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Sample records for polished natural stone

  1. Automated visual inspection for polished stone manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Melvyn L.; Smith, Lyndon N.

    2003-05-01

    Increased globalisation of the ornamental stone market has lead to increased competition and more rigorous product quality requirements. As such, there are strong motivators to introduce new, more effective, inspection technologies that will help enable stone processors to reduce costs, improve quality and improve productivity. Natural stone surfaces may contain a mixture of complex two-dimensional (2D) patterns and three-dimensional (3D) features. The challenge in terms of automated inspection is to develop systems able to reliably identify 3D topographic defects, either naturally occurring or resulting from polishing, in the presence of concomitant complex 2D stochastic colour patterns. The resulting real-time analysis of the defects may be used in adaptive process control, in order to avoid the wasteful production of defective product. An innovative approach, using structured light and based upon an adaptation of the photometric stereo method, has been pioneered and developed at UWE to isolate and characterize mixed 2D and 3D surface features. The method is able to undertake tasks considered beyond the capabilities of existing surface inspection techniques. The approach has been successfully applied to real stone samples, and a selection of experimental results is presented.

  2. Polished Stone Value Test and its relationship with petrographic parameters (hardness contrast and modal composition and surface micro-roughness in natural and artificial aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández, A.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was first to establish the relationships between the PSV values and the microstructural and mineralogical features of the aggregates and surface micro-roughness, and then to establish the behavioural differences between natural and artificial aggregates. The results obtained indicate that the surface micro-roughness and the different PSV values of the natural aggregates are strongly governed by the existence of minerals with different degrees of hardness, together with the proportion of these minerals. In contrast, the different degree of porosity in artificial aggregates (a furnace slag was seen to be responsible for its high surface micro-roughness and PSV values. Finally, the PSV and a petrographic parameter (Overall Hardness Contrast, ΔH were seen to be related by an exponential curve (PSV=39.726ΔH0.057 with an extremely good fit, providing a good tool to estimate PSVs in natural and artificial aggregates from petrographic parameters.El objetivo de este trabajo es establecer, por un lado, las relaciones existentes del CPA con las características petrográficas de los áridos, así como su microrrugosidad superficial y, por otro, las diferencias de comportamiento entre áridos naturales y artificiales. Los resultados indican que en los áridos naturales la microrrugosidad superficial y el diferente valor del CPA están determinados, en gran medida, por las diferencias de dureza de sus minerales y también por la proporción en la que estos minerales se encuentran en las distintas litologías. Sin embargo, en los áridos artificiales (escorias de fundición su elevada porosidad es la responsable de su marcada microrrugosidad superficial y su elevado valor del CPA. Finalmente, se relaciona el CPA con un parámetro petrográfico (Contraste de Dureza Global, ΔH mediante una curva exponencial, cuyo excelente índice de regresión hace que sea factible estimar mediante el estudio petrográfico de un árido su valor del CPA

  3. Evaluation of changes of decorative parameters of natural facing stone by processing of chemical and mechanical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamrai V.I.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An important task of stone enterprise is management of decorative production made of natural stone. Among a number of different ways, the most common is the polishing of the stone which changing the parameters of decorative natural stone,. Therefore, the article studies methods of processing natural facing stone that affect the gloss and lightness as decorative figures. The regularities of gloss and lightness changes depending on the time polishing chrome and aluminium oxides were established. It was established that the different types of natural stone with the same textured processing have different values of gloss and lightness. The influence of chemical impregnating means to gloss and lightness of natural facing stone surface was studied and the parameters of gloss and lightness of Pokostivskiy granodiorite, according to its classification of color tone.

  4. The polished stone industry from şoimuş - La avicola (ferma 2), Hunedoara County

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ştefan, Cristian Eduard; Dimache, Mǎdǎlina; Petcu, Rǎzvan; Palcu, Dan

    2017-01-01

    In this contribution the polished stone artefacts from the Neolithic settlement at Şoimuş - La Avicola (Ferma 2), Hunedoara County are analysed. These items belong to Turdaş facies and were discovered during rescue excavations on the A1 Motorway route in 2011. The items are analysed from the point

  5. Polished stone tools of the Early Bronze Age in Bohemia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Král, V.; Limburský, Petr; Menšík, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 3 (2015), s. 335-343 ISSN 0342-734X R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-24252P Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Czech Republic * Chalcolithic * stone axes * imports * symbols of status Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  6. Dimension stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolley, T.P.

    2003-01-01

    Dimension stone can be defined as natural rock material quarried to obtain blocks or slabs that meet specifications as to size (width, length and thickness) and shape for architectural or engineering purposes. Color, grain texture and pattern, and surface finish of the stone are also normal requirements. Other important selection criteria are durability (based on mineral composition, hardness and past performance), strength and the ability of the stone to take a polish.

  7. Strides in Preservation of Malawi's Natural Stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamanga, Tamara; Chisenga, Chikondi; Katonda, Vincent

    2017-04-01

    The geology of Malawi is broadly grouped into four main lithological units that is the Basement Complex, the Karoo Super group, Tertiary to Quaternary sedimentary deposits and the Chilwa Alkaline province. The basement complex rocks cover much of the country and range in age from late Precambrian to early Paleozoic. They have been affected by three major phases of deformation and metamorphism that is the Irumide, Ubendian and The Pan-African. These rocks comprise gneisses, granulites and schists with associated mafic, ultramafic, syenites and granite rocks. The Karoo System sedimentary rocks range in age from Permian to lower Jurassic and are mainly restricted to two areas in the extreme North and extreme Alkaline Province - late Jurassic to Cretaceous in age, preceded by upper Karoo Dolerite dyke swarms and basaltic lavas, have been intruded into the Basement Complex gneisses of southern Malawi. Malawi is endowed with different types of natural stone deposits most of which remain unexploited and explored. Over twenty quarry operators supply quarry stone for road and building construction in Malawi. Hundreds of artisanal workers continue to supply aggregate stones within and on the outskirts of urban areas. Ornamental stones and granitic dimension stones are also quarried, but in insignificant volumes. In Northern Malawi, there are several granite deposits including the Nyika, which is the largest single outcrop occupying approximately 260.5 km2 , Mtwalo Amazonite an opaque to translucent bluish -green variety of microcline feldspar that occurs in alkali granites and pegmatite, the Ilomba granite (sodalite) occurring in small areas within biotite; apatite, plagioclase and calcite. In the Center, there are the Dzalanyama granites, and the Sani granites. In the South, there are the Mangochi granites. Dolerite and gabbroic rocks spread across the country, treading as black granites. Malawi is also endowed with many deposits of marble. A variety of other igneous

  8. IGCP 637 Heritage Stone Designation: A UNESCO and IUGS project on natural stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Dolores; Cooper, Barry; Schouenborg, Björn; Marker, Brian; Kramar, Sabina

    2017-04-01

    IGCP 637 was approved in 2015 to facilitate establishment of a new international geological standard for building and ornamental stones. Formal international recognition of those natural stone types that have achieved widespread utilization in human culture is now underway and the term "Global Heritage Stone Resource" (GHSR) has been proposed for this designation. Stones that have been used in heritage construction, sculptural masterpieces, as well as in utilitarian (yet culturally important) applications are obvious GHSR candidates. In co-ordination with these aims the project has an associated role to promote the adoption and use of the GHSR designation. Consequently an interim list of potential GHSRs is maintained and a register of GHSR approved stones is being created. IGCP 637 also enhances the capacity of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) in the realm of dimension stone and geological standards as it is the first IUGS involvement in this subject. As a consequence, the largest known international grouping of dimension stone professionals has been established. Within IGCP 637 a web page has been created at www.globalheritagestone.com, including information on the Working Group and also specific information on the evolution of the project. Several researchers were funded to attend the Heritage Stone working group activities, including researchers from Algeria, Malawi, India, Italy and Russia. We also have produced many publications, both as individual papers and special issues in journals included in the Journal Citation Reports. Monographs are being prepared at present. Hopefully, IGCP 637 will help to widen the circle of researchers interested in natural stones as part of our geoheritage. Heritage Stone references: articles and special issues - Pereira, D. and Marker, B. (2016) The value of original natural stone in the context of architectural heritage. Geosciences, 6, 13. - Heritage Stone 1. Ed. Pereira and Pratt. (2016). Geoscience

  9. Natural stones of historic and future importance in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouenborg, Björn; Andersson, Jenny; Göransson, Mattias

    2013-04-01

    Several activities and responsibilities of the Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU) are related to the work of the newly formed international Heritage Stone Task Group (HSTG) for designating historically important stones. SGU is among other things a referral organization, frequently dealing with the preparation of statements in connection with the quarrying permit applications of stone producers. When preparing these statements, SGU takes into account a number of parameters, e.g. the importance for local and regional business development, historic importance, area of occurrence, quality of the geological documentation of the stone type, peculiarities of the stone types and technical properties relevant for the intended use. Traditionally, SGU has not worked with bedrock mapping looking at the potential of natural stones production but more commonly looking at the potential production of aggregates, industrial minerals and metals. The competence is, therefore, presently being built up with new databases over important natural stone types and definition of criteria for their selection etc. In this respect the criteria defined by the HSTG provide important help. This work goes hand in hand with the task of proposing stone-deposits and quarries of "national interest". The criteria for selection of a stone type, quarry etc as one of national interest are currently being revised. SGU plays an important role in this work. However, the final decision and appointment lies in the hands of the Swedish Board of Housing, Building and Planning (Boverket), an authority dealing with sustainable land use and regional development, town and country planning. Boverket supervises how the planning legislation is handled by the municipal authorities and the county administrative boards. The two latter organizations are those in charge of giving extraction permits for stone quarrying. The "Hallandia gneiss", of SW Sweden, is described as a case story and presented in this paper. Keywords

  10. "Piedra Franca": the same name for many different natural stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Dolores; Navarro, Rafael; Baltuille, Jose Manuel

    2014-05-01

    The Spanish name "Piedra Franca" refers to all the stones of sedimentary origin that have uniform coloration and easeof cutting/carving in order to obtain dimensional blocks for construction. The first references to this denomination occurred during medieval times, when builders had to choose the best materials to construct magnificent cathedrals. The largest volume of such natural stones were extracted from Caen, northern France, and historic records use the English term, "freestone", ie stone easy to cut, and to work by the masons dedicated to build cathedrals ("freemasons") in contrast to the "roughstone", hard stones worked by the hard hewers or "rough masons". The original French name referred to the limestones extracted at Caen, but over time, the original meaning expanded to include other natural stones with similar coloration and ease to carve. Notably this included many sandstones that were used in adjacent countries such as Spain. In the latter, although the most popular for its importance in architectural heritage is the Villamayor sandstone from Salamanca, other historically important natural stones are also known as "Piedra Franca" including the calcarenite from Santa Pudia (Granada), the limestone from Alava, the sandstone from Jaen and the sandstone from Cádiz. All of them were used in the construction of Spanish architectonic heritage and share similar exterior characteristics. In fact, several are known as golden stones. However when conservation and restoration of architectonic heritage is involved, the correct and original material should be used. The existence of national networks (e.g. CONSTRUROCK) and international task groups (e.g. IUGS Heritage Stone Task Group) can help to properly characterize, document, and differentiate between the varieties of "Piedra Franca" and they should be consulted by builders, architects and any other stone professsionals involved in such activities. An error in choosing the natural stone can result in

  11. Building stones from a muddy delta: Native natural stone from The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, T.G.; Dubelaar, C.W.; Tolboom, H.J.; Hees, R.P.J. van

    2006-01-01

    Most of the Netherlands a Quaternary delta, local supplies of natural stone suitable for building are rare. These include: Quaternary bog iron ores used in early medieval times (until c. 1200); erratics, deposited in boulder clay during the Saalian ice age in the northern Netherlands and gravel from

  12. Slates from Uruguay: a traditional natural stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Demarco, M.; Oyhantçabal, P.; Stein, K.-J.; Siegesmund, S.

    2012-04-01

    Slates were traditionally used as roofing material or for cladding worldwide and also in Uruguay. In regions where this resource was easily mined, the widespread application of slates in constructions resulted in the development of characteristic cultural landscapes. The application of slates in a wider sense is nowadays open for all uses of dimensional stone, compared to the restricted use as roofing or cladding material in the past. This has been achieved by the discovery and mining of new deposits within the last 25 years worldwide. Furthermore, the optimization of mining techniques that allows the excavation of larger blocks and the technical development for further handling of the blocks has contributed to an open spectrum of applications. The slate deposits from Uruguay are associated with the Neoproterozoic thrust and fold belt of the Dom Feliciano Belt. The slates are linked to calc-silicate strata in a greenschist facies volcano-sedimentary sequence and the deposits are located in the limb of a regional fold, where bedding and cleavage are parallel. The main lithotype is a layered and fine-grained calcareous phyllite with a quite diverse palette of colors: light green, grey, dark grey, reddish and black. The mined slate is split into slabs 0.5 - 2cm thick. The technical properties were investigated in a very systematic way with respect to the new European standards, showing values comparable to those registered for internationally known slates. In the past, the average production in Uruguay was around 4000 tons/year and a historical maximum of 13,000 tons was reached in 1993. The oscillations in the regional demand were the cause of several flourishing and decay cycles in the activity, but our investigation shows a considerable volume of indicated resources and therefore a very good potential. Exploration for colors and qualities and quantification of reserves is a prerequisite for the development of the sector.

  13. Mineralogical and Microstructural Controls on High Polished Stone Value (hPSV) Aggregates from a Mixed Metasedimentary and Volcanoclastic Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unitt, Richard; Meere, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    High Polished Stone Value (hPSV) aggregates are a valuable resource in the manufacture of skid-resistant surfaces (pavements). Previous studies have tried to define the essential properties required within a specific rock type that makes it suitable as hPSV aggregate. There are also quantitative tests that can assign a standardised value to the polishing resistance of each aggregate (PSV or Werner-Schulze (WS) methods). It is widely assumed that particular rock-types are more suitable as hPSV aggregate, including greywacke, basalt and sandstone. These rock types are usually suitable due their durability, strength and a mineralogy that allows the removal of grains from the wear surface, enabling the microtexture to 'refresh' itself periodically. This project has examined a mixed group of low-grade (sub-greenschist) metasediments and volcaniclastics from a single source that all yield similar hPSV values (59-66). Samples were measured in terms of mechanical, petrographical and metrological properties from freshly crushed aggregate, mechanically polished aggregate and 'in-situ' road samples to follow the development of surface microtexture under different conditions. The study has shown that the development of microtexture within a mixed group of rocks can be controlled by microstructural factors (in addition to mineralogical factors) thus providing a new criteria for the exploration of high PSV sources.

  14. Granodiorite - one of the most significant Slovenian natural stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramar, Sabina; Trajanova, Mirka; Rogan-Šmuc, Nastja; Gutman, Maja; Bedjanič, Mojca; Mladenovič, Ana

    2015-04-01

    The paper provides a description of the petrographic and mechanical characteristics of granodiorite from the Pohorje Mountains (NE Slovenia) and of its use as a natural stone. This stone, which is a calc-alkaline igneous rock of Miocene age (18.7 Ma), is characterised by its grey colour and by its thick white aplite-pegmatite veins. It mainly consists of plagioclase, quartz, and K-feldspar, which are light coloured constituents, with biotite and a small amount of hornblende as dark coloured minerals. Some other minerals are found in traces, among which pyrite is considered to be the most problematic. However, due to the presence of a small amount of arsenic, the pyrite is quite stable and not prone to alteration. In Slovenia currently two quarries are located in granodiorite, both protected as valuable natural geological features; an active quarry at Cezlak which is the largest quarry in magmatic rocks in Slovenia and the abandoned quarry in Josipdol. Granodiorite is considered the highest quality natural stone in Slovenia. It is characterised by high density, low water absorption, and low open porosity, so that it exhibits high frost and salt resistance, as well as a high compressive strength and an extremely high flexural strength, which is due to its pronounced oriented structure. It is widely recognized throughout Slovenia by its durability and its decorative white veins, and is currently the most frequently used natural stone in Slovenia. It is mainly used as paving and cladding material for residential buildings, churches, and other structures, as well as for squares, thus giving a special character to many of Slovenia's largest towns and cities. Several important buildings are decorated by means of this stone, such as the Slovenian Parliament, the Republic Square business complex, the Maximarket department store, and the Faculty of Law of the University of Ljubljana, all of which are located in Ljubljana, some of them having been declared as cultural

  15. Main Nutritional Lithogenic Factors in Diets of Polish Patients with Kidney Stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Pyszczuk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nutrition is one of the most important determinants of kidney stone formation. This study was designed to evaluate lithogenic factors in diet of patients with renal calculi. Materials and me­thods. 40 stone-formers without metabolic disorders stimulating stone formation (e.g. hyperparatyroidism, primary hyperoxaluria were invited to the study. Antropometric measurements of nutritional status (BMI, WHR, analysis of body composition (BIA, quality and quantitative analysis of patients’ eating habits ­(3-day food records were conducted. Results. Half of patients were overweight or obese. Their diets contained high amounts of protein, fat, phosphorus, vitamin C and low amounts of fluid, calcium, magnesium, potassium, vitamin B6. Protein consumption was positively correlated with uric acid intake in diets (r = 0.78, and body weight with dietary fat intake (r = 0.58 and uric acid intake (r = 0.55. Conclusions. Complete treatment of nephrolithiasis should include nutritional therapy. No change in customary diets of patients with renal calculi can stimulate lithogenesis process.

  16. CLUSTER ANALYSIS OF NATURAL DISASTER LOSSES IN POLISH AGRICULTURE

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    Grzegorz STRUPCZEWSKI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural production risk is of special nature due to a great number of hazards, relative weakness of production entities on the market and high ambiguity which is greater than in industrial production. Natural disasters occurring very frequently, at simultaneous low percentage of insured farmers, cause damage of such sizes that force the state to organise current financial aid (for instance in the form of preferential natural disaster loans. This aid is usually not sufficient. On the other hand, regional diversity of the risk level does not positively affect the development of insurance. From the perspective of insurance companies and policymakers it becomes highly important to investigate the spatial structure of losses in agriculture caused by natural disasters. The purpose of the research is to classify the 16 Polish voivodeships into clusters in order to show differences between them according to the criterion of level of damage in agricultural farms caused by natural disasters. On the basis of the cluster analysis it was demonstrated that 11 voivodeships form quite a homogeneous group in terms of size of damage in agriculture (the value of damage in cultivations and the acreage of destroyed cultivations are two most important factors determining affiliation to the cluster, however, the profile of loss occurring in other five voivodeships has a very individual course and requires separate handling in the actuarial sense. It was also proved that high value of losses in agriculture in the absolute sense in given voivodeships do not have to mean high vulnerability of agricultural farms from these voivodeships to natural risks.

  17. Integration of risk matrix and event tree analysis: a natural stone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Kemal Özfirat

    2017-09-27

    Sep 27, 2017 ... Abstract. Machining has considerably increased with evolving technology and increasing demand in natural stone production facilities. Different types of accidents may occur in natural stone facilities during movement, dimensioning, cutting of blocks and surface processing. These accidents may be due to ...

  18. Natural cement and stone restoration of Bourges Cathedral (France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gosselin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural cement, also called "Roman cement", was invented at the end of the 18th Century and played an important role in the development of civil engineering works until the 1860s. More surprisingly, it was also used to restore historic buildings, such as gothic cathedrals. This paper deals with the mineralogy and the durability of natural cement, in the particular case of the Bourges Cathedral in France. This study illustrates the interest of this material particularly adapted in stone repair or substitution. Contrary to traditional mortars, the present samples are made of neat cement paste, revealed by the absence of mineral additions as quartz or carbonate sand. Several combined techniques (SEM-EDS, TGA, XRD were carried out to determine the composition of the hydraulic binder rich in calcium aluminate hydrates. The raw marl at the origin of the cement production contains oxidized pyrites which consist in a potential source of sulphate pollution of the surrounding limestone. The exposition of the cement in urban environment leads to some weathering features as atmospheric sulphation. Finally a petrophysical approach, based on water porosity, capillary sorption and compressive strength, has been performed to demonstrate the durability and the compatibility of roman cement applied as a restoration mortar of historical building.

  19. Measurements of natural radioactivity concentrations in decorative commercial stones in dwellings of Mosul City, Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Badrani, M. W. M.

    2010-01-01

    Natural stone finds its way into homes as part of the bricks, cement, floor and wall tiles, as well as our beautiful heavy countertops. This stone is mined from the earth's crust in quarries, and then made available to home builders, throughout the world. The earth's crust contains elements that were originally produced in the (supernova). Some of these elements are radioactive, and therefore any building materials extracted from the earth's crust can potentially be radioactive too. These rocks have characteristics that enable them to be used in decoration as, able to be polished and have low water absorption. A knowledge of radioactivity present in these natural rock samples helps to assess the possible radiological hazards to human health and necessary. So the natural stone could potentially be dangerous. The potential dangers of radioactive elements in homes are two-fold: one is 'radiation' and the other is 'radon.' Radioactive elements, where Radon is a natural radioactive element in the gaseous form. It is a decay product of radium, which is present in all rocks and building materials. Radon escapes from them via diffusion and convection. For many years the geologists have been exploiting the emanation effect for the purposes of the radioactive deposit prospecting and of general geology survey by their very nature, where all radioactive sources seek stability by decaying into lighter elements via the emission of radiation. This radiation comes in the form of energetic light particles - namely, 'gamma-rays', 'beta particles.', and 'alpha particles.' These can enter the body from the outside and cause damage to cells and DNA, potentially causing cancer. Also, naturally occurring Uranium nuclei decay into an element called Radium, which produces an unstable gas called Radon. Breathing air that contains radon thus deposits radioactive elements directly into the soft-tissues of the lungs and can cause lung cancer. The natural sources include radon emanating from

  20. The natural radionuclide concentration and radon exhalation rate of Turkish natural stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasar, O.; Yaprak, G.; Guer, F.

    2006-01-01

    Geological materials usually contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) have become a focus great attention. These NORM under certain conditions can reach hazardous contamination levels. Some contamination levels may be sufficiently severe that precautions must be taken. The Turkey has very important natural stones potential with over 5 billion m 3 marble reserves. According to 2002 giving data the number of Turkish stones export is 303 million US Dollars. In this regards, the present study deals with 120 Turkish natural stones. The studied samples were analyzed and the concentrations in Bq/kg dry weight of radioisotopes were determined by gamma-ray spectrometry using HPGe defector in Bq/kg dry weight. For the measurement of the radon exhalation rate, the 'can technique' using sensitive alpha sensitive LR-115 type II plastic defectors were used. The radium equivalent activity varied from 285 Bq/kg to 325 Bq/kg for granite samples and from 2 Bq/kg to 32 Bq/kg for marble samples. The value of radon exhalation rate ranged from 0.06 Bq/m 2 h - 1 to 0.46 Bq/m 2 h - 1 for garnite samples and from 0.006 Bq/m 2 h - 1 to 0.011 Bq/m 2 h - 1 for marble samples. According to the recommended values and the calculated external hazard index values the samples are acceptable for use as building materials and decoration

  1. Non-destruction testing of natural stones by ultrasonic attenuation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkwein, A.

    1982-01-01

    As a basis for an intended nondestructive quality test of components made of natural stones an ultrasonic testing method was developed by which natural defects in the stone can be detected and localized. Selective fault detection by determination of sound velocity not being possible and tests by pulse echo method failing for most kinds of natural stones because of coarse grain, the investigations showed that an attenuation measurement in transmission technique will achieve the goal. For generation of transverse waves longitudinal search units were arranged in pairs underwater and directed on a plate of natural stone at a certain angle. As a measure for sound attenuation the amplitudes of the sound waves received were measured at different points on the plate. The bending tensile strengths of specimens from a plate gave a satisfying correlation with the ultrasonic attenuations measured before. (orig.) [de

  2. Integration of risk matrix and event tree analysis: a natural stone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    /fulltext/sadh/042/10/1741-1749 ... occur in natural stone facilities during movement, dimensioning, cutting of blocks and surface processing. These accidents may be due to physical, chemical, ergonomic and mechanical conditions. Therefore ...

  3. Importance Of Public Relations In Natural Stone Mining And Its Contribution To The Industry

    OpenAIRE

    DEMİR, Behzat Gökçen; ÖNENÇ, Deniz İskender; GÜNGÖR, Nusret; AKBULUT, Akın

    2014-01-01

    All activities done in marble and natural stone industry has a social dimension. Mining continued serious work in all branches of international companies before the creation of a sustanaible culture of marble social dimension of public relations in the foreground is the driving force. Sustainable and professional public relations policy, marble-work capacity improves the natural stone industry. Public relations, stakeholders or the general term of communication bridge between the industry and...

  4. Natural stone panels for building facades. Loss of strength caused by temperature cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemvig, J.; Rasmussen, J.; Jensen, J.F.

    2002-01-01

    Five different types of natural stone used for building façades are studied. Test specimens have been exposed to 1, 10 or 20 temperature cycles between about 25°C and 70°C at 100% RH or 0% RH. Test specimens stored at laboratory climate are used as reference. The strength of each type of stone is...... is measured before and after exposures. The strength is measured as flexural strength under concentrated load using quarter-point loading....

  5. The Value of Original Natural Stone in the Context of Architectural Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Pereira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Natural stone is required for maintenance and repair of historically, archaeologically and culturally important structures to prevent deterioration due to weathering and use. Those that have national or World Heritage significance are historically and culturally important. Sometimes, severely damaged buildings may require extensive or complete restoration. The choice of stone should be appropriate in physical and aesthetic terms, ideally from the original source. Researchers, architects, those who specify contracts and other stakeholders need reliable information, but access to, and awareness of, important sources such as manuscripts, publications and collections of samples is often limited. Easier access to information is needed when planning and commissioning works that require the replacement of stone. Making important information more widely available and promoting awareness of the need to maintain adequate supplies of natural stone of suitable quality is a task for both national and international organizations including the Heritage Stone Task Group of IUGS and IAEG. This paper provides some illustrative examples and pointers towards some recent major publications, as well as describing current Heritage Stone Resource and European Union initiatives, all the while requesting further participation from colleagues in this field.

  6. Serum estradiol and testosterone levels in kidney stones disease with and without calcium oxalate components in naturally postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhijian; Mai, Zanlin; Ou, Lili; Duan, Xiaolu; Zeng, Guohua

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological data reveal that the overall risk for kidney stones disease is lower for women compared to age-matched men. However, the beneficial effect for the female sex is lost upon menopause, a time corresponding to the onset of fall in estrogen levels. The aim of this study was to describe the serum estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) characteristics of naturally postmenopausal women with kidney stones. 113 naturally postmenopausal women with newly diagnosed kidney stones (aged 57.4±4.98 years) and 84 age frequency matched stone-free controls (56.9±4.56 years) were validly recruited in the case-control study. The odds ratios (ORs) for the associations between sex hormones and kidney stones were estimated with logistic regression models, adjusting for demographic data and medical history. Patients were also stratified analyzed according to stone components (calcium oxalate stones [COS]; non-calcium oxalate stones [NCOS]). Serum E2 (21.1 vs. 31.1 pg/ml) was significantly lower in kidney stones patients compared to controls. Post-hoc analysis demonstrated that this effect was driven by COS patients (pkidney calcium oxalate stones. However, no correlation was found between serum T level and kidney stones. These findings support the hypothesis that higher postmenopausal endogenous estrogens may protect against kidney stones with ageing.

  7. Determination of the optimum direction of mining works in the mining of blocks of natural stone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krivoruchko A.O.,

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The possibility to use modern information and computer technologies to develop an integrated methodology for determining the optimum direction of mining works in the extraction of natural stone blocks is studied. The communication of the anisotropic properties with the crystalline structure of natural stone and its genesis as a rock is considered. The method of determining anisotropy mechanical properties of natural stone based on digital video processing and determine the optimum direction of mining works on this basis is proposed. The tasks of the decorative approach are explained, specifically to obtain blocks with predetermined indicators of decorative (which will not always be the maximum; for example, clearly defined, for the needs of restorers. The obtained results can be used to determine the direction of carrying out mining operations after a comprehensive analysis and for maximize the profits of the enterprise.

  8. Anisotropy indices and the effects on the hydric behaviour of natural stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Rafael; Alvarez de Buergo, Monica; Varas, Maria Jose; Gomez-Heras, Miguel

    2010-05-01

    Building stone is an anisotropic material. Each type of rock (granite, limestone, slate, marble, etc.) has a different anisotropy, which is related to its own geological history, i.e. formation conditions and alteration processes. Knowing the anisotropy of natural stone is a matter of interest for determining the most adequate way to extract it from the quarry, for a better use during its manufacture or processing, to determine the quality of elements to be used as ashlars/masonry or as ornamental elements carving, as well to their arrangement in a structure. At the same time, materiaĺs anisotropy will condition the placing of, for instance, anchorages in dressing stone slabs. Anisotropy of natural stone controls water entry and its mobility, together with atmospheric pollutantśs, processes that favour the stone decay in building works, mainly those that shows a marked directional component, as it is the case of capillary water absorption. Water tends to be absorbed differently along the distinct main anisotropy directions, which are principally marked due to the arrangement and distribution of porosity in the rock. The aim of this study is to perform a comparative analysis of the various anisotropy indices commonly used when dealing with natural stone, determined by ultrasonic propagation techniques, in order to establish how anisotropy (by means of these indices) affect the process of capillary water absorption. Different type of natural stones have been selected, according to their traditional use for the construction of buildings in the region of Madrid (Spain). Their petrophysical properties have been determined (density, porosity, water absorption, etc), as well as ultrasonic transmission velocity has been measured along the three spatial directions of the test specimens (from 50 to 100 for each petrological type). According to this, the stone specimens were classified in different anisotropy levels or classes. Results show that stones with the highest

  9. CTC staining and counting of actively respiring bacteria in natural stone using confocal laser scanning microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartosch, S; Mansch, R; Knötzsch, K; Bock, E

    2003-01-01

    A method was established for staining and counting of actively respiring bacteria in natural stone by using the tetrazolium salt 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyltetrazolium chloride (CTC) in combination with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Applying 5 mM CTC for 2 h to pure cultures of representative stone-inhabiting microorganisms showed that chemoorganotrophic bacteria and fungi-in contrast to lithoautotrophic nitrifying bacteria-were able to reduce CTC to CTF, the red fluorescing formazan crystals of CTC. Optimal staining conditions for microorganisms in stone material were found to be 15 mM CTC applied for 24 h. The cells could be visualized on transparent and nontransparent mineral materials by means of CLSM. A semi-automated method was used to count the cells within the pore system of the stone. The percentage of CTC-stained bacteria was dependent on temperature and humidity of the material. At 28 degrees C and high humidity (maximum water holding capacity) in the laboratory, about 58% of the total bacterial microflora was active. On natural stone exposed for 9 years at an urban exposure site in Germany, 52-56% of the bacterial microflora was active at the east, west, and north side of the specimen, while only 18% cells were active at the south side. This is consistent with microclimatic differences on the south side which was more exposed to sunshine thus causing UV and water stress as well as higher temperatures on a microscale level. In combination with CLSM, staining by CTC can be used as a fast method for monitoring the metabolic activity of chemoorganotrophic bacteria in monuments, buildings of historic interest or any art objects of natural stone. Due to the small size of samples required, the damage to these objects and buildings can be minimized.

  10. Fluorinated anti-graffiti coating for natural stone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanco-Varela, M. T.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The water- and dirt-repellent properties of fluorinated products have been used primarily in waterproof coatings. The development of new materials or the definition of new functions for existing substances may extend the possible application of these systems to other specific uses, such as new anti-graffiti coatings to guarantee easy clean-up in the event of this kind of vandalism.The present study aimed to assess the anti-graffiti protection afforded by a fluoralkyl siloxane in limestone and granite.The results show that the surface of the substrates darkened and yellowed slightly under the treatment and that the total colour variations (ΔE* found after the first cleaning were similar in the two substrates. After subsequent graffiti painting-cleaning cycles, ΔE* was greater in the granite, due to its more rugged surface. Water absorption declined, particularly in the low porosity granite, after it was coated. Water repellence was likewise more effective in the granite, whose low initial permeability decreased, but less steeply than in the limestone. The graffiti lowered the water repellence of the treated surfaces. Although the waterproof protection afforded by the coating was not fully recovered after cleaning, the treated specimens were still more water repellent than the uncoated stone. The siloxane polymer penetrated the limestone to a depth of several tenths of a micron, but remained on the surface in the granite.Las propiedades hidrorrepelentes y antisuciedad de los productos fluorados han sido aprovechadas en el desarrollo de formulaciones fundamentalmente hidrofugantes. El desarrollo de nuevos materiales o la funcionalización de los existentes pueden extender las posibles aplicaciones de estos sistemas, a casos de interés específico, como el desarrollo de nuevos tratamientos con propiedades antigraffiti, que puedan garantizar la fácil eliminación de las pintadas.Es objetivo del presente trabajo valorar la efectividad de un

  11. Polish origins of the Faculty of Mathematical and Natural Sciences of the University of Fribourg and the Polish contribution to the Fribourg industrial revolution (in Polish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech KOCUREK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to high-tech companies founded by Poles at the end of the 19th century in the rural canton of Fribourg in Switzerland. The text is divided into two parts. In the first part, the author attempts to present the economic, social and political reality of Fribourg in a period of intense industrialization in the world and the formation of the liberal free market system. In this rapidly changing reality, the new Catholic-conservative authorities of the canton tried to lead to establishing of a comprehensive, but also different system of a “Christian republic”, whose aim was to achieve social justice consistent with the teachings of the Gospel. In order to complete the project, the cantonal government did not shy away from using the possibilities and measures offered by the contemporary world. Decision-makers, led by Georges Python, needed support from the society, who was aware of the changes. Due to this fact, it became necessary to establish a university capable of shaping new attitudes and views. However, the costs significantly exceeded the financial capabilities of the agricultural and relatively poor canton of Fribourg. In these less favourable circumstances, a conscious policy of industrialization was the way out of the deadlock. Newly created industrial institutions were to contribute to an increase of cash inflows to the canton and thus allow for the financing of the university, which would also become an intellectual foundation for the emerging industry. The activity of Polish scientists, which is the subject of the second part of the article, matched this philosophy perfectly. The Poles invited to cooperate with Python, i.e. Józef Wierusz-Kowalski, Ignacy Mościcki and Jan Modzelewski, created the foundations of the Faculty of Mathematical and Natural Sciences at the University of Fribourg. As members of the faculty, in addition to teaching, they conducted research into, among other things, nitric acid

  12. Evolution in the use of natural building stone in Madrid, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, R.; Alvarez de Buergo, M.; Perez-Monserrat, E. M.; Varas-Muriel, M. J.; Gomez-Heras, M.; Freire, D. M.

    2012-04-01

    The first natural building stone used in Madrid was the flint, from the 9th to the 12th century. It was first used by the Arabs and there are some nice examples left, such as the Arab Wall in the very centre of Madrid. It was a hard and very resistant material, and the end of its use probably had more to do with the fact that was a really difficult stone to work, cut, shape and carve with due to its hardness and compactness, than with its suitability and availability as a building stone. This was the main reason to start using other type of materials, such as the Cretaceous limestones and dolostones- Redueña stone-; although their quarries were not as close to the city as the flintstones were, a Roman road made possible to bring this material to the city. The Redueña stone then became the most frequent used building stone in the city (used a longer time ago in the quarries areas): nice colour, easy to extract and to work and availability were some of the reasons for it, lasting its predominance until the 17th century. At the same time, more or less, the use of granitic materials started, abundant in the Central System range that limits the North of the Madrid province. This material - traditionally known as Berroqueña stone- never stopped to be used in built heritage since then. Although there are many different quarries, until the 17th century, granites from the Zarzalejo area (Center-West area of the Guadarrama mountain range) were most used, and also those from the Alpedrete area (Center-East area of the mentioned range) during mainly the 18th century It was not until this century when the advances in underground mining extraction and the construction of a bridge crossing the Tajo river, allowed the use of Colmenar stone in the city of Madrid, a limestone located at the Southeast of Madrid. It is a white, little porous and resistant material, which, together with the granite, became the traditional building stones of Madrid. This limestone shows excellent

  13. Dielectric non destructive testing for rock characterization in natural stone industry and cultural heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Buendía, Angel M.; García-Baños, Beatriz; Mar Urquiola, M.; Gutiérrez, José D.; Catalá-Civera, José M.

    2016-04-01

    Dielectric constant measurement has been used in rocks characterization, mainly for exploration objective in geophysics, particularly related to ground penetration radar characterization in ranges of 10 MHz to 1 GHz. However, few data have been collected for loss factor. Complex permittivity (dielectric constant and loss factor) characterization in rock provide information about mineralogical composition as well as other petrophysic parameters related to the quality, such as fabric parameters, mineralogical distribution, humidity. A study was performed in the frequency of 2,45GHz by using a portable kit for dielectric device based on an open coaxial probe. In situ measurements were made of natural stone marble and granite on selected industrial slabs and building stone. A mapping of their complex permittivity was performed and evaluated, and variations in composition and textures were identified, showing the variability with the mineral composition, metal ore minerals content and fabric. Dielectric constant was a parameter more sensible to rock forming minerals composition, particularly in granites for QAPF-composition (quartz-alkali feldspar-plagioclases-feldspathoids) and in marbles for calcite-dolomite-silicates. Loss factor shown a high sensibility to fabric and minerals of alteration. Results showed that the dielectric properties can be used as a powerful tool for petrographic characterization of building stones in two areas of application: a) in cultural heritage diagnosis to estimate the quality and alteration of the stone, an b) in industrial application for quality control and industrial microwave processing.

  14. Efficiency of a natural wetland for effluent polishing of a septic tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Yousefi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands now days apply as a polishing system for the classical wastewater treatment, in addition of different usages. Usually wetland systems are inexpensive methods vs. expensive high technology treatment systems. Objective of this study is an evaluation of natural wetland treatment in polishing of a septic effluent. Research duration works extended for 10 months on a natural wetland system in Pardis of Mazandaran University of medical sciences and eastern north of health faculty. Wastewater quality index such as pH, EC, BOD, COD, TSS, Nitrate, Phosphorus, Ammonia and Temperature performed on the samples of influent and effluent of the system. The study showed the system works as a buffering system for flow and pH. Results indicated that average of BOD5 and TSS efficiency were 67.70and 83%, respectively. Efficiency of COD was 65.26 and 80 % for a Low and moderate strength influent respectively. Average of phosphorus, NH3 and Nitrate in effluent were 0.032 mg/L, 7.18 and 0.036 mg/L, respectively. Efficiency of ammonia and Phosphorus were slightly increased in best condition. Based on this study result, natural wetland can be success in BOD, COD, and TSS removal of the classical septic tank, but for nitrogen and Phosphorus removal do not have considerable effects.

  15. Testing mechanical properties of natural stone used as a building material

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hasníková, Hana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 5 (2013), s. 427-435 ISSN 1802-1484 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP105/12/G059 Grant - others:Evropská komise(XE) FP-2007-SSP-5A STONECORE Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : mechanical properties * non-destructive testing * natural stone * historical buildings * ultrasound Subject RIV: JN - Civil Engineering http://www.engineeringmechanics.cz/obsahy.html?R=20&C=5

  16. NATURAL ANTIBIOFOULING AGENTS AS NEW CONTROL METHOD FOR PHOTOTROPHIC BIOFILMS DWELLING ON MONUMENTAL STONE SURFACES

    OpenAIRE

    Oana-Adriana CUZMAN; Mara CAMAITI; Barbara SACCHI; Piero TIANO

    2011-01-01

    Five natural antibiofoulants with terrestrial (capsaicine - CS, cinnamaldehyde - CI) and marine origin (zosteric acid - ZA, poly-alkylpyridinium salts - pAPS and Ceramium botryocarpum extract - CBE) have been selected and tested against phototrophic biofilm formation on the stone surfaces for their inhibitory properties. The antibiofouling agents (ABAs) were incorporated into two commercial silicone based coatings (Silres BS OH 100 - S and Silres BS 290 - W). In this work, phototrophic growth...

  17. Magmatic constraints on localization of natural stone deposits in the Vehmaa rapakivi granite batholith, southwestern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olavi Selonen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The 1580–1570 Ma old Vehmaa rapakivi granite batholith was studied with the aim to define the geological constraints for localization of natural stone deposits in the batholith. The batholith comprises four roughly concentric granite intrusions from the margin inwards: pyterlite, coarse-grained porphyritic rapakivi granite and two types of medium-grained porphyritic rapakivi granite. Also porphyry aplite and even-grained rapakivi granite occur. The batholith has intruded as a succession of pulses of subhorizontal sheet-like intrusions conceivably through repeated cauldron subsidence. Natural stone quarries are confined only to certain intrusions within the batholith. We show that the medium-grained porphyritic granite body in the centre of the batholith comprises two almost identical but different intrusions, with only slightly different appearances: the inner (IG and the outer (OG granite. The quarries are confined to the outer intrusion which has an appearance more attractive to the market than that of the inner intrusion. The localization of the natural stone deposits in the Vehmaa batholith is a result of the magmatic history of the batholith, producing intrusions of different appearances with different commercial potential.

  18. Design in the natural stone transformation sector: evaluating a new concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Paixão-Barradas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The European natural stone sector is declining; sales and imports are decreasing, owing to growing competition from Asiatic countries concerning the diversity of low-cost materials and European cultural and historical traditions demanding a commitment to invest in the best equipment and technology available. Design plays an important role in a company regarding the development, innovation and creation of competitive products. The present research involved a questionnaire being given to Portuguese and Spanish companies working in the natural stone sector to ascertain the companies’ characteristics, identifying those working with internal departments specialising in innovation for developing new products and studying the feasibility of working with a new concept by studying the relationship between these companies and the importance they attach to the sensation of well-being which a natural stone product offers. The results showed that companies recognised most feelings presented here as being ‘important’, mainly those referring to social factors. It could be concluded that a company working with an internal design department for product development appreciates such concepts and adds more value to them.

  19. The use of local natural stone in construction of St. Petersburg region and south-east Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luodes, Hannu; Härmä, Paavo; Panova, Elena; Pirinen, Heikki; Selonen, Olavi

    2013-04-01

    A three-year project, started in 2012, "Efficient use of natural stone in the Leningrad region and South-East Finland", studies the use and durability of natural stone in the city environments in the Nordic climate and especially along the Eastern Baltic Sea coastline between Helsinki and St. Petersburg. The project is lead by the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) and the partners in the project are Saimaa University of Applied Sciences from Finland and Federal State Unitary Enterprise "Petersburg Complex Geological Expedition" Russian together with Saint-Petersburg State University from the Russian Federation. As associates in this project are also natural stone companies from Finland, Ylämaa Group Oy and Palin Granit Oy. The project is co-funded by the European Union, the Russian Federation and the Republic of Finland through the European Neighbourhood and Partnership Instrument (ENPI). A great potential of natural stone that can be used in construction is located in the border zone between South-East Finland and the Leningrad region. Rapakivi granite from that area has been utilized for several important buildings worldwide since 18th century and the area holds still potential for future economic growth. The use of the stone particularly from this area is based on its visual expression and good properties with high durability and long life cycle that can be used as arguments in the future development. Strengthening of the knowledge of the material reserves in the area gives a long term basement for economic development. Special aim of the project is to promote the use of natural stone in the city construction, especially the use of left-over stone generated in the production. In the project the use of natural stone in larger cities from the 18th century until today including the towns St. Petersburg, Vyborg, Helsinki, Kuopio and Kotka will be reported. Also an analysis of the near future needs of natural stone (qualities and quantities) in reconstruction and

  20. Natural Abundance 43Ca NMR as a Tool for Exploring Calcium Biomineralization: Renal Stone Formation and Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, Geoffrey M.; Kirkpatrick, Robert J.

    2011-12-07

    Renal stone diseases are a global health issue with little effective therapeutic recourse aside from surgery and shock-wave lithotripsy, primarily because the fundamental chemical mechanisms behind calcium biomineralization are poorly understood. In this work, we show that natural abundance 43Ca NMR at 21.1 T is an effective means to probe the molecular-level Ca2+ structure in oxalate-based kidney stones. We find that the 43Ca NMR resonance of an authentic oxalate-based kidney stone cannot be explained by a single pure phase of any common Ca2+-bearing stone mineral. Combined with XRD results, our findings suggest an altered calcium oxalate monohydrate-like Ca2+ coordination environment for some fraction of Ca2+ in our sample. The evidence is consistent with existing literature hypothesizing that nonoxalate organic material interacts directly with Ca2+ at stone surfaces and is the primary driver of renal stone aggregation and growth. Our findings show that 43Ca NMR spectroscopy may provide unique and crucial insight into the fundamental chemistry of kidney stone formation, growth, and the role organic molecules play in these processes.

  1. Natural stone muds as secondary raw materials: towards a new sustainable recovery process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zichella, Lorena; Tori, Alice; Bellopede, Rossana; Marini, Paola

    2016-04-01

    The production of residual sludge is a topical issue, and has become essential to recover and reuse the materials, both for the economics and the environmental aspect. According to environmental EU Directives, in fact ,the stone cutting and processing should characterized by following objectives, targets and actions: the reduction of waste generated, the decreasing of use of critical raw material, the zero landfilling of sludge and decreasing in potential soil contamination, the prevention of transport of dangerous waste, the reduction of energy consumption, the zero impact on air pollution and the cost reduction . There are many industrial sector in which residual sludge have high concentrations of metals and/or elements deemed harmful and therefore hazardous waste. An important goal, for all industrial sectors, is an increase in productivity and a parallel reduction in costs. The research leads to the development of solutions with an always reduced environmental impact. The possibility to decrease the amount of required raw materials and at the same time the reduction in the amount of waste has become the aim for any industrial reality. From literature there are different approaches for the recovery of raw and secondary materials, and are often used for the purpose chemical products that separate the elements constituting the mud but at the same time make additional pollutants. The aim of the study is to find solutions that are environmentally sustainable for both industries and citizens. The present study is focused on three different Piedmont rocks: Luserna, Diorite from Traversella and Diorite from Vico, processed with three different stone machining technologies: cutting with diamond wire in quarry (blocks), in sawmill (slabs) and surface polishing. The steps are: chemical analysis, particle size analysis and mineralogical composition and characterization of the sludge obtained from the various machining operations for the recovery of the metal material by

  2. Natural radioactivity in some rocks employed as dimension and decorative stones in the Nigerian building industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubosun, I A; Tchokossa, P; Balogun, F A; Fasasi, M K; Ocan, O; Adesanmi, C A

    2013-12-01

    The natural radioactivity in some selected granites and allied rocks from the Basement Complex of Nigeria for use as dimension/decorative stones was measured by gamma-ray spectrometry. The average activity concentrations observed for the selected rock samples range from 9 to 124 Bq kg⁻¹; 13 to 60 Bq kg⁻¹ and 1360 to 2326 Bq kg⁻¹ for ²²⁶Ra, ²³²Th and ⁴⁰K, respectively. The mean radiological hazard indices were 121.62 nGy h⁻¹; 239.73 Bq kg⁻¹; 0.65 Bq kg⁻¹ and 0.77 Bq kg⁻¹ for the absorbed dose rate, radium equivalent, external hazard and internal hazard, respectively. The results obtained were examined on the basis of existing International recommended limits and compared with data on similar rocks from other parts of the world. The values obtained for the rocks, except one, were found to be lower than the values recommended for building materials, and the rocks are considered safe for use as decorative stones as defined by OECD criteria (NEA-OCED Nuclear Energy Agency Dose Constraints in Optimisation of Occupational Radiological Protection Report by NEA Group Experts, OCED, France (2011)). Results highlight the fact that, despite meeting certain suitability criteria such as colour, texture, etc., the radioactivity content of the rocks is another factor of importance for their continued application in the human environment/building industry.

  3. Digitalization of the exceptional building and decorative stones collection of the Natural History Museum Vienna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrière, Ludovic; Steinwender, Christian

    2014-05-01

    The Natural History Museum Vienna (NHMV) owns one of the largest building, decorative, and ornamental stones collections in Europe. This important collection dates back to the 19th century and was initiated by curator Felix Karrer after a donation of the "Union-Baugesellschaft" (Karrer, 1892). It contains rock samples used for the construction of most of the famous buildings and monuments in Vienna and in the entire Austria and surrounding countries, as well as from other famous constructions and antique (Egyptian, Greek, Roman, etc.) monuments in the world. Decorative stones that were used for the inside parts of buildings as well as artificial materials, such as stucco, tiles, and building-materials like gravel, are also part of this collection. Unfortunately, most specimens of this collection cannot be displayed at the NHMV (i.e., only 500 specimens are visible in the display Hall I) and are therefore preserved in storage rooms, and not accessible to the public. The main objective of our project of digitalization is to share our rock collection and all treasures it contains with the large majority of interested persons, and especially to provide knowledge on these rocks for people who need this information, such as people who work in cultural, architectural, scientific, and commercial fields. So far 4,500 samples from our collection have been processed with the support of the Open Up! project (Opening up the Natural History Heritage for Europeana). Our database contains all information available on these samples (including e.g., the name of the rock, locality, historic use, heritage utilization, etc.), high-quality digital photographs (with both top and bottom sides of the samples), and scanned labels (both "old" NHMV labels and other (original) labels attached to the samples). We plan to achieve the full digitalization of our unique collection within the next two years and to develop a website to provide access to the content of our database (if adequate

  4. Optimization of graffiti removal on natural stone by means of high repetition rate UV laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorucci, M.P., E-mail: m.p.fiorucci@udc.es [Centro de Investigacións Tecnolóxicas, Universidade da Coruña, 15403 Ferrol (Spain); Dpto. Enxeñaría dos Recursos Naturais e Medio Ambiente, E.T.S.E. Minas, Universidade de Vigo, 36200 Vigo (Spain); López, A.J., E-mail: ana.xesus.lopez@udc.es [Centro de Investigacións Tecnolóxicas, Universidade da Coruña, 15403 Ferrol (Spain); Ramil, A., E-mail: alberto.ramil@udc.es [Centro de Investigacións Tecnolóxicas, Universidade da Coruña, 15403 Ferrol (Spain); Pozo, S., E-mail: ipozo@uvigo.es [Dpto. Enxeñaría dos Recursos Naturais e Medio Ambiente, E.T.S.E. Minas, Universidade de Vigo, 36200 Vigo (Spain); Rivas, T., E-mail: trivas@uvigo.es [Dpto. Enxeñaría dos Recursos Naturais e Medio Ambiente, E.T.S.E. Minas, Universidade de Vigo, 36200 Vigo (Spain)

    2013-08-01

    The use of laser for graffiti removal is a promising alternative to conventional cleaning methods, though irradiation parameters must be carefully selected in order to achieve the effective cleaning without damaging the substrate, especially when referring to natural stone. From a practical point of view, once a safe working window is selected, it is necessary to determine the irradiation conditions to remove large paint areas, with minimal time consumption. The aim of this paper is to present a systematic procedure to select the optimum parameters for graffiti removal by means of the 3rd harmonic of a high repetition rate nanosecond Nd:YVO{sub 4} laser. Ablation thresholds of four spray paint colors were determined and the effect of pulse repetition frequency, beam diameter and line scan separation was analyzed, obtaining a set of values which optimize the ablation process.

  5. Optimization of graffiti removal on natural stone by means of high repetition rate UV laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorucci, M. P.; López, A. J.; Ramil, A.; Pozo, S.; Rivas, T.

    2013-08-01

    The use of laser for graffiti removal is a promising alternative to conventional cleaning methods, though irradiation parameters must be carefully selected in order to achieve the effective cleaning without damaging the substrate, especially when referring to natural stone. From a practical point of view, once a safe working window is selected, it is necessary to determine the irradiation conditions to remove large paint areas, with minimal time consumption. The aim of this paper is to present a systematic procedure to select the optimum parameters for graffiti removal by means of the 3rd harmonic of a high repetition rate nanosecond Nd:YVO4 laser. Ablation thresholds of four spray paint colors were determined and the effect of pulse repetition frequency, beam diameter and line scan separation was analyzed, obtaining a set of values which optimize the ablation process.

  6. Origin of natural gases in the Paleozoic-Mesozoic basement of the Polish Carpathian Foredeep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotarba, Maciej

    2012-08-01

    Hydrocarbon gases from Upper Devonian and Lower Carboniferous reservoirs in the Paleozoic basement of the Polish Carpathian Foredeep were generated mainly during low-temperature thermogenic processes ("oil window"). They contain only insignificant amounts of microbial methane and ethane. These gaseous hydrocarbons were generated from Lower Carboniferous and/or Middle Jurassic mixed Type III/II kerogen and from Ordovician-Silurian Type II kerogen, respectively. Methane, ethane and carbon dioxide of natural gas from the Middle Devonian reservoir contain a significant microbial component whereas their small thermogenic component is most probably genetically related to Ordovician-Silurian Type II kerogen. The gaseous hydrocarbons from the Upper Jurassic and the Upper Cretaceous reservoirs of the Mesozoic basement were generated both by microbial carbon dioxide reduction and thermogenic processes. The presence of microbial methane generated by carbon dioxide reduction suggests that in some deposits the traps had already been formed and sealed during the migration of microbial methane, presumably in the immature source rock environment. The traps were successively supplied with thermogenic methane and higher hydrocarbons generated at successively higher maturation stages of kerogen. The higher hydrocarbons of the majority of deposits were generated from mixed Type III/II kerogen deposited in the Middle Jurassic, Lower Carboniferous and/or Devonian strata. Type II or mixed Type II/III kerogen could be the source for hydrocarbons in both the Tarnów and Brzezówka deposits. In the Cenomanian sandstone reservoir of the Brzezowiec deposit and one Upper Jurassic carbonate block of the Lubaczów deposit microbial methane prevails. It migrated from the autochthonous Miocene strata.

  7. Bowing and expansion of natural stone panels: marble and limestone testing and assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grelk, Bent

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural stone has been used as a building material for centuries. In the past, load bearing members were made of entirely of stone, but in the last 50 years new processing techniques have made the production and use of thin facade cladding a profitable venture. Unfortunately however, marble facades on buildings in Europe and elsewhere have undergone severe deterioration. The EC-financed TEAM project (2000-2005 studied the bowing observed on marble facades in both cold and warm climates. TEAM’s main objectives were to understand and explain the expansion, bowing, and strength loss mechanisms governing the decay of marble- and limestone-clad facades, and to draft new European standards to prevent the use of marble and limestone poorly suited to outdoor cladding. A survey of some 200 buildings afforded a clear picture of the geographical, geological and climatic scope of the problem. Detailed case studies of six buildings resulted in a facade assessment methodology that included a monitoring system and risk assessment. Both laboratory and field research was conducted on almost 100 different types of stone from different countries and in place in different climates. The outcome was the determination of the decay mechanisms and critical factors. Two test methods and respective precision statements, one for bowing and the other for irreversible thermal expansion in high humidity conditions, were prepared for submission to CEN TC 246.La piedra natural se ha empleado como material de construcción durante siglos. En el pasado, se solía utilizar en elementos de carga, pero en los últimos 50 años las nuevas técnicas de procesamiento han permitido que sea comercialmente rentable producir y utilizar revestimientos para fachadas de espesor reducido. Desafortunadamente, numerosas fachadas de mármol de edificios tanto en Europa como fuera de ella han sufrido graves problemas derivados del deterioro de la piedra. El proyecto TEAM (2000

  8. Integration of X-ray micro tomography and fluorescence for applications on natural building stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewanckele, J; Cnudde, V; Pieters, K; Jacobs, P; Boone, M; Loo, D Van; De Witte, Y; Vlassenbroeck, J; Dierick, M; Masschaele, B; Hoorebeke, L Van

    2009-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) is an excellent, non-destructive analysis tool for characterising many different materials. In geosciences, 3D visualisation is becoming of prime importance in characterising internal structures of various rock types. It enables new approaches in petrophysical research of rock components, including pore and mineral distribution. Although CT provides a lot of information, this technique is limited concerning information on chemical element distribution. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) on the other hand is an excellent technique to obtain the missing information on chemical properties. At the recently established 'Centre for X-ray Tomography' of Ghent University (UGCT) a micro- and nanoCT scanner has been constructed. It is expected that by combination of high-resolution CT and XRF it will be possible to characterise the spatial mineral and element distribution. The combination of both techniques has been applied on natural building stones, in order to get a better insight into some geological parameters (porosity, pore structure, mineral distribution, colour, grain orientation, etc.). Afterwards, the integration of the Morpho+ software tool provides us a 3D quantification of the resulting data.

  9. Hematite from Natural Iron Stones as Microwave Absorbing Material on X-Band Frequency Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainuri, Mochamad

    2017-05-01

    This study has been investigated the effect of hematite as microwave absorbing materials (RAM) on X-Band frequency ranges. Hematite was succesfully processed by coprecipitation method and calcined at 500 °C for 5 hour. It was synthesized from natural iron stones from Tanah Laut, South Kalimantan, Indonesia. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraxtion (XRD), conductivity measurement, Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM), and Vector Network Analyzer (VNA). The result was shown that hematite has conductivity value on (2.5-3).10-7 S/cm and be included as dielectric materials. The hysterisis curve was shown that hematite was a super paramagnetic materials. The product was mixed on paint with procentage 10% of total weight and coated on steel grade AH36 with spray methods. Then, the maximum of reflection loss on x - band’s frequency range (8,2-12,4) GHz was -7 dB on frequency of 10.5 GHz. It mean that almost 50% electromagnetic energy was absorbed by hematite.

  10. Durability of anti-graffiti coatings on stone: natural vs accelerated weathering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula M Carmona-Quiroga

    Full Text Available Extending the use of novel anti-graffiti coatings to built heritage could be of particular interest providing the treatments are efficient enough in facilitating graffiti removal and long-lasting to maintain their protective properties without interfering with the durability of the substrates. However, studies of the durability of these coatings are scarce and have been mainly carried out under accelerated weathering conditions, the most common practice for assessing the durability of materials but one that does not reproduce accurately natural working conditions. The present study aimed to assess the durability of the anti-graffiti protection afforded by two anti-graffiti treatments (a water dispersion of polyurethane with a perfluoropolyether backbone and a water based crystalline micro wax on Portland limestone and Woodkirk sandstone after 1 year of outdoor exposure in the South of England with periodic painting and cleaning episodes taking place. A parallel study under artificial weathering conditions in a QUV chamber for 2000 hours was also carried out. Changes to the coatings were assessed by measuring colour, gloss, water-repellency, roughness and microstructure, the latter through micro-Raman and optical microscope observations, periodically during the experiments. The results show that both anti-graffiti treatments deteriorated under both artificial and natural weathering conditions. For the polyurethane based anti-graffiti treatment, artificial ageing produced more deterioration than 1 year of outdoor exposure in the south of England due to loss of adhesion from the stones, whereas for micro wax coating there were no substantial differences between the two types of weathering.

  11. Durability of anti-graffiti coatings on stone: natural vs accelerated weathering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Quiroga, Paula M; Jacobs, Robert M J; Martínez-Ramírez, Sagrario; Viles, Heather A

    2017-01-01

    Extending the use of novel anti-graffiti coatings to built heritage could be of particular interest providing the treatments are efficient enough in facilitating graffiti removal and long-lasting to maintain their protective properties without interfering with the durability of the substrates. However, studies of the durability of these coatings are scarce and have been mainly carried out under accelerated weathering conditions, the most common practice for assessing the durability of materials but one that does not reproduce accurately natural working conditions. The present study aimed to assess the durability of the anti-graffiti protection afforded by two anti-graffiti treatments (a water dispersion of polyurethane with a perfluoropolyether backbone and a water based crystalline micro wax) on Portland limestone and Woodkirk sandstone after 1 year of outdoor exposure in the South of England with periodic painting and cleaning episodes taking place. A parallel study under artificial weathering conditions in a QUV chamber for 2000 hours was also carried out. Changes to the coatings were assessed by measuring colour, gloss, water-repellency, roughness and microstructure, the latter through micro-Raman and optical microscope observations, periodically during the experiments. The results show that both anti-graffiti treatments deteriorated under both artificial and natural weathering conditions. For the polyurethane based anti-graffiti treatment, artificial ageing produced more deterioration than 1 year of outdoor exposure in the south of England due to loss of adhesion from the stones, whereas for micro wax coating there were no substantial differences between the two types of weathering.

