WorldWideScience

Sample records for polish soldiers serving

  1. Detection of Giardia intestinalis infections in Polish soldiers deployed to Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Konior, Monika; Augustynowicz, Alina; Lass, Anna; Kowalska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Members of the Polish Military Contingent (PMC) have been stationed in Afghanistan since 2002. They typically serve in areas characterised by low standards of sanitation which often leads to the development of food- and waterborne diseases. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of Giardia intestinalis infections among Polish soldiers deployed to Afghanistan. The research study was conducted as part of a programme for prevention of parasitic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract run by the Polish Armed Forces. The study was carried out in August 2011; it involved 630 asymptomatic Polish soldiers serving in the Forward Operational Base (FOB) Ghazni in eastern Afghanistan. Stool specimens obtained from members of the PMC were first tested in FOB Ghazni (detection of Giardia intestinalis by Rida Quick Giardia immunochromatographic tests and Ridascreen Giardia immunoenzymatic tests - single samples). Next, the same biological material and two other faecal specimens fixed in 10% formalin were transported to the Military Institute of Medicine in Poland, where they were tested for Giardia intestinalis under light microscopy (direct smear, decantation in distilled water). Parasitological tests performed under light microscopy showed that 2.7% (17/630) of the study group were infected with Giardia intestinalis. Some of these results were confirmed by immunochromatographic tests (6/630). In contrast, immunoenzymatic tests (ELISA) demonstrated a significantly higher detection rate reaching 18.1% (114/630). Immunoenzymatic tests confirmed all the positive results given by light microscopy and by immunochromatographic tests. The prevalence rate of Giardia intestinalis infections in Polish soldiers deployed to Afghanistan was found to be high. Microscopic methods exhibit low sensitivity and therefore may result in the underestimation of the true parasite prevalence. Immunoenzymatic tests (ELISA) showing a much higher sensitivity in comparison to light microscopy

  2. Soldiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lech, Marcel Lysgaard

    2018-01-01

    War, armies and soldiers were omnipresent in the ancient Greek society, and thus these phenomena are equally present in the worlds of ancient Greek comedy. However, the comic outlook on war differs from Old to New Comedy. While the citizen soldier remains the norm, but mainly at periphery of Old ...

  3. Types of injuries among Polish soldiers and civilian staff in the 7th, 8th, 9th and 10th rotation of the Afghan stabilization mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemba, Radosław

    2012-03-01

    The Afghan military theatre is specifically marked by guerilla operations and massive use of IEDs (improvised explosive devices) that pose new types of threats for their victims. At the same time, the relevant literature contains only a single, fragmentary analysis on injuries suffered by soldiers serving in the Afghan mission. This is a review of medical reports of the Polish Military Contingent deployed within Operation Enduring Freedom, from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2011; the analysis includes all cases of combat and non-combat injuries in terms of their causes. In the period under analysis, 380 Polish soldiers were reported injured; 87.1% of cases were combat and 12.9% non-combat injuries. The structure of injuries caused as a result of IED explosions was dominated by multiple limb injuries, associated most frequently with severe body cavities/spine injuries. In the case of other incidents, both combat and non-combat, the predominant consequences were single and, most commonly, less severe injuries. The average number of injuries suffered from IED attacks (3.37) was significantly higher than the number of injuries from other attacks (1.16), and higher than the number of non-combat injuries (1.43). IED attacks pose a serious medical problem, considering their high number and the severity of injuries they cause.

  4. Morality in Action - The Relationship between Moral Judgement and Moral Action of Israeli Reserve Soldiers Who Refused to Serve in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, Ruth

    During the Lebanon War (1982), many Israeli reserve soldiers disobeyed the command to join their units for service in Lebanon. Several of these soldiers were publicly labeled "sarvanim" meaning "refusers" in Hebrew, and were jailed in military prisons. Kohlberg's (1976) cognitive developmental approach to moralization, which…

  5. Analysis of the causes of medical evacuation of injured and sick soldiers of the Polish Military Contingent in the Islamic State of Afghanistan taking part in International Security Assistance Force operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemba, Radosław

    2012-04-01

    Military casualties in Afghanistan arise in part from climatic and natural conditions that are difficult for European soldiers to endure, as well as from intense guerrilla combat with mass use of IEDs (improvised explosive devices), thus posing numerous and diverse medical problems requiring evacuation to the home country. A search of the literature revealed no comprehensive studies of the causes of medical evacuation from this theater of operations. This article is a review of medical reports of the Polish Military Contingent taking part in Operation Enduring Freedom during the period from 01 January 2010 to 31 December 2011, including an analysis of causes of all ROLE 4 medical evacuations (to the military base in Germany or to the home country). As many as 565 (5.49%) of the total of 10 294 contingent soldiers were evacuated during the analyzed period. Of these, 29% of evacuation cases were due to combat injuries, 23% to complications of respiratory tract infection, 11% to mental health problems, 11% to chronic neuralgias, 12% to complications of acute gastrointestinal infections, 4% to non-combat injuries, 3% to dental and maxillofacial problems, 2% to dermatological problems and 2% to leishmaniasis. The remaining causes included chronic organic/systemic diseases manifested during service. The main causes of medical evacuations to the home country were the consequences of combat injuries, mainly due to IED attacks. Appropriate diagnosis and early treatment of infections is also an important problem in the face of a significant number of complications resulting in evacuation of soldiers to their home country.

  6. Shadow Soldiering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster Christensen, Maya

    The thesis is an inquiry into what is at stake for a surplus population of militia soldiers in the aftermaths of the civil war in Sierra Leone. The analysis takes its point of departure in how militarised networks are transformed and gradualy morph into new constellations of soldiering. The central......, or in the margins of official political economies. Rather, shadow soldiering is a phenomenon that is becoming increasingly central in the context of security outsourcing and militarisation in a global economy....

  7. Should the United States Army Adapt New Conditions in Its HIV Policy to Allow Eligible HIV Positive Soldiers the Ability to Serve Overseas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    transmitted through “Only certain body fluids - blood, semen, pre-seminal fluid, rectal fluids, vaginal fluids and breast milk - from a person who has...established history of compliance with medical treatment and a history of professional attitude ” they are able to serve in overseas locations (DoD 2014...semen or eggs, breast milk , tissues, and organs, and will report previous donations to the HIV PHN. (c) You will notify medical, dental, and emergency

  8. Soldiering on

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Coeli

    2010-01-01

    As community colleges welcome an influx of veterans returning from combat in Iraq and Afghanistan, administrators must focus on helping these soldiers--many who are pursuing higher education for the first time--obtain the knowledge and skills necessary to thrive in a changing economy. The process starts the moment these men and women set foot on…

  9. Shadow Soldiering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster Christensen, Maya

    question the thesis pursues is how the processes of mobilisation connecting these constellations are facilitated, and how the constellations are constituted in the intersection between local and global formations. Shadow soldiering, it is argued, is not a phenomenon existing in parallel with...

  10. Polish visit

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    On 6 October, Professor Michal Kleiber, Polish Minister of Science and Chairman of the State Committee for Scientific Research, visited CERN and met both the current and designated Director General, Luciano Maiani and Robert Aymar. Professor Kleiber visited the CMS and ATLAS detector assembly halls, the underground cavern for ATLAS, and the LHC superconducting magnet string test hall. Michal Kleiber (left), Polish minister of science and Jan Krolikowski, scientist at Warsaw University and working for CMS, who shows the prototypes of the Muon Trigger board of CMS.

  11. Danish soldiers in Iraq

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Lars Ravnborg; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2011-01-01

    the assumption that other factors than combat exposure-psychosocial and cultural-are of importance in increasing psychological distress among soldiers deployed to Iraq. Additionally, we have shown that the reporting of multiple physical symptoms among the deployed soldiers is closely related to increased......Using data from an occupational medical health surveillance program, we studied the associations between mental stressors and social support and the two outcome measures postdeployment psychological distress and multiple physical symptoms among Danish soldiers deployed to Iraq. The study was cross......-sectional and questionnaire-based with soldiers returning from the mission as the target group. Witnessing atrocities, fear of being physically harmed, feeling of insecurity, feeling of meaninglessness, and having been in touch with prisoners were associated with both outcome measures. In conclusion, our findings support...

  12. Danish soldiers in Iraq

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Lars Ravnborg; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2011-01-01

    Using data from an occupational medical health surveillance program, we studied the associations between mental stressors and social support and the two outcome measures postdeployment psychological distress and multiple physical symptoms among Danish soldiers deployed to Iraq. The study was cross......-sectional and questionnaire-based with soldiers returning from the mission as the target group. Witnessing atrocities, fear of being physically harmed, feeling of insecurity, feeling of meaninglessness, and having been in touch with prisoners were associated with both outcome measures. In conclusion, our findings support...... the assumption that other factors than combat exposure-psychosocial and cultural-are of importance in increasing psychological distress among soldiers deployed to Iraq. Additionally, we have shown that the reporting of multiple physical symptoms among the deployed soldiers is closely related to increased...

  13. Sleep disturbances among Swedish soldiers after military service abroad

    OpenAIRE

    Pettersson, Karolina; Saers, Johannes; Lindberg, Eva; Janson, Christer

    2016-01-01

    Aims Since 1956, more than 100,000 Swedish soldiers have served abroad on various international missions. The aim of this paper was to determine whether there was a connection between military service abroad and sleep disorders among Swedish soldiers. Methods The prevalence of sleep disturbances among 1,080 veterans from Kosovo and Afghanistan was compared with almost 27,000 Swedes from a general population sample, using propensity score matching and logistic regression. The sleep disturbance...

  14. Remote Tactile Displays for Future Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    organization of the body that may be related to the amount of sensory cortex sub-serving the loci in question. 6 Later work by Craig (1985...side, Braille readers learn to rapidly perceive and process what they touch quite differently than most, showing unique activity in the visual cortex ...weapons ( M4 ). After a short training session with the tactile systems, each Soldier completed the static and dynamic tests three times, once with each

  15. Soldier as a System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-13

    acquisition processes into a single concept known as Soldier as a System (SaaS). This research paper looks at the creation of SaaS, what SaaS means, current SaaS initiatives, and what SaaS actions still need to be completed.

  16. CORYNEBACTERIUM TRIAD IN SOLDIERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brzeziński Piotr

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Corynebacterial infection is a common condition in soldiers. Pitted keratolysis (PK, a bacterial infection confined to the plantar stratum corneum, does not severely impede patient activity but can be unpleasant and embarrassing because of its ‘‘rotten’’ odor. The incidence of PK in soldiers has been reported to be between 1,5% and 77.1%. Erythrasma is a superficial infection caused by Corynebacterium minutissimum and affects the major skin folds and the interdigital regions of the feet. It is characterized by erythematous, brown, scaly patches and maceration, and exhibits coral-red fluorescence under Wood light. Trichomycosis axillaris (TMA is caused by the Corynebacterium tenuis. Patients affected by trichomycosis axillaris present with complaints of a disagreeable underarm odor and a history of hyperhidrosis and poor hygiene. Examination reveals the underarm hair to be coated with black, yellow-white or reddish deposits.Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency corynebacterium triad in soldiers (pitted keratolysis, erythrasma, trichomycosis axillarisMethods: The study involved 1694 men, soldiers in age about 23 years, (in period 5 months (-8-12.2008. 103 persons, whose dermatologic symptoms/changes were analysed, were qualified for the research. Reconnaissance put on base of characteristic clinical sign and under Wood light.Results: Incidence of PK observed at 103 patients (which make up 6,08% of 1694 soldiers. EA diagnosed at 15 soldiers (14,56% of 103 patients, and TMA was diagnosed of 3 patients (2,91% of 103 patients. The coexistence are summarized as follows: erythrasma and PK; 15 of 103 patients (14,56%, TMA and PK in 3 of 103 patients (2,91%. The coexistence of rythrasma, TMA, and PK was noted in 1 patients (0,97%.Conclusions: Corynebacterial infection is a common condition in soldiers. In most cases/most often development of PK is observed. Our results demonstrate that either erythrasma or TMA

  17. Soldier System Power Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-31

    2004. 27 Soldier System Power Sources Final Project Report 23. Z. Jiang, R. Dougal, "Multiobjective MPPT /Charging Controller for Standalone PV Power...composed variously of batteries, fuel cells, and super capacitors, it developed control al- gorithms for those hybrid power sources, it assessed the...coupling, this model can control signal dependent source models. * Reference mission scenarios and test beds. A probabilistic load profile generator was

  18. Advanced techniques for computer-controlled polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinhaerl, Markus; Stamp, Richard; Pitschke, Elmar; Rascher, Rolf; Smith, Lyndon; Smith, Gordon; Geiss, Andreas; Sperber, Peter

    2008-08-01

    Computer-controlled polishing has introduced determinism into the finishing of high-quality surfaces, for example those used as optical interfaces. Computer-controlled polishing may overcome many of the disadvantages of traditional polishing techniques. The polishing procedure is computed in terms of the surface error-profile and the material removal characteristic of the polishing tool, the influence function. Determinism and predictability not only enable more economical manufacture but also facilitate considerably increased processing accuracy. However, there are several disadvantages that serve to limit the capabilities of computer-controlled polishing, many of these are considered to be issues associated with determination of the influence function. Magnetorheological finishing has been investigated and various new techniques and approaches that dramatically enhance the potential as well as the economics of computer-controlled polishing have been developed and verified experimentally. Recent developments and advancements in computer-controlled polishing are discussed. The generic results of this research may be used in a wide variety of alternative applications in which controlled material removal is employed to achieve a desired surface specification, ranging from surface treatment processes in technical disciplines, to manipulation of biological surface textures in medical technologies.

  19. the honour to serve: recollections of an umkhonto soldier

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thinel

    motivated him to join Umkhonto we Sizwe (MK), the military wing of the African. National Congress (ANC). During his ... He was also one of the founding members of the MK Military Intelligence wing, which played an important role in the ... At times, there was no water in the camps, so they were forced to fetch water from.

  20. Metal polish poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metal polishes are used to clean metals, including brass, copper, or silver. This article discusses the harmful effects from swallowing metal polish. This article is for information only. DO NOT use ...

  1. Williamson Polishing & Plating Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson Polishing & Plating Co. Inc. was a plating shop located in the Martindale-Brightwood neighborhood of Indianapolis. The facility conducted job shop polishing and electroplating services. The vacant site contains a 14,651-square-foot building.

  2. Soldier Quality of Life Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    prioritized many attributes related to creating conditions conducive to quality sleep . This includes bed type (the overall most important attribute...optimal sleep conditions.  Overall, dinner was the most important meal of the day in terms of Soldier preferences for having freshly cooked, non-ration...TECHNICAL REPORT AD ________________ NATICK/TR-16/022 SOLDIER QUALITY OF LIFE

  3. Skin diseases in Turkish soldiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezai Sasmaz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the prevalence of skin diseases among soldiers who were assigned duties in Kahramanmaras, a province of east Mediterranean region of Turkey. One hundred eighty-eight soldiers were assessed for skin diseases by a complete dermatological examination and the findings were recorded to a form. Apart from the low number of older ones, the soldiers were of 20–22 years. The diagnosis of superficial fungal infections was made by the use of potassium hydroxide preparations in addition to clinical appearance. On completion of the study period, the data were evaluated, and patients were grouped. Pitted keratolysis was the primary dermatologic disease in 34.5% of the soldiers, 29.2% were diagnosed with oral candidiasis, and 25.5% suffered from tinea pedis. Among the soldiers suffering from a cutaneous disease, dyshidrotic eczema (18.6%, intertrigo (excluding candidal intertrigo (17%, acne (17%, seborrheic dermatitis (14.9%, plantar hyperkeratosis (14.3%, contact dermatitis (13.8%, and folliculitis (12.2% were the other most frequent dermatoses. Other less frequent dermatoses were asteatotic eczema, callus, onychomycosis, traumatic onychodystrophy, and so on. We conclude that the prevalence of skin diseases in soldiers is very high and is one of the major public health problems that have a significant burden on our nation.

