaseous elemental mercury (GEM). In this model, dry deposition of gaseous elemental mercury is the prevailing process for removing mercury from the atmosphere. Dry deposition of GEM over land is equally distributed, due to almost uniform ambient concentrations. The relatively high dry deposition flux of gaseous elemental mercury has a huge influence on the presented results and differs significantly from other models where the dry deposition of GEM is often not taken into account. It was also shown that a change in the calculation of the scavenging coefficients or representative raindrop diameter for in-cloud scavenging has a significant impact on the amount of wet deposited mercury. The detailed results show that the Polish power sector can be responsible for up to 80% of wet deposited mercury near large emission sources. The contribution from national sources over whole Poland reaches 21% during the winter heating season when large quantities of coal are burned in the domestic sector and additionally the power sector activity is at its highest. The impact of emissions of cadmium and lead from the power sector is lower compared to the obtained results for mercury. The modelling results showed maximal impacts of 30% and 10% for cadmium and lead near large power sector sources on the ambient concentrations and deposition. Wider measurements of heavy metals are very much needed (author) [fr

  5. Origin of natural gases in the Paleozoic-Mesozoic basement of the Polish Carpathian Foredeep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotarba, Maciej

    2012-08-01

    Hydrocarbon gases from Upper Devonian and Lower Carboniferous reservoirs in the Paleozoic basement of the Polish Carpathian Foredeep were generated mainly during low-temperature thermogenic processes ("oil window"). They contain only insignificant amounts of microbial methane and ethane. These gaseous hydrocarbons were generated from Lower Carboniferous and/or Middle Jurassic mixed Type III/II kerogen and from Ordovician-Silurian Type II kerogen, respectively. Methane, ethane and carbon dioxide of natural gas from the Middle Devonian reservoir contain a significant microbial component whereas their small thermogenic component is most probably genetically related to Ordovician-Silurian Type II kerogen. The gaseous hydrocarbons from the Upper Jurassic and the Upper Cretaceous reservoirs of the Mesozoic basement were generated both by microbial carbon dioxide reduction and thermogenic processes. The presence of microbial methane generated by carbon dioxide reduction suggests that in some deposits the traps had already been formed and sealed during the migration of microbial methane, presumably in the immature source rock environment. The traps were successively supplied with thermogenic methane and higher hydrocarbons generated at successively higher maturation stages of kerogen. The higher hydrocarbons of the majority of deposits were generated from mixed Type III/II kerogen deposited in the Middle Jurassic, Lower Carboniferous and/or Devonian strata. Type II or mixed Type II/III kerogen could be the source for hydrocarbons in both the Tarnów and Brzezówka deposits. In the Cenomanian sandstone reservoir of the Brzezowiec deposit and one Upper Jurassic carbonate block of the Lubaczów deposit microbial methane prevails. It migrated from the autochthonous Miocene strata.

  6. Health-oriented physical activity in prevention of musculoskeletal disorders among young Polish musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Nawrocka

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Musicians represent a very specific professional group, which due to some occupational hazards is exposed to different health problems known as playing-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMDs. The aim of this study was to assess correlations between the level of physical activity, and the occurrence of musculoskeletal pain among young instrumentalists. Materials and Methods: Total of 225 Polish musical school students were investigated. To assess the study participants' physical activity level, the moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA index was used. To assess pain complaints on the side of the musculoskeletal system, Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ was applied. The NMQ questionnaire was complemented by adding a visual-analog scale (VAS, which also allowed to assess pain intensity on a numerical scale 1-10. Results: The pain localized in neck, shoulders, upper and lower back was reported significantly more often by the participants who did not meet standard criteria for the recommended or minimal physical activity level. Conclusion: Performing the recommended health-oriented physical activity may reduce the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in young musicians.

  7. Health-oriented physical activity in prevention of musculoskeletal disorders among young Polish musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrocka, Agnieszka; Mynarski, Władysław; Powerska, Aneta; Grabara, Małgorzata; Groffik, Dorota; Borek, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    Musicians represent a very specific professional group, which due to some occupational hazards is exposed to different health problems known as playing-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMDs). The aim of this study was to assess correlations between the level of physical activity, and the occurrence of musculoskeletal pain among young instrumentalists. Total of 225 Polish musical school students were investigated. To assess the study participants' physical activity level, the moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) index was used. To assess pain complaints on the side of the musculoskeletal system, Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) was applied. The NMQ questionnaire was complemented by adding a visual-analog scale (VAS), which also allowed to assess pain intensity on a numerical scale 1-10. The pain localized in neck, shoulders, upper and lower back was reported significantly more often by the participants who did not meet standard criteria for the recommended or minimal physical activity level. Performing the recommended health-oriented physical activity may reduce the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in young musicians.