  12. Correlation between microstructural characteristics and weight loss of natural stones exposed to simulated acid rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzoni, Elisa; Sassoni, Enrico

    2011-12-15

    The correlation between stone microstructural characteristics and material degradation (in terms of weight loss), in given environmental conditions, was investigated. Seven lithotypes, having very different microstructural characteristics, were used. Four acidic aqueous solutions were prepared to simulate acid rain (two adding H(2)SO(4) and two adding HNO(3) to deionized water, in order to reach, for each acid, pH values of 5.0 and 4.0), and deionized water at pH=5.6 was used to simulate clean rain. Stone samples were then immersed in such aqueous solutions, the surface alteration being periodically inspected and the weight loss periodically measured. After 14 days of immersion, a good correlation was found between weight loss and the product of carbonate content and specific surface area in the starting materials. This was explained considering that this product accounts for the weight loss owing to the sample's fraction actually composed of calcite (the most soluble fraction) and the effective surface area exposed to dissolving solution (which depends on stone porosity and pore size distribution). Such correlation between stone microstructure and degradation may be useful for comparing the durability of different lithotypes, in given environmental conditions, and quantitatively predicting the weight loss of a lithotype, compared to another one. Hence, the correlation found in this study may be used to specifically tailor to various stone types, with different microstructural characteristics, some results that have been calculated in literature for specific stone types and then proposed as possibly representative for a broad category of stones with similar characteristics. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. EVALUATION OF INSECT-BASED FOOD ACCEPTANCE BY REPRESENTATIVES OF POLISH CONSUMERS IN THE CONTEXT OF NATURAL RESOURCES PROCESSING RETARDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kostecka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Food production, based on intensive farming, contributes to high and constantly increasing pollution of soils and other environmental resources. Given this, search for non-conventional sources of animal protein seems justified. The present study was designed to examine opinions of selected Polish consumers related to their acceptance of insect-based food as an alternative source of nutrients. The assessment of attitudes towards alternative sources of nutrients was based on the survey developed at the Faculty of Science, University of Porto in Portugal. Representatives of Polish consumers in the region of Podkarpackie generally did not show open-mindedness towards incorporating insect-based food into their diet. Majority of the respondents, however, recognized the importance of food sector operation based on respect for natural resources. Therefore, it seems important that consumers be informed about the advantages of production or use of insect biomass originating from natural ecosystems. This may contribute to increased acceptance for alternative sources of protein, which consequently may lead to reduced environmental pressure of traditional livestock farming and to retardation of ecosystems transformation and loss of biological diversity.

  14. Layered Nano-TiO2 Based Treatments for the Maintenance of Natural Stones in Historical Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherardi, Francesca; Goidanich, Sara; Dal Santo, Vladimiro; Toniolo, Lucia

    2018-02-09

    Layered treatments of natural stones based on dispersions of experimental nano-TiO 2 and commercial TEOS showing photocatalytic and self-cleaning properties were set up and tested. To enhance nano-TiO 2 efficacy, a surface pre-treatment with tetraethyl orthosilicate was proposed to avoid the penetration of NPs into the crystalline porous substrates and to improve their adhesion to the stone. Two treatment applications (wet-on-wet and wet-on-dry) were compared, showing different results. A strong interaction Si-O-Ti was the key factor for the successful treatment, leaving the band gap and relevant properties of nano-TiO 2 unaltered. The layered treatments were tested on a porous calcarenite (Noto stone) and a very compact marble (Carrara marble). The combined SiO 2 -nano-TiO 2 treatments can find application in suitable cases where a surface consolidation is needed, ensuring a depolluting and self-cleaning durable activity. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Steatite and schist as contenders for the Global Heritage Stone Resource due to their importance in Brazil's natural stone built heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilberto Costa, Antônio

    2013-04-01

    In Brazil, European natural stones, such as marble and limestone, were used as building material at historically important buildings and monuments, mainly in coastal cities, as well as in contemporary urban centers. However, in the country's central region, these Italian and Portuguese marbles and limestones were scarcely used. Instead, they were substituted for soapstone and several types of schist. As of 1755, the former was employed because of the ease with which it can be worked, essentially in the sculptural art and in the production of ornamental elements. Characterized by the presence of talc, steatite can feature other minerals such as serpentine, chlorite, carbonate, amphiboles, oxides like hematite and magnetite, and sulfites like pyrite, all in broadly variable amounts, which can result in modification of its technological properties (Volumetric Weight, Porosity, Water Absorption, Uniaxial Compression, Abrasion Resistance, Thermal Expansion etc.). In such rocks, talc content will be a decisive factor in their coloration. The higher its talc content is the clearer and softer the stone type will be, which ends up being known as talc stone. In such cases, the rock can display different hues of green, blue and gray. When compared to other rocks, texture patterns containing talc crystals, chlorite and carbonate contribute to low absorption and porosity for steatites. Schists were equally used at historical buildings in the Brazilian inland, especially in constructions in Minas Gerais towns, both in the production of structural elements such as bases, corners, pillars and foundations and in the creation of ornaments. Featuring different compositions, such rocks - which almost always occur interlayered with other ones such as quartzite - display coloration ranging from hues of gray to green to blue. They can be quartz-sericite-albite-chlorite schists featuring great or no amounts of carbonate, magnetite, epidote and tourmaline, sometimes with garnet, such as in

  16. Natural Stone in Spain: trends and perspectives; La piedra natural en España: evolución y perspectivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchán Sanz, C.; Regueiro y González-Barros, M.; Delgado Arenas, P.

    2017-09-01

    The natural stone sector was severely affected by the national construction sector crisis. Production, both exworks and processed, has been also harshly affected dropping from 8Mt/y in 2007 to 3,49Mt/y in 2015, particularly in the marble and granite sectors, since slate has always been a mainly exporting sub-sector. In the latest times, thanks mainly to exports, production apparently has slowly started to recover. In this paper, we review the typology of the Spanish natural stone products and the production data of the main stone subsectors (marble, granite and slate) in the last 10 years and we review possible future trends in the framework of the first steps of the economic recovery. [Spanish] El sector de la Piedra Natural nacional ha sufrido muy duramente el impacto de la crisis del sector de la construcción nacional. La producción tanto en cantera como elaborada se ha resentido gravemente, pasando de 8Mt/año en 2007 a menos de la mitad en 2015, en particular en los subsectores de mármoles y granitos, ya que la pizarra siempre ha sido un subsector netamente exportador. En los últimos tiempos y gracias fundamentalmente a las exportaciones, la producción poco a poco parece que está comenzando a recuperarse. En este trabajo se pasa revista a la tipología de los productos de piedra en España y los datos de producción de los grandes sub-sectores de la piedra natural nacional (mármoles, granitos y pizarras) en los últimos 10 años y se analiza su posible evolución futura en el marco de la incipiente recuperación económica.

  17. Tests to characterize the behaviour of natural stone in contact with water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vielba Cuerpo, C.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental analysis of the stone behaviour in contact with water in the different construction uses. In any of these cases is analyse how the water penetrates into the material. As a result of the study the need of modification of the UNE test standards is concluded. It is proposed a procedure to determinate the material's properties and a method to compare and analyse the result obtained that keep into consideration the climate factors. The method have been applied to sandstone of Villamayor (Spain showing its utility in the analysis of the stone properties.

    Se expone la necesidad de revisión de las normas UNE de ensayo para la determinación del comportamiento frente al agua de las rocas porosas teniendo en cuenta las formas de exposición que suponen las distintas aplicaciones constructivas y los mecanismos de penetración del agua que en cada caso operan. Se propone para ello una sistemática de ensayos y un método comparado de análisis de resultados basado en la consideración de los factores climatológicos. La utilidad del método se ilustra con un ejemplo de aplicación al estudio de la Arenisca de Villamayor

  18. "Piedra Dorada": a natural stone as an intrinsic part of two World Heritage Cities in Andalusia (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Rafael; Sánchez-Valverde, Josefina; Baltuille, José Manuel

    2013-04-01

    pressure between 12,15-14,02 %, compressive strength (dry) between 1,4-1,6 MPa, flexural resistance (dry) between 8,5-9,8 MPa and salt crystallization loss of mass of 30,4%. The main observed deterioration in the buildings made up of this natural stone is salt crystallization due to the combined action between water infiltration from rain and the application of different mortars due to the overlapping of different phases of construction. Black crust and biological colonization are important decay agents too. "Piedra Dorada", because of its relevance in the main buildings in the World Heritage Cities of Ubeda and Baeza and its optimal aesthetic characteristics and behaviour, can be considered as one of the most important natural stone in Andalusia. Its nomination as Global Heritage Stone Resource will help to preserve the material, both in quarries and in historical buildings, avoiding the extreme deterioration and the application of proper restoration when needed. This is a contribution of the Spanish network CONSTRUROCK.

  19. Visualization and quantification of weathering effects on capillary water uptake of natural building stones by using neutron imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raneri, Simona; Barone, Germana; Mazzoleni, Paolo; Rabot, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Building stones are frequently subjected to very intense degradation due to salt crystallization, often responsible for strong modifications of their pore network. These effects have a great influence on the mechanical properties and durability of the materials, and on the penetration of water. Therefore, the quantification and visualization of water absorption into the pore network of degraded stones could provide useful information to better understand the weathering process. In this study, neutron radiography has been used (1) to monitor and visualize in two dimensions the capillary water uptake in a Sicilian calcarenite widely used as building and replace stone (namely Sabucina stone) and (2) to quantify the water content distribution, as a function of time and weathering degree. Additionally, traditional experiments based on gravimetric methods have been performed, following the standard recommendations. Results demonstrated a change in the physical properties of Sabucina stones with the intensification of the degradation process, with severe effects on the capillary imbibition dynamics. The water penetration depth at the end of the experiment was substantially higher in the fresh than in the weathered stones. The water absorption kinetics was faster in the weathered samples, and the amount of water absorbed increased with the number of weathering cycles. Good agreement between classical and neutron imaging data has also been evidenced. However, neutron radiography has allowed retrieving additional spatial information on the water absorption process, and to better understand how salt weathering affects the petrophysical properties of the studied stone and how it influences then the stone response against water. (orig.)

  20. Visualization and quantification of weathering effects on capillary water uptake of natural building stones by using neutron imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raneri, Simona; Barone, Germana; Mazzoleni, Paolo [University of Catania, Department of Biological, Geological and Environment Sciences, Catania (Italy); Rabot, Eva [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin (CNRS/CEA), Gif-Sur-Yvette (France)

    2016-11-15

    Building stones are frequently subjected to very intense degradation due to salt crystallization, often responsible for strong modifications of their pore network. These effects have a great influence on the mechanical properties and durability of the materials, and on the penetration of water. Therefore, the quantification and visualization of water absorption into the pore network of degraded stones could provide useful information to better understand the weathering process. In this study, neutron radiography has been used (1) to monitor and visualize in two dimensions the capillary water uptake in a Sicilian calcarenite widely used as building and replace stone (namely Sabucina stone) and (2) to quantify the water content distribution, as a function of time and weathering degree. Additionally, traditional experiments based on gravimetric methods have been performed, following the standard recommendations. Results demonstrated a change in the physical properties of Sabucina stones with the intensification of the degradation process, with severe effects on the capillary imbibition dynamics. The water penetration depth at the end of the experiment was substantially higher in the fresh than in the weathered stones. The water absorption kinetics was faster in the weathered samples, and the amount of water absorbed increased with the number of weathering cycles. Good agreement between classical and neutron imaging data has also been evidenced. However, neutron radiography has allowed retrieving additional spatial information on the water absorption process, and to better understand how salt weathering affects the petrophysical properties of the studied stone and how it influences then the stone response against water. (orig.)

  1. Naturally green: Harnessing stone age psychological biases to foster environmental behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vugt, M.; Griskevicius, V.; Schultz, P. W.

    2014-01-01

    It is widely agreed that humans must reduce their environmental impact. We propose that an improved understanding of our evolved human nature can help to improve programs and policies to address environmental problems. Combining evolutionary and social psychological approaches, we argue that

  2. Polish visit

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    On 6 October, Professor Michal Kleiber, Polish Minister of Science and Chairman of the State Committee for Scientific Research, visited CERN and met both the current and designated Director General, Luciano Maiani and Robert Aymar. Professor Kleiber visited the CMS and ATLAS detector assembly halls, the underground cavern for ATLAS, and the LHC superconducting magnet string test hall. Michal Kleiber (left), Polish minister of science and Jan Krolikowski, scientist at Warsaw University and working for CMS, who shows the prototypes of the Muon Trigger board of CMS.

  3. Comparison of pore space textural characteristics of natural stone exposed to real weathering environment and/or subjected to accelerated weathering tests: implications for durability assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prikryl, Richard; Weishauptová, Zuzana

    2017-04-01

    One of the key questions in the debate on durability of natural stone is related to the relevance of accelerated weathering tests for durability assessments, specifically whether similar material responses can be achieved? In the recent study, specimens of opuka stone (extremely fine-grained clayey-calcareous silicite) was subjected to accelerated weathering tests in a climatic chamber (sulphur dioxide atmosphere, freezing/thawing). After completion of certain number of cycles, pore space textural characteristics by means of mercury porosimetry were studied. These data were compared with porosimetric data obtained from a piece of stone, sampled from a carved stone altar located in the interior of the St. Vitus Cathedral (Prague, Czech Republic) which was affected by 150-years lasting indoor decay processes (cyclic themohygric stresses due to variable indoor atmospheric conditions). Interestingly, the pore space textural characteristics of these two sets of specimens are closely related and show some distinct features different from fresh, non-weathered material. Our observation therefore supports relevance of some accelerated weathering simulations; however, conditions of these simulations must be based on parameters of real environment.

  4. Determination of suitability of natural Polish resources for production of ceramic proppants applied in gas exploration from European shale formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanska, Joanna; Mizera, Jaroslaw

    2017-04-01

    Poland is one of few European countries undertaking innovative research towards effective exploration of hydrocarbons form shale deposits. With regard for strict geological conditions, which occur during hydraulic fracturing, it is required to apply ceramic proppants enhancing extraction of shale gas. Ceramic proppants are granules (16/30 - 70/120 Mesh) classified as propping agents. These granules located in the newly created fissures (due to injected high pressure fluid) in the shale rock, act as a prop, what enables gas flow up the well. It occurs if the proppants can resist high stress of the closing fractures. Commonly applied proppants are quartz sands used only for shallow reservoirs and fissile shales (in the USA). Whereas, the ceramic granules are proper for extraction of gas on the high depths at hard geomechanical conditions (in Europe) to increase output even by 30 - 50%. In comparison to other propping materials, this kind of proppants predominate with mechanical strength, smoother surface, lower solubility in acids and also high stability in water. Such parameters can be available through proper raw materials selection to further proppants production. The Polish ceramic proppants are produced from natural resources as kaolin, bauxite and white clay mixed with water and binders. Afterwards, the slurries are subjected to granulation in a mechanical granulator and sintered at high temperatures (1200 - 1550°C). Taking into consideration presence of geomechanical barriers, that prevent fracture propagation beyond shale formations, it is crucial to determine quality of applied natural deposits. Next step is to optimize the proppants production and select the best kind of granules, what was the aim of this research. Utility of the raw materials was estimated on basis of their particle size distribution, bulk density, specific surface area (BET) and thermal analysis (thermogravimetry). Morphology and shape were determined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM

  5. The effect of continuous natural roughness onhydraulic jump characteristics on the stone ramps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Maghrebi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The hydraulic jump happens when flow transfers from supercritical regime to subcritical regime. The hydraulic jump on smooth bed is called the classic hydraulic jump. One way to increase the energy dissipation in a hydraulic jump is to roughen the bed. Elements including stabilizers and baffle blocks are commonly used as the energy dissipators in stilling basins to stabilize the location and decrease the length and conjugate depths of the hydraulic jumps. If roughness elements are placed uniformly on the bed and orthogonal to the flow direction, the formed jump is addressed as the hydraulic jump on rough bed. Recently, implementing short energy dissipaters and environment friendly rough beds have attracted attention and justify more research in these fields. Recent studies have addressed hydraulic jump on rough beds ([14], [5], and [12]. Relative roughness parameter first defined by Rajaratnam to investigate the jump characteristics and other researchers then used this parameter to investigate the characteristics of jump on rough bed. In this research, similar experiments to Pagliara et al (5 are designed to study continuous and natural rough beds. Materials and Methods: All the experiments have been arranged and carried out in the hydraulic laboratory of Ferdowsi University, Mashhad Iran. Hydraulic jump characteristicswere measured in a horizontal rectangular flume, 0.30 m wide, 0.50 m deep, and 11 m long, with smooth glass side walls.The rough bed was simulated by gluing a layer of uniform gravel material with middle diameter 3.5mm and 11mm on a glass plate which was placed on the flume, throughout its length .In the physical model, to simulate a supercritical flow with three constant initial depths including , 1.5 and ,a steel sluice gate is installed. Furthermore, to stabilize the location ofhydraulic jump and create a free-surface jump, a sharp-crested weir with the same width as the channel width is installed at the end of

  6. Building HIA approaches into strategies for green space use: an example from Plymouth's (UK) Stepping Stones to Nature project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, J; Goss, Z; Pratt, A; Sharman, J; Tighe, M

    2013-12-01

    The health and well-being benefits of access to green space are well documented. Research suggests positive findings regardless of social group, however barriers exist that limit access to green space, including proximity, geography and differing social conditions. Current public health policy aims to broaden the range of environmental public health interventions through effective partnership working, providing opportunities to work across agencies to promote the use of green space. Health Impact Assessment (HIA) is a combination of methods and procedures to assess the potential health and well-being impacts of policies, developments and projects. It provides a means by which negative impacts can be mitigated and positive impacts can be enhanced, and has potential application for assessing green space use. This paper describes the application of a HIA approach to a multi-agency project (Stepping Stones to Nature--SS2N) in the UK designed to improve local green spaces and facilitate green space use in areas classified as having high levels of deprivation. The findings suggest that the SS2N project had the potential to provide significant positive benefits in the areas of physical activity, mental and social well-being. Specific findings for one locality identified a range of actions that could be taken to enhance benefits, and mitigate negative factors such as anti-social behaviour. The HIA approach proved to be a valuable process through which impacts of a community development/public health project could be enhanced and negative impacts prevented at an early stage; it illustrates how a HIA approach could enhance multi-agency working to promote health and well-being in communities.

  7. Effect of Polishing Systems on Surface Roughness and Topography of Monolithic Zirconia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goo, C L; Yap, Auj; Tan, Kbc; Fawzy, A S

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different chairside polishing systems on the surface roughness and topography of monolithic zirconia. Thirty-five monolithic zirconia specimens (Lava PLUS, 3M ESPE) were fabricated and divided into five groups of seven and polished with the following: Group 1 (WZ)-Dura white stone followed by Shofu zirconia polishing kit; Group 2 (SZ)-Shofu zirconia polishing kit; Group 3 (CE)-Ceramiste porcelain polishers; Group 4 (CM)-Ceramaster porcelain polishers; and Group 5 (KZ)-Komet ZR zirconia polishers. All specimens were ground with a fine-grit diamond bur prior to polishing procedures to simulate clinical finishing. Baseline and post-polishing profilometric readings were recorded and delta Ra values (difference in mean surface roughness before and after polishing) were computed and analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Scheffe post hoc test (pzirconia.

  8. The need for verification of the Polish lignite deposits owing to development and nature conservation protection on land at the surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naworyta Wojciech

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Poland is a country rich in lignite. The area where the lignite occurs occupies approx. 22% of the total surface area of the country. Geological resources of Polish lignite deposits are estimated at 23.5 billion Mg, but in the majority (69% the accuracy of their identification is poor. Nevertheless the amount of coal in Polish deposits allows - at least in theory - for mining and energy production at the current level for hundreds of years to come. It is an important raw material for the energy security of the country both currently and in the future. Because the vast majority of Polish and foreign mines use an open pit method for lignite extraction the actual amount of mineral available for the extraction depends not only on the properties of the deposit but to a large extent on the method of development of the surface land above the deposit, as well as on the sensitivity of the environment in the vicinity of any future mines. After careful analysis it can be stated that only a few of the lignite deposits may be subject to cost-effective mining operations. These deposits should be subjected to special protection as a future resource base which will ensure the energy security of the country. Some examples of domestic deposits have been presented where due to the conflict resulting from the development of the area should be deleted from the Balance Sheet of Mineral Deposits because their exploitation is irrational and uneconomic. Keeping such deposits in the Balance Sheet, and the use of large numbers in the context of their resource base leads to an unwarranted sense of wealth which consequently does not encourage the protection of these deposits which may actually be subject to rational exploitation in the near future. In summary there is a need to find a compromise in order to adequately protect all natural resources including mineral deposits.

  9. Natural, social, economical and political influences on fisheries: a review of the transitional area of the Polish waters of the Vistula Lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psuty, Iwona

    2010-01-01

    A 60 year (1948-2007) dataset gathered by Polish researchers working on the Vistula Lagoon fish assemblages and fisheries has shown this stressed transitional environment to be always been dominated by a few highly abundant fish species. During this period, the surrounding countries Poland and Russia (Kaliningrad) were transformed from centrally-planned economies with fixed prices to free market systems. The organization of the fishery evolved from one in which the majority of the fishing effort was expended by cooperatives, to one which was characterized by individual economic activity. The fishing gear deployed also evolved from cotton to monofilament, as well as from large sailing vessels with small-sized pair trawls to fyke nets targeting eel (Anguilla anguilla) and pound nets targeting herring (Clupea harengus). Small-sized gillnets targeting perch (Perca fluviatilis) grew in popularity as eel and pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) catches decreased. Cooperation between Polish and Russian fishery managers began in 1952 with the aim of implementing joint agreements to establish protection guidelines. The substantial nutrient loads into the lagoon in 1970 and 1980 put very large pressure on the environment, and contributed to the loss of macrophytes as well as the development of non-commercial fish populations. One of the consequences of these changes was the rapid growth of a black cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) breeding colony. These multi-faceted changes are considered to be the factors that have influenced the exploitation of fish assemblages in the Polish part of the Vistula Lagoon. The most evident change in the fish assemblage structure during the study period was the permanent decrease in the basin's top predators--pike (Esox lucius) and pikeperch. Eel stocking was initiated in 1970 following a crucial decline in yield from natural recruitment, and stocking was successful in increasing eel abundance. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Wanted: suitable replacement stones for the Lede stone (Belgium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Kock, T.; Dewanckele, J.; Boone, M. A.; De Boever, W.; De Schutter, G.; Jacobs, P.; Cnudde, V.

    2012-04-01

    . In the sixties, a sand quarry located in Balegem (Belgium) started with the extraction of Lede stone combined with its other activities. Until now, only this site supplies blocks of fresh Lede stones and it doesn't seem there will rise an opportunity of a new site in the near future. Therefore, during the huge amount of renovation works in the past century, the Lede stone was often replaced by imported (mostly French) limestones such as Massangis stone, Savonnières stone and Euville stone. The commercial value seems to have had a large impact and too little attention was paid on the optical appearance, ageing and technical compatibility of the stones. The use of especially Massangis stone was taken for granted. In the 21st century, there is a growing awareness of the impact of such consequent replacement for the historical value of our cultural heritage and several alternative stones are suggested and even used. These include stones from France, Spain and Portugal, but also from other regions in Belgium. For the moment, there is no consensus on the most appropriate replacement stone and further research should be done in order to evaluate compatibility of the different stone types with Lede stone. In this context, it is also very important to actively search for better alternatives, which resemble the Lede stone in both a mechanical and aesthetical point of view. Therefore, this abstract is an open question to its readers. Any commercial natural stone suggestions with affiliation to the aforementioned properties are welcome by e-mailing the corresponding author.

  11. Natural mineral bottled waters available on the Polish market as a source of minerals for the consumers. Part 2: The intake of sodium and potassium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gątarska, Anna; Ciborska, Joanna; Tońska, Elżbieta

    Natural mineral waters are purchased and consumed according to consumer preferences and possible recommendations. The choice of appropriate water should take into account not only the general level of mineralization but also the content of individual components, including electrolytes such as sodium and potassium. Sodium is necessary to ensure the proper physiological functions of the body. It is defined as a health risk factor only when its excessive intake occurs. Potassium acts antagonistically towards sodium and calcium ions, contributes to a reduction of the volume of extracellular fluids and at the same time reduces muscle tension and permeability of cell membranes. The demand for sodium and potassium is of particular importance in people expending significant physical effort, where an increased electrolyte supply is recommended. The aim of the study was to estimate the content of sodium and potassium in natural mineral waters available in the Polish market and to evaluate the intake of those components with the commercially available mineral waters by different groups of consumers at the assumed volume of their consumption. The research material consisted of natural mineral waters of forty various brands available on the Polish market. The examined products were either produced in Poland or originated in other European countries. Among the products under examination, about 30% of the waters were imported from Lithuania, Latvia, the Czech Republic, France, Italy and Germany. A sample for analyses consisted of two package units of the examined water from different production lots. Samples for research were collected at random. The study was conducted with the same samples in in which calcium and magnesium content was determined, which was the subject of the first part of the study. The content of sodium and potassium was determined using the emission technique (acetylene-air flame), with the use of atomic absorption spectrometer – ICE 3000 SERIES – THERMO

  12. Building stones can be of geoheritage significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocx, Margaret; Semeniuk, Vic

    2017-04-01

    Building stones have generally been assigned values according to their cultural, aesthetic, and rarity significance, amongst other criteria, but they also may have geoheritage significance. This is akin to the geoheritage significance ascribed to minerals and fossils housed as ex situ specimens in museums. We proffer the notion that building stones can be of geoheritage value particularly where they comprise permanent buildings, they illustrate significant windows into the history of the Earth, and they can be visited as an ex situ museum locality (e.g., the "Blue Granite" of Iceland) for education as part of building-stone tours. For some rocks the quarries that supplied the building stone are no longer in existence and hence the building stones provide the only record of that type of material; for other rocks, the building stone may illustrate features in the lithology no longer present in the quarry itself (e.g., rare and large xenoliths). Building stones are particularly significant as they are often polished and manifest structures, fabrics, and textures not evident in outcrop. We illustrate here examples of building stone of geoheritage significance using Australian and International examples. Australian designated stones could include the "Sydney Sandstone" or "Victorian Bluestone". For international examples, there is the famous "Carrara Marble" in Italy and the widely known "Portland Limestone" from southern England, the latter having been utilized for St Pauls Cathedral in London and the UN building in New York City.

  13. Granites of Salamanca. A perfect example for the recognition of natural stone as a heritage resource and their use in restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González, C.; Pereira, D.; Baltuille, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    In the province of Salamanca (Spain) there are several quarries that used to be the source of natural stone used in the construction of historic buildings and that are today recognized by UNESCO as World Heritage Sites. In this study we investigated the granites used in the construction and restoration of the lower ashlars of the walls of different buildings in Salamanca, Alba de Tormes, Ciudad Rodrigo and Ledesma. The characterization of the different types of granite and their current state of preservation may serve to adopt specific measures for their possible use in the restoration of the architectural heritage of the province, if this should become necessary. Despite the variety of materials observed in the lower parts of the buildings (ranging from sandstone to conglomerate to granite), the stone most frequently used was the granite from Los Santos and the Martinamor granite, followed by the vaugneritic granites from Ledesma. In general the granite materials are in a good state of conservation but the existence of certain pathologies that have given rise to processes of flaking and discoloration of the rock suggests that it will be necessary to make a consistent assessment when deciding about possible actions aimed at replacing materials in these historic buildings Moreover, the various granites differ from one another and pieces should not be replaced without perfect identification of the specific type to which they belong. A detailed study of these granites is crucial for the nomination of some of them as candidates for the denomination Global Heritage Stone Resource and the whole set of Salamanca province lithologies as a Global Heritage Stone Province. [es

  14. History of Polish gastrointestinal radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanik, A

    2003-12-01

    As early as several days after the publication of the information concerning Roentgen's discovery the first radiological examinations were performed in Poland. The new method was immediately introduced into medical practice, including gastroenterology. In that pioneer period the most important works were those by Walery Jaworski who was the first man in the world to perform an X-ray of gall stones as well as the stomach with the use of a contrast medium. In its more-than-a-hundred-year history Polish gastrointestinal radiology has attempted not only to catch up with the world science, but it also has made a considerable contribution to its development.

  15. The social nature of health and illness--evolution of research approaches in Polish classical medical sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piątkowski, Włodzimierz; Skrzypek, Michał

    2012-01-01

    The cognitive identity of medical sociology has developed in a historical perspective in the context of a specific double frame of reference comprising medicine and general sociology. The purpose of this study is to reconstruct the process of the development of the subdiscipline's research specificity in Poland, drawing attention to the general-sociological context of the conceptualization of basic interpretive and analytical sociomedical categories. In this aspect, the presented study is based on the analysis of Polish sociomedical and general-sociological research published from the early 1960s until 1989. The purpose of the study is also to describe in this perspective the structure of the research field of contemporary Western medical sociology, which was a major point of reference in this process. A look at the chronology of how the scientific identity of medical sociology developed in Poland from a historical perspective shows the gradual balancing-out of the subdiscipline's medical references, typical of the early stage of its development, and manifested in the implementation of research projects for the requirements of doctors, through consistently developed and cultivated connections with general sociology manifested in complementing the knowledge of society with aspects related to health and illness. A sine qua non condition for undertaking this scope of research was to work out strictly sociological formulations of these concepts, which was accomplished as a result of the successful reception of general sociology by the subdiscipline in question. The contemporary understanding of the research field of Polish medical sociology defined by Magdalena Sokołowska and developed as part of the 'school of medical sociology', which she initiated, is characterized by the maintenance of close relations with general sociology (affiliations of sociomedical departments in academic sociological institutions, etc.), and at the same time, by partnership cooperation with

  16. Villamayor stone (Golden Stone) as a Global Heritage Stone Resource from Salamanca (NW of Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Talegon, Jacinta; Iñigo, Adolfo; Vicente-Tavera, Santiago

    2013-04-01

    Villamayor stone is an arkosic stone of Middle Eocene age and belongs to the Cabrerizos Sandstone Formation that comprising braided fluvial systems and paleosoils at the top of each stratigraphic sequence. The sandstone is known by several names: i) the Villamayor Stone because the quarries are located in Villamayor de Armuña village that are situated at 7 km to the North from Salamanca city; ii) the Golden Stone due to its patina that produced a ochreous/golden color on the façades of monuments of Salamanca (World Heritage City,1988) built in this Natural stone (one of the silicated rocks utilised). We present in this work, the Villamayor Stone to be candidate as Global Heritage Stone Resource. The Villamayor Stone were quarrying for the construction and ornamentation of Romanesque religious monuments as the Old Cathedral and San Julian church; Gothic (Spanish plateresc style) as the New Cathedral, San Esteban church and the sculpted façade of the Salamanca University, one of the oldest University in Europe (it had established in 1250); and this stone was one of the type of one of the most sumptuous Baroque monuments is the Main Square of the its galleries and arcades (1729). Also, this stone was used in building palaces, walls and reconstruction of Roman bridge. Currently, Villamayor Stone is being quarried by small and family companies, without a modernized processing, for cladding of the façades of the new buildings until that the construction sector was burst (in 2008 the international economic crisis). However, Villamayor Stone is the main stone material used in the city of Salamanca for the restoration of monuments and, even in small quantities when compared with just before the economic crisis, it would be of great importance for future generations protect their quarries and the craft of masonry. Villamayor Stone has several varieties from channels facies to floodplains facies, in this work the selected varieties are: i) the fine-grained stone

  17. Stone Carving in The Locality 0f Eskişehir With its Natural and Cultural Properties: Meerschaum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurbiye UZ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Also known as sepiolite, meerschaum is a rock with magnesium and silicium base. This stone is whitish in color, with a very thin texture. Although known to be mostly used for making pipes, the archeological researches about this stone revealed that it had been known for about 5000 years and had been used for various purposes. Today it is seen to be used as a filtering and insulation material thanks to its absorbent property, whereas it has another use in knickknack making with its easily carved texture. Meerschaum is found in countries such as Somali, Czech Republic, United States of America, Greece, Spain, and France in the world, and around the city of Eskişehir in our country. Almost all of the free-milling deposits of this stone is in Turkey, quarrying of which is rather hard. Meerschaum carving, as a craft identified with Eskişehir, is a challenging artisanship that requires mastery, experience, skill, and patience. Although the sizes and durability are not very attractive for the artists, it is possible to see examples of sculpture made of meerschaum. 

  18. Fragmentation of kidney stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, K.; Kun, F.; Vertse, T.

    2005-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Fragmentation, i.e. the breaking of particulate materials into smaller pieces is abundant in nature and underlies several industrial processes, which attracted a continuous interest in scientific and engineering research over the past decades. In industrial applications, fragmentation processes are mostly used for the comminution of ores in various types of mills. Kidney stone is a well known human dis- ease which embitters the life of many people (in a country like the USA about 10 6 cases are registered yearly). In order to extract large kidney stones (diameter ≥ 1 cm) from the human body without operation, one of the most efficient treatment is the fragmentation of kidney stones by the so-called extracorporal shock wave lithography method: a shock wave penetrating the human body is generated by an electric pulse. The repeated application of the shock wave gradually fragments the stones into pieces of size ≤ 2 mm which then leave the body through the urine system. Recently, a novel type of lithographic method has been suggested by using widely focused shock waves which fragment the stones by a squeezing mechanism. Laboratory experiments showed that the widely focused squeezing waves achieve a higher fragmentation efficiency than the frequently used shock waves of sharp focus. Based on this method a novel medical treatment can be introduced which is less demanding for the patients. Before the application of the method in the clinical practice a detailed understanding of the fragmentation mechanism of kidney stones due to shock waves is required. Since analytic theoretical methods have serious limitations in this field, we develop a realistic model of the mechanical behavior of kidney stones and a simulation code which makes possible to study the mechanism of breakup under various external conditions. Computer simulations in two dimensions have revealed a peculiar way of crack formation, i.e. the crack which finally breaks

  19. Acute management of stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Helene; Osther, Palle J S

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Stone management is often conservative due to a high spontaneous stone passage rate or non-symptomatic calyceal stones that do not necessarily require active treatment. However, stone disease may cause symptoms and complications requiring urgent intervention. MATERIAL AND METHODS......: In this review, we update latest research and current recommendations regarding acute management of stones, with particular focus on imaging, pain management, active stone interventions, medical expulsive therapy, and urolithiasis in pregnancy and childhood. RESULTS: Acute stone management should be planned...

  20. Stepping-stones and dispersal flow: establishment of a meta-population of Milu (Elaphurus davidianus) through natural re-wilding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Daode; Song, Yucheng; Ma, Jianzhang; Li, Pengfei; Zhang, Hong; Price, Mark R Stanley; Li, Chunlin; Jiang, Zhigang

    2016-06-07

    The Milu (Père David's deer, Elaphurus davidianus) became extinct in China in the early 20(th) century but was reintroduced to the country. The reintroduced Milu escaped from a nature reserve and dispersed to the south of the Yangtze River. We monitored these accidentally escaped Milu from 1995 to 2012. The escaped Milu searched for vacant habitat patches as "stepping stones" and established refuge populations. We recorded 122 dispersal events of the escaped Milu. Most dispersal events occurred in 1998, 2003, 2006 and 2010. Milu normally disperse in March, July and November. Average dispersal distance was 14.08 ± 9.03 km, with 91.41% shorter than 25 km. After 5 generations, by the end of 2012, 300 wild Milu were scattered in refuge populations in the eastern and southern edges of the Dongting Lake. We suggest that population density is the ultimate cause for Milu dispersal, whereas floods and human disturbance are proximate causes. The case of the Milu shows that accidentally escaped animals can establish viable populations; however, the dispersed animals were subject to chance in finding "stepping stones". The re-wilded Milu persist as a meta-population with sub-populations linked by dispersals through marginal habitats in an anthropogenic landscape.

  1. The bioreceptivity of building stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauko Pranjić, Alenka; Mulec, Janez; Muck, Tadeja; Hladnik, Aleš; Mladenovič, Ana

    2015-04-01

    Bioreceptivity is an intrinsic property of stone, and is defined as the ability of a material to be colonized by living organisms. The fouling and staining of building stone material due to the activity of microorganisms presents a serious problem in modern as well as historical buildings, not only due to the aesthetic impact but also due to the deterioration of the material. Biological colonisation on stone materials is influenced by a number of factors, e.g. the intrinsic properties of the stone (porosity, roughness, permeability, mineral composition), environmental parameters (e.g. solar radiation, temperature, water regime, climate, etc.), and specific microclimatic parameters (e.g. orientation, exposure to shadow, permanent capillary humidity, etc.). In order to assess the bioreceptivity of building stones, use is often made of artificial colonisation experiments compromising the inoculation of stones with a single species or a few isolated strains under laboratory conditions. In the present work the authors present the development of a method for the determination of bioreceptivity, as well as a study of the bioreceptivity of selected natural stone versus the latter's intrinsic properties. Field examples of biodeterioration are also presented. The study was supported by the Slovenian Research Agency (L1-5453).

  2. Clinical outcome of pediatric stone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrow, Paul K; Pope, John C; Adams, Mark C; Shyr, Yu; Brock, John W

    2002-02-01

    The natural history of stone disease in children is not well defined. We evaluated the clinical outcome in children with urinary calculi. An 8-year retrospective review of 129 pediatric patients with primary urinary lithiasis was performed. Age, renal versus ureteral stone location, stone size, spontaneous passage, recurrence and metabolic evaluation were considered. Patients were divided into groups 1-0 to 5, 2-6 to 10 and 3-11 to 18 years old. Of the 25 group 1 patients 17 (68%) had renal and 8 (32%) had ureteral stones. Of the 36 group 2 patients 13 (36%) had renal and 23 (64%) had ureteral stones. Of the 68 group 3 patients 12 (18%) had renal and 56 (82%) had ureteral stones. These differences in stone location according to age were not due to chance (p metabolic abnormalities believed responsible for stone disease was 50% in groups 1 and 2, and 38% in group 3. In all age groups there was symptomatic and/or radiographic stone recurrence in a third of the patients with an identifiable metabolic abnormality, such as hypercalciuria, hypocitruria, renal tubular acidosis and so forth. In children 10 years or younger this incidence increased to 50%. Less than 10% of those with no identifiable metabolic disorder have had recurrent stones to date. Younger patients are more likely to present with renal calculi and less likely to pass these stones, probably due to the relatively larger stone burden and location. The passage rate for ureteral calculi is surprisingly consistent in all age groups with stones greater than 5 mm. rarely passing spontaneously. Half of the children 10 years or younger who present with urinary calculi have an identifiable metabolic disorder. Thus, all children with stones should undergo metabolic evaluation. In addition, these children are nearly 5-fold more likely to have recurrent stones than those with no identifiable metabolic disorder. Thus, they should be followed aggressively.

  3. Natural mineral bottled waters available on the Polish market as a source of minerals for the consumers. Part 1. Calcium and magnesium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gątarska, Anna; Tońska, Elżbieta; Ciborska, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Natural mineral waters may be an essential source of calcium, magnesium and other minerals. In bottled waters, minerals occur in an ionized form which is very well digestible. However, the concentration of minerals in underground waters (which constitute the material for the production of bottled waters) varies. In view of the above, the type of water consumed is essential. The aim of the study was to estimate the calcium and magnesium contents in products available on the market and to evaluate calcium and magnesium consumption with natural mineral water by different consumer groups with an assumed volume of the consumed product. These represented forty different brands of natural mineral available waters on Polish market. These waters were produced in Poland or other European countries. Among the studied products, about 30% of the waters were imported from Lithuania, Latvia, Czech Republic, France, Italy and Germany. The content of calcium and magnesium in mineral waters was determined using flame atomic absorption spectrometry in an acetylene-air flame. Further determinations were carried out using atomic absorption spectrometer--ICE 3000 SERIES-THERMO-England, equipped with a GLITE data station, background correction (a deuterium lamp) as well as other cathode lamps. Over half of the analysed natural mineral waters were medium-mineralized. The natural mineral waters available on the market can be characterized by a varied content of calcium and magnesium and a high degree of product mineralization does not guarantee significant amounts of these components. Among the natural mineral waters available on the market, only a few feature the optimum calcium-magnesium proportion (2:1). Considering the mineralization degree of the studied products, it can be stated that the largest percentage of products with significant calcium and magnesium contents can be found in the high-mineralized water group. For some natural mineral waters, the consumption of 1 litre daily may

  4. Natural isotope tracing of hydric transfers in a very low porosity clay-stone formation: the argilites of Tournemire (France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau-Le Golvan, Yann

    1997-01-01

    Since 1988, the experimental site of the French Institute for Protection and Nuclear Safety (IPSN) situated in a tunnel near Toumemire (Aveyron, France), is studied in order to develop techniques and methods for the characterization of water behaviour in a clay-stone formation with very low water content and very low permeability. Isotope geochemistry was used to define the fluid transfer modalities. After the development or the improvement of sampling techniques, the measurement of the stable isotope contents (oxygen-18, deuterium, carbon-13) and radioactive isotope contents (tritium, carbon-14, chlorine-36) of fluids (pore water, fracture water) and solids (calcite fracture fillings) allowed to distinguish several origins and behaviours of water in the massif. The stable isotope distribution of pore water could be due to a diffusion driven mixing between argilite formation water and water from karsts, over and underlying the argilite formation. In this hypothesis, the time needed to establish the distribution profile should be longer than 5 million years. The role of the fractures seems complex, with indications of local paleo-transfers from the matrix to the fracture, and indications of transfers from the karstic aquifer. (author) [fr

  5. Comparison of natural gases accumulated in Oligocene strata with hydrous pyrolysis gases from Menilite Shales of the Polish Outer Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotarba, M.J.; Curtis, John B.; Lewan, M.D.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the molecular and isotopic compositions of gases generated from different kerogen types (i.e., Types I/II, II, IIS and III) in Menilite Shales by sequential hydrous pyrolysis experiments. The experiments were designed to simulate gas generation from source rocks at pre-oil-cracking thermal maturities. Initially, rock samples were heated in the presence of liquid water at 330 ??C for 72 h to simulate early gas generation dominated by the overall reaction of kerogen decomposition to bitumen. Generated gas and oil were quantitatively collected at the completion of the experiments and the reactor with its rock and water was resealed and heated at 355 ??C for 72 h. This condition simulates late petroleum generation in which the dominant overall reaction is bitumen decomposition to oil. This final heating equates to a cumulative thermal maturity of 1.6% Rr, which represents pre-oil-cracking conditions. In addition to the generated gases from these two experiments being characterized individually, they are also summed to characterize a cumulative gas product. These results are compared with natural gases produced from sandstone reservoirs within or directly overlying the Menilite Shales. The experimentally generated gases show no molecular compositions that are distinct for the different kerogen types, but on a total organic carbon (TOC) basis, oil prone kerogens (i.e., Types I/II, II and IIS) generate more hydrocarbon gas than gas prone Type III kerogen. Although the proportionality of methane to ethane in the experimental gases is lower than that observed in the natural gases, the proportionality of ethane to propane and i-butane to n-butane are similar to those observed for the natural gases. ??13C values of the experimentally generated methane, ethane and propane show distinctions among the kerogen types. This distinction is related to the ??13C of the original kerogen, with 13C enriched kerogen generating more 13C enriched hydrocarbon gases than

  6. Metal polish poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metal polishes are used to clean metals, including brass, copper, or silver. This article discusses the harmful effects from swallowing metal polish. This article is for information only. DO NOT use ...

  7. Williamson Polishing & Plating Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson Polishing & Plating Co. Inc. was a plating shop located in the Martindale-Brightwood neighborhood of Indianapolis. The facility conducted job shop polishing and electroplating services. The vacant site contains a 14,651-square-foot building.

  8. Investigations of stone consolidants by neutron imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, F.; Schillinger, B.; Rohatsch, A.; Zawisky, M.; Rauch, H.

    2009-06-01

    The chemical preservation and structural reintegration of natural stones applied in historical buildings is carried out by the use of different stone strengtheners. As these agents contain hydrogen, they offer good properties for neutron imaging. The main interest in the restoration process is the development of a suitable stone consolidant. In cooperation with the St. Stephans Cathedral and the geologists at Vienna University of Technology, we are investigating the penetration depth and distribution of different stone consolidants. These studies are being carried out with different stone samples, mostly porous natural building stones, limestones and sandstones. The two strengtheners used in this study are ethyl silicate ester (Wacker OH100) and dissolved polymethylmetacrylate (PMMA, Paraloid B72). Neutron radiography and neutron tomography can be used successfully to visualize the distribution of consolidants both in two and three dimensions.

  9. From sermons in stone to studies in science: The transformation of 19th-century juvenile natural history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Jon-Paul Charles

    This dissertation seeks to explain the social, cultural, and economic factors that transformed the ways nineteenth-century American children learned about, encountered, and understood the natural world. It highlights the interests, tastes, and fears of the middle-class as key factors in the transformation of children's relationship to nature. Developments such as the quest for gentility and refinement, the evolution of religious practices and beliefs, the print revolution, the popularity of Romanticism, the marginalization of women, the rise of professionalization, the impact of industrialization, and the growth of cities all helped shape nineteenth-century children's relationship to nature. For much of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries adults had taught children to see nature as a world of wonders in which God acted out his Providential design. During the early republic, however, Americans, especially women, increasingly valued more refined and genteel interpretations of nature that invoked discrete segments of nature for their ability to cultivate morals, evidence the existence of God, and mold children's behavior. The print revolution that swept America during this period abetted this process. During the second quarter of the nineteenth century, increasing numbers of adults began to use religious publications, schoolbooks, literature, and domestic amusements to involve children with the natural world in ways that were variously religious or Romantic. As a result nature became an accepted and valued segment of middle-class life. Ironically, however, these efforts also helped separate religious from secular interpretations of nature, and changes in fashions, literary techniques, and parenting techniques allowed children more autonomy to interpret nature as they wished. In the last half of the nineteenth century, adults continued to rely on nature as a means of training up children in the ways they should go. Writers, teachers, and reformers increasingly

  10. EUROPEAN INTEGRATION: TREATMENT OF STONE PROCESSING ENTERPRISES WASTE IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korobiіchuk V. V.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ukraine Stone industry is undergoing dramatic changes. Today is a restructuring of the industry. In a market economy, modernization of existing stone processing enterprises, the use of new technologies in the production of stone products is actually. Analysis of stone processing enterprise activity shows a large variation in quantitative and qualitative indicators, low competitiveness. However, the demand for stone products with traditional characteristics is stored. Waste stone processing enterprises often exported to landfills that are not suited to the storage of waste or unauthorized, and remain there, taking up more and more land area. During the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro independent Ukraine declared its intention to be actively involved in global environmental policy and development strategy of sustainable development, implementing guidelines defining international instruments at the national level. Consequently, there is an urgent need for real action on comprehensive recycling stone processing enterprises to obtain a secondary product. It should be noted that the use of modern methods of stone processing enterprises will waste the protection of nature and natural resources, improve the quality of life, restore lost harmony between man and nature. This publication analyzes the level of recycling waste stone processing enterprises. These volumes of industrial waste stone processing enterprises and highlights stone processing companies hand waste I-IV classes of danger Zhitomir region (Ukraine. These waste composition and properties of stone processing enterprises. Principles of artificial and natural lighting water are noted. Mathematical and economical model of the stone processing enterprises are constructed.

  11. Stone fragmentation by ultrasound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    ported as 0⋅3 to 10 µs (Coleman and Saunders 1989)**. For a typical 1 cm diameter of the kidney stone, a wide range of focal beam areas permit focusing on a small part of the stone or completely enclosing the stone within the focal area. The radiation pressure exerted on the stone placed in the path of the sound wave is.

  12. Polish natural bee honeys are anti-proliferative and anti-metastatic agents in human glioblastoma multiforme U87MG cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Moskwa

    Full Text Available Honey has been used as food and a traditional medicament since ancient times. However, recently many scientists have been concentrating on the anti-oxidant, anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory and other properties of honey. In this study, we investigated for the first time an anticancer effect of different honeys from Poland on tumor cell line - glioblastoma multiforme U87MG. Anti-proliferative activity of honeys and its interferences with temozolomide were determined by a cytotoxicity test and DNA binding by [H3]-thymidine incorporation. A gelatin zymography was used to conduct an evaluation of metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression in U87MG treatment with honey samples. The honeys were previously tested qualitatively (diastase activity, total phenolic content, lead and cadmium content. The data demonstrated that the examined honeys have a potent anti-proliferative effect on U87MG cell line in a time- and dose-dependent manner, being effective at concentrations as low as 0.5% (multifloral light honey - viability 53% after 72 h of incubation. We observed that after 48 h, combining honey with temozolomide showed a significantly higher inhibitory effect than the samples of honey alone. We observed a strong inhibition of MMP-2 and MMP-9 for the tested honeys (from 20 to 56% and from 5 to 58% compared to control, respectively. Our results suggest that Polish honeys have an anti-proliferative and anti-metastatic effect on U87MG cell line. Therefore, natural bee honey can be considered as a promising adjuvant treatment for brain tumors.

  13. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of natural phenolic extract from defatted soybean flour by-product for stone fruit postharvest application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, María del Carmen; Serradilla, Manuel Joaquín; Martín, Alberto; Ordiales, Elena; Ruiz-Moyano, Santiago; Córdoba, María de Guía

    2016-04-01

    Fresh fruit is highly perishable during storage and transport, so there has been growing interest in finding safe and natural antimicrobial compounds as a control tool. Phenolic compounds are secondary metabolites naturally present in vegetable material and have been associated with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant capacity and potential antimicrobial effect of phenolic extract obtained from defatted soybean flour against selected pathogenic bacteria and microorganisms responsible of fruit decay. Analysis of phenolic composition by HPLC-MS showed the presence of a wide range of compounds, with isoflavones and phenolic acids the main polyphenols identified. Furthermore, the phenolic extract had important antioxidant activity by two different assays. Related to antimicrobial activity, in vitro experiments demonstrated that phenolic extract displayed a high activity against the main foodborne pathogens, while a moderate inhibition was found against five spoilage yeasts and Monilia laxa and a scarce effect for Penicillium glabrum, Cladosporium uredinicola and Botrytis cinerea. Interestingly these compounds considerably inhibited the mycelial growth of Monilia laxa, in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. The results of the present study revealed that defatted soybean flour is an important source of phenolic compounds with remarkable antimicrobial and antioxidant activity, suggesting the possibility of using them as natural additives in postharvest treatments to extend the shelf life of fruit. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Comparative study of the variation of the hydric properties and aspect of natural stone and brick after the application of 4 types of anti-graffiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García, O.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article a comparative study of the behaviour of different commercial anti-graffiti on natural stone and brick is presented. 8 different European substrates were selected and 4 commercial anti-graffiti of different chemical nature were applied on these substrates. The variations of their hydric properties and aspect (colour and gloss with regard to the untreated substrates were later studied in the laboratory. The results obtained permitted to assess the suitability of 4 of the main types of chemical formulations employed to be used as anti-graffiti. This study concludes that the sacrificial anti-graffiti with polymeric paraffins in its composition presents the lowest reductions of the hydric properties of the studied substrates, being also the variations in colour the least perceptible.

    En este artículo se presenta un estudio comparativo del comportamiento de diferentes tipos de anti-graffiti comerciales sobre piedra natural y ladrillo. Para ello se seleccionaron 8 tipos de sustratos porosos de diferentes países europeos, sobre los que se aplicaron 4 anti-graffiti de distinta naturaleza química. Posteriormente se estudiaron las variaciones en sus propiedades hídricas y de aspecto (color y brillo con respecto a los sustratos no tratados, en el laboratorio. Los resultados obtenidos han permitido evaluar la idoneidad de 4 de los principales tipos de formulaciones químicas más frecuentemente utilizadas como anti-graffiti sobre sustratos porosos. El estudio concluye que el antigraffiti de sacrificio de composición parafínica es el producto que reduce en menor medida las propiedades hídricas de los sustratos porosos estudiados, y que menores cambios de color produce en los mismos.

  15. [Lysenkoism in Polish botany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Piotr

    2008-01-01

    from oral testimony, that the times of Lysenkoism were a terrible period in Polish botany, with all kinds of pressures exerted on botanists who did not adopt it. Fortunately, no Polish botanists lost their lives. The Lysenkoist period in Polish botany retarded the development of many of its branches. In the last fifty years many of the setbacks have been made up for, but it is in the biological education of the general public that Lysenkoism has had a more serious effect. Several generations of young people failed to be introduced to genetics, or at least its foundations, at any level of schooling. Instead they were inculcated with the erroneous belief of man's limitless possibilities in transforming nature, including the view that species can be shaped freely in line with economic needs. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)

  16. Solitary black pigment stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolpers, C.; Wosiewitz, U.

    1986-01-01

    Solitary pigment stones of the gall-bladder are rare (1.7%). 82,5% are radiopaque, 17.5% radiolucent. 64,8% of radiopaque solitary pigment stones have the structure of a cockade. Such cockades take years to develop. Solitary cholesterol stones with a nucleus of a radiopaque pigment stone should not be treated for litholysis. 8% of solitary cholesterol stones with a cross diameter below 15 mm. possess a radiolucent pigment stone nucleus. X-ray diagnosis for selecting litholytic treatment remains the safest method, especially if the radiologist compares his films regularly with the specimens after surgery. (orig.) [de

  17. Purbeck Stone - A possible Global Heritage Stone from England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, Brian

    2014-05-01

    By definition, a Global Heritage Stone Resource (GHSR) should have international significance. The Purbeck Group of uppermost Jurassic to lowermost Cretaceous age (Tithonian- Berriasian) outcrops mainly in the Purbeck area of Dorset, England. It was deposited in shallow freshwater to brackish lagoons with occasional marine incursions. Limestones, mainly biosparites, occur at 6 main levels. Differences in bed thickness, jointing and hardness make it suitable for a variety of purposes including dimension stone, monumental and ornamental stone, roofing tiles, paving, flooring and rockery stone. Near the top of the sequence is a dark gastropod biosparite, traditionally called Purbeck Marble, easily carved, which has been extensively used for decorative interior work in churches and cathedrals particularly for fonts, tombs, flooring and facings on columns for example in the medieval cathedrals of Salisbury, Exeter, Durham, York and Wells and Worcester and Westminster Abbey. The stone was extracted at least from Roman times (1st century AD) through the medieval period. Quarrying expanded from about 1700 reaching a peak in the late 18th and 19th centuries. Stone was transported first by sea but later by rail for wider use. Used in many local buildings, it gives an important element of local character. Many of the villages are designated conservation areas with a requirement for repair, maintenance and new building using local stone. Initially the stone was taken from quarries but was later mined. The number of operating companies declined from 15 to 5 over the past 40 years, with 10 active small quarries. Outputs are from few hundred tonnes to a few thousand tonnes per annum or about 9 to 12 years of permitted reserves but the Planning Authority intends to make sufficient provision for production at recent levels for their development plan period. The extraction sites are in an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty and close to Jurassic Coast World Heritage Site. This might

  18. Kidney stones - lithotripsy - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000136.htm Kidney stones and lithotripsy - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A kidney stone is a solid mass made up of tiny ...

  19. Lower pole stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanguedolce, Francesco; Breda, Alberto; Millan, Felix

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess efficacy and safety of prone- and supine percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) for the treatment of lower pole kidney stones. METHODS: Data from patients affected by lower pole kidney stones and treated with PCNL between December 2005 and August 2010 were collected retrospectively...... by seven referral centres. Variables analysed included patient demographics, clinical and surgical characteristics, stone-free rates (SFR) and complications. Statistical analysis was conducted to compare the differences for SFRs and complication rates between prone- and supine PCNL. RESULTS: One hundred...... seventeen patients underwent PCNL (mean stone size: 19.5 mm) for stones harboured only in the lower renal pole (single stone: 53.6 %; multiple stones: 46.4 %). A higher proportion of patients with ASA score ≥ 3 and harbouring multiple lower pole stones were treated with supine PCNL (5.8 vs. 23.1 %; p = 0...

  20. Polish Cartographical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedjeljko Frančula

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Polish Cartographical Review (PCR journal has been published in English four times a year since 2015. The journal is in open access and it is published by De Gruyter Open. It is edited by Polish scientists in collaboration with international experts.

  1. The effect of finishing and polishing on surface roughness of a processed resilient denture liner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loney, R W; Moulding, M B

    1993-01-01

    A raised ridge on a Molloplast-B sample was removed using one of three burs, four stones, or a coarse sandpaper disc. Samples were polished using pumice alone, tin oxide alone, or both agents. A flat, unfinished sample served as a control. The average surface roughness was measured after reductions and subsequent polishings. The length of time required for initial reduction was recorded. Average surface roughness measurements ranged from 16.0 to 1.4 microns, with the control measuring 0.66 micron. Without polishing, burs produced rougher surfaces than stones and required longer times for reduction. Bur samples also remained rougher than stone samples after pumicing. No significant differences were found between treatments or controls after the use of either a combination of pumice and tin oxide or tin oxide alone.

  2. Production and characterization of composite stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leirose, G.D.; Lameiras, F.S.

    2012-01-01

    Composite stone is a product similar to natural granite or marble, produced with particles of these materials. This material is used like natural stone as lining. The fabrication of artificial stones using residues of banded iron formations is a promising alternative to its actual destination (storage in dam). This research aims the characterization of composite stone to prove the efficacy of this kind of processing. It was used first, natural quartz as a raw material. The patterns of the samples were confirmed by IR spectra and XRD patterns, ensuring the reproducibility of processing applied. Moreover, this material is homogeneous, with low porosity and high flexural strength, confirmed by its structural characterization. Thus, it can be affirmed that the process chosen is suitable, enabling the application of this methodology to the use of waste. (author)

  3. Finishing and polishing of a poly (fluoroalkoxyphosphazene) resilient denture liner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loney, R W; Moulding, M B; Hacker, C H; Ritsco, R G

    1994-01-01

    A raised ridge of Novus resilient denture liner was removed from samples using one of three burs, three stones, or a coarse sandpaper disc. Samples were polished using pumice alone, tin oxide alone, or both agents. A flat, unfinished sample served as a control. Average surface roughness of control samples was 0.96 microns. Average surface roughness measurements for reduced samples ranged from 7.21 microns (sandpaper disc) to 3.34 microns (Prolastic wheel). Without polishing, sandpaper discs and serrated burs produced rougher surfaces than stones or the nonserrated bur. The sandpaper disc reduced the liner the quickest. There were no significant differences between treatments or controls after the use of pumice alone or after the use of a combination of pumice and tin oxide. An acceptable finishing protocol for this poly(fluoroalkoxyphosphazene) resilient liner appears to differ from that previously established for a silicone resilient denture liner.

  4. THE POLISH RECIPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.F. Spinu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-six years ago the international community witnessed one of the most dramatic changes in economic systems. Naturally, the fall of communism in Eastern Europe and its consequences were events difficult to judge and anticipate in their immediate aftermath. Today, we have gained a much more coherent perspective on their meaning. The political liberalization of Poland in 1989 and its transition to the market economy was generally perceived as the most successful of all post-communist countries. From 1990 to 2013, Poland experienced the most outstanding economic growth within the former communist bloc. It doubled its GDP in real terms and became the only country to experience economic growth during the financial crisis of 2008-09. However, the polish secret recipe lies in the "shock therapy" adopted at the beginning of the 90's. The aim of this paper is to examine the importance of the Balcerowicz's program in creating the basis for economic stability and growth through privatization, liberalization of foreign trade, monetary reform and an open economy. We will also review the impact of this unprecedented transformation in shaping a strong, market-oriented economy.

  5. Natural Resources Study to Determine Causes and Alternative Solutions to the Siltation and Pollution Problems of Big Stone Lake. Task 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-08-01

    inflow and surface water data of Big Stone Lake, October, 1967. *: 104. Todd, David Keith, The Water Encyclopedia , Water Information Center, Port...Mudpuppy Necturus maculosus Tiger Salamander Ambystoma tigrinu American Toad Bufo americanus Great Plains Toad Bufo cognatus Cricket Frog _’ Acris

  6. Neutron and high-contrast X-ray micro-radiography as complementary tools for monitoring organosilicon consolidants in natural building stones

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slavíková, M.; Krejčí, F.; Kotlík, P.; Jakůbek, J.; Tomandl, Ivo; Vacík, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 338, NOV (2014), s. 42-47 ISSN 0168-583X R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01010237; GA MŠk(XE) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : stone consolidation * neutron radiography * X-ray radiography * Organosilicon consolidants Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.124, year: 2014

  7. Formation of a deposit on workpiece surface in polishing nonmetallic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filatov, Yu. D.; Monteil, G.; Sidorko, V. I.; Filatov, O. Y.

    2013-05-01

    During the last decades in the theory of machining nonmetallic materials some serious advances have been achieved in the field of applying fundamental scientific approaches to the grinding and polishing technologies for high-quality precision surfaces of electronic components, optical systems, and decorative articles made of natural and synthetic stone [1-9]. These achievements include a cluster model of material removal in polishing dielectric workpieces [1-3, 6-7] and a physical-statistical model of formation of debris (wear) particles and removal thereof from a workpiece surface [8-10]. The aforesaid models made it possible to calculate, without recourse to Preston's linear law, the removal rate in polishing nonmetallic materials and the wear intensity for bound-abrasive tools. Equally important for the investigation of the workpiece surface generation mechanism and formation of debris particles are the kinetic functions of surface roughness and reflectance of glass and quartz workpiece surfaces, which have been established directly in the course of polishing. During the in situ inspection of a workpiece surface by laser ellipsometry [11] and reflectometry [12] it was found out that the periodic change of the light reflection coefficient of a workpiece surface being polished is attributed to the formation of fragments of a deposit consisting of work material particles (debris particles) and tool wear particles [13, 14]. The subsequent studies of the mechanism of interaction between the debris particles and wear particles in the tool-workpiece contact zone, which were carried out based on classical concepts [15, 16], yielded some unexpected results. It was demonstrated that electrically charged debris and wear particles, which are located in the coolant-filled gap between a tool and a workpiece, move by closed circular trajectories enclosed in spheres measuring less than one fifth of the gap thickness. This implies that the probability of the debris and wear

  8. Epidemiology of Stone Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Curhan, Gary C.

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiology has improved our understanding and management of stone. These types of studies have quantified changes in patterns and burden of disease, while identification of risk factors has changed clinical practice and provided insight into pathophysiologic processes related to stone formation. Because nephrolithiasis is a complex disease, an understanding of the epidemiology, particularly the interactions among different factors, may help lead to approaches that reduce the risk of stone f...