  4. LOVE in English and Polish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Brożyna Reczko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available LOVE in English and Polish The paper presents a sample contrastive analysis of the linguistic picture of love in English and Polish. The material used in the survey is drawn from lexicographic data, including the British National Corpus and Narodowy Korpus Języka Polskiego [National Corpus of Polish]. The paper focuses on the similarities and differences in conceptualizing the abstract concept of love in the English and Polish languages. An analytical method, developed by Bartmiński and associates, serves as the theoretical basis for the reconstruction of the linguistic picture of the world.   MIŁOŚĆ w języku angielskim i polskim Niniejszy artykuł to próba kontrastywnego porównania językowego obrazu świata MIŁOŚCI w języku angielskim i polskim. Materiał badawczy pochodzi głównie ze źródeł leksykograficznych: słowników oraz korpusów (Narodowego Korpusu Języka Polskiego oraz z korpusu języka angielskiego British National Corpus. Celem badania było poszukiwanie podobieństw i różnic w konceptualizacji MIŁOŚCI w tych dwóch językach. Metoda badawcza została zaczerpnięta z prac J. Bartmińskiego i dotyczy rekonstrukcji językowego obrazu świata różnych pojęć.

  5. Polish Cartographical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedjeljko Frančula

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Polish Cartographical Review (PCR journal has been published in English four times a year since 2015. The journal is in open access and it is published by De Gruyter Open. It is edited by Polish scientists in collaboration with international experts.

  6. Effects of polishing procedures on color stability of composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güler, Ahmet Umut; Güler, Eda; Yücel, Ali Cağin; Ertaş, Ertan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different polishing methods on color stability of posterior, universal and nanohybrid composite resin restorative materials upon exposure to a staining agent. Twenty-five specimens were prepared for each of 5 different composite resins (Filtek Z250, Filtek P60, Quadrant LC, Grandio and Filtek Supreme). Specimens were divided into 5 groups and different polishing procedures, including polishing discs (Pd), polishing discs then diamond polishing paste (PdP), polishing discs then a liquid polishing system (Biscover) (PdB), and combinations of these (PdPB) were used. Unpolished specimens served as the control (C). The specimens were stored for 48 h in a coffee solution. The color of all specimens was measured before and after exposure with a colorimeter, and total color change (DeltaE*) were calculated. The data were analyzed with a two-way ANOVA and the means were compared by Tukey HSD test (alpha=0.05). The lowest color difference was observed in the groups PdP and C, while the highest color difference was observed in PdPB, and PdB. When comparing the five different restorative materials, no significant difference was observed between FiltekP60 and FiltekZ250, and these materials demonstrated significantly less color change than Quadrant LC and the nanohybrid materials (Grandio, Filtek Supreme). The posterior (Filtek P60) and universal (Filtek Z250) composite resin restorative materials, which do not contain tetraethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA), were found to be less stainable than the nanohybrid (Grandio, Filtek Supreme) and universal (Quadrant LC) composite resins, which contain TEGDMA. The use of diamond polishing paste after polishing with polishing discs significantly decreased staining when compared to the groups that used polishing discs alone, for all restorative materials tested. The highest color change values were obtained for the specimens that were polished with the Biscover liquid polish

  7. Effects of polishing procedures on color stability of composite resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Umut Güler

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different polishing methods on color stability of posterior, universal and nanohybrid composite resin restorative materials upon exposure to a staining agent. Twenty-five specimens were prepared for each of 5 different composite resins (Filtek Z250, Filtek P60, Quadrant LC, Grandio and Filtek Supreme. Specimens were divided into 5 groups and different polishing procedures, including polishing discs (Pd, polishing discs then diamond polishing paste (PdP, polishing discs then a liquid polishing system (Biscover (PdB, and combinations of these (PdPB were used. Unpolished specimens served as the control (C. The specimens were stored for 48 h in a coffee solution. The color of all specimens was measured before and after exposure with a colorimeter, and total color change (DE* were calculated. The data were analyzed with a two-way ANOVA and the means were compared by Tukey HSD test (a=0.05. The lowest color difference was observed in the groups PdP and C, while the highest color difference was observed in PdPB, and PdB. When comparing the five different restorative materials, no significant difference was observed between FiltekP60 and FiltekZ250, and these materials demonstrated significantly less color change than Quadrant LC and the nanohybrid materials (Grandio, Filtek Supreme. The posterior (Filtek P60 and universal (Filtek Z250 composite resin restorative materials, which do not contain tetraethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA, were found to be less stainable than the nanohybrid (Grandio, Filtek Supreme and universal (Quadrant LC composite resins, which contain TEGDMA. The use of diamond polishing paste after polishing with polishing discs significantly decreased staining when compared to the groups that used polishing discs alone, for all restorative materials tested. The highest color change values were obtained for the specimens that were polished with the Biscover liquid polish

  8. Soldier Readiness: Insights from Qualitative Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-10

    PHYSICAL FITNESS SOLDIER READINESS INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS FEEDBACK PSYCHOLOGY ARMY PERSONNEL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY MORALS(SOCIAL... PSYCHOLOGY ) STRESSORS MOTIVATION GROUP DYNAMICS BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES CONFLICT( PSYCHOLOGY ) U.S. Army Natick Soldier Research, Development...during a mission? • What psychological states, traits, and behaviors are associated with SE aspects of Soldier Readiness? • What training practices

  9. Soldier Integrated Protective Ensemble: The Soldiers’ Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    separate pieces of prototype equipment. The sights were good, but the visor was so onerous that the soldiers forgot to think about the benefits of the...don’t change it. 21. Did your LOAD BEARING EQUIPMi1 (pack) cause any problems? Yes 7 No 3 How should it be cianged? Explain Back and knee; like ALIC

  10. WHICH MOTOR ABILITIES HAVE THE HIGHEST IMPACT ON WORKING PERFORMANCE OF SLOVENIAN SOLDIERS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Pori

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to find a correlation between motor abilities and working efficiency of soldiers in a battle unit of Slovenia Armed Forces (SAF. The subject consisted of 115 soldiers (age = 27,1 ± 3,7 years who were serving in the first brigade of the SAF. Motor abilities were measured with 11 motor tests, assessing the level of flexibility, speed, strength and coordination. To evaluate working efficiency of soldiers a special questionnaire was used, which consisted of 19 statements. Superior officer was asked to fill a questionnaire for each inferior soldier with values from 1 to 5. The correlation between motor abilities and working efficiency was assessed with the Pearson’s correlation coefficient. We have found 5 statistically significant correlations. Motor tests correlating most with working performance were tests of arm strength.

  11. Functional Median Polish

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Ying

    2012-08-03

    This article proposes functional median polish, an extension of univariate median polish, for one-way and two-way functional analysis of variance (ANOVA). The functional median polish estimates the functional grand effect and functional main factor effects based on functional medians in an additive functional ANOVA model assuming no interaction among factors. A functional rank test is used to assess whether the functional main factor effects are significant. The robustness of the functional median polish is demonstrated by comparing its performance with the traditional functional ANOVA fitted by means under different outlier models in simulation studies. The functional median polish is illustrated on various applications in climate science, including one-way and two-way ANOVA when functional data are either curves or images. Specifically, Canadian temperature data, U. S. precipitation observations and outputs of global and regional climate models are considered, which can facilitate the research on the close link between local climate and the occurrence or severity of some diseases and other threats to human health. © 2012 International Biometric Society.

  12. Why do they serve?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincent, Stéphanie; Glad, Ane

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates what motivates young people to volunteer for peace-keeping or peace-enforcing missions and how their motives change between pre- and post-deployment. Data include information about social and military background, and motives for more than 600 soldiers, 444 of whom answered...

  13. Why do they serve?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincent, Stéphanie; Glad, Ane

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates what motivates young people to volunteer for peace-keeping or peace-enforcing missions and how their motives change between pre- and post-deployment. Data includes information about social and military background, and motives for more than 600 soldiers, 444 of whom answere...

  14. Public commemorations of Danish soldiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Birgitte Refslund

    2016-01-01

    have been designed by the soldiers and their families, memorialize soldiers as professionals with a military belonging as well as persons with numerous social attachments. And they most directly address the war, violence, and suffering that the emergence of a ‘war-fighting nation’ and a ‘warrior......This article takes a point of departure in Denmark’s decision to use the armed forces as a tool of foreign policy, even when this implies deployment to regions where combat and casualties must be expected. Since war, combat, and violence contradict traditional self-understandings of being Danish....... All memorials, I argue, relate to a recent public discourse about the ‘war-fighting nation’ and the ‘warrior generation’. The national monument eschews references to war and violence to produce a national narrative focusing on ‘effort’ as the core collective value. One grassroots memorial subtly...

  15. Training Dismounted Soldiers in Virtual Environments: Enhancing Configuration Learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Witmer, Bob

    2000-01-01

    ...) has conducted research in using virtual environments (VE) to train dismounted soldiers. While showing that some dismounted soldiers skills can be trained in VE, the research has also identified problems in using VE for soldier training...

  16. Egg care by termite soldiers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanus, Robert; Šobotník, Jan; Čížek, Lukáš

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 52, - (2005), 357-359 ISSN 0020-1812 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/05/2146 Grant - others:NSF(US) DEB-97-07928; NSF(US) DEB-02-11591 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : termite soldier * egg transport Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.618, year: 2005

  17. Liberia's Child Soldiers: Prospects and Problems I

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    children were killed in armed conflicts" in the ten years following the end of the Cold. War (5). While such statistics are ... child soldiers, i.e., the roles of parents, if alive, relatives, school principals and teachers ...... situation is responsible for the desertion of rehabilitation camps by child soldiers at the slightest opportunity, to ...

  18. [Treating shell-shocked soldiers in asylums].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertomeu, Agnès

    2014-06-01

    The duration and intensity of the fighting, the soldiers' difficult daily living conditions and the high number of men involved in the First World War resulted in the appearance of specific mental disorders for some soldiers. At first considered to be faking their symptoms, they were later able to be diagnosed and treated thanks to psychiatrists' interest in the condition.

  19. Moral othering at the checkpoint: The case of Israeli soldiers and Palestinian civilians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grassiani, E.

    2015-01-01

    In many ways the Palestinian civilian is the ultimate or significant ‘other' for the Israeli soldier serving in the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT). (S)he is the one who will be stopped, checked, controlled and at times arrested. (S)he is the one who negotiates, pleads, begs and sometimes

  20. Distress Levels among Parents of Active Duty Soldiers during Wartime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahar Bitton

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Military service is a highly stressful period both for the soldiers serving and for their parents. Surprisingly, parents’ experience has been mostly ignored in the research. This study’s goal is to shed light on the experience and distress levels of parents of active duty combat soldiers during Operation Protective Edge, a military operation carried out by the Israel Defense Forces during July and August of 2014.Methods: During the advanced stages of the operation, 69 parents of Israeli male combat soldiers (55 mothers and 14 fathers completed an online survey measuring symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD-Checklist-5 and distress (Brief Symptom Inventory-18. Participants were recruited using a convenience sample, by posting ads on the public Facebook pages of the researchers and of the groups dedicated to parents of Israeli soldiers.Results: Parents’ depression and anxiety symptom levels were higher than depression and anxiety symptom levels of the adult community norms in Israel. General distress rates of parents were similar to those presented by adults in southern Israel who were exposed for 7 years to the ongoing threat of daily rocket fire from Gaza, and higher than rates of a non-threatened Israeli population. Finally, 20.2% of the parents presented PTSD-like symptoms, a higher percentage than the probable PTSD diagnosis rates that were found in the general population in Israel during previous terror waves.Conclusion: This study provides preliminary evidence of soldiers’ parents’ distress and indicates the need for a better understanding of the impact of military service on soldiers’ parents.

  1. Soldier motivation – different or similar?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brænder, Morten; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh

    Recent research in military sociology has shown that in addition to their strong peer motivation modern soldiers are oriented toward contributing to society. It has not, however, been tested how soldier motivation differs from the motivation of other citizens in this respect. In this paper......, by means of public service motivation, a concept developed within the public administration literature, we compare soldier and civilian motivation. The contribution of this paper is an analysis of whether and how Danish combat soldiers differs from other Danes in regard to public service motivation? Using...... to the representativity of the military. If soldiers are less empathetic than other citizens, it might amplify differences between armed forces and society, making the individual’s transition from the one to the other even more difficult....

  2. Polish Semantic Parser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Grudzinska

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Amount of information transferred by computers grows very rapidly thus outgrowing the average man's capability of reception. It implies computer programs increase in the demand for which would be able to perform an introductory classitication or even selection of information directed to a particular receiver. Due to the complexity of the problem, we restricted it to understanding short newspaper notes. Among many conceptions formulated so far, the conceptual dependency worked out by Roger Schank has been chosen. It is a formal language of description of the semantics of pronouncement integrated with a text understanding algorithm. Substantial part of each text transformation system is a semantic parser of the Polish language. It is a module, which as the first and the only one has an access to the text in the Polish language. lt plays the role of an element, which finds relations between words of the Polish language and the formal registration. It translates sentences written in the language used by people into the language theory. The presented structure of knowledge units and the shape of understanding process algorithms are universal by virtue of the theory. On the other hand the defined knowledge units and the rules used in the algorithms ure only examples because they are constructed in order to understand short newspaper notes.

  3. Technology Supported Self-Development for Soldiers Deploying to Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    game allows the Soldier to rule a remote island during the Cold War. The Soldier takes on the role of “El Presidente ” and must manage the island’s...Soldiers try to meet the expectations of the population in the games Tropico 3 and PeaceMaker. Soldiers play the role of “El Presidente ” and must

  4. Libraries serving dialogue

    CERN Document Server

    Dupont, Odile

    2014-01-01

    This book based on experiences of libraries serving interreligious dialogue, presents themes like library tools serving dialogue between cultures, collections dialoguing, children and young adults dialoguing beyond borders, story telling as dialog, librarians serving interreligious dialogue.

  5. Color stability of nanocomposites polished with one-step systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergücü, Zeynep; Türkün, L Sebnem; Aladag, Akin

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the color changes of five novel resin composites polished with two one-step polishing systems when exposed to coffee solution. The resin composites tested were Filtek Supreme XT, Grandio, CeramX, Premise and Tetric EvoCeram. A total of 150 discs (30/resin composites, 10 x 2 mm) were fabricated. Ten specimens/resin composites cured under Mylar strips served as the control. The other samples were polished with PoGo and OptraPol discs for 30 seconds using a slow speed handpiece and immersed in coffee (Nescafé) for seven days. Color measurements were made with Vita Easyshade at baseline and after one and seven days. Repeated Measures ANOVA and Bonferroni tests were used for statistical analyses (pGrandio, there were no significant differences between the Mylar and PoGo groups, while the most stain resistant surfaces were attained with OptraPol. Removing the outermost resin layer by polishing procedures is essential to achieving a stain resistant, more esthetically stable surface. One-step polishing systems can be used successfully for polishing nanocomposites.

  6. [Lysenkoism in Polish botany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Piotr

    2008-01-01

    Lysenkoism in Poland was never an autonomous phenomenon. The whole array of reasons for which it appeared in Polish science would require a separate study--here it only needs to be pointed out that the major reasons included terror on the part of the security service, lawlessness, the ubiquitous atmosphere of intimidation and terror, censorship, the diminishing sphere of civil liberties, political show trials, propaganda and denunciations. An important role in facilitating the introduction of Lysenkoism was played also by the reorganization of science after World War Two, the isolation of Polish science from science in the West, as well as the damage it had suffered during the war. At first, Lysenkoism was promoted in Poland by a small group of enthusiastic and uncritical proponents. A overview of the events connected with the ten years of Lysenkoism in Poland (end of 1948--beginning of 1958) shows a two-tier picture of how the 'idea' was propagated. The first tier consisted in the activities of the Association of Marxist Naturalists [Koło Przyrodników-Marksistów], which it engaged in since the end of 1948. The Association was later transformed into a Union of Marxist Naturalists, and this in turn merged, in 1952, with the Copernican Society of Polish Naturalists [Polskie Towarzystwo Przyrodników im. Kopernika]. It was that society which promoted Lysenkoism longest, until the end of 1956. The propaganda and training activities of the circle and the society prepared ground for analogous activities of the newly formed Polish Academy of Science (PAN), which--since its very establishment in 1952--engaged in promoting Lysenkoism through its Second Division. These activities were aimed at naturalists, initially at those who were prominent scientists (eg. the conference at Kuźnice, 1950/1951), and then at those who were only starting their academic career (including national courses in new biology at Dziwnów, 1952, or Kortowo, 1953 and 1955). The end to promoting

  7. Child Soldiers: Tropes of Innocence and Terror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rosen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The story of child soldiers in the Western imagination is a story of symbolic reversals. Where the image of the child soldier once denoted public virtue and the nobility of sacrifice, it now stands for virtually everything that is wrong with war. Children were frequently present in the military through much of the 19th century (Aries 1962, p. 193. But by the middle of the 19th century, most Western nations had begun to reduce or eliminate the presence of children in their armed forces. The change was slow and erratic, however, so that even during World War I the heroic and patriotic child soldier, typically a boy sailor or soldier, remained a central image in the ideology of war and conflict (Conley 2009.