  8. Somatic comorbidity and other factors related to suicide attempt among Polish methadone maintenance patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudalej, Sylwia; Ilgen, Mark; Kołodziejczyk, Iwona; Podgórska, Anna; Serafin, Piotr; Barry, Kristen; Wojnar, Marcin; Blow, Frederic C.; Bohnert, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Fatal and non-fatal suicide attempts are far more common in opioid dependent individuals than in the general population. More research is needed to understand the specific risk factors for suicidal behaviors in this patient population, particularly outside of the U.S. and Western Europe. This study investigated the correlates of suicide attempts among Polish patients in methadone maintenance treatment and interpreted results in the context of findings from other countries. Methods The study was based on a sample of 240 individuals recruited from a methadone maintenance clinic in Poland. Participants were interviewed using standardized measures. Results Consistent with studies in other countries, sexual abuse, depression, alcohol dependence and impulsivity were associated with suicide attempt. Additionally, those patients with somatic comorbidity had an increase in odds (OR=2.6) of suicide attempt. Conclusion The results of our study suggest a potential benefit to treatment approaches that address somatic concerns of methadone maintenance patients. More research is needed to identify, assess and understand possible cultural and regional differences between opioid dependent populations to better tailor prevention strategies. PMID:26335004

  9. Vitamin D Dietary Intake Questionnaire Validation Conducted among Young Polish Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Głąbska, Dominika; Guzek, Dominika; Sidor, Patrycja; Włodarek, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    Due to inadequate intake of Vitamin D, identification of individuals characterised by the highest risk of deficiencies is one of the more crucial tasks for public health. The aim of the presented study was to assess the validity and reproducibility of the designed Vitamin D dietary intake questionnaire based on food frequency assessment—VIDEO-FFQ (VItamin D Estimation Only—Food Frequency Questionnaire) in a group of Polish women aged 20–30 years. Seventy-five participants kept a three-day dietary record and filled out the VIDEO-FFQ twice (immediately after the three-day dietary record and after six weeks). The assessment of validity and reproducibility was conducted by verifying standard errors of estimation, median differences, and percentages of individuals classified into tertiles, correlations and Bland-Altman plots. The Vitamin D intake for the majority of the surveyed women was inadequate as over 85% of them were characterised by values of intake lower than 5.0 μg per day. The results allowed concluding that a high accuracy of the VIDEO-FFQ was achieved. The required Bland-Altman index values lower than 5.0% were obtained, confirming satisfactory validity and reproducibility. The VIDEO-FFQ may be deemed a convenient practical tool for the estimation of Vitamin D intake in young women. PMID:26742070

  10. Spontaneous wave packet reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghirardi, G.C.

    1994-06-01

    There are taken into account the main conceptual difficulties met by standard quantum mechanics in dealing with physical processes involving macroscopic system. It is stressed how J.A.Wheeler's remarks and lucid analysis have been relevant to pinpoint and to bring to its extreme consequences the puzzling aspects of quantum phenomena. It is shown how the recently proposed models of spontaneous dynamical reduction represent a consistent way to overcome the conceptual difficulties of the standard theory. Obviously, many nontrivial problems remain open, the first and more relevant one being that of generalizing the model theories considered to the relativistic case. This is the challenge of the dynamical reduction program. 43 refs, 2 figs

  11. 1.06 μm 150 psec laser damage study of diamond turned, diamond turned/polished and polished metal mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, T.T.; Milam, D.; Baker, P.; Murphy, G.

    1975-01-01

    Using a well characterized 1.06 μm 150 ps glass laser pulse the damage characteristics for diamond turned, diamond turned/ polished, and polished copper and silver mirrors less than 5 cm diameter were studied. Although most samples were tested with a normal angle of incidence, some were tested at 45 0 with different linear polarization showing an increase in damage threshold for S polarization. Different damage mechanisms observed will be discussed. Laser damage is related to residual surface influences of the fabrication process. First attempts to polish diamond turned surfaces resulted in a significant decrease in laser damage threshold. The importance of including the heat of fusion in the one dimensional heat analysis of the theoretical damage threshold and how close the samples came to the theoretical damage threshold is discussed. (auth)

  12. Unattached fraction of radon progeny in Polish coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skubacz, K.; Michalik, B.

    2002-01-01

    The system of the monitoring of the radiation hazard in Polish coal mines is based on the monitoring of the workplaces. This system works since 1989 in all coal mines. It gives a very good basis for further epidemiological investigation and assessment of the health detriment within the population of the mines as a result of the exposure for natural radiation. It is very important problem, due to the fact of the presence in the mines another factors, which probably have a synergetic effects on the respiratory tracts. As the routine instrument, a device called ALFA-31 sampling probe was developed in our laboratory. This device was accomplished to regular dust sampler and simultaneous measurements of dust content and potential alpha energy concentration of radon progeny are obligatory in all underground mines in Poland. But the microcyclone used a separator of the respirable fraction which causes the cut-off of unattached fraction of radon progeny, On the other hand measurements of the unattached fraction of short lived radon progeny play a very important role in the investigations of the adequate dose from this source of radiation hazard. During field experiments the use of the alpha spectroscopy system is necessary, while measurements are done not in the vacuum chambers but under normal pressure. It leads to situation, when particular peaks in alpha spectrum are very wide and interfere with other peaks of another alpha-emitting radionuclides. Such instrumentation was designed and completed, and a survey in several underground mines was performed. The analysis of the obtained results must be done very carefully; in other case it may cause a very big uncertainty of the result. In this paper a new approach to the analysis of the alpha spectra has been described. This approach can be used also in other applications of alpha spectroscopy, in which the analysis of energy of alpha peaks in spectrum is needed. The method of the analysis is based on a non-linear regression