  9. Stones used in Milan architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folli, Luisa

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The city of Milan lies in a plain with clayey soil well suited to brick-making, but no stone deposits. An ample supply of stone is available, however, in the surrounding hills and mountains, which are connected to the city via both natural and artificial waterways. The types of stone used since Roman times include: granite, marble and gneiss from Ossola Valley; dolomite from Lake Maggiore; detrital limestone from Ceresio Valley; sandstone from the Brianza Hills; black limestone and marble from Lake Como; and conglomerate and sandstone from the Adda River basin. Traditionally, the chief uses have been dimension stone (all stones, column shafts (granite, slabs (marble, moulding (dolomite, limestone and ornamental (marble, dolomite, limestone.La ciudad de Milán se encuentra en una llanura de suelo arcilloso adecuado para la fabricación de ladrillos pero en la cual no hay yacimientos de rocas. No obstante, en las colinas y montañas circundantes, que están comunicadas con la ciudad mediante vías navegables naturales y artificiales, sí existe una abundante cantidad de piedra. Entre los tipos de piedra utilizados desde la época de los romanos se encuentran granitos, mármoles y gneises del valle de Ossola, dolomías del lago Mayor, calizas detríticas del valle de Ceresio (Lugano, areniscas de las colinas de la Brianza, calizas negras y mármoles del lago Como y conglomerados y areniscas de la cuenca del río Adda. Tradicionalmente, los principales usos han sido la piedra de fábrica (todas ellas, fustes de columnas (granito, losas (mármol, molduras (dolomía, caliza y ornamental (mármol, dolomía, caliza.

  10. Polish Toxic Currency Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Gontarski

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Toxic currency options are defined on the basis of the opposition to the nature (essence of an option contract, which is justified in terms of norms founded on the general law clause of characteristics (nature of a relation (which represents an independent premise for imposing restrictions on the freedom of contracts. So-understood toxic currency options are unlawful. Indeed they contravene iuris cogentis regulations. These include for instance option contracts, which are concluded with a bank, if the bank has not informed about option risk before concluding the contract; or the barrier options, which focus only on the protection of banks interests. Therefore, such options may appear to be invalid. Therefore, performing contracts for toxic currency options may be qualified as a criminal mismanagement. For the sake of security, the manager should then take into consideration filing a claim for stating invalidity (which can be made in a court verdict. At the same time, if the supervisory board member in a commercial company, who can also be a subject to mismanagement offences, commits an omission involving lack of reaction (for example, if he/she fails to notify of the suspected offence committed by the management board members acting to the companys detriment when the management board makes the company conclude option contracts which are charged with absolute invalidity the supervisory board member so acting may be considered to act to the companys detriment. In the most recent Polish jurisprudence and judicature the standard of a good host is treated to be the last resort for determining whether the managers powers resulting from criminal regulations were performed. The manager of the exporter should not, as a rule, issue any options. Issuing options always means assuming an obligation. In the case of currency put options it is an absolute obligation to purchase a given amount in euro at exchange rate set in advance. On the other hand issuing

  11. Functional Median Polish

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Ying

    2012-08-03

    This article proposes functional median polish, an extension of univariate median polish, for one-way and two-way functional analysis of variance (ANOVA). The functional median polish estimates the functional grand effect and functional main factor effects based on functional medians in an additive functional ANOVA model assuming no interaction among factors. A functional rank test is used to assess whether the functional main factor effects are significant. The robustness of the functional median polish is demonstrated by comparing its performance with the traditional functional ANOVA fitted by means under different outlier models in simulation studies. The functional median polish is illustrated on various applications in climate science, including one-way and two-way ANOVA when functional data are either curves or images. Specifically, Canadian temperature data, U. S. precipitation observations and outputs of global and regional climate models are considered, which can facilitate the research on the close link between local climate and the occurrence or severity of some diseases and other threats to human health. © 2012 International Biometric Society.

  12. Erratics and Re-cycled Stone: scholarly irrelevancies or fundamental utilities to lithic studies in prehistoric Britain and beyond?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Stephen Briggs

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available There are many theories explaining later prehistoric 'trade' and 'exchange systems' in stone artefacts. Evidence matching the petrographic information of transported implements with the country rock (local bedrock where 'factories' produced flaked stone axes is felt to be compelling. Consequently, across Europe it is widely believed that the only way 'factory' rock could have reached the places where artefacts have been found was by human carriage. The discovery of implement working floors, or 'factories' in montane areas (c. 1900-1970 on primary exposures of stone, lithologically almost identical to polished axes found considerable distances from them, has led to a belief in the industrial, economic or social processing and carriage of finished products. There are caveats to this proof of evidence, however. Natural processes constantly redistribute incalculable numbers of durable erratic pebble- to boulder-sized clasts, so why could these not have been used for making prehistoric artefacts? There is abundant evidence in the archaeological record that artefacts were crafted from such material. And although there is now an archive of petrographic thin-sections available to help to identify the origins of the artefacts, no comparable data are available on re-cycled stone. Implement provenancing is therefore unlikely to be of lasting scientific value until investigative programmes have accumulated far more accurate petrographic data on pebbles and erratics from superficial deposits. Comparisons between some British-Irish implement distribution patterns with those of glacial erratics suggests the available evidence already better fits an interpretation of deterministic and opportunistic stone procurement rather than one involving long-distance travel by prehistoric peoples. Extensive, long-term sampling and provenancing programmes are now needed to address this requirement.

  13. The wear of polished and glazed zirconia against enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janyavula, Sridhar; Lawson, Nathaniel; Lawson, Nathaniel; Cakir, Deniz; Beck, Preston; Ramp, Lance C; Burgess, John O

    2013-01-01

    The wear of tooth structure opposing anatomically contoured zirconia crowns requires further investigation. The purpose of this in vitro study was to measure the roughness and wear of polished, glazed, and polished then reglazed zirconia against human enamel antagonists and compare the measurements to those of veneering porcelain and natural enamel. Zirconia specimens were divided into polished, glazed, and polished then reglazed groups (n=8). A veneering porcelain (Ceramco3) and enamel were used as controls. The surface roughness of all pretest specimens was measured. Wear testing was performed in the newly designed Alabama wear testing device. The mesiobuccal cusps of extracted molars were standardized and used as antagonists. Three-dimensional (3D) scans of the specimens and antagonists were obtained at baseline and after 200 000 and 400 000 cycles with a profilometer. The baseline scans were superimposed on the posttesting scans to determine volumetric wear. Data were analyzed with a 1-way ANOVA and Tukey Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) post hoc tests (α=.05) Surface roughness ranked in order of least rough to roughest was: polished zirconia, glazed zirconia, polished then reglazed zirconia, veneering porcelain, and enamel. For ceramic, there was no measureable loss on polished zirconia, moderate loss on the surface of enamel, and significant loss on glazed and polished then reglazed zirconia. The highest ceramic wear was exhibited by the veneering ceramic. For enamel antagonists, polished zirconia caused the least wear, and enamel caused moderate wear. Glazed and polished then reglazed zirconia showed significant opposing enamel wear, and veneering porcelain demonstrated the most. Within the limitations of the study, polished zirconia is wear-friendly to the opposing tooth. Glazed zirconia causes more material and antagonist wear than polished zirconia. The surface roughness of the zirconia aided in predicting the wear of the opposing dentition

  14. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühl, Hjalmar S.; Kalan, Ammie K.; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D’Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E.; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J.; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M.; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684

  15. The twelve colourful stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doria, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    A dynamics with twelve colourful stones is created based on the concepts of gauge and colour. It is associated different gauge fields to the same group. A group of gauge invariant Lagrangians is established. A gauge invariant mass term is introduced. The colourful stones physical insight is to be building blocks for quarks and leptons. (Author) [pt

  16. URINARY STONES IN CHIULDREN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Philip

    Urinary stones were previously thought to be uncommon in the paediatric age however this may be due to differences in presentation and evaluation of children with stones. There are variations in the incidence worldwide; affected by diet and climate. Common aetiological factors are metabolic changes, urinary tract ...

  17. Stone fragmentation by ultrasound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Some delicate nerves and fibres in the surrounding areas of the stones present in the kidney are also damaged by high ultrasonic intensity used in such systems. In the present work, enhancement of the kidney stone fragmentation by using ultrasound is studied. The cavitation bubbles are found to implode faster, with more ...

  18. Everybody Must Get Stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Darvill

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available It is now widely recognised that monument building in the fourth and third millennia cal BC often involved transporting selected blocks of preferred stone many kilometres over difficult terrain. Some structures incorporated blocks from several different sources, brought together as an ensemble in much the same way perhaps that assemblages of flint and stone axes reflect both local and distant sources. This article explores alternative models accounting for the selection of stones, contrasting those that foreground symbolic attachments and imposed meanings with those that focus on the intrinsic qualities of particular types of stone and their source. The assemblage of different stone types that accumulated at Stonehenge, Wiltshire, over a period of more than a thousand years is used as a case study.

  19. Influence of the Distribution of a Spray Paint on the Efficacy of Anti-Graffiti Coatings on a Highly Porous Natural Stone Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Masieri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Graffiti on facades often has a heavy impact in social and economic terms, particularly when historical and artistic artefacts are affected. To limit the damages to the surfaces, preventive plans are implemented and anti-graffiti coatings are used as a protective measure. In this study, the distribution of a spray paint inside a highly porous stone, with and without anti-graffiti protection, was investigated. Two commercial sacrificial anti-graffiti systems were used and an acrylic-based paint was applied as staining agent. Environmental scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS microanalysis were performed to characterise, from the morphological and chemical point of view, the anti-graffiti coatings and the paint. Maps of the main elements were acquired to locate the different products inside the stone. Chemical removers were used to clean the stained surfaces, then the effectiveness of the cleaning was assessed by visual observations and colour measurements, as well as on the basis of percentage of residual stain. The obtained results highlighted that the anti-graffiti efficacy strongly depended on the characteristics of the applied coating. This latter usually acted as a barrier, but good results were obtained only where the stain did not remain as a separate layer, but penetrated the protective coating. Microcracks in the anti-graffiti coating were able to nullify the protective action.

  20. How to Investigate Polish Clusters’ Attractiveness for Inward FDI? Addressing Ambiguity Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Götz Marta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to assess whether, and in what fashion, managers of Polish cluster organizations perceive the attractiveness of foreign direct investment in Polish clusters This research is exploratory and qualitative in nature. The complex nature of Polish clusters, which can benefit from and be competitively challenged by, FDI are identified and a conceptual framework for assessing that nature is proposed; specifically, research using the grounded theory method (GTM.

  1. Sexual activity of Polish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastwa-Wojciechowska, Beata; Izdebski, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore the subject of sexual activity in the Polish population, with special focus on age and gender differences, and sexual infidelity. Sexual activity is one of the basic factors in initiating and maintaining relationships. On the one hand, sexual activity enables us to meet natural needs and maintain an intimate relationship with another human being; on the other, it may allow us to overcome loneliness and social isolation by providing the opportunity to express feelings of closeness and unity. The research was conducted on a representative group of 3,200 Poles aged between 15-49, with the support of a well-known Polish research company - TNS OBOP. Face-to-face and Pencil and Paper (PAPI) interviews were carried out. The results focus on two main issues: the age and motives of sexual initiation among teenagers (with a significant percentage starting their sexual activity at the age of 15), and the quality of the sexual lives of adults (average number of sexual partners, sexual infidelity and sexual satisfaction). There is dependence between the type of relationship and the performance or non-performance of sexual activity, as well as the quality of the relationship. Among both adolescents and adults, remaining in a stable relationship (partnership or marriage) promotes loyalty. The performance of sexual goals turns out to be an important mechanism regulating the interpersonal aspects of a relationship, influencing their perception and evaluation.

  2. Sexual activity of Polish adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Pastwa-Wojciechowska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The purpose of this research was to explore the subject of sexual activity in the Polish population, with special focus on age and gender differences, and sexual infidelity. Sexual activity is one of the basic factors in initiating and maintaining relationships. On the one hand, sexual activity enables us to meet natural needs and maintain an intimate relationship with another human being; on the other, it may allow us to overcome loneliness and social isolation by providing the opportunity to express feelings of closeness and unity. Material and method. The research was conducted on a representative group of 3,200 Poles aged between 15–49, with the support of a well-known Polish research company – TNS OBOP. Face-to-face and Pencil and Paper (PAPI interviews were carried out. Results. The results focus on two main issues: the age and motives of sexual initiation among teenagers (with a significant percentage starting their sexual activity at the age of 15, and the quality of the sexual lives of adults (average number of sexual partners, sexual infidelity and sexual satisfaction. Conclusion. There is dependence between the type of relationship and the performance or non-performance of sexual activity, as well as the quality of the relationship. Among both adolescents and adults, remaining in a stable relationship (partnership or marriage promotes loyalty. The performance of sexual goals turns out to be an important mechanism regulating the interpersonal aspects of a relationship, influencing their perception and evaluation.

  3. Crushed Stone Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes crushed stone operations in the United States. These data were obtained from information reported voluntarily to the USGS by the aggregate...

  4. Clay stones of the deep Namur as potental sources of nitrogen of Northwest-German natural gases - first indications from the pyrolisis tests; Tonsteine des tiefen Namur als potentielle Stickstoffquellen nordwestdeutscher Erdgase - erste Indizien aus Pyrolyseuntersuchungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krooss, B.M. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Inst. fuer Erdoel und organische Geochemie; Karg, H. [RWTH Aachen (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The content of molecular nitrogen in the natural gas deposits of the Northwest-German basin can show values of up to 100 volume percent (nitrogen province) and therefore carry a high exploration risk. Analysis of the generation of the gas from carboniferous clay stone by means of open pyrolysis shows that the nitrogen generation potential is relatively high when compared to coal (according to TOC standards). This analysis enabled the determination of generation graphs for nitrogen, partly also for methane, from Namur clay stones of a maturity between 2.81 and 3.86 volume percent. (orig.). [Deutsch] Die Gehalte an molekularem Stickstoff (N{sub 2}) in Erdgaslagerstaetten des Nordwestdeutschen Beckens koennen Werte von nahezu 100 Vol.-% (Stickstoffprovinz) erreichen und stellen somit ein hohes Explorationsrisiko dar. Die Untersuchung der Gasgenese aus karbonischen Tonsteinen mit der Methode der offenen Pyrolyse zeigt ein im Vergleich zu Kohlen hohes Stickstoff-Genesepotential (TOC-normiert). Mit Hilfe der verwendeten Analysenmethode konnten Genesekurven fuer Stickstoff, sowie teilweise fuer Methan, aus Namur Tonsteinen in einem Reifebereich von 2.81 bis 3.86% VR{sub r} bestimmt werden. (orig.)

  5. Stone anchors of India: Findings, classification and significance.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    ) 980 account in relation to the environment and nature of the lakebed. The possible reason for finding a number of hero stones could be that there might have been some naval battles fought in the region and hero stones were erected in their memory...

  6. Fire effects on flaked stone, ground stone, and other stone artifacts [Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krista Deal

    2012-01-01

    Lithic artifacts can be divided into two broad classes, flaked stone and ground stone, that overlap depending on the defining criteria. For this discussion, flaked stone is used to describe objects that cut, scrape, pierce, saw, hack, etch, drill, or perforate, and the debris (debitage) created when these items are manufactured. Objects made of flaked stone include...

  7. irradiated gem stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salama, S.S.M

    2006-01-01

    gem stones are those stones which have beauty that can be based on its color, transparency, brilliance (degree to which light is scattered) and the crystalline perfection (no minerals or other inclusions). topaz AL 2 SiO 4 (F,OH) 2 Aluminum fluoro-hydroxyl -silicate, it belongs to class silicates and subclass cyclo silicates and it is used mainly as gemstones, it is most common irradiated gem on the market. high energy such as neutrons, have enough energy to produce color centres .irradiation is most often carried out in nuclear reactors (high-energy neutrons). irradiation of topaz in the egyptian research reactor (ETRR-2) by neutrons changes its cloudy white color to a reddish pink which could be changed to blue by heating. nuclear reactions inside the irradiated stones produce radioisotopes. resulting to residual radioactivity. residual radioactivity is potentially a problem;therefore stones have to be stored in storage for a period of time to reduce the residual radioactivity aiming to reach the safety level of transportation. the storage time of the stones is dependent on trace element concentrations connected with their life-times in topaz . therefore, inspection of the trace elements in the stones and their half-life times are essential before irradiation

  8. Polish Semantic Parser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Grudzinska

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Amount of information transferred by computers grows very rapidly thus outgrowing the average man's capability of reception. It implies computer programs increase in the demand for which would be able to perform an introductory classitication or even selection of information directed to a particular receiver. Due to the complexity of the problem, we restricted it to understanding short newspaper notes. Among many conceptions formulated so far, the conceptual dependency worked out by Roger Schank has been chosen. It is a formal language of description of the semantics of pronouncement integrated with a text understanding algorithm. Substantial part of each text transformation system is a semantic parser of the Polish language. It is a module, which as the first and the only one has an access to the text in the Polish language. lt plays the role of an element, which finds relations between words of the Polish language and the formal registration. It translates sentences written in the language used by people into the language theory. The presented structure of knowledge units and the shape of understanding process algorithms are universal by virtue of the theory. On the other hand the defined knowledge units and the rules used in the algorithms ure only examples because they are constructed in order to understand short newspaper notes.

  9. Presentation of the verbs in Bulgarian-Polish electronic dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Dimitrova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Presentation of the verbs in Bulgarian-Polish electronic dictionary This paper briefly discusses the presentation of the verbs in the first electronic Bulgarian-Polish dictionary that is currently being developed under a bilateral collaboration between IMI-BAS and ISS-PAS. Special attention is given to the digital entry classifiers that describe Bulgarian and Polish verbs. Problems related to the correspondence between natural language phenomena and their presentations are discussed. Some examples illustrate the different types of dictionary entries for verbs.

  10. Fasting and Urinary Stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shamsa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fasting is considered as one of the most important practices of Islam, and according to Prophet Mohammad, fasting is obligatory upon Muslims. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of fasting on urinary stones. Materials and Methods: Very few studies have been carried out on urinary stones and the effect of Ramadan fasting. The sources of the present study are Medline and articles presented by local and Muslim researchers. Meanwhile, since we are acquainted with three well-known researchers in the field of urology, we contacted them via email and asked for their professional opinions. Results: The results of studies about the relationship of urinary stones and their incidence in Ramadan are not alike, and are even sometimes contradictory. Some believe that increased incidence of urinary stones in Ramadan is related not to fasting, but to the rise of weather temperature in hot months, and an increase in humidity. Conclusion: Numerous biological and behavioral changes occur in people who fast in Ramadan and some researchers believe that urinary stone increases during this month.

  11. Anholt Rosetta Stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trempe Jr., Robert B.; Buthke, Jan

    2017-01-01

    This book records and celebrates the research finding of Anholt Island by students from Studio 2B, Arkitektskolen Aarhus, These mahogany constructions are our architectural versions of a Rosetta Stone. These are constructs that record layers of information about Anholt island through virtual...... and physical techniques, where each step and mechanic imparts and inscribes knowledge beyond the 1:1. These constructs are visual keys, used to inspire and influence all decision-making processes in a design project. These architectural Rosetta Stones document and amplify quantitative information about a site...

  12. Ultrasonographic finding of intrahepatic stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Wang Yul; Koh, Byung Hee; Cho, On Koo; Hahm, Chang Kok

    1983-01-01

    Correct diagnosis of intrahepatic stone with differentiation from extrahepatic stone is very important because of their different surgical procedure. The ultrasonography is very simple and noninvasive diagnostic method for detection of intrahepatic stone than other method. So the authors analysed the ultrasonographic findings of 30 patients with intrahepatic stones and the results are as follows: 1. Among 30 cases, 13(43.3%) were male, 17(56.7%) were female with predominancy in 5th and 6th decades. 2. 1) In distribution of stones 16 cases(53.5%) were in the left duct, 11 cases(36.7%) in both ducts, 3 cases(10%) in the right duct. 2) In location of intrahepatic stones, 9 cases(30%) were only in the intrahepatic ducts, 21 cases (70%) associated stones in the extrahepatic duct and or GB. 3. In sonography of 30 cases of intrahepatic stones 1) The shape of stone was round in 27 cases(90%) and tubular due to impacted stone in 3 cases (10%) 2) The echogenicity of stones was strong in 25 cases(83.3%) and weak in 5 cases(16.7%). 3) The shadow posterior to stones was strong in 23 cases(76.7%) and weak in 7 cases(23.3%) 4. As associated findings, metastatic lesion in liver 2 cases(6.7%), liver cirrhosis 2 cases(6.7%), hepatic and perihepatic abscess 4 cases(13.3%)were found liver(13.3%) were found

  13. Modeling Stone Columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Jorge

    2017-07-11

    This paper reviews the main modeling techniques for stone columns, both ordinary stone columns and geosynthetic-encased stone columns. The paper tries to encompass the more recent advances and recommendations in the topic. Regarding the geometrical model, the main options are the "unit cell", longitudinal gravel trenches in plane strain conditions, cylindrical rings of gravel in axial symmetry conditions, equivalent homogeneous soil with improved properties and three-dimensional models, either a full three-dimensional model or just a three-dimensional row or slice of columns. Some guidelines for obtaining these simplified geometrical models are provided and the particular case of groups of columns under footings is also analyzed. For the latter case, there is a column critical length that is around twice the footing width for non-encased columns in a homogeneous soft soil. In the literature, the column critical length is sometimes given as a function of the column length, which leads to some disparities in its value. Here it is shown that the column critical length mainly depends on the footing dimensions. Some other features related with column modeling are also briefly presented, such as the influence of column installation. Finally, some guidance and recommendations are provided on parameter selection for the study of stone columns.

  14. Anholt Rosetta Stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trempe Jr., Robert B.; Buthke, Jan

    2017-01-01

    This book records and celebrates the research finding of Anholt Island by students from Studio 2B, Arkitektskolen Aarhus, These mahogany constructions are our architectural versions of a Rosetta Stone. These are constructs that record layers of information about Anholt island through virtual and ...

  15. Kidney Stones (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may cause long-term damage to the kidney. Diagnosis If your child has pain in the side, blood in the urine, or ... as soon as possible. If your child has pain along with nausea, vomiting, ... away. To make a diagnosis of kidney stones, the doctor will ask about ...

  16. Subjective Quality of Life of Polish, Polish-Immigrant, and Polish-American Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdes, Celia; Zych, Adam A.

    2000-01-01

    Compares subjective quality of life of elderly Poles living in Poland, and Polish immigrants and Polish-American ethnics living in Chicago as part of a secondary data analysis of a study initially conducted in Poland. Conclusions lend support to the idea that U.S.-born elderly people and elderly immigrants to the United States have a significantly…

  17. Use of Local Stone: Successes, Failures and Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerns, Edward; Will, Rachel

    2015-04-01

    Stone has been used in construction for thousands of years. Until relatively recently, local stone was used almost exclusively due to limited transportation options and to reduce costs. . Historically, the stone was often taken from nearby fields, known as fieldstone, without any specific quarrying operations and used to create unique assemblages of vernacular buildings. Stone, perhaps more than any other natural building material, has numerous varieties and characteristics within the broader classifications of stone: sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic. In exterior applications, stone historically has been used for foundations, localized cladding elements and in some instances entire building facades. Many of these local stones are appropriate for foundations, but not necessarily for cladding systems, particularly once the stone was quarried and modified rather than used in its natural form. These issues tended to be less significant in historic buildings when wall systems were much thicker and had more redundancies in the cladding systems Since around 1880, the use of these thinner applications of quarried stones as more traditional cladding systems (rather than cladding and structure) has resulted in challenges including unanticipated weathering characteristics, residual stresses and detrimental inclusions. These conditions can result in expensive and extensive repairs and maintenance. Often the options to address these characteristics are limited or potentially drastic depending on the scale of installation. It is important to understand the cause of the issues, understand if these issues are significant and finally how to address them appropriately. Where and how these unique local stones are installed as well as climate and weathering patterns certainly contribute to the potential unanticipated conditions. This presentation will be divided into two general parts. The first will address various stones used historically throughout regions within the United

  18. Compatibility study and adaption of stone repair mortars for the Lede stone (Belgium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Kock, T.; Vandevoorde, D.; Boone, M. A.; Dewanckele, J.; De Boever, W.; Lanzón, M.; De Schutter, G.; Van Hoorebeke, L.; Jacobs, P.; Cnudde, V.

    2012-04-01

    One of the main historic building materials in northern Belgium is the Lede stone. This arenaceous limestone from Lutetian age was excavated in the region of Ghent and Brussels and was transported northwards by main rivers such as the Scheldt and Zenne. Thanks to this natural transport route, the stone in also found in many cities which lie abroad the excavation area, such as Antwerp (Belgium) and various cities in the Netherlands (Breda, Zierikzee, …). Due to its dominant occurrence in our cultural heritage, it is frequently subjected to restoration and renovation works. Depending on the degree of decay, most frequent stone operations are cleaning, healing with mortar or replacing it by (often exotic) fresh blocks. Originally, this limestone has a greenish-gray colour, but when being exposed to atmospheric conditions it acquires a yellowish to rusty coloured patina. The origin of the latter is most likely the oxidation of glauconite minerals which are present in a few percent in the stone. In addition, the stone often demonstrates black crust formation due to sulphation. Cleaning of the stone often results in an excess removal of this black gypsum crusts and patina, thus exposing deeper parts of the stone which appear more greenish-gray again. When the stone is subsequently healed by adding repair mortar to damaged parts, the question rises which mortar colour is more appropriate. The choice of repair mortar is greatly depending on commercial aspects. When handling entire facades on monuments, a mineral mortar based on ZnCl is most often applied in Belgium. The big advantage of this mortar is its fast curing. Three colour types have been developed for the Lede stone in specific. However, the hardness of this mortar is sometimes in conflict with reversibility. For the handling of individual sculptures some conservators choose for the application of (hydraulic) lime mortars. The advantage of using such mortars is their high compatibility and reversibility. The

  19. Evaluation of Skid Resistance of Wearing Course Made Of Stone Mastic Asphalt Mixture in Laboratory Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilewska, Marta

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents the comparison of skid resistance of wearing course made of SMA (Stone Mastic Asphalt) mixtures which differ in resistance to polishing of coarse aggregate. Dolomite, limestone, granite and trachybasalt were taken for investigation. SMA mixtures have the same nominal size of aggregate (11 mm) and very similar aggregate particle-size distribution in mineral mixtures. Tested SMA11 mixtures were designed according to EN 13108-5 and Polish National Specification WT-2: 2014. Evaluation of the skid resistance has been performed using the FAP (Friction After Polishing) test equipment also known as the Wehner/Schulze machine. Laboratory method enables to compare the skid resistance of different types of mixtures under specified conditions simulating polishing processes. Tests were performed on both the specimens made of each coarse aggregate and SMA11 mixtures containing these aggregates. Measuring of friction coefficient μm was conducted before and during polishing process up to 180 0000 passes of polishing head. Comparison of the results showed differences in sensitivity to polishing among particular mixtures which depend on the petrographic properties of rock used to produce aggregate. Limestone and dolomite tend to have a fairly uniform texture with low hardness which makes these rock types susceptible to rapid polishing. This caused lower coefficient of friction for SMA11 mixtures with limestone and dolomite in comparison with other test mixtures. These significant differences were already registered at the beginning of the polishing process. Limestone aggregate had lower value of μm before starting the process than trachybasalt and granite aggregate after its completion. Despite the differences in structure and mineralogical composition between the granite and trachybasalt, slightly different values of the friction coefficient at the end of polishing were obtained. Images of the surface were taken with the optical microscope for better

  20. Stepping Stone Mobility.

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanovic, B.; Nyarko, Y.

    1996-01-01

    People at the top of an occupational ladder earn more partly because they have spent time on lower rungs, where they have learned something. But what precisely do they learn? There are two contrasting views: First, the Bandit model assumes that people are different, that experience reveals their characteristics, and that consequently an occupational switch can result. Second, in our Stepping Stone model, experience raises a worker's productivity on a given task and the acquired skill can in p...

  1. The twelve colourful stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doria, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    The gauge symmetry is extended. It is associated differents matter and gauge fields to the same group. A group of gauge invariant Lagrangians is established. A gauge invariant mass term is introduced. A massive Yang Mills is obtained. A dynamics with twelve colourful stones is created based on the concepts of gauge and colour. Structures identified as quarks and leptons are generated. A discussion about colour meaning is presented. (Author) [pt

  2. Anholt Rosetta Stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trempe Jr., Robert B.; Buthke, Jan

    2017-01-01

    This book records and celebrates the research finding of Anholt Island by students from Studio 2B, Arkitektskolen Aarhus, These mahogany constructions are our architectural versions of a Rosetta Stone. These are constructs that record layers of information about Anholt island through virtual and ...... on Anholt Island through qualitative means. They are tools for uncovering realities previously unseen or unimagined through the manipulation of data via personal experience....

  3. Urinary stones following renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H; Cheigh, J S; Ham, H W

    2001-06-01

    The formation of urinary tract stones following renal transplantation is a rare complication. The clinical features of stones after transplantation differ from those of non-transplant patients. Renal colic or pain is usually absent and rarely resembles acute rejection. We retrospectively studied 849 consecutive kidney transplant patients in The Rogosin Institute/The Weill-Cornell Medical Center, New York who were transplanted between 1980 and 1997 and had functioning grafts for more than 3 months, to determine the incidence of stone formation, composition, risk factors and patient outcome. At our center, urinary stones were diagnosed in 15 patients (1.8%) of 849 functioning renal grafts for 3 or more months. Of the 15 patients, 10 were males and 5 were females in their third and fourth decade. Eight patients received their transplant from living donors and 7 from cadaveric donors. The stones were first diagnosed between 3 and 109 months after transplantation (mean 17.8 months) and 5 patients had recurrent episodes. The stones were located in the bladder in 11 cases (73.3%), transplanted kidney in 3 cases and in multiple sites in one case. The size of stones varied from 3.4 mm to 40 mm (mean 12 mm). The composition of stones was a mixed form of calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate in 5 cases and 4 patients had infected stones consisting of struvite or mixed form of struvite and calcium phosphate. Factors predisposing to stone formation included tertiary hyperparathyroidism (n = 8), hypercalciuria (n = 5), recurrent urinary tract infection (n = 5), hypocitraturia (n = 4), and obstructive uropathy (n = 2). Many cases had more than one risk factor. Clinically, painless hematuria was observed in 6 patients and dysuria without bacteriuria in 5 patients. None had renal colic or severe pain at any time. There were no changes in graft function at diagnosis and after removal of stones. Five patients passed stones spontaneously and 8 patients underwent cystoscopy for stone

  4. Management of staghorn renal stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diri, Akif; Diri, Banu

    2018-11-01

    Staghorn stones are large branching stones that fill part of all of the renal pelvis and renal calyces and they can be complete or partial depending on the level of occupancy of the collecting system. Although kidney stones are commoner in men, staghorn stones are less often reported in men compared to women and they are usually unilateral. Due to the significant morbidity and potential mortality attributed to staghorn stones, prompt assessment and treatment is mandatory. Conversely, conservative treatment has been shown to carry a mortality rate of 28% in 10-year period and 36% risk of developing significant renal impairment. Staghorn stones are, therefore, significant disease entity that should be managed aggressively and effectively. Generally, the gold standard treatment for staghorn stones is surgical with a view to achieve stone-free collecting system and preserve renal function. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy should be the recommended first-line treatment for staghorn stones. Other non-surgical options are usually considered in combination with surgery or as monotherapy only if patients are surgically unfit. The decision for optimal treatment of staghorn stones should be individualized according to the circumstances of the patient involved and in order to do so, a closer look at the advantages and disadvantages of each option is necessary.

  5. Lessons from a Stone Farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, John P.; Rao, P. Nagaraj

    2007-04-01

    The stone farm is a system for measuring macroscopic stone growth of 12 calcium stones simultaneously. It is based on mixed suspension, mixed product removal continuous crystallization principles and the stones are grown continuously for about 500 hours or more. The growth of the stones follows a surface area dependent pattern and the growth rate constants are very similar irrespective of whether the stating materials are fragments of human stone or pieces of marble chip. Increasing citrate from 2mM to 6mM caused a significant growth inhibition which persisted in the presence of urinary macromolecules. Phytate was a very effective inhibitor (about 50% at sub-μM concentrations) but the effective concentration was increased by an order of magnitude in the presence of urinary macromolecules. The effective concentration for inhibition in a crystallization assay was a further two orders of magnitude higher. Urinary macromolecules or almost whole urine were also strongly inhibitory although neither human serum albumin nor bovine mucin had any great effect. The relationship between the size distribution of crystals in suspension and the stone enlargement rate suggests that the primary enlargement mechanism for these in vitro stones is through aggregation. The stone farm is a powerful tool with which to study crystallization inhibitors in a new light. Some differences between inhibition of crystallization and inhibition of stone growth have emerged and we have obtained quantitative evidence on the mechanism of stone enlargement in vitro. Our findings suggest that the interface between crystals in suspension and the stone surface is the key to controlling stone enlargement.

  6. Tracking kidney stones with sound during shock wave lithotripsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kracht, Jonathan M.

    The prevalence of kidney stones has increased significantly over the past decades. One of the primary treatments for kidney stones is shock wave lithotripsy which focuses acoustic shock waves onto the stone in order to fragment it into pieces that are small enough to pass naturally. This typically requires a few thousand shock waves delivered at a rate of about 2 Hz. Although lithotripsy is the only non-invasive treatment option for kidney stories, both acute and chronic complications have been identified which could be reduced if fewer shock waves were used. One factor that could be used to reduce the number of shock waves is accounting for the motion of the stone which causes a portion of the delivered shock waves to miss the stone, yielding no therapeutic benefit. Therefore identifying when the stone is not in focus would allow tissue to be spared without affecting fragmentation. The goal of this thesis is to investigate acoustic methods to track the stone in real-time during lithotripsy in order to minimize poorly-targeted shock waves. A relatively small number of low frequency ultrasound transducers were used in pulse-echo mode and a novel optimization routine based on time-of-flight triangulation is used to determine stone location. It was shown that the accuracy of the localization may be estimated without knowing the true stone location. This method performed well in preliminary experiments but the inclusion of tissue-like aberrating layers reduced the accuracy of the localization. Therefore a hybrid imaging technique employing DORT (Decomposition of the Time Reversal Operator) and the MUSIC (Multiple Signal Classification) algorithm was developed. This method was able to localize kidney stories to within a few millimeters even in the presence of an aberrating layer. This would be sufficient accuracy for targeting lithotripter shock waves. The conclusion of this work is that tracking kidney stones with low frequency ultrasound should be effective clinically.

  7. Tooth polishing: The current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri Alankar Sawai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Healthy teeth and gums make a person feel confident and fit. As people go about their daily routines and with different eating and drinking habits, the tooth enamel turns yellowish or gets stained. Polishing traditionally has been associated with the prophylaxis procedure in most dental practices, which patients know and expect. However, with overzealous use of polishing procedure, there is wearing of the superficial tooth structure. This would lead to more accumulation of local deposits. Also, it takes a long time for the formation of the fluoride-rich layer of the tooth again. Hence, now-a-days, polishing is not advised as a part of routine oral prophylaxis procedure but is done selectively based on the patients′ need. The article here, gives an insight on the different aspects of the polishing process along with the different methods and agents used for the same.

  8. Lysenko affair and Polish botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the slight impact of Lysenkoism upon Polish botany. I begin with an account of the development of plant genetics in Poland, as well as the attitude of scientists and the Polish intelligentsia toward Marxist philosophy prior to the World War II. Next I provide a short history of the introduction and demise of Lysenkoism in Polish science, with a focus on events in botany, in context with key events in Polish science from 1939 to 1958. The article outlines the little effects of Lysenkoism upon botanists and their research, as well as how botanists for the most part rejected what was often termed the "new biology." My paper shows that though Lysenko's theories received political support, and were actively promoted by a small circle of scientists and Communist party activists, they were never accepted by most botanists. Once the political climate in Poland altered after the events of 1956, Lysenko's theories were immediately abandoned.

  9. Granites of Salamanca. A perfect example for the recognition of natural stone as a heritage resource and their use in restoration; Granitos de Salamanca. Un ejemplo perfecto para el reconocimiento de la piedra natural como recurso patrimonial y su uso en restauración

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González, C.; Pereira, D.; Baltuille, J.M.

    2017-09-01

    In the province of Salamanca (Spain) there are several quarries that used to be the source of natural stone used in the construction of historic buildings and that are today recognized by UNESCO as World Heritage Sites. In this study we investigated the granites used in the construction and restoration of the lower ashlars of the walls of different buildings in Salamanca, Alba de Tormes, Ciudad Rodrigo and Ledesma. The characterization of the different types of granite and their current state of preservation may serve to adopt specific measures for their possible use in the restoration of the architectural heritage of the province, if this should become necessary. Despite the variety of materials observed in the lower parts of the buildings (ranging from sandstone to conglomerate to granite), the stone most frequently used was the granite from Los Santos and the Martinamor granite, followed by the vaugneritic granites from Ledesma. In general the granite materials are in a good state of conservation but the existence of certain pathologies that have given rise to processes of flaking and discoloration of the rock suggests that it will be necessary to make a consistent assessment when deciding about possible actions aimed at replacing materials in these historic buildings Moreover, the various granites differ from one another and pieces should not be replaced without perfect identification of the specific type to which they belong. A detailed study of these granites is crucial for the nomination of some of them as candidates for the denomination Global Heritage Stone Resource and the whole set of Salamanca province lithologies as a Global Heritage Stone Province. [Spanish] En la provincia de Salamanca se encuentran diversas canteras que fueron origen de la piedra natural para la construcción de edificios históricos que hoy forman parte de lugares reconocidos como Patrimonio de la Humanidad por la UNESCO. Para este trabajo se han investigado los granitos utilizados

  10. Production of rare earth polishing powders in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosynkin, V.D.; Ivanov, E.N.; Kotrekhov, V.A.; Shtutza, M.G.; Grabko, A.I.

    1998-01-01

    in a suspension; polishing powder Ftoropol with addition of fluorine and higher contents of cerium dioxide (at least 70% by mass) that has a higher polishing ability and is attrition-proof, used for high-speed treatment of optical lenses, mirrors, TV screens and eyeglasses. The rare earth polishing powders made in Russia possess the following physico-chemical properties and performance characteristics; cerium dioxide content in solid REE solution - 50-90% by mass; F-ion content (in Ftoropol powder) - 8-14% by mass; non-REE content of sodium, calcium, strontium and iron impurities - at most 0.1% by mass of each element; natural radionuclide content of thorium, uranium, actinium, potassium-40 series, total standard specific activity - 0.45-0.85 Bq/g; - average particle size, 2.0-3.5 μm; density - 6.3-6.8 g/cm 3 ; pH of aqueous extract, 6-7; sedimentary stability - 10-20 minutes; polishing ability - 45-60 mg per 31 minutes (for polishing resin); abrasive inclusions - none. The report gives analysis of the. Russian powders compared against the best world analogues such as Cerox (Rhone Poulenc Company, France), Regipol (London and Scandinavian Division Chemical Company, England), etc. The analysis results imply, that the chief characteristics (granulometric composition, polishing ability and service life) of the Russian samples do not yield to the best foreign analogues, and in some properties (radionuclide content, sedimentary stability and scratching inclusions quantity) even surpass them

  11. Elastic emission polishing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewenthal, M.; Loseke, K.; Dow, T.A.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01

    Elastic emission polishing, also called elastic emission machining (EEM), is a process where a stream of abrasive slurry is used to remove material from a substrate and produce damage free surfaces with controlled surface form. It is a noncontacting method utilizing a thick elasto-hydrodynamic film formed between a soft rotating ball and the workpiece to control the flow of the abrasive. An apparatus was built in the Center, which consists of a stationary spindle, a two-axis table for the workpiece, and a pump to circulate the working fluid. The process is controlled by a programmable computer numerical controller (CNC), which presently can operate the spindle speed and movement of the workpiece in one axis only. This apparatus has been used to determine material removal rates on different material samples as a function of time, utilizing zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) particles suspended in distilled water as the working fluid. By continuing a study of removal rates the process should become predictable, and thus create a new, effective, yet simple tool for ultra-precision mechanical machining of surfaces.

  12. Stepping-stones and dispersal flow: establishment of a meta-population of Milu (Elaphurus davidianus) through natural re-wilding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Daode; Song, Yucheng; Ma, Jianzhang; Li, Pengfei; Zhang, Hong; Price, Mark R Stanley; Li, Chunlin; Jiang, Zhigang

    2016-01-01

    The Milu (Père David’s deer, Elaphurus davidianus) became extinct in China in the early 20th century but was reintroduced to the country. The reintroduced Milu escaped from a nature reserve and dispersed to the south of the Yangtze River. We monitored these accidentally escaped Milu from 1995 to 2012. The escaped Milu searched for vacant habitat patches as “stepping stones” and established refuge populations. We recorded 122 dispersal events of the escaped Milu. Most dispersal events occurred in 1998, 2003, 2006 and 2010. Milu normally disperse in March, July and November. Average dispersal distance was 14.08 ± 9.03 km, with 91.41% shorter than 25 km. After 5 generations, by the end of 2012, 300 wild Milu were scattered in refuge populations in the eastern and southern edges of the Dongting Lake. We suggest that population density is the ultimate cause for Milu dispersal, whereas floods and human disturbance are proximate causes. The case of the Milu shows that accidentally escaped animals can establish viable populations; however, the dispersed animals were subject to chance in finding “stepping stones”. The re-wilded Milu persist as a meta-population with sub-populations linked by dispersals through marginal habitats in an anthropogenic landscape. PMID:27272326

  13. Hyaluronan and Stone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asselman, Marino

    2008-09-01

    Kidney stones cannot be formed as long as crystals are passed in the urine. However, when crystals are retained it becomes possible for them to aggregate and form a stone. Crystals are expected to be formed not earlier than the distal tubules and collecting ducts. Studies both in vitro and in vivo demonstrate that calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals do not adhere to intact distal epithelium, but only when the epithelium is proliferating or regenerating, so that it possesses dedifferentiated cells expressing hyaluronan, osteopontin (OPN) and their mutual receptor CD44 at the apical cell membrane. The polysaccharide hyaluronan is an excellent crystal binding molecule because of its negative ionic charge. We hypothesized that the risk for crystal retention in the human kidney would be increased when tubular cells express hyaluronan at their apical cell membrane. Two different patient categories in which nephrocalcinosis frequently occurs were studied to test this hypothesis (preterm neonates and kidney transplant patients). Hyaluronan (and OPN) expression at the luminal membrane of tubular cells indeed was observed, which preceded subsequent retention of crystals in the distal tubules. Tubular nephrocalcinosis has been reported to be associated with decline of renal function and thus further studies to extend our knowledge of the mechanisms of retention and accumulation of crystals in the kidney are warranted. Ultimately, this may allow the design of new strategies for the prevention and treatment of both nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis in patients.

  14. A study on the industrialization of building stones and industrial stone crafts - Study on the causes of stone contaminations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyun, Jeon Ki; Lee, Han Yeang [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    Causes of building stone contamination are acid rains in polluted areas, iron bearing minerals in stone itself, salts, sealants, cutting and grinding processes in stone factory and steel compounds structures such as stone anchors, bolts, rain culvert and guide frames. Contaminations on the building stone surface of Sejong culture center can be found around floor stones, stair stones, parterre stones, pillar stones and other outdoor stone panels. The parterre stones are contaminated by white tarnishes and rust flows are occurred on the surface of pillar stones and outdoor stone panels around entrance. Black tarnishes are cumulated on the pillar stones and other outdoor decorated stone panels and change the original granite color. Causes of building stone contaminations from Sejong culture center are wet method to attach stone panels, rust from steel compounds structures and air pollutants. Cement and mortar used from wet method react with sulfur dioxides in polluted air and from fine calcite crystals (white tarnish). Rusts from steel compounds structures such as rainwater culvert and steel guide frames can move to the stone surface by rain and leave rust flows on it. Pollutants (tar compounds, carbons, dusts, etc.) in air are cumulated with humidity on the stone surface and change color from white granite color to dusty dark color. Historical stone sculptures such as man and animal shaped stone crafts, tombstones, square stone tables in front of a tomb and guide and circumference stones around tomb in Royal Tombs (Donggu rung, Yung rung, Seoou rung and Hunin rung) distributed in Kyunggi province are contaminated by various moss and air pollutants and its original colors are deeply changed. (author). 21 refs., 11 tabs., 22 figs.

  15. Kidney stones - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stone is a solid mass made up of tiny crystals. Your health care provider may ask you to take self-care steps to treat kidney stones or prevent them from returning. What to Expect at Home You visited your provider or the hospital because ...

  16. Efficient polishing of aspheric optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, J.S.; Piscotty, M.A.; Nguyen, N.Q.; Landram, C.S.; Ng, L.C.

    1997-04-15

    The objectives of this project are to develop, evaluate, and optimize novel designs for a polishing tool intended for ultra-precise figure corrections on aspheric optics with tolerances typical of those required for use in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) projection lithography. This work may lead to an enhanced US industrial capability for producing optics for EUV, x-ray and, other high precision applications. LLNL benefits from developments in computer-controlled polishing and the insertion of fluid mechanics modeling into the precision manufacturing area. Our accomplishments include the numerical estimation of the hydrodynamic shear stress distribution for a new polishing tool that directs and controls the interaction of an abrasive slurry with an optical surface. A key milestone is in establishing a correlation between the shear stress predicted using our fluid mechanics model and the observed removal footprint created by a prototype tool. In addition, we demonstrate the ability to remove 25 nm layers of optical glass in a manner qualitatively similar to macroscopic milling operations using a numerically- controlled machine tool. Other accomplishments include the development of computer control software for directing the polishing tool and the construction of a polishing testbed.

  17. The exposome for kidney stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, David S

    2016-02-01

    The exposome is the assembly and measure of all the exposures of an individual in a lifetime. An individual's exposures begin before birth and include insults from environmental and occupational sources. The associated field is called exposomics, which relies on the application of internal and external exposure assessment methods. Exposomics has not yet been thoroughly applied to the study of kidney stones although much is known about how diet and fluid intake affect nephrolithiasis. Some other novel exposures that may contribute to kidney stones are discussed including use of antibiotics, urbanization and migration to urban heat islands, and occupation. People whose school and jobs limit their access to fluids and adequate bathroom facilities may have higher prevalence of stones. Examples include athletes, teachers, heathcare workers, and cab drivers. Occupational kidney stones have received scant attention and may represent a neglected, and preventable, type of stone. An exposomic-oriented history would include a careful delineation of occupation and activities.

  18. Date stones in broiler's feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gualtieri, M.

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate date stones as dietary component for broilers, two trials were carried out. In the first trial, Tunisian Deglet date stones were used and in the second one, stones were the waste product of an Italian distillery. One-day-old Arbor Acres chickens were cage reared and fed for 6 weeks on 4 experimental diets, which were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric and differed in cereal component (maize or low tannin sorghum and in inclusion level (0 or 10 % of ground date stones. Birds ' performances were slightly different in the two trials, but overall results indicate that date stones are suitable for use in broiler's feeding under such conditions.

  19. Cannabinoids cases in polish athletes

    OpenAIRE

    A Pokrywka; Z Obmiński; D Kwiatkowska; R Grucza

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the number of cases and the profiles of Polish athletes who had occasionally been using marijuana or hashish throughout the period of 1998-2004, with respect to: sex, age, and discipline of sport as well as the period of testing (in- and out-of-competition). Results of the study were compared with some data reported by other WADA accredited anti-doping laboratories. Totally, 13 631 urine samples taken from Polish athletes of both sexes, aged 10-67 year...

  20. Bath Stone - a Possible Global Heritage Stone from England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, Brian

    2014-05-01

    The Middle Jurassic strata of England have several horizons of oolitic and bioclastic limestones that provide high quality dimension stone. One of the most important is found in and near the City of Bath. The Great Oolite Group (Upper Bathonian) contains the Combe Down and Bath Oolites, consisting of current bedded oolites and shelly oolites, that have been used extensively as freestones for construction nearby, for prestigious buildings through much of southern England and more widely. The stone has been used to some extent since Roman times when the city, then known as Aquae Sulis, was an important hot spa. The stone was used to a limited extent through medieval times but from the early 18th century onwards was exploited on a large scale through surface quarrying and underground mining. The City was extensively redeveloped in the 18th to early 19th century, mostly using Bath Stone, when the spas made it a fashionable resort. Buildings from that period include architectural "gems" such as the Royal Crescent and Pulteney Bridge, as well as the renovated Roman Baths. Many buildings were designed by some of the foremost British architects of the time. The consistent use of this stone gives the City an architectural integrity throughout. These features led to the designation of the City as a World Heritage Site. It is a requirement in current City planning policy documents that Bath Stone should be used for new building to preserve the appearance of the City. More widely the stone was used in major houses (e.g. Buckingham Palace and Apsley House in London; King's Pavilion in Brighton); civic buildings (e.g. Bristol Guildhall; Dartmouth Naval College in Devon); churches and cathedrals (e.g. Truro Cathedral in Cornwall); and engineered structures (e.g. the large Dundas Aqueduct on the Kennet and Avon Canal). More widely, Bath Stone has been used in Union Station in Washington DC; Toronto Bible College and the Town Hall at Cape Town, South Africa. Extraction declined in

  1. Stone cladding engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sousa Camposinhos, Rui de

    2014-01-01

    This volume presents new methodologies for the design of dimension stone based on the concepts of structural design while preserving the excellence of stonemasonry practice in façade engineering. Straightforward formulae are provided for computing action on cladding, with special emphasis on the effect of seismic forces, including an extensive general methodology applied to non-structural elements. Based on the Load and Resistance Factor Design Format (LRDF), minimum slab thickness formulae are presented that take into consideration stress concentrations analysis based on the Finite Element Method (FEM) for the most commonly used modern anchorage systems. Calculation examples allow designers to solve several anchorage engineering problems in a detailed and objective manner, underlining the key parameters. The design of the anchorage metal parts, either in stainless steel or aluminum, is also presented.

  2. Polish-Bulgarian-Russian, Bulgarian-Polish-Russian or Russian-Bulgarian-Polish dictionary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Koseska-Toszewa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Polish-Bulgarian-Russian, Bulgarian-Polish-Russian or Russian-Bulgarian-Polish dictionary? The trilingual dictionary (M. Duszkin, V. Koseska, J. Satoła and A. Tzoneva is being elaborated based on a working Polish-Bulgarian-Russian electronic parallel corpus authored by Maksim Duszkin, Violetta Koseska-Toszewa and Joanna Satoła-Staśkowiak, and works by A. Tzoneva. It is the first corpus comparing languages belonging to three different Slavic language groups: western, southern and eastern. Works on the dictionary are based on Gramatyka konfrontatywna bułgarsko-polska (Bulgarian-Polish confrontative grammar and the proposed there semantic-oriented interlanguage. Two types of classifiers have been introduced into the dictionary: classic and semantic. The trilingual dictionary will present a consistent and homogeneous set of facts of grammar and semantics. The Authors point out that in a traditional dictionary it is not clear for example whether aspect should be understood as imperfective / perfective form of a verb or as its meaning. Therefore in the dictionary forms and meaning are separated in a regular way. Imperfective verb form has two meanings: state and configuration of states and events culminating in state. Also perfective verb form has two meanings: event and configuration of states and events culminating in event. These meanings are described by the semantic classifiers, respectively, state and event, state1 and event1. The way of describing language units, mentioned in the article, gives a possibility to present language material (Polish, Bulgarian, Russian in any required order, hence the article’s title.

  3. Grasping the Formless in Stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aktor, Mikael

    2017-01-01

    Investigating the ritual and social aesthetics of "petromorphic gods" in a Hindu context, this chapter demonstrates that it is not a single theoretical key but rather the interpretive combination of theories which allows one to understand how stones connect religious knowledge, performative action...... and the repertoire of used forms. The chapter demonstrates that neither anthropomorphic perceptions nor the agency of the stone material alone make up the ritual aesthetics in which the stones are involved. Rather, applying concepts from landscape phenomenology and cognitive theories including the role of material...

  4. Cannabinoids cases in polish athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Pokrywka

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the number of cases and the profiles of Polish athletes who had occasionally been using marijuana or hashish throughout the period of 1998-2004, with respect to: sex, age, and discipline of sport as well as the period of testing (in- and out-of-competition. Results of the study were compared with some data reported by other WADA accredited anti-doping laboratories. Totally, 13 631 urine samples taken from Polish athletes of both sexes, aged 10-67 years, performing 46 disciplines of sport were tested. Cannabinoids were detected in 267 samples. Among Polish athletes the relative number of positive THC (tetrahydrocannabinol samples was one of the highest in Europe. The group of young Polish athletes (aged 16-24 years was the most THC-positive. THC-positive cases were noted more frequently in male athletes tested during out of competitions. The so-called contact sports (rugby, ice hockey, skating, boxing, badminton, body building and acrobatic sports were those sports, where the higher risk of cannabis use was observed. The legal interpretation of some positive cannabinoids results would be difficult because of some accidental and unintentional use of the narcotics by sportsmen. It was concluded that national anti-doping organizations (NADO’s, which are competent to judge whether the anti-doping rules were violated, should take into account the possibility of non-intentional doping use of cannabinoids via passive smoking of marijuana.

  5. Sensing roughness and polish direction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Olesen, Anders Sig; Larsen, Henning Engelbrecht

    2016-01-01

    needs information about the RMS-value of the surface roughness and the current direction of the scratches introduced by the polishing process. The RMS-value indicates to the operator how far he is from the final finish, and the scratch orientation is often specified by the customer in order to avoid...... structures and light scattered from scratches....

  6. ATLAS brochure (Polish version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2007-01-01

    ATLAS is the largest detector at the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, which will start up in 2008. ATLAS is a multi-purpose detector, designed to throw light on fundamental questions such as the origin of mass and the nature of the Universe's dark matter.

  7. Nutritional Management of Kidney Stones (Nephrolithiasis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Adam M.; Seifter, Julian L.; Dwyer, Johanna T.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of kidney stones is common in the United States and treatments for them are very costly. This review article provides information about epidemiology, mechanism, diagnosis, and pathophysiology of kidney stone formation, and methods for the evaluation of stone risks for new and follow-up patients. Adequate evaluation and management can prevent recurrence of stones. Kidney stone prevention should be individualized in both its medical and dietary management, keeping in mind the specific risks involved for each type of stones. Recognition of these risk factors and development of long-term management strategies for dealing with them are the most effective ways to prevent recurrence of kidney stones. PMID:26251832

  8. Adsorption of natural surfactants present in sea waters at surfaces of minerals: contact angle measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Boniewicz-Szmyt

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The wetting properties of solid mineral samples (by contact angles in original surfactant-containing sea water (Gulf of Gdańsk, Baltic were characterised under laboratory conditions on a large set (31 samples of well-classified stones of diverse hydrophobicity using the sessile drop (ADSA-P approach, captive bubble and inclined plate methods. An experimental relation between the static contact angle θeq and stone density ρ was obtained in the form θeq = Bρ + C, where B = 12.23 ± 0.92, C = - (19.17 ± 0.77, and r2 = 0.92. The histogram of θeq distribution for polished stone plates exhibited a multimodal feature indicating that the most abundant solid materials (hydrophilic in nature have contact angles θeq = 7.2, 10.7, 15.7 and 19.2º, which appear to be applicable to unspecified field stones as well. The contact angle, a pH-dependent quantity, appears to be a sensitive measure of stone grain size, e.g. granite. The captive bubble method gives reproducible results in studies of porous and highly hydrophilic surfaces such as stones and wood. The authors consider the adsorption of natural sea water surfactants on stone surfaces to be the process responsible for contact angle hysteresis. In the model, an equation was derived for determining the solid surface free energy from the liquid's surface tension γLV it also enabled the advancing θA and receding θR contact angles of this liquid to be calculated. Measurements of contact angle hysteresis Δθ (=θA - θR with surfactant-containing sea water and distilled water (reference on the same stone surfaces allowed the film pressure ΔΠ (1.22 to 8.80 mJ m-2, solid surface free energy ΔγS (-17.03 to -23.61 mJ m-2 and work done by spreading ΔWS (-1.23 to -11.52 mJ m-2 to be determined. The variability in these parameters is attributed to autophobing, an effect operative on a solid surface covered with an adsorptive layer of surfactants. The wetting behaviour of solid particles is of great

  9. 75 FR 7457 - Notice of Public Hearing on Stone Energy Corporation Proposed Surface Water Withdrawal and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... projects follow: Stone Energy Corporation D-2009-13-1. An application for approval of a surface water... DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Notice of Public Hearing on Stone Energy Corporation Proposed Surface Water Withdrawal and Natural Gas Well Site SUMMARY: Because of the high level of public interest...

  10. Histopathology Predicts the Mechanism of Stone Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evan, Andrew P.

    2007-04-01

    About 5% of American women and 12% of men will develop a kidney stone at some time in their life and these numbers appear to be on the rise. Despite years of scientific research into the mechanisms of stone formation and growth, limited advances have been made until recently. Randall's original observations and thoughts on the mechanisms for kidney stone formation have been validated for idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers (ICSF) but not for most other stone forming groups. Our current studies on selected groups of human stone formers using intraoperative papillary biopsies has shown overwhelming evidence for the presence of Randall's plaque in ICSF and that stone formation and growth are exclusively linked to its availability to urinary ions and proteins. Intense investigation of the plaque-stone junction is needed if we are to understand the factors leading to the overgrowth process on exposed regions of plaque. Such information should allow the development of treatment strategies to block stone formation in ICSF patients. Patients who form brushite stones, or who form apatite stones because of distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA), or patients with calcium oxalate stones due to obesity bypass procedures, or patients with cystinuria, get plugged inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCD) which leads to total destruction of the lining cells and focal sites of interstitial fibrosis. These stone formers have plaque but at levels equal to or below non-stone formers, which would suggest that they form stones by a different mechanism than do ICSF patients.

  11. Stone technology: intracorporeal lithotripters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotland, Kymora B; Kroczak, Tadeusz; Pace, Kenneth T; Chew, Ben H

    2017-09-01

    Intracorporeal lithotripsy is becoming the most commonly used surgical method of stone treatment in Urology. The five major types of intracorporeal lithotripters are ultrasonic, ballistic, and combination lithotripters as well as laser and electrohydraulic lithotripters. The advantages and disadvantages of choosing each of these treatment modalities are reviewed. Extensive review of literature was performed to identify the types of intracorporeal lithotripters. An investigation was undertaken of the early development of each modality of intracorporeal lithotripsy and/or the mechanism of action. Challenges of each technique were identified and presented. Finally, a determination was made of how these lithotripters compare on the basis of effectiveness of action and cost based on information provided in primary literature as well as previous reviews of these modalities. Contemporary lithotripters have found widespread use in the management of urinary lithiasis. Holmium laser lithotripsy has become one of the most commonly used tools for intracorporeal lithotripsy. There is a wide variety of intracorporeal lithotripters which can be chosen based on the characteristics of each modality and the requirements of the urologist.

  12. Thermo-Mechanical Compatibility of Viscoelastic Mortars for Stone Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibault Demoulin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The magnitude of the thermal stresses that originate in an acrylic-based repair material used for the reprofiling of natural sandstone is analyzed. This kind of artificial stone was developed in the late 1970s for its peculiar property of reversibility in an organic solvent. However, it displays a high thermal expansion coefficient, which can be a matter of concern for the durability either of the repair or of the underlying original stone. To evaluate this risk we propose an analytical solution that considers the viscoelasticity of the repair layer. The temperature profile used in the numerical evaluation has been measured in a church where artificial stone has been used in a recent restoration campaign. The viscoelasticity of the artificial stone has been characterized by stress relaxation experiments. The numerical analysis shows that the relaxation time of the repair mortar, originating from a low T g , allows relief of most of the thermal stresses. It explains the good durability of this particular repair material, as observed by the practitioners, and provides a solid scientific basis for considering that the problem of thermal expansion mismatch is not an issue for this type of stone under any possible conditions of natural exposure.