  8. Immersive Simulation Training for the Dismounted Soldier

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Knerr, Bruce W

    2007-01-01

    A study was conducted to document the need for immersive dismounted virtual Soldier and leader training and the available research evidence regarding the effectiveness of virtual training for training...

  9. Preparing soldiers for the stress of combat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Stephen C; Kotwal, Russ S; Forsten, Robert D

    2012-01-01

    Protracted use of stressors during military training courses does not necessarily enhance a Soldier?s ability to regulate stress on the battlefield. Extensive stress during training can be a contributing factor to suboptimal neurologic and overall long-term health. Prolonged high-stress military training programs, as well as extended duration combat deployments, should be comprehensively scrutinized for opportunities to preserve health and increase combat effectiveness. Contemporary research in neuroscience and psychology can provide insight into training techniques that can be used to control stress and optimize performance in combat. Physical fitness training programs can elevate the stress threshold. Extensive situational training can also inoculate Soldiers to specific combat stressors. Training methods such as these will enable Soldiers to achieve higher levels of performance while under enemy fire and are encouraged for units deploying to combat. combat stress, military training, military deployment, physical training, post-traumatic stress disorder, sleep deprivation, stress inoculation training. 2012.

  10. Soldier Mental Fitness Psychological Construct Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    2 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-2-0152 TITLE: Soldier Mental Fitness Psychological Construct Development PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Michael A...AND SUBTITLE Soldier Mental Fitness Psychological Construct Development Solider Mental Fitness Psychological Construct Development Solider Mental...Fitness Psychological Construct Development 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Michael A. Pickering 5d

  11. Administrative management of the soldier with seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, C H

    1991-07-01

    Based on improvement in our understanding of the prognosis of young adults with new onset seizures, and cumulative experience with the rules in effect for the last 30 years, a substantial change in the regulations affecting the fitness and profiling of these soldiers has been made. In general, these liberalize retention and profiling, set limits on the duration of trials of duty, provide for fitness determinations in soldiers with pseudo-seizures, and specify when neurologic consultation is required.

  12. The prevalence of Blastocystis hominis and other protozoan parasites in soldiers returning from peacekeeping missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Aleksandra; Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta; Lanocha-Arendarczyk, Natalia; Kołodziejczyk, Lidia; Lanocha, Aleksandra

    2015-04-01

    Blastocystis hominis is a common intestinal parasite found in humans living in poor sanitary conditions, living in tropical and subtropical climates, exposed to infected animals, or consuming contaminated food or water. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of B. hominis in Polish military personnel returning from peacekeeping missions in Iraq and Afghanistan. In total, 1,826 stool samples were examined. Gastrointestinal parasites were detected in 17% of the soldiers. The examined stool samples most frequently contained vacuolar forms of B. hominis (15.3%) and cysts of Entamoeba coli (1.0%) or Giardia lamblia (0.7%). In 97.1% of stool samples from infected soldiers, we observed less than five developmental forms of B. hominis in the field of view (40×). The parasite infections in soldiers were diagnosed in the autumn and the spring. There was no statistical correlation between age and B. hominis infection. Our results show that peacekeeping missions in countries with tropical or subtropical climates could be associated with risk for parasitic diseases, including blastocystosis. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  13. Subjective Quality of Life of Polish, Polish-Immigrant, and Polish-American Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdes, Celia; Zych, Adam A.

    2000-01-01

    Compares subjective quality of life of elderly Poles living in Poland, and Polish immigrants and Polish-American ethnics living in Chicago as part of a secondary data analysis of a study initially conducted in Poland. Conclusions lend support to the idea that U.S.-born elderly people and elderly immigrants to the United States have a significantly…

  14. Millimeter-wave soldier-to-soldier communications for covert battlefield operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cotton, Simon L.; Scanlon, W.G.; Madahar, Bhopinder K.

    2009-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networking of dismounted combat personnel is expected to play an important role in the future of network-centric operations. High-speed, short-range, soldier-to-soldier wireless communications will be required to relay information on situational awareness, tactical instructions, and

  15. Surface analysis of polished fused-silica laser lenses by ion-scattering spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orvek, K.; Steward, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    New advances in high-powered glass lasers, particularly the NOVA system, have resulted in a need for lenses having higher damage threshold values than those now available. It is currently thought that surface contaminants on the lenses are responsible for initiating part of the damage. These contaminants are apparently introduced during the final polishing stages. In this study, we used ion-scattering spectrometry (ISS) to identify contaminants arising through the use of different polishing techniques. Five lenses were studied, each having undergone different polishing procedures. The first lens was not polished after receiving it from the manfacturer (No. 381). Ion microprobe data were available for this lens, and they were compared to ISS results. The second lens had been polished with rouge, a polishing compound no longer in use (No. 796). This sample served as a further check on the ISS results. The third lens was studied as received from the manufacturer - with no handling or cleaning (No. 802). The final two lenses had both been polished using high-purity ceria, cerium oxide (No. 800 and No. 801). The difference between these two was that No. 800 was polished using a nylon lap, and No. 801 was polished using pitch as a lap. The 800-series lenses were all made from the same batch, and constituted the major part of the investigation

  16. Zinc: An Essential Trace Element with Potential Benefits to Soldiers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McClung, James P; Scrimgeour, Angus G

    2005-01-01

    .... This review highlights the importance of adequate zinc nutrition to soldiers and discusses the potential benefits of supplemental zinc to protect soldiers against a number of diseases currently affecting them, including diarrhea, respiratory diseases, malaria, and leishmaniasis.

  17. Tooth polishing: The current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri Alankar Sawai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Healthy teeth and gums make a person feel confident and fit. As people go about their daily routines and with different eating and drinking habits, the tooth enamel turns yellowish or gets stained. Polishing traditionally has been associated with the prophylaxis procedure in most dental practices, which patients know and expect. However, with overzealous use of polishing procedure, there is wearing of the superficial tooth structure. This would lead to more accumulation of local deposits. Also, it takes a long time for the formation of the fluoride-rich layer of the tooth again. Hence, now-a-days, polishing is not advised as a part of routine oral prophylaxis procedure but is done selectively based on the patients′ need. The article here, gives an insight on the different aspects of the polishing process along with the different methods and agents used for the same.

  18. Lysenko affair and Polish botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the slight impact of Lysenkoism upon Polish botany. I begin with an account of the development of plant genetics in Poland, as well as the attitude of scientists and the Polish intelligentsia toward Marxist philosophy prior to the World War II. Next I provide a short history of the introduction and demise of Lysenkoism in Polish science, with a focus on events in botany, in context with key events in Polish science from 1939 to 1958. The article outlines the little effects of Lysenkoism upon botanists and their research, as well as how botanists for the most part rejected what was often termed the "new biology." My paper shows that though Lysenko's theories received political support, and were actively promoted by a small circle of scientists and Communist party activists, they were never accepted by most botanists. Once the political climate in Poland altered after the events of 1956, Lysenko's theories were immediately abandoned.

  19. Elastic emission polishing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewenthal, M.; Loseke, K.; Dow, T.A.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01

    Elastic emission polishing, also called elastic emission machining (EEM), is a process where a stream of abrasive slurry is used to remove material from a substrate and produce damage free surfaces with controlled surface form. It is a noncontacting method utilizing a thick elasto-hydrodynamic film formed between a soft rotating ball and the workpiece to control the flow of the abrasive. An apparatus was built in the Center, which consists of a stationary spindle, a two-axis table for the workpiece, and a pump to circulate the working fluid. The process is controlled by a programmable computer numerical controller (CNC), which presently can operate the spindle speed and movement of the workpiece in one axis only. This apparatus has been used to determine material removal rates on different material samples as a function of time, utilizing zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) particles suspended in distilled water as the working fluid. By continuing a study of removal rates the process should become predictable, and thus create a new, effective, yet simple tool for ultra-precision mechanical machining of surfaces.

  20. THE POLISH RECIPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.F. Spinu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-six years ago the international community witnessed one of the most dramatic changes in economic systems. Naturally, the fall of communism in Eastern Europe and its consequences were events difficult to judge and anticipate in their immediate aftermath. Today, we have gained a much more coherent perspective on their meaning. The political liberalization of Poland in 1989 and its transition to the market economy was generally perceived as the most successful of all post-communist countries. From 1990 to 2013, Poland experienced the most outstanding economic growth within the former communist bloc. It doubled its GDP in real terms and became the only country to experience economic growth during the financial crisis of 2008-09. However, the polish secret recipe lies in the "shock therapy" adopted at the beginning of the 90's. The aim of this paper is to examine the importance of the Balcerowicz's program in creating the basis for economic stability and growth through privatization, liberalization of foreign trade, monetary reform and an open economy. We will also review the impact of this unprecedented transformation in shaping a strong, market-oriented economy.

  1. Role Reversal Protest in Nigeria: Soldiers Still the Boss? A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Today's world is used to all sorts of inter-group violent conflicts, but definitely not the type in the post military Nigeria where soldiers and policemen fatally combat each other; soldiers claiming superiority over policemen who, in turn, want to seize every opportunity to act that in a democracy, they, no longer the soldiers, are ...

  2. Streamflow conditions along Soldier Creek, Northeast Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2017-11-14

    The availability of adequate water to meet the present (2017) and future needs of humans, fish, and wildlife is a fundamental issue for the Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation in northeast Kansas. Because Soldier Creek flows through the Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation Reservation, it is an important tribal resource. An understanding of historical Soldier Creek streamflow conditions is required for the effective management of tribal water resources, including drought contingency planning. Historical data for six selected U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamgages along Soldier Creek were used in an assessment of streamflow characteristics and trends by Juracek (2017). Streamflow data for the period of record at each streamgage were used to compute annual mean streamflow, annual mean base flow, mean monthly flow, annual peak flow, and annual minimum flow. Results of the assessment are summarized in this fact sheet.

  3. Nutritional adequacy of meals offered and consumed by soldiers of the Brazilian Army

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Braz Assunção Botelho

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this research is to evaluate the nutritional adequacy of meals served and consumed by soldiers in a construction unit (army and civil employees of the Brazilian Army Construction. METHODS: Body mass index, fat percentage (bioimpedance and the physical activity level were evaluated. Furthermore, the nutritional evaluation of meals offered and consumed by soldiers was evaluated, in relation to the macronutrients, sodium, fibers and total energetic value. RESULTS: Through the results, we verified that 76% of the soldiers were eutrophic, and that the population's energetic requirement was approximately 3.600 kcal. We verified that the energetic consumption of this population was below the required value (3.200 kcal and with inadequacy regarding the distribution of macronutrients: percentage of carbohydrates above the recommended one, percentage of lipid below the minimum value recommended and percentage of proteins within the recommendation. Moreover, the amount of fibers was in accordance to the standards; however, there was an excessive amount of sodium, which may put this population in danger. CONCLUSION: We concluded that it is necessary to improve the quality of the meals offered in relation to the nutritional aspect, by promoting the adequacy to the soldiers' needs. Other types of quality were not studied, but they are important when evaluating acceptability of meals.

  4. CORRELATION BETWEEN COORDINATION AND PERSONALITY TRAITS OF SOLDIERS IN BATTLE UNIT OF SLOVENIAN ARMED FORCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Pori

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation between motor ability of coordination and personality traits of Slovenian soldiers. The subject sample consisted of 94 soldiers in a battle unit of Slovenian Armed Forces (SAF who were serving in the first brigade (age 26,5 ± 3,4 years. Motor ability of coordination was assessed with two motor tasks (polygon bac- kwards and figure 8 duck test. The structure of personality traits was measured with a FPI (Freiburg Personality Inventory included 114 items and measured 9 personality traits of order I (neuroticism, impulsivity, depression, irritability, sociability, calmness, dominance, suppression, sincerity and 3 personality traits of order II (extroversion, emotional istability, masculinity. The correlation between coordination and personality traits was estimated by the Pearson’s correlation coefficient. The results show that soldiers who did worse in motor test polygon backwards were more neurotic, suppressed, and impulsive. They also tend to be more sociable. The correlation between second test of coordination shows that better soldiers in this test are more extrovert or less introvert.

  5. A Helpful Serving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockower, David

    2006-01-01

    This article briefly describes how a fifth-grade class collaborated with a downtown diner for several months and then actually ran the restaurant for four hours. Through the Chatters Cafe, a local high school cafe that serves as a culinary arts training ground for high school students, fifth graders had the opportunity to prepare and serve dinner…

  6. Effects of Polishing Bur Application Force and Reuse on Sintered Zirconia Surface Topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, N G; Tsujimoto, A; Baruth, A G

    2018-03-16

    Limited information is available on how to polish and finish zirconia surfaces following computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM), specifically, how differing application forces and reuse of zirconia polishing systems affect zirconia topography. To determine the effect of differing, clinically relevant, polishing application forces and multiple usages of polishing burs on the surface topography of CAD/CAM zirconia. One hundred twenty 220-grit carbide finished zirconia disks were sintered according to manufacturer's directions and divided into two groups for the study of two coarse polishing bur types. Each group was divided into subgroups for polishing (15,000 rpm) at 15 seconds for 1.0 N, 4.5 N, or 11 N of force using a purpose-built fixture. Subgroups were further divided to study the effects of polishing for the first, fifth, 15th, and 30th bur use, simulating clinical procedures. Unpolished surfaces served as a control group. Surfaces were imaged with noncontact optical profilometry (OP) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to measure average roughness values (Ra). Polishing burs were optically examined for wear. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed on burs and zirconia surfaces. One-way ANOVA with post hoc Tukey HSD (honest significant difference) tests (α=0.05) were used for statistical analyses. AFM and OP Ra values of all polished surfaces were significantly lower than those of the unpolished control. Different polishing forces and bur reuse showed no significant differences in AFM Ra. However, significant differences in OP Ra were found due to differing application forces and bur reuse between the first and subsequent uses. SEM and optical micrographs revealed notable bur wear, increasing with increasing reuse. SEM and AFM micrographs clearly showed polished, periodic zirconia surfaces. Nanoscale topography, as analyzed with kurtosis and average groove depth, was found dependent on the specific polishing bur type. These in

  7. Polish Toxic Currency Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Gontarski

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Toxic currency options are defined on the basis of the opposition to the nature (essence of an option contract, which is justified in terms of norms founded on the general law clause of characteristics (nature of a relation (which represents an independent premise for imposing restrictions on the freedom of contracts. So-understood toxic currency options are unlawful. Indeed they contravene iuris cogentis regulations. These include for instance option contracts, which are concluded with a bank, if the bank has not informed about option risk before concluding the contract; or the barrier options, which focus only on the protection of banks interests. Therefore, such options may appear to be invalid. Therefore, performing contracts for toxic currency options may be qualified as a criminal mismanagement. For the sake of security, the manager should then take into consideration filing a claim for stating invalidity (which can be made in a court verdict. At the same time, if the supervisory board member in a commercial company, who can also be a subject to mismanagement offences, commits an omission involving lack of reaction (for example, if he/she fails to notify of the suspected offence committed by the management board members acting to the companys detriment when the management board makes the company conclude option contracts which are charged with absolute invalidity the supervisory board member so acting may be considered to act to the companys detriment. In the most recent Polish jurisprudence and judicature the standard of a good host is treated to be the last resort for determining whether the managers powers resulting from criminal regulations were performed. The manager of the exporter should not, as a rule, issue any options. Issuing options always means assuming an obligation. In the case of currency put options it is an absolute obligation to purchase a given amount in euro at exchange rate set in advance. On the other hand issuing

  8. Evaluation of the Performance of Females as Light Infantry Soldiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aharon S. Finestone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A few countries permit women to serve in combat roles, but their long term performance in these positions has not been reported. The incidences of overuse injuries and attrition of 85 male and 235 female recruits in a light infantry brigade was followed in a three-year prospective study. Females were shorter (162 cm, CI 161–163 cm than males (174 cm, CI 173–176, had more body fat (18.9 kg, CI 18.2–19.6 kg than males (12.6 kg, 11.3–13.8 kg, had lower V˙O2max (36.8 mL·min−1·kg−1, CI 35.8–37.78 mL·min−1·kg−1 than males (50.48 mL·min−1·kg−1, CI 48.4 to 52.48 mL·min−1·kg−1, had more stress fractures (21.0%, 95% CI 16.2–26.5% than males (2.3%, CI 0.3–8.2%, and had more anterior knee pain (41.2%, CI 34.9–47.7% than males (24.7%, CI 16.0–35.2%. Three-year attrition was 28% CI 22–34% for females and 37% CI 26–48% for males. The females in this study successfully served as light infantry soldiers. Their lower fitness and high incidence of overuse injuries might impede service as regular infantry soldiers.