  13. Audit Committee Practice in the Polish Listed Stock Companies. Present Situation and Development Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Szczepankowski

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The audit committee is one of the parts of corporate governance mechanism, which is understood as the relationship between corporate managers, directors and the providers of equity, people and institutions who save and invest their capital to earn the return. This study presents survey research results of audit committee activity in Polish public stock companies quoted on the Warsaw Stock Exchange (WSE. The purpose of this paper is to present the audit committee practice in Poland after 2009. The paper shows that the audit committee practice is still the most problematic issue of transitional Polish corporate governance rules. The survey has shown that the corporate needs and its implementation, and communication with listed companies leave a lot of room for improvement. The paper is based on the documents prepared in 2010 by PricewaterhouseCoopers, the Polish Association of Listed Companies and the Polish Institute of Directors.

  14. War film as a political problem in Polish press 1945–1949

    OpenAIRE

    Rachwald, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    This book was financially supported by the National Programme for the Development of Humanities: project “Cinema: Intercultural Perspective. Western-European Cinema in Poland, Polish Cinema in Western Europe. Mutual Perception of Film Cultures (1918–1939)”.

  15. Response of the Polish Wheat Prices to the Worlds Crude Oil Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAMULCZUK

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural commodities prices play crucial role both in farmers income determination and in price relationship establishment for the whole economy. Among the factors influencing the wheat prices, crude oil prices are considered as one of the most important. The aim of this paper was to assess the character of linkage between world crude oil prices and Polish wheat prices. Results of the research confirm the existence of such linkage although the nature and the strength of this relationship changes over time. However, the long-run relationships between the crude oil and Polish wheat prices were not proven. Moreover, growing impact of crude oil prices on Polish wheat prices over time was not detected. The results suggest that exchange rates may strongly influence wheat prices. This in turn may weaken response of Polish wheat prices in relation to world crude oil prices.

  16. Integration of full-spectrum metrology and polishing for rapid production of large aspheres, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Integration of three proven, non-contact, optical metrology techniques with an emerging new polishing approach in a single machine will enable the rapid production...

  17. Polish Academy of Sciences Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics research report 1994-1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    Scientific interests of Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics Polish Academy of Sciences are focused on DNA replication and repair, gene expression, gene sequencing and molecular biophysics. The work reviews research projects of the Institute in 1994-1995.

  18. Polish Academy of Sciences Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics research report 1994-1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Scientific interests of Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics Polish Academy of Sciences are focused on DNA replication and repair, gene expression, gene sequencing and molecular biophysics. The work reviews research projects of the Institute in 1994-1995

  19. Interference of nail polish on the peripheral oxygen saturation in patients with lung problems during exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Shimoya-Bittencourt, Walkiria; Pereira, Carlos Alberto de Castro; Diccini, Solange; Bettencourt, Ana Rita de Cássia

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To assess the interference of nail polish on the reading of peripheral oxygen saturation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on the step exercise. METHODS: In this study, there was the inclusion of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, current non-smokers, of both sexes. Four different colours of nail polish were used in the present study (base, light pink, red and brown), randomly distributed among the fingers of the right hand, with the corresponding f...

  20. Effect of polishing systems on stain susceptibility and surface roughness of nanocomposite resin material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakah, Haifa M; Taher, Nadia M

    2014-09-01

    Different polishing systems vary in their effect on reducing surface roughness and stain susceptibility of dental composite resin materials. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of 3 polishing systems on the stain susceptibility and surface roughness of 2 nanocomposite resins and a microhybrid composite resin. Forty-five disks (2×10 mm) each were fabricated of 2 nanocomposite resins (Filtek Supreme XT and Tetric EvoCeram) and 1 microhybrid composite resin (Z250). Both sides of the disks were wet finished, and 1 side was polished with PoGo, Astropol, or Hi-Shine (n=5). Unpolished surfaces served as controls. The average roughness (Ra, μm) was measured with a profilometer, and the baseline color was recorded with a spectrophotometer. All specimens were incubated while soaking in a staining solution of coffee, green tea, and berry juice for 3 weeks. The color was recorded again, and the data were analyzed with 2-way ANOVA at α=.05 and Tukey multiple comparison tests. All polishing systems improved the staining resistance of Filtek Supreme XT and Z250 but did not affect that of Tetric EvoCeram. The surface color of Filtek Supreme XT was changed significantly and was the smoothest after polishing with PoGo, whereas Hi-Shine produced significantly rougher surfaces but with the lowest color change. Hi-Shine produced the highest color change in Z250. The surface roughness did not differ significantly between the other polishing systems. Tetric EvoCeram showed no significant differences in color change or surface roughness. Staining susceptibility and surface roughness depend mainly on material composition and on the polishing procedures. Polishing improves the staining resistance of composite resins. Nanocomposite resins did not exhibit better staining resistance or surface roughness than microhybrid composite resin. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.