  13. Thermo-Mechanical Compatibility of Viscoelastic Mortars for Stone Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoulin, Thibault; Scherer, George W.; Girardet, Fred; Flatt, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    The magnitude of the thermal stresses that originate in an acrylic-based repair material used for the reprofiling of natural sandstone is analyzed. This kind of artificial stone was developed in the late 1970s for its peculiar property of reversibility in an organic solvent. However, it displays a high thermal expansion coefficient, which can be a matter of concern for the durability either of the repair or of the underlying original stone. To evaluate this risk we propose an analytical solution that considers the viscoelasticity of the repair layer. The temperature profile used in the numerical evaluation has been measured in a church where artificial stone has been used in a recent restoration campaign. The viscoelasticity of the artificial stone has been characterized by stress relaxation experiments. The numerical analysis shows that the relaxation time of the repair mortar, originating from a low Tg, allows relief of most of the thermal stresses. It explains the good durability of this particular repair material, as observed by the practitioners, and provides a solid scientific basis for considering that the problem of thermal expansion mismatch is not an issue for this type of stone under any possible conditions of natural exposure. PMID:28787857

  14. Polish energy-system modernisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdz, M.

    2003-01-01

    The Polish energy-system needs intensive investments in new technologies, which are energy efficient, clean and cost effective. Since the early 1990s, the Polish economy has had practically full access to modern technological devices, equipment and technologies. Introducing new technologies is a difficult task for project teams, constructors and investors. The author presents a set of principles for project teams useful in planning and energy modernisation. Several essential features are discussed: Energy-efficient appliances and systems; Choice of energy carriers, media and fuels; Optimal tariffs, maximum power and installed power; Intelligent, integrated, steering systems; Waste-energy recovery; Renewable-energy recovery. In practice there are several difficulties connected with planning and realising good technological and economic solutions. The author presents his own experiences of energy-system modernisation of industrial processes and building new objects. (Author)

  15. FINANCIAL SECURITY OF POLISH HOUSEHOLDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kozera

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available  A household’s fi nancial security is essential for the satisfaction of the needs and wants of its members, both communal and individual. It constitutes a kind of foundation for all of a household’s fi nancial decisions that impact its standard of living. The article aims to assess the level of fi nancial security of Polish households in 2005–2013. The research draws on data from Genworth Index, HBS conducted by the Central Statistical Offi ce (GUS and Social Diagnosis (Diagnoza społeczna overseen by the Social Monitoring Council. The study shows that Poland is characterized by a low level of fi nancial security relative to other European countries, especially Western and Scandinavian. More than three-quarters of Polish households experience fi nancial problems and exhibit both a low propensity to save, and low savings rates.

  16. Energy savings in Polish buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markel, L.C.; Gula, A.; Reeves, G.

    1995-12-31

    A demonstration of low-cost insulation and weatherization techniques was a part of phase 1 of the Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficient Project. The objectives were to identify a cost-effective set of measures to reduce energy used for space heating, determine how much energy could be saved, and foster widespread implementation of those measures. The demonstration project focused on 4 11-story buildings in a Krakow housing cooperative. Energy savings of over 20% were obtained. Most important, the procedures and materials implemented in the demonstration project have been adapted to Polish conditions and applied to other housing cooperatives, schools, and hospitals. Additional projects are being planned, in Krakow and other cities, under the direction of FEWE-Krakow, the Polish Energie Cities Network, and Biuro Rozwoju Krakowa.

  17. Confocal Raman spectrocopy for the analysis of nail polish evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, Maria; Vaz, Joana; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2015-06-01

    Nail polishes are cosmetic paints that may be susceptible of forensic analysis offering useful information to assist in a crime reconstruction. Although the nail polish appearance could allow a quick visual identification of the sample, this analysis is subjected to the perception and subjective interpretation of the forensic examiner. The chemical analysis of the nail polishes offers great deal of information not subjected to analyst interpretation. Confocal Raman spectroscopy is a well-suited technique for the analysis of paints due to its non-invasive and non-destructive nature and its ability to supply information about the organic and inorganic components of the sample. In this work, 77 regular and gel nail polishes were analyzed with confocal Raman spectroscopy using two laser wavelengths (532 and 780 nm). The sample behavior under the two laser wavelengths and the differences in the spectra taken at different points of the sample were studied for each nail polish. Additionally, the spectra obtained for all the nail polishes were visually compared. The results concluded that the longer laser wavelength prevents sample burning and fluorescence effects; the similarity among the spectra collected within the sample is not directly related with the presence of glitter particles; and 64% of the samples analyzed showed a characteristic spectrum. Additionally, the use of confocal Raman spectroscopy for the forensic analysis of nail polishes evidence in the form of flakes or smudges on different surfaces were studied. The results showed that both types of evidence can be analyzed by the technique. Also, two non-invasive sampling methods for the collection of the evidence from the nails of the suspect or the victim were proposed: (i) to use acetone-soaked cotton swabs to remove the nail varnishes and (ii) to scrape the nail polish from the nail with a blade. Both approaches, each exhibiting advantages and drawbacks in terms of transport and handling were appropriate

  18. Earnings Management in Polish Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Brzeszczyński, Janusz; Gajdka, Jerzy; Schabek, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents results of the investigation of a phenomenon known as "earnings management'' (EM) among the companies listed on the Polish stock market. The distribution of earnings per share (EPS) for the stocks around the threshold value of "zero" and the threshold of "recent performance" was analyzed in the period of years 1997-2010. Moreover, the changes of earnings for the stocks, which are suspected to manipulate their earnings, were also investigated. The results, which indicate as...

  19. LOVE in English and Polish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Brożyna Reczko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available LOVE in English and Polish The paper presents a sample contrastive analysis of the linguistic picture of love in English and Polish. The material used in the survey is drawn from lexicographic data, including the British National Corpus and Narodowy Korpus Języka Polskiego [National Corpus of Polish]. The paper focuses on the similarities and differences in conceptualizing the abstract concept of love in the English and Polish languages. An analytical method, developed by Bartmiński and associates, serves as the theoretical basis for the reconstruction of the linguistic picture of the world.   MIŁOŚĆ w języku angielskim i polskim Niniejszy artykuł to próba kontrastywnego porównania językowego obrazu świata MIŁOŚCI w języku angielskim i polskim. Materiał badawczy pochodzi głównie ze źródeł leksykograficznych: słowników oraz korpusów (Narodowego Korpusu Języka Polskiego oraz z korpusu języka angielskiego British National Corpus. Celem badania było poszukiwanie podobieństw i różnic w konceptualizacji MIŁOŚCI w tych dwóch językach. Metoda badawcza została zaczerpnięta z prac J. Bartmińskiego i dotyczy rekonstrukcji językowego obrazu świata różnych pojęć.

  20. Regional differences in constituents of gall stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, M; Nageshwar Reddy, D; Jayanthi, V; Kalkura, S N; Vijayan, V; Gokulakrishnan, S; Nair, K G M

    2005-01-01

    The pathogenesis of pigment and mixed gall stone formation remains elusive. The elemental constituents of gall stones from southern states of Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Karnataka have been characterized. Our aim was to determine the elemental concentration of representative samples of pigment, mixed and cholesterol gall stones from Andhra Pradesh using proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) using a 3 MV horizontal pelletron accelerator. Pigment gall stones had significantly high concentrations of copper, iron and lead; chromium was absent. Except for iron all these elements were significantly low in cholesterol gall stones and intermediate levels were seen in mixed gall stones. Highest concentrations of chromium was seen in cholesterol and titanium in mixed gall stones respectively; latter similar to other southern states. Arsenic was distinctly absent in cholesterol and mixed gall stones. The study has identified differences in elemental components of the gall stones from Andhra Pradesh.

  1. 19th Polish Control Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Kacprzyk, Janusz; Oprzędkiewicz, Krzysztof; Skruch, Paweł

    2017-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the KKA 2017 – the 19th Polish Control Conference, organized by the Department of Automatics and Biomedical Engineering, AGH University of Science and Technology in Kraków, Poland on June 18–21, 2017, under the auspices of the Committee on Automatic Control and Robotics of the Polish Academy of Sciences, and the Commission for Engineering Sciences of the Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences. Part 1 deals with general issues of modeling and control, notably flow modeling and control, sliding mode, predictive, dual, etc. control. In turn, Part 2 focuses on optimization, estimation and prediction for control. Part 3 is concerned with autonomous vehicles, while Part 4 addresses applications. Part 5 discusses computer methods in control, and Part 6 examines fractional order calculus in the modeling and control of dynamic systems. Part 7 focuses on modern robotics. Part 8 deals with modeling and identification, while Part 9 deals with problems related to security, fault ...

  2. Directly polished lightweight aluminum mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Horst, Rik; Tromp, Niels; de Haan, Menno; Navarro, Ramon; Venema, Lars; Pragt, Johan

    2017-11-01

    During the last ten years, Astron has been a major contractor for the design and manufacturing of astronomical instruments for Space- and Earth based observatories, such as VISIR, MIDI, SPIFFI, X-Shooter and MIRI. Driven by the need to reduce the weight of optically ultra-stiff structures, two promising techniques have been developed in the last years: ASTRON Extreme Lightweighting [1][2] for mechanical structures and an improved Polishing Technique for Aluminum Mirrors. Using one single material for both optical components and mechanical structure simplifies the design of a cryogenic instrument significantly, it is very beneficial during instrument test and verification, and makes the instrument insensitive to temperature changes. Aluminum has been the main material used for cryogenic optical instruments, and optical aluminum mirrors are generally diamond turned. The application of a polishable hard top coating like nickel removes excess stray light caused by the groove pattern, but limits the degree of lightweighting of the mirrors due to the bi-metal effect. By directly polishing the aluminum mirror surface, the recent developments at Astron allow for using a non-exotic material for light weighted yet accurate optical mirrors, with a lower surface roughness ( 1nm RMS), higher surface accuracy and reduced light scattering. This paper presents the techniques, obtained results and a global comparison with alternative lightweight mirror solutions. Recent discussions indicate possible extensions of the extreme light weight technology to alternative materials such as Zerodur or Silicon Carbide.

  3. The present state and future of the development of dimension stone mining in Slovak conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viliam Žiaran

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available In comparing to both ores and energetical minerals there are occurences of extremly rich non-methallics minerals on the Slovak territory. These minerals represent very large-scale sortiment with a considerable amount of verified reserves. Reserves of magnesite, salt rock, dolomite, limestone, talc, bentonite, clays and another construction minerals present many possibilities of their industrial utilization. A specific case is the mining of dimension stones such as stable ingeneous,sedimentary and metamorphic rocks that are mined in the open-pit blocks. Applicable to the production of both ingeneous stone and gross stone [3].The open-pit mining and dimension stone processing by the both above mentioned stone productions forms are focused mainly to the external and internal building industry. Despite of the fact that the natural reserves of dimension stone are limited at the Slovak territory, being distributed at large numbers of open-pits mines, from the point of view of the next development of the dimension stone industry its technical and economic vitalitycan be expected. The paper deals with both the technological and ecological mining problems of dimension stone and shows the possibilities how to improve both the works productivity and quality of products including the ecological impacts by the dimension stone mining.

  4. Polish students at the Académie Julian until 1919

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zgórniak, Marek

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the article is the presence of Polish students in the most important private artistic school in Paris in the second half of the 19thcentury. The extant records regarding the atelier for male students made it possible to compile a list of about 165 Polish painters and sculptors studying there in the period from 1880 to 1919. The text presents the criteria used when preparing the list and the diagrams show the fluctuations in registration and the number of Polish artists in particular ateliers in successive years. The observations contained in the article have a summary nature and are illustrated only with selected examples.

  5. Ornamental Stones and Gemstones: The limits of heritage stone designation: The case for and against Australian Precious Opal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Barry

    2015-04-01

    When the international designation of natural stone types was first mooted in 2007, stones that were utilised in building and construction were the primary focus of attention. However following public discussion it soon became apparent that sculptural stones, stone used for utilitarian purposes such as millstones, as well as archaeological materials including stones used by early man could all be positively assessed as a potential Global Heritage Stone Resource (GHSR). Over the past 2 years it has been realised there is also a range of ornamental and semi-precious stones that may also be considered in the same international context. Examples in this respect include Imperial Porphyry sourced from Egypt that was much prized in the ancient world and "Derbyshire Blue John" a variety of fluorspar from central England that was used for vases, chalices, urns, candle sticks, jars, bowls door, jewellery and fire-place surrounds, especially in the 18th and 19th centuries. It is at this point that rock materials, sometimes used as gemstones, impinge on the domain of typical heritage stones. In Australia, the gemstone most identifiable with the country is precious opal formed by sedimentary processes in the Great Artesian Basin. In this paper the question is asked whether "Australian Precious Opal" could be or should be considered as a heritage stone of international significance. Immediately Australian Precious Opal satisfies several GHSR criteria including historic use for more than 50 years and wide-ranging utilisation for prestige jewellery around the world. It is also recognised as a cultural icon including association with national identity in Australia as it is legally defined as Australia's "National Gemstone" as well as being the "Gemstone Emblem" for the State of South Australia. Opal continues to be mined. Designation of Australian Precious Opal as a Global Heritage Stone Resource would likely involve formal international recognition of Australian opal in the

  6. What should I do about my patient's gall stones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, A R; Azoulay, D; Oakley, N; Baer, H; Paraskevopoulos, J A; Maddern, G J

    1995-12-01

    The problem of benign biliary disease is one that causes significant morbidity and social economic strain in the western world. The classical treatment, cholecystectomy, has been challenged by various medical and surgical techniques in a seemingly random nature. The development of the treatment of gall stone disease is reviewed by analysis of published studies over the last 20 years. The advantages and disadvantages are discussed as an overview and summary of the current management of gall stone disease in the light of our knowledge of its malignant potential.

  7. An Overview of Polish Martial Arts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech J. Cynarski

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explain the revival of Polish martial arts from the perspectives of cultural sociology, the sciences of physical culture, and the humanistic theory of martial arts. The Polish Martial Arts (Polskie Sztuki Walki are a subject still requiring serious scientific examination, even in Poland. There are few works concerning the history of Polish weapons, and most only describe techniques for wielding specific types of edged weapons. Nevertheless, there is a large group of enthusiasts trying to restore and cultivate the old Polish tradition, a tradition with heavy emphasis on the art of fencing. The author knows many of the people and facts presented here, from personal observation and from direct participation in these arts. As a disciple of the late Master Yoshio Sugino (10th-dan Kobudo Katori Shinto-ryu, he fought against the Polish saber champion, and he has taken part in joint exhibitions of Polish and Japanese fencing.

  8. The tourism attractiveness of Polish libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Miedzińska, Magdalena; Tanaś, Sławoj

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the article is to draw the reader's attention to the tourism attractiveness of renowned Polish libraries. These have attained a tourism function due to tourism exploration and penetration, but remain in the shadow of other Polish cultural assets. The article outlines the historical geography of Polish libraries, an analysis of tourism assets and an attempt to classify and catalogue libraries in Poland.

  9. Pebbles in Your Plumbing: Flushing Kidney Stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your urine. Stones vary in size from tiny crystals that can only be seen with a microscope ... in the future. “Probably one of the most important reasons why people form stones is dehydration,” Kirkali ...

  10. Kidney Stones in Children and Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Print Share Kidney Stones in Children and Teens Page Content Article Body ​Kidney stones are hard ... age, even in premature infants , most occur in teens , with teen girls having the highest incidence. Types ...

  11. Perceptions of and Attitudes towards Regional Varieties of Polish: Views from Two Polish Provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milobog, Magdalena; Garrett, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports a study of perceptions and attitudes relating to regional varieties of Polish. The methodology followed folk linguistic approaches to attitudes research. Respondents in two Polish provinces were asked to draw on a map of Poland where they thought the main regional varieties of Polish were spoken, and then to name and…

  12. Droughts in historical times in Polish territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limanowka, Danuta; Cebulak, Elzbieta; Pyrc, Robert; Doktor, Radoslaw

    2015-04-01

    Climate change is one of the key environmental, social and economical issues, and it is also followed by political consequences. Impact of climate conditions on countries' economy is increasingly recognized, and a lot of attention is given, both in the global scale and by the individual national governments. In years 2008-2010, at the Poland -Institute of Meteorology and Water Management-National Research Institute was realized the KLIMAT Project on Impact of climate change on environment, economy and society (changes, effects and methods of reducing them, conclusions for science, engineering practice and economic planning) No. POIG01-03-01-14-011/08. The project was financed by the European Union and Polish state budget in frame of Innovative Economy Operational Programme. A very wide range of research was carried out in the different thematic areas. One of them was "Natural disasters and internal safety of the country (civil and economical)." The problem of drought in Poland was developed in terms of meteorology and hydrology. "Proxy" Data Descriptions very often inform about dry years and seasons, hot periods without precipitation. Analysis of historical material allowed to extract the years that have experienced prolonged periods of high temperatures and rainfall shortages. Weather phenomenon defined as drought belongs to extreme events. This information was very helpful in the process of indexing and thus to restore the course and intensity of climatic elements in the past. The analysis covered the period from year 1000 to modern times. Due to the limited information from the period of 1000-1500 the authors focused primarily on the period from 1500 to 2010. Analysis of the collected material has allowed the development of a highly precise temporal structure of the possible occurrence of dry periods to Polish territory.

  13. Polish Geophysical Solid Earth Infrastructure Contributing to EPOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debski, W.; Mutke, G.; Suchcicki, J.; Jozwiak, W.; Wiejacz, P.; Trojanowski, J.

    2012-04-01

    In this poster we present the current state of the main polish solid-earth-orientated infrastructures and shortly described history of their development, current state, and some plans for their future development. The presen- tation concentrates only on the classical infrastructure leaving aside for the while the the geodetic-orientated infrastructure, like GPS network and the GPS processing data centers, gravimetric infrastructure and others of this type. Polish broadband seismic infrastructure consists of 7 permanent broadband stations incorporated into the VEBSN initiative running at the polish territory and one operated in collaboration with NORSAR is settled at the Hornsund (Svalbard) polish polar station. All stations are equipped with STS-2 seismometers and polish MK-6 seismic stations providing 120 dB dynamics 100Hz sampling and data transmission in a real time to processing center. Besides this permanent broadband seismic network (PLSN) the Central Institute of Mining is running the permanent regional, short period network at the Upper Silesia area dedicated to the detailed monitoring of seismicity induced by the black coal mining activity in this area. The network consists of As the mining activity is the main source of seismicity in Poland also all mines are running underground short period networks, like for example Rudna-Polkowice copper mine seismic network consisting of 64 underground located short period seimometers. In that area, especially around the Zelazny Most: the huge post-floating artificial lake the, IGF PAS is running the local seismic array consisting of 4 short period seismometers. Besides these permanent network IGF PAN is running the portable seismic network for detailed mapping a possible natural seismic activity in selected regions of Poland. Important contribution to classical geophysical observation in the electro-magnetic field are provided by three permanent geomagnetic observatories (one at Hornsund) and supporting set of 10

  14. Corporate Politics on Polish Millennials

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Roślik

    2017-01-01

    In the very beginning of this particular paper, an author is trying to determine and describe who Millennials actually are. Then, the basis of Millennials definition is analysing corporation’s activity over the past years regarding this age group. The main goal of the thesis is to bring their specific futures out and describe what corporations on Polish job market are doing to encourage them to work in their offices. Especially in Poland within the last years, it is observed that big multinat...

  15. Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency (FEWE) was established in Poland at the end of 1990. FEWE, as an independent and non-profit organization, has the following objectives: to strive towards an energy efficient national economy, and to show the way and methods by use of which energy efficiency can be increased. The activity of the Foundation covers the entire territory of Poland through three regional centers: in Warsaw, Katowice and Cracow. FEWE employs well-known and experienced specialists within thermal and power engineering, civil engineering, economy and applied sciences. The organizer of the Foundation has been Battelle Memorial Institute - Pacific Northwest Laboratories from the USA.

  16. The Swedish Bohus granite - a stone with a fascinating history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouenborg, Björn; Eliasson, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    blocks but also paving products like sets, slabs and kerb stones are still manufactured in Sweden. Blocks are generally further processed in other countries like Italy and China to reach the European market as semi-finished products like slabs or finished products for any kind of application. The granite is very durable and suitable for all types of natural stone products.

  17. Intraperitoneal stone migration during percutaneos nephrolithotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akif Diri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Percutaneos nephrolithotomy (PNL is the standard care for renal stones larger than 2 cm. The procedure has some major and minor complications. Renal pelvis laceration and stone migration to the retroperitoneum is one of the rare condition. We report the first case of intraperitoneal stone migration during PNL.

  18. The ground stones from Sphinx

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řídký, Jaroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 2017, č. 21 (2017), s. 39-42 ISSN 1369-5770 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA17-03207S Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Sudan * Mesolithic * ground stones Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Archaeology

  19. Grasping the Formless in Stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aktor, Mikael

    2017-01-01

    Investigating the ritual and social aesthetics of "petromorphic gods" in a Hindu context, this chapter demonstrates that it is not a single theoretical key but rather the interpretive combination of theories which allows one to understand how stones connect religious knowledge, performative action...

  20. Diet for Kidney Stone Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I eat or drink? Drinking enough liquid, mainly water, is the most important thing you can do to prevent kidney stones. Unless you have kidney failure , many health care professionals recommend that you drink six to eight, 8-ounce glasses a day. Talk with a health care professional about how ...

  1. THE INFLUENCE OF DISCONTINUITY FABRIC AND OTHER FACTORS ON OPTIMUM EXPLOITATION OF DIMENSION STONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Tomašić

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Dimension stone as a specific nonmetallic raw material, regarding deposit conditions, exploitation methods and processing, demands an adequate estimate of dimensioning i.e. opti-malizalion of the exploitation in relation to the structural elements. The analyzed and presented examples show that in natural conditions adaptation of the exploitation technology to the discontinuity fabric could result in considerable gains in utilization of rock mass in stone blocks, specialy if these blocks are cases of highly decorative stone with good physical and mechanical properties. The calculated and presented diagrams fit well into world analysis trends concerning exploitation and processing of dimension stone, This is confirmed by the improvement of technology for smaller stone blocks can be exploited and processed profitably.

  2. Buffered Electrochemical Polishing of Niobium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciovati, Gianluigi [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Tian, Hui [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Corcoran, Sean [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2011-03-01

    The standard preparation of superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities made of pure niobium include the removal of a 'damaged' surface layer, by buffered chemical polishing (BCP) or electropolishing (EP), after the cavities are formed. The performance of the cavities is characterized by a sharp degradation of the quality factor when the surface magnetic field exceeds about 90 mT, a phenomenon referred to as 'Q-drop.' In cavities made of polycrystalline fine grain (ASTM 5) niobium, the Q-drop can be significantly reduced by a low-temperature (? 120 °C) 'in-situ' baking of the cavity if the chemical treatment was EP rather than BCP. As part of the effort to understand this phenomenon, we investigated the effect of introducing a polarization potential during buffered chemical polishing, creating a process which is between the standard BCP and EP. While preliminary results on the application of this process to Nb cavities have been previously reported, in this contribution we focus on the characterization of this novel electrochemical process by measuring polarization curves, etching rates, surface finish, electrochemical impedance and the effects of temperature and electrolyte composition. In particular, it is shown that the anodic potential of Nb during BCP reduces the etching rate and improves the surface finish.

  3. Method of polishing nickel-base alloys and stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeves, Arthur F.; Buono, Donald P.

    1981-01-01

    A chemical attack polish and polishing procedure for use on metal surfaces such as nickel base alloys and stainless steels. The chemical attack polish comprises Fe(NO.sub.3).sub.3, concentrated CH.sub.3 COOH, concentrated H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 and H.sub.2 O. The polishing procedure includes saturating a polishing cloth with the chemical attack polish and submicron abrasive particles and buffing the metal surface.

  4. Advanced techniques for computer-controlled polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinhaerl, Markus; Stamp, Richard; Pitschke, Elmar; Rascher, Rolf; Smith, Lyndon; Smith, Gordon; Geiss, Andreas; Sperber, Peter

    2008-08-01

    Computer-controlled polishing has introduced determinism into the finishing of high-quality surfaces, for example those used as optical interfaces. Computer-controlled polishing may overcome many of the disadvantages of traditional polishing techniques. The polishing procedure is computed in terms of the surface error-profile and the material removal characteristic of the polishing tool, the influence function. Determinism and predictability not only enable more economical manufacture but also facilitate considerably increased processing accuracy. However, there are several disadvantages that serve to limit the capabilities of computer-controlled polishing, many of these are considered to be issues associated with determination of the influence function. Magnetorheological finishing has been investigated and various new techniques and approaches that dramatically enhance the potential as well as the economics of computer-controlled polishing have been developed and verified experimentally. Recent developments and advancements in computer-controlled polishing are discussed. The generic results of this research may be used in a wide variety of alternative applications in which controlled material removal is employed to achieve a desired surface specification, ranging from surface treatment processes in technical disciplines, to manipulation of biological surface textures in medical technologies.

  5. Kidney stones: pathophysiology, diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Priscilla; Noble, Helen; Al-Modhefer, Abdul-Kadhum; Walsh, Ian

    2016-11-10

    The prevalence of kidney stones is increasing, and approximately 12 000 hospital admissions every year are due to this condition. This article will use a case study to focus on a patient diagnosed with a calcium oxalate kidney stone. It will discuss the affected structures in relation to kidney stones and describe the pathology of the condition. Investigations for kidney stones, differential diagnosis and diagnosis, possible complications and prognosis, will be discussed. Finally, a detailed account of management strategies for the patient with kidney stones will be given, looking at pain management, medical procedures and dietary interventions.

  6. Polish Industry and Art at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    On 17 October 2000 the second Polish industrial and technological exhibition opened at CERN. The first one was held five years ago and nine of the companies that were present then have come back again this year. Six of those companies were awarded contracts with CERN in 1995. Three Polish officials were present at the Opening Ceremony today: Mrs Malgorzata Kozlowska, Under-secretary of State in the State Committee for Scientific Research, Mr Henryk Ogryczak, Under-secretary of State in Ministry of Economy and Prof. Jerzy Niewodniczanski, President of National Atomic Energy Agency. Professor Luciano Maiani welcomed the Polish delegation to CERN and stressed the important contribution of Polish scientists and industrialists to the work of the laboratory. Director General Luciano Maiani (back left) and head of SPL division Karl-Heinz Kissler (back right) visit the Poland at CERN exhibition… The exhibition offers Polish companies the opportunity to establish professional contacts with CERN. Nineteen companies...

  7. Response of the Polish Wheat Prices to the Worlds Crude Oil Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAMULCZUK

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural commodities prices play crucial role both in farmers income determination and in price relationship establishment for the whole economy. Among the factors influencing the wheat prices, crude oil prices are considered as one of the most important. The aim of this paper was to assess the character of linkage between world crude oil prices and Polish wheat prices. Results of the research confirm the existence of such linkage although the nature and the strength of this relationship changes over time. However, the long-run relationships between the crude oil and Polish wheat prices were not proven. Moreover, growing impact of crude oil prices on Polish wheat prices over time was not detected. The results suggest that exchange rates may strongly influence wheat prices. This in turn may weaken response of Polish wheat prices in relation to world crude oil prices.

  8. Africa and Its People in the Polish Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Średziński Paweł

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The African continent is treated by the Polish media marginally and usually seen through the lens of four domains of stereotypical perceptions that are associated with difficult life conditions, threats and dangers, beautiful and wild nature, as well as original and diverse cultures. Monitoring of the Polish media has become very important in this situation. That is why the results of first media monitoring report were published in 2011 by ‘Africa Another Way’ Foundation. Five years later the monitoring was repeated. It is hard to resist the impression that Africa is still viewed as this poor, underdeveloped and dangerous continent. And the way it is presented translates into the way individuals of African descent are perceived.

  9. A new strategy for the restructuring of Polish energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowski, R.H.; Tallat, J.

    2006-01-01

    In accordance with strategic planning in the military, the leader (in this case the Minister of Economy) is responsible for setting goals, finding the right people to accomplish these goals (those working in the energy sector), analysing the current situation (state of the energy sector) and evaluating available resources (conventional and renewable energy resources). In terms of economic planning (this term is proper for an economy that sets numerous laws and quotas), the goal is to get the Polish economy out of economic slump, which is the result of seventeen years of improper government practices, into a state of prosperity corresponding to no less than the European average. The only way of accomplishing this goal of high economic growth and catching up with highly-developed countries is to develop local inexpensive energy resources. This study focuses on the potential to develop abundant Polish geothermal resources as well as natural gas based co-generation. (author)

  10. Finishing and polishing of the ceromer material Targis. Lab-side and chair-side methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, M; Rosentritt, M; Leibrock, A; Schneider-Feyrer, S; Handel, G

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the study was to check four lab-side and four chair-side methods for finishing and polishing the ceromer material Targis. Eighty bar-shaped specimens (20 mm x 10 mm x 2 mm) of Vectris were produced; 72 were covered with a 2 mm (thickness) layer of the Ceromer Targis and eight samples with the composite Tetric. All specimens were ground plane parallel with 320 Silicium carbide grit sandpaper in order to start with the same level of roughness. Then the specimens were finished and polished using the following methods: (1) Artglass toolkit, (2) pumice-stone and brushes/linen brush and polishing paste P3, (3) Robinson brush/Ivoclar Universal paste and wool brush, (4) Silicone wheel and rag wheel, (5) Shofu Rainbow set, (6) Sof-Lex discs, (7) Vivadent Politip set and (8) Nupro-pastes and brushes. The surface roughness was determined with a profilometer. The arithmetical roughness value Ra was calculated. From each group one specimen was randomly chosen and sputtered with gold in order to observe the surface with a scanning electron microscope to evaluate its smoothness. The methods were ranked as followed: 2, 3 and 5 with the lowest roughness, then 8, 6, 7, 4, 1. The best ranked chair-side method (5) and the best ranked lab-side methods (2, 3) did not differ significantly between the Ra values. No difference was observed between the composite Tetric and the ceromer Targis when these materials were polished using the same method. the lab-side-methods 2 and 3 and the chair-side-method 5 can be recommended for finishing and polishing the new ceromer material Targis.

  11. Corporate Politics on Polish Millennials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Roślik

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the very beginning of this particular paper, an author is trying to determine and describe who Millennials actually are. Then, the basis of Millennials definition is analysing corporation’s activity over the past years regarding this age group. The main goal of the thesis is to bring their specific futures out and describe what corporations on Polish job market are doing to encourage them to work in their offices. Especially in Poland within the last years, it is observed that big multinational companies are paying special attention to Millennials and trying to hire them before competitors will do so. As a part of this paper, an author will describe corporate politics and practices on Thomson Reuters and BNY Mellon examples. Within this work, an author is also discussing key features and differences between this generation and Millennials parent’s generation. Additionally, there is a reference to corporate social responsibility concept and work-life balance issues.

  12. UV Ink-Jet printability and durability of stone and foil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeja Muck

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available he use of ultraviolet (UV printing technology has impacted printing industry in last years due to its applicability on many different »absorptive« as well as »non-absorptive« printing materials. The printability of building materials and recycled foils is relatively unknown. For primary building materials like stones, functionality can be explored with the use of UV printing technology; increased visual, informative effect or even “creative printing” of buildings. Also several aspects of recycled foils reusability as a printing material could be find (printed packaging material or also like secondary building materials. In the present study, printability of the stone and recycled foil and durability of UV prints was explored by means of macroscopically and microscopically characterization. Results indicate that higher print quality can be achieved on polished stone and on coated foil, which surfaces have higher smoothness. Durability of UV prints at freezing is higher at unpolished stone and coated foil that is at materials with the higher surface energy.

  13. Injury experience in stone mining, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of stone mining in the United States for 1992. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  14. Laser cleaning of graffiti on stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanassova, Victoria; Kostadinov, Ivan; Zahariev, Peter; Grozeva, Margarita; Miloushev, Ilko

    2016-01-01

    In present days graffiti is a common problem that many restorers have to deal with due to both its unaesthetic appearance and damaging nature for the surface beneath. We report laser cleaning of graffiti paints (black, white, blue, green and red) on limestone and granite. The efficiency of two laser systems is compared: high repetition rate (20 kHz) Copper Bromide Vapor Laser (CuBrVL) generating wavelength 510.6 nm and low repetition rate (up to 10 Hz) Q-switched Nd:YAG laser generating fundamental wavelength 1064 nm and its second harmonic 532 nm. The surface condition of the stone samples before and after cleaning is evaluated by means of optical microscopy. On that base, suitable working parameters are chosen in order to avoid under- or over-cleaning.

  15. Bariatric Surgery and Stone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieske, John C.; Kumar, Rajiv

    2008-09-01

    Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment strategy for patients with morbid obesity that can result in effective weight loss, resolution of diabetes mellitus and other weight related complications, and even improved mortality. However, it also appears that hyperoxaluria is common after modern bariatric surgery, perhaps occurring in up to 50% of patients after Rouxen-Y gastric bypass. Although increasing numbers of patients are being seen with calcium oxalate kidney stones after bariatric surgery, and even a few with oxalosis and renal failure, the true risk of these outcomes remains unknown. The mechanisms that contribute to this enteric hyperoxaluria are also incompletely defined, although fat malabsorption may be an important component. Since increasing numbers of these procedures are likely to be performed in the coming years, further study regarding the prevalence and mechanisms of hyperoxaluria and kidney stones after bariatric surgery is needed to devise effective methods of treatment in order to prevent such complications.

  16. Stone anchors along the coast of Chilika Lake: New light on the maritime activities of Orissa, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Patnaik, A.P.

    and effec- tiveness of the anchors can be taken into account in rela- tion to the environment and nature of the lakebed. The reason for finding hero stones along with anchors could be that some naval battles were fought in the region, and hero stones were...

  17. Smoking characteristics of Polish immigrants in Dublin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zatonski Witold

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined two main hypotheses: a Polish immigrants' smoking estimates are greater than their Irish counterparts (b Polish immigrants purchasing cigarettes from Poland smoke "heavier" (≥ 20 cigarettes a day when compared to those purchasing cigarettes from Ireland. The study also set out to identify significant predictors of 'current' smoking (some days and everyday among the Polish immigrants. Methods Dublin residents of Polish origin (n = 1,545 completed a previously validated Polish questionnaire in response to an advertisement in a local Polish lifestyle magazine over 5 weekends (July–August, 2007. The Office of Tobacco Control telephone-based monthly survey data were analyzed for the Irish population in Dublin for the same period (n = 484. Results Age-sex adjusted smoking estimates were: 47.6% (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 47.3%; 48.0% among the Poles and 27.8% (95% CI: 27.2%; 28.4% among the general Irish population (p 24 months were significant predictors of current smoking among the Poles. An objective validation of the self-reported smoking history of a randomly selected sub-sample immigrant group, using expired carbon monoxide (CO measurements, showed a highly significant correlation coefficient (r = 0.64 of expired CO levels with the reported number of cigarettes consumed (p Conclusion Polish immigrants' smoking estimates are higher than their Irish counterparts, and particularly if employed, with only primary-level education, and are overseas >2 years.

  18. Greco-Roman Stone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael E.; Ruzhansky, Katherine

    2008-09-01

    Greek and Roman thought had a profound influence upon Western medical practice. From the fall of the Greek civilization to the fall of the Roman, remarkable progress of our understanding of human anatomy and physiology occurred. Here we review the attempts of Greek and Roman thinkers to develop the first understanding of the pathophysiology of urolithiasis, its epidemiology, differential diagnosis of renal versus bladder stones, medications for both colic and prevention, the role of familial syndromes, and dietary management.

  19. Geomorphology's role in the study of weathering of cultural stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Gregory A.; Meierding, Thomas C.; Paradise, Thomas R.

    2002-10-01

    Great monumental places—Petra, Giza, Angkor, Stonehenge, Tikal, Macchu Picchu, Rapa Nui, to name a few—are links to our cultural past. They evoke a sense of wonderment for their aesthetic fascination if not for their seeming permanence over both cultural and physical landscapes. However, as with natural landforms, human constructs are subject to weathering and erosion. Indeed, many of our cultural resources suffer from serious deterioration, some natural, some enhanced by human impact. Groups from the United Nations to local civic and tourism assemblies are deeply interested in maintaining and preserving such cultural resources, from simple rock art to great temples. Geomorphologists trained in interacting systems, process and response to thresholds, rates of change over time, and spatial variation of weathering processes and effects are able to offer insight into how deterioration occurs and what can be done to ameliorate the impact. Review of recent literature and case studies presented here demonstrate methodological and theoretical advances that have resulted from the study of cultural stone weathering. Because the stone was carved at a known date to a "baseline" or zero-datum level, some of the simplest methods (e.g., assessing surface weathering features or measuring surface recession in the field) provide useful data on weathering rates and processes. Such data are difficult or impossible to obtain in "natural" settings. Cultural stone weathering studies demonstrate the importance of biotic and saline weathering agents and the significance of weathering factors such as exposure (microclimate) and human impact. More sophisticated methods confirm these observations, but also reveal discrepancies between field and laboratory studies. This brings up two important caveats for conservators and geomorphologists. For the conservator, are laboratory and natural setting studies really analogous and useful for assessing stone damage? For the geomorphologist, does

  20. From stones to rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortier, Marie-Astrid; Jean-Leroux, Kathleen; Cirio, Raymond

    2013-04-01

    With the Aquila earthquake in 2009, earthquake prediction is more and more necessary nowadays, and people are waiting for even more accurate data. Earthquake accuracy has increased in recent times mainly thanks to the understanding of how oceanic expansion works and significant development of numerical seismic prediction models. Despite the improvements, the location and the magnitude can't be as accurate as citizen and authorities would like. The basis of anticipating earthquakes requires the understanding of: - The composition of the earth, - The structure of the earth, - The relations and movements between the different parts of the surface of the earth. In order to answer these questions, the Alps are an interesting field for students. This study combines natural curiosity about understanding the predictable part of natural hazard in geology and scientific skills on site: observing and drawing landscape, choosing and reading a representative core drilling, replacing the facts chronologically and considering the age, the length of time and the strength needed. This experience requires students to have an approach of time and space radically different than the one they can consider in a classroom. It also limits their imagination, in a positive way, because they realize that prediction is based on real data and some of former theories have become present paradigms thanks to geologists. On each location the analyzed data include landscape, core drilling and the relation established between them by students. The data is used by the students to understand the meaning, so that the history of the formation of the rocks tells by the rocks can be explained. Until this year, the CBGA's perspective regarding the study of the Alps ground allowed students to build the story of the creation and disappearance of the ocean, which was a concept required by French educational authorities. But not long ago, the authorities changed their scientific expectations. To meet the

  1. Stone composition among first-time symptomatic kidney stone formers in the community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prince; Enders, Felicity T.; Vaughan, Lisa E.; Bergstralh, Eric J; Knoedler, John J.; Krambeck, Amy E; Lieske, John C; Rule, Andrew D

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the variation in kidney stone composition and its relationship to risk factors and recurrence among first-time stone formers in the general population. Patients and Methods Medical records were manually reviewed and validated for symptomatic kidney stone episodes among Olmsted County, Minnesota residents from January 1, 1984 to December 31, 2012. Clinical and laboratory characteristics and the risk of symptomatic recurrence were compared between stone compositions. Results There were 2961 validated first-time symptomatic kidney stone formers. Stone composition analysis was obtained in 1508 (51%) at the first episode. Stone formers were divided into the following mutually exclusive groups: any brushite (0.9%), any struvite (0.9%), any uric acid (4.8%), majority calcium oxalate (76%) or majority hydroxyapatite (18%). Stone composition varied with clinical characteristics. A multivariable model had a 69% probability of correctly estimating stone composition, but assuming calcium oxalate monohydrate stone was correct 65% of the time. Symptomatic recurrence at 10 years was approximately 50% for brushite, struvite, and uric acid, but approximately 30% for calcium oxalate and hydroxyapatite stones (Pcomposition, they are of limited utility for estimating stone composition. Rarer stone compositions are more likely to recur. PMID:26349951

  2. Super-polishing of Zerodur aspheres by means of conventional polishing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, Jaroslav; Klepetková, Eva; Pošmourný, Josef; Šulc, Miroslav; Procháska, František; Tomka, David; Matoušek, Ondřej; Poláková, Ivana; Šubert, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a quest to find simple technique to superpolish Zerodur asphere (55μm departure from best fit sphere) that could be employed on old fashion way 1-excenter optical polishing machine. The work focuses on selection of polishing technology, study of different polishing slurries and optimization of polishing setup. It is demonstrated that either by use of fine colloidal CeO2 slurry or by use of bowl-feed polishing setup with CeO2 charged pitch we could reach 0.4nm RMS roughness while removing <30nm of surface layer. This technique, although not optimized, was successfully used to improve surface roughness on already prepolished Zerodur aspheres without necessity to involve sophisticated super-polishing technology and highly trained manpower.

  3. Comparative study of performance of shoe polishes formulated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GARZALI

    This should make the polish remains as discrete solid particles held mechanically within the leather. This work intends to explore the use of polyethylene pigment in the production of shoe polish. The shoe polish produced will be applied alongside shoe polish from carbon black (CI black Pigment 7) on finished black leather ...

  4. ECOLOGICAL IDEAS IN POLISH ARCHITECTURE - ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena SZPYTMA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Solutions in the field of ecological architecture appear more and more often in Poland. There are two approaches to eco-design: high-tech and low-tech. High-tech focuses on the use of the latest technological solvings. These means are often used in newly designed commercial buildings, such as the first Polish office building which uses passive technology, built in Katowice, in Euro-Centrum Science and Technology Park. It is intended especially for companies focusing on energy observance issues. Low-tech is usually used in small-scale buildings (for example a cottage in Jartypory village, and is focused on the use of inexpensive, traditional technologies and the daily conscious management of natural resources. Thinking about the impact on the environment and principles of sustainable development is also present in urban planning. In Siewierz, near Katowice, Poland’s first eco-village is being built, with full infrastructure, high-quality residential buildings, shops, offices and hotels. The range of applied solutions will allow residents for the economical exploitation of these buildings.

  5. A simple method for fabricating artificial kidney stones of different physical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esch, Eric; Simmons, Walter Neal; Sankin, Georgy; Cocks, Hadley F; Preminger, Glenn M; Zhong, Pei

    2010-08-01

    A simple method for preparing artificial kidney stones with varying physical properties is described. BegoStone was prepared with a powder-to-water ratio ranging from 15:3 to 15:6. The acoustic properties of the phantoms were characterized using an ultrasound transmission technique, from which the corresponding mechanical properties were calculated based on elastic wave theory. The measured parameters for BegoStone phantoms of different water contents are: longitudinal wave speed (3,148-4,159 m/s), transverse wave speed (1,813-2,319 m/s), density (1,563-1,995 kg/m(3)), longitudinal acoustic impedance (4.92-8.30 kg/m(2) s), transverse acoustic impedance (2.83-4.63 kg/m(2) s), Young's modulus (12.9-27.4 GPa), bulk modulus (8.6-20.2 GPa), and shear modulus (5.1-10.7 GPa), which cover the range of corresponding properties reported in natural kidney stones. In addition, diametral compression tests were carried out to determine tensile failure strength of the stone phantoms. BegoStone phantoms with varying water content at preparation have tensile failure strength from 6.9 to 16.3 MPa when tested dry and 3.2 to 7.1 MPa when tested in water-soaked condition. Overall, it is demonstrated that this new BegoStone preparation method can be used to fabricate artificial stones with physical properties matched with those of natural kidney stones of various chemical compositions.

  6. THE INFLUENCE OF DISCONTINUITY FABRIC AND OTHER FACTORS ON OPTIMUM EXPLOITATION OF DIMENSION STONE

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Tomašić

    1994-01-01

    Dimension stone as a specific nonmetallic raw material, regarding deposit conditions, exploitation methods and processing, demands an adequate estimate of dimensioning i.e. opti-malizalion of the exploitation in relation to the structural elements. The analyzed and presented examples show that in natural conditions adaptation of the exploitation technology to the discontinuity fabric could result in considerable gains in utilization of rock mass in stone blocks, specialy if these blocks ar...

  7. Emergency management of ureteral stones: Recent advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Osorio

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Most ureteral stones can be observed with reasonable expectation of uneventful stone passage. When an active ureteral stone treatment is warranted, the best procedure to choose is dependent on several factors, besides stone size and location, including operators′ experience, patients′ preference, available equipment and related costs. Placement of double-J stent or nephrostomy tube represents the classical procedures performed in a renal colic due to acute ureteral obstruction when the conservative drug therapy does not resolve the symptoms. These maneuvers are usually followed by ureteroscopy or extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy, which currently represent the mainstay of treatment for ureteral stones. In this review paper a literature search was performed to identify reports dealing with emergency management of renal colic due to ureteral stones. The main aspects related to this debated issue are analyzed and the advantages and disadvantages of each treatment option are carefully discussed.

  8. Emergency management of ureteral stones: Recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Luis; Lima, Estêvão; Autorino, Riccardo; Marcelo, Filinto

    2008-10-01

    Most ureteral stones can be observed with reasonable expectation of uneventful stone passage. When an active ureteral stone treatment is warranted, the best procedure to choose is dependent on several factors, besides stone size and location, including operators' experience, patients' preference, available equipment and related costs. Placement of double-J stent or nephrostomy tube represents the classical procedures performed in a renal colic due to acute ureteral obstruction when the conservative drug therapy does not resolve the symptoms. These maneuvers are usually followed by ureteroscopy or extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy, which currently represent the mainstay of treatment for ureteral stones. In this review paper a literature search was performed to identify reports dealing with emergency management of renal colic due to ureteral stones. The main aspects related to this debated issue are analyzed and the advantages and disadvantages of each treatment option are carefully discussed.

  9. Quality Assessment of Urinary Stone Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siener, Roswitha; Buchholz, Noor; Daudon, Michel

    2016-01-01

    After stone removal, accurate analysis of urinary stone composition is the most crucial laboratory diagnostic procedure for the treatment and recurrence prevention in the stone-forming patient. The most common techniques for routine analysis of stones are infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction...... and chemical analysis. The aim of the present study was to assess the quality of urinary stone analysis of laboratories in Europe. Nine laboratories from eight European countries participated in six quality control surveys for urinary calculi analyses of the Reference Institute for Bioanalytics, Bonn, Germany......, between 2010 and 2014. Each participant received the same blinded test samples for stone analysis. A total of 24 samples, comprising pure substances and mixtures of two or three components, were analysed. The evaluation of the quality of the laboratory in the present study was based on the attainment...

  10. Papillary Ductal Plugging is a Mechanism for Early Stone Retention in Brushite Stone Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, James C; Borofsky, Michael S; Bledsoe, Sharon B

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: Mechanisms of early stone retention in the kidney are under studied and poorly understood. To date attachment via Randall's plaque is the only widely accepted theory in this regard, which is best described in idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers. Brushite stone formers are known...... to have distinct papillary morphology relative to calcium oxalate stone formers. As such we sought to determine whether stone attachment mechanisms in such patients may be similarly unique. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients undergoing percutaneous and or ureteroscopic procedures for stone removal consented...... to endoscopic renal papillary examination and individual stone collection. Each removed stone was processed using micro computerized tomography to assess the 3-dimensional microstructure and the minerals contained, and search for common structural features indicative of novel mechanisms of early growth...

  11. New Environmental Practices in Polish Production Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kræmer, Trine Pipi

    2002-01-01

    Based on five case studies in Poland, the paper discusses, how a specific environmental policy influences the firms? industrial environmental practices. The study illustrates, how the Polish environmental policy, dominated by environmental charges on emissions, is extremely effective in improving...

  12. Electro Polishing of Niobium Cavities at DESY

    CERN Document Server

    Matheisen, A; Morales, H; Petersen, B; Schmoekel, M; Steinhau-Kühl, N

    2004-01-01

    At DESY a facility for electro polishing (EP) of the super conducting (s.c.) TESLA/TTF cavities have been built and is operational since summer 2003. The EP infrastructure is capable to handle single-cell structures and the standard TESLA/ TTF nine-cell cavities. Several electro polishing processes have been made since and acceleration voltage up to 40 MV/m have been reached in nine cell structures. We report on measurements and experiences gained since 2003 as well as on handling procedures developed for the preparation of electro polished resonators. Specific data like heat production, variation of current density and bath aging will be presented. Another important point for reproducible results is the quality control of the electro polishing process. First quality control steps to be implanted in the EP procedure for large-scale production will be described.

  13. Semiological analysis of Polish theater posters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Nikolić

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Through the application of semiological analysis to theater posters made by two Polish authors, the paper uncovers signs, meanings, codes and specifics of the „Polish school of poster-making“ and contemporary Polish posters. Aside from this, I suggest a methodological framework for studying the issue of coding and shaping a theater poster as a culturally specific form of visual communication. The aesthetic and semiotic outlook of the Polish theater posters which were chosen is analyzed using the semiological method which highlights their differences and similarities. By pointing out the system of codes through the examples given here, a graphic designer is informed about the existence and the possibilities of a more systematic approach to shaping a theater poster.

  14. Report on Polish Public Libraries 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Bednarek-Michalska, Bożena; Szatkowska, Olga

    2001-01-01

    Report is an overview of polish public libraries, services to a variety of communities, it also provides statistics, n explanation of the funding policy for public libraries in Poland and information about the governance of public libraries in the country.

  15. Electrolytic polishing system for space age materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coons, W.C.; Iosty, L.R.

    1976-01-01

    A simple electrolytic polishing technique was developed for preparing Cr, Co, Hf, Mo, Ni, Re, Ti, V, Zr, and their alloys for structural analysis on the optical microscope. The base electrolyte contains 5g ZnCl 2 and 15g AlCl 3 . 6H 2 O in 200 ml methyl alcohol, plus an amount of H 2 SO 4 depending on the metal being polished. Five etchants are listed

  16. Trace element analysis of nail polishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, G.; Mittal, V.K.; Sahota, H.S.

    1999-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique was used to measure the concentrations of various trace elements in nail polishes of popular Indian and foreign brands. The aim of the present experiment was to see whether trace elements could distinguish nail polishes of different Indian and foreign brands from forensic point of view. It was found that cesium can act as a marker to differentiate foreign and Indian brands. (author)

  17. Interlocking directorships in Polish joint stock companies:

    OpenAIRE

    Pawlak, Marek

    2008-01-01

    Studies concerning interlocking directorships have been carried out among Polish joint stock corporations. The main source of data have been the announcements that are to be published by corporations regularly in a journal called Business and Court Gazette (BCG). Interlocking directorships constitute a network among corporations the use of which enables co-ordinated management of the whole group. The phenomenon of interlocking directorships in Polish joint stock companies can be compared to t...

  18. Jewish problem in the Polish Communist Party

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cimek Henryk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Jews accounted for approx. 8-10% of the population of the Second Republic and in the communist movement (Polish Communist Party and Polish Communist Youth Union the rate was approx, 30%, while in subsequent years it much fluctuated. The percentage of Jews was the highest in the authorities of the party and in the KZMP. This had a negative impact on the position of the KPP on many issues, especially in its relation to the Second Republic.

  19. Attack polish for nickel-base alloys and stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Not Available

    1980-05-28

    A chemical attack polish and polishing procedure for use on metal surfaces such as nickel base alloys and stainless steels is described. The chemical attack polich comprises FeNO/sub 3/, concentrated CH/sub 3/COOH, concentrated H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and H/sub 2/O. The polishing procedure includes saturating a polishing cloth with the chemical attack polish and submicron abrasive particles and buffing the metal surface.

  20. Experimental Polish-Lithuanian Corpus with the Semantic Annotation Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Roszko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental Polish-Lithuanian Corpus with the Semantic Annotation Elements In the article the authors present the experimental Polish-Lithuanian corpus (ECorpPL-LT formed for the idea of Polish-Lithuanian theoretical contrastive studies, a Polish-Lithuanian electronic dictionary, and as help for a sworn translator. The semantic annotation being brought into ECorpPL-LT is extremely useful in Polish-Lithuanian contrastive studies, and also proves helpful in translation work.

  1. Preventive kidney stones: Continue medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnak Assadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nephrolithiasis is a common health problem across the globe with a prevalence of 15%–20%. Idiopathic hypercalciuria is the most common cause of nephrolithiasis, and calcium oxalate stones are the most common type of stones in idiopathic hypercalciuric patients. Calcium phosphate stones are frequently associated with other diseases such as renal tubular acidosis type 1, urinary tract infections, and hyperparathyroidism. Compared with flat abdominal film and renal sonography, a noncontrast helical computed tomography scan of the abdomen is the diagnostic procedure of choice for detection of small and radiolucent kidney stones with sensitivity and specificity of nearly 100%. Stones smaller than 5 mm in diameter often pass the urinary tract system and rarely require surgical interventions. The main risk factors for stone formation are low urine output, high urinary concentrations of calcium, oxalate, phosphate, and uric acid compounded by a lower excretion of magnesium and citrate. A complete metabolic workup to identify the risk factors is highly recommended in patients who have passed multiple kidney stones or those with recurrent disease. Calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate stones are treated by the use of thiazide diuretics, allopurinol, and potassium citrate. Strategies to prevent kidney stone recurrence should include the elimination of the identified risk factors and a dietary regimen low in salt and protein, rich in calcium and magnesium which is coupled with adequate fluid intake.

  2. Il futurismo polacco nella critica letteraria dell’epoca [Polish Futurism in Literary Criticism of the Early Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea F. De Carlo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the critical voices raised against the young poets and artists who promoted Futurism in Poland during the first half of the Twentieth century. Futurist manifestos influenced the new Polish poetry, stimulating a lively debate among intellectuals of the calibre of Stefan Żeromski and Karol Irzykowski. In general, the coeval criticism of Polish Futurism focused on three main points: the lack of originality and servile imitation of foreign literary models; the repudiation of the past and national traditions; Futurism as an expression of ideologies such as Fascism in Italy and Bolshevism in Russia. In this article, specific attention is devoted to an analysis of the essay Snobizm i postęp (Snobbery and Progress, 1923 by Żeromski. The writer, criticising Polish imitators of Russian Futurism, affirmed that Polish literature and culture, in the context of national reconstruction after three partitions of Poland, needed to maintain its natural connection with the past and at the same time, without losing its national nature, to weave some universal suggestions into the plot of purely Polish themes. The goal of this article is to reveal that Żeromski and Irzykowski’s critical stance towards the Polish Futurists, which influenced the critics of the next generation, was dictated by a shallow analysis of Futuristic works and by their inability to understand Futuristic efforts to modernise Polish art and literature.

  3. Conformal polishing approach: Tool footprint analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A Dieste

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Polishing process is one of the most critical manufacturing processes during a metal part production because it determines the final quality of the product. Free-form surface polishing is a handmade process with lots of rejected parts, scrap generation and time and energy consumption. Two different research lines are being developed: prediction models of the final surface quality parameters and an analysis of the amount of material removed depending on the polishing parameters to predict the tool footprint during the polishing task. This research lays the foundations for a future automatic conformal polishing system. It is based on rotational and translational tool with dry abrasive in the front mounted at the end of a robot. A tool to part concept is used, useful for large or heavy workpieces. Results are applied on different curved parts typically used in tooling industry, aeronautics or automotive. A mathematical model has been developed to predict the amount of material removed in function of polishing parameters. Model has been fitted for different abrasives and raw materials. Results have shown deviations under 20% that implies a reliable and controllable process. Smaller amount of material can be removed in controlled areas of a three-dimensional workpiece.

  4. Laser polishing of additive manufactured Ti alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, C. P.; Guan, Y. C.; Zhou, W.

    2017-06-01

    Laser-based additive manufacturing has attracted much attention as a promising 3D printing method for metallic components in recent years. However, surface roughness of additive manufactured components has been considered as a challenge to achieve high performance. In this work, we demonstrate the capability of fiber laser in polishing rough surface of additive manufactured Ti-based alloys as Ti-6Al-4V and TC11. Both as-received surface and laser-polished surfaces as well as cross-section subsurfaces were analyzed carefully by White-Light Interference, Confocal Microscope, Focus Ion Beam, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive Spectrometer, and X-ray Diffraction. Results revealed that as-received Ti-based alloys with surface roughness more than 5 μm could be reduce to less than 1 μm through laser polishing process. Moreover, microstructure, microhardness and wear resistance of laser-polished zone was investigated in order to examine the thermal effect of laser polishing processing on the substrate of additive manufactured Ti alloys. This proof-of-concept process has the potential to effectively improve the surface roughness of additive manufactured metallic alloy by local polishing method without damage to the substrate.

  5. Interculutral Polish-Chinese QQing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Gajek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Working in tandem with the use of information and communication technologies is well-known and frequently used as a method of supporting learning of foreign languages in authentic communication. It is based on a constructivist approach to teaching. In the reported case study Polish and Chinese students discussed in English preprepared topics. The work shows the potential of e-learning at the micro level, as the language and intercultural task is implemented into an academic course without modification of the objectives and learning outcomes of the course. Evaluation carried out at the end of the project indicates that both groups perceived the task as a significant linguistic, cultural and personal experience. They stressed the importance of sharing “culture for culture” as the partner culture was new for most of them. The ability to talk and respond to information which was often strange, from the point of view of their own culture, allowed for learning intercultural competence ̔in action’.

  6. A comparison between an in vitro ureteroscopic stone size estimation and the stone size measurement with the help of a scale on stone baskets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, Jens; Teske, Lisa; Nguyen, Felix; Pinkowski, Wolfhard; Sievert, Karl-Dietrich; Vonthein, Reinhard

    2016-09-01

    Endoscopic treatment of ureter stones and renal calculi relies on the surgeon's estimation of the stone size for both lithotripsy and removal of stones or stone fragments. We therefore compared precision and reliability of the endoscopic estimation of stone size by the surgeon with measurements on a scale on a stone basket. Two surgeons (one high experienced and one low experienced) first estimated, then measured the size of 12 stones differing in size and color using different stone baskets (2.5, 3.0, 4.0 Ch) each via a semirigid renoscope in an artificial ureter under water repeatedly on two different days. All together, we had 288 measurements and 288 estimations. On the whole, the accuracy of the estimation diminished with bigger stones. There is an increasing underestimation with increasing stone size. Factors, which significantly influence the estimation, are the operating surgeon, the color of the stone, the time sequence, and the size of the closed basket, which was held beside the stone. The accuracy of the measurement of the stone baskets is not as good as the estimation. The small 2.5-Ch basket is the most accurate in measuring big stones (>6 mm), the 3.5 Ch in intermediate stones (3-6 mm), the big basket (4.0 Ch) in small stones (estimation of the surgeons is better than the measurement, but it is also influenced by factors like the surgeon or the color of the stone.

  7. Probabilistic seismic vulnerability and risk assessment of stone masonry structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo El Ezz, Ahmad

    Earthquakes represent major natural hazards that regularly impact the built environment in seismic prone areas worldwide and cause considerable social and economic losses. The high losses incurred following the past destructive earthquakes promoted the need for assessment of the seismic vulnerability and risk of the existing buildings. Many historic buildings in the old urban centers in Eastern Canada such as Old Quebec City are built of stone masonry and represent un-measurable architectural and cultural heritage. These buildings were built to resist gravity loads only and generally offer poor resistance to lateral seismic loads. Seismic vulnerability assessment of stone masonry buildings is therefore the first necessary step in developing seismic retrofitting and pre-disaster mitigation plans. The objective of this study is to develop a set of probability-based analytical tools for efficient seismic vulnerability and uncertainty analysis of stone masonry buildings. A simplified probabilistic analytical methodology for vulnerability modelling of stone masonry building with systematic treatment of uncertainties throughout the modelling process is developed in the first part of this study. Building capacity curves are developed using a simplified mechanical model. A displacement based procedure is used to develop damage state fragility functions in terms of spectral displacement response based on drift thresholds of stone masonry walls. A simplified probabilistic seismic demand analysis is proposed to capture the combined uncertainty in capacity and demand on fragility functions. In the second part, a robust analytical procedure for the development of seismic hazard compatible fragility and vulnerability functions is proposed. The results are given by sets of seismic hazard compatible vulnerability functions in terms of structure-independent intensity measure (e.g. spectral acceleration) that can be used for seismic risk analysis. The procedure is very efficient for

  8. A Lion of a Stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This approximate true-color image of the rock called 'Lion Stone' was acquired by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera on sol 104 (May 9, 2004). The rock stands about 10 centimeters tall (about 4 inches) and is about 30 centimeters long (12 inches). Plans for the coming sols include investigating the rock with the spectrometers on the rover's instrument arm. This image was generated using the camera's L2 (750-nanometer), L5 (530-nanometer) and L6 (480-nanometer) filters.