  9. Occupational Lung Diseases among Soldiers Deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szema, Anthony M

    2013-01-01

    Military personnel deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan, from 2004 to the present, has served in a setting of unique environmental conditions. Among these are exposures to burning trash in open air "burn pits" lit on fire with jet fuel JP-8. Depending on trash burned--water bottles, styrofoam trays, medical waste, unexploded munitions, and computers--toxins may be released such as dioxins and n-hexane and benzene. Particulate matter air pollution culminates from these fires and fumes. Additional environmental exposures entail sandstorms (Haboob, Shamal, and Sharqi) which differ in direction and relationship to rain. These wars saw the first use of improvised explosive devices (roadside phosphate bombs),as well as vehicle improvised explosive devices (car bombs), which not only potentially aerosolize metals, but also create shock waves to induce lung injury via blast overpressure. Conventional mortar rounds are also used by Al Qaeda in both Iraq and Afghanistan. Outdoor aeroallergens from date palm trees are prevalent in southern Iraq by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, while indoor aeroallergen aspergillus predominates during the rainy season. High altitude lung disease may also compound the problem, particularly in Kandahar, Afghanistan. Clinically, soldiers may present with new-onset asthma or fixed airway obstruction. Some have constrictive bronchiolitis and vascular remodeling on open lung biopsy - despite having normal spirometry and chest xrays and CT scans of the chest. Others have been found to have titanium and other metals in the lung (rare in nature). Still others have fulminant biopsy-proven sarcoidiosis. We found DNA probe-positive Mycobacterium Avium Complex in lung from a soldier who had pneumonia, while serving near stagnant water and camels and goats outside Abu Gharib. This review highlights potential exposures, clinical syndromes, and the Denver Working Group recommendations on post-deployment health.

  10. Efficient polishing of aspheric optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, J.S.; Piscotty, M.A.; Nguyen, N.Q.; Landram, C.S.; Ng, L.C.

    1997-04-15

    The objectives of this project are to develop, evaluate, and optimize novel designs for a polishing tool intended for ultra-precise figure corrections on aspheric optics with tolerances typical of those required for use in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) projection lithography. This work may lead to an enhanced US industrial capability for producing optics for EUV, x-ray and, other high precision applications. LLNL benefits from developments in computer-controlled polishing and the insertion of fluid mechanics modeling into the precision manufacturing area. Our accomplishments include the numerical estimation of the hydrodynamic shear stress distribution for a new polishing tool that directs and controls the interaction of an abrasive slurry with an optical surface. A key milestone is in establishing a correlation between the shear stress predicted using our fluid mechanics model and the observed removal footprint created by a prototype tool. In addition, we demonstrate the ability to remove 25 nm layers of optical glass in a manner qualitatively similar to macroscopic milling operations using a numerically- controlled machine tool. Other accomplishments include the development of computer control software for directing the polishing tool and the construction of a polishing testbed.

  11. Effects of Wet and Dry Finishing and Polishing on Surface Roughness and Microhardness of Composite Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negin Nasoohi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to assess the effect of wet and dry finishing and polishing on microhardness and roughness of microhybrid and nanohybrid composites.Materials and Methods: Thirty samples were fabricated of each of the Polofil Supra and Aelite Aesthetic All-Purpose Body microhybrid and Grandio and Aelite Aesthetic Enamel nanohybrid composite resins. Each group (n=30 was divided into three subgroups of D, W and C (n=10. Finishing and polishing were performed dry in group D and under water coolant in group W. Group C served as the control group and did not receive finishing and polishing. Surface roughness of samples was measured by a profilometer and their hardness was measured by a Vickers hardness tester. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA (P<0.05.Results: The smoothest surfaces with the lowest microhardness were obtained under Mylar strip without finishing/polishing for all composites (P<0.0001. The highest surface roughness was recorded for dry finishing/polishing for all composites (P<0.0001. Dry finishing/polishing increased the microhardness of all composites (P<0.0001.Conclusions: Dry finishing and polishing increases the microhardness and surface roughness of microhybrid and nanohybrid composite resins. Keywords: Composite Resins; Dental Polishing; Hardness

  12. Wladimir Krzyzanowski, 123 Polish Hero of the Civil War in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PIYUK T.G.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the young Polish revolutionist Wladimir Krzyzanowski who emigrated from Great Poland to the US after failed uprising in 1846 against Prussia in order to avoid possible arrest. He went to Hamburg, Germany and sailed from there to the United States.W. Krzyzanowski managed to become a successful and prosperous businessman and politician, and he was lucky in his personal life, he married a girl with a name and a significant dowry. He considered slavery not only anachronistic, but also a disgrace to the young state, and at the same time, he admired American democracy and American people. In Washington he recruited the company of Polish immigrants which became one of the first companies of Union Soldiers. Krzyzanowski then moved his company to New York and enlisted more immigrants and soon became a Colonel of the 58th Infantry Division, listed in the official Army Register as the “Polish Legion”. He participated in the Civil War battles of Cross-Keys, Bull Run, Chancellorsville, and Gettysburg. “Polish Legion”, led by Krzyzanowski, made himself famous in the main battle at Gettysburg. Subsequently, the memorial of granite was erected to legion in the immediate vicinity of the city.The author’s attention was attracted by the eccentric personality of the Pole, known in Poland and in America. In her work she explores Krzyzanowski’s life and service to the American people

  13. Child Soldiers: Rights Denied, Hope Restored

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carano, Kenneth T.; Bailey, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    The forceful induction of children as child soldiers is an abhorrent violation of human rights. It is very disturbing that while many children are forcibly recruited into armed conflicts, others actually volunteer, due to their nightmarish alternatives. Although the practice has recently gained worldwide attention, awareness alone will not end the…

  14. Child Soldiers Initiative | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Child Soldiers Initiative. The involvement of children in fighting forces continues to be widespread, undercutting security and blocking development in many fragile states. Failure to prevent children from being recruited - and effectively reintegrate those who have been - results in their continued vulnerability, undermines ...

  15. Deployments, Stress, and Soldiers' Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perot, Mindy

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on identifying whether certain factors affected the academic performance of Soldiers attending an Army educational institution. Academic performance was measured by the grade percentile average of the participant upon the completion of their course of enrollment. Factors that were considered within the study through…

  16. Sensors to Support the Soldier

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-02-01

    sponsorship of the Office of Naval Research. Paul Gido (Asst. Vice Chief of Naval Research, ONR) served as POC. The charge, which was proposed by JASON itself...23] F. E. Nathanson . Radar- Design Principles. McGraw-Hill, New York. 2nd edition, 1990. [24] ITU Radiocommnunication Assembly. Propagation data and

  17. Cannabinoids cases in polish athletes

    OpenAIRE

    A Pokrywka; Z Obmiński; D Kwiatkowska; R Grucza

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the number of cases and the profiles of Polish athletes who had occasionally been using marijuana or hashish throughout the period of 1998-2004, with respect to: sex, age, and discipline of sport as well as the period of testing (in- and out-of-competition). Results of the study were compared with some data reported by other WADA accredited anti-doping laboratories. Totally, 13 631 urine samples taken from Polish athletes of both sexes, aged 10-67 year...

  18. Polish-Bulgarian-Russian, Bulgarian-Polish-Russian or Russian-Bulgarian-Polish dictionary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Koseska-Toszewa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Polish-Bulgarian-Russian, Bulgarian-Polish-Russian or Russian-Bulgarian-Polish dictionary? The trilingual dictionary (M. Duszkin, V. Koseska, J. Satoła and A. Tzoneva is being elaborated based on a working Polish-Bulgarian-Russian electronic parallel corpus authored by Maksim Duszkin, Violetta Koseska-Toszewa and Joanna Satoła-Staśkowiak, and works by A. Tzoneva. It is the first corpus comparing languages belonging to three different Slavic language groups: western, southern and eastern. Works on the dictionary are based on Gramatyka konfrontatywna bułgarsko-polska (Bulgarian-Polish confrontative grammar and the proposed there semantic-oriented interlanguage. Two types of classifiers have been introduced into the dictionary: classic and semantic. The trilingual dictionary will present a consistent and homogeneous set of facts of grammar and semantics. The Authors point out that in a traditional dictionary it is not clear for example whether aspect should be understood as imperfective / perfective form of a verb or as its meaning. Therefore in the dictionary forms and meaning are separated in a regular way. Imperfective verb form has two meanings: state and configuration of states and events culminating in state. Also perfective verb form has two meanings: event and configuration of states and events culminating in event. These meanings are described by the semantic classifiers, respectively, state and event, state1 and event1. The way of describing language units, mentioned in the article, gives a possibility to present language material (Polish, Bulgarian, Russian in any required order, hence the article’s title.

  19. An Unexpected Case of Lyme Disease in a Soldier Serving in Northern Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) reporting a 40% increase from 2001 to 2002. Epidemiologic reports from the CDC have indicated an incidence of 6...symptoms consistent with fibromyalgia . 1 CDC recommendations are for a two-step process for serologic confirmation of B. burgdorferi. The fiP6t step is

  20. Two New Effective Tourniquets for Potential Use in the Military Environment: A Serving Soldier Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaven, Alastair; Briard, Rob; Ballard, Mark; Parker, Paul

    2017-07-01

    Limb tourniquets have been used extensively during modern Middle Eastern conflicts. Despite its undeniable successes, the combat applied tourniquet (C-A-T) has some shortfalls, principally its inability to reliably control lower limb bleeding when applied to the mid-thigh. We tested two tourniquets which may represent an improvement to the combat applied tourniquet; the tactical mechanical tourniquet and the tactical pneumatic tourniquet. We recruited 12 healthy service personnel and applied the tactical mechanical tourniquet and tactical pneumatic tourniquet to both lower limbs in a randomly generated sequence. Tourniquets were tightened until popliteal artery occlusion. This was measured via a SonoSite portable ultrasound machine by a single consultant vascular radiologist familiar with its use. A longitudinal view of the popliteal artery was obtained, and Doppler waveform monitored. The tourniquets were tightened around volunteers' mid-thigh by a second researcher accustomed with their use. Time to complete occlusion, number of windlass revolutions, and pain scores were collected by a third researcher. Non-normally distributed data are present as median (interquartile range). Ordinal nonparametric data are analysed by Mann-Whitney U testing. Participants had a median age of 32.5 (28-35). Both tourniquets demonstrated complete occlusion of the popliteal artery in all limbs (n = 24). The mechanical tourniquet achieved arterial occlusion after a median of 3.8 (3-4) turns, and 16 (12-20) seconds. No participants dropped out of the study because of intolerable pain, or any cause. Median pain scores for the mechanical tourniquets were 4.5 (3-7) (maximum pain) and 4.0 (2-7) (pain when locked). Median pain scores for the pneumatic tourniquet were 5 (2-6) (maximum pain) and 5 (2-6) (pain when fully applied). There was no statistical difference in maximum pain scores between the tactical mechanical tourniquet and the tactical pneumatic tourniquet (p = 0.75). No participant had any tourniquet applied for longer than 80 seconds. Both tourniquets completely occluded the popliteal artery in all participants within an acceptable pain threshold. Further testing is required before the presented tourniquets can be taken to the battlefield; particularly measures of self-application, and use on other anatomical areas. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  1. Cannabinoids cases in polish athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Pokrywka

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the number of cases and the profiles of Polish athletes who had occasionally been using marijuana or hashish throughout the period of 1998-2004, with respect to: sex, age, and discipline of sport as well as the period of testing (in- and out-of-competition. Results of the study were compared with some data reported by other WADA accredited anti-doping laboratories. Totally, 13 631 urine samples taken from Polish athletes of both sexes, aged 10-67 years, performing 46 disciplines of sport were tested. Cannabinoids were detected in 267 samples. Among Polish athletes the relative number of positive THC (tetrahydrocannabinol samples was one of the highest in Europe. The group of young Polish athletes (aged 16-24 years was the most THC-positive. THC-positive cases were noted more frequently in male athletes tested during out of competitions. The so-called contact sports (rugby, ice hockey, skating, boxing, badminton, body building and acrobatic sports were those sports, where the higher risk of cannabis use was observed. The legal interpretation of some positive cannabinoids results would be difficult because of some accidental and unintentional use of the narcotics by sportsmen. It was concluded that national anti-doping organizations (NADO’s, which are competent to judge whether the anti-doping rules were violated, should take into account the possibility of non-intentional doping use of cannabinoids via passive smoking of marijuana.

  2. Sensing roughness and polish direction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Olesen, Anders Sig; Larsen, Henning Engelbrecht

    2016-01-01

    needs information about the RMS-value of the surface roughness and the current direction of the scratches introduced by the polishing process. The RMS-value indicates to the operator how far he is from the final finish, and the scratch orientation is often specified by the customer in order to avoid...... structures and light scattered from scratches....

  3. Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields in the Polish Armed Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobiech, Jaromir; Kieliszek, Jarosław; Puta, Robert; Bartczak, Dagmara; Stankiewicz, Wanda

    2017-06-19

    Standard devices used by military personnel that may pose electromagnetic hazard include: radars, missile systems, radio navigation systems and radio transceivers. The aim of this study has been to evaluate the exposure of military personnel to electromagnetic fields. Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields was analyzed in the work environment of personnel of 204 devices divided into 5 groups (surface-to-air missile system radars, aircraft and helicopters, communication devices, surveillance and height finder radars, airport radars and radio navigation systems). Measurements were carried out at indicators, device terminals, radio panels, above vehicle seats, in vehicle hatches, by cabinets containing high power vacuum tubes and other transmitter components, by transmission lines, connectors, etc. Portable radios emit the electric field strength between 20-80 V/m close to a human head. The manpack radio operator's exposure is 60-120 V/m. Inside vehicles with high frequency/very high frequency (HF/VHF) band radios, the electric field strength is between 7-30 V/m and inside the radar cabin it ranges between 9-20 V/m. Most of the personnel on ships are not exposed to the electromagnetic field from their own radar systems but rather by accidental exposure from the radar systems of other ships. Operators of surface-to-air missile systems are exposed to the electric field strength between 7-15 V/m and the personnel of non-directional radio beacons - 100-150 V/m. In 57% of military devices Polish soldiers work in the occupational protection zones. In 35% of cases, soldiers work in intermediate and hazardous zones and in 22% - only in the intermediate zone. In 43% of devices, military personnel are not exposed to electromagnetic field. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(4):565-577. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  4. Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields in the Polish Armed Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Kieliszek

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Standard devices used by military personnel that may pose electromagnetic hazard include: radars, missile systems, radio navigation systems and radio transceivers. The aim of this study has been to evaluate the exposure of military personnel to electromagnetic fields. Material and Methods: Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields was analyzed in the work environment of personnel of 204 devices divided into 5 groups (surface-to-air missile system radars, aircraft and helicopters, communication devices, surveillance and height finder radars, airport radars and radio navigation systems. Measurements were carried out at indicators, device terminals, radio panels, above vehicle seats, in vehicle hatches, by cabinets containing high power vacuum tubes and other transmitter components, by transmission lines, connectors, etc. Results: Portable radios emit the electric field strength between 20–80 V/m close to a human head. The manpack radio operator’s exposure is 60–120 V/m. Inside vehicles with high frequency/very high frequency (HF/VHF band radios, the electric field strength is between 7–30 V/m and inside the radar cabin it ranges between 9–20 V/m. Most of the personnel on ships are not exposed to the electromagnetic field from their own radar systems but rather by accidental exposure from the radar systems of other ships. Operators of surface-to-air missile systems are exposed to the electric field strength between 7–15 V/m and the personnel of non-directional radio beacons – 100–150 V/m. Conclusions: In 57% of military devices Polish soldiers work in the occupational protection zones. In 35% of cases, soldiers work in intermediate and hazardous zones and in 22% – only in the intermediate zone. In 43% of devices, military personnel are not exposed to electromagnetic field. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(4:565–577

  5. Spontaneous cure of American cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania naiffi in two Dutch infantry soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Snoek, E M; Lammers, A M; Kortbeek, L M; Roelfsema, J H; Bart, A; Jaspers, C A J J

    2009-12-01

    We report two Dutch infantry soldiers who acquired American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) during military jungle training in Surinam. The lesions had existed for 3 and 5 months, respectively, before the soldiers presented for treatment. The lesions occurred on the head and right thigh, and were small, uncomplicated and symptomless. PCR for Leishmania revealed Leishmania naiffi in both patients. No treatment was given, and the lesions in both men healed spontaneously within 4 and 6 weeks, respectively, after presentation to our clinic. CL is one of the important 'tropical' diseases in The Netherlands, primarily due to the increasing numbers of cases in travellers and in military personnel serving overseas. ACL due to L. naiffi is thought to be a mild expression of CL with a self-limiting nature. Lesions seem to be single, mostly small, ulcerating and usually appear on the hands, arms and legs. No case of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis has yet been attributed to this parasite.