  9. Intrahepatic stones: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, A.M. dos; Borba Filho, P.

    1992-01-01

    A 23-year-old man from Palmares - Pernambuco, presented to our center with a 7-month history of jaundice and right upper quadrant abdominal pain. His past medical history revealed similar bouts since adolescence. Physical examination revealed icteric sclerae, soft abdomen with a palpable liver. An ultrasound examination showed a normal gallbladder and multiple echogenic areas with acoustic shadow in the liver. A percutaneous cholangiogram demonstrated dilated intrahepatic bile ducts with multiple stones. The patient underwent an exploratory laparotomy and cholecystectomy and a Roux-en-Y hepatic jejunostomy were performed. (author)

  10. Evaluation of the effect of polishing on flexural strength of feldspathic porcelain and its comparison with autoglazing and over glazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalali H.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Ceramic restorations are popular because they can provide the most natural replacement for teeth. However, the brittleness of ceramics is a primary disadvantage. There are various methods for strengthening ceramics such as metal framework, ceramic cores, and surface strengthening mechanisms through glazing, work hardening and ion exchange. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of polish on flexural strength of feldspathic porcelain and to compare it with overglaze and autoglaze. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, one brand of feldspathic porcelain (colorlogic, Ceramco was used and forty bars (25×6×3 mm were prepared according to ISO 6872 and ADA No. 69. The specimens were randomly divided into four groups: overglazed, auto glazed, fine polish and coarse polish (clinic polish. Flexural strength of each specimen was determined by three point bending test (Universal Testing Machine, Zwick 1494, Germany. Collected data was analyzed by ANOVA and post-hoc test with P<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: A significant difference was observed among the studied groups (P<0.0001. According to post-hoc test, flexural strength in overglaze and fine polish group were significantly stronger than clinic polish and autoglaze group (P<0.001. Although the mean value for overglazed group was higher than fine polish group, this was not statistically significant (P=0.9. Also no statistical difference was seen between autoglazed and coarse polish group (P=0.2. Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, flexural strength achieved by fine polish (used in this study can compete with overglazing the feldespathic porcelains. It also can be concluded that a final finishing procedure that involves fine polishing may be preferred to simple staining followed by self-glazing.

  11. Specificity of Geotechnical Measurements and Practice of Polish Offshore Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogumil Laczynski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As offshore market in Europe grows faster and faster, new sea areas are being managed and new ideas on how to use the sea potential are being developed. In North Sea, where offshore industry conducts intensive expansion since late 1960s, numerous wind farms, oil and gas platforms and pipelines have been put into operation following extensive research, including geotechnical measurement. Recently, a great number of similar projects is under development in Baltic Sea, inter alia in Polish EEZ, natural conditions of which vary from the North Sea significantly. In this paper, those differences are described together with some solutions to problems thereby arising.

  12. Ships on hero stones from the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    have been using since long period. Local sculptors might have carved these depictions. No external influences on carving of the hero stones and boat motives have been noticed on these hero stones. The systematic research on the hero stones can...

  13. Determination of minor and trace elements concentration in kidney stones using elemental analysis techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Anjali

    The determination of accurate material composition of a kidney stone is crucial for understanding the formation of the kidney stone as well as for preventive therapeutic strategies. Radiations probing instrumental activation analysis techniques are excellent tools for identification of involved materials present in the kidney stone. The X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and neutron activation analysis (NAA) experiments were performed and different kidney stones were analyzed. The interactions of X-ray photons and neutrons with matter are complementary in nature, resulting in distinctly different materials detection. This is the first approach to utilize combined X-ray fluorescence and neutron activation analysis for a comprehensive analysis of the kideny stones. Presently, experimental studies in conjunction with analytical techniques were used to determine the exact composition of the kidney stone. The use of open source program Python Multi-Channel Analyzer was utilized to unfold the XRF spectrum. A new type of experimental set-up was developed and utilized for XRF and NAA analysis of the kidney stone. To verify the experimental results with analytical calculation, several sets of kidney stones were analyzed using XRF and NAA technique. The elements which were identified from XRF technique are Br, Cu, Ga, Ge, Mo, Nb, Ni, Rb, Se, Sr, Y, Zr. And, by using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) are Au, Br, Ca, Er, Hg, I, K, Na, Pm, Sb, Sc, Sm, Tb, Yb, Zn. This thesis presents a new approach for exact detection of accurate material composition of kidney stone materials using XRF and NAA instrumental activation analysis techniques.

  14. Pediatric retrograde intra-renal surgery for renal stones <2 cm in solitary kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamal, Wael Mohamed; Hussein, Mohamed M; Rashed, El Nisr; Mohamed, Al-Dahshoury; Mmdouh, Ahmed; Fawzy, Farag

    2016-01-01

    Management of renal stones in children with a solitary kidney is a challenge. In the current study, the efficacy and safety of retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) in these children were determined. Records of children with renal stones who were treated at our institute between August 2011 and August 2014 were retrospectively assessed. Inclusion criteria were: Children with single renal stone <2 cm size, in a solitary kidney. A 7.5 Fr flexible ureteroscope (FURS) was introduced into the ureter over a hydrophilic guidewire under visual and fluoroscopic guidance - applying a back-loading technique. The stone was completely dusted using 200 μm laser fiber (0.2-0.8 joules power and 10-30 Hz frequency). At the end of the maneuver, a 5 Fr JJ stent was inserted into the ureter. The children were discharged home 24 h postoperative - provided that no complications were detected. Fourteen children (3 girls and 11 boys) with median age 9.5 years (range 6-12) were included. The mean stone burden was 12.2 ± 1.5 mm (range 9-20). Stones were successfully accessed in all of the cases by the FURS except for 2 cases in whom a JJ stent was inserted into the ureter and left in place for 2 weeks to achieve passive dilatation. All of the stones were dusted completely. The immediate postoperative stone-free rate (SFR) was 79%, and the final SFR was 100% after 3 weeks. No intraoperative complications were observed. RIRS for renal stone <2 cm in children with a solitary kidney is a single-session procedure with a high SFR, low complication rate, and is a minimally invasive, natural orifice technique.

  15. Monitoring Artificial Tracer Stones at the Danube East of Vienna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedermann, Marcel; Gerstl, Margit; Trithart, Michael; Habersack, Helmut

    2010-05-01

    The Integrated River Engineering Project on the Danube to the East of Vienna aims to implement innovative measures to stop riverbed incision on one of the last free flowing sections of the Austrian Danube River. In order to reduce erosion processes, it is planned to add larger gravel sizes within the natural grain size spectrum (granulometric bed improvement). It is planned to superimpose a layer of 25 cm thickness to reduce sediment discharge to a minimum of 10 to 15% of the current amount, but not to stop it entirely. Additionally seven huge sidearm systems will be reconnected, about 30% of the bank protection will be removed and low flow regulation structures will be improved in order to enhance the ecological situation. Within the scope of this Project a comprehensive sediment monitoring program is implemented. Besides bedload transport measurements using a basket sampler and sediment transport modelling applying a newly designed numerical model, artificial stones were added and monitored in order to observe transport velocities and initiation of motion. For the monitoring performed at the three kilometer long test reach near Hainburg, 40 artificial stones of three different sizes (intermediate b-axis: 23 mm, 40 mm, 70 mm) were produced and a coded radio acoustic transmitter was attached to each gravel. The stones were lowered to the river bed at six different locations at the beginning of the test reach, at a gravel bar and in a groyne field within the stretch. The positions of the stones have been observed about once a week, depending on hydrology, over a whole year including a HQ15 flood event. The positions of the stones have been determined by radio tracking from a boat. Hence transport paths and velocities as well as the initiation of bedload transport could be monitored. The paper gives an overview on the methodology and presents results of the monitoring program. The observed stones showed a size selective behaviour in transport. At all discharges

  16. The Meteoritical Quincentennial: The Stone of Ensisheim 1492-1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin, U. B.

    1992-07-01

    of God, because never before had such a thing been heard, or seen, or written about. Von der Muhll (1961) and others have asked how such statements could be made when Pliny the Elder wrote of fallen stones as early as the 1st century A.D., and Heynlin de Lapide, at nearby Basel, was translating Pliny's works at the time of the fall. However, expressions such as "never before heard, seen, or written about," spiced the reports of Medieval travelers struggling to describe the marvels of far-off lands. In this instance, the phrases described a marvel that burst upon the people of the upper Rhineland in the course of their daily routines. In truth, nothing ever written could have prepared them for the incandescent fireball, resounding explosion, and the black stone that plunged to Earth at Ensisheim. Unimaginative Eyewitnesses. A boy saw the stone fall and a crowd dug it out of a wheat field. In 1800, the chemist, Charles Barthold, rejected the eyewitness story and concluded that the stone was a common type of rock that could have washed down from a mountainside. In 1803, after meteorites, including the Ensisheim stone, had become accepted as authentic natural phenomena, Joseph Izarn wrote that the boy's testimony should be believed because ignorant persons like him have no imagination and could not possible invent tales about stones from the sky. Izarn's opinion was not eccentric; numerous writings show that it reflected a centuries-old tradition of placing special value on observations by unschooled witnesses. References: Brant S. (1492) Flugblatt, J. von Ople, Basel, 1 p. Izarn J. (1803) Lithologie Atmospherique, Delalain Fils, Paris, 422 pp. Marvin U. B. (1992) Meteoritics 27, 28-72. Newton H. A. (1891) Comptes Rendus Acad. Sci. 113, 234. Muhll Th. von der (1975) Donnerstein von Ensisheim, Birkhauser Verlag, Basel, 42 pp. Schedel H. (1493) Nuremberg Chronicle, A. Korberger, Nuremberg, 299 pp.

  17. No reduction in genetic diversity of Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra L.) in Tatra Mountains despite high fragmentation and small population size

    OpenAIRE

    Dzialuk, Artur; Chybicki, Igor; Gout, Roman; Maczka, Tomasz; Fleischer, Peter; Konrad, Heino; Curtu, Alexandru Lucian; Sofletea, Nicolae; Valadon, Alain

    2014-01-01

    In Europe, most of the alpine timberline ecotone has been altered by human activities and climate change. Hence, mountain forests are of the highest conservation interest. Here, we screened 25 populations of Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra L.) from the Carpathians and the Alps, using a set of ten microsatellite primers to assess the relative conservation value of populations sampled in Polish and Slovak Tatra National Parks, where potential extinction risk is the highest within the Carpathian ...

  18. Polishing for glass ceramics: which protocol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tânia Mara da; Salvia, Ana Carolina Rodrigues Danzi; Carvalho, Rodrigo Furtado de; Pagani, Clovis; Rocha, Daniel Maranha da; Silva, Eduardo Galera da

    2014-07-01

    The execution of adjustments on ceramic restorations is sometimes necessary for either correction of occlusion and/or inadequate contours or esthetical improvements. Clinically, the surfaces undergo weariness through fine grinding diamond burs which remove the superficial glazing layer. Several materials for ceramic polishing have been used in an attempt to reach a satisfactory surface smoothness. The aim of this study was to perform a literature review on different polishing protocols of several dental ceramics. This is a literature review performed through scientific articles published between 2004 and 2012, indexed in MEDLINE, PubMed and Scielo databases. The study selected and analyzed a total of 20 relevant articles that evaluated different types of ceramics, polishing treatment and surface roughness. After an extensive literature review, this study observed: 1 - after the rupture of the glazing layer due to the adjustments of the restorations, the best choice for the polishing of the surface will depend on the type of ceramics used; 2 - glazing procedure provide excellent results regarding to the superficial smoothness; however, if reglazing is impossible, either abrasive rubber cups/points or sandpaper discs followed by the use of diamond polishing pastes results in a satisfactory superficial smoothness; 3 - clinical studies that take into account the behavior of the protocols polishing are scarce and should be encouraged; 4 - the large number of variables influence the final outcome of polishing should be considered. The necessity in standardization of methodologies to enable a comparison among researches. Copyright © 2014 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Smoking characteristics of Polish immigrants in Dublin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kabir, Zubair

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study examined two main hypotheses: a) Polish immigrants\\' smoking estimates are greater than their Irish counterparts (b) Polish immigrants purchasing cigarettes from Poland smoke "heavier" (>\\/= 20 cigarettes a day) when compared to those purchasing cigarettes from Ireland. The study also set out to identify significant predictors of \\'current\\' smoking (some days and everyday) among the Polish immigrants. METHODS: Dublin residents of Polish origin (n = 1,545) completed a previously validated Polish questionnaire in response to an advertisement in a local Polish lifestyle magazine over 5 weekends (July-August, 2007). The Office of Tobacco Control telephone-based monthly survey data were analyzed for the Irish population in Dublin for the same period (n = 484). RESULTS: Age-sex adjusted smoking estimates were: 47.6% (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 47.3%; 48.0%) among the Poles and 27.8% (95% CI: 27.2%; 28.4%) among the general Irish population (p < 0.001). Of the 57% of smokers (n = 345\\/606) who purchased cigarettes solely from Poland and the 33% (n = 198\\/606) who purchased only from Ireland, 42.6% (n = 147\\/345) and 41.4% (n = 82\\/198) were "heavy" smokers, respectively (p = 0.79). Employment (Odds Ratio [OR]: 2.89; 95% CI: 1.25-6.69), lower education (OR: 3.76; 95%CI: 2.46-5.74), and a longer stay in Ireland (>24 months) were significant predictors of current smoking among the Poles. An objective validation of the self-reported smoking history of a randomly selected sub-sample immigrant group, using expired carbon monoxide (CO) measurements, showed a highly significant correlation coefficient (r = 0.64) of expired CO levels with the reported number of cigarettes consumed (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Polish immigrants\\' smoking estimates are higher than their Irish counterparts, and particularly if employed, with only primary-level education, and are overseas >2 years.

  20. New developments in percutaneous stone surgery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S. Derisavifard

    2016-08-01

    Aug 1, 2016 ... toxin content in renal calculi. J Urol 2003;169:1813–4. [20] Larson J, Roth E, Desai A, editor. Comparative analysis of stone com- position and stone culture after percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Podium session presented at: The 2014 Meeting of the American Urological. Association; May 20, 2014. Orlando ...

  1. The influence of high doses of radiation in citrine stones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, M. I. [Universidade Nove de Julho - UNINOVE, Rua Vergueiro 235/249, 01504-001 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Caldas, L. V. E., E-mail: miteixeira@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares / CNEN, Av. Lineu Prestes 2242, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    The possibility of using samples of Brazilian stones as quartz, amethyst, topaz, jasper, etc. for high-dose dosimetry has been studied in recent years at IPEN, using the techniques of optical absorption (Oa), thermoluminescent (Tl), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and resonance paramagnetic electron (EPR). In this work, the Tl properties of citrine samples were studied. They were exposed to different doses of gamma radiation ({sup 60}Co). The natural citrine stone was extracted from a mine in Minas Gerais state, Brazil; it is a tecto silicate ranked as one of three-dimensional structure, showing clear yellow to golden brown color. The natural citrine stone is classified as quartz (SiO{sub 2}), and it has a lower symmetry and more compact reticulum. The Tl emission curve showed two peaks at 160 grades C and 220 grades C. To remove the Tl peak (160 grades C) of the sintered citrine pellet glow curves, different thermal treatments were tested during several time intervals. The Tl dose-response curve between 50 Gy and 100 kGy, the reproducibility of Tl response and the lower detection dose were obtained. The results show that citrine may be useful as high-dose detectors. (Author)

  2. The influence of high doses of radiation in citrine stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, M. I.; Caldas, L. V. E.

    2014-08-01

    The possibility of using samples of Brazilian stones as quartz, amethyst, topaz, jasper, etc. for high-dose dosimetry has been studied in recent years at IPEN, using the techniques of optical absorption (Oa), thermoluminescent (Tl), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and resonance paramagnetic electron (EPR). In this work, the Tl properties of citrine samples were studied. They were exposed to different doses of gamma radiation ( 60 Co). The natural citrine stone was extracted from a mine in Minas Gerais state, Brazil; it is a tecto silicate ranked as one of three-dimensional structure, showing clear yellow to golden brown color. The natural citrine stone is classified as quartz (SiO 2 ), and it has a lower symmetry and more compact reticulum. The Tl emission curve showed two peaks at 160 grades C and 220 grades C. To remove the Tl peak (160 grades C) of the sintered citrine pellet glow curves, different thermal treatments were tested during several time intervals. The Tl dose-response curve between 50 Gy and 100 kGy, the reproducibility of Tl response and the lower detection dose were obtained. The results show that citrine may be useful as high-dose detectors. (Author)

  3. Metabolic Characteristics and Risks Associated with Stone Recurrence in Korean Young Adult Stone Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ho Won; Seo, Sung Pil; Kim, Won Tae; Kim, Yong-June; Yun, Seok-Joong; Kim, Wun-Jae; Lee, Sang-Cheol

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the metabolic characteristics and risks of stone recurrence in young adult stone patients in Korea. The medical records of 1532 patients presenting with renal or ureteric stones at our stone clinic between 1994 and 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were grouped according to age (young adult, 18-29 years; intermediate onset, 30-59 years; old age, ≥60 years) at first presentation, and measurements of clinicometabolic characteristics and risks of stone recurrence were compared. Overall, excretion of urinary stone-forming substances was highest in the intermediate onset group, followed by the young adult and old age groups. Importantly, excretion of urinary citrate was lowest in the young adult group. Kaplan-Meier analyses identified a significant difference between the three age groups in terms of stone recurrence (log rank test, p young adult stone patients. Younger age (18-29 years) at first stone presentation was a significant risk factor for stone recurrence, and urinary citrate excretion was an independent risk factor affecting recurrence in this group. Metabolic evaluation and potassium citrate therapy should be considered for young adult stone patients to prevent recurrence.

  4. Contribution of stone size to chronic kidney disease in kidney stone formers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Farrokhlagha; Etemadi, Samira Motedayen; Lessan-Pezeshki, Mahbob; Mahdavi-Mazdeh, Mitra; Ayati, Mohsen; Mir, Alireza; Yazdi, Hadi Rokni

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether stone burden correlates with the degree of chronic kidney disease in kidney stone formers. A total of 97 extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy candidates aged 18 years and older were included. Size, number and location of the kidney stones, along with cumulative stone size, defined as the sum of diameters of all stones) were determined. Estimated glomerular filtration rate was determined using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration cystatin C/creatinine equation, and chronic kidney disease was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate chronic kidney disease. The relationship persisted even after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, C-reactive protein, fasting plasma glucose, thyroid stimulating hormone, presence of microalbuminuria, history of renal calculi, history of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy, number and location of the stones (odds ratio 1.24, 95% confidence interval 1.02-1.52). The same was not observed for individuals with a cumulative stone size ≥ 20 mm. In kidney stone formers with a cumulative stone size up to 20 mm, estimated glomerular filtration rate linearly declines with increasing cumulative stone size. Additionally, cumulative stone size is an independent predictor of chronic kidney disease in this group of patients. © 2014 The Japanese Urological Association.

  5. [Asymptomatic kidney stones: active surveillance vs. treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neisius, A; Thomas, C; Roos, F C; Hampel, C; Fritsche, H-M; Bach, T; Thüroff, J W; Knoll, T

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of kidney stones is increasing worldwide. Asymptomatic non-obstructing kidney stones are increasingly detected as an incidental finding on radiologic imaging, which has been performed more frequently over the last decades. Beside the current interventional treatment modalities such as extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL), ureterorenoscopy (URS) and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL), active surveillance of asymptomatic kidney stones has been a focus of discussion lately, not only for attending physicians, but even more so for patients. The current German and European guidelines recommend active surveillance for patients with asymptomatic kidney stones if no interventional therapy is mandatory because of pain or medical factors. Herein we review the current literature on risks and benefits of active surveillance of asymptomatic non-obstructing kidney stones. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Factors affecting stone-free rate and complications of percutaneous nephrolithotomy for treatment of staghorn stone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Nahas, Ahmed R; Eraky, Ibrahim; Shokeir, Ahmed A; Shoma, Ahmed M; el-Assmy, Ahmed M; el-Tabey, Nasr A; Soliman, Shady; Elshal, Ahmed M; el-Kappany, Hamdy A; el-Kenawy, Mahmoud R

    2012-06-01

    To determine factors affecting the stone-free rate and complications of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) for treatment of staghorn stones. The computerized database of patients who underwent PNL for treatment of staghorn stones between January 2003 and January 2011 was reviewed. All perioperative complications were recorded and classified according to modified Clavien classification system. The stone-free rate was evaluated with low-dose noncontrast computed tomography (CT). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were performed to determine factors affecting stone-free and complication rates. The study included 241 patients (125 male and 116 female) with a mean age of 48.7 ±14.3 years. All patients underwent 251 PNL (10 patients had bilateral stones). The stone-free rate of PNL monotherapy was 56% (142 procedures). At 3 months, the stone-free rate increased to 73% (183 kidneys) after shock wave lithotripsy. Independent risk factors for residual stones were complete staghorn stone and presence of secondary calyceal stones (relative risks were 2.2 and 3.1, respectively). The complication rate was 27% (68 PNL). Independent risk factors for development of complications were performance of the procedure by urologists other than experienced endourologist and positive preoperative urine culture (relative risks were 2.2 and 2.1, respectively). Factors affecting the incidence of residual stones after PNL are complete staghorn stones and the presence of secondary calyceal stones. Complications are significantly high if PNL is not performed by an experienced endourologist or if preoperative urine culture is positive. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Protecting Space Travelers from Kidney Stones: Renal Stone Risk During Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitson, Peggy; Bloomberg, Jacob; Lee, Angie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Renal stones, popularly known as kidney or bladder stones, are small rock-like objects formed in the kidneys or urinary tract by deposits of calcium and other minerals. The problem arises when the stones block the drainage of the kidney, resulting in urinary obstruction and pain. Passing these stones can be one of the most painful experiences a person will endure so doctors often prescribe pain relievers to ease the experience. Drinking plenty of fluids, which help flush waste out of the body, and eating a well-balanced diet are the first steps to preventing stones. For individuals at risk, this may not be enough, and a doctor may recommend a special diet and medications. Unfortunately, approximately 60 percent of people who have had a renal stone will experience a recurrence. This is particularly true of men, who are four to five times more likely to develop stones than women. Renal stones do not discriminate based on age; even children are at risk. Astronauts are particularly at risk of developing renal stones because they lose bone and muscle mass; calcium, other minerals, and protein normally used for bone and muscle end up in the bloodstream and then in the kidneys. Without plenty of fluid to wash them away, crystals can form and then grow into stones. This factor compounds the risk for astronauts, since they also perceive that they are less thirsty in space and will drink less than normal during the mission. To minimize all of these factors, doctors must instead treat the stone-forming compounds with medication. This study will use potassium citrate to reduce the risk of stone formation. Renal stones are never convenient, but they are a particular concern for astronauts who have limited access to treatment during flight. Researchers are examining how earthbound preventions for renal stone formation work in flight, ensuring missions are not ended prematurely due to this medical condition. During STS-107, earthbound preventions and treatments become astronauts

  8. APS 3D: a new benchmark in aspherical polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauch, Daniel; Mikulic, Dalibor; Veit, Christian

    2017-10-01

    The APS 3D system performs polishing and form correction in one step in order to reduce overall process time, reduce the number of polishing steps required and eliminate the need for highly skilled operators while providing a repeatable polishing process. This new 3D Polishing system yields better surface quality, and a better slope error, automatically determining the optimum speeds, feed rates and polish pressures to achieve a deterministic process based on the required quality parameters input by the operator. The process flow is always the same to ensure consistent quality and target quality values are defined before polishing begins.

  9. The formation of the polish opposite movement in Western Ukraine at the beginning of the Second world war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoriya V. Dashko

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the nature of the Soviet totalitarian ethnic policy and its influence on the origin of the Polish opposite movement in Western Ukraine at the beginning of the Second World War. It also clarifies the main factors of the formation of active opposite movements among the Polish part of population in the Western Ukraine territory, which withdrew to the Soviet Union due to the distribution of Poland as a result of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact. The author defined category of Polish nationality persons, who were dissatisfied with Stalin’s repressive policies in 1939-1941 and become that social environment, in which finally formed opposite movement to totalitarianism and, in particular, antinational regime against the Polish ethnos, and the environment from which later appeared activists of this movement. By the author was analyzed the activity of Soviet authorities in the occupied territories of the former «Wshodnih kresuv» of the Second Rich Pospolyta and determined main factors that led to dissatisfaction with the rigid Soviet policy against the former government officials, military precipitators and servants of the Roman Catholic Church. Investigated and determined features of the Polish opposite movement formation in the former eastern Polish territories occupied in 1939 by the Soviet Union and seized in 1941 by Nazi Germany. The article also describes the origin and activity of the first underground Polish armed forces on Ukrainian territory.

  10. “Die Another Day”: A Qualitative Analysis of Hmong Experiences with Kidney Stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen A. Culhane-Pera

    2007-01-01

    die another day” captures people’s preference toact today so as to postpone “death” ---whether by disease or procedure – until tomorrow. Conclusions: These findings identify Hmong patients and family’s experiences with this health disparity. This information could be used to increase the Hmong community andpatients’ knowledge of the disease and decrease their fear of urological interventions. Urologists, primary care providers and community health educators could educate the Hmong community and patients about the recurrent and nearly asymptomatic butpotentially life-threatening nature of kidney stones, and encourage early diagnosis of renal stones. health care workers should make institutional changes that could increase trusting relationships and decrease patients’ fears of providers and procedures.

  11. Impact of stone content on soil moisture measurement with capacitive sensors 10HS (Decagon)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deraedt, Deborah; Bernard, Julien; Bietlot, Louise; Clerbois, Laura; Rosière, Clément; Starren, Amandine; Colinet, Gilles; Mercatoris, Benoit; Degré, Aurore

    2015-04-01

    . The evolution of the soil sample height was monitored as well. As first result, the stone content is a parameter that seems to influence soil water content. The stone size is no important. Because soil moisture deserves to be measured accurately in every soil and to confirm the first results the experiment is going on with more samples, different stone proportions, other sensor positioning and a natural air drying.

  12. Surface roughness and morphology of dental nanocomposites polished by four different procedures evaluated by a multifractal approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ţălu, Ştefan, E-mail: stefan_ta@yahoo.com [Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of AET, Discipline of Descriptive Geometry and Engineering Graphics, 103-105 B-dul Muncii St., Cluj-Napoca 400641, Cluj (Romania); Stach, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastian.stach@us.edu.pl [University of Silesia, Faculty of Computer Science and Materials Science, Institute of Informatics, Department of Biomedical Computer Systems, Będzińska 39, 41-205 Sosnowiec (Poland); Lainović, Tijana, E-mail: tijana.lainovic@gmail.com [University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Medicine, School of Dentistry, Hajduk Veljkova 3, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia); Vilotić, Marko, E-mail: markovil@uns.ac.rs [University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Technical Sciences, Department for Production Engineering, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 6, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia); Blažić, Larisa, E-mail: larisa.blazic@gmail.com [University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Medicine, School of Dentistry, Clinic of Dentistry of Vojvodina, Department of Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, Hajduk Veljkova 3, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia); Alb, Sandu Florin, E-mail: albflorin@yahoo.com [“Iuliu Haţieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Periodontology, 8 Victor Babeş St., 400012 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Kakaš, Damir, E-mail: kakasdam@uns.ac.rs [University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Technical Sciences, Department for Production Engineering, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 6, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia)

    2015-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Multifractals are good indicators of polished dental composites 3-D surface structure. • The nanofilled composite had superior 3-D surface properties than the nanohybrid one. • Composite polishing with diamond paste created improved 3-D multifractal structure. • Recommendation: polish the composite with diamond paste if using the one-step tool. • Multifractal analysis could become essential in designing new dental surfaces. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different dental polishing methods on surface texture parameters of dental nanocomposites. The 3-D surface morphology was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and multifractal analysis. Two representative dental resin-based nanocomposites were investigated: a nanofilled and a nanohybrid composite. The samples were polished by two dental polishing protocols using multi-step and one-step system. Both protocols were then followed by diamond paste polishing. The 3-D surface roughness of samples was studied by AFM on square areas of topography on the 80 × 80 μm{sup 2} scanning area. The multifractal spectrum theory based on computational algorithms was applied for AFM data and multifractal spectra were calculated. The generalized dimension D{sub q} and the singularity spectrum f(α) provided quantitative values that characterize the local scale properties of dental nanocomposites polished by four different dental polishing protocols at nanometer scale. The results showed that the larger the spectrum width Δα (Δα = α{sub max} − α{sub min}) of the multifractal spectra f(α), the more non-uniform was the surface morphology. Also, the 3-D surface topography was described by statistical parameters, according to ISO 25178-2:2012. The 3-D surface of samples had a multifractal nature. Nanofilled composite had lower values of height parameters than nanohybrid composites, due to its composition. Multi-step polishing protocol

  13. In bits, bytes and stone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Jakob Borrits; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    designs'. Urns, coffins, graves, cemeteries, memorials, monuments, websites, applications and software services, whether cut in stone or made of bits, are all influenced by discourses of publics, economics, power, technology and culture. Designers, programmers, stakeholders and potential end-users often....... The findings in this paper are contextualized through a qualitative ethnographic research design based on Danish cemetery users and mourners and their different experiences with and attitudes towards new online grief, mourning and remembrance designs, platforms, services and initiatives. Additionally...... constitute parts of an intricately weaved and interrelated network of practices dealing with death, mourning, memorialization and remembrance. Design pioneering company IDEO'S recent failed attempt to 'redesign death' is an example of how delicate and difficult it is to work with digital and symbolic 'death...

  14. Apparatus for disintegrating kidney stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, E. D. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    The useful life of the wire probe in an ultrasonic kidney stone disintegration instrument is enhanced and prolonged by attaching the wire of the wire probe to the tip of an ultrasonic transducer by means of a clamping arrangement. Additionally, damping material is applied to the wire probe in the form of a damper tube through which the wire probe passes in the region adjacent the transducer tip. The damper tube extends outwardly from the transducer tip a predetermined distance, terminating in a resilient soft rubber joint. Also, the damper tube is supported intermediate its length by a support member. The damper system thus acts to inhibit lateral vibrations of the wire in the region of the transducer tip while providing little or no damping to the linear vibrations imparted to the wire by the transducer.

  15. Material removal mechanisms in abrasive vibration polishing of complex molds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinksmeier, E.; Riemer, O.; Schulte, H.

    2010-10-01

    Optical and medical industries are demanding a large variety of optical elements exhibiting complex geometries and multitude opto-functional areas in the range of a few millimeters [1]. Therefore, mold inserts made of steel or carbides must be finished by polishing for the replication of glass and plastic lenses [2]. For polishing theses complex components in the shape of localized cavities or grooves the application of rotating polishing pads is very limited. Established polishing processes are not applicable, so state of the art is a time consuming and therefore expensive polishing procedures by hand. An automated process with conventional polishing machines is impossible because of the complex mold insert geometry. The authors will present the development of a new abrasive polishing process for finishing these complex mold geometries to optical quality. The necessary relative velocity in the contact area between polishing pad and workpiece surface is exclusively realized by vibration motions which is an advantage over vibration assisted rotating polishing processes. The absence of rotation of the pad opens up the possibility to machine new types of surface geometries. The specific influence factors of vibration polishing were analyzed and will be presented. The determination of material removal behavior and polishing effect on planar steel samples has shown that the conventional abrasive polishing hypothesis of Preston is applicable to the novel vibration polishing process. No overlaid chemical material removal appears.

  16. Polish Academy of Sciences Great Dictionary of Polish [Wielki słownik języka polskiego PAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Žmigrodzki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a lexicographical project involving the development of the newest general dictionary of the Polish language: the Polish Academy of Sciences Great Dictionary of Polish [Wielki słownik języka polskiego PAN]. The project is coordinated by the Institute of Polish Language at the Polish Academy of Sciences and carried out in collaboration with linguists and lexicographers from several other Polish academic centres. The paper offers a brief description of the genesis of the project and the scope of information included in the dictionary, the organisation of work, the life of the dictionary on the Web as well as the plans for the future.

  17. Stone orientation affects the mechanism of failure in artificial kidney stones subject to shock waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Cauwelaert, Javier; Cleveland, Robin O.

    2003-10-01

    Micro computed tomography (CT) imaging was used to follow the progressive development of cracks in artificial kidney stones. The artificial stones were made from U30 cement with a cylindrical shape (6.5 mm diameter and 8.5 mm long). The stones were held within a polypropylene vial in one of three orientations: vertical, horizontal, and angled at 45 deg. The stones were treated with an electromagnetic lithotripter and the initiation and growth of cracks was observed using microCT. The images show that the orientation of the stones with respect to the shock changes the dominant mechanism for fragmentation. Vertical stones developed a spall-like crack near the distal surface, which propagated from the surface to the interior of the stone. Initiation of a secondary spall-like crack was observed proximal to the first crack. Little surface damage was observed. Horizontal stones presented pitting in the proximal surface and erosion in lateral faces, indicating the action of cavitation. Angled stones presented both spall-like fracture in either the leading or the distal corners and surface damage (pitting) in the proximal surface. Experiments are being performed to follow the development of cracks in human kidney stones. [Work supported by the Whitaker Foundation.

  18. Shock Wave Lithotripsy in Ureteral Stones: Evaluation of Patient and Stone Related Predictive Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Yazici

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose:To evaluate the patient and stone related factors which may influence the final outcome of SWL in the management of ureteral stones.Materials and Methods:Between October 2011 and October 2013, a total of 204 adult patients undergoing SWL for single ureteral stone sizing 5 to 15 mm were included into the study program. The impact of both patient (age, sex, BMI, and stone related factors (laterality, location, longest diameter and density as CT HU along with BUN and lastly SSD (skin to stone distance on fragmentation were analysed by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: Stone free rates for proximal and distal ureteral stones were 68.8% and 72.7%, respectively with no statistically significant difference between two groups (p=0.7. According to univariate and multivariate analyses, while higher BMI (mean: 26.8 and 28.1, p=0.048 and stone density values (mean: 702 HU and 930 HU, p<0.0001 were detected as statistically significant independent predictors of treatment failure for proximal ureteral stones, the only statistically significant predicting parameter for the success rates of SWL in distal ureteral stones was the higher SSD value (median: 114 and 90, p=0.012.Conclusions:Our findings have clearly shown that while higher BMI and increased stone attenuation values detected by NCCT were significant factors influencing the final outcome of SWL treatment in proximal ureteral stones; opposite to the literature, high SSD was the only independent predictor of success for the SWL treatment of distal ureteral stones.

  19. Surface Roughness and Gloss of Actual Composites as Polished With Different Polishing Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues-Junior, S A; Chemin, P; Piaia, P P; Ferracane, J L

    2015-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the effect of polishing with different polishing systems on the surface roughness and gloss of commercial composites. One hundred disk-shaped specimens (10 mm in diameter × 2 mm thick) were made with Filtek P-90, Filtek Z350 XT, Opallis, and Grandio. The specimens were manually finished with #400 sandpaper and polished by a single operator using three multistep systems (Superfix, Diamond Pro, and Sof-lex), one two-step system (Polidores DFL), and one one-step system (Enhance), following the manufacturer's instructions. The average surface roughness (μm) was measured with a surface profilometer (TR 200 Surface Roughness Tester), and gloss was measured using a small-area glossmeter (Novo-Curve, Rhopoint Instrumentation, East Sussex, UK). Data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance and Tukey's test (α=0.05). Statistically significant differences in surface roughness were identified by varying the polishing systems (pGrandio when polished with Sof-Lex and Filtek Z250 and Opallis when polished with Enhance. Gloss was influenced by the composites (p<0.0001), the polishing systems (p<0.0001), and the interaction between them (p<0.0001). The one-step system, Enhance, produced the lowest gloss for all composites. Surface roughness and gloss were affected by composites and polishing systems. The interaction between both also influenced these surface characteristics, meaning that a single polishing system will not behave similarly for all composites. The multistep systems produced higher gloss, while the one-step system produced the highest surface roughness and the lowest gloss of all.

  20. Characterization of Technetium Speciation in Cast Stone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Um, Wooyong; Jung, Hun Bok; Wang, Guohui; Westsik, Joseph H.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2013-11-11

    This report describes the results from laboratory tests performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) EM-31 Support Program (EMSP) subtask, “Production and Long-Term Performance of Low Temperature Waste Forms” to provide additional information on technetium (Tc) speciation characterization in the Cast Stone waste form. To support the use of Cast Stone as an alternative to vitrification for solidifying low-activity waste (LAW) and as the current baseline waste form for secondary waste streams at the Hanford Site, additional understanding of Tc speciation in Cast Stone is needed to predict the long-term Tc leachability from Cast Stone and to meet the regulatory disposal-facility performance requirements for the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Characterizations of the Tc speciation within the Cast Stone after leaching under various conditions provide insights into how the Tc is retained and released. The data generated by the laboratory tests described in this report provide both empirical and more scientific information to increase our understanding of Tc speciation in Cast Stone and its release mechanism under relevant leaching processes for the purpose of filling data gaps and to support the long-term risk and performance assessments of Cast Stone in the IDF at the Hanford Site.

  1. Intraoperative cholangiographic findings of intrahepatic duct stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mi Young; Suh, Chang Hae; Choi, Hye Ran; Ahn, Byeong Yeob; Chung, Woun Kyun; Lee, Yong

    1989-01-01

    Operative cholangiography is considered essential during biliary operation in order to minimise the chance of negative exploration and to demonstrate the anatomy and pathology of intra and extrahepatic biliary tree. Although many authors have evaluated and accepted various techniques for operative cholangiography, the image of operative cholangiography is affected mainly by intrahepatic duct stones and anatomic characteristic of biliary tree. In case of intrahepatic duct stones accurate evaluation of the operative cholangiographic findings is important for a plan of further treatment including interventional procedures. We reviewed 45 operative cholangiograms of 30 patients with intrahepatic duct stones from January,1986 to September, 1988, and analysed operative cholangiographic findings with a special attention to the correlation between cholangiographic findings and the location of intrahepatic duct stones. The results were as follows: 1. Common bile duct stones were found in 72%, and generalized cholangitis was combined in 43% of patient with intrahepatic duct stones. 2. Incomplete ductal filling of contrast media was the most frequent findings of left intrahepatic duct stones in operative cholangiograms with four different cholangiogram catheters. 3. Nonfilling and partial filling were the most frequent findings; nonfilling was prevalent in right anterior and left medial ducts, and partial filling was prevalent in left medial and left lateral ducts

  2. Advisory Functions of Selected Polish Business Institutions in the Innovation Process in Enterprises – Research Conclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna KUROWSKA-PYSZ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains an analysis of innovation processes in enterprises, from the perspective of demand for knowledge, which companies increasingly obtain from business environment. This requires a discernment of valuable partners in the environment, who will provide professional transfer of knowledge to the company. Therefore, knowledge has become a product, and Polish universities and specialized, commercial knowledge providers are competing for the customer on the knowledge market. While knowledge transfer to companies is a secondary activity for Polish universities, specialized, commercial knowledge suppliers are making an effort of acquiring as much orders as possible. Therefore a natural competition between these two types of entities arises. In this paper the Author examines possibilities of supporting innovation-oriented enterprises by Polish universities and commercial providers of knowledge and formulates terms and conditions which will make cooperation between these two groups of entities possible, so as to transform the competition into cooperation, beneficial for both sides, and support innovative processes in enterprises.

  3. Treatment alternatives for urinary system stone disease in preschool aged children: results of 616 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Haluk; Seckiner, Ilker; Bayrak, Omer; Erturhan, Sakip; Demirbağ, Asaf

    2015-02-01

    urolithiasis patients with a stone size 10 mm [15]. In the present study, stone-free rate was noted as 68% on 15 mm or lower stone size. PNL is commonly used to treat stone disease in preschool children [18-20]. In the beginning, urologists hesitated to use instruments suited for adults in case of pediatric kidneys. While some authors accept a cut-off value of 24 F for tract dilatation in the pediatric age, Desai et al. recommended a threshold value limitations. The major limitation of our study is its retrospective nature. In addition, sample size of micro-PNL group is fewer than other groups. The goal of kidney stone treatment is to achieve minimal kidney damage and a high success rate. Thus, the procedures are important in the pediatric age group where life expectancy is high, and particularly in the preschool age group. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elías Gómez Macías

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo de óxido de magnesio comercial se preparó una suspensión acuosa, la cual se secó y calcinó para conferirle estabilidad térmica. El material, tanto fresco como usado, se caracterizó mediante DRX, área superficial BET y SEM-EPMA. El catalizador mostró una matriz de MgO tipo periclasa con CaO en la superficie. Las pruebas de actividad catalítica se efectuaron en lecho fijo empacado con partículas obtenidas mediante prensado, trituración y clasificación del material. El flujo de reactivos consistió en mezclas gas natural-aire por debajo del límite inferior de inflamabilidad. Para diferentes flujos y temperaturas de entrada de la mezcla reactiva, se midieron las concentraciones de CH4, CO2 y CO en los gases de combustión con un analizador de gases tipo infrarrojo no dispersivo (NDIR. Para alcanzar conversión total de metano se requirió aumentar la temperatura de entrada al lecho a medida que se incrementó el flujo de gases reaccionantes. Los resultados obtenidos permiten desarrollar un sistema de combustión catalítica de bajo costo con un material térmicamente estable, que promueva la alta eficiencia en la combustión de gas natural y elimine los problemas de estabilidad, seguridad y de impacto ambiental negativo inherentes a los procesos de combustión térmica convencional.

  5. Multiple Urethral Stones Causing Penile Gangrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Ramdass

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Penile urethral stones are a rare occurrence resulting from a number of causes including migration of stones within the urinary tract, urethral strictures, meatal stenosis, and obstructing tumours such as adenomatous metaplasia of the uroepithelium, hypospadias, urethral diverticulum, and very rarely primary fossa navicularis calculi. We report the case of a 54-year-old male presenting with penile gangrene and sepsis resulting from impaction of multiple stones within the penile urethra. This paper summarises the topic and discusses the pathophysiology of this unusual condition.

  6. Choledocholithiasis without stones in the gallbladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergen, A.N.L.M. van; Rosenbusch, G.; Boer, H.H.M. de; Yap, S.H.

    1986-01-01

    In 4 out of 190 patients, who underwent a cholecystectomy, stones were only found in the common bile duct and none in the gallbladder. The radiological data of these 4 patients were retrospectively analysed. In 2/3 patients sonography showed a dilatation of the common bile duct, whereas stones in the common bile duct were shown by IVC in 2/2 patients, ERCP in 3/3 patients and PTC in 1/1 patients. In 1/3 patients also, in whom an ERCP had been performed, stones were suspected in the gallbladder, but could not be verified during cholecystectomy. (orig.)

  7. Choledocholithiasis without stones in the gallbladder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergen, A.N.L.M. van; Rosenbusch, G.; Boer, H.H.M. de; Yap, S.H.

    1986-11-01

    In 4 out of 190 patients, who underwent a cholecystectomy, stones were only found in the common bile duct and none in the gallbladder. The radiological data of these 4 patients were retrospectively analysed. In 2/3 patients sonography showed a dilatation of the common bile duct, whereas stones in the common bile duct were shown by IVC in 2/2 patients, ERCP in 3/3 patients and PTC in 1/1 patients. In 1/3 patients also, in whom an ERCP had been performed, stones were suspected in the gallbladder, but could not be verified during cholecystectomy.

  8. Thomas Young and the Rosetta Stone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Andrew

    2007-06-01

    Who deciphered the Rosetta Stone and the Egyptian hieroglyphs? The usual answer is Jean-François Champollion, beginning in 1822. But ever since that time, Egyptologists have debated the role of his rival, the polymath Thomas Young, the first person to publish a partially correct translation of the Rosetta Stone. A recent BBC television dramatisation rekindled the controversy by presenting Champollion as a 'lone genius' who succeeded independently of Young. While there is no doubt that Champollion deciphered the hieroglyphic script as a whole, the evidence suggests that Young's early detailed study of the Rosetta Stone created the conceptual framework that made possible Champollion's later breakthrough.

  9. Biliary stone removal: The interventional radiologist's role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, W.; Long, W.B.; Ring, E.J.; Rosato, E.F.

    1983-01-01

    Despite the recent popularity of endoscopic techniques, the interventional radiologist retains an important role in the non-surgical management of biliary duct stones. In the cases where endoscopic sphincterotomy is difficult, the radiologist can be of great assistance to the endoscopist. When endoscopic stone removal is not feasible, the radiologist can treat patients percutaneously. When surgery is performed in patients with recurrent stone disease, the radiologist can maintain biliary toilet. The various approaches to biliary removal through non-surgical tracts are discussed. (orig.)

  10. Laboratory Evaluation of Ground Tire Rubber in Stone Mastic Asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Muniandy

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Stone mastic asphalt (SMA is a gap-graded mix whereby stiffer asphalt cement is required to bind the stone matrix or arrangement of stones together. Although various asphalt additives are traditionally available, the use of rubber crumbs in SMA is still a new rresearch endeavor. Many countries around the world are facing serious problems on what to do with reject or discarded tires. In the present study, commercial truck tires, containing 70% natural rubber, were ground and pre-blended in 80-100 penetration asphalt for use in SMA mixtures. An assessment was made of the laboratory performance of rubberized SMA in terms of stability, resilent modulus, dynamic creep and tensile strength ratio. It was observed that the performance of SMA with ground tire rubber was for superior as compared to SMA mix with unmodified asphalt. Sulfur and Styrene Butadeline Rubber (SBR were used in rubberized SMA mixes as additives to test the sensitivity of SMA mixtures. As standard practice a 0.3% newly developed cellulose oil palm fiber was used in SMA to minimize the asphalt drain-down effects.

  11. The atmospheric degradation of a durable lithotype used in Northern Italy: the Oira stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toniolo, Lucia; Bugini, Roberto; Gulotta, Davide

    2016-04-01

    since the early XX century. The onsite evaluation of the stone blocks of the façade after more than a century of exposition showed a distinctive surface colour alteration. The formation of a fragile superficial layer of few millimetres thickness with scaling and progressive detachment, has been observed and documented by portable digital microscopy. Samples of the stone have been collected and studied by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy on loose fragments, thin sections and polished cross-sections. An interesting and unusualn phenomenon of alteration of the olivine phase has been pointed out [2]. The mineralogical and compositional features were also investigated by means of XRD and FTIR analyses. The results showed that the colour variation can be correlated to the chemical alteration of the stone, which results in the deployment of the magnesium and aluminium content of the most external portion of the material. The study has been conducted in the framework of the diagnostic and monitoring activity for the ongoing conservation work of the façade. [1] Cassinelli, R. (Ed). 1988. Monza anno 1300. La Basilica di S. Giovanni Battista e la sua facciata. Edizioni Cariplo, Milan, Italy. [2] Beard, J. S. et al. 2009. Onset and Progression of Serpentinization and Magnetite Formation in Olivine-rich Troctolite from IODP Hole U1309D. Journal of Petrology, Vol. 0, pp. 1-17.

  12. Lithic landscapes: early human impact from stone tool production on the central Saharan environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Robert A; Lahr, Marta Mirazón

    2015-01-01

    Humans have had a major impact on the environment. This has been particularly intense in the last millennium but has been noticeable since the development of food production and the associated higher population densities in the last 10,000 years. The use of fire and over-exploitation of large mammals has also been recognized as having an effect on the world's ecology, going back perhaps 100,000 years or more. Here we report on an earlier anthropogenic environmental change. The use of stone tools, which dates back over 2.5 million years, and the subsequent evolution of a technologically-dependent lineage required the exploitation of very large quantities of rock. However, measures of the impact of hominin stone exploitation are rare and inherently difficult. The Messak Settafet, a sandstone massif in the Central Sahara (Libya), is littered with Pleistocene stone tools on an unprecedented scale and is, in effect, a man-made landscape. Surveys showed that parts of the Messak Settafet have as much as 75 lithics per square metre and that this fractured debris is a dominant element of the environment. The type of stone tools--Acheulean and Middle Stone Age--indicates that extensive stone tool manufacture occurred over the last half million years or more. The lithic-strewn pavement created by this ancient stone tool manufacture possibly represents the earliest human environmental impact at a landscape scale and is an example of anthropogenic change. The nature of the lithics and inferred age may suggest that hominins other than modern humans were capable of unintentionally modifying their environment. The scale of debris also indicates the significance of stone as a critical resource for hominins and so provides insights into a novel evolutionary ecology.

  13. Retrograde intrarenal stone surgery for extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy-resistant kidney stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Helene; Nørby, Bettina; Osther, Palle Jörn

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The newer flexible ureteroscopes, 150-200-microm holmium YAG laser fibres and superflexible Dormia baskets have made it possible to reach and treat stones in all parts of the kidney. The object of this evaluation was to study the outcome of retrograde intrarenal stone surgery (RIRS......) for extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL)-resistant kidney stones. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 38 consecutive patients (18 males, 20 females) participated in the study. All patients had undergone ESWL prior to RIRS without success. In all cases the stones could be reached with the endoscope. Calculi...... ranged in size from 3 to 20 mm (mean 9 mm). In 32 cases the stones were fragmented using a holmium YAG laser and in six the stones could be extracted using zero-tip Dormia baskets without fragmentation. Sixteen patients had lower calyceal calculi and eight had an abnormal anatomy of the upper urinary...

  14. Factors affecting lower calyceal stone clearance after Extracorporeal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    shanker

    have been identified [1,3]. These include stone characteristics, the type of lithotripter used, LPC anatomy and body habitus. For iso- lated LPC stones, the pelvicalyceal angle, infundibulum length and width are considered important determinants for stone clearance. The impact of body habitus on stone clearance has so far ...

  15. The Corundum Stone and Crystallographic Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irish, Stephen T

    2017-11-01

    This article presents a detailed history and exegesis of the 1798 paper of Charles Greville and Jacques-Louis Count de Bournon, "On the Corundum Stone from Asia." This was the first published argument to establish that the mineral corundum was related to, or identical with, the ruby and the sapphire. It was also the first time that the science of crystallography, recently developed in France, was publically introduced to a British scientific audience. René Just Haüy's theory of the three-dimensional structure of minerals proposed a new kind of extension of chemistry into the solid state. The story of corundum illustrates the new and sophisticated mineralogy that had emerged in the late eighteenth century and how an increasingly global natural history relied upon extended networks of trade and empire. It shows also how mineralogical debates had begun to move beyond the private and restricted milieux of mining schools and wealthy collectors and into more public scientific fora.

  16. Microbiological flora and nail polish: a brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayan, G M; Flournoy, D J; Schlageter, P

    1994-11-01

    Removing nail polish and prosthetic nails from operating room (OR) personnel prior to scrubbing and from patients prior to hand surgery is recommended but not practiced in many hospitals. There is concern that nail polish can act as a vehicle for the transfer of infectious agents. This study was designed to determine the incidence of microbiological flora of nail polish in a clinical setting.

  17. Monitoring of Robot Assisted Polishing through parameters of acoustic emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarev, Ruslan; Top, Søren; Bilberg, Arne

    The polishing process is essential for the surface generation of machine tooling components in advanced manufacturing. While robot assisted polishing is faster and more consistent than manual polishing, it can still consume a significant part of ma- chining time and operator presence time...

  18. 21 CFR 872.6030 - Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent. 872.6030... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6030 Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent. (a) Identification. An oral cavity abrasive polishing agent is a device in paste or powder form...

  19. Piedra Pajarilla: A candidate for nomination as Global Heritage Stone Resource from Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Dolores; Gimeno, Ana; del Barrio, Santiago

    2013-04-01

    Piedra Pajarilla is a tourmaline bearing leucogranite outcropping at Martinamor, near Salamanca, Spain. It is part of the Hercynian granitic chain in the Spanish Central System. The stone received the local name "Piedra Pajarilla", meaning "Little Bird Stone" due to the shape of the many tourmaline aggregates that are the main visual feature of the rock. This local name has been extrapolated to every granitic stone used in the area, even if they differ significantly in mineralogy, and as recently tested in physical and mechanical properties as well. Here we present the nomination of Piedra Pajarilla as a suitable "Global Heritage Stone Resource". This stone ideally fits the newly proposed designation as it has been used since Roman times in Salamanca (Spain) and since the Middle Ages in the construction of major historic buildings, including both the Old and New Cathedrals, and many additional churches, castles and walls in the Salamanca area. Salamancás historic city core has been granted UNESCO World Heritage status in 1988, and all associated buildings, monuments and pedestrian streets are constructed from original materials. One of utilised materials, Piedra Pajarilla, was quarried for centuries from the immediate area. It was also the preferred building stone of many internationally renowned architects of Spanish origin during the 18th and 19th centuries especially involved in reconstruction following the Lisbon earthquake. Although the associated quarries are no longer active, the Piedra Pajarilla quarry sites remain relatively undisturbed and accessible. A renewal of quarrying is consequently feasible if additional stone supplies are required for heritage restoration. Thus there is also a need to preserve these historic quarries in anticipation of such work. The importance of Salamanca as emblematic heritage makes the historic stone quarries worthwhile to preserve as well. At the same time, Piedra Pajarilla can be considered as the first of several natural

  20. Evaluating the Rate of Stone Art Deterioration in Wadi Maghara and Wadi Mukattab, Sinai, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed HEMEDA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the key reasons for the status of Wadi Maghara and Wadi Mukattab as World Heritage Sites is the abundance of stone art present there. Unfortunately, in time, much of the stone art heritage in the two archaeological sites was lost, due to natural stone weathering processes, to static and dynamic actions and lately, due to the lack of preservation measures and to the action of people. That fragile art heritage is non-renewable and, therefore, it requires specialized management. Several stone facades in Wadi Maghara have embossed inscriptions of early rulers of Egypt, that document their expeditions to mine precious minerals, primarily turquoise and copper, that were found in the area. Wadi Mukattab (south of Wadi Maghara is the valley of inscriptions. Over a distance of 3 km along this valley inscriptions can be found on the mountain rocks that have mostly been made by Nabateans (2nd and 3rd Century but also by others, such as pilgrims, soldiers, merchants, throughout the centuries. In our case study, inscriptions from specific study areas were analyzed by using SEM, polarizing microscope, XRD, SEM with EDX, DTA-TGA, Grain Size Distribution, Pore Media Characterization and some stone samples were tested in the stone mechanics laboratory, to determine the physical and mechanical characteristics of the stone with carved inscriptions. Digital photographs were taken, with Geographic Information Systems software. Older images were compared with more recent ones and in order to classify and quantify the amount of deterioration that occurred over time. Various methodologies were applied to classify the images, and it was found that manual digitizing provided the best means for quantifying the amount of deterioration. Results showed that the damage was primarily caused due to the instability of stone structures, because of the extensive jointing and rock fall gravity, due to dynamic actions and the granular disaggregation of the stone surface. The

  1. Portugues Marbles as Stone Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Luis; Martins, Ruben

    2013-04-01

    The main objective of this paper is to present and justify the reasons for the worldwide recognition of Portuguese Marbles as Stone Heritage. These marbles are also known as "Estremoz Marble" since was the first county were exploited. In the Estremoz Anticline marbles occupy an intermediate stratigraphic position being part of a volcano-sedimentary sequence of Cambrian age. The anticlinal structure has a Precambrian core and the younger rocks aged Devonian Period. This sequence has deformed by the Variscan Orogeny, which performed twice with different intensities both in ductile and brittle tension fields. The early Alpine Cycle also acts in the region and cause more fracturing of the marble. Practically in all the quarries is possible to perceive the spatial-temporal continuity of the deformation where one can describe a complete Wilson Cycle. Together all these geological features imprint the marbles beautiful aesthetic patterns that can be highlighted when used as dimension stone. Nowadays most of the quarries are placed in the counties of Borba and mainly in Vila Viçosa. This last city claims for itself the "Capital of the Marble" title and named the marble as "White Gold". In fact, according to the historical record, the marbles were quarried in Portuguese Alentejo's Province since the fourth century BC. Locally these geological materials are available easily accessible. Exhibit physical properties that allow the fabrication of structural and decorative elements and so were used since humans settled in the region and developed a structured Society. In the Roman period, the pieces of art made with Estremoz Marbles were exported abroad and today are represented in Museums and Archaeological Sites throughout Europe and North Africa countries. The Portuguese Marbles and Limestones, transformed into altars, stairways, columns, statues and pieces of wall cladding, were carried as ballast in the holds of ships. At the destination the Portuguese People had built

  2. A Case of Recurrent Renal Aluminum Hydroxide Stone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basri Cakıroglu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal stone disease is characterized by the differences depending on the age, gender, and the geographic location of the patients. Seventy-five percent of the renal stone components is the calcium (Ca. The most common type of the stones is the Ca oxalate stones, while Ca phosphate, uric acid, struvite, and sistine stones are more rarely reported. Other than these types, triamterene, adenosine, silica, indinavir, and ephedrine stones are also reported in the literature as case reports. However, to the best of our knowledge, aluminum hydroxide stones was not reported reported before. Herein we will report a 38-years-old woman with the history of recurrent renal colic disease whose renal stone was determined as aluminum hydroxide stone in type. Aluminum mineral may be considered in the formation of kidney stones as it is widely used in the field of healthcare and cosmetics.

  3. Professional Training of Economists at Polish Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogienko, Olena

    2016-01-01

    Polish experience in professional training of economists at university has been generalized. Structural, content and procedural peculiarities of the training have been defined. It has been proved that key factors for reforming economic education in Poland are globalization, internationalization, integration, technologization and informatization.…

  4. Knowledge Mobilisation in the Polish Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazlagic, Jan; Erkol, Arif

    2015-01-01

    Poland has made substantial progress in improving the quality of its education system in recent years. This paper aims to describe the situation of the Polish education system from a knowledge management perspective and, to some extent, through innovation policies in education. The many challenges, this paper argues, can be tackled only through…

  5. Sexual Health of Polish Athletes with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Plinta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine sexual functioning of Polish athletes with disabilities (including paralympians. The study encompassed 218 people with physical disabilities, aged between 18 and 45 (149 men and 69 women. The entire research population was divided into three groups: Polish paralympians (n = 45, athletes with disabilities (n = 126 and non-athletes with disabilities (n = 47. The quality of sexual life of Polish paralympians was measured by using the Polish version of Female Sexual Function Index and International Index of Erectile Function. Clinically significant erectile dysfunctions were most often diagnosed in non-athletes (83.33% with 50% result of severe erectile dysfunctions, followed by athletes and paralympians with comparable results of 56.98% and 54.17% respectively (p = 0.00388. Statistically significant clinical sexual dysfunctions concerned lubrication, orgasm as well as pain domains, and prevailed among female non-athletes (68.42%, 68.42% and 57.89%. Practising sports at the highest level has a favourable effect on the sexuality of men and women with physical disabilities. Men with physical disabilities manifest more sexual disorders than women, an aspect which should be considered by health-care professionals working with people with disabilities.

  6. Technological Advances of Robot Assisted Polishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarev, Ruslan; Top, Søren; Grønbæk, Jens

    The efficient polishing of surfaces is very important in mould and die industry. Fine abrasive processes are widely used in industry for the first steps for the production of tools of high quality in terms of finishing accuracy, form and surface integrity. While manufacturing of most components r...

  7. Polish Complementary Schools in Iceland and England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinska, Malgorzata; Kowzan, Piotr; Ragnarsdóttir, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Since 2004, the opening of labour markets has spurred a considerable number of Poles to emigrate e.g. to Iceland and England. Families with school age children have had the challenge of adapting to foreign environments and school systems. Polish complementary schools have played an important, albeit ambivalent, role in this process. Through focus…

  8. Compositions of stone and stone surface materials of historical monuments from Vidzeme and Zemgale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Actins, A.; Spricis, A.; Zekunde, A.; Nemerova, A.

    2004-01-01

    By means of x-ray analysis composition of stone and stone surface materials of historical monuments from Vidzeme and Zemgale was investigated. Corrosion products of tuffa materials were identified on surfaces of some investigated monuments. Similarity of composition of products of stone corrosion for monuments from Latvia and Poland was recognised. Content of heavy metals at stone materials of historical monuments and at the surface layers of these monuments was investigated by means of atomic absorption and potentiometric stripping methods. Reasons of formation of compounds and pollution of investigated samples were discussed. (full text)

  9. Effect of Tamsulosin on Stone Passage for Ureteral Stones: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ralph C; Smith-Bindman, Rebecca; Whitaker, Evans; Neilson, Jersey; Allen, Isabel Elaine; Stoller, Marshall L; Fahimi, Jahan

    2017-03-01

    Tamsulosin is recommended for patients receiving a diagnosis of a ureteral stone less than 10 mm who do not require immediate urologic intervention. Because of conflicting results from recent meta-analyses and large randomized controlled trials, the efficacy of tamsulosin is unclear. We perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the effect of tamsulosin on stone passage in patients receiving a diagnosis of ureteral stone. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL databases were searched without language restriction through November 2015 for studies assessing the efficacy of tamsulosin and using a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial design. Meta-analysis was conducted with a random-effects model and subgroup analyses were conducted to determine sources of heterogeneity. Eight randomized controlled trials (N=1,384) contained sufficient information for inclusion. The pooled risk of stone passage in the tamsulosin arm was 85% versus 66% in the placebo arm, but substantial heterogeneity existed across trials (I 2 =80.2%; Ptamsulosin (risk difference=22%; 95% confidence interval 12% to 33%; number needed to treat=5). The meta-analysis of the small stone subgroup (Tamsulosin significantly improves stone passage in patients with larger stones, whereas the effect of tamsulosin is diminished in those with smaller stones, who are likely to pass their stone regardless of treatment. Copyright © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. CT findings of common bile duct stones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Byung Hee; Lee, Sang Kil; Kim, Jong Sung; Joo, Kyung Bin; Cho, On Koo; Hahm, Chang Kok; Kim, Yong Il [College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-11-15

    A retrospective study on computed tomographic (CT) findings in 35 surgically confirmed cases of common bile duct stones was performed to analyze the characteristic CT findings. Choledocholithiasis was correctly diagnosed by CT in 33 out of 35 cases (sensitivity, 94.3%) and among these CT demonstrated calculi of high attenuation in 32 and of soft tissue density in one case. The thirty two included 23 totally calcified. 5 rim calcified and 4 laminated stones. The target sign was observed in 30 out of 33 CT positive cases (90.1%). We concluded that CT is an accurate modality in the diagnosis of common bile duct stones with its' reliable display of the calcified or the laminated stone itself and its' characteristic target sign.

  11. CT findings of common bile duct stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Byung Hee; Lee, Sang Kil; Kim, Jong Sung; Joo, Kyung Bin; Cho, On Koo; Hahm, Chang Kok; Kim, Yong Il

    1992-01-01

    A retrospective study on computed tomographic (CT) findings in 35 surgically confirmed cases of common bile duct stones was performed to analyze the characteristic CT findings. Choledocholithiasis was correctly diagnosed by CT in 33 out of 35 cases (sensitivity, 94.3%) and among these CT demonstrated calculi of high attenuation in 32 and of soft tissue density in one case. The thirty two included 23 totally calcified. 5 rim calcified and 4 laminated stones. The target sign was observed in 30 out of 33 CT positive cases (90.1%). We concluded that CT is an accurate modality in the diagnosis of common bile duct stones with its' reliable display of the calcified or the laminated stone itself and its' characteristic target sign

  12. A laparoscopic approach to CBD stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanzada, Zubair; Morgan, Richard

    2013-12-01

    : This study aimed to evaluate single-stage surgical (laparoscopic or open) approach to the management of common bile duct (CBD) stones, as treatment of choice. Prospectively collected data to assess outcomes of CBD clearance, morbidity, mortality, and hospital stay, and compared with published data. Successful clearance of CBD stones was achieved in 96% cases, laparoscopic exploration successful in 83%. Retained stones were found in 4% cases and another 5% developed postoperative complications. Common length of stay in hospital was 2 days, although mean stay was 4 days. Seventy-three percent of cases were elective, 27% were emergencies. Conversion rate to open surgery was 14%, which was mainly in emergency cases. Postoperative mortality was 1.2%, not directly related to the procedure. Good outcomes can be achieved, comparing favorably with those of other modalities, when laparoscopic bile duct exploration is chosen as treatment for CBD stones; the best results can be anticipated in elective patients.

  13. Transformation of the Polish Banking Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Stefański

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In the post-war period the banking system in Poland underwent two important system transitions: after 1946 and after 1989. The third transformation began after May 1, 2004, but it did not have a systemic character. The Polish banking sector started to operate on the Single European Market. The first part of the paper is devoted to the problems of the banks transformations after 1989 with a special focus on the quantitative development of banks in 19892008, and on subsequent privatisation and consolidation processes. The former intensified in 19891999, and the latter in 19992002. The consolidation process was very noticeable in the sector of cooperative banks after 1994. The second part of the paper includes an economic and financial analysis of the banks. A lot of attention was paid to the liquidity of the banking sector. It was assessed as good, which was confirmed by a short-term rating of Moodys and by the Financial Stability Report 2009, published by the National Bank of Poland in June 2009. The comparison of the net profit of the banking sector in 19972008 shows its dependence on the economic situation and policy. The number of banks with capital adequacy ratio well above the minimum required by the banking supervision is rising. The financial power ratings are not favorable for the domestic banks. The third part of the paper focuses on the development directions of the Polish banking sector. It may be concluded on the basis of the analysis that privatisation and consolidation processes will be continued. They will concentrate on the capital of foreign banks already operating in Poland. As compared with individual foreign banks, the potential of the Polish banking sector is week. The fourth part of the paper focuses on the presentation Polish banking sector in the context of European Union banking sector. The paper finishes with conclusions. Generally, Polish banks have to implement a strategy to enable them to compete on the Single

  14. Investigation on laser induced salivary stone fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroka, Ronald; Pongratz, Thomas; Eder, Matthias; Domes, Mona; Vogeser, Michael; Johnson, Thorsten; Siedeck, Vanessa; Schroetzlmair, Florian; Zengel, Pamela

    2014-03-01

    Objective: It was the objective of this in-vitro study to investigate photon-based techniques for identifying the composition and fragmentation of salivary stones using a Ho:YAG laser. Materials and Method: Salivary stones (n=47) extracted from patients with clinical symptoms of sialolithiasis were examined in-vitro. After extraction, the stones were kept in Ringers solution until size and volume measurements could be performed. Thereafter, dual-energy CT scans (DECT) were performed to classify the composition of the stones. Subsequently, fluorescence measurements were performed by taking images under blue light excitation as well as by fluorescence spectroscopy, measuring excitation-emission-matrixes (EEM). Further investigation to identify the exact composition of the stone was performed by Raman spectroscopy and FTIR spectroscopy of stone fragments and debris. Fragmentation was performed in an aquarium set-up equipped with a mesh (hole: 1.5mm) using a Ho:YAG-laser to deliver laser pulses of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5J/pulse at a frequency of 3Hz through a 200μm-fibre to the stone surface. The collected data were analyzed and fragmentation rates were calculated. Finally, correlation between stone composition and fragmentation was performed. Results: Blue light fluorescence excitation resulted in either fluorescence in the green spectral region or in a combination of green and red fluorescence emission. EEM-measurement showed the corresponding spectra. Raman spectroscopy showed a mixture of carbonate apatite and keratin. DECT results in evidence of calcium containing components. FTIR-spectroscopy results showed that carbonate apatite is the main component. Fragmentation experiment showed a dependency on the energy per pulse applied if the evaluation implies the ratio of fragmented weight to pulse, while the ratio fragmented weight to energy remains about constant for the three laser parameter used. Conclusion: The composition of salivary stones could be determined using

  15. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for urinary stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinn, Kyung Sub; Kim, Hyun; Byun, Jae Young; Lee, Myung Hee; Bahk, Yong Whee; Park, Yong Hyun

    1988-01-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is a new noninvasive treatment modality for urinary stones, and it sometimes is to necessitate endourologic techniques. ESWL with an Edap lithotripter which uses piezo-electric elements, was performed in 142 cases (130 patients) with urinary stones including 68 in calices, 30 in pelves, and 44 in ureters. Technical factors were 100 storages at 5 to 10 pulse rates/sec and 70-100% adjustable power for about 60 minutes (15-90) for renal stones, and 200 storages at 20 pulse rates/sec and 100% adjustable power for about 60 minutes for ureteral stones in a single treatment under stone localization by 5 MHz ultrasonic sector scanner. All patients were treated at Kangnam St.Mary's Hospital of Catholic University Medical College during the 5 months period from May 1, 1987. Every patient had pre-treatment chest, plain abdomen, intravenous urogram and ultrasonogram studies and post-treatment follow-up abdominal radiograms in 1 to 3 months after ESWL.The overall success rate of ESWL in 142 cases was 94.4%. Eight out of 142 cases were successful. Thus, 134 cases were analysed. Of these, 58 cases (43.3%) received one treatment, 33 cases (24.6%) two treatments, 16 cases (11.9%) three treatments and 27 cases (20.2%) more than four treatments. Renal stones were more successfully treated (98.0%) than ureteral stones (88.1%), and calyceal stones presented the highest success rate (98.5%). The stones as small as 5 to 10 mm in size were easily fragmented and the stones of round of oval shape were more easily pulverized than those of staghorn or amorphous shape. The adjunctive endourlogic techniques such as percutaneous nephrostomy, ureteral catheterization or internal ureteral stenting with a double pigtail catheter were required in 17 cases (11.9%). Complications of ESWL for urolithiasis included hematuria (84.5%), flank pain (8.5%) and fever (5.6%), which were controlled without specific treatment. ESWL using ultrasonic localization was

  16. Bariatric Surgery and Urinary Stone Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevahir Ozer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major public health problem and has been suggested to play a role in the etiology of urinary tract stone disease. Furthermore, the increasingly widespread use of surgery in the treatment of obesity also is related with urinary stone disease. In daily practice, patients to whom obesity surgery has been planned or who have undergone obesity surgery are seen more frequently. This review aims to highlight the urological evaluation and management of this patient group.

  17. Evidence Report: Risk of Renal Stone Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, Jean D.; Pietrzyk, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The formation of renal stones poses an in-flight health risk of high severity, not only because of the impact of renal colic on human performance but also because of complications that could potentially lead to crew evacuation, such as hematuria, infection, hydronephrosis, and sepsis. Evidence for risk factors comes from urine analyses of crewmembers, documenting changes to the urinary environment that are conducive to increased saturation of stone-forming salts, which are the driving force for nucleation and growth of a stone nidus. Further, renal stones have been documented in astronauts after return to Earth and in one cosmonaut during flight. Biochemical analysis of urine specimens has provided indication of hypercalciuria and hyperuricemia, reduced urine volumes, and increased urine saturation of calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate. A major contributor to the risk for renal stone formation is bone atrophy with increased turnover of the bone minerals. Dietary and fluid intakes also play major roles in the risk because of the influence on urine pH (more acidic) and on volume (decreased). Historically, specific assessments on urine samples from some Skylab crewmembers indicated that calcium excretion increased early in flight, notable by day 10 of flight, and almost exceeded the upper threshold for normal excretion (300mg/day in males). Other crewmember data documented reduced intake of fluid and reduced intake of potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, and citrate (an inhibitor of calcium stone formation) in the diet. Hence, data from both short-duration and long-duration missions indicate that space travel induces risk factors for renal stone formation that continue to persist after flight; this risk has been documented by reported kidney stones in crewmembers.

  18. Chemical mechanical glass polishing with cerium oxide: Effect of selected physico-chemical characteristics on polishing efficiency

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janoš, P.; Ederer, J.; Pilařová, V.; Henych, Jiří; Tolasz, Jakub; Milde, D.; Opletal, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 362, SEP (2016), s. 114-120 ISSN 0043-1648 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015073 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Chemical mechanical polishing * Ceria-based polishing powders * Polishing efficienc Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.531, year: 2016

  19. Petrologic, morphologic and functional analyses of ground and abrasive stone tools from Rug Bair, Ovche Pole valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boev, Blazho; Dimitrovska, Vasilka

    2011-01-01

    This paper represents the results of the ground and abrasive stone tools analyses based on the finds collected during the excavation of Rug Bair undertaken in 1970, and today stored in the Museum and Institute for Protection of Shtip. The studies were made possible with the help from the Faculty of Natural and Technical Sciences, Shtip, Republic of Macedonia. Through the stone material, an attempt was made a more comprehensive picture of the raw material, petrologic, technical and typo logical characteristics of the Neolithic stone industry at this site to be gained as well as its relationship with related simultaneously industries. (Author)

  20. THE OPTIMIZATION OF TECHNOLOGICAL MINING PARAMETERS IN QUARRY FOR DIMENSION STONE BLOCKS QUALITY IMPROVEMENT BASED ON PHOTOGRAMMETRIC TECHNIQUES OF MEASUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslan Sobolevskyi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on patterns of change in the dimension stone commodity blocks quality production on previously identifi ed and measured geometrical parameters of natural cracks, modelling and planning out the fi nal dimension of stone products and fi nished products based on the proposed digital photogrammetric techniques. The optimal parameters of surveying are investigated and the infl uence of surveying distance to length and crack area is estimated. Rational technological parameters of dimension stone blocks production are taken into account.

  1. Female stone disease: the changing trend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marickar, Y M Fazil; Vijay, Adarsh

    2009-12-01

    This paper has attempted to assess the changes noted in the trends in the incidence and biochemical pattern of female urolithiasis patients during the period 1971-2008. A prospective descriptive clinical study was done on 8,590 stone patients belonging to both sexes treated at the urinary stone clinic. The incidence of stone disease among the two sexes was plotted. The various metabolic parameters including 24-h urine volume, urine calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, oxalate, magnesium, creatinine and citrate, serum creatinine, calcium, phosphorus, uric acid and magnesium and calculated parameter calcium:magnesium ratio were studied. The possible causes for the change in incidence of stone disease in the female sex were elucidated. Of the patients studied, 12.7% (1,091) were females. There was a definite increase in the incidence of female urolithiasis over the past 37 years (P urine biochemical parameters. There was a definite increase in the excretion of urinary calcium over the years (P urine of females also increased steadily over the years (P urine of females reduced over the years (P phosphorus (P phosphorus and magnesium also increased significantly with the passage of time. Serum uric acid did not vary significantly through the years. The decrease in the excretion rate of magnesium which is inhibitory to stone genesis, together with the increased excretion of calcium and oxalate may have contributed to the increasing incidence of stone disease in females. This might be due to changes in living standards and dietary habits.

  2. Percutaneous lithotripsy for removing difficult bile duct stones using endoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, See Hyung; Sohn, Chul Ho; Kim, Young Hwan

    2008-01-01

    To describe efficacy of percutaneous lithotripsy for removing difficult bile duct stones using endoscopy. A total of 88 patients with difficulties for the removal of bile duct stones using endoscopy (an impacted stone, stone size > 15 mm, intrahepatic duct (IHD) stone, stone size to bile duct diameter ratio > 1.0), were enrolled in this study. A 12 Fr sheath was inserted through the percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) tract, and then nitrol stone baskets and a 0.035' snare wire were used to capture, fragment and remove the stones. The technical and clinical success rates were analyzed, together with an analysis of any complications. The overall technical success rate of stone removal was achieved in 79 of 88 patients (89.8%). In five of nine patients with failed stone removal, small residual IHD stones were noted on a cholangiogram. Even if stone removal failed in these cases, cholangitic symptoms were improved and the drainage catheter was successfully removed. Therefore, clinical success was achieved in 84 of 88 patients (95.5%). There were no significant procedure-related complications, except for sepsis in one case. Billiary stone removal using the stone basket and guide-wire snare technique through the PTBD tract is a safe and effective procedure that can be used as a primary method in patients with difficulties for the removal of bile duct stones using endoscopy

  3. Analysis of the exposure of Polish lakes to flood risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasiecznik-Dominiak Anna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Flooding constitutes one of the main natural hazards in Poland, which causes enormous social, economic and environmental losses. The main causes of the occurrence of floods include intensive rainfall, rapid melting of snow and ice cover, as well as strong gusts of wind from the sea. Based on the resilience theory (resistance, elasticity, which constitutes an efficient tool for the description of the social-ecological system capability or components thereof to mitigate the effects of dangerous events, as well as the capability of reconstructing and adapting the system to new conditions, the authors have analysed the exposure of Polish lakes to flood risks with a probability of occurrence Q0.2%, Q1% and Q10%. In order to determine the level of exposure of lakes to the risk of flooding by flood waters, studies were conducted using the flood hazard and flood risk maps which were developed under the Project entitled “IT System of the Country’s Protection against Extreme Hazards”. The result of the efforts of the group of authors is the determination of the number of lakes, which are located in the flood risk area Q0.2%, Q1% and Q10%, including division into risk level groups (low, moderate and high. The results presented in the paper may constitute a contribution to further, more detailed studies concerning assessment of the vulnerability of Polish lakes located in the flood prone area.

  4. Risk assessment for stonecutting enterprises Accidental risks in the course of petroleum production and stone extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrova, A. J.; Timofeeva, S. S.

    2018-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the assessment of accidental risks occurring at the works engaged in stone extracting and petroleum production. Two basic kinds of accidents common for stone extracting and petroleum production have been chosen to be discussed in the part under consideration. The most dangerous accidental situation characteristic for a stone milling line is an unsanctioned explosion, UE, of blasting agents used for the development of stone deposits. The analysis of a risk occurrence in certain accidental situations is to be carried out. With reference to petroleum extraction, a combustibles and lubricants (C & L) explosion is the most dangerous of characteristic accidental situations. To reveal the most probable causes of accidental situations to be realized, a graph of cause and effect relations has been constructed for each of the accidental situations most probable causes to real situation of an accident. Disasters of a natural origin are the most probable causes of unsanctioned explosions at the deposits of stone raw materials. Technology related natural disasters are the most probable causes of unsanctioned explosions to be realized at multiple well platforms engaged in petroleum production.

  5. Introductory Overview of Stone Heritages in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hirokazu; Oikawa, Teruki; Fujita, Masayo; Yokoyama, Shunji

    2013-04-01

    As one contribution to 'Global Heritage Stone Resources' (GHSR), some stone heritages in Japan, which are nominated in the interim list, are briefly introduced. The geology of Japanese Islands where are the one of the most active areas in the history of the Earth, is very complicated. Therefore Japanese Islands consist of various kinds of minerals and rocks. Some of them were used to make stone implements and accessories. Japanese people also used to the best possible advantage to built tombstone, gate, pavement ,and the basement and wall of the large building such as temples, shrines, castles and modern buildings. 1. Stone Heritages of Pre-historical age: In the late Pleistocene and the early Holocene, ancient Japanese used obsidian cooled rapidly from rhyolitic magma.to make small implements and accessories. For example, Shirataki, Hokkaido (north island) is the largest place producing obsidian in Japan where Paleolithic people made arrowhead, knives and so on. Another example, Jade yielded in Itoigawa City, Japan Sea coast of central Japan, was made in the metamorphic rock about five hundred million years ago. Itoigawa area is only one place where jade is abundantly produced in Japan. Ancient people had been already collected and processed to ornaments although it is very hard and traded in wide area more than several thousand years ago. 2. Stone Heritages of Historical age: 2.1 Archaeological remains: In the Kofun (old mound) period (250 to 538 AD), stone burial chambers were used for old mounds to preserve against the putrefaction and to protect from the theft. For example, Ishibutai Kofun ("ishi" means "stone" and "butai" means "stage") in Nara old capital city, southwest Japan, is the largest known megalithic structure made of granite in Japan. 2.2 Stone walls of some typical castles Stones used is because of not only the rich reserves of rocks but also restriction of transportation. Osaka (second biggest city) castle, are composed of Cretaceous granite

  6. STUDY OF POLISHING AISI 316L WITH STRUCTURED ABRASIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François GOOSSENS

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Finishing process like polishing is usually used to obtain high quality mechanical surface characteristics such as texture and roughness. These operations are mainly handmade and need highly trained operators thus limiting their repeatability and profitability. To optimize the industrialization of the polishing process, it is therefore necessary to modelize the process to built efficient parameter database. The aim of this study is to characterise the polishing of 316L stainless steel with structured abrasive belts. The geometric data of the belts are given, and we then propose a model to determine material removal. An experimental test bench is set up to test this model and characterise the polishing process in terms of forces. It produces samples for different polishing conditions. The different polished surfaces are then analyzed thanks to the roughness and the wettability. Using experimental designs, we are able to validate the proposed model and identify the parameters that influence a polishing operation.

  7. Conservation of stone built cultural heritage and preservation of memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Antônio

    2016-04-01

    the production of structural elements, such as pillars and columns, or for the coating of floors and walls, as well as in the production of various elements such as the doorposts and lintels of doors and windows, cornices and steps. In the case of floors and walls usually have some sort of processing (polishing). With some frequency were also used for the production of ornamental pieces or embellishment, such as statues and finishes that adorn both façades of churches, as civilian buildings. Finally and considering that historical contents usually are already referenced in these buildings, it is concluded that other registers, such as those related to the geological history of the stone material used should be collected and reported by those who care conservation of this heritage. In this way, if these geo-memories are raised, it will be important for the conservation of monuments, but also for the diffusion of knowledge in the field of Earth Sciences.

  8. THE OPTIMIZATION OF TECHNOLOGICAL MINING PARAMETERS IN QUARRY FOR DIMENSION STONE BLOCKS QUALITY IMPROVEMENT BASED ON PHOTOGRAMMETRIC TECHNIQUES OF MEASUREMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Ruslan Sobolevskyi; Valentyn Korobiichuk; Volodymyr Levytskyi

    2018-01-01

    This research focuses on patterns of change in the dimension stone commodity blocks quality production on previously identifi ed and measured geometrical parameters of natural cracks, modelling and planning out the fi nal dimension of stone products and fi nished products based on the proposed digital photogrammetric techniques. The optimal parameters of surveying are investigated and the infl uence of surveying distance to length and crack area is estimated. Rational technological parameters of ...

  9. The corpus-driven revolution in Polish Sign Language: the interview with Dr. Paweł Rutkowski

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iztok Kosem

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Dr. Paweł Rutkowski is head of the Section for Sign Linguistics at the University of Warsaw. He is a general linguist and a specialist in the field of syntax of natural languages, carrying out research on Polish Sign Language (polski język migowy — PJM. He has been awarded a number of prizes, grants and scholarships by such institutions as the Foundation for Polish Science, Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education, National Science Centre, Poland, Polish–U.S. Fulbright Commission, Kosciuszko Foundation and DAAD. Dr. Rutkowski leads the team developing the Corpus of Polish Sign Language and the Corpus-based Dictionary of Polish Sign Language, the first dictionary of this language prepared in compliance with modern lexicographical standards. The dictionary is an open-access publication, available freely at the following address: http://www.slownikpjm.uw.edu.pl/en/. This interview took place at eLex 2017, a biennial conference on electronic lexicography, where Dr. Rutkowski was awarded the Adam Kilgarriff Prize and gave a keynote address entitled Sign language as a challenge to electronic lexicography: The Corpus-based Dictionary of Polish Sign Language and beyond. The interview was conducted by Dr. Victoria Nyst from Leiden University, Faculty of Humanities, and Dr. Iztok Kosem from the University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Arts.

  10. Retrograde intrarenal stone surgery for extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy-resistant kidney stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Helene; Nørby, Bettina; Osther, Palle Jörn

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The newer flexible ureteroscopes, 150-200-microm holmium YAG laser fibres and superflexible Dormia baskets have made it possible to reach and treat stones in all parts of the kidney. The object of this evaluation was to study the outcome of retrograde intrarenal stone surgery (RIRS...

  11. Randomized clinical study of wear of enamel antagonists against polished monolithic zirconia crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel-Upshaw, J F; Kim, M J; Hsu, S M; Abdulhameed, N; Jenkins, R; Neal, D; Ren, F; Clark, A E

    2018-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that there is no difference in the in vivo maximum wear of enamel opposing monolithic zirconia crowns, enamel opposing porcelain fused to metal crowns and enamel opposing enamel. Thirty patients needing single crowns were randomized to receive either a monolithic zirconia or metal-ceramic crown. Two non-restored opposing teeth in the same quadrants were identified to serve as enamel controls. After cementation, quadrants were scanned for baseline data. Polyvinylsiloxane impressions were obtained and poured in white stone. Patients were recalled at six-months and one-year for re-impression. Stone models were scanned using a tabletop laserscanner to determine maximum wear. Statistical analysis was performed using Mann-Whitney U to determine any significant differences between the wear of enamel against zirconia and metal-ceramic crowns. Sixteen zirconia and 14 metal-ceramic crowns were delivered. There were no statistical differences in mean wear of crown types (p=0.165); enamel antagonists (p=0.235) and enamel controls (p=0.843) after one year. Monolithic zirconia exhibited comparable wear of enamel compared with metal-ceramic crowns and control enamel after one year. This study is clinically significant because the use of polished monolithic zirconia demonstrated comparable wear of opposing enamel to metal-ceramic and enamel antagonists. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Biliary stones: Comparative study with sonography and ERCP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, In Young; Kim, Jong Chae; Park, Jung Suk; Kim, Se Jong; Park, Byung Lan; Kim, Byong Geun

    1990-01-01

    We analyzed findings of sonography and ERCP retrospectively to compare the diagnostic accuracy of sonography with ERCP in patients suspected with biliary stones. 88 patients underwent surgery who had studied with sonography and ERCP were evaluated in order of intrahepatic duct, extrahepatic duct and gall bladder. Of these patients, 80 cases were proved biliary stones. Sonography correctly diagnosed 19 of 19 patients with intrahepatic duct stones, 32 of 40 patients with extrahepatic duct stones and 35 of 41 patients with gall stones with sensitivities of 100%, 80% and 85% respectively. ERCP correctly identified 14 of 18 patients with intrahepatic duct stones, 26 of 37 patients with extrahepatic duct stones and 15 of 33 patients with gall stones with sensitivities of 78%, 70% and 45% respectively. Our results shows sonography is more sensitive to detect stones of biliary system than ERCP

  13. A stone mould from Klinovac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulatović Aleksandar

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-piece stone mould that reached the National Museum at Vranje in 1966 had been recovered from a depth of about one meter at the site known as Tri Kruške (Three Pear-trees, the village of Klinovac. The site is situated on a river terrace on the right bank of the Krševica River some 15 kilometers south of Vranje. The mould was carved out of metamorphic rock from the class of schist, more exactly, of greenschist (with chlorite and mica as its constituent minerals that is widespread in the area, which geologically belongs to the upper (Vlasina complex of the Serbian-Macedonian mass. The mould was intended for casting four kinds of bronze weapons: three chisels and a winged axe. More sensitive as dating evidence, the winged axe (Ärmchenbeil may be broadly dated to the last three centuries of the second millennium BC. The type is geographically related with the Aegean, while its northernmost findspot so far is Pobit Kamak in northern Bulgaria. The chisels cast in this mould do not have direct analogies, although many hoards of similar tools have been registered in Croatia, Romania and Central Europe. Apparently the mould was made by a local workshop and from the locally available raw material. The possible activity of local workshops in the above mentioned period has already been presumed by scholars, and the Klinovac mould constitutes yet another corroboration of the hypothesis. Nevertheless its Aegean origin should not be ruled out completely, because cultural contacts between the Late Bronze Age population inhabiting the region and their southern neighbours seem quite certain, as evidenced by Mycenaean pottery discovered on the site of Resulja at Lučani near Bujanovac.

  14. Diamonds from Zarnitsa and Dalnaya Kimberlites (Yakutia); their nature, growth history, and lithospheric mantle source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulanova, G.P.; Davies, R.M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the results of study of diamonds from two pipes of the Daldyn-Alakit kimberlite field (Yakutia). Zarnitsa ('Flash of Summer Lightning'), the first kimberlite discovered in Siberia, is located 15 km E of Udachnaya. Dalnaya is a small pipe in the southern part of the Daldyn Field. No information on diamond parageneses from these late Devonian pipes has been published previously. About 45 diamonds (-4+2 and -8+4 mm) with mineral inclusions were selected from each pipe and their morphology and surface features were studied using a binocular microscope. Cathodoluminescence (CL) images and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) measurements were done on the whole stones first. 22 stones from Dalnaya and 32 from Zarnitsa were then sawn by laser or polished mechanically parallel to the planes (110) or (100). Polished central plates have been prepared for some stones; others were polished down to expose inclusions. The internal morphology of the diamonds and the location of inclusions were studied by birefringence (BR) and CL. Inclusions were analysed in situ on the polished diamond surfaces for major element composition by electron microprobe and for trace elements by proton and laser microprobes. A few central inclusions (seeds) were studied by SEM imagery and analysis. Hydrogen and nitrogen concentrations and N aggregation state were investigated in the central diamond plates by FTIR. Carbon isotopic composition was determined by mass spectrometry for 20 stones, using fragments of diamond off-cuts

  15. SPECTRAL METHODS IN POLISH EMOTIONAL SPEECH RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Powroźnik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article the issue of emotion recognition based on Polish emotional speech signal analysis was presented. The Polish database of emotional speech, prepared and shared by the Medical Electronics Division of the Lodz University of Technology, has been used for research. Speech signal has been processed by Artificial Neural Networks (ANN. The inputs for ANN were information obtained from signal spectrogram. Researches were conducted for three different spectrogram divisions. The ANN consists of four layers but the number of neurons in each layer depends of spectrogram division. Conducted researches focused on six emotional states: a neutral state, sadness, joy, anger, fear and boredom. The averange effectiveness of emotions recognition was about 80%.

  16. The Kolmården serpentine marble in Sweden, a building stone found at many levels in the society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikström, Anders; Pereira, Dolores

    2013-04-01

    The Kolmården marble is a green serpentine marble of Svekofennian age (c. 1900 Ma). Serpentine is mainly secondary after diopside. The rock has been used as far back as in the 13th century. But it was mainly due to the start of the building of the Royal castles in Stockholm in the 17th century when the stone became more extensively used. The quarries were in operation until the 1970s and during the last years the production was so rationalized that one finds the stone in stairs, pavement and non structural ornaments within "common" houses all over the country. One can also find this stone in many exclusive places all over the world (e.g. the Paris Opera house, League of Nations building in Geneva, Leeds University Library, Uppsala University, Rockefeller Center, etc). The importance of this stone in international architecture, the good physical and mechanical behaviour observed in its emplacements and the possibilities for preservation of some of the quarries makes the Kolmården marble a good candidate as Global Stone Heritage Stone. The nomination will also trigger international publications on this natural stone to spread its knowledge among scientists and architects to be able to select this rock in case that some restoration on the mentioned important buildings is needed at some point.

  17. Effect of stylolites on the durability of building stones : Two case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larbi, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    The mechanical properties and the durability of natural building stones are influenced to a large extent by inherent inhomogeneities. One of such inhomogeneities is a stylolite, particularly when it occuts in carbonate-rich rocks. Stylolites are irregular surfaces in which small tooth-like

  18. "Sydney sandstone": Heritage Stone from Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Barry; Kramar, Sabina

    2014-05-01

    Sydney is Australia's oldest city being founded in 1788. The city was fortunate to be established on an extensive and a relatively undeformed layer of lithified quartz sandstone of Triassic age that has proved to be an ideal building stone. The stone has been long identified by geologists as the Hawkesbury Sandstone. On the other hand the term "Sydney sandstone" has also been widely used over a long period, even to the extent of being utilised as the title of published books, so its formal designation as a heritage stone will immediately formalise this term. The oldest international usage is believed to be its use in the construction of the Stone Store at Kerikeri, New Zealand (1832-1836). In the late 19th century, public buildings such as hospitals, court houses as well as the prominent Sydney Town Hall, Sydney General Post Office, Art Gallery of New South Wales, State Library of New South Wales as well as numerous schools, churches, office building buildings, University, hotels, houses, retaining walls were all constructed using Sydney sandstone. Innumerable sculptures utilising the gold-coloured stone also embellished the city ranging from decorative friezes and capitals on building to significant monuments. Also in the late 19th and early 20th century, Sydney sandstone was used for major construction in most other major Australian cities especially Melbourne, Adelaide and Brisbane to the extent that complaints were expressed that suitable local stone materials were being neglected. Quarrying of Sydney sandstone continues today. In 2000 it was recorded noted that there were 33 significant operating Sydney sandstone quarries including aggregate and dimension stone operations. In addition sandstone continues to be sourced today from construction sites across the city area. Today major dimension stone producers (eg Gosford Quarries) sell Sydney sandstone not only into the Sydney market but also on national and international markets as cladding and paving products

  19. Polish 2012 growth references for preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kułaga, Zbigniew; Grajda, Aneta; Gurzkowska, Beata; Góźdź, Magdalena; Wojtyło, Małgorzata; Swiąder, Anna; Różdżyńska-Świątkowska, Agnieszka; Litwin, Mieczysław

    2013-06-01

    Growth references are useful in monitoring a child's growth, which is an essential part of child care. The aim of this paper is to provide updated growth references for Polish preschool children and to assess how well children in Poland match or diverge from the World Health Organization (WHO) growth standards/references and recent German height-for-age references. The height-, weight-, body mass index-for-age, and weight-for-height references were constructed with the LMS method using data from a recent, large, population-representative sample of 4,941 preschool children aged 3 to 6 years (the OLA study). In the case of boys, the third, 50th, and 97th height percentiles of new Polish and German references overlap almost completely, whereas the WHO growth standards/references percentiles are systematically lower. In the case of girls, comparison between the new Polish and German height references showed conformity on the third and 50th percentile, whereas body height values of the WHO standards/references are shorter. Polish children aged 3 to 6 years from for the nation representative sample, had significantly greater than zero mean z scores of height-, weight-, and BMI-for-age and weight-for-height, relative to the WHO growth standards/references. The number of children in the sample with height-for-age below -2 SD was significantly lower than expected and number of children with height-for-age above +2 SD was significantly higher than expected. The OLA study growth references can be recommended as national references for preschool children in Poland.

  20. Polish normalization of the Body Esteem Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Lipowska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Physical attractiveness plays an important part in one’s social functioning. The interest in one’s own appearance have been documented as widespread among the female population, but over the recent years it is more and more often emphasized that concentrating on body appearance concerns men as well. Franzoi and Shields (1984 created the Body Esteem Scale which allows to qualify the subject’s attitude towards his or her own body. The aim of the study was to create a Polish version of the Body Esteem Scale along with the norms for age and sex clusters. Participants and procedure The normalization sample consisted of 4298 participants: 1865 women aged 16 to 80 (M = 29.92; SD = 12.85 and 2433 men aged 16 to 78 (M = 28.74; SD = 11.50. Education levels among the participants were also controlled for. In order to create a Polish version of the Body Esteem Scale, translation was adopted as the adaptation strategy. Like the original one, the Polish scale comprises 35 items grouped into three gender specific subscales. The subscales for women include Sexual Attractiveness, Weight Concern, and Physical Condition, whereas the body esteem of is examined with regards to Physical Attractiveness, Upper Body Strength, and Physical Condition. Results Reliability of subscales was high both for females (Cronbach’s alpha from 0.80 to 0.89 and males (Cronbach’s alpha from 0.85 to 0.88. The given coefficients of reliability cover the original division into subscales adopted by the authors of BES. Conclusions We confirmed high reliability of the Polish version of the Body Esteem Scale, thus we recommend it as a diagnostic tool. Created norms allowed to refer results obtained in the course of research carried out on people with various disorders (e.g. eating disorders or body dysmorphic disorder with population data for corresponding age brackets.

  1. Polish Martial Law: The Crisis of Communism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Roman Catholic Church continued to exist, and a comparatively liberal cultural policy was in place, which continued a legitimate practice of most of...intervention. Their answers verify that for most Poles the fear 29 of losing sovereignty and Polish culture to Russian aggression overshadows all else, even...they going in? They did not,” Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, http://www.wilsoncenter.org/news/ docs/ Historia -Jachranka%20-%20Stan

  2. The Polish Cyborg. A Reflection on the Relationship between Man and Machine in Early Polish Modernism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Ranocchi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Far from being enthusiastic “modernolatry” of Italian futurism, Polish futurism demonstrates an attitude of ambivalence toward modernity. This is particularly evident in the Polish approach to that very synecdoche of modernity which is the machine. In his essay of 1923, the leader of the group, Bruno Jasieński, compares the fetishistic cult of the machine, which characterizes the Italian approach, with the utilitarian one of the Russians, exemplified by a quote from Majakovskij. To these two propositions, as a sort of Hegelian synthesis, he adds a Polish one consisting in the conception of the machine as a prosthesis, a continuation of the human body. Thereby he introduces an idea later known as “cyborg”. The category of cyborg is also useful to understand the work of another today almost forgotten Polish writer of the Twenties, Jerzy Sosnkowski. He was the author of a short novel, A Car, You and Me (Love of Machines, in which a whole chapter concerns the chief character’s dystopian nightmare wherein machines take control over the world. The third section of the essay deals with the idea of man a machine – an old, 18th century conception, which became actual anew in the 20th century and whose traces we can find among others in a well-known poem by Tytus Czyżewski. Thirty years before N. Wiener, Polish modernists seem to have sensed the social, political and anthropological implications of the mechanization of work.

  3. Ceremony and Carpentry? Neolithic Stone Axeheads in an East Yorkshire (UK Lowland Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Halkon

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Survey and research undertaken of a 20x30km study area in the Foulness Valley, East Yorkshire, has resulted in the location of over 70 polished stone and flint axeheads. Examination of many of these tools suggests heavy use and reworking, yet a number, the most impressive in terms of workmanship and aesthetics, remain in pristine condition. This contribution discusses the significance of the distribution of these tools and considers possible explanations for their condition, in terms of what is known about the Neolithic landscape of this region. Recent palaeoenvironmental investigation shows that in the Neolithic the Foulness Valley was a mosaic of heavily wooded areas and wetland, dominated in the south by a tidal estuarine inlet of the River Humber, contrasting with the rolling chalk hills of the Yorkshire Wolds to the north and east. The inlet and its associated waterways may have provided a means of communication and exchange for some of the axeheads.

  4. Impact of stone density on outcomes in percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anastasiadis, Anastasios; Onal, Bulent; Modi, Pranjal

    2013-01-01

    were assigned to a low stone density [LSD, ≤ 1000 Hounsfield units (HU)] or high stone density (HSD, > 1000 HU) group based on the radiological density of the primary renal stone. Preoperative characteristics and outcomes were compared in the two groups. Results. Retreatment for residual stones...... was more frequent in the LSD group. The overall stone-free rate achieved was higher in the HSD group (79.3% vs 74.8%, p = 0.113). By univariate regression analysis, the probability of achieving a stone-free outcome peaked at approximately 1250 HU. Below or above this density resulted in lower treatment...

  5. Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy for Paediatric Stone Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Çelik

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the outcomes and complications occurring following percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL procedures performed in paediatric patients. There were 291 paediatric patients (293 renal units included in the current study and who underwent PCNL in our clinic between March 1999 and December 2014. We evaluated stone burden, duration of surgery and complications, success (stone-free rate, residual fragments and auxilliary procedures, and follow-up details. The stone-free rate following PCNL was 88.3%. Early postoperative complications included excessive bleeding and transfusion in nine patients, and prolonged urinary extravasation following removal of the nephrostomy tube and requiring JJ stent placement in eight patients. The mean time to catheter removal was 2.8 days and the mean hospitalisation time was 3.5 days. The aim of kidney stone treatment is to achieve minimal kidney damage with the highest success rate. Therefore, minimally invasive procedures are important in the paediatric age group where life expectancy is high. PCNL is a safe and effective procedure for the treatment of kidney stones in children.

  6. Ground stone percussion tools from Maltese Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felice Larocca

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A few lithic percussion tools, probably related to construction and craftsmanship, are stored in the National Museum of Archaeology of Valletta (Malta. Dated to the Temple Period (about 4000-2500 BCE, many are typologically similar to artefacts from the continental area, but others look distinctive and probably developed in loco in response to specific needs. This paper examines five stone hammers with different hafting methods (three of them show grooves or holes and two both grooves and holes. A huge double hand grip percussion tool belongs to a different and unusual typology: the double grip allowed two opposite-standing men, steadily holding it, to strike with strength on other surfaces, probably when heavy blows were needed. Grooved stone hammers are widespread in various European regions and are mostly associated with mining activities. In the Maltese archipelago the limestone lacks ore deposits, and thus their presence may be reflect other uses, although still associated to the work of stone on stone: earthworks, quarrying, finishing of stone surfaces, hydraulic works, excavation of burial and rituals structures, and others. The double grip lithic percussor (ID 9120 has no precise parallel and may be unique.This paper aims to fill a gap in the current literature about prehistoric lithic tools, as in many studies the focus is often placed on the results of specific activities rather than on the typological features of the artefacts that made these activities possible.

  7. Characterization and Streptococcus mutans adhesion on air polishing dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Kazuhiro; Oda, Hirotake; Inatomi, Michitomo; Sato, Soh

    2014-07-01

    Air polishing is known as an effective and time saving tooth cleaning method. However, this method increased surface roughness and bacterial adhesion on dentin surface. The aim of this study was to characterize and examine Streptococcus mutans adhesion on dentin surface after air polishing as compared to the conventional method. The dentin blocks (4 × 4 × 1 mm) were polished by a rubber cup with polishing material (Polishing) and air-polished by 25 μm glycine (G25), 65 μm glycine (G65), and 65 μm sodium bicarbonate (NHC65) microparticles. Surface roughness (Ra) was measured by a laser electron microscope. The amount of adhered S. mutans was quantified using a resazurin reduction assay (alamarBlue(®)). The Ra of G25 and G65 was significantly (p < 0.01) smaller than that of NHC65 and greater than that of Polishing. However, there was no significant difference in S. mutans adhesion among Polishing, G25, and G65, while NHC65 showed significantly (p < 0.01) higher S. mutans adhesion. Within the limitations of this in vitro study, air polishing using glycine microparticles conditioned S. mutans adhesion on dentin surface in a similar fashion than the conventional method, and less than air polishing using sodium bicarbonate microparticles.

  8. A Thermal Bath for Eggleston, Virginia: The Making of Water, Stone, and Light.

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, Derek Michael

    2003-01-01

    Through the study of architecture, and the thermal bath, one must ask, â How can the experience of springwater, heavy, stone walls, and light contribute to the ritual of bathing?â The making of stone walls is the nature of the bath. The wall is the primordial state of architecture, and is given autonomy through its passion. The beginning of architecture is mass, and the articulation of it is in the carving, and shaping of the mass to form a place. The passion of the wall is...

  9. Effects of polishing procedures on color stability of composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güler, Ahmet Umut; Güler, Eda; Yücel, Ali Cağin; Ertaş, Ertan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different polishing methods on color stability of posterior, universal and nanohybrid composite resin restorative materials upon exposure to a staining agent. Twenty-five specimens were prepared for each of 5 different composite resins (Filtek Z250, Filtek P60, Quadrant LC, Grandio and Filtek Supreme). Specimens were divided into 5 groups and different polishing procedures, including polishing discs (Pd), polishing discs then diamond polishing paste (PdP), polishing discs then a liquid polishing system (Biscover) (PdB), and combinations of these (PdPB) were used. Unpolished specimens served as the control (C). The specimens were stored for 48 h in a coffee solution. The color of all specimens was measured before and after exposure with a colorimeter, and total color change (DeltaE*) were calculated. The data were analyzed with a two-way ANOVA and the means were compared by Tukey HSD test (alpha=0.05). The lowest color difference was observed in the groups PdP and C, while the highest color difference was observed in PdPB, and PdB. When comparing the five different restorative materials, no significant difference was observed between FiltekP60 and FiltekZ250, and these materials demonstrated significantly less color change than Quadrant LC and the nanohybrid materials (Grandio, Filtek Supreme). The posterior (Filtek P60) and universal (Filtek Z250) composite resin restorative materials, which do not contain tetraethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA), were found to be less stainable than the nanohybrid (Grandio, Filtek Supreme) and universal (Quadrant LC) composite resins, which contain TEGDMA. The use of diamond polishing paste after polishing with polishing discs significantly decreased staining when compared to the groups that used polishing discs alone, for all restorative materials tested. The highest color change values were obtained for the specimens that were polished with the Biscover liquid polish

  10. Effects of polishing procedures on color stability of composite resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Umut Güler

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different polishing methods on color stability of posterior, universal and nanohybrid composite resin restorative materials upon exposure to a staining agent. Twenty-five specimens were prepared for each of 5 different composite resins (Filtek Z250, Filtek P60, Quadrant LC, Grandio and Filtek Supreme. Specimens were divided into 5 groups and different polishing procedures, including polishing discs (Pd, polishing discs then diamond polishing paste (PdP, polishing discs then a liquid polishing system (Biscover (PdB, and combinations of these (PdPB were used. Unpolished specimens served as the control (C. The specimens were stored for 48 h in a coffee solution. The color of all specimens was measured before and after exposure with a colorimeter, and total color change (DE* were calculated. The data were analyzed with a two-way ANOVA and the means were compared by Tukey HSD test (a=0.05. The lowest color difference was observed in the groups PdP and C, while the highest color difference was observed in PdPB, and PdB. When comparing the five different restorative materials, no significant difference was observed between FiltekP60 and FiltekZ250, and these materials demonstrated significantly less color change than Quadrant LC and the nanohybrid materials (Grandio, Filtek Supreme. The posterior (Filtek P60 and universal (Filtek Z250 composite resin restorative materials, which do not contain tetraethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA, were found to be less stainable than the nanohybrid (Grandio, Filtek Supreme and universal (Quadrant LC composite resins, which contain TEGDMA. The use of diamond polishing paste after polishing with polishing discs significantly decreased staining when compared to the groups that used polishing discs alone, for all restorative materials tested. The highest color change values were obtained for the specimens that were polished with the Biscover liquid polish

  11. The Effect of Stone Composition on the Efficacy of Retrograde Intrarenal Surgery: Kidney Stones 1 - 3 cm in Diameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yuquan; Zhang, Peng; Yang, Xiaojie; Chong, Tie

    2015-05-01

    The goal of this study was to analyze the effect of stone composition on the efficacy of retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) with kidney stones of 1-3 cm, 1-2 cm, and 2-3 cm in diameter. We undertook a retrospective analysis of 74 patients with kidney stones who underwent RIRS. The patients were divided into two groups based on stone composition: Group I (n=47) (calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium phosphate) was the hard to fragment stone group and group II (n=27) (calcium oxalate dihydrate, magnesium ammonium phosphate, and uric acid) was the easy to fragment stone group. Forty-six patients with kidney stones 1 to 2 cm in diameter were divided into group A (n=30) (smaller than 20 mm, hard to fragment stones) and group B (n=16) (smaller than 20 mm, easy to fragment stones). Twenty-eight patients with stones 2 to 3 cm in diameter were divided into group C (n=17) (larger than 20 mm, hard to fragment stones) and group D (n=11) (larger than 20 mm, easy-to-crush stones). The stone clearance rates of group I and group II were 66.0% and 88.9%, respectively (Pstone clearance rates of group A and group B were 73.3% and 100% (Pstone clearance rates of group C and group D were 52.9% and 72.7%, respectively. Stone composition has a significant impact on the efficacy of RIRS in the management of 1 to 3 cm kidney stones. For 2-3 cm calcium oxalate dihydrate stones, uric acid stones, and magnesium ammonium phosphate stones, the outcome of RIRS treatment was relatively good, and RIRS is recommended.

  12. Is stone radiodensity a useful parameter for predicting outcome of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy for stones < 2 cm?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina S. Krishnamurthy

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Several factors determine the success of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL for kidney stones: stone size, stone location within the collecting system, stone type, and the SWL machine used. It has been suggested that stone radiodensity, as determined either by plain radiography or computed tomography attenuation values, may be an independent predictor of SWL success. We examined the outcome of SWL for solitary stones less than or equal to 2 cm located within the renal pelvis, based on their radiodensity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 211 patients with solitary renal pelvic stones measuring less than or equal to 2 cm were treated on a Dornier Doli 50 lithotriptor under general anesthesia. The radiodensity of the stone was determined to be either less than, equal to, or greater than the radiodensity of the ipsilateral 12th rib. Stone-free rates (SFR were determined at 3 months by kidney, ureters and bladder (KUB plain X-rays. Patients requiring re-treatment or auxiliary procedures were considered failures of SWL. RESULTS: Follow-up SFR information was available in all 211 patients. Stone composition was available in 158 (75% treated patients, but no correlation was found between stone radiodensity and stone composition. For stones 12th rib compared to a SFR of 71% if the stone radiodensity was < 12th rib. However, these differences in SFRs were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: On the Doli machine, stone radiodensity alone does not predict lithotripsy treatment outcome for stones < 1 cm within the renal pelvis. This parameter is probably only useful as the stone size becomes larger than 1 cm, and should be used in conjunction with other stone parameters to select appropriate therapy.

  13. Inorganic treatments for the consolidation and protection of stone artefacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Matteini

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Consolidation and protection are two of the principal kinds of treatments through which the decay of old statues, stone facades, plasters and mural paintings caused by both natural atmospheric agents and, above all in the last five decades, by atmospheric pollution, is faced. The most traditional approach has been and is mainly based on the use of organic polymeric materials. They offer the advantage of easy application procedures and the possibility to obtain, at short times, very satisfying results. Different is their behaviour at long times. Some drawbacks come out over time both under the esthetical point of view as well as to the durability, compatibility and efficacy. Particularly critical is the situation when porous materials and soluble salts - gypsum above all - are simultaneously present. In such a situation inorganic treatments demonstrate to be much more appropriate. They assure durable and compatible results. In the present paper two of the most efficient and appropriate inorganic methods are reviewed in detail: the barium hydroxide method, both as desulfating and consolidating agent, and the ammonium oxalate method as passivating agent, consolidant and as a treatment capable of improving the natural colour contrast of the stone, when it is lost due to decay processes.

  14. Treatment and prevention of kidney stones: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frassetto, Lynda; Kohlstadt, Ingrid

    2011-12-01

    The incidence of nephrolithiasis (kidney stones) is rising worldwide, especially in women and with increasing age. Kidney stones are associated with chronic kidney disease. Preventing recurrence is largely specific to the type of stone (e.g., calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, cystine, struvite [magnesium ammonium phosphate]), and uric acid stones); however, even when the stone cannot be retrieved, urine pH and 24-hour urine assessment provide information about stone-forming factors that can guide prevention. Medications, such as protease inhibitors, antibiotics, and some diuretics, increase the risk of some types of kidney stones, and patients should be counseled about the risks of using these medications. Managing diet, medication use, and nutrient intake can help prevent the formation of kidney stones. Obesity increases the risk of kidney stones. However, weight loss could undermine prevention of kidney stones if associated with a high animal protein intake, laxative abuse, rapid loss of lean tissue, or poor hydration. For prevention of calcium oxalate, cystine, and uric acid stones, urine should be alkalinized by eating a diet high in fruits and vegetables, taking supplemental or prescription citrate, or drinking alkaline mineral waters. For prevention of calcium phosphate and struvite stones, urine should be acidified; cranberry juice or betaine can lower urine pH. Antispasmodic medications, ureteroscopy, and metabolic testing are increasingly being used to augment fluid and pain medications in the acute management of kidney stones.

  15. Advanced space optics development in freeform optics design, ceramic polishing, rapid and extreme freeform polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyl, R.; Leplan, H.; Ruch, E.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper Safran-Reosc wants to share with the space community its recent work performed in the domain of space optics. Our main topic is a study about the advantages that freeform optical surfaces can offer to advanced space optics in term of compactness or performances. We have separated smart and extreme freeform in our design exploration work. Our second topic is to answer about the immediate question following: can we manufacture and test these freeform optics? We will therefore present our freeform optics capability, report recent achievement in extreme aspheric optics polishing and introduce to the industrialisation process of large off axis optics polishing for the ESO Extremely Large Telescope primary mirror segments. Thirdly we present our R-SiC polishing layer technology for SiC material. This technique has been developed to reduce costs, risks and schedule in the manufacturing of advanced SiC optics for Vis and IR applications.

  16. Percutaneous electrohydraulic lithotripsy of bile duct stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juliani, E.; Righi, D.; Cesarani, F.; Regge, D.; Gandini, G.

    1988-01-01

    The results are reported of percutaneous transhepatic tratment with an electrohydraulic stone disintegrator in 4 cases of bile duct lithiasis. An electri discharge, generated by a bipolar electrode, gives origin to high-amplitude and low-frequency shoc waves in the fluid medium-which cause the stone to fragment. Complete resolution of lithiasis was obtained in 2 patients with intrahepatic calculosis. In the other 2 cases of massive lithiasis of intra and extrahepatic bile ducts the treatment, however incomplete, proved to be useful, as the biliary flux was reabilitated and clinical symptoms disappeared. No relevant immediate side-effects were observed, except for well-tolerated pain during the discharges, and transitory hemobilia which solved spontaneously. No complications were observed in this series of patients. Electrohydraulic lithotripsy proves thus to be useful for supporting standard interventional radiology techniques in very complex cases of intra and extrahepatic bile duct stones

  17. Meteorites as 'Sacred stones' from sky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oezmaya, S.

    2005-01-01

    Meteorites which are stony and iron remnants from early solar system are falling on the planetary surfaces including Earth, since the birt of Solar System, about 4.5 billion years ago. Several of the meteorites have also been used as sacred stones from gods, throughout the human history. Most famous contemporary example still having a sacred function is in the Kaaba, at Mecca. There are other examples of historical records where such stones are mentioned and sometimes, sacrificed. Artemis Temple of Ephesus is known to contain such a stone which is still not recovered. Dating of such celestial artifacts through modern techniques with examples from Turkey is expected to provide much useful information to historical as well as scientific ends

  18. Conservation of Stone Cladding on the FAÇADE of Royal Palace in Caserta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titomanlio, I.

    2013-07-01

    The beauty of cultural heritage and monumental architecture, is often linked to their non-structural elements and decorative stones façades cladding. The collapse of these elements causes significant consequences that interest the social, the economic, the historical and the technical fields. Several regulatory documents and literature studies contain methods to address the question of relief and of the risk analysis and due to the non - structural stones security. Among the references are widespread international regulatory documents prepared by the Federal Emergency Management Agency of the United States by Applied Technology Council and California. In Italy there are some indications contained in the Norme Tecniche per le Costruzioni and the Direttiva del Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri in 2007, finalize to the reduction of seismic risk assessment of cultural heritage. The paper, using normative references and scientific researches, allows to analyze on Royal Palace of Caserta the safety and the preservation of cultural heritage and the vulnerability of non-structural stones façade cladding. Using sophisticated equipments of Laboratory ARS of the Second University of Naples, it was possible to analyze the collapse of stone elements due to degradation caused by natural phenomena of deterioration (age of the building, type of materials, geometries , mode of fixing of the elements themselves). The paper explains the collapse mechanisms of stones façade cladding of Luigi Vanvitelli Palace.

  19. Artificial stone dust-induced functional and inflammatory abnormalities in exposed workers monitored quantitatively by biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ophir, Noa; Shai, Amir Bar; Alkalay, Yifat; Israeli, Shani; Korenstein, Rafi; Kramer, Mordechai R.

    2016-01-01

    The manufacture of kitchen and bath countertops in Israel is based mainly on artificial stone that contains 93% silica as natural quartz, and ∼3500 workers are involved in cutting and processing it. Artificial stone produces high concentrations of silica dust. Exposure to crystalline silica may cause silicosis, an irreversible lung disease. Our aim was to screen exposed workers by quantitative biometric monitoring of functional and inflammatory parameters. 68 exposed artificial stone workers were compared to 48 nonexposed individuals (controls). Exposed workers filled in questionnaires, and all participants underwent pulmonary function tests and induced sputum analyses. Silica was quantitated by a Niton XL3 X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Pulmonary function test results of exposed workers were significantly lower and induced sputa showed significantly higher neutrophilic inflammation compared to controls; both processes were slowed down by the use of protective measures in the workplace. Particle size distribution in induced sputum samples of exposed workers was similar to that of artificial stone dust, which contained aluminium, zirconium and titanium in addition to silica. In conclusion, the quantitation of biometric parameters is useful for monitoring workers exposed to artificial stone in order to avoid deterioration over time. PMID:27730180

  20. Comparison of ceria nanoparticle concentrations in effluent from chemical mechanical polishing of silicon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazzera, Larry; Mader, Brian; Ellefson, Mark; Eldridge, Jess; Loper, Steve; Zabasajja, John; Qian, Julie

    2014-11-18

    This work measured and compared the effluent from the chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) of silicon dioxide using ceria slurry and ceria fixed abrasive. CMP waste streams were tested for total solids, cerium, silicon, and 6 nm to 20 μm diameter particles. The concentration of cerium and total solids in the effluent were very different for the two polishes studied. The fixed abrasive polish produced 94% less CeO2 emissions per SiO2 removed. The higher ceria levels in the slurry effluent are associated with 99-279 nm particles, and attributed to ceria abrasive. The lower concentration of ceria in the effluent from the fixed abrasive process is due to the lower wear rate of mineral from the fixed abrasive, compared to the more environmentally mobile mineral in the slurry. These results support the "bonded" nature of the abrasive particles in fixed abrasive polishing and are relevant to sustainability strategies that seek to reduce particle emissions in surface conditioning technology.

  1. [Ultraminipercutaneous nephrolithotripsy in treating kidney stones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martov, A G; Dutov, S V; Andronov, A S

    2016-04-01

    Percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PNL) is the recommended method of surgical treatment of kidney stones of size greater than 2 cm. Trends in the development of modern urology have been steadily toward less traumatic method to treat nephrolithiasis - minimally invasive PNL. The present work aimed to explore of the possibilities of one of the modern variants of minimally invasive PNL - ultra-mini-PNL in treating nephrolithiasis. The study included 60 patients (mean age 45.6+/-7.2 years) with isolated kidney calculus, up to 2.0 cm or several stones with a total size of up to 2.5 cm. All patients were found to have 77 kidney stones, six of which had a size of 10 mm, 51 had a size of 11-15 mm and 20 had a size of 16-20 mm. 45% of patients had isolated renal pelvic stones and 28.3% had stones in the renal pelvis and lower calyx. All patients underwent ultra-mini-PNL using nephroscope size 7.5 Ch and tube size 12 Fr. The average duration of surgery from the moment of the puncture of the pyelocaliceal system to installing the nephrostomy tube was 65.4 minutes. Complete clearance of stones after single-stage ultra-mini-PNL was observed in 80% of cases. Nephrostomy tube was removed on days 2-3. The average postoperative hospital stay was 5.1 days. The most common complication was postoperative exacerbation of pyelonephritis (13.3% of patients), successfully treated with conservative measures. There were no cases of postoperative bleeding, accompanied by anemia and needed a blood transfusion. Considering high effectiveness and low rate of complications of ultra-mini-PNL, it can be successfully used in treating nephrolithiasis among a wide group of patients.

  2. A case report of ureteral cast stone and giant urethral stone, respectively

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ho Yung; Rhee, Song Joo; Choi, Ki Chul [School of Medicine, Jeongbug National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1980-12-15

    Urinary lithiasis is one of the most common disease of the urinary tract. It occurs more frequently in men than in women but rare in children and in blacks; a familial predisposition is often encountered. Ureteral stones originate in the kidney. Gravity and peristalis contribute to spontaneous passage into and down the ureter. Ureterovesical junction is the most frequent lodging site of stone. In our hospital one case of ureteral cast stone and giant urethral stone were found respectively and they were confirmed by radiological examination and surgery on Aug. 1978 and Jan. 1979. Ureteral cast stone which had been introduced and named first by Kiyonobu Tari and Kikjiro So in 1972 was very giant unusually. It may be the only one till now. Our patient was 36 years old female who has been suffered from intermittent right flank pain for 10 years. On KUB giant cylindrical radiopaque shadow was shown on RLQ extended to right minor pelvis and this was confirmed as a stone by retrograde ureteral catheterization. A stone measured 13cm x 1.5cm was found above the ureterovesical junction during operation. Follow up excretory urogram one year after operation showed no functional improvement of right kidney. Urethral stone is also unusual urinary lithiasis. This 60 years old male patient was been suffered from non-tender palpable hard mass on scrotal area and intermittent urinary retention. When urinary retention was occurred it was relieved by manipulation of the mass by himself. On plain film oval shaped giant radiopaque shadow was shown on cavernous urethral region. On urethrocystogram anterior urethra was opacified, but posterior urethra and bladder were not opacified and multiple fistulous leakage was identified. A stone measured 6.5cm x 3.5cm was found in cavernous urethra during operation.

  3. A case report of ureteral cast stone and giant urethral stone, respectively

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ho Yung; Rhee, Song Joo; Choi, Ki Chul

    1980-01-01

    Urinary lithiasis is one of the most common disease of the urinary tract. It occurs more frequently in men than in women but rare in children and in blacks; a familial predisposition is often encountered. Ureteral stones originate in the kidney. Gravity and peristalis contribute to spontaneous passage into and down the ureter. Ureterovesical junction is the most frequent lodging site of stone. In our hospital one case of ureteral cast stone and giant urethral stone were found respectively and they were confirmed by radiological examination and surgery on Aug. 1978 and Jan. 1979. Ureteral cast stone which had been introduced and named first by Kiyonobu Tari and Kikjiro So in 1972 was very giant unusually. It may be the only one till now. Our patient was 36 years old female who has been suffered from intermittent right flank pain for 10 years. On KUB giant cylindrical radiopaque shadow was shown on RLQ extended to right minor pelvis and this was confirmed as a stone by retrograde ureteral catheterization. A stone measured 13cm x 1.5cm was found above the ureterovesical junction during operation. Follow up excretory urogram one year after operation showed no functional improvement of right kidney. Urethral stone is also unusual urinary lithiasis. This 60 years old male patient was been suffered from non-tender palpable hard mass on scrotal area and intermittent urinary retention. When urinary retention was occurred it was relieved by manipulation of the mass by himself. On plain film oval shaped giant radiopaque shadow was shown on cavernous urethral region. On urethrocystogram anterior urethra was opacified, but posterior urethra and bladder were not opacified and multiple fistulous leakage was identified. A stone measured 6.5cm x 3.5cm was found in cavernous urethra during operation

  4. Water retention properties of Callovo-Oxfordian clay-stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Min; Delage, Pierre; Tang, Anh Minh; GATMIRI, Behrouz

    2012-01-01

    carried out by suction control by vapour control followed by the measurement of the water content once the sample equilibrated. All tests were run on samples of 38 mm diameter and 10 mm high trimmed. At all stages, careful determination of volume changes were carried out by hydrostatic weighing of waxed samples, providing the changes in volume and degree of saturation with suction. Figure 1e clearly shows that the first wetting path from initial state is comprised between the main wetting and main drying path, a well-known feature in unsaturated soils that is confirmed here for the COx clay-stone. Starting from an initial state at w = 7.5% (suction around 15 MPa) the water content at zero suction is between 11 and 12%. The COx sample is able to retain 2.6% water content under a 150 MPa suction. Figure 2, in which volumetric changes are plotted, shows that a significant swelling of around 7% occurred along the wetting path. Figure 2 also evidences a 1.5% shrinkage along the drying path. The changes in degree of saturation with suction are presented in Figure 1d. Starting from the initial state (S r = 92.6%), it seems that saturation gets close to 100% when reaching a 4.2 MPa suction. Interestingly, the main drying path is identical in this diagram, providing a value of the air entry value of about 6-7 MPa. Note however that this air entry value is that of a swollen sample somewhat different from the natural clay-stone that start de-saturating from an unswollen state along the gallery wall just after excavation. Inspection of Figures 1a and 1c indicates that desaturation starts at a water content of 9.3% after a saturated shrinkage from an initial water content of 12% with a decrease in porosity from 23 to 20.3% (to compare to the initial value of 17.6%). The shrinkage observed along the first drying path at suction larger than initial indicates that the porosity measured in the laboratory on somewhat de-saturated and shrunk samples is not exactly the in-situ natural

  5. Bilateral kidney matrix stones: a rare case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahyani, Mounir; Rhannam, Yassine; Slaoui, Amine; Touzani, Alae; Karmouni, Tarik; Elkhader, Khalid; Koutani, Abdellatif; Andaloussi, Ahmed Ibn Attya

    2016-01-01

    Kedney matrix stones are a rare form of calculi. Flank pain and urinary tract infections (UTI) are the most common presentations of matrix calculi. The diagnosis is usually made at surgery, but some preoperative radiographic findings might be suggestive. Open surgery was the method of choice for treatment. However, combination of ureterorenoscopy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) was found to be safe and effective. We report a rare case of renal and ureteral matrix stones that were diagnosed and treated by open surgery. We also describe its clinical, radiological and therapeutic features through a review of the literature.