  6. Drama is Served

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svømmekjær, Heidi Frank

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on how the theme of food is used for making social, gender, and other distinctions in the weekly Danish radio series The Hansen Family (The Danish Broadcasting Corporation, 1929-49) and in relation to other radio programmes from the 1930s and 1940s. These distinctions serve t...

  7. Weight Measurements and Standards for Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    dietetic and nutrition events. Among the topics discussed were fad diets , sport drinks, supplements, and nutrition myths. Soldiers were informed...providing a one week view, adding calorie requirements, including a weight and diet history, and displaying the number of days until the next APFT...visual estimation of portion sizes. J Am Diet Assoc. 2003 Sep;103:1139-45. 3. Williamson DA, Martin PD, Allen HR, Most MM, Alfonso AJ, Thomas V

  8. Improving Employment Prospects for Soldiers Leaving the Regular Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    job – 2 – To help soldiers translate their KSAs for civilian employ- ers, we highlighted survey questions associated with soft skills —such as...This occurs partly because soft skills identified in our approach—such as leadership, teamwork, and train- ing, coaching, and mentoring others—are...of soldiers leaving the Regular Army each year, exacerbating challenges for soldiers entering the civilian workplace . This brief highlights the

  9. Antibodies to Orientia tsutsugamushi in Thai soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eamsila, C; Singsawat, P; Duangvaraporn, A; Strickman, D

    1996-11-01

    Thai soldiers who were conscripted, Royal Thai Army forces, professional Border Patrol Police, or local militia (Thai Rangers) located in any of seven provinces of Thailand were bled in April and again, four months later, in July 1989. In 1991, soldiers from five different locations in southern Thailand were bled once, in July. Serum samples were tested by indirect fluorescent antibody assay for antibody to Orientia (formerly Rickettsia) tsutsugamushi, etiologic agent of scrub typhus, with any titer > or = 1:50 considered positive. Prior to field exercises, prevalence of antibody varied significantly between different types of units, ranging between 18.6% for Thai Rangers and 6.8% for the Royal Thai Army. The April prevalence, July prevalence, and incidence varied significantly by province in 1989, with highest incidence being 14.5% in Kanchanaburi and the lowest 0% in Utraladit. The prevalence in southern Thailand in 1991 varied between 1.6% and 6.8%. The data demonstrate that O. tsutsugamushi is widely distributed in Thailand and that military activity consisting of field exercises that simulate combat conditions significantly expose soldiers to infection.

  10. Ambulatory Recording of Urodynamic Functioning in Female Soldiers During Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davis, Gary

    1997-01-01

    .... Fifty active duty female soldiers with exercise induced urinary incontinence and ten asymptomatic controls underwent conventional multi-channel cystometry and then ambulatory monitoring during work or exercise...

  11. Polish energy-system modernisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdz, M.

    2003-01-01

    The Polish energy-system needs intensive investments in new technologies, which are energy efficient, clean and cost effective. Since the early 1990s, the Polish economy has had practically full access to modern technological devices, equipment and technologies. Introducing new technologies is a difficult task for project teams, constructors and investors. The author presents a set of principles for project teams useful in planning and energy modernisation. Several essential features are discussed: Energy-efficient appliances and systems; Choice of energy carriers, media and fuels; Optimal tariffs, maximum power and installed power; Intelligent, integrated, steering systems; Waste-energy recovery; Renewable-energy recovery. In practice there are several difficulties connected with planning and realising good technological and economic solutions. The author presents his own experiences of energy-system modernisation of industrial processes and building new objects. (Author)

  12. FINANCIAL SECURITY OF POLISH HOUSEHOLDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kozera

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available  A household’s fi nancial security is essential for the satisfaction of the needs and wants of its members, both communal and individual. It constitutes a kind of foundation for all of a household’s fi nancial decisions that impact its standard of living. The article aims to assess the level of fi nancial security of Polish households in 2005–2013. The research draws on data from Genworth Index, HBS conducted by the Central Statistical Offi ce (GUS and Social Diagnosis (Diagnoza społeczna overseen by the Social Monitoring Council. The study shows that Poland is characterized by a low level of fi nancial security relative to other European countries, especially Western and Scandinavian. More than three-quarters of Polish households experience fi nancial problems and exhibit both a low propensity to save, and low savings rates.

  13. Energy savings in Polish buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markel, L.C.; Gula, A.; Reeves, G.

    1995-12-31

    A demonstration of low-cost insulation and weatherization techniques was a part of phase 1 of the Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficient Project. The objectives were to identify a cost-effective set of measures to reduce energy used for space heating, determine how much energy could be saved, and foster widespread implementation of those measures. The demonstration project focused on 4 11-story buildings in a Krakow housing cooperative. Energy savings of over 20% were obtained. Most important, the procedures and materials implemented in the demonstration project have been adapted to Polish conditions and applied to other housing cooperatives, schools, and hospitals. Additional projects are being planned, in Krakow and other cities, under the direction of FEWE-Krakow, the Polish Energie Cities Network, and Biuro Rozwoju Krakowa.

  14. Finishing and polishing of a poly (fluoroalkoxyphosphazene) resilient denture liner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loney, R W; Moulding, M B; Hacker, C H; Ritsco, R G

    1994-01-01

    A raised ridge of Novus resilient denture liner was removed from samples using one of three burs, three stones, or a coarse sandpaper disc. Samples were polished using pumice alone, tin oxide alone, or both agents. A flat, unfinished sample served as a control. Average surface roughness of control samples was 0.96 microns. Average surface roughness measurements for reduced samples ranged from 7.21 microns (sandpaper disc) to 3.34 microns (Prolastic wheel). Without polishing, sandpaper discs and serrated burs produced rougher surfaces than stones or the nonserrated bur. The sandpaper disc reduced the liner the quickest. There were no significant differences between treatments or controls after the use of pumice alone or after the use of a combination of pumice and tin oxide. An acceptable finishing protocol for this poly(fluoroalkoxyphosphazene) resilient liner appears to differ from that previously established for a silicone resilient denture liner.

  15. Earnings Management in Polish Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Brzeszczyński, Janusz; Gajdka, Jerzy; Schabek, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents results of the investigation of a phenomenon known as "earnings management'' (EM) among the companies listed on the Polish stock market. The distribution of earnings per share (EPS) for the stocks around the threshold value of "zero" and the threshold of "recent performance" was analyzed in the period of years 1997-2010. Moreover, the changes of earnings for the stocks, which are suspected to manipulate their earnings, were also investigated. The results, which indicate as...

  16. 19th Polish Control Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Kacprzyk, Janusz; Oprzędkiewicz, Krzysztof; Skruch, Paweł

    2017-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the KKA 2017 – the 19th Polish Control Conference, organized by the Department of Automatics and Biomedical Engineering, AGH University of Science and Technology in Kraków, Poland on June 18–21, 2017, under the auspices of the Committee on Automatic Control and Robotics of the Polish Academy of Sciences, and the Commission for Engineering Sciences of the Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences. Part 1 deals with general issues of modeling and control, notably flow modeling and control, sliding mode, predictive, dual, etc. control. In turn, Part 2 focuses on optimization, estimation and prediction for control. Part 3 is concerned with autonomous vehicles, while Part 4 addresses applications. Part 5 discusses computer methods in control, and Part 6 examines fractional order calculus in the modeling and control of dynamic systems. Part 7 focuses on modern robotics. Part 8 deals with modeling and identification, while Part 9 deals with problems related to security, fault ...

  17. Directly polished lightweight aluminum mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Horst, Rik; Tromp, Niels; de Haan, Menno; Navarro, Ramon; Venema, Lars; Pragt, Johan

    2017-11-01

    During the last ten years, Astron has been a major contractor for the design and manufacturing of astronomical instruments for Space- and Earth based observatories, such as VISIR, MIDI, SPIFFI, X-Shooter and MIRI. Driven by the need to reduce the weight of optically ultra-stiff structures, two promising techniques have been developed in the last years: ASTRON Extreme Lightweighting [1][2] for mechanical structures and an improved Polishing Technique for Aluminum Mirrors. Using one single material for both optical components and mechanical structure simplifies the design of a cryogenic instrument significantly, it is very beneficial during instrument test and verification, and makes the instrument insensitive to temperature changes. Aluminum has been the main material used for cryogenic optical instruments, and optical aluminum mirrors are generally diamond turned. The application of a polishable hard top coating like nickel removes excess stray light caused by the groove pattern, but limits the degree of lightweighting of the mirrors due to the bi-metal effect. By directly polishing the aluminum mirror surface, the recent developments at Astron allow for using a non-exotic material for light weighted yet accurate optical mirrors, with a lower surface roughness ( 1nm RMS), higher surface accuracy and reduced light scattering. This paper presents the techniques, obtained results and a global comparison with alternative lightweight mirror solutions. Recent discussions indicate possible extensions of the extreme light weight technology to alternative materials such as Zerodur or Silicon Carbide.

  18. Predicting Volleyball Serve-Reception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulo, Ana; Zaal, Frank T J M; Fonseca, Sofia; Araujo, Duarte

    2016-01-01

    Serve and serve-reception performance have predicted success in volleyball. Given the impact of serve-reception on the game, we aimed at understanding what it is in the serve and receiver's actions that determines the selection of the type of pass used in serve-reception and its efficacy. Four

  19. An Overview of Polish Martial Arts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech J. Cynarski

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explain the revival of Polish martial arts from the perspectives of cultural sociology, the sciences of physical culture, and the humanistic theory of martial arts. The Polish Martial Arts (Polskie Sztuki Walki are a subject still requiring serious scientific examination, even in Poland. There are few works concerning the history of Polish weapons, and most only describe techniques for wielding specific types of edged weapons. Nevertheless, there is a large group of enthusiasts trying to restore and cultivate the old Polish tradition, a tradition with heavy emphasis on the art of fencing. The author knows many of the people and facts presented here, from personal observation and from direct participation in these arts. As a disciple of the late Master Yoshio Sugino (10th-dan Kobudo Katori Shinto-ryu, he fought against the Polish saber champion, and he has taken part in joint exhibitions of Polish and Japanese fencing.

  20. FACING CHILD SOLDIERS, MORAL ISSUES, AND “REAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Francois

    traumatic stress disorder among individual soldiers who had faced child soldiers. Along these lines, as ... keeping forces (Ben-Ari 1998; Ben-Ari, Michael and Kellen 2009), my work on childhood (Ben-Ari 1997), and on a .... of military induction, codes of military conduct and the structuring of relations within the military unit” ...

  1. Global Deployment of Reserve Soldiers: A Leadership Challenge

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McKenzie, Wendy; Healy-Morrow, Isabel

    2006-01-01

    ...? Is there an overlap in organizational cultures, or does military leadership need to provide special attention for these unique soldiers? The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how a deeper understanding of the overlap between civilian and military organizational culture can improve the psychological preparedness of Reserve Force soldiers who are mobilized for full-time military operations.

  2. Role Reversal Protest in Nigeria: Soldiers Still the Boss? A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR Nneka

    purpose. Unfortunately, a couple of soldiers who were among the passengers in the bus ... ordered all the passengers to stay put rather than disembark as ordered by the policemen. A "man pass man" struggle ensued, with the result that the unarmed soldiers were beaten into submission and hauled off to the police station.

  3. Tyraminergic and Octopaminergic Modulation of Defensive Behavior in Termite Soldier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Ishikawa

    Full Text Available In termites, i.e. a major group of eusocial insects, the soldier caste exhibits specific morphological characteristics and extremely high aggression against predators. Although the genomic background is identical to the other non-aggressive castes, they acquire the soldier-specific behavioral character during the course of caste differentiation. The high aggressiveness and defensive behavior is essential for colony survival, but the neurophysiological bases are completely unknown. In the present study, using the damp-wood termite Hodotermopsis sjostedti, we focused on two biogenic amines, octopamine (OA and tyramine (TA, as candidate neuromodulators for the defensive behavior in soldiers. High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis revealed that TA levels in the brain and suboesophageal ganglion (SOG and the OA level in brain were increased in soldiers than in pseudergates (worker caste. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that TA/OA neurons that innervate specific areas, including the mandibular muscles, antennal nerve, central complex, suboesophageal ganglion, and thoracic and/or abdominal ganglia, were enlarged in a soldier-specific manner. Together with the results that pharmacological application of TA promoted the defensive behavior in pseudergates, these findings suggest that the increased TA/OA levels induce the higher aggressiveness and defensive behavior in termite soldiers. The projection targets of these soldier-specific enlarged TA/OA neurons may have important roles in the higher aggressiveness and defensive behavior of the termite soldiers, inducing the neuronal transition that accompanies external morphological changes.

  4. Injury Prevention and Performance Enhancement in 101st Airbourne Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    for individuals Dietary Intake of Army Soldiers in Occupation Specialties Re... : Medici ... http://journals.lww.com/acsm-msse/Fulltext/2011/05001...0070/W81XWH-09-2-0095 ©2011The American College of Sports Medicine Dietary Intake of Army Soldiers in Occupation Specialties Re... : Medici ... http

  5. "And so They Ordered Me to Kill a Person": Conceptualizing the Impacts of Child Soldiering on the Development of Moral Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainryb, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 300,000 child soldiers serve in various armed groups around the world, and become directly implicated in the perpetration of kidnappings, killings, and torture. Considering that children construct moral concepts and a sense of themselves as moral beings in the context of their everyday interactions with others, the concern with how…

  6. The Impact of Death-Risk Experiences and Religiosity on the Fear of Personal Death: The Case of Israeli Soldiers in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florian, Victor; Mikulincer, Mario

    1993-01-01

    Examined impact of death-risk experience (life-threatening experiences of 134 Israeli soldiers who served in Lebanon after 1982 Lebanon War) and religiosity on diverse aspects of fear of personal death. Religious participants reported lower levels of fear of death than did nonreligious participants. Exposure to death-risk experience produced…

  7. The tourism attractiveness of Polish libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Miedzińska, Magdalena; Tanaś, Sławoj

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the article is to draw the reader's attention to the tourism attractiveness of renowned Polish libraries. These have attained a tourism function due to tourism exploration and penetration, but remain in the shadow of other Polish cultural assets. The article outlines the historical geography of Polish libraries, an analysis of tourism assets and an attempt to classify and catalogue libraries in Poland.

  8. Psycho-physiological response of soldiers in urban combat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente J. Clemente-Suárez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Current armed conflicts are asymmetrical and are developed m urban areas. These new requirements have not been studied for current literature. The aim of this study was to analyse changes in cortical arousal, blood lactate, muscle strength, autonomic modulation and rate of perceived exertion in a simulated urban combat. We analyzed 20 soldiers before and after an urban combat simulation. The results showed how urban combat produced high sympathetic nervous system activation, increasing the muscle strength, heart rate and blood lactate concentration of the soldiers. Despite this effort, rate of perceived exertion were not consistent with the physiological response that soldiers presented, the rate of perceived exertion was lower than the physiological response evaluated. Furthermore, the information processing and cortical arousal decreased after the urban combat simulation. These results have showed the psycho-physiological response of soldiers in combat, helping to better understanding and enabling an improvement of current training methods of soldiers.

  9. Stress fractures of the femora in soldiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meurman, K.O.A.; Somer, K.; Lamminen, A.