  6. Management of Asymptomatic Renal Stones in Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, David; Locke, James

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Management guidelines were created to screen and manage asymptomatic renal stones in U.S. astronauts. The risks for renal stone formation in astronauts due to bone loss and hypercalcuria are unknown. Astronauts have a stone risk which is about the same as commercial aviation pilots, which is about half that of the general population. However, proper management of this condition is still crucial to mitigate health and mission risks in the spaceflight environment. Methods: An extensive review of the literature and current aeromedical standards for the monitoring and management of renal stones was done. The NASA Flight Medicine Clinic's electronic medical record and Longitudinal Survey of Astronaut Health were also reviewed. Using this work, a screening and management algorithm was created that takes into consideration the unique operational environment of spaceflight. Results: Renal stone screening and management guidelines for astronauts were created based on accepted standards of care, with consideration to the environment of spaceflight. In the proposed algorithm, all astronauts will receive a yearly screening ultrasound for renal calcifications, or mineralized renal material (MRM). Any areas of MRM, 3 millimeters or larger, are considered a positive finding. Three millimeters approaches the detection limit of standard ultrasound, and several studies have shown that any stone that is 3 millimeters or less has an approximately 95 percent chance of spontaneous passage. For mission-assigned astronauts, any positive ultrasound study is followed by low-dose renal computed tomography (CT) scan, and flexible ureteroscopy if CT is positive. Other specific guidelines were also created. Discussion: The term "MRM" is used to account for small areas of calcification that may be outside the renal collecting system, and allows objectivity without otherwise constraining the diagnostic and treatment process for potentially very small calcifications of uncertain

  7. Hydrodynamic modelling in the Polish Zone of the Baltic Sea - an overview of Polish achievements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Jasińska

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a general overview of Polish experience and achievements with regard to hydrodynamic modelling in the Polish zone of the Baltic Sea. The first work started already at the end of the sixties when the first 1D and 2D hydrodynamic models were set up. With the development of numerical methods and increasing computational power a number of 1D, 2D and 3D models were set up and tested. Global, regional and local models cover the most important water bodies,i.e. the Pomeranian Bay - Szczecin Lagoon and Gulf of Gdansk - Vistula Lagoon systems.

  8. The Study of Prehistoric Artefacts in National Context: Belgian Archaeologists and the Problem of Ancient Stone Implements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. Goodrum

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available During the early nineteenth century European archaeologists were formulating new ideas about the significance of ancient stone artefacts. Some, such as Christian Thomsen in Copenhagen, believed that in Scandinavia, a Stone Age had preceded the Bronze and Iron Ages. In France some excavations had retrieved stone artefacts from deep levels of peat and cave deposits that suggested that these objects were of very great antiquity. While the collection and study of stone artefacts occurred across much of Europe, there were regional variations in their interpretation. Assisted by local institutions and motivated by patriotism, Belgian archaeologists who participated in this research, had much in common with their colleagues elsewhere in Europe, but the nature of local archaeological sites and the ideas of local researchers had an impact on the development and contributions of Belgian prehistoric archaeology.

  9. Postural therapy for renal stones in children: A Rolling Stones procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, A; Dicrocco, E; Hery, G; Boissier, R; Bienvenu, L; Thirakul, S; Maffei, P; Panait, N; Karsenty, G; Merrot, T; Alessandrini, P; Guys, J-M; Lechevallier, E

    2016-08-01

    Despite many advances, the management of renal stones - especially lower caliceal stones (LCS) - remains a challenge. The gravity-dependent location of the lower calices hinders the spontaneous clearance of fragments, which can be a nidus for future growth and symptomatic recurrence. Currently, there is no standard adjunctive therapy to facilitate fragment passage. To report the safety and effectiveness of mechanical percussion diuresis and inversion (PDI) therapy for eliminating renal stones in children. Since November 2013, children with residual fragments (after shock wave lithotripsy or flexible ureteroscopy) or native symptomatic renal stones were prospectively included in a protocol of four PDI sessions. After giving written consent, the children drank 10 ml/kg of water 30 min before therapy. They then laid in a prone Trendelenburg position on a couch angled at 45° and received continuous 10-min mechanical percussion applied over the affected flank by a physiotherapist (Figure summary). Tolerance stone burden reduction and stone clearance were documented with ultrasound 4 weeks after the last session. Seventeen participants, with a median age of 10.8 years (range 18 months to 18 years), received 82 PDI sessions performed over 22 months. The median stone diameter was 5 mm (range 3-9). All children tolerated the PDI therapy well. Over a median follow-up of 11 months (range 3-18), no significant adverse effects were noted. The overall stone-free rate was 65%. Four of the six patients with residual fragment passed their fragments. The patients who did not become stone free by PDI experienced a decrease in fragment size of 57% (range 34-71). The observance rate was 100%. Many studies have demonstrated that the gravity-dependent position of the lower calyces appears to be an important factor limiting the clearance of LCS. Positioning patients with a degree of inversion in order to put the collecting system beyond the horizontal plane affected the LCS

  10. 'Saurashtra stone anchors' (Ring-stones) from Dwarka and Somnath, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.; Gudigar, P.; Bandodkar, S.N.

    , semi-curved top with an axial hole; diameter of the hole is same at both ends. Often the chisel marks have been noticed on the surface and in the hole. The 'Saurashtra Stone Anchors' (Ring-stones) Dwarka and Somnath 133 average estimated weight... chisel marks have also been noticed on some of the anchors. The average weight of this group is 98 kg. The heaviest anchor (no. 8) weighs 205 kg and the lightest (no. 14) 64 kg. Group III: Ring-stone numbers 1, 6, 11, 18 and 22 fall in this last...

  11. Does Grammatical Gender Influence Perception? A Study of Polish and French Speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haertlé Izabella

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Can the perception of a word be influenced by its grammatical gender? Can it happen that speakers of one language perceive an object to have masculine features, while speakers of another language perceive the same object to have feminine features? Previous studies suggest that this is the case, and also that there is some supra-language gender categorisation of objects as natural/feminine and artefact/masculine. This study was an attempt to replicate these findings on another population of subjects. This is the first Polish study of this kind, comparing the perceptions of objects by Polish- and French-speaking individuals. The results of this study show that grammatical gender may cue people to assess objects as masculine or feminine. However, the findings of some previous studies, that feminine features are more often ascribed to natural objects than artifacts, were not replicated.

  12. Early cretaceous Obernirchen and Bentheim sandstones from Germany used as dimension stone in the Netherlands: geology physical properties, architectural use and comparative weathering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubelaar, C.W.; Nijland, T.G.

    2015-01-01

    The Netherlands, with only scarce occurrences of outcropping or shallow buried natural stone, has over centuries imported huge quantities of Early Cretaceous Bentheim Sandstone and Obernkirchen Sandstone from Germany. The present paper provides an overview of their distribution and properties

  13. Surgical versus endoscopic treatment of bile duct stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, D J; Vernon, D R; Toouli, J

    2006-01-01

    10% to 18% of patients undergoing cholecystectomy for gallstones have common bile duct (CBD) stones. Treatment options for these stones include pre- or post-operative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) or open or laparoscopic surgery....

  14. Clinical characteristics of potential kidney donors with asymptomatic kidney stones

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenz, Elizabeth C.; Lieske, John C.; Vrtiska, Terri J.; Krambeck, Amy E.; Li, Xujian; Bergstralh, Eric J.; Melton, L. Joseph; Rule, Andrew D.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Patients with symptomatic kidney stones are characterized by older age, male gender, white race, hypertension, obesity, metabolic syndrome and chronic kidney disease. Whether these characteristics differ in patients with asymptomatic kidney stones is unknown.

  15. Prevention of Renal Stone Complications in Space Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AIM 1. Refine ultrasound probes to detect, reposition, and fragment kidney stones. Task 1.1. Select imaging probe for stone repositioning. Clinical trials are...

  16. Tribological approach to study polishing of road surface under traffic

    OpenAIRE

    KANE, Malal; DO, Minh Tan

    2007-01-01

    The polishing phenomenon of road pavements under the vehicle traffic constitutes the main mechanism inherent to the loss of skid resistance over time. A better understanding of this phenomenon would allow an improvement of road safety. This study comprises a review of laboratory test and a model simulating the polishing of road surfaces. The laboratory test uses a polishing machine so called 'Wehner-Schulze' which can reproduce the evolution of the road texture from specimens taken directly f...

  17. Polish Phoneme Statistics Obtained On Large Set Of Written Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Ziółko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The phonetical statistics were collected from several Polish corpora. The paper is a summaryof the data which are phoneme n-grams and some phenomena in the statistics. Triphonestatistics apply context-dependent speech units which have an important role in speech recognitionsystems and were never calculated for a large set of Polish written texts. The standardphonetic alphabet for Polish, SAMPA, and methods of providing phonetic transcriptions are described.

  18. Efficacy of the lithotripsy in treating lower pole renal stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Helen; Thomee, Eeke; Noble, Jeremy G; Reynard, John M; Turney, Benjamin W

    2013-06-01

    Use of extracorporeal lithotripsy is declining in North America and many European countries despite international guidelines advocating it as a first-line therapy. Traditionally, lithotripsy is thought to have poor efficacy at treating lower pole renal stones. We evaluated the success rates of lithotripsy for lower pole renal stones in our unit. 50 patients with lower pole kidney stones ≤15 mm treated between 3/5/11 and 19/4/12 were included in the study. Patients received lithotripsy on a fixed-site Storz Modulith SLX F2 lithotripter according to a standard protocol. Clinical success was defined as stone-free status or asymptomatic clinically insignificant residual fragments (CIRFs) ≤3 mm at radiological follow-up. The mean stone size was 7.8 mm. The majority of stones (66 %) were between 5 and 10 mm. 28 % of stones were between 10 and 15 mm. For solitary lower pole stones complete stone clearance was achieved in 63 %. Total stone clearance including those with CIRFs was achieved in 81 % of patients. As expected, for those with multiple lower pole stones the success rates were lower: complete clearance was observed in 39 % and combined clearance including those with CIRFs was 56 %. Overall, complete stone clearance was observed in 54 % of patients and clearance with CIRFs was achieved in 72 % of patients. Success rate could not be attributed to age, stone size or gender. Our outcome data for the treatment of lower pole renal stones (≤15 mm) compare favourably with the literature. With this level of stone clearance, a non-invasive, outpatient-based treatment like lithotripsy should remain the first-line treatment option for lower pole stones. Ureteroscopy must prove that it is significantly better either in terms of clinical outcome or patient satisfaction to justify replacing lithotripsy.

  19. Preparing polished crystal slices with high precision orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, S. Ipsen; Gerward, Leif; Pedersen, O.

    1974-01-01

    A polishing procedure is described which utilizes a high precision Laue technique for crystal orientation. Crystal slices with their final polished surfaces parallel to a crystallographic plane within 0.02° can be prepared. ©1974 The American Institute of Physics......A polishing procedure is described which utilizes a high precision Laue technique for crystal orientation. Crystal slices with their final polished surfaces parallel to a crystallographic plane within 0.02° can be prepared. ©1974 The American Institute of Physics...

  20. Visible Light Activated Photocatalytic Water Polishing System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal targets development of a LED light activated photocatalytic water polishing system that enables reduction of organic impurities (TOC and...

  1. Assessing operability of a novel polisher arrangement using MMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shor, S.W.W.

    1987-01-01

    A condensate polisher is intended to remove both particulate matter and ionic material from the condensate. Condensate polishers have normally been placed directly in the condensate system downstream of the condensate pumps. This inline location has certain disadvantages. These disadvantages are discussed. Placing the polisher in a sidestream location, where water is removed from the condensate system, pumped through the polisher, and then returned to the condensate system provides a solution to these disadvantages. Several possible types of sidestream installations is described. This has a polisher taking unpolished condensate from one compartment from one compartment of a divided hotwell in a specially modified condenser and returning polished condensate to the other compartment. The polisher is supplied by its own dedicated pumps, which have a head requirement sufficient only to overcome the pressure drop through the polisher circuit at a flow rate of 110% of maximum condensate flow. This concept is very attractive but has not yet been tested even though it is being installed in several new units. A simulation was, therefore, performed using MMS to provide confidence that this particular sidestream polisher arrangement was operationally viable

  2. An Unusually Large Submandibular Gland Stone. A Case Report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The latter was incised and drained, while excision of the right submandibular gland and calculus was carried out three weeks later. 5.0cm - sized stone was excised. This turned out to be the second largest salivary gland stone recorded in literature. Conclusion Giant salivary gland stone which ( greater than 1.5cm) is rare.

  3. Quantitative Prediction of Stone Fragility From Routine Dual Energy CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrero, Andrea; Montoya, Juan C; Vaughan, Lisa E

    2016-01-01

    RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have demonstrated a qualitative relationship between stone fragility and internal stone morphology. The goal of this study was to quantify morphologic features from dual-energy computed tomography (CT) images and assess their relationship to stone fragil...

  4. Durability and Testing of Stone for use in Rubblemound structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magoon, O.T.; Baird, W.F.; Ahrends, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    Rubblemound structures protected from wave action by a layer of quarried rock (stones) are the most common form of breakwaters. While extensive guidelines and procedures exist to select the size of stone there is very little information available on procedures to be followed to assure the quality...... of the in-place stone....

  5. Stone anchors from the Okhamandal region, Gujarat Coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sundaresh; Gaur, A.S.; Gudigar, P.; Tripati, S.; Vora, K.H.; Bandodkar, S.N.

    period particularly on south-western coast of the island while stone anchors were noticed on the eastern coast of the island where medieval period remains can be noticed in the form of pottery, cannons and a few stone structures. Similar type of stone...

  6. Cover stones on liquefiable soil bed under waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Hatipoglu, Figen; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    of stone layers (including the effect of an intermediate filter layer) were investigated. Pore pressure was measured across the soil depth. The experiments show that the soil liquefaction depended mainly on two parameters: the packing density of stones, and the number of stone layers. When the liquefaction...

  7. Determination of weathering and conservation of sculptured stone by use of the laser method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaberg, G.; Stijfhoorn, D.E.

    1996-09-01

    Weathering and deterioration of sculptured stone and masonry is a natural process which stars at the same moment the stone is quarried and exposed to exogenous conditions. This process of natural decay has, however, been accelerated due to the emission of different man-made pollutants, domestic and industrial, local and global. The ISOLASER project is based on the laser microprobe technique for determining the depth of natural and induced weathering and the effect of conservation measures of cultural objects of carbonaceous sandstone and marble/limestone. The purpose of the project is to determine the depth of weathering and depth of penetration of conservation agents in unweathered calcite-cemented stone and the weathering profile in linseed oil-treated stone after accelerated weathering cycles in a climatic chamber. The analytical results show that even after such a short period as five weeks of exposure the effect of SO 2 , NO 2 and elevated humidity on Gotland sandstone can be easily observed in a change of the δ 13 C values in the outermost 2 mm of the stone. Treating the sample with linseed oil has a preserving effect on the rock and hinders the deteriorating effect of SO 2 and NO 2 . The oil treatment even preserves the signature of previously incorporated organic carbon. Compilation of a questionnaire representing a broad field within natural sciences in cultural heritage research in Europe, shows an overwhelming positive approach to the project as such. The questioned researchers consider the laser method particularly useful as a complementary method in other investigations and states that the method can without doubt give new dimensions to the analysis of important cultural objects. 2 refs., 6 figs

  8. Plasma electrolytic polishing of metalized carbon fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falko Böttger-Hiller

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Efficient lightweight structures require intelligent materials that meet versatile functions. Especially, carbon-fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRPs are gaining relevance. Their increasing use aims at reducing energy consumption in many applications. CFRPs are generally very light in weight, while at the same time being extremely stiff and strong (specific strength: CFRPs: 1.3 Nm kg–1, steel: 0.27 Nm kg–1; specific stiffness: CFRPs: 100 Nm kg–1, steel: 25 Nm kg–1. To increase performance and especially functionality of CFRPs, the integration of microelectronic components into CFRP parts is aspired. The functionalization by sensors, actuators and electronics can enable a high lightweight factor and a new level of failure-safety. The integration of microelectronic components for this purpose requires a working procedure to provide electrical contacts for a reliable connection to energy supply and data interfaces. To overcome this challenge, metalized carbon fibers are used. Metalized fibers are, similar to the usual reinforcing fibers, able to be soldered and therefore easy to incorporate into CFRPs. Unfortunately, metalized fibers have to be pre-treated by flux-agents. Until now, there is no flux which is suitable for mass production without destroying the polymer of the CFRP. The process of plasma electrolytic polishing (PeP could be an option, but is so far not available for copper. Thus, in this study, plasma electrolytic polishing is transferred to copper and its alloys. To achieve this, electrolytic parameters as well as the electrical setup are adapted. It can be observed that the gloss and roughness can be adjusted by means of this procedure. Finally, plasma electrolytic polishing is used to treat thin copper layers on carbon fibers.

  9. Medical Expulsive Therapy for Distal Ureteral Stones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzortzis, Vassilios; Mamoulakis, Charalampos; Rioja, Jorge; Gravas, Stavros; Michel, Martin C.; de La Rosette, Jean J. M. C. H.

    2009-01-01

    Although minimally invasive treatments for ureteral stones are efficacious, they are not free of complications and are associated with high cost. Medical expulsive therapy (MET) has recently emerged as an alternative strategy for the initial management of small distal ureteral stories. A MEDLINE

  10. Stone Stability in Non-uniform Flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoan, N.T.; Stive, M.J.F.; Booij, R.; Hofland, B.; Verhagen, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study on stone stability under nonuniform turbulent flow, in particular expanding flow. Detailed measurements of both flow and turbulence and the bed stability are described. Than various manners of quantifying the hydraulic loads exerted on the

  11. Male Urethral Diverticulum Having Multiple Stones

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    muscle fibers in their wall, commonly encountered in adults, and involve the posterior urethra. Differential diagnosis for UD includes syringoceles (cystic dilatation of the Cowper's gland), sequestration cysts, epidermoid and epithelial inclusion cysts. Male Urethral Diverticulum Having Multiple Stones. Mohanty D, Garg PK, ...

  12. Frequency of stone clearance after extracorporeal shockwave ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A. Khalique

    2017-02-24

    Feb 24, 2017 ... on plain radiographic imaging and ultrasonography, which was per- formed 1 month after the ESWL session. Repeated treatment with. ESWL was offered if there was no fragmentation of the stone or a residual fragment larger than 4 mm in maximum diameter. X-ray abdomen and renal ultrasound was ...

  13. Large proximal ureteral stones: Ideal treatment modality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Kadyan

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Laparoscopic transperitoneal ureterolithotomy is a minimally invasive, safe and effective treatment modality and should be recommended to all patients of impacted large proximal stones, which are not amenable to URS or extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy or as a primary modality of choice especially if patient is otherwise candidate for open surgery.

  14. Childhood cancer: Early warning signs | Stones | Continuing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuing Medical Education. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 28, No 7 (2010) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Childhood cancer: Early warning signs. DK Stones. Abstract.

  15. Systemic sclerosis in a stone cutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanna N

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Several occupational hazards especially exposure to silica have been implicated as eliciting factors for the development of scleroderma-like disorders. We here report a case of manual stone-cutter who developed progressive scleroderma, interstitial lung disease and decreased oesophageal motility after several years of exposure to silica dust.

  16. Sexual development and behaviour issues in Polish teenage magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopacz, Marek S

    2006-12-01

    Adolescents often look to mass media for information regarding issues of sexuality. As one form of media, teenage magazines have long constituted a pervasive and effective element of adolescent media exposure. Teenage magazines discuss a number of aspects concerning adolescent sexuality. Considering their potential impact on health related behaviors, the information they provide and the message(s) they send warrant attention. The aim of this study is to perform a content analysis of sexual development and behavior information presented in Polish teenage magazines. Social Cognitive Theory was used as a theoretical basis for this analysis. The media chosen for this study were general-themed publications targeting an adolescent female audience: Bravo Girl!, Filipinka and Dziewczyna. Each entry was analyzed using a structured key. The specific categories of behavior and development used for this study are: biological information, pedagogic instruction, topics of moral-ethical concern, results of sexual activity, and interpersonal relationships. Each category was then subdivided into separate units. The findings indicate that Polish teenage magazines predominantly focus on relationships, contraception and sex education. Relationships were most often of a romantic nature and discussed sexual activity or the potential of sexual activity. Non-prescription contraceptive methods were most often discussed, with attention given to pregnancy prevention. Sex education offered detailed information on sexual practices and behaviors with much discussion on losing one's virginity. The general approach of the analyzed magazines is that adolescents currently are, or soon will be, sexually active. As a result, certain sexual behavior and development issues are discussed in great detail, while other topics are somewhat neglected. Accepting information-seeking during adolescence as commonplace, these findings suggest that teenage magazines hold the potential for influencing adolescent

  17. Competence of Irish and Polish Teachers in the Opinions of Young Polish Immigrants in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustyniak, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Since 2004, Ireland has experienced the arrival of immigrants from various countries from all over the world including Poland. The Polish came to Ireland with their families including children of school age obliged to attend compulsory education. These children have attended schools dissimilar from the ones they are accustomed to in their home…

  18. Wind Directions in the Polish Tatras,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-26

    The study of anemometric conditions in the iatra Aoun- tains with the usually available observation data presents a rather difficult problem for two...year are presented in Table 2 and Fig. 1. Analysis of the anemometric conditions in the Polish Ta- tras and at 2odhale, on the basis of the observational...Vol. 29, 1947. 9. Milata, W. "The Foehn," Wierchy, Vol. 20, 1950. 10. Orlicz, M. " Anemometric Conditions on Peaks in the 2atras," Wiad. Sluzhby Hydro

  19. Polish students' opinion about medicinal cannabis

    OpenAIRE

    Mazur, Rafał; Masternak, Sebastian; Pająk, Michał; Parszewska, Katarzyna; Skórzyńska-Dziduszko, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    Mazur Rafał, Masternak Sebastian, Pająk Michał, Parszewska Katarzyna, Skórzyńska-Dziduszko Katarzyna. Polish students’ opinion about medicinal cannabis. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2017;7(9):233-242. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.894710 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/4839 The journal has had 7 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. Part B item 1223 (26....

  20. Bladder stones after bladder augmentation are not what they seem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Konrad M; Misseri, Rosalia; Whittam, Benjamin; Lingeman, James E; Amstutz, Sable; Ring, Joshua D; Kaefer, Martin; Rink, Richard C; Cain, Mark P

    2016-04-01

    Bladder and renal calculi after bladder augmentation are thought to be primarily infectious, yet few studies have reported stone composition. The primary aim was to assess bladder stone composition after augmentation, and renal stone composition in those with subsequent nephrolithiasis. The exploratory secondary aim was to screen for possible risk factors for developing infectious stones. Patients treated for bladder stones after bladder augmentation at the present institution between 1981 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Data were collected on demographics, surgeries and stone composition. Patients without stone analysis were excluded. Stones containing struvite, carbonate apatite or ammonium acid ureate were classified as infectious. The following variables were analyzed for a possible association with infectious bladder stone composition: gender, history of cloacal exstrophy, ambulatory status, nephrolithiasis, recurrent urea-splitting urinary tract infections, first vs recurrent stones, timing of presentation with a calculus, history of bladder neck procedures, catheterizable channel and vesicoureteral reflux. Fisher's exact test was used for analysis. Of the 107 patients with bladder stones after bladder augmentation, 85 met inclusion criteria. Median age at augmentation was 8.0 years (follow-up 10.8 years). Forty-four patients (51.8%) recurred (14 multiple recurrences, 143 bladder stones). Renal calculi developed in 19 (22.4%) patients with a bladder stone, and 10 (52.6%) recurred (30 renal stones). Overall, 30.8% of bladder stones were non-infectious (Table). Among patients recurring after an infectious bladder stone, 30.4% recurred with a non-infectious one. Among patients recurring after a non-infectious stone, 84.6% recurred with a non-infectious one (P = 0.005). Compared with bladder stones, renal stones were more likely to be non-infectious (60.0%, P = 0.003). Of patients with recurrent renal calculi after an infectious stone, 40.0% recurred with

  1. Potential for technically recoverable unconventional gas and oil resources in the Polish-Ukrainian Foredeep, Poland, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, Donald L.; Pitman, Janet K.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy; Klett, Timothy R.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Using a performance-based geological assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 1,345 billion cubic feet of potentially technically recoverable gas and 168 million barrels of technically recoverable oil and natural gas liquids in Ordovician and Silurian age shales in the Polish- Ukrainian Foredeep basin of Poland.

  2. MESH NETWORK DEVELOPMENT PROJECT IN GREAT STONE INDUSTRY PARK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Ping

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Mesh network (WMN are increasingly becoming popular as low cost alternatives to wired network for providing broadband access to users. A wireless mesh network (WMN is a communication networks made up of radio nodes organized in a mesh topology. It is also a form of wireless network. Wireless mesh networks often consist of mesh clients, mesh routers and gateways. The mesh clients are often laptops, cell phones and other wireless devices while the mesh routers forward traffic to and from the gateways, which may, but need not, be connected, to the Internet. In this paper, we discuss different radio frequency range in wireless connected to Access Point (AP and the project from Belarus – China great stone industry park in Mesh network. The China-Belarus industrial park is a territorial entity with the area of approximately 80 sq. km with a special legal status for the provision of comfortable conditions for business conducting. The Park is located in a unique natural complex 25 km far from Minsk, the capital of the Republic of Belarus. It is in close proximity to the international airport, railway lines, a transnational highway Berlin-Moscow. The result of analysis shows distribution of AP and covering services in great stone industry park. Mesh network provides robustness and load balancing in wireless networks communication.

  3. Distal renal tubular acidosis in recurrent renal stone formers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Hansen, A B; Røhl, H F

    1989-01-01

    (1.1%) had complete distal renal tubular acidosis and 14 (15.5%) incomplete distal renal tubular acidosis. Our results confirm that distal renal tubular acidification defects are associated with a more severe form of stone disease and make distal renal tubular acidosis one of the most frequent...... metabolic disturbances in renal stone formers. Distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) was relatively more common in female stone formers and most often found in patients with bilateral stone disease (36%). Since prophylactic treatment in renal stone formers with renal acidification defects is available...

  4. The effects of previous open renal stone surgery types on PNL outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgor, Faruk; Kucuktopcu, Onur; Ucpinar, Burak; Sarilar, Omer; Erbin, Akif; Yanaral, Fatih; Sahan, Murat; Binbay, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to demonstrate the effect of insicion of renal parenchyma during open renal stone surgery (ORSS) on percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) outcomes. Patients with history of ORSS who underwent PNL operation between June 2005 and June 2015 were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were divided into two groups according to their type of previous ORSS. Patients who had a history of ORSS with parenchymal insicion, such as radial nephrotomies, anatrophic nephrolithotomy, lower pole resection, and partial nephrectomy, were included in Group 1. Other patients with a history of open pyelolithotomy were enrolled in Group 2. Preoperative characteristics, perioperative data, stone-free status, and complications were compared between the groups. Stone-free status was defined as complete clearance of stone(s) or presence of residual fragments smaller than 4 mm. The retrospective nature of our study, different experience level of surgeons, and lack of the evaluation of anesthetic agents and cost of procedures were limitations of our study. 123 and 111 patients were enrolled in Groups 1 and 2, respectively. Preoperative characteristics were similar between groups. In Group 1, the mean operative time was statistically longer than in Group 2 (p=0.013). Stone-free status was significantly higher in Group 2 than in Group 1 (p=0.027). Complication rates were similar between groups. Hemorrhage requiring blood transfusion was the most common complication in both groups (10.5% vs. 9.9%). Our study demonstrated that a history of previous ORSS with parenchymal insicion significantly reduces the success rates of PNL procedure.

  5. The Evaluation of Efficiency of Polish Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bórawski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper was to recognize the efficiency of Polish agriculture. We have studied data from Main Statistical Office (MSO and compared the efficiency in the years 2000–2010. The data proved that the efficiency of Polish agriculture improved in the analyzed period. To measure the impact of macroeconomic variables we introduced these into the regression model. The macroeconomic factors included: X1 (nominal prices of land, X2 (land prices expressed in dt, X3 (inflation, X4 (investment in agriculture and hunting, X5 (balance of trade and X6 (GDP. We wanted to recognize the impact of macroeconomic factors on: Y1 (gross output, Y2 (intermediate consumption, Y3 (gross value added. Multiple regression was used to measure the impact of macroeconomic factors on global production of agriculture. The strongest impact on gross value added had: X4 (investment in agriculture and horticulture and X4 (trade balance. Poland is a member of European Union and the Common Agricultural Policy has improved the situation in agriculture. There are about 2 100 000 farms in Poland but only 300 000–400 000 are producing for the market. Other farms have social functions and are place for work for rural inhabitants.

  6. Food patterns of Polish older people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadolowska, L.; Danowska-Oziewicz, M.; Niedzwiedzka, E.

    2006-01-01

    Food patterns of Polish older people were separated and described. The research included 422 people aged 65+ years, living in 5 geographical locations. Participants of the study were selected in quota sampling. Criteria for recruitment included sex, age (65-^74 or 75+ years) and family status (li...... and small number of products fonning joint food patterns speak in advocacy of relatively small reciprocal relationship between different food items consumed by the seniors in Poland.......Food patterns of Polish older people were separated and described. The research included 422 people aged 65+ years, living in 5 geographical locations. Participants of the study were selected in quota sampling. Criteria for recruitment included sex, age (65-^74 or 75+ years) and family status...... (living alone or living with other people). Respondents were asked questions about consumption of 55 food products. The factor analysis allowed for separating 21 food patterns. They included from 1 to 3 groups of products, intake of which was mutually dependant. Big number of separated food patterns...

  7. Farmers' pensions and the Polish economic crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanis, J G

    1983-04-01

    The Polish Government, in 1977, inaugurated a new pension program that made old-age and invalidity benefits available for the first time to most farmers in that country. The evolution and eventual failure of that program were closely intertwined with a growing national economic crisis, manifested in widespread popular unrest and culminating in emergence of the Solidarity movement. The farmers' pension program was originally presented as both a social security measure and a vehicle for improving agricultural efficiency. The economic situation was expected to benefit as farms of older owners were passed to younger, presumably more efficient, successors, with the state sometimes acting as intermediary. A further step to bind the social security concept to agricultural efficiency came through relating the pension amount to the quantity of produce the individual farmer sold to the state over a number of years. The failure of these provisions and other unpopular features of the new program was aggravated by inflation and continuing deterioration of the Polish economy.

  8. Robotic Automation in Computer Controlled Polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D. D.; Yu, G.; Bibby, M.; Dunn, C.; Li, H.; Wu, Y.; Zheng, X.; Zhang, P.

    2016-02-01

    We first present a Case Study - the manufacture of 1.4 m prototype mirror-segments for the European Extremely Large Telescope, undertaken by the National Facility for Ultra Precision Surfaces, at the OpTIC facility operated by Glyndwr University. Scale-up to serial-manufacture demands delivery of a 1.4 m off-axis aspheric hexagonal segment with surface precision use of robots to automate currently-manual operations on CNC polishing machines, to improve work-throughput, mitigate risk of damage to parts, and reduce dependence on highly-skilled staff. Second is the use of robots to pre-process surfaces prior to CNC polishing, to reduce total process time. The third draws the threads together, describing our vision of the automated manufacturing cell, where the operator interacts at cell rather than machine level. This promises to deliver a step-change in end-to-end manufacturing times and costs, compared with either platform used on its own or, indeed, the state-of-the-art used elsewhere.

  9. Seawater-Soluble Pigments and Their Potential Use in Self-Polishing Antifouling Paints: Simulation-based Screening Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Søren; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Erik Weinell, Claus

    2002-01-01

    This work concerns the on-going development of efficient and environmentally friendly antifouling paints for biofouling control on large ocean-going ships. It is illustrated how a detailed mathematical model for a self-polishing antifouling paint exposed to seawater can be used as a product...... engineering tool to obtain a quick estimate of the paint behaviour that a given seawater-soluble pigment will provide. In the present context, "pigment" refers to relevant particulate solids of organic-, inorganic-, or biological nature. Simulations performed at 15 and 30degreesC suggest that pigment...... solubility and seawater diffusivity of dissolved pigment species have a significant influence on the polishing and leaching behaviour of a typical self-polishing paint system. The pigment size distribution, on the other hand, only has a minor influence on the paint-seawater interaction. Simulations also...

  10. Analytic tendencies in modern Polish and Russian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Sosnowski

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Analytic tendencies in modern Polish and Russian Modern Polish and Russian are characterized by some features which demonstrate an increasing level of analitism. In the process of transformation from synthetic to analytical language, a crucial role is played by prepositional units. In this research, analitism is understood in a traditional way as a morphological and syntactic phenomenon. The fact that the synthetic structure of a language may, in some conditions, turn into an analytical one, as happened in the case of Bulgarian and Macedonian, has been intriguing linguists ever since, and has made me attempt to answer the question: What is the condition of modern Polish and Russian, which are languages with a rich literary tradition and solid grammatical norms, which belong to a group of synthetic languages? The analytical tendencies in morphology include the following: a decrease in the number of cases in all inflected parts of speech; a more frequent use of uninflected nouns and adjectives; the growing importance of nouns with common gender, and, in particular, the use of forms of masculine gender to depict feminine gender; differences in expressing collectiveness in a group of nouns (using collective meaning for forms that have singular meaning; substituting case forms with prepositions; substituting case forms with subordinate clauses; substituting case forms with “helper” words. Analytical tendencies in the area of numeral functioning include: substituting inflected forms of ordinal numerals with cardinal ones; the gradual disappearing inflection of numerals; confusing the forms of noun cases after numerals; the disappearing declination of collective numerals; displacing other cases with so-called simple cases; changing the syntactical position which the numeral should be inflected in; abandoning the declination of first elements of collective numerals. During the study of analytic tendencies in morphology, it was necessary to examine

  11. Metabolic syndrome: a multifaceted risk factor for kidney stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingos, Fernando; Serra, Adelaide

    2014-10-01

    Kidney stones and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are common conditions in industrialized countries. There is growing evidence of associations between kidney stone disease and MetS or some of its components. The link between uric acid stones and MetS is well understood, but the link with calcium oxalate (CaOx) stones, the most common kidney stone composition, is more complex, and MetS is frequently overlooked as a risk factor for calcium nephrolithiasis. The physiopathological mechanisms of kidney stone disease in MetS are reviewed in this article. Uric acid stones are a consequence of the excessively acidic urine that results from insulin resistance. The pathophysiology of CaOx stones may include: increased excretion of lithogenesis promoters and decreased excretion of inhibitors; increased risk of Randall's plaque development; and inflammatory damage to renal epithelia by oxidative stress, as a consequence of the insulin-resistant milieu that characterizes MetS. The last mechanism contributes to the adhesion of CaOx crystals to subepithelial calcium deposits working as anchor sites where stones can grow. The predominant MetS features could determine the chemical composition of the stones in each patient. Kidney stones may be a renal manifestation of MetS and features of this syndrome should be looked for in patients with idiopathic nephrolithiasis.

  12. Kidney stones: Composition, frequency and relation to metabolic diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivacow, Francisco R; Del Valle, Elisa E; Lores, Ernesto; Rey, Paula G

    Nephrolithiasis is one of the most frequent urologic diseases. The aim of this paper is to study the composition and frequency of 8854 patient kidney stones and in a subset of them their metabolic risk factors to be related to their type of calculi. Physicochemical and crystallographic methods were used to assess kidney stone composition. In a subset of 715 patients, we performed an ambulatory metabolic protocol with diagnostic purposes. From the total sample 79% of stones were made of calcium salts (oxalate and phosphate), followed by uric acid stones in 16.5%, calcium salts and uric acid in 2%, other salts in 1.9% and cystine in 0.6%. Male to female ratio was almost three times higher in calcium salts and other types of stones, reaching a marked male predominance in uric acid stones, M/F 18.8 /1.0. The major risk factors for calcium stones are idiopathic hypercalciuria, followed by unduly acidic urine pH and hyperuricosuria. In uric acid stones unduly acidic urine pH and less commonly hyperuricosuria are the most frequent biochemical diagnosis. Our results show that analysis of kidney stones composition and the corresponding metabolic diagnosis may provide a scientific basis for the best management and prevention of kidney stone formation, as well as it may help us to study the mechanisms of urine stone formation.

  13. Diversity in protein profiles of individual calcium oxalate kidney stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Nobuaki; Tsujihata, Masao; Momohara, Chikahiro; Yoshioka, Iwao; Suto, Kouzou; Nonomura, Norio; Okuyama, Akihiko; Takao, Toshifumi

    2013-01-01

    Calcium oxalate kidney stones contain low amounts of proteins, some of which have been implicated in progression or prevention of kidney stone formation. To gain insights into the pathophysiology of urolithiasis, we have characterized protein components of calcium oxalate kidney stones by proteomic approaches. Proteins extracted from kidney stones showed highly heterogeneous migration patterns in gel electrophoresis as reported. This was likely to be mainly due to proteolytic degradation and protein-protein crosslinking of Tamm-Horsfall protein and prothrombin. Protein profiles of calcium oxalate kidney stones were obtained by in-solution protease digestion followed by nanoLC-MALDI-tandem mass spectrometry, which resulted in identification of a total of 92 proteins in stones from 9 urolithiasis patients. Further analysis showed that protein species and their relative amounts were highly variable among individual stones. Although proteins such as prothrombin, osteopontin, calgranulin A and calgranulin B were found in most stones tested, some samples had high contents of prothrombin and osteopontin, while others had high contents of calgranulins. In addition, calgranulin-rich stones had various neutrophil-enriched proteins such as myeloperoxidase and lactotransferrin. These proteomic profiles of individual kidney stones suggest that multiple systems composed of different groups of proteins including leucocyte-derived ones are differently involved in pathogenesis of individual kidney stones depending on situations.

  14. Global Citizenship Education in School Curricula. A Polish Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leek, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present global citizenship education from a Polish perspective. Analyzing the issue, the first part of this paper presents the development of citizenship education, followed by the current status of global citizenship education in Polish schools. In the second part of the study I draw attention to national curricula…

  15. Comparative study of performance of shoe polishes formulated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polyethylene pigment was generated from “pure water sachets” (one of the major environmental nuisance today) and used in the formulation of shoe polish using paraffin wax, white spirit, turpentine oil, and nitrocellulose. The polish was found to exhibit similar wrinkle resistance, inferior gloss, rub resistance; resistance to ...

  16. Polish anthropology on the eve of the new millennium

    OpenAIRE

    Drozdowski, Zbigniew

    1999-01-01

    Author summarizes the main achievements of Polish anthropology in the 20th century, presents the main research problems of this discipline in contemporary Poland and points at the potential dangers which may be faced by Polish anthropology in the forthcoming years.

  17. Influence of melt treatments and polished CVD diamond coated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Performances of the turning inserts (uncoated and polished CVD diamond coated) were evaluated in machining Al–7Si and Al–7Si–2.5Cu cast alloys under dry environment using a lathe. The polished CVD diamond coated insert outperformed the uncoated cutting insert which suffered from sizeable edge buildup leading to ...

  18. Social Obstacles Towards Success of Pupils in Polish Primary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakielska, Zofia

    In 1973, the Polish Minister of Education ordered objective competitions at the primary school level in the fields of Polish studies, Russian language, and math. In order to determine whether such subject competitions were justified and if they contributed equally to the development of interests and abilities among the rural and urban and…

  19. Etymology in the Polish Academy of Sciences Great Dictionary of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article offers an insight into etymological information provided in the Polish Academy of Sciences Great Dictionary of Polish (Pol. Wielki słownik języka polskiego PAN, WSJP PAN). The dictionary and the rules of producing the entries are briefly presented. These rules influence the way of working on etymology within ...

  20. The Czechoslovak-Polish Club in Brno (1925–1939)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baron, Roman

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 1 (2011), s. 43-64 ISSN 1803-6546 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80150510 Keywords : Czechoslovak-Polish solidarity * Czechoslovak-Polish relations * Brno * associations * Interwar Period Subject RIV: AB - History

  1. Approach to Residual Kidney Stone Fragments After Shock Wave Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumay Ižpekci

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available For kidney stones up to 2 cm in diameter shock wave therapy (SDT is safely applied and kidney stones smaller than 5mm remaining in the kidney after treatment are regarded as clinically insignificant. Management of this condition is still controversial among clinicians. These stones in the kidney may continue to persist without any clinical symptoms or begin to cause clinical signs. In the event that the clinical symptoms are present, it requires detailed urological examination and treatment. The aim in the surgical treatment of urinary tract stones is completely stone clearance but in stones that are not infected, not causing urinary tract obstruction and without clinical symptoms medical treatment is also beneficial fort he prevention of growth and recurrence. In addition, surgical intervention is also possible for the residual stone fragments which become symptomatic during follow-up.

  2. Stones in the lacrimal gland: a rare condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halborg, Jakob; Prause, Jan Ulrik; Toft, Peter Bjerre

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: Stones (dacryoliths) in the lacrimal drainage system are relatively common. However, stones in the lacrimal gland itself are very rare. We present three cases of lacrimal gland stones and describe the clinical and histopathological characteristics and composition of the stones. METHODS...... of the excised material showed an eosinophilic, amorphic material organized in lamellae and localized in a ductule. The findings were consistent with a stone in the lacrimal gland in all three cases. All stones were composed of proteins of similar types. After surgery, the three patients healed without...... complications. CONCLUSIONS: Lacrimal gland stones represent a very rare but relevant differential diagnosis when a patient presents with unilateral persistent conjunctivitis or with a tumour in the lateral canthus. Treatment is excision under local anaesthesia....

  3. PIXE analysis of chinese chicken-blood stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, E.K.; Wang, C.W.; Yu, Y.C.; Liu, T.Y.; Cheng, H.S.; Zhu, H.X.; Yang, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports the chemical compositions of chicken-blood stone Ji Xue Shi measured by Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). The experimental result show that for the red portion of chicken-blood stone, the concentration of Hg is as high as 20 wt%, and the concentration of S can be above 10 wt%. For the non-red portion the main chemical compositions are Al 2 O 3 and SiO 2 . The obtained chemical compositions are close to those of kaolinite for Balin chicken-blood stone, and of pyrophyllite for Changhua chicken-blood stone, respectively. So far many Changhua chicken-blood stones and Balin chicken-blood stones were found in China, the PIXE method can be used to explore the provenance of available chicken-blood stones. (author)

  4. Treatment of intrahepatic stones with shock wave lithotripsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, L.G.; Amerson, J.R.; Ambrose, S.S.; Alspaugh, J.P.; Chuang, V.P.; Casarella, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy administered with a renal lithotriptor was used for the successful removal of intrahepatic biliary stones in two patients with Oriental cholangiohepatitis. Both patients had undergone multiple surgical explorations and multiple attempts at percutaneous stone removal. Targeting of the stones was facilitated by placing the tip of an angiographic guide wire, inserted through a transhepatic catheter, adjacent to the stone. Shock waves of 16-18 keV were applied. The patients were monitored with serial vital signs, chest radiography, liver chemistry profiles, and MR imaging. No major adverse reaction was detected in either patient. Limitations to the use of lithography for intrahepatic stone removal include patient body size, target-skin disease, location of the stones, and potential injury to the lung base. The authors' preliminary experience suggests that the lithtripsy can greatly facilitate the treatment of intrahepatic stones in selected patients

  5. Thermal volume changes in clays and clay-stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delage, P.; Sulem, J.; Mohajerani, M.; Tang, A.M.; Monfared, M.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The disposal of high activity exothermic radioactive waste at great depth in clay host rocks will induce a temperature elevation that has been investigated in various underground research laboratories in Belgium, France and Switzerland through in-situ tests. Thermal effects are better known in clays (in particular Boom clay) than in clay-stone (e.g. Opalinus clay and Callovo-Oxfordian clay-stone). In terms of volume changes, Figure 1 confirms the findings of Hueckel and Baldi (1990) that volume changes depend on the over-consolidation ratio (OCR) of the clay. In drained conditions, normally consolidated clays exhibit plastic contraction when heated, whereas over-consolidated clay exhibit elastic dilation. The nature of thermal volume changes in heated clays obviously has a significant effect on thermally induced pore pressures, when drainage is not instantaneous like what occurs in-situ. Compared to clays, the thermal volume change behaviour of clay-stones is less well known than that of clays. clay-stone are a priori suspected to behave like over-consolidated clays. In this paper, a comparison of recent results obtained in the laboratory on the drained thermal volume changes of clay-stones is presented and discussed. It is difficult to run drained mechanical tests in clay-stones like the Opalinus clay and the Callovo-Oxfordian clay-stone because of their quite low permeability (10 -12 - 10 -13 m/s). This also holds true for thermal tests. Due to the significant difference in thermal expansion coefficient between minerals and water, it is necessary to adopt very slow heating rate (0.5 - 1 C/h) to avoid any thermal pressurization. To do so, a new hollow cylinder apparatus (100 mm external diameter, 60 mm internal diameter) with lateral drainages reducing the drainage length to half the sample thickness (10 mm) has been developed (Monfared et al. 2011). The results of a drained cyclic thermal test carried out on

  6. Kidney stones in primary hyperoxaluria: new lessons learnt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Dorrit E; Grohe, Bernd; Geßner, Michaela; Beck, Bodo B; Hoppe, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    To investigate potential differences in stone composition with regard to the type of Primary Hyperoxaluria (PH), and in relation to the patient's medical therapy (treatment naïve patients versus those on preventive medication) we examined twelve kidney stones from ten PH I and six stones from four PH III patients. Unfortunately, no PH II stones were available for analysis. The study on this set of stones indicates a more diverse composition of PH stones than previously reported and a potential dynamic response of morphology and composition of calculi to treatment with crystallization inhibitors (citrate, magnesium) in PH I. Stones formed by PH I patients under treatment are more compact and consist predominantly of calcium-oxalate monohydrate (COM, whewellite), while calcium-oxalate dihydrate (COD, weddellite) is only rarely present. In contrast, the single stone available from a treatment naïve PH I patient as well as stones from PH III patients prior to and under treatment with alkali citrate contained a wide size range of aggregated COD crystals. No significant effects of the treatment were noted in PH III stones. In disagreement with findings from previous studies, stones from patients with primary hyperoxaluria did not exclusively consist of COM. Progressive replacement of COD by small COM crystals could be caused by prolonged stone growth and residence times in the urinary tract, eventually resulting in complete replacement of calcium-oxalate dihydrate by the monohydrate form. The noted difference to the naïve PH I stone may reflect a reduced growth rate in response to treatment. This pilot study highlights the importance of detailed stone diagnostics and could be of therapeutic relevance in calcium-oxalates urolithiasis, provided that the effects of treatment can be reproduced in subsequent larger studies.

  7. Reducing the Edge Chipping for Capillary End Face Grinding and Polishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hošek J.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of glass capillary end face grinding and polishing by approach that reduces the edge chipping. Brittle materials have natural tendency for edge chipping what leads to beveling the sharp edges. Not beveled sharp edges on glass capillary are important for special applications like surface tension measurement of small liquid samples. We use common grinding and polishing process for capillary end face machining modified with gradual decreasing of grinding load based on the relation of the critical chipping load. Achieved surface roughness is measured using atomic force microscopy (AFM. Capillary inner edge quality is checked both with optical microscopes and electron microscope too. We achieved a non-chipped capillary inner edge with radius down to 100 nm.

  8. Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) of sapphire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Honglin

    The concept of chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) was examined for finishing sapphire. In this study sapphire was used as a model system for oxide ceramics. The removal rates were determined by weight loss. Surface quality and structure were characterized with surface probe microscopy (SPM). Polishing experiments were designed to test the chemically modified surface layer. A series of abrasives with various hardnesses including mono-crystalline and polycrystalline diamond, alpha and gamma alumina, zirconia, ceria and silica were used. Diaspore was also evaluated. The results indicated that, with similar particle size and shape, harder abrasives do not necessarily cause faster material removal and better surface finish, and abrasives with hardness equal to or less than sapphire such as alpha alumina and gamma alumina achieved the best surface finish and efficient material removal. A hypothesis was proposed that the sapphire surface was modified by water to form a thin hydration laver with structure and hardness close to diaspore. Abrasives with a hardness between diaspore and sapphire polished the c-plane of sapphire with good surface finish and efficient removal. SPM indicated the hydration layer on the c-plane surface was about 1 nm thick. Removal rate and surface finish as a function of pH were also examined on c-plane sapphire with nano-alumina abrasives. The removal rate as a function of pH was compared to the solubility behavior of alumina. The results showed the deviation of pH from the lowest solubility pH for alumina (pH = 5) was a driving force for the surface reaction to form a hydration layer. The anisotropy of sapphire strongly affects removal rate and surface quality in CMP. The relationships among orientation. pH and abrasive were studied for sapphire with c (0001), a (11-20), and m (10-10) planes. Based on the results, the CMP process for sapphire includes chemical reaction of the surface to form a thin reaction layer that is softer than sapphire

  9. Injury experience in stone mining, 1991. Information report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of stone mining in the united States for 1991. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  10. Acidic weathering of carbonate building stones: experimental assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Kryza

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Three types of carbonate rocks, travertine, limestone and marble have been studied to determine their selected technical parameters (water absorption, resistance to salt crystallization damage and reaction to experimentally modelled acid rain weathering imitating the polluted urban atmospheric conditions. The acidic agents present in natural acid rain precipitation, H2SO4, HCl, HNO3, CH3COOH and mixture of all the acids, “Acid mix”, were tested. The initial stages of acid weathering involve, apart from chemical dissolution, particularly intense physical detachment of rock particles (granular disintegration significantly contributing to the total mass loss. Travertine was found to be most prone to salt crystallization damage and to acid weathering, and these features should be taken into account especially in external architectural usage of this stone in cold climate conditions and polluted urban atmosphere.

  11. Dietary treatment of urinary risk factors for renal stone formation. A review of CLU Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prezioso, Domenico; Strazzullo, Pasquale; Lotti, Tullio; Bianchi, Giampaolo; Borghi, Loris; Caione, Paolo; Carini, Marco; Caudarella, Renata; Ferraro, Manuel; Gambaro, Giovanni; Gelosa, Marco; Guttilla, Andrea; Illiano, Ester; Martino, Marangella; Meschi, Tiziana; Messa, Piergiorgio; Miano, Roberto; Napodano, Giorgio; Nouvenne, Antonio; Rendina, Domenico; Rocco, Francesco; Rosa, Marco; Sanseverino, Roberto; Salerno, Annamaria; Spatafora, Sebastiano; Tasca, Andrea; Ticinesi, Andrea; Travaglini, Fabrizio; Trinchieri, Alberto; Vespasiani, Giuseppe; Zattoni, Filiberto

    2015-07-07

    stone risk profile is uncertain. Sports beverage do not affect the urinary stone risk profile. HYPEROXALURIA: A diet low in oxalate and/or a calcium intake normal to high (800-1200 mg/day for adults) reduce the urinary excretion of oxalate, conversely a diet rich in oxalates and/or a diet low in calcium increase urinary oxalate. A restriction in protein intake may reduce the urinary excretion of oxalate although a vegetarian diet may lead to an increase in urinary oxalate. Adding bran to a diet low in oxalate cancels its effect of reducing urinary oxalate. Conversely, the addition of supplements of fruit and vegetables to a mixed diet does not involve an increased excretion of oxalate in the urine. The intake of pyridoxine reduces the excretion of oxalate. HYPERURICOSURIA: In patients with renal calcium stones the decrease of the urinary excretion of uric acid after restriction of dietary protein and purine is suggested although not clearly demonstrated. HYPOCITRATURIA: The administration of alkaline-citrates salts is recommended for the medical treatment of renal stone-formers with hypocitraturia, although compliance to this treatment is limited by gastrointestinal side effects and costs. Increased intake of fruit and vegetables (excluding those with high oxalate content) increases citrate excretion and involves a significant protection against the risk of stone formation. Citrus (lemons, oranges, grapefruit, and lime) and non citrus fruits (melon) are natural sources of dietary citrate, and several studies have shown the potential of these fruits and/or their juices in raising urine citrate levels. There are enought basis to advice an adequate fluid intake also in children. Moderate dietary salt restriction and implementation of potassium intake are useful in limiting urinary calcium excretion whereas dietary calcium restriction is not recommended for children with nephrolithiasis. It seems reasonable to advice a balanced consumption of fruit and vegetables and a low

  12. Dietary treatment of urinary risk factors for renal stone formation. A review of CLU Working Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Prezioso

    2015-07-01

    different origin decreases calciuria, but their impact on the urinary stone risk profile is uncertain. Sports beverage do not affect the urinary stone risk profile. Hyperoxaluria: A diet low in oxalate and/or a calcium intake normal to high (800-1200 mg/day for adults reduce the urinary excretion of oxalate, conversely a diet rich in oxalates and/or a diet low in calcium increase urinary oxalate. A restriction in protein intake may reduce the urinary excretion of oxalate although a vegetarian diet may lead to an increase in urinary oxalate. Adding bran to a diet low in oxalate cancels its effect of reducing urinary oxalate. Conversely, the addition of supplements of fruit and vegetables to a mixed diet does not involve an increased excretion of oxalate in the urine. The intake of pyridoxine reduces the excretion of oxalate. Hyperuricosuria: In patients with renal calcium stones the decrease of the urinary excretion of uric acid after restriction of dietary protein and purine is suggested although not clearly demonstrated. Hypocitraturia: The administration of alkaline-citrates salts is recommended for the medical treatment of renal stone-formers with hypocitraturia, although compliance to this treatment is limited by gastrointestinal side effects and costs. Increased intake of fruit and vegetables (excluding those with high oxalate content increases citrate excretion and involves a significant protection against the risk of stone formation. Citrus (lemons, oranges, grapefruit, and lime and non citrus fruits (melon are natural sources of dietary citrate, and several studies have shown the potential of these fruits and/or their juices in raising urine citrate levels. Children: There are enought basis to advice an adequate fluid intake also in children. Moderate dietary salt restriction and implementation of potassium intake are useful in limiting urinary calcium excretion whereas dietary calcium restriction is not recommended for children with nephrolithiasis. It seems

  13. Ground stone percussion tools from Maltese Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Felice Larocca

    2016-01-01

    A few lithic percussion tools, probably related to construction and craftsmanship, are stored in the National Museum of Archaeology of Valletta (Malta). Dated to the Temple Period (about 4000-2500 BCE), many are typologically similar to artefacts from the continental area, but others look distinctive and probably developed in loco in response to specific needs. This paper examines five stone hammers with different hafting methods (three of them show grooves or holes and two both grooves and h...

  14. Surface analysis of stone and bone tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemp, W. James; Watson, Adam S.; Evans, Adrian A.

    2016-03-01

    Microwear (use-wear) analysis is a powerful method for identifying tool use that archaeologists and anthropologists employ to determine the activities undertaken by both humans and their hominin ancestors. Knowledge of tool use allows for more accurate and detailed reconstructions of past behavior, particularly in relation to subsistence practices, economic activities, conflict and ritual. It can also be used to document changes in these activities over time, in different locations, and by different members of society, in terms of gender and status, for example. Both stone and bone tools have been analyzed using a variety of techniques that focus on the observation, documentation and interpretation of wear traces. Traditionally, microwear analysis relied on the qualitative assessment of wear features using microscopes and often included comparisons between replicated tools used experimentally and the recovered artifacts, as well as functional analogies dependent upon modern implements and those used by indigenous peoples from various places around the world. Determination of tool use has also relied on the recovery and analysis of both organic and inorganic residues of past worked materials that survived in and on artifact surfaces. To determine tool use and better understand the mechanics of wear formation, particularly on stone and bone, archaeologists and anthropologists have increasingly turned to surface metrology and tribology to assist them in their research. This paper provides a history of the development of traditional microwear analysis in archaeology and anthropology and also explores the introduction and adoption of more modern methods and technologies for documenting and identifying wear on stone and bone tools, specifically those developed for the engineering sciences to study surface structures on micro- and nanoscales. The current state of microwear analysis is discussed as are the future directions in the study of microwear on stone and bone tools.

  15. Quantification of Renal Stone Contrast with Ultrasound in Human Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunitz, Bryan W; Harper, Jonathan D; Sorensen, Mathew D; Haider, Yasser A; Thiel, Jeff; May, Philip C; Liu, Ziyue; Bailey, Michael R; Dunmire, Barbrina; Bruce, Matthew

    2017-11-01

    Greater visual contrast between calculi and tissue would improve ultrasound (US) imaging of urolithiasis and potentially expand clinical use. The color Doppler twinkling artifact has been suggested to provide enhanced contrast of stones compared with brightness mode (B-mode) imaging, but results are variable. This work provides the first quantitative measure of stone contrast in humans for B-mode and color Doppler mode, forming the basis to improve US for the detection of stones. Using a research ultrasound system, B-mode imaging was tuned for detecting stones by applying a single transmit angle and reduced signal compression. Stone twinkling with color Doppler was tuned by using low-frequency transmit pulses, longer pulse durations, and a high-pulse repetition frequency. Data were captured from 32 subjects, with 297 B-mode and Doppler images analyzed from 21 subjects exhibiting twinkling signals. The signal to clutter ratio (i.e., stone to background tissue) (SCR) was used to compare the contrast of a stone on B-mode with color Doppler, and the contrast between stone twinkling and blood-flow signals within the kidney. The stone was the brightest object in only 54% of B-mode images and 100% of Doppler images containing stone twinkling. On average, stones were isoechoic with the tissue clutter on B-mode (SCR = 0 dB). Stone twinkling averaged 37 times greater contrast than B-mode (16 dB, p < 0.0001) and 3.5 times greater contrast than blood-flow signals (5.5 dB, p = 0.088). This study provides the first quantitative measure of US stone to tissue contrast in humans. Stone twinkling contrast is significantly greater than the contrast of a stone on B-mode. There was also a trend of stone twinkling signals having greater contrast than blood-flow signals in the kidney. Dedicated optimization of B-mode and color Doppler stone imaging could improve US detection of stones.