    1981-01-01

    Amongst 936 stress fractures found in soldiers, there were 58 in the femora (6%); of these 31 were in the neck and 27 in the shaft. Two were bilateral, and two patients had other stress fractures. Three displacements were found in the necks. In the shaft, 20 fractures were proximal, four were in the middle third and three in the distal third. In the latter group, it is necessary to differentiate from a sarcoma. CT is a new aid in this respect. Sport in highly motivated individuals appears to contribute particularly to fractures of the shaft. The symptoms from these fractures are relatively mild. (orig.) [de

  10. Perceptions of and Attitudes towards Regional Varieties of Polish: Views from Two Polish Provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milobog, Magdalena; Garrett, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports a study of perceptions and attitudes relating to regional varieties of Polish. The methodology followed folk linguistic approaches to attitudes research. Respondents in two Polish provinces were asked to draw on a map of Poland where they thought the main regional varieties of Polish were spoken, and then to name and…

  11. The Effect of Finishing and Polishing Techniques on the Surface Roughness and the Color of Nanocomposite Resin Restorative Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avsar, Aysun; Yuzbasioglu, Emir; Sarac, Duygu

    2015-01-01

    Rough, poorly polished surfaces contribute to staining, plaque accumulation, gingival irritation and recurrent caries. Finishing and polishing techniques are critical factors contributing to the longevity of the direct composite resin restorations. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of finishing and polishing systems on surface roughness of six nanocomposite restorative resins. Thirty specimens of each restorative material (n=180) were placed in a teflon mould (6 mm in diameter and 3 mm in depth) and cured with a LED curing unit. Six specimens from each of restorative material were randomly assigned to four groups for finishing and polishing (carbide burs, diamond burs, aluminium oxide discs, silicon rubber polisher) techniques. Mylar strip formed specimens were served as control group. After finishing and polishing procedures surface roughness was evaluated by a profilometer. The data was analyzed by 2-way analysis of variance and the Tukey HSD test (α=0.05). Significant differences were found between the groups in terms roughness (prestorative materials. Although mylar matrix strip formed surfaces presents lower surface roughness values, recountouring and polishing of resin restorations are often required in clinical situations. Aluminium oxide discs and carbide finishing burs are suitable for finishing and polishing procedures for nanocomposite restorative resins.

  12. History of Polish gastrointestinal radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanik, A

    2003-12-01

    As early as several days after the publication of the information concerning Roentgen's discovery the first radiological examinations were performed in Poland. The new method was immediately introduced into medical practice, including gastroenterology. In that pioneer period the most important works were those by Walery Jaworski who was the first man in the world to perform an X-ray of gall stones as well as the stomach with the use of a contrast medium. In its more-than-a-hundred-year history Polish gastrointestinal radiology has attempted not only to catch up with the world science, but it also has made a considerable contribution to its development.

  13. Corporate Politics on Polish Millennials

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Roślik

    2017-01-01

    In the very beginning of this particular paper, an author is trying to determine and describe who Millennials actually are. Then, the basis of Millennials definition is analysing corporation’s activity over the past years regarding this age group. The main goal of the thesis is to bring their specific futures out and describe what corporations on Polish job market are doing to encourage them to work in their offices. Especially in Poland within the last years, it is observed that big multinat...

  14. Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency (FEWE) was established in Poland at the end of 1990. FEWE, as an independent and non-profit organization, has the following objectives: to strive towards an energy efficient national economy, and to show the way and methods by use of which energy efficiency can be increased. The activity of the Foundation covers the entire territory of Poland through three regional centers: in Warsaw, Katowice and Cracow. FEWE employs well-known and experienced specialists within thermal and power engineering, civil engineering, economy and applied sciences. The organizer of the Foundation has been Battelle Memorial Institute - Pacific Northwest Laboratories from the USA.

  15. Meeting the Needs of Polonia: A Comparison of the Polish-American Press Before and After 1980-1981

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    IS 4 ,, ., * C) N pMeeting the Needs of Polonia: CA Comparison of the Polish- American Press Before And After 1980-1981 S ELECTE Ef JUL 0 2 1990 by...MEETING THE NEEDS OF POLONIA: A COMPARISON OF THE POLISH-AMERICAN PRESS BEFORE AND AFTER 1980-1981 f. A’IJIIOR(S) ZAJACKOWSKI, DONALD THOMAS 7...AND PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The ethnic, foreign-language press, including the Polish-language press, has existed in this country to serve the needs of its

  16. Sexual activity of Polish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastwa-Wojciechowska, Beata; Izdebski, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore the subject of sexual activity in the Polish population, with special focus on age and gender differences, and sexual infidelity. Sexual activity is one of the basic factors in initiating and maintaining relationships. On the one hand, sexual activity enables us to meet natural needs and maintain an intimate relationship with another human being; on the other, it may allow us to overcome loneliness and social isolation by providing the opportunity to express feelings of closeness and unity. The research was conducted on a representative group of 3,200 Poles aged between 15-49, with the support of a well-known Polish research company - TNS OBOP. Face-to-face and Pencil and Paper (PAPI) interviews were carried out. The results focus on two main issues: the age and motives of sexual initiation among teenagers (with a significant percentage starting their sexual activity at the age of 15), and the quality of the sexual lives of adults (average number of sexual partners, sexual infidelity and sexual satisfaction). There is dependence between the type of relationship and the performance or non-performance of sexual activity, as well as the quality of the relationship. Among both adolescents and adults, remaining in a stable relationship (partnership or marriage) promotes loyalty. The performance of sexual goals turns out to be an important mechanism regulating the interpersonal aspects of a relationship, influencing their perception and evaluation.

  17. Sexual activity of Polish adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Pastwa-Wojciechowska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The purpose of this research was to explore the subject of sexual activity in the Polish population, with special focus on age and gender differences, and sexual infidelity. Sexual activity is one of the basic factors in initiating and maintaining relationships. On the one hand, sexual activity enables us to meet natural needs and maintain an intimate relationship with another human being; on the other, it may allow us to overcome loneliness and social isolation by providing the opportunity to express feelings of closeness and unity. Material and method. The research was conducted on a representative group of 3,200 Poles aged between 15–49, with the support of a well-known Polish research company – TNS OBOP. Face-to-face and Pencil and Paper (PAPI interviews were carried out. Results. The results focus on two main issues: the age and motives of sexual initiation among teenagers (with a significant percentage starting their sexual activity at the age of 15, and the quality of the sexual lives of adults (average number of sexual partners, sexual infidelity and sexual satisfaction. Conclusion. There is dependence between the type of relationship and the performance or non-performance of sexual activity, as well as the quality of the relationship. Among both adolescents and adults, remaining in a stable relationship (partnership or marriage promotes loyalty. The performance of sexual goals turns out to be an important mechanism regulating the interpersonal aspects of a relationship, influencing their perception and evaluation.

  18. Buffered Electrochemical Polishing of Niobium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciovati, Gianluigi [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Tian, Hui [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Corcoran, Sean [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2011-03-01

    The standard preparation of superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities made of pure niobium include the removal of a 'damaged' surface layer, by buffered chemical polishing (BCP) or electropolishing (EP), after the cavities are formed. The performance of the cavities is characterized by a sharp degradation of the quality factor when the surface magnetic field exceeds about 90 mT, a phenomenon referred to as 'Q-drop.' In cavities made of polycrystalline fine grain (ASTM 5) niobium, the Q-drop can be significantly reduced by a low-temperature (? 120 °C) 'in-situ' baking of the cavity if the chemical treatment was EP rather than BCP. As part of the effort to understand this phenomenon, we investigated the effect of introducing a polarization potential during buffered chemical polishing, creating a process which is between the standard BCP and EP. While preliminary results on the application of this process to Nb cavities have been previously reported, in this contribution we focus on the characterization of this novel electrochemical process by measuring polarization curves, etching rates, surface finish, electrochemical impedance and the effects of temperature and electrolyte composition. In particular, it is shown that the anodic potential of Nb during BCP reduces the etching rate and improves the surface finish.

  19. Emotional reactivity to a single inhalation of 35% carbon dioxide and its association with later symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and anxiety in soldiers deployed to Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telch, Michael J; Rosenfield, David; Lee, Han-Joo; Pai, Anushka

    2012-11-01

    The identification of modifiable predeployment vulnerability factors that increase the risk of combat stress reactions among soldiers once deployed to a war zone offers significant potential for the prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other combat-related stress disorders. Adults with anxiety disorders display heightened emotional reactivity to a single inhalation of 35% carbon dioxide (CO(2)); however, data investigating prospective linkages between emotional reactivity to CO(2) and susceptibility to war-zone stress reactions are lacking. To investigate the association of soldiers' predeployment emotional reactivity to 35% CO(2) challenge with several indices of subsequent war-zone stress symptoms assessed monthly while deployed in Iraq. Prospective cohort study of 158 soldiers with no history of deployment to a war zone were recruited from the Texas Combat Stress Risk Study between April 2, 2007, and August 28, 2009. Multilevel regression models were used to investigate the association between emotional reactivity to 35% CO(2) challenge (assessed before deployment) and soldiers' reported symptoms of general anxiety/stress, PTSD, and depression while deployed to Iraq. Growth curves of PTSD, depression, and general anxiety/stress symptoms showed a significant curvilinear relationship during the 16-month deployment period. War-zone stressors reported in theater were associated with symptoms of general anxiety/stress, PTSD, and depression. Consistent with the prediction, soldiers' emotional reactivity to a single inhalation of 35% CO(2)-enriched air before deployment significantly potentiated the effects of war-zone stressors on the subsequent development of PTSD symptoms and general anxiety/stress symptoms but not on the development of depression, even after accounting for the effects of trait anxiety and the presence of past or current Axis I mental disorders. Soldiers' emotional reactivity to a 35% CO(2) challenge may serve as a vulnerability

  20. Method of polishing nickel-base alloys and stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeves, Arthur F.; Buono, Donald P.

    1981-01-01

    A chemical attack polish and polishing procedure for use on metal surfaces such as nickel base alloys and stainless steels. The chemical attack polish comprises Fe(NO.sub.3).sub.3, concentrated CH.sub.3 COOH, concentrated H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 and H.sub.2 O. The polishing procedure includes saturating a polishing cloth with the chemical attack polish and submicron abrasive particles and buffing the metal surface.

  1. Effect of polishing systems on stain susceptibility and surface roughness of nanocomposite resin material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakah, Haifa M; Taher, Nadia M

    2014-09-01

    Different polishing systems vary in their effect on reducing surface roughness and stain susceptibility of dental composite resin materials. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of 3 polishing systems on the stain susceptibility and surface roughness of 2 nanocomposite resins and a microhybrid composite resin. Forty-five disks (2×10 mm) each were fabricated of 2 nanocomposite resins (Filtek Supreme XT and Tetric EvoCeram) and 1 microhybrid composite resin (Z250). Both sides of the disks were wet finished, and 1 side was polished with PoGo, Astropol, or Hi-Shine (n=5). Unpolished surfaces served as controls. The average roughness (Ra, μm) was measured with a profilometer, and the baseline color was recorded with a spectrophotometer. All specimens were incubated while soaking in a staining solution of coffee, green tea, and berry juice for 3 weeks. The color was recorded again, and the data were analyzed with 2-way ANOVA at α=.05 and Tukey multiple comparison tests. All polishing systems improved the staining resistance of Filtek Supreme XT and Z250 but did not affect that of Tetric EvoCeram. The surface color of Filtek Supreme XT was changed significantly and was the smoothest after polishing with PoGo, whereas Hi-Shine produced significantly rougher surfaces but with the lowest color change. Hi-Shine produced the highest color change in Z250. The surface roughness did not differ significantly between the other polishing systems. Tetric EvoCeram showed no significant differences in color change or surface roughness. Staining susceptibility and surface roughness depend mainly on material composition and on the polishing procedures. Polishing improves the staining resistance of composite resins. Nanocomposite resins did not exhibit better staining resistance or surface roughness than microhybrid composite resin. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Polish Industry and Art at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    On 17 October 2000 the second Polish industrial and technological exhibition opened at CERN. The first one was held five years ago and nine of the companies that were present then have come back again this year. Six of those companies were awarded contracts with CERN in 1995. Three Polish officials were present at the Opening Ceremony today: Mrs Malgorzata Kozlowska, Under-secretary of State in the State Committee for Scientific Research, Mr Henryk Ogryczak, Under-secretary of State in Ministry of Economy and Prof. Jerzy Niewodniczanski, President of National Atomic Energy Agency. Professor Luciano Maiani welcomed the Polish delegation to CERN and stressed the important contribution of Polish scientists and industrialists to the work of the laboratory. Director General Luciano Maiani (back left) and head of SPL division Karl-Heinz Kissler (back right) visit the Poland at CERN exhibition… The exhibition offers Polish companies the opportunity to establish professional contacts with CERN. Nineteen companies...

  3. Serving Bowl Selection Biases the Amount of Food Served

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kleef, Ellen; Shimizu, Mitsuru; Wansink, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine how common serving bowls containing food for multiple persons influence serving behavior and consumption and whether they do so independently of satiation and food evaluation. Methods: In this between-subjects experiment, 68 participants were randomly assigned to either a group serving pasta from a large-sized bowl (6.9-L…

  4. BOOK REVIEW - International Law and Child Soldiers by Gus Waschefort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbie Robinson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Long gone are the days that the law pertaining to children essentially dealt with the position of children within the parent-child relationship. On the contrary it has become a highly specialised legal discipline in which international and regional conventions progressively establish norms and standards to be adhered to. This book by Waschefort, the 53rd volume in the series Studies in International Law, bears ample testimony to this. It reviews all of the international instruments containing proscriptive norms to prohibit the use and recruitment of child soldiers. It commences with an analysis of the current state of child soldiering internationally, after which relevant international instruments are comprehensively discussed with a clear focus on the question of whether or not the prohibitive norms are optimally enforced – are they capable of better enforcement? The author adopts an “issues-based approach” in terms of which no specific regime of law, for instance International Humanitarian Law, is considered dominant. He assesses universal and regional human rights law together with International Human Rights Law and International Criminal Law to establish a mutually reinforcing web of protection for children. He also critically assesses the international judicial, quasi-judicial and non-judicial entities most relevant to child soldier prevention. He argues that the effective implementation of child soldier prohibitive norms does not require fundamental changes to any entity or functionary engaged in such prevention. In fact, what is required according to the author is the constant reassessment and refinement of all such entities and functionaries. The conclusions which are reached are ultimately tested against the background of a comprehensive case study on the use and recruitment of child soldiers in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. International Law and Child Soldiers is to be welcomed as a timely contribution to the evaluation

  5. The Myth of the Citizen Soldier: Rhode Island Provincial Soldiers in the French and Indian War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    Independence: Military Attitudes , Policies, and Practice, 1763-1789 (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1971), 1. 18 Carr, Seeds of Discontent, 2... attitude , was the primary reason British officers viewed provincial soldiers as inferior to British regulars. The thoughts and statements by British... abortive attempt at Oswego, provincial forces won the first great victory of the French and Indian War. Four of the Rhode Island companies, under

  6. Felicjan Sławoj-Składkowski (1885-1962): The only known doctor-soldier-politician with an outdoor-wooden-toilet named after him.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohry, Avi

    2017-05-01

    Felicjan Sławoj-Składkowski was a Polish physician, General and politician who served as Polish Minister of Internal Affairs and was the last Prime Minister of Poland before the Second World War. The lack of basic sanitation in many of Poland's villages caused him to issue a decree that every household in Poland must have a latrine in working order. Wooden sheds were built in the backyards, subsequently named 'sławojkis'.

  7. Corporate Politics on Polish Millennials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Roślik

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the very beginning of this particular paper, an author is trying to determine and describe who Millennials actually are. Then, the basis of Millennials definition is analysing corporation’s activity over the past years regarding this age group. The main goal of the thesis is to bring their specific futures out and describe what corporations on Polish job market are doing to encourage them to work in their offices. Especially in Poland within the last years, it is observed that big multinational companies are paying special attention to Millennials and trying to hire them before competitors will do so. As a part of this paper, an author will describe corporate politics and practices on Thomson Reuters and BNY Mellon examples. Within this work, an author is also discussing key features and differences between this generation and Millennials parent’s generation. Additionally, there is a reference to corporate social responsibility concept and work-life balance issues.

  8. [Child Soldiers as Refugees in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Dima

    2016-12-01

    Child Soldiers as Refugees in Germany How do former child soldiers cope with their potentially traumatic experiences, and how do the living conditions as refugees influence these coping processes? A dissertation at the faculty of human and social sciences at the University of Wuppertal, based on biographical-narrative interviews with 15 young refugees from six African countries, describes the characteristics of the traumatic sequences in the countries of origin and in exile, and elaborates typical coping processes. In order to survive a situation of absolute subjection within armed groups, children develop forms of adequate adaptation to the context like regulation and detachment of emotions e.g. with the use of drugs, assimilation to an idea of "hard masculinity" etc. They become victims, witnesses and often perpetrators of extreme violence (man-made-disaster), respectively traumatic processes can be seen in all sequences. After leaving the armed groups there is no way back into the families and communities destroyed by armed conflict, so they become refugees. In Germany, they are subjected to a bureaucratic and excluding asylum system, in which decisions on all relevant areas of life (age determination, place and right of residence, form of accommodation, access to education, etc.) are imposed on them. Especially the insecure right of residence and the living conditions in refugee camps are severe risk factors, impeding stabilization. Social support, e. g. by competent professionals, access to trauma- and culture-sensitive psychotherapy, societal inclusion, but also personal resilience are essential for coping with trauma and developing new future perspectives.

  9. Smoking characteristics of Polish immigrants in Dublin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zatonski Witold

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined two main hypotheses: a Polish immigrants' smoking estimates are greater than their Irish counterparts (b Polish immigrants purchasing cigarettes from Poland smoke "heavier" (≥ 20 cigarettes a day when compared to those purchasing cigarettes from Ireland. The study also set out to identify significant predictors of 'current' smoking (some days and everyday among the Polish immigrants. Methods Dublin residents of Polish origin (n = 1,545 completed a previously validated Polish questionnaire in response to an advertisement in a local Polish lifestyle magazine over 5 weekends (July–August, 2007. The Office of Tobacco Control telephone-based monthly survey data were analyzed for the Irish population in Dublin for the same period (n = 484. Results Age-sex adjusted smoking estimates were: 47.6% (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 47.3%; 48.0% among the Poles and 27.8% (95% CI: 27.2%; 28.4% among the general Irish population (p 24 months were significant predictors of current smoking among the Poles. An objective validation of the self-reported smoking history of a randomly selected sub-sample immigrant group, using expired carbon monoxide (CO measurements, showed a highly significant correlation coefficient (r = 0.64 of expired CO levels with the reported number of cigarettes consumed (p Conclusion Polish immigrants' smoking estimates are higher than their Irish counterparts, and particularly if employed, with only primary-level education, and are overseas >2 years.

  10. Book Review: "From soldiers to citizens: Demilitarization of conflict ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Book review: From soldiers to citizens: Demilitarization of conflict and society. João Gomes Porto, Chris Alden and Imogen Parsons 2007. Aldershot. Ashgate, 192 pp.ISBN 978-0-7546-7210-4 ...

  11. Manpower and Personnel for Soldier Systems in the Objective Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ralph, James

    2001-01-01

    ...) Investigate the projected Knowledge, Skills and Attributes (KSA) required for Future Combat Systems tasks and assess the match/mismatch between the projected skill set of soldiers and required skills based on FCS tasks; (3) Assess the Army...

  12. Soldier's Expectancies, Implications for Recruitment and Job Satisfaction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gelooven, Renier

    1999-01-01

    .... Also expectancies about a job influence attrition and job satisfaction. This paper uses results of several studies to describe the image of the soldiers job and its effects on recruitment, early attrition and job satisfaction.

  13. Acute stress responses in Chinese soldiers performing various military tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Peng; Zhang, Tengxiao; Miao, Danmin; Zhu, Xia

    2014-01-01

    To examine Chinese soldiers' acute stress responses, we did this study. The soldiers completed the Acute Stress Response Scale (ASRS) when engaged in major tasks, such as earthquake rescue in Wenchuan, Sichuan, and maintaining social stability in Urumchi, Xinjiang. The ASRS has good reliability and validity. The study enrolled 1,832 male soldiers. The results showed significant differences among five dimensions and the overall response index when comparing four diverse military tasks. Further analysis found that reduced work efficiency and 24 symptom clusters were significantly positively correlated. The acute stress response of soldiers performing various tasks was influenced by many factors, including the task characteristics and external factors. In addition, the acute stress response affected their work efficiency.

  14. Facilitating Soldier Receipt of Needed Mental Health Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    among the two battalions that have been assigned to participate in the study. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Mental Health Treatment, Military, Stigma ...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-11-2-0010 TITLE: Facilitating Soldier Receipt of Needed Mental Health Treatment PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Thomas W. Britt...SUBTITLE Facilitating Soldier Receipt of Needed Mental Health Treatment Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Sb. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-2-0010 Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  15. Watch Out for the Children: Army Policy and Child Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Handbook, (Fort Leavenworth, KS: U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command, 2007), 52. 16 parents ’ permission. Children are then incorporated into...information of tactical value. Questions about past operations that a child soldier may have been forced to conduct could only intimidate or alienate ...that numerous child soldiers are forced to kill family members when they are abducted from their villages, in an attempt to alienate them from being

  16. Sleep and Performance Measures in Soldiers Undergoing Military Relevant Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    recommended 7 hr of sleep per night on average throughout the duration of the course. This suggests that the sleep habits of Soldiers while attending these...USAARL Report No. 2009-13 Sleep and Performance Measures in Soldiers Undergoing Military Relevant Training Warfighter Performance and Health Division...ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) 26-06-2009 Final Sleep and Performance

  17. Limitations imposed by wearing armour on Medieval soldiers' locomotor performance

    OpenAIRE

    Askew, Graham N.; Formenti, Federico; Minetti, Alberto E.

    2011-01-01

    In Medieval Europe, soldiers wore steel plate armour for protection during warfare. Armour design reflected a trade-off between protection and mobility it offered the wearer. By the fifteenth century, a typical suit of field armour weighed between 30 and 50 kg and was distributed over the entire body. How much wearing armour affected Medieval soldiers' locomotor energetics and biomechanics is unknown. We investigated the mechanics and the energetic cost of locomotion in armour, and determined...

  18. Acute stress responses in Chinese soldiers performing various military tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Peng; Zhang, Tengxiao; Miao, Danmin; Zhu, Xia

    2014-01-01

    Background To examine Chinese soldiers’ acute stress responses, we did this study. Methods The soldiers completed the Acute Stress Response Scale (ASRS) when engaged in major tasks, such as earthquake rescue in Wenchuan, Sichuan, and maintaining social stability in Urumchi, Xinjiang. The ASRS has good reliability and validity. The study enrolled 1,832 male soldiers. Results The results showed significant differences among five dimensions and the overall response index when comparing four dive...

  19. Materials handling ability of regular and reserve British Army soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Alun G; Evans, Paul

    2007-02-01

    The main objective of this research was to compare the materials handling ability, aerobic power, and body composition of fully trained Reserve and Regular male British Army soldiers (approximately 6-7 years of military experience). Twenty-one Reserve soldiers and 15 Regular soldiers completed fitness tests, including a maximal box lift to 1.45 m and a repetitive 22-kg box lift-and-carry test. There were no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) between the two groups in any parameter measured. The performance levels observed in these fully trained soldiers (maximal box lift approximately 63 kg, repetitive lift and carry approximately 34 repetitions) were broadly comparable to those reported previously for new recruits. The physical training performed by the Regular soldiers (both within and beyond their military service) and the Reserve soldiers (predominantly outside their military duties) seems to be of sufficient volume and intensity to maintain performance levels comparable with each other and equivalent new army recruits.

  20. Armor and anesthesia: exposure, feeling, and the soldier's body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeish, Kenneth T

    2012-03-01

    For many civilians, the high-tech weapons, armor, and military medicine with which U.S. soldiers are equipped present an image of lethal capacity and physical invulnerability. But, as this article explores, soldiers themselves just as often associate the life-sustaining technology of modern warfare with feelings that range from a pragmatic ambivalence about exposure to harm all the way to profoundly unsettling vulnerability. This article, based on fieldwork among soldiers and military families at the U.S. Army's Ft. Hood, examines sensory and affective dimensions of soldiers' intimate bodily relationships with the technologies that alternately or even simultaneously keep them alive and expose them to harm. I argue that modern military discipline and technology conspire to cultivate soldiers as highly durable, capable, unfeeling, interchangeable bodies, or what might be called, after Susan Buck-Morss (1992), anesthetic subjects. But for soldiers themselves, their training, combat environment, protective gear, and weapons are a rich font of both emotional and bodily feeling that exists in complex tension with the also deeply felt military imperative to carry on in the face of extreme discomfort and danger.

  1. Super-polishing of Zerodur aspheres by means of conventional polishing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, Jaroslav; Klepetková, Eva; Pošmourný, Josef; Šulc, Miroslav; Procháska, František; Tomka, David; Matoušek, Ondřej; Poláková, Ivana; Šubert, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a quest to find simple technique to superpolish Zerodur asphere (55μm departure from best fit sphere) that could be employed on old fashion way 1-excenter optical polishing machine. The work focuses on selection of polishing technology, study of different polishing slurries and optimization of polishing setup. It is demonstrated that either by use of fine colloidal CeO2 slurry or by use of bowl-feed polishing setup with CeO2 charged pitch we could reach 0.4nm RMS roughness while removing <30nm of surface layer. This technique, although not optimized, was successfully used to improve surface roughness on already prepolished Zerodur aspheres without necessity to involve sophisticated super-polishing technology and highly trained manpower.

  2. Comparative study of performance of shoe polishes formulated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GARZALI

    This should make the polish remains as discrete solid particles held mechanically within the leather. This work intends to explore the use of polyethylene pigment in the production of shoe polish. The shoe polish produced will be applied alongside shoe polish from carbon black (CI black Pigment 7) on finished black leather ...

  3. A quantitative method to estimate high gloss polished tool steel surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebeggiani, S; Rosen, B-G [Halmstad University, The Functional Surfaces Research Group, Box 823, SE-301 18 HALMSTAD (Sweden); Sandberg, A, E-mail: sabina.rebeggiani@hh.se [Uddeholms AB, SE-683 85 Hagfors (Sweden)

    2011-08-19

    Visual estimations are today the most common way to assess the surface quality of moulds and dies; a method that are both subjective and, with today's high demands on surfaces, hardly usable to distinguish between the finest surface qualities. Instead a method based on non-contact 3D-surface texture analysis is suggested. Several types of tool steel samples, manually as well as machine polished, were analysed to study different types of surface defects such as pitting, orange peel and outwardly features. The classification of the defect structures serves as a catalogue where known defects are described. Suggestions of different levels of 'high surface quality' defined in numerical values adapted to high gloss polished tool steel surfaces are presented. The final goal is to develop a new manual that can work as a 'standard' for estimations of tool steel surfaces for steel producers, mould makers, polishers etc.

  4. Effects of Wet and Dry Finishing and Polishing on Surface Roughness and Microhardness of Composite Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasoohi, Negin; Hoorizad, Maryam

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to assess the effect of wet and dry finishing and polishing on microhardness and roughness of microhybrid and nanohybrid composites. Materials and Methods: Thirty samples were fabricated of each of the Polofil Supra and Aelite Aesthetic All-Purpose Body microhybrid and Grandio and Aelite Aesthetic Enamel nanohybrid composite resins. Each group (n=30) was divided into three subgroups of D, W and C (n=10). Finishing and polishing were performed dry in group D and under water coolant in group W. Group C served as the control group and did not receive finishing and polishing. Surface roughness of samples was measured by a profilometer and their hardness was measured by a Vickers hardness tester. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA (Pcomposites (Pcomposites (Pcomposites (Pcomposite resins. PMID:29104597

  5. The effect of finishing and polishing on surface roughness of a processed resilient denture liner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loney, R W; Moulding, M B

    1993-01-01

    A raised ridge on a Molloplast-B sample was removed using one of three burs, four stones, or a coarse sandpaper disc. Samples were polished using pumice alone, tin oxide alone, or both agents. A flat, unfinished sample served as a control. The average surface roughness was measured after reductions and subsequent polishings. The length of time required for initial reduction was recorded. Average surface roughness measurements ranged from 16.0 to 1.4 microns, with the control measuring 0.66 micron. Without polishing, burs produced rougher surfaces than stones and required longer times for reduction. Bur samples also remained rougher than stone samples after pumicing. No significant differences were found between treatments or controls after the use of either a combination of pumice and tin oxide or tin oxide alone.

  6. Effect of one-step polishing system on the color stability of nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alawjali, S S; Lui, J L

    2013-08-01

    This study was to compare the effect of three different one-step polishing systems on the color stability of three different types of nanocomposites after immersion in coffee for one day and seven days and determine which nanocomposite material has the best color stability following polishing with each of the one-step polishing system. The nanocomposites tested were Tetric EvoCeram, Grandio and Herculite Précis. A total of 120 discs (40/nanocomposite, 8mm×2mm) were fabricated. Ten specimens for each nanocomposite cured under Mylar strips served as the control. The other specimens were polished with OptraPol, OneGloss and Occlubrush immersed in coffee (Nescafé) up to seven days. Color measurements were made with a spectrophotometer at baseline and after one and seven days. Two way repeated measure ANOVA, two way ANOVA and Bonferroni tests were used for statistical analyses (P<0.05). The immersion time was a significant factor in the discoloration of the nanocomposites. The effect of three one-step polishing systems on the color stability was also significant. The color change values of the materials cured against Mylar strips were the greatest. The lowest mean color change values were from the Occlubrush polished groups. The effect of the three different types of nanocomposite on the color change was significant. The highest color change values were with Tetric EvoCeram groups. The lowest color change values were with Herculite Précis groups. The color change of nanocomposite resins is affected by the type of composite, polishing procedure and the period of immersion in the staining agent. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. New Environmental Practices in Polish Production Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kræmer, Trine Pipi

    2002-01-01

    Based on five case studies in Poland, the paper discusses, how a specific environmental policy influences the firms? industrial environmental practices. The study illustrates, how the Polish environmental policy, dominated by environmental charges on emissions, is extremely effective in improving...

  8. Electro Polishing of Niobium Cavities at DESY

    CERN Document Server

    Matheisen, A; Morales, H; Petersen, B; Schmoekel, M; Steinhau-Kühl, N

    2004-01-01

    At DESY a facility for electro polishing (EP) of the super conducting (s.c.) TESLA/TTF cavities have been built and is operational since summer 2003. The EP infrastructure is capable to handle single-cell structures and the standard TESLA/ TTF nine-cell cavities. Several electro polishing processes have been made since and acceleration voltage up to 40 MV/m have been reached in nine cell structures. We report on measurements and experiences gained since 2003 as well as on handling procedures developed for the preparation of electro polished resonators. Specific data like heat production, variation of current density and bath aging will be presented. Another important point for reproducible results is the quality control of the electro polishing process. First quality control steps to be implanted in the EP procedure for large-scale production will be described.

  9. Semiological analysis of Polish theater posters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Nikolić

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Through the application of semiological analysis to theater posters made by two Polish authors, the paper uncovers signs, meanings, codes and specifics of the „Polish school of poster-making“ and contemporary Polish posters. Aside from this, I suggest a methodological framework for studying the issue of coding and shaping a theater poster as a culturally specific form of visual communication. The aesthetic and semiotic outlook of the Polish theater posters which were chosen is analyzed using the semiological method which highlights their differences and similarities. By pointing out the system of codes through the examples given here, a graphic designer is informed about the existence and the possibilities of a more systematic approach to shaping a theater poster.

  10. Report on Polish Public Libraries 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Bednarek-Michalska, Bożena; Szatkowska, Olga

    2001-01-01

    Report is an overview of polish public libraries, services to a variety of communities, it also provides statistics, n explanation of the funding policy for public libraries in Poland and information about the governance of public libraries in the country.

  11. Air-powder polishing on self-ligating brackets after clinical use: effects on debris levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica L. S. Castro Aragón

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Debris buildup on brackets and arch surfaces is one of the main factors that can influence the intensity of friction between bracket and orthodontic wire. Objective: This study sought to evaluate the effect of air-powder polishing cleaning on debris levels of self-ligating ceramic brackets at the end of orthodontic treatment, compared to the behavior of conventional brackets. Methods: Debris levels were evaluated in metal conventional orthodontic brackets (n = 42 and ceramic self-ligating brackets (n = 42 on canines and premolars, arranged in pairs. There were brackets with and without air-powder polishing. At the end of orthodontic treatment, a hemiarch served as control and the contralateral hemiarch underwent prophylaxis with air-powder polishing. Debris buildup in bracket slots was assessed through images, and Wilcoxon test was used to analyze the results. Results: The median debris levels were statistically lower in the conventional metal brackets compared to self-ligating ones (p = 0.02, regarding brackets not submitted to air-powder polishing. Polishing significantly reduced debris buildup to zero in both systems, without differences between groups. Conclusions: Ceramic self-ligating brackets have a higher debris buildup in comparison to conventional metal brackets in vivo, but prophylaxis with sodium bicarbonate jet was effective in reducing debris levels in self-ligating and also in conventional brackets.