  16. Piezoelectric extracorporeal lithotripsy of gallbladder stones: New inclusion criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn; Shin, Yong Moon; Yoon, Yong Kyu; Yoon, Yong Bum; Park, Yong Hyun; Kim, Chu Wan; Han, Man Chung

    1994-01-01

    To establish the optimal inclusion criteria for the patients with gallbladder stones to extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy(ESWL) by retrospectively analyzed our current results. Data obtained from 201 patients with gallbladder stones treated with ESWL and oral chemolytic agent from November 1988 to July 1992 were retrospectively analyzed. Ninety-six had radiolucent stones and 105 had radiopaque stones. We used piezoelectric lithotriptor(EDAP LT. 01) and there were no limitation in number of sessions or total number of shock waves. ESWL was repeated until the size of the largest fragment is smaller than 4 mm. Follow up ultrasound was done in every three months after the successful fragmentation. Average length of the follow up was 205 days. We analyzed the rate of successful fragmentation, number of shock waves needed to achieve successful fragmentation according to the size, number of stones as well as the presence of the calcification. Stone-free rate after 6 months was also calculated from all subgroups and compared to each other. The rate of successful fragmentation was 76.2% for radiolucent stones and 65.6% for radiopaque stones(p> 0.05) after 46,731 and 56,111 shock wave respectively(p > 0.05) The rate of successful fragmentation was highest in patients with single, radiolucent stone smaller than 2 cm(91.7%) followed by single radiolucent stone larger than 2 cm(83.3%), multiple calcified stones smaller than 2 cm (77.4%) and single calcified stone smaller than 2 cm(72.1%). The rate of complete stone clearance after 6 month follow-up was highest in patients with single radiolucent stone smaller than 2 cm (63.3%) and followed by multiple calcified stones smaller than 2 cm(37.3%), single calcified stone smaller than 2 cm(33.9%)(p < 0.05). To obtain better results with ESWL in patients with gallbladder stone, the authors propose a more strict inclusion criteria, which is the patient with a single, radiolucent stone smaller than 2 cm

  17. Withdraw of the Ureteroscope Causes Fragmented Ureter Stones to Disperse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onder Canguven

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Ureteroscopy has improved from the first use of ureteroscope in the 1970's. Although the success rate increased in the last years, (1 new treatment techniques are being developed for impacted and large proximal ureter stones (2. Pneumatic lithotripsy has high efficiency with low complication rates (2. However, in case of steinstrasse and large (> 1 cm ureter stones, fragmented small stones may obstruct insertion of a ureteroscope after initial lithotripsy. In order to triumph over this issue, multiple ureteroscopic passages and manipulations needed for extraction of these small stones by forceps or basket catheters. The overall incidence of stricture was found upto 14.2% when the fragments were removed with a grasping forceps or a basket (3. We present our technique to disperse small fragmented stones in order to contact non-fragmented rest stone. Materials and Methods Ureteral lithotripsy was performed with an 8-9.8F semirigid ureteroscope using a pneumatic lithotripter (Swiss LithoClast, EMS, Nyon, Switzerland. The stone was fragmented into small pieces as small as 2-3 mm. by pneumatic lithotripter. Eventually, these fragmented stones interfered with vision and the lithotripter to get in touch with the rest stone. After fragmenting distal part of the large stone, the ureteroscope was pulled back out of ureter. While pulling back, the operating channel was closed and irrigation fluid was flowing in order not to decrease pressure behind the stones. Simultaneously, a person tilted the operating table to about 30° in reverse Trendelenburg position. When the ureteroscope was out of ureteral orifice, the operating channel was opened and irrigation fluid was stopped. This maneuver aided decreasing pressure in the bladder more rapidly in addition to feeding tube. Stone dust and antegrade fluid flow were easily seen out of the ureteral orifice. Ureteroscope was re-inserted after 30-60 seconds. While reaching the rest of the stone, small

  18. Withdraw of the ureteroscope causes fragmented ureter stones to disperse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canguven, Onder; Boz, Mustafa; Bulbul, Mustafa; Selimoglu, Ahmet; Albayrak, Selami

    2013-01-01

    Ureteroscopy has improved from the first use of ureteroscope in the 1970' s. Although the success rate increased in the last years, new treatment techniques are being developed for impacted and large proximal ureter stones (2). Pneumatic lithotripsy has high efficiency with low complication rates. However, in case of steinstrasse and large (> 1 cm) ureter stones, fragmented small stones may obstruct insertion of a ureteroscope after initial lithotripsy. In order to triumph over this issue, multiple ureteroscopic passages and manipulations needed for extraction of these small stones by forceps or basket catheters. The overall incidence of stricture was found upto 14.2% when the fragments were removed with a grasping forceps or a basket. We present our technique to disperse small fragmented stones in order to contact non-fragmented rest stone. Ureteral lithotripsy was performed with an 8-9.8F semirigid ureteroscope using a pneumatic lithotripter (Swiss LithoClast, EMS, Nyon, Switzerland). The stone was fragmented into small pieces as small as 2-3 mm. by pneumatic lithotripter. Eventually, these fragmented stones interfered with vision and the lithotripter to get in touch with the rest stone. After fragmenting distal part of the large stone, the ureteroscope was pulled back out of ureter. While pulling back, the operating channel was closed and irrigation fluid was flowing in order not to decrease pressure behind the stones. Simultaneously, a person tilted the operating table to about 30 in reverse Trendelenburg position. When the ureteroscope was out of ureteral orifice, the operating channel was opened and irrigation fluid was stopped. This maneuver aided decreasing pressure in the bladder more rapidly in addition to feeding tube. Stone dust and antegrade fluid flow were easily seen out of the ureteral orifice. Ureteroscope was re-inserted after 30-60 seconds. While reaching the rest of the stone, small stone dust was seen at first. Bigger stones were approximately

  19. Brewing test with puffed polished rice. : Sake brewing with puffed polished rive (II)

    OpenAIRE

    家村, 芳次; 永田, 興四郎; 田端, 昇; 佐無田, 隆; 吉沢, 淑; YOSHITSUGU, IEMURA; KOSHIROU, NAGATA; NOBORU, TABATA; TAKASHI, SAMUTA; KIYOSHI, YOSHIZAWA; 菊正宗酒造株式会社; 山邑酒造株式会社; 灘五郷酒造組合; 熊本国税局鑑定官室; 国税庁醸造試験所

    1985-01-01

    Polished rice was puffed by continuous puffing equipment, then part of it was contracted under a vapor stream. These samples were used for sake brewing.Fermentation took place normally in very tested mash. Each sake produced differed slightly in alcohol concentration, nihonshudo, and acidity; they differed greatly in the content of amino acids, with that of sake made from puffed rice was lower than that of sake made from steamed rice, and that of sake made from contracted rice after puffing t...

  20. Plurilingualism and polish teenage learners of english

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Otwinowska‑Kasztelanic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Using several languages has become a norm for those who want to learn and work in the European Union. However, teaching for plurilingualism is also a challenge. The present paper first clarifies the notions of plurilingualism and multilingualism, then discusses the role of crosslinguistic similarity in language learning in the case of European languages. It also shows how lexical crosslinguistic similarity can be used in teaching typologically related and unrelated languages, and discusses the key factors in noticing such similarity. The research presented reports on examining and raising language awareness of Polish‑‑ English cognate vocabulary in the case of a group of Polish teenage learners of English. It presents the results of a small‑‑ scale study in quasi‑‑ experimental design, as well as qualitative research on the learners’ opinions and attitudes. Finally, the paper presents implications for language pedagogy and focuses on the fact that awareness raising may affect the learners’ plurilingual competence.

  1. Antigenic typing Polish isolates of canine parvovirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizak, B. [National Veterinary Research Institute, Pulawy (Poland); Plucienniczak, A. [Polish Academy ofd Sciences. Microbiology and Virology Center, Lodz (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    Polish strains of canine parvovirus isolated between 1982 and 1993 were examined to determine the extent to which the virus has evolved antigenically and genetically over eleven years. Two CPV isolates obtained in Warsaw in 1982 and Pulawy in 1993, were examined using monoclonal antibody typing, restriction analysis and sequencing VP-2 protein gene. Five other isolates from Warsaw and Pulawy were tested with the panel of monoclonal antibodies specific to CPV-2, CPV-2a and common for canine parvovirus, feline panleukopenia virus and milk enteritis virus. Results of the studies demonstrated that all isolates tested represented CPV-2a antigenic type. Rapid antigenic strain replacement recorded by Parrish and Senda in the U.S.A and Japan was not confirmed in Poland. (author). 30 refs, 2 tabs.

  2. Attitudes of Polish Consumers Toward Experiential Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Skorek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The experience economy is a concept that can be defned as a new way of perceiving the market offer of an enterprise, focusing on the customer experience. Enterprises, both in the production and service industries, are becoming similar to one another on a massive scale, which makes it increasingly diffcult to stand out. The response to this can be to offer the consumer an unforgettable experience related to a product or service provided by a company. Methodology: This study analysed the results of qualitative research on the attitudes and opinions of Polish consumers on experience marketing. Results/fndings: The results showed that participants of the study were prepared to transition from the economy based on products or services to an economy based on experiences at a moderate level. They declared a willingness to participate in experiences offered by companies but at the same time focus on the cost and utility of them

  3. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for analysis of kidney stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Aysha Habib; Imran, Sheharbano; Talati, Jamsheer; Jafri, Lena

    2018-01-01

    To compare the results of a chemical method of kidney stone analysis with the results of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Kidney stones collected between June and October 2015 were simultaneously analyzed by chemical and FT-IR methods. Kidney stones (n=449) were collected from patients from 1 to 81 years old. Most stones were from adults, with only 11.5% from children (aged 3-16 years) and 1.5% from children aged stone type, calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM, n=224), was the most common crystal, followed by uric acid and calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD, n=83). In children, the most frequently occurring type was predominantly COD (n=21), followed by COM (n=11), ammonium urate (n=10), carbonate apatite (n=6), uric acid (n=4), and cystine (n=1). Core composition in 22 stones showed ammonium urate (n=2), COM (n=2), and carbonate apatite (n=1) in five stones, while uric acid crystals were detected (n=13) by FT-IR. While chemical analysis identified 3 stones as uric acid and the rest as calcium oxalate only. Agreement between the two methods was moderate, with a kappa statistic of 0.57 (95% confidence interval, 0.5-0.64). Disagreement was noted in the analysis of 77 stones. FT-IR analysis of kidney stones can overcome many limitations associated with chemical analysis.

  4. Risk Factors for Stone Recurrence after Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krambeck, Amy E.; Rangel, Laureano J.; LeRoy, Andrew J.; Patterson, David E.; Gettman, Matthew T.

    2008-09-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated more than 30% of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) patients will experience a stone recurrence over a 20 year period. The goal of our study was to identify risk factors for stone recurrence after PCNL. Chart review identified 754 patients treated with PCNL for urolithiasis from March of 1983 to July 1984 at our institution. Of this cohort, 87 patients continued to receive medical care at our clinic and had been evaluated within the last 5 years. Of the 87 patients, 80 had recent radiographic imaging. Average follow-up was 19.2 years and 32 (40.0%) experienced at least 1 stone recurrence. There was no difference in preoperative BMI (p = 0.453) or change in BMI (p = 0.964) between patients that did and did not have a stone recurrence. Renal stone location (p = 0.605) and stone size (p = 0.238) were not predictive of recurrence. Patients with calcium oxalate monohydrate stones were less likely to recur (38.7% vs. 41.6%, p = 0.004) and those with calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) were more likely to recur (31.1% vs. 19.6%, p = 0.006) compared to other compositions. Diabetes mellitus was not associated with recurrent stones (p = 0.810). Those patients with residual stones or fragments renal insufficiency (25% vs. 2.1%, p = 0.002). In conclusion, stone composition, as well as the presence of residual fragments was associated with recurrent symptomatic stone events after PCNL. Recurrent stone events were significantly associated with the risk of developing renal insufficiency, further stressing the need for complete stone clearance at time of PCNL.

  5. Environmental impacts: Weathering factors, mechanism and forms affected the stone decaying in Petra

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gohary, M. A.

    2017-11-01

    The decay of stones in a natural environment is governed by extrinsic and intrinsic factors. Petra is exposed for centuries to the severe climatic conditions especially temperature (T), total monthly rainfall (TMR) and relative humidity (RH). In this regard, there are negative effects that result from these climatic elements on stone; which affect or are based on the chemical characteristics and physio-mechanical properties of the Petra rocks. The aim of this work is to determine the chemical and mineralogical characteristics including the morphological features which affect the behavior of stones in various environments using valuation techniques such as XRD, PM, Stereo M and SEM. The results proved that the stone was highly affected by two different deterioration mechanisms. The 1st one concerning physical mechanism and the 2nd one is regarding chemical deterioration. Both of them have led to some deterioration forms such as deep cracking, scaling, exfoliation and crumbling due mainly to the heating and cooling alternative cycles as well as frost action. In addition to salt crystallization and powder steadily off. It also show that most of the un-sheltered monuments were severely affected by the freezing and thawing actions, which is need to be a target in a special article to study their different effects. These activities in Petra are the subject of this study which also recommends the suitable materials and methods for preserving these valuable sites.

  6. Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene Evidence of Prostatic Stones at Al Khiday Cemetery, Central Sudan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Usai

    Full Text Available The recovery of three stone-like ovoid objects within the burial of a pre-Mesolithic (Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene individual at Al Khiday cemetery (Central Sudan raises the question of the nature and origin of these objects. The position in which the objects were found in relation to the human skeleton suggested a pathological condition affecting the individual, possibly urinary bladder, kidney stones or gallstones. To solve this issue, a multi-analytical approach, consisting of tomographic, microstructural and compositional analyses, was therefore performed. Based on their microstructure and mineralogical composition, consisting of hydroxylapatite and whitlockite, the investigated stones were identified as primary (endogenous prostatic calculi. In addition, the occurrence of bacterial imprints also indicates on-going infectious processes in the individual. This discovery of the earliest known case of lithiasis extends the appearance of prostatic stones into the Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene, a disease which therefore can no longer be considered exclusive to the modern era, but which also affected prehistoric individuals, whose lifestyle and diet were significantly different to our own.

  7. Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene Evidence of Prostatic Stones at Al Khiday Cemetery, Central Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usai, Donatella

    2017-01-01

    The recovery of three stone-like ovoid objects within the burial of a pre-Mesolithic (Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene) individual at Al Khiday cemetery (Central Sudan) raises the question of the nature and origin of these objects. The position in which the objects were found in relation to the human skeleton suggested a pathological condition affecting the individual, possibly urinary bladder, kidney stones or gallstones. To solve this issue, a multi-analytical approach, consisting of tomographic, microstructural and compositional analyses, was therefore performed. Based on their microstructure and mineralogical composition, consisting of hydroxylapatite and whitlockite, the investigated stones were identified as primary (endogenous) prostatic calculi. In addition, the occurrence of bacterial imprints also indicates on-going infectious processes in the individual. This discovery of the earliest known case of lithiasis extends the appearance of prostatic stones into the Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene, a disease which therefore can no longer be considered exclusive to the modern era, but which also affected prehistoric individuals, whose lifestyle and diet were significantly different to our own. PMID:28122013

  8. Efficacy of surgical techniques and factors affecting residual stone rate in the treatment of kidney stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydemir, Hüseyin; Budak, Salih; Kumsar, Şükrü; Köse, Osman; Sağlam, Hasan Salih; Adsan, Öztuğ

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate, the efficacy of surgical methods and the factors affecting the residual stone rate by scrutinizing retrospectively the patients who had undergone renal stone surgery. Records of 109 cases of kidney stones who had been surgically treated between January 2010, and July 2013 were reviewed. Patients were divided into three groups in terms of surgical treatment; open stone surgery, percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) and retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS). Patients' history, physical examination, biochemical and radiological images and operative and postoperative data were recorded. The patients had undergone PNL (n=74; 67.9%), RIRS (n=22;20.2%), and open renal surgery (n=13; 11.9%). The mean and median ages of the patients were 46±9, 41 (21-75) and, 42 (23-67) years, respectively. The mean stone burden was 2.6±0.7 cm(2) in the PNL, 1.4±0.1 cm(2) in the RIRS, and 3.1±0.9 cm(2) in the open surgery groups. The mean operative times were 126±24 min in the PNL group, 72±12 min in the RIRS group and 82±22 min in the open surgery group. The duration of hospitalisation was 3.1±0.2 days, 1.2±0.3 days and 3.4±1.1 days respectively. While the RIRS group did not need blood transfusion, in the PNL group blood transfusions were given in the PNL (n=18), and open surgery (n=2) groups. Residual stones were detected in the PNL (n=22), open surgery (n=2), and RIRS (n=5) groups. PNL and RIRS have been seen as safe and effective methods in our self application too. However, it should not be forgotten that as a basical method, open surgery may be needed in cases of necessity.

  9. Dual-Energy CT for Quantification of Urinary Stone Composition in Mixed Stones: A Phantom Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Shuai; Huang, Alice; Cardona, Juan Montoya; Duan, Xinhui; Williams, James C; McCollough, Cynthia H

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of using dual-energy CT to accurately quantify uric acid and non-uric acid components in urinary stones of mixed composition. A total of 24 urinary stones were analyzed with micro CT to serve as the reference standard for uric acid and non-uric acid composition. These stones were placed in water phantoms to simulate body attenuation of slim to obese adults and scanned with a third-generation dual-source CT scanner by use of dual-energy modes adaptively selected on the basis of phantom size. CT number ratio, which is distinct for different materials, was calculated for each pixel of the stones. Each pixel was then classified as uric acid and non-uric acid by comparison of the CT number ratio with preset thresholds ranging from 1.10 to 1.70. Minimal, maximal, and root-mean-square errors were calculated by comparing composition with the reference standard, and the threshold with the minimal root-mean-square error was determined. A paired t test was performed to compare the stone composition determined with dual-energy CT with the reference standard obtained with micro CT. The optimal CT number ratio threshold ranged from 1.27 to 1.55, dependent on phantom size. The root-mean-square error ranged from 9.60% to 12.87% across all phantom sizes. Minimal absolute error ranged from 0.04% to 1.24% and maximal absolute error from 22.05% to 35.46%. Dual-energy CT and the reference micro CT did not differ significantly on uric acid and non-uric acid composition (paired t test, p = 0.20-0.96). Accurate quantification of uric acid and non-uric acid composition in mixed stones is possible with dual-energy CT.

  10. Quantification of Urinary Stone Composition in Mixed Stones Using Dual-Energy CT: A Phantom Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Shuai; Huang, Alice; Montoya, Juan; Duan, Xinhui; Williams, James C.; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate the feasibility of using dual-energy computed tomography to accurately quantify uric acid and non-uric-acid components in urinary stones having mixed composition. Materials and Methods A total of 24 urinary stones were analyzed with microCT to serve as the reference standard for uric acid and non-uric-acid composition. These stones were placed in water phantoms to simulate body attenuation of slim to obese adults and scanned on a third-generation dual-source scanner using dual-energy modes adaptively selected based on phantom size. CT number ratio, which is distinct for different materials, was calculated for each pixel of the stones. Each pixel was then classified as uric acid and non-uric-acid by comparing the CT number ratio with preset thresholds ranging from 1.1 to 1.7. Minimal, maximal and root-mean-square errors were calculated by comparing composition to the reference standard and the threshold with the minimal root-mean-square-error was determined. A paired t-test was performed to compare the stone composition determined with dual-energy CT with the reference standard obtained with microCT. Results The optimal CT number ratio threshold ranged from 1.27 to 1.55, dependent on phantom size. The root-mean-square error ranged from 9.60% to 12.87% across all phantom sizes. Minimal and maximal absolute error ranged from 0.04% to 1.24% and from 22.05% to 35.46%, respectively. Dual-energy CT and the reference microCT did not differ significantly on uric acid and non-uric-acid composition (P from 0.20 to 0.96, paired t-test). Conclusion Accurate quantification of uric acid and non-uric-acid composition in mixed stones is possible using dual-energy CT. PMID:27224260

  11. Direct polishing of aluminum mirrors with higher quality and accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ziqiang; Yi, Zhang

    2015-09-10

    Diamond-turned aluminum mirrors have been widely used in modern optical systems. However, the machined surfaces have characteristic periodic tool marks, which contribute to reduced optical performance by creating effects such as scattering and distortion. This paper develops a new polishing technology to polish aluminum mirrors directly to remove tool marks and improve surface quality and surface accuracy. A Taguchi experiment was used to obtain optimal polishing conditions for reducing surface roughness, and computer-controlled optical surfacing technology was employed for form correction of aluminum mirrors.

  12. Reel-to-reel substrate tape polishing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selvamanickam, Venkat; Gardner, Michael T.; Judd, Raymond D.; Weloth, Martin; Qiao, Yunfei

    2005-06-21

    Disclosed is a reel-to-reel single-pass mechanical polishing system (100) suitable for polishing long lengths of metal substrate tape (124) used in the manufacture of high-temperature superconductor (HTS) coated tape, including multiple instantiations of a polishing station (114) in combination with a subsequent rinsing station (116) arranged along the axis of the metal substrate tape (124) that is translating between a payout spool (110a) and a take-up spool (110b). The metal substrate tape obtains a surface smoothness that is suitable for the subsequent deposition of a buffer layer.

  13. Quality in Air transport process of LOT Polish Airlines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Rozenberg

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the air transport process on scheduled long-haul flights of LOT Polish Airlines. Main focus is taken on price development of these routes. The introduction consists of a brief profile characterized LOT Polish Airlines. Next chapter summarizes the air transport process on scheduled longhaul flights. The frame of article is formed by price development statistics for scheduled long-haul flights to / from Beijing of LOT Polish Airlines and two other competing companies. Conclusion contains results of analysis and puts forward proposals to streamline of the air transport process on reviewed routes.

  14. Profilometric analysis of root surfaces after using various polishing agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjan Jana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polishing is an important step in oral prophylaxis procedure which retards further accumulation of plaque on the root surfaces. Though polishing was done with various abrasive particles with different sizes over a long period of time, it was never been highlighted to evaluate the ideal polishing material and the particle size that would produce the ideal surface smoothness (Ra 5 μm are not able to produce the surface smoothness <0.2 μm. Only, submicron sized particles are able to produce the desired smoothness.

  15. EFFECTS OF POLISHING TIME AND THERMALCYCLINGON THE MICROLEAKAGE OF FOUR TOOTH –COLOURED DIRECT RESTORATIVE MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V MORTAZAVI

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Introdaction. Microleakage has been recognized as a major clinical problem with direct filled dental restorations.The purpose of this study was to investigate and to compare the microleakage of four direct filled tooth-coloured materials, evaluation the effects of polishing time and thermocycling on the microleakage of these materials. Methods. Wedge-shaped class V cavities were prepared on buccal and lingual surfaces of 96 intact extracted human molar teeth. The teeth were randomly divided into three treatment groups and four subgroups. The cavities of each subgroup were filled using one of these materials: a conventional glass ionomer; a resin modified glass ionomer; a composite resin and a compomer. Polishing in the teeth of group 1 was done immediately after placement of restorations and in group 2 one week later. In group 3 delayed polishing and thermocycling (X100 was done. All of the teeth were stored in distilled water for one week and then stained with dye, sectioned, and scored for microleakage on occlusal and cervical edges. Results were statistically analyzed by Kruskal wallis and Mann whitney tests. Results. There was a statistically difference between the microleakage scores of four materials (P < 0.001. Immediately polished glass ionomer and compomer groups have significantly more microleakage than delayed polished groups (P < 0.001. Thermocycting could infulence the microleakage of composite on cervical edges (P < 0.05. Discussion. The precense of differences between the nature of materials and also the surface treatment such as primer or etchant application could influence the microleakage. The prescence of differences in reaction rate between the materials and the time that they reach to their adequate mechanical strength and adhesive bond strength lead to presence of differences between the effect of polishing time on the microleakage scores of materials.

  16. Quantifying the Use of stones in the stone age Fireplaces of Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Sikk, Kaarel

    2017-01-01

    Fireplaces and burnt stones related to them are common features found at Stone Age settlement sites. Although information about them is present in archaeological reports and also available in publications, there has been no general research done regarding combustion features specifically. The purpose of this study was to fill the gap of relevant research and to test the hypothesis that the structural features of fireplaces reveal information on the subsistence model of settlements.The study is b...

  17. Melting behaviour of raw materials and recycled stone wool waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Falk, Vickie; Agersted, Karsten; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2018-01-01

    Stone wool is a widely used material for building insulation, to provide thermal comfort along with fire stability and acoustic comfort for all types of buildings. Stone wool waste generated either during production or during renovation or demolition of buildings can be recycled back into the stone...... indicates that the wool waste initiates melting at a lower temperature than the conventional charge. Also DSC measurements show that the wool waste requires less energy for heating and melting than the conventional charge, making stone wool waste recycling desirable both for environmental and for process...... wool melt production. This study investigates and compares the thermal response and melting behaviour of a conventional stone wool charge and stone wool waste. The study combines differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), hot stage microscopy (HSM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). DSC reveals...

  18. Distal renal tubular acidosis in recurrent renal stone formers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Hansen, A B; Røhl, H F

    1989-01-01

    Renal acidification ability was examined in 90 recurrent renal stone formers, using fasting morning urinary pH levels followed by a short ammonium chloride loading test in subjects with pH levels above 6.0. Fifteen patients (16.6%) revealed a distal renal tubular acidification defect: one patient...... (1.1%) had complete distal renal tubular acidosis and 14 (15.5%) incomplete distal renal tubular acidosis. Our results confirm that distal renal tubular acidification defects are associated with a more severe form of stone disease and make distal renal tubular acidosis one of the most frequent...... metabolic disturbances in renal stone formers. Distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) was relatively more common in female stone formers and most often found in patients with bilateral stone disease (36%). Since prophylactic treatment in renal stone formers with renal acidification defects is available...

  19. Study on the influence of the rotational speed of polishing disk on material removal in aspheric surface compliant polishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyong Hu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available When a soft polishing tool is compressed on a stiff workpiece of curved surface, the contact area is a piece of the curved surface. In the process of aspheric surface polishing, the machining speed is always provided by the rotational speed of the spindle of a computer numerical control lathe. Yet, the polishing tool is usually made rotating to remove cutting scraps and broken abrasives from the contact area. The rotational speed of the polishing tool would change the distribution state of the relative speed in the whole contact area, and it would definitely change the volume of material removal in the surface of the workpiece. This article studies how the rotational speed of the polishing tool changes the distribution state of the relative speed in the whole contact area and material removal in the volume of the surface of the workpiece. The computing results show that the volume of material removal increases with the increase in both the rotational speed of polishing disk and the rotational speed of lathe spindle, but the polishing quality is totally not in this case.

  20. Factors affecting lower calyceal stone clearance after Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Azab

    2013-03-01

    Conclusions: There is no statistically significant effect of stone size, anatomy of the lower calyx and BMI on stone clearance after ESWL of lower calyceal stones. However, small stone size (≤2 cm, a shorter and wider infundibulum and a larger lower-pole infundibulopelvic angle seem to promote a more rapid and more complete stone clearance.

  1. Clearance of refractory bile duct stones with extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, R; Jenkins, A; Thompson, R; Ede, R

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) has been used since the mid-1980s to fragment bile duct stones which cannot be removed endoscopically. Early machines required general anaesthesia and immersion in a waterbath.
AIMS—To investigate the effectiveness of the third generation Storz Modulith SL20 lithotriptor in fragmenting bile duct stones that could not be cleared by mechanical lithotripsy.
METHODS—Eighty three patients with retained bile duct stones were treated. All patien...

  2. EVALUATION OF CONSISTENCY AND SETTING TIME OF IRANIAN DENTAL STONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F GOL BIDI

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Dental stones are widely used in dentistry and the success or failure of many dental treatments depend on the accuracy of these gypsums. The purpose of this study was the evaluation of Iranian dental stones and comparison between Iranian and foreign ones. In this investigation, consistency and setting time were compared between Pars Dendn, Almas and Hinrizit stones. The latter is accepted by ADA (American Dental Association. Consistency and setting time are 2 of 5 properties that are necessitated by both ADA specification No. 25 and Iranian Standard Organization specification No. 2569 for evaluation of dental stones. Methods. In this study, the number and preparation of specimens and test conditions were done according to the ADA specification No. 25 and all the measurements were done with vicat apparatus. Results. The results of this study showed that the standard consistency of Almas stone was obtained by 42ml water and 100gr powder and the setting time of this stone was 11±0.03 min. Which was with in the limits of ADA specification (12±4 min. The standard consistency of Pars Dandan stone was obrianed by 31ml water and 100 gr powder, but the setting time of this stone was 5± 0.16 min which was nt within the limits of ADA specification. Discussion: Comparison of Iranian and Hinrizit stones properties showed that two probable problems of Iranian stones are:1- Unhemogrnousity of Iranian stoned powder was caused by uncontrolled temperature, pressure and humidity in the production process of stone. 2- Impurities such as sodium chloride was responsible fo shortening of Pars Dendens setting time.

  3. Epidemiologic Insights into Stone Disease as a Systemic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curhan, Gary C.

    2007-04-01

    Examining the epidemiology of stone disease can provide insight into etiology. There is a growing body of evidence that stone disease is not simply a disorder of the kidney. In fact, nephrolithiasis is clearly a systemic disorder. Conditions associated with stone disease include the classic ones such as inflammatory bowel disease and primary hyperparathyroidism. More recent studies have demonstrated strong associations with obesity, gout, diabetes and hypertension. Future studies will help uncover the underlying common pathophysiologic abnormalities.

  4. Ultrasonic evaluation of biliary stones: retrospective comparison with ERCP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeong Kook; Lim, Jin Woo; Jeon, Hae Jeong; Cha, In Ho; Suh, Won Hyuck [College of Medicine, Korean University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Woun Kyun [Inha General Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-06-15

    Ultrasound is the modality of choice for the diagnosis of cholelithiasis and for the evaluation of the intra-and extra hepatic biliary tree in the patient with jaundice, but its role in the diagnosis of choledocholithiasis is less certain. We retrospectively examined 127 patients who had undergone ERCP by performing right upper quadrant sonography immediately prior to ERCP and undergone surgery due to biliary stone. We assessed the size of the intra-and extrahepatic ducts and presence or absence of calculi, and compared the detection rate of ultrasound with that of ERCP in the patient with biliary stone in order of gall bladder, extrahepatic duct, and intrahepatic duct. The results are as follows : 1. Of all 127 patients with biliary stone, female were 75 (59%). 6th decades were most common. 2. Each numbers of patients in the order of biliary location are 43 in gall bladder, 17 in intrahepatic ducts, 23 in extrahepatic ducts, 44 in multiple locations. 3. Gall bladder stones were 81 in total and ultrasound detected stones in 75 patients (Sensitivity;93%). ERCP-in 35 patients (Sensitivity;43%). 4. Extrahepatic duct stones were 54 in total and ultrasound detected stones in 31 patients (Sensitivity;57%). ERCP-in 49 patients (Sensitivity;91%). 5. Intrahepatic duct stones were 45 in total and ultrasound detected stones in 38 patients (Sensitivity;84%). ERCP-in 41 patients (Sensitivity;91%). In summary, Ultrasound is much more sensitive to detect GB stones than ERCP (93%;43%). ERCP is much more sensitive to detect extrahepatic duct stones than ultrasound (91%;57%). Sensitivity of ultrasound and ERCP were almost equal in the intrahepatic duct stones (84%;91%)

  5. Ultrasonic evaluation of biliary stones: retrospective comparison with ERCP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeong Kook; Lim, Jin Woo; Jeon, Hae Jeong; Cha, In Ho; Suh, Won Hyuck; Chung, Woun Kyun

    1987-01-01

    Ultrasound is the modality of choice for the diagnosis of cholelithiasis and for the evaluation of the intra-and extra hepatic biliary tree in the patient with jaundice, but its role in the diagnosis of choledocholithiasis is less certain. We retrospectively examined 127 patients who had undergone ERCP by performing right upper quadrant sonography immediately prior to ERCP and undergone surgery due to biliary stone. We assessed the size of the intra-and extrahepatic ducts and presence or absence of calculi, and compared the detection rate of ultrasound with that of ERCP in the patient with biliary stone in order of gall bladder, extrahepatic duct, and intrahepatic duct. The results are as follows : 1. Of all 127 patients with biliary stone, female were 75 (59%). 6th decades were most common. 2. Each numbers of patients in the order of biliary location are 43 in gall bladder, 17 in intrahepatic ducts, 23 in extrahepatic ducts, 44 in multiple locations. 3. Gall bladder stones were 81 in total and ultrasound detected stones in 75 patients (Sensitivity;93%). ERCP-in 35 patients (Sensitivity;43%). 4. Extrahepatic duct stones were 54 in total and ultrasound detected stones in 31 patients (Sensitivity;57%). ERCP-in 49 patients (Sensitivity;91%). 5. Intrahepatic duct stones were 45 in total and ultrasound detected stones in 38 patients (Sensitivity;84%). ERCP-in 41 patients (Sensitivity;91%). In summary, Ultrasound is much more sensitive to detect GB stones than ERCP (93%;43%). ERCP is much more sensitive to detect extrahepatic duct stones than ultrasound (91%;57%). Sensitivity of ultrasound and ERCP were almost equal in the intrahepatic duct stones (84%;91%)

  6. Portuguese Ornamental Stones - Identity and Cultural Heritage around the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Luis

    2016-04-01

    Portugal has established itself as an independent state on October, 5th 1143 being confined to the south-eastern tip of Europe, with sealed land access to the rest of the continent by the others Iberian Peninsula kingdoms, enemies at the time who did not accept Portuguese autonomy. From the fourteenth century, the history of Portugal reports a period of epic discoveries. New commercial maritime routes have been established. Those routes sailing around Africa, passing through India, drove Portuguese people to Macao and Timor. To the East other routes reach the South American continent. Besides commercial interest, and because the church also financed these trips, they had the mission to evangelize the native peoples that were found. In every formed captaincies, over 29 actual countries, numerous churches, hospitals and fortifications were built. Combining a long tradition and mastery of monumental stone building and stonemasonry, which dates back to the Roman Period, Portuguese were able to combine the need to provide ships stability, using already worked stone as ballast. When arrived to these remote locations, quickly and with few local resources, could erect towering and admirable structures that still prevail today. Most of these regions were colonized and gave rise to independent countries in the 70's of the 20th Century, in some of them Portuguese is the official language and these constitutes the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP). This work shows that in addition to the language, traditions, customs, and architecture, there's also a very rich Portuguese Natural Stones monumental heritage building record, which constitutes a very strong link that binds this so special community. References Casal Moura, A., 2000. Granitos e Rochas Similares de Portugal, Instituto Geológico e Mineiro, Lisboa, ISBN 972-98469-5-2. 179. Casal Moura, A.; Carvalho, C.; Almeida, I.; Saúde, J. G.; Farinha Ramos, J.; Augusto, J.; Rodrigues, J. D.; Carvalho, J.; Martins

  7. Uric acid stones increase the risk of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ching-Chia; Chien, Tsu-Ming; Wu, Wen-Jeng; Huang, Chun-Nung; Chou, Yii-Her

    2018-02-28

    The aim of this study was to compare the clinical characteristics of uric acid stones and their potential risk for chronic kidney disease (CKD). A total of 401 patients (196 with uric acid stone and 205 without) were enrolled from our database of patients with urolithiasis. We analyzed the clinical demographic features, stone location, urine chemistries, and renal function. There was a significant difference (p uric acid group. Patients with uric acid stones had much lower pH of urine (p uric acid level (p = 0.002). Notably, those with uric acid stones had worse eGFR than those with non-uric acid stones. Multivariate analysis confirmed that age over 60 years (ORs = 9.19; 95% CI 3.5-24.3), female sex (ORs = 4.01; 95% CI 1.8-9.0), hyperuricemia (ORs = 8.47; 95% CI 1.6-43.5), and uric acid stone (OR = 2.86; 95% CI 1.2-6.7) were the independent predictors of poor prognoses in CKD. Therefore, an association exists between uric acid stones and higher prevalence of CKD. Patients with uric acid stones may need close monitoring of renal function during follow-up.

  8. Dietary supplementation with olive stone meal in growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerolamo Xiccato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive stone meal is a low-digested fibre source potentially useful in the prevention of digestive troubles in growing rabbit permitting a better balance of dietary fibre fractions. To evaluate its efficacy, three experimental diets containing 0, 3 or 6% olive stone meal were fed to 222 rabbits from weaning (28 d to slaughter (73 d. Olive stone inclusion increased the proportion of large dietary particles while did not affect growth performance, digestive physiology and carcass and meat quality. Due to optimum health status observed in all experimental groups, the preventive action of olive stone meal against the occurrence of digestive troubles was not proven.

  9. Can Hounsfield Unit Value Predict Type of Urinary Stones?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Gok

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Aim of this study is to determine the role of Hounsfield unit (HU in predicting results of stone analysis. Material and Method: This study included 199 patients to whom percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL procedures were applied between January 2008 and May 2011 in our clinic. Before the procedure HU values of kidney stones were measured using non-contrast computed tomography. After the operation, obtained stone samples were analysed using X-ray diffraction technique. HU values were compared with stone analysis results. Results: Stone analysis revealed eight different stone types. Distribution of stone types and HU value ranges were as follows: 85% calcium oxalate monohydrate, 730-1130 HU; 38% calcium oxalate dihydrate, 510-810 HU; 21% uric acid, 320-550 HU; 23% struvite, 614-870 HU; 7% calcium hydrogene phosphate, 1100-1365 HU; 3% cystine, 630-674 HU; 15% mixed uric acid plus calcium oxalate, 499-840 HU; and 7% mixed cystine plus calcium phosphate, 430-520 HU. HU values of all stone types ranged between 320 and 1365. There was a statistically significant relation between HU values of uric acid and non uric acid stones (p

  10. Mold attack on frescoes and stone walls of Gradac monastery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stupar Miloš Č.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Microfungi can colonize stone surfaces and form sub-aerial biofilms which can lead to biodeterioration of historic monuments. In this investigation samples for mycological analyses were collected from stone material with visible alteration on stone walls of Gradac monastery exterior. The prevailing fungi found on stone walls were dematiaceous hyphomycetes with melanized hyphae and reproductive structures (Alternaria, Aureobasidium, Cladosporium and Epicoccum species. The frescoes inside the monastery building were also analyzed for the presence of mycobiota. The predominant fungi found on frescoes were osmophilic species from genera Aspergillus and Penicillium. The significant result is identification of human pathogen species Aspergillus fumigatus on frescoes.

  11. Novelda Stone: widely used within the Spanish architectural heritage

    OpenAIRE

    Fort, R.; Bernabeu, A.; García del Cura, M. A.; López de Azcona, M. C.; Ordóñez, S.; Mingarro, F.

    2002-01-01

    Novelda Stone is a calcareous rock, of the biocalcarenite type. It is extracted from the «Vinalopó Medio» area (Alicante, eastern Spain). Novelda stone is known as construction material from the 13th century. From final of the 19th century until the present time, it has been used in Madrid, Valencia and Alicante. In the past, the main quarries from which this type of rock was extracted were located in the municipal districts of Monóvar (Almorquí Stone), Sax (Portazgo Stone) and Elda (Bateig S...

  12. Strength Improvement of Clay Soil by Using Stone Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Sameer Abdulrasool

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil stabilization with stone powder is a good solution for the construction of subgrade for road way and railway lines, especially under the platforms and mostly in transition zones between embankments and rigid structures, where the mechanical properties of supporting soils are very influential. Stone powder often has a unique composition which justifies the need for research to study the feasibility of using this stone powder type for ground improvement applications. This paper presents results from a comprehensive laboratory study carried out to investigate the feasibility of using stone powder for improvement of engineering properties of clays. The stone powder contains bassanite (CaSO4. ½ H2O, and Calcite (CaCO3. Three percentages are used for stone powder (1%, 3% and 5% by dry weight of clay. Several tests are made to investigate the soil behavior after adding the stone powder (Atterberg limits, Standard Proctor density, Grain size distribution, Specific gravity, Unconfined Compressive test, and California bearing ratio test. Unconfined Compressive tests conducted at different curing. The samples are tested under both soaked and unsoaked condition. Chemical tests and X-ray diffraction analyses are also carried out. Stone powder reacts with clay producing decreasing in plasticity and The curves of grain size distribution are shifted to the coarse side as the stone powder percentage increase; the soil becomes more granular, and also with higher strength.

  13. Voiding by Mandatory Position Changing: Giant Bladder Stone

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    Tufan Cicek

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Voiding by Mandatory Position Changing: Giant Bladder Stone Bladder Stones frequently develops on the base of neurogenic micturation disorders, infection, bladder outlet disorders, spinal cord injury and foreign bodies. BPH for men and previous incontinans surgery in women are risk factors for bladder Stone development according to gender. In this case report a 49 years old man, who can void by mandatory position changing owing to a giant bladder stone is presented . [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(1.000: 120-122

  14. Current trends in the management of urinary stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T.P.; Castaneda-Zuniga, W.R.; Darcy, M.D.; Cragg, A.H.; Hunter, D.W.; Amplatz, K.

    1988-01-01

    The treatment of renal and ureteral stones has undergone rapid and major changes over the past ten years. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy has become the most commonly used modality for the treatment of renal and upper ureteral stones. Lower ureteral stones are more commonly being approached by retrograde techniques. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy, medical therapy, and open surgical nephrolithotomy offer viable alternatives in given situations. Presented here is the current application of each of these techniques, both alone and in combination, for the treatment of urinary stones. (orig.)

  15. Renal stone risk assessment during Space Shuttle flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitson, P. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Pak, C. Y.

    1997-01-01

    PURPOSE: The metabolic and environmental factors influencing renal stone formation before, during, and after Space Shuttle flights were assessed. We established the contributing roles of dietary factors in relationship to the urinary risk factors associated with renal stone formation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 24-hr. urine samples were collected prior to, during space flight, and following landing. Urinary and dietary factors associated with renal stone formation were analyzed and the relative urinary supersaturation of calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate (brushite), sodium urate, struvite and uric acid were calculated. RESULTS: Urinary composition changed during flight to favor the crystallization of calcium-forming salts. Factors that contributed to increased potential for stone formation during space flight were significant reductions in urinary pH and increases in urinary calcium. Urinary output and citrate, a potent inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, were slightly reduced during space flight. Dietary intakes were significantly reduced for a number of variables, including fluid, energy, protein, potassium, phosphorus and magnesium. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first in-flight characterization of the renal stone forming potential in astronauts. With the examination of urinary components and nutritional factors, it was possible to determine the factors that contributed to increased risk or protected from risk. In spite of the protective components, the negative contributions to renal stone risk predominated and resulted in a urinary environment that favored the supersaturation of stone-forming salts. Dietary and pharmacologic therapies need to be assessed to minimize the potential for renal stone formation in astronauts during/after space flight.

  16. Significance of analysing chemical composition of renal stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Koirala

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: This article aims to decipher chemical composition of renal stones and briefly outline laboratory tests and dietary habitual changes aimed at preventing stone recurrence. It is based on analysis of 95 renal stones received in a private lab in Kathmandu over a period of 1 year. Materials and Methods: Renal stones were analysed using simple qualitative biochemical tests.The stones were checked for presence of calcium, magnesium, ammonium, oxalate, phosphate, uric acid, cystine and carbonate. Results: Calcium was present in 97.8%, ammonium was present in 98.9%, phosphate was present in 25.2%, uric acid was present in 17.8%, magnesium was present in 10.5%, carbonate was present in 2.1% and cystine was not present in any of the stones. Most of the stones were composed of mixture of two or more than two of the above mentioned elements. Conclusion: Most stones are mixture of more than two cations and anions. Studies on larger test samples and if possible in correlation with routine examination of urine and urinary electrolyte excretion in a 24 hr urine sample would further aid in efforts aimed at preventing stone recurrence. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v4i7.10314 Journal of Pathology of Nepal (2014 Vol. 4, 560-564  

  17. Screening renal stone formers for distal renal tubular acidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Hansen, A B; Røhl, H F

    1989-01-01

    A group of 110 consecutive renal stone formers were screened for distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA) using morning fasting urinary pH (mfUpH) levels followed by a short ammonium chloride loading test in patients with levels above 6.0. In 14 patients (12.7%) a renal acidification defect was noted...... RTA in renal stone formers. Regardless of whether the acidification defect is primary or secondary to stone formation, however, all renal stone formers with distal RTA can expect to benefit from prophylactic alkaline therapy and it is recommended that the screening procedure, which is easy to use...

  18. Unattached fraction of radon progeny in Polish coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skubacz, K.; Michalik, B.

    2002-01-01

    The system of the monitoring of the radiation hazard in Polish coal mines is based on the monitoring of the workplaces. This system works since 1989 in all coal mines. It gives a very good basis for further epidemiological investigation and assessment of the health detriment within the population of the mines as a result of the exposure for natural radiation. It is very important problem, due to the fact of the presence in the mines another factors, which probably have a synergetic effects on the respiratory tracts. As the routine instrument, a device called ALFA-31 sampling probe was developed in our laboratory. This device was accomplished to regular dust sampler and simultaneous measurements of dust content and potential alpha energy concentration of radon progeny are obligatory in all underground mines in Poland. But the microcyclone used a separator of the respirable fraction which causes the cut-off of unattached fraction of radon progeny, On the other hand measurements of the unattached fraction of short lived radon progeny play a very important role in the investigations of the adequate dose from this source of radiation hazard. During field experiments the use of the alpha spectroscopy system is necessary, while measurements are done not in the vacuum chambers but under normal pressure. It leads to situation, when particular peaks in alpha spectrum are very wide and interfere with other peaks of another alpha-emitting radionuclides. Such instrumentation was designed and completed, and a survey in several underground mines was performed. The analysis of the obtained results must be done very carefully; in other case it may cause a very big uncertainty of the result. In this paper a new approach to the analysis of the alpha spectra has been described. This approach can be used also in other applications of alpha spectroscopy, in which the analysis of energy of alpha peaks in spectrum is needed. The method of the analysis is based on a non-linear regression

  19. Anti-graffiti nanocomposite materials for surface protection of a very porous stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licchelli, Maurizio; Malagodi, Marco; Weththimuni, Maduka; Zanchi, Chiara

    2014-09-01

    The preservation of stone substrates from defacement induced by graffiti represents a very challenging task, which can be faced by applying suitable protective agents on the surface. Although different anti-graffiti materials have been developed, it is often found that their effectiveness is unsatisfactory, most of all when applied on very porous stones, e.g. Lecce stone. The aim of this work was to study the anti-graffiti behaviour of new nanocomposite materials obtained by dispersing montmorillonite nanoparticles (layered aluminosilicates with a high-aspect ratio) into a fluorinated polymer matrix (a fluorinated polyurethane based on perfluoropolyether blocks). Polymeric structure was modified by inducing a cross-linking process, in order to produce a durable anti-graffiti coating with enhanced barrier properties. Several composites were prepared using a naturally occurring and an organically modified montmorillonite clay (1, 3, and 5 % w/w concentrations). Materials were applied on Lecce stone specimens, and then their treated surfaces were soiled by a black ink permanent marker or by a black acrylic spray paint. Several repeated staining/cleaning cycles were performed in order to evaluate anti-graffiti effectiveness. Colorimetric measurements were selected to assess the anti-graffiti performance. It was found that the presence of 3 % w/w organically modified montmorillonite in the polymer coating is enough to induce a durable anti-graffiti effect when the stone surface is stained by acrylic paint. Less promising results are obtained when staining by permanent marker is considered as all the investigated treatments afford a reasonable protection from ink only for the first staining/cleaning cycle.

  20. A version of Stone-Weierstrass theorem in Fuzzy Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Font, J.J.; Sanchis, D.; Sanchis, M.

    2017-07-01

    Fuzzy numbers provide formalized tools to deal with non-precise quantities. They are indeed fuzzy sets in the real line and were introduced in 1978 by Dubois and Prade , who also defined their basic operations. Since then, Fuzzy Analysis has developed based on the notion of fuzzy number just as much as classical Real Analysis did based on the concept of real number. Such development was eased by a characterization of fuzzy numbers provided in 1986 by Goetschel and Voxman leaning on their level sets. As in the classical setting, continuous fuzzy-valued functions (fuzzy functions) are the central core of the theory. The principal difference with regard to real-valued continuous functions is the fact that the fuzzy numbers do not form a vectorial space, which determines all the results, and, especially, the proofs. The study of fuzzy functions has developed, principally, about two lines of investigation: - Differential fuzzy equations, which have turned out to be the natural way of modelling physical and engineering problems in contexts where the parameters are vague or incomplete. - The problem of approximation of fuzzy functions, basically using the approximation capability of fuzzy neural networks. We will focus on this second line of investigation, though our approach will be more general and based on an adaptation of the famous Stone-Weierstrass Theorem to the fuzzy context. This way so, we introduce the concept of “multiplier” of a set of fuzzy functions and use it to give a constructive proof of a Stone-Weiestrass type theorem for fuzzy functions. (Author)

  1. Polish electoral geography and its methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Rykiel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Differences in the understanding of electoral geography between social sciences are discussed in the article. Main fields and spatial scales of Polish electoral geography are identified. Main methods of multidimensional statistics are discussed. A necessity of a proper choice, based on theories of voting behaviour, of explaning variables to statistical models are emphasised. Regression analysis indicates only a formal usefulness in electoral geography, for quantitative relationships between variables in the model can be evidenced, which may be meaningless not only essentially, but even statistically. The application of canonical analysis in electoral geography brought a methodological turning-point to the statistical approach. This method allowed to combine: (1 the foundation of the selection of input variables on theories of voting behaviour; (2 the analysis of dependence of the electoral results on socio-economic characteristics of areas; (3 an identification of electoral options; (4 a quantification of the role of the historical heritage in the contemporary voting behaviour; and (5 the analysis of the stability of the electoral space. A well grounded opinion was weakened about the general competitiveness of right- and left-wing parties in Poland’s political space. Parties with similar rather than different programmes compete in given areas. It was indicated that elections have only formal influence on the structure of Parliament while the electoral system is decisive. Electoral, including territorial, manipulations also play their part. The empirical analysis indicated that Poland’s political space is polarised between the right-wing-oriented areas of the south-eastern half of the country and the left-wing-oriented areas of the north-western half. The political competition between the left and the right operates merely on the national scale, while it is not reflected territorially.The quantification of the influence of the nineteenth

  2. Polish Defense Policy in the Context of National Security Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    Antoni Podolski, Polska Strategia Bezpieczenstwa jako Praktyczna Implementacja Europejskiej Strategii Bezpeczenstwa –miedzy teoria a praktyka (Warszawa...Implementacja Europejskiej Strategii Bezpeczenstwa –miedzy teoria a praktyka (Warszawa: Center for International Relations, 2005), 13. Polish Ministry

  3. Super Polishing of Aluminum 6061-T6 Mirrors, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An innovative 2D super-polishing process for Aluminum 6061-T6 planar mirrors which removes diamond point turning (DPT) grooves and attains rms surface finishes below...

  4. The resettlement of Polish refugees after the second world war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Blaszczyk

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The passing of the Polish Resettlement Act and the creation of the different agencies related to it undoubtedly represented an unprecedented response to the challenge of mass migration in the UK.

  5. British and American English for Polish University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, Waldemar; Preston, Dennis R.

    1975-01-01

    This article attempts to assess the validity of dividing Polish students of English into British and American groups. The tests of the various hypotheses regarding linguistic and non-linguistic results of such divisions are described. (AM)

  6. Polish Defense Policy in the Context of National Security Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bieniek, Piotr S

    2006-01-01

    ...) and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Polish security policy and strategy is shaped by its geographical location, which places Poland in NATO's main strategic area opposite the Russian Federation and Belarus...

  7. Laser polishing of 3D printed mesoscale components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhaduri, Debajyoti, E-mail: debajyoti.bhaduri@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Penchev, Pavel; Batal, Afif; Dimov, Stefan; Soo, Sein Leung [Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Sten, Stella; Harrysson, Urban [Digital Metal, Höganäs AB, 263 83 Höganäs (Sweden); Zhang, Zhenxue; Dong, Hanshan [School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • Process optimisation for laser polishing novel 3D printed SS316L parts. • Evaluating the effects of key polishing parameters on SS316L surface roughness. • Detailed spectroscopic analysis of oxide layer formation due to laser polishing. • Comparative surface integrity analysis of SS parts polished in air and argon. • A maximum reduction in roughness of over 94% achieved at optimised polishing settings. - Abstract: Laser polishing of various engineered materials such as glass, silica, steel, nickel and titanium alloys, has attracted considerable interest in the last 20 years due to its superior flexibility, operating speed and capability for localised surface treatment compared to conventional mechanical based methods. The paper initially reports results from process optimisation experiments aimed at investigating the influence of laser fluence and pulse overlap parameters on resulting workpiece surface roughness following laser polishing of planar 3D printed stainless steel (SS316L) specimens. A maximum reduction in roughness of over 94% (from ∼3.8 to ∼0.2 μm S{sub a}) was achieved at the optimised settings (fluence of 9 J/cm{sup 2} and overlap factors of 95% and 88–91% along beam scanning and step-over directions respectively). Subsequent analysis using both X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES) confirmed the presence of surface oxide layers (predominantly consisting of Fe and Cr phases) up to a depth of ∼0.5 μm when laser polishing was performed under normal atmospheric conditions. Conversely, formation of oxide layers was negligible when operating in an inert argon gas environment. The microhardness of the polished specimens was primarily influenced by the input thermal energy, with greater sub-surface hardness (up to ∼60%) recorded in the samples processed with higher energy density. Additionally, all of the polished surfaces were free of the scratch marks, pits, holes

  8. Comparison of Different Methods of Denim Stone Washing by Pumice Stone, Acid Cellulases and Neutral Cellulases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Montazer

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Denim is a casual garment normally used by young people and extremely influential in shaping the fashion industry. Among various garments, these garments are subjected to innovations. This work is an attempt to compare the different methods of stone washing using pumice stones, acid cellulases and neutral cellulases or in combination of these methods. The effects of different processing conditions on the garment are compared and reported. Color differences of samples are probed by reflective colorimeter on the front side as well as the backside and also the white pocket of the garment.The abrasion resistance, tensile strength and crease recovery angle of samples are also reported. The XRD spectra are used to calculate the crystalline degrees of the selected samples. Moreover, fiber surfaces of some treated samples have been observed by SEM. The results indicate that treatment of denim with pumice stone with equal weight of garment causes a small color differences. The addition of cellulases to the washing, however, accelerates the color fading. Also, lower staining observed on the white pocket when the garment was treated with cellulases. However, the neutralcellulases increase the garment fading and decrease the staining on the white pocket. It is also observed that pumice stone with cellulases damages the fabric surface, although it is of a minimal damage.

  9. Borel hierarchies in infinite products of Polish spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    with two product topologies: (i) the product of copies of the Polish topology on X, so that H is again a Polish space and (ii) the product of copies of the discrete topology on X. Define now the Borel hierarchy in the larger topology on H. To do so, we need some notation. An element of H will be denoted by h = (x1,x2,...,xn,.

  10. Evaluation of the COMSOL software electro-polishing of samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruchon, M.

    2007-01-01

    The niobium electro-polishing is efficient if a viscous layer exists at the surface. In order to define parameters of samples electro-polishing, opened with difficulty to the experiments, the simulation is essential. This report presents works realized with the COMSOL software. The Nernst Planck equations have been associated to the Navier Stockes ones for an incompressible fluid. The study of the potential behaviour on the viscous layer and the mobility value have been detailed. (A.L.B.)

  11. Borel hierarchies in infinite products of Polish spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E-mail: rana@isical.ac.in; maitra@stat.umn.edu. MS received 22 August 2005; revised 28 August 2006. Abstract. Let H be a product of countably infinite number of copies of an uncountable. Polish space X. Let ξ ( ξ ) be the class of Borel sets of additive class ξ for the product of copies of the discrete topology on X (the Polish ...

  12. Stem subsidence of polished and rough double-taper stems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kengo; Hirosaki, Kenichi; Takano, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Tadami

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose Many clinical reports have indicated that polished hip stems show better clinical results than rough stems of the same geometry. It is still unknown, however, what the mechanical effects are of different surface finishes on the cement at the cement-bone interface. We compared mechanical effects in an in vitro cemented hip arthroplasty model. Methods Two sizes of double-taper polished stems and matt-processed polished stems (rough stems) were fixed into composite femurs. A 1-Hz dynamic load was applied to the stems for 1 million cycles. An 8-h no-load period was set after every 16 h of load. Stem subsidence within the cement, and compressive force and horizontal cement creep at the cement-bone interface, were measured. Results Compared to rough stems, stem subsidence, compressive force and cement creep for polished stems were a maximum of 4, 12, and 7-fold greater, respectively. There was a strong positive correlation between stem subsidence and compressive force for polished stems. In contrast, a strong negative correlation was found between stem subsidence and compressive force for rough stems. There was also a statistically significant relationship between compressive force on the cement and cement creep for the polished stems, but no significant relationship was found for rough stems. Interpretation This is the first evidence that different surface finishes of stems can have different mechanical effects on the cement at the cement-bone interface. Stem subsidence in polished stems resulted in compressive force on the cement and cement creep. The mechanical effects that polished taper stems impart on cement at the cement-bone interface probably contribute to their good long-term fixation and excellent clinical outcome. PMID:19421909

  13. Lexical exponents of hypothetical modality in Polish and Lithuanian

    OpenAIRE

    Roman Roszko

    2015-01-01

    Lexical exponents of hypothetical modality in Polish and Lithuanian The article focuses on the lexical exponents of hypothetical modality in Polish and Lithuanian. The purpose for comparing and contrasting the lexical exponents of hypothetical modality is not only to identify all the lexemes in both languages but also find the answer to the following question: whether the morphological exponents of hypothetical modality (so-called modus relativus) familiar to the Lithuanian language have/...

  14. Reusing Ceramic Tile Polishing Waste In Paving Block Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Giordano Penteado; Carmenlucia Santos; de Carvalho; Eduardo Viviani; Cecche Lintz; Rosa Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Ceramic companies worldwide produce large amounts of polishing tile waste, which are piled up in the open air or disposed of in landfills. These wastes have such characteristics that make them potential substitutes for cement and sand in the manufacturing of concrete products. This paper investigates the use of ceramic tile polishing waste as a partial substitute for cement and sand in the manufacturer of concrete paving blocks. A concrete mix design was defined and then the sand was replaced...

  15. Renal effects of percutaneous stone removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eshghi, M.; Schiff, R.G.; Smith, A.D.

    1989-02-01

    Preoperative and postoperative renography with 99mTechnetium-diethylene-triamine pentaacetic acid was performed on 33 patients who were free of renal scarring, infection, and obstruction and who underwent percutaneous renal stone removal. Although there was a transient decrease in renal function postoperatively in some patients, statistically significant reductions in renal function occurred only in 1 patient with an arteriovenous malformation that was embolized and in 1 patient who had a postoperative ureteropelvic junction stricture. The creation of more than one nephrostomy tract did not affect the results. In the absence of serious complications, percutaneous nephrostomy does not have a significant effect on renal function.

  16. Microstructural characterization of stone wool fibre network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chapelle, Lucie; Brøndsted, Povl; Kusano, Yukihiro

    2014-01-01

    as the number density of fibre contacts. The methods are based on image analysis of 3D datasets which have been obtained by x-ray tomography. Validation of the proposed methods was demonstrated by testing generated virtual fibrous network with known fibre characteristics.......Understanding the mechanical properties of fibrous network as complex as stone wool materials requires a relevant description of their microstructure and architecture. In this study, different methods have been proposed to characterize the fibre orientation, diameter and length of fibres as well...

  17. Towards the Rosetta Stone of planet formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt T.O.B.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Transiting exoplanets (TEPs observed just ~10 Myrs after formation of their host systems may serve as the Rosetta Stone for planet formation theories. They would give strong constraints on several aspects of planet formation, e.g. time-scales (planet formation would then be possible within 10 Myrs, the radius of the planet could indicate whether planets form by gravitational collapse (being larger when young or accretion growth (being smaller when young. We present a survey, the main goal of which is to find and then characterise TEPs in very young open clusters.

  18. Stone anchors from Minicoy Island, Lakshadweep, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    and Ali Rajas of Kerala. It appears that the mainland had contact with these islands during the early centuries of the Christian era, if not earlier (Sila Tripati, 1999). Though Islam came to Lakshadweep after the 11th and 12th centuries AD... by fishermen. In Divehi, the local language, ring-stone anchors are known as fanaa. Of 40–50 cm diameter, they are made of coral fashioned in the form of a slightly concave disc. The width of the hole in which the wooden stock is inserted is 6–10 cm...

  19. Color stability of nanocomposites polished with one-step systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergücü, Zeynep; Türkün, L Sebnem; Aladag, Akin

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the color changes of five novel resin composites polished with two one-step polishing systems when exposed to coffee solution. The resin composites tested were Filtek Supreme XT, Grandio, CeramX, Premise and Tetric EvoCeram. A total of 150 discs (30/resin composites, 10 x 2 mm) were fabricated. Ten specimens/resin composites cured under Mylar strips served as the control. The other samples were polished with PoGo and OptraPol discs for 30 seconds using a slow speed handpiece and immersed in coffee (Nescafé) for seven days. Color measurements were made with Vita Easyshade at baseline and after one and seven days. Repeated Measures ANOVA and Bonferroni tests were used for statistical analyses (pGrandio, there were no significant differences between the Mylar and PoGo groups, while the most stain resistant surfaces were attained with OptraPol. Removing the outermost resin layer by polishing procedures is essential to achieving a stain resistant, more esthetically stable surface. One-step polishing systems can be used successfully for polishing nanocomposites.

  20. Factors influencing the surface quality of polished tool steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebeggiani, S; Rosén, B-G

    2014-01-01

    Today’s demands on surface quality of moulds for injection moulding of plastic components involve no/low defect contents and roughness levels in the nm-range for high gloss applications. Material properties as well as operating conditions influence the mould finish, and thus the final surface of moulded products. This paper focuses on how particle content and different polishing strategies influence final surface qualities of moulds. Visual estimations of polished tool steel samples were combined with non-contact 3D-surface texture analysis in order to correlate traditional assessments to more quantitative methods, and to be able to analyse the surfaces at nanometre-level. It was found that steels with a lower proportion of particles, like carbides and oxides, gave rise to smoother polished surfaces. In a comparative study of polishers from different polishing shops, it was found that while different surface preparation strategies can lead to similar final roughness, similar preparation techniques can produce high-quality surfaces from different steel grades. However, the non-contact 3D-surface texture analysis showed that not all smooth polished surfaces have desirable functional topographies for injection moulding of glossy plastic components. (paper)