  12. An Experimental Analysis of Price Formation on the Polish Power Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drabik Ewa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Polish energy market gained its competitive character in late 1990s. At that time in majority of European countries a new law was enacted (in Poland – in 1987, which enabled the creation of internal energy markets. The Polish Power Exchange has been functioning since the end of 1999. However, from the very onset it has constituted a vital component of under grounding liberalization of electricity market. Since it was created the Polish Power Exchange has served as a market mechanism for setting objective energy market price. Support and control of the Polish Financial Supervision Authority guarantee the security of concluded transactions. The spot energy market was created as the first one and has functioned according to the rule of the double auction. The model of Sadrieh will be used for the description of the auction rules applied to the spot energy trade on the Polish Power Exchange. Furthermore, an algorithm on the basis of which it is possible to forecast transaction prices is presented. The effectiveness of this algorithm will be compared with other traditional methods of forecasting transaction prices.

  13. Surface roughness of novel resin composites polished with one-step systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergücü, Z; Türkün, L S

    2007-01-01

    This study: 1) analyzed the surface roughness of five novel resin composites that contain nanoparticles after polishing with three different one-step systems and 2) evaluated the effectiveness of these polishers and their possible surface damage using scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis. The resin composites evaluated in this study include CeramX, Filtek Supreme XT, Grandio, Premise and Tetric EvoCeram. A total of 100 discs (20/resin composites, 10 x 2 mm) were fabricated. Five specimens/resin composites cured under Mylar strips served as the control. The samples were polished for 30 seconds with PoGo, OptraPol and One Gloss discs at 15,000 rpm using a slow speed handpiece. The surfaces were tested for roughness (Ra) with a surface roughness tester and examined with SEM. One-way ANOVA was used for statistical analysis (p = 0.05). For all the composites tested, differences between the polishing systems were found to be significant (p Grandio, Mylar and PoGo created equally smooth surfaces, while OptraPol and One Gloss produced equally rougher surfaces. Tetric EvoCeram exhibited the roughest surface with OptraPol, while no significant differences were found between Premise and CeramX. According to SEM images, OptraPol and One Gloss scratched and plucked the particles away from the surface, while PoGo created a uniform finish, although the roughness values were not the same for each composite. Effectiveness of the polishers seems to be material dependent.

  14. Electrolytic polishing system for space age materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coons, W.C.; Iosty, L.R.

    1976-01-01

    A simple electrolytic polishing technique was developed for preparing Cr, Co, Hf, Mo, Ni, Re, Ti, V, Zr, and their alloys for structural analysis on the optical microscope. The base electrolyte contains 5g ZnCl 2 and 15g AlCl 3 . 6H 2 O in 200 ml methyl alcohol, plus an amount of H 2 SO 4 depending on the metal being polished. Five etchants are listed

  15. Trace element analysis of nail polishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, G.; Mittal, V.K.; Sahota, H.S.

    1999-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique was used to measure the concentrations of various trace elements in nail polishes of popular Indian and foreign brands. The aim of the present experiment was to see whether trace elements could distinguish nail polishes of different Indian and foreign brands from forensic point of view. It was found that cesium can act as a marker to differentiate foreign and Indian brands. (author)

  16. Interlocking directorships in Polish joint stock companies:

    OpenAIRE

    Pawlak, Marek

    2008-01-01

    Studies concerning interlocking directorships have been carried out among Polish joint stock corporations. The main source of data have been the announcements that are to be published by corporations regularly in a journal called Business and Court Gazette (BCG). Interlocking directorships constitute a network among corporations the use of which enables co-ordinated management of the whole group. The phenomenon of interlocking directorships in Polish joint stock companies can be compared to t...

  17. Jewish problem in the Polish Communist Party

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cimek Henryk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Jews accounted for approx. 8-10% of the population of the Second Republic and in the communist movement (Polish Communist Party and Polish Communist Youth Union the rate was approx, 30%, while in subsequent years it much fluctuated. The percentage of Jews was the highest in the authorities of the party and in the KZMP. This had a negative impact on the position of the KPP on many issues, especially in its relation to the Second Republic.

  18. Attack polish for nickel-base alloys and stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Not Available

    1980-05-28

    A chemical attack polish and polishing procedure for use on metal surfaces such as nickel base alloys and stainless steels is described. The chemical attack polich comprises FeNO/sub 3/, concentrated CH/sub 3/COOH, concentrated H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and H/sub 2/O. The polishing procedure includes saturating a polishing cloth with the chemical attack polish and submicron abrasive particles and buffing the metal surface.

  19. Experimental Polish-Lithuanian Corpus with the Semantic Annotation Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Roszko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental Polish-Lithuanian Corpus with the Semantic Annotation Elements In the article the authors present the experimental Polish-Lithuanian corpus (ECorpPL-LT formed for the idea of Polish-Lithuanian theoretical contrastive studies, a Polish-Lithuanian electronic dictionary, and as help for a sworn translator. The semantic annotation being brought into ECorpPL-LT is extremely useful in Polish-Lithuanian contrastive studies, and also proves helpful in translation work.

  20. Conformal polishing approach: Tool footprint analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A Dieste

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Polishing process is one of the most critical manufacturing processes during a metal part production because it determines the final quality of the product. Free-form surface polishing is a handmade process with lots of rejected parts, scrap generation and time and energy consumption. Two different research lines are being developed: prediction models of the final surface quality parameters and an analysis of the amount of material removed depending on the polishing parameters to predict the tool footprint during the polishing task. This research lays the foundations for a future automatic conformal polishing system. It is based on rotational and translational tool with dry abrasive in the front mounted at the end of a robot. A tool to part concept is used, useful for large or heavy workpieces. Results are applied on different curved parts typically used in tooling industry, aeronautics or automotive. A mathematical model has been developed to predict the amount of material removed in function of polishing parameters. Model has been fitted for different abrasives and raw materials. Results have shown deviations under 20% that implies a reliable and controllable process. Smaller amount of material can be removed in controlled areas of a three-dimensional workpiece.

  1. Laser polishing of additive manufactured Ti alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, C. P.; Guan, Y. C.; Zhou, W.

    2017-06-01

    Laser-based additive manufacturing has attracted much attention as a promising 3D printing method for metallic components in recent years. However, surface roughness of additive manufactured components has been considered as a challenge to achieve high performance. In this work, we demonstrate the capability of fiber laser in polishing rough surface of additive manufactured Ti-based alloys as Ti-6Al-4V and TC11. Both as-received surface and laser-polished surfaces as well as cross-section subsurfaces were analyzed carefully by White-Light Interference, Confocal Microscope, Focus Ion Beam, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive Spectrometer, and X-ray Diffraction. Results revealed that as-received Ti-based alloys with surface roughness more than 5 μm could be reduce to less than 1 μm through laser polishing process. Moreover, microstructure, microhardness and wear resistance of laser-polished zone was investigated in order to examine the thermal effect of laser polishing processing on the substrate of additive manufactured Ti alloys. This proof-of-concept process has the potential to effectively improve the surface roughness of additive manufactured metallic alloy by local polishing method without damage to the substrate.

  2. Interculutral Polish-Chinese QQing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Gajek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Working in tandem with the use of information and communication technologies is well-known and frequently used as a method of supporting learning of foreign languages in authentic communication. It is based on a constructivist approach to teaching. In the reported case study Polish and Chinese students discussed in English preprepared topics. The work shows the potential of e-learning at the micro level, as the language and intercultural task is implemented into an academic course without modification of the objectives and learning outcomes of the course. Evaluation carried out at the end of the project indicates that both groups perceived the task as a significant linguistic, cultural and personal experience. They stressed the importance of sharing “culture for culture” as the partner culture was new for most of them. The ability to talk and respond to information which was often strange, from the point of view of their own culture, allowed for learning intercultural competence ̔in action’.

  3. Database for content of mercury in Polish brown coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrząb, Krzysztof

    2018-01-01

    Poland is rated among the countries with largest level of mercury emission in Europe. According to information provided by the National Centre for Balancing and Management of Emissions (KOBiZE) more than 10.5 tons of mercury and its compounds were emitted into the atmosphere in 2015 from the area of Poland. Within the scope of the BazaHg project lasting from 2014 to 2015 and co-financed from the National Centre of Research and Development (NCBiR) a database was set up with specification of mercury content in Polish hard steam coal, coking coal and brown coal (lignite) grades. With regard to domestic brown coal the database comprises information on coal grades from Brown Coal Mines of `Bełchatów', `Adamów', `Turów' and `Sieniawa'. Currently the database contains 130 records with parameters of brown coal, where each record stands for technical analysis (content of moisture, ash and volatile particles), elemental analysis (CHNS), content of chlorine and mercury as well as net calorific value and combustion heat. Content of mercury in samples of brown coal grades under test ranged from 44 to 985 μg of Hg/kg with the average level of 345 μg of Hg/kg. The established database makes up a reliable and trustworthy source of information about content of mercury in Polish fossils. The foregoing details completed with information about consumption of coal by individual electric power stations and multiplied by appropriate emission coefficients may serve as the background to establish loads of mercury emitted into atmosphere from individual stations and by the entire sector of power engineering in total. It will also enable Polish central organizations and individual business entities to implement reasonable policy with respect of mercury emission into atmosphere.

  4. Analysis of the Motor Activities of Professional Polish Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzejewski Marcin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aims of the present study were to determine the activity profiles of a large sample of Polish Premier League soccer players during elite-standard soccer matches depending on their position on the pitch and the intensity range of physical activity. Material and methods. The study sample comprised 1,178 players in 5 outfield positions: external defenders (ED, n = 289, central defenders (CD, n = 307, central midfield players (CM, n = 327, external midfield players (EM, n = 152, and forwards (F, n = 103. Altogether, 81 Polish League games held during four domestic seasons (2010-2011, 2011-2012, 2012-2013, and 2013-2014 were used in the analysis. A semi-automatic computerised player tracking system (Amisco Pro®, version 1.0.2, Nice, France was applied to create the match activity profiles of the teams. Results. The results of statistical analysis revealed that the average total distance covered by all the players (n = 1,178 was 11,313 ± 852 m. With respect to the players’ position on the pitch, the central midfielders travelled the longest average distance (11,894 ± 765 m during the game. The longest distance was covered in the V1 intensity range (62%, followed by V2 (15%, V3 (10%, V4 (8%, V5 (3%, and V6 (2%. Conclusions. The objective of this study was to verify the differences among playing positions and to quantify the demands placed on elite Polish soccer players in each individual position during match play. While analysing elite-level match play in terms of the overall distance covered in different categories of intensity, we found a number of statistically significant differences between different playing positions. The data presented in this study can be regarded as norms for elite soccer players, serve for present and future comparison, and represent the scientific basis for developing position-specific conditioning/training protocols in soccer.

  5. The Utility and Consequences of Using Impressed Child Soldiers in Africa's Contemporary Wars

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woguwale, Jasom

    2000-01-01

    .... The purpose of this paper titled, "The Utility and Consequences of Using Impressed Child Soldiers in Africa's Contemporary Wars," is to examine the practice of using children as soldiers by various...

  6. Identifying and Assessing Interaction Knowledge, Skills, and Attributes for Future Force Soldiers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bowden, Tim; Keenan, Patricia; Ramli, Masayu; Heffner, Tonia

    2007-01-01

    .... The goal of the AISA is to gauge the Soldier's aptitude to effectively manage interpersonal interactions and to identify Soldiers who may be well suited for positions where effective interpersonal...

  7. Nutrition Knowledge and Supplement Use among Elite U.S. Army Soldiers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bovill, Maria E; Tharion, William J; Lieberman, Harris R

    2003-01-01

    ...%) reported current supplement use with more SF (90%) than non-SF, support soldiers (76%) using supplements (p Supplements that SF soldiers reported using most were multivitamins, sports bars or sports drinks, and vitamin C...

  8. The Nation and the Soldier in German Civil-Military Relations, 1800-1945

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brumley, Donald W

    2005-01-01

    .... The abdication of the monarchy in 1918 forced the professional soldier to look for a substitute sovereign who would insure the survival of the privileged role of the soldier in republican state and society...

  9. "The bullets sound like music to my ears" : socialization of child soldiers within African rebel groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeij, L.

    2014-01-01

    Based on over 400 in-depth interviews with child soldiers and their commanders, this research reveals how rebel group socialization leads to allegiance among child soldiers and how this contributes to the creation of a cohesive group.

  10. Polishing for glass ceramics: which protocol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tânia Mara da; Salvia, Ana Carolina Rodrigues Danzi; Carvalho, Rodrigo Furtado de; Pagani, Clovis; Rocha, Daniel Maranha da; Silva, Eduardo Galera da

    2014-07-01

    The execution of adjustments on ceramic restorations is sometimes necessary for either correction of occlusion and/or inadequate contours or esthetical improvements. Clinically, the surfaces undergo weariness through fine grinding diamond burs which remove the superficial glazing layer. Several materials for ceramic polishing have been used in an attempt to reach a satisfactory surface smoothness. The aim of this study was to perform a literature review on different polishing protocols of several dental ceramics. This is a literature review performed through scientific articles published between 2004 and 2012, indexed in MEDLINE, PubMed and Scielo databases. The study selected and analyzed a total of 20 relevant articles that evaluated different types of ceramics, polishing treatment and surface roughness. After an extensive literature review, this study observed: 1 - after the rupture of the glazing layer due to the adjustments of the restorations, the best choice for the polishing of the surface will depend on the type of ceramics used; 2 - glazing procedure provide excellent results regarding to the superficial smoothness; however, if reglazing is impossible, either abrasive rubber cups/points or sandpaper discs followed by the use of diamond polishing pastes results in a satisfactory superficial smoothness; 3 - clinical studies that take into account the behavior of the protocols polishing are scarce and should be encouraged; 4 - the large number of variables influence the final outcome of polishing should be considered. The necessity in standardization of methodologies to enable a comparison among researches. Copyright © 2014 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Smoking characteristics of Polish immigrants in Dublin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kabir, Zubair

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study examined two main hypotheses: a) Polish immigrants\\' smoking estimates are greater than their Irish counterparts (b) Polish immigrants purchasing cigarettes from Poland smoke "heavier" (>\\/= 20 cigarettes a day) when compared to those purchasing cigarettes from Ireland. The study also set out to identify significant predictors of \\'current\\' smoking (some days and everyday) among the Polish immigrants. METHODS: Dublin residents of Polish origin (n = 1,545) completed a previously validated Polish questionnaire in response to an advertisement in a local Polish lifestyle magazine over 5 weekends (July-August, 2007). The Office of Tobacco Control telephone-based monthly survey data were analyzed for the Irish population in Dublin for the same period (n = 484). RESULTS: Age-sex adjusted smoking estimates were: 47.6% (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 47.3%; 48.0%) among the Poles and 27.8% (95% CI: 27.2%; 28.4%) among the general Irish population (p < 0.001). Of the 57% of smokers (n = 345\\/606) who purchased cigarettes solely from Poland and the 33% (n = 198\\/606) who purchased only from Ireland, 42.6% (n = 147\\/345) and 41.4% (n = 82\\/198) were "heavy" smokers, respectively (p = 0.79). Employment (Odds Ratio [OR]: 2.89; 95% CI: 1.25-6.69), lower education (OR: 3.76; 95%CI: 2.46-5.74), and a longer stay in Ireland (>24 months) were significant predictors of current smoking among the Poles. An objective validation of the self-reported smoking history of a randomly selected sub-sample immigrant group, using expired carbon monoxide (CO) measurements, showed a highly significant correlation coefficient (r = 0.64) of expired CO levels with the reported number of cigarettes consumed (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Polish immigrants\\' smoking estimates are higher than their Irish counterparts, and particularly if employed, with only primary-level education, and are overseas >2 years.

  12. Perceived Stress and Intent to Die in Young Soldiers Who Attempt Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelef, Leah; Brunstein Klomek, Anat; Yavnai, Nirit; Shahar, Golan

    2017-10-06

    Intent to die is an important component of suicide risk assessment. The authors compared the predictive effect of two forms of stress - military and perceived - in intent to die by suicide among young adult Israeli soldiers with a history of suicide attempts. Depression, suicide ideation, and habituation/acquired capacity for suicidality served as covariates. Participants were 60 young adult soldiers in the Israeli Defense Force (ISF; aged 18-21 years), who made a suicide attempt during their military service. Study variables were assessed using self-report measures. Intent to die by suicide correlated with suicide ideation, habituation/acquired capacity, depressive symptoms, and perceived stress. In a multiple regression analysis, perceived stress predicted intent to die (b = .44, p = .002) over and above the prediction by suicide ideation (b = .42, p = .013) and acquired capacity/habituation (b = .28, p = .023). The cross-sectional design restricts causal inference. In addition, an exclusive reliance on self-report measures might have inflated shared method variance. Perceived stress captures a unique dimension of intent to die by suicide among young suicide attempters.

  13. The Soldiers in Societies: Defense, Regulation, and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Li; Zhou, Xuguo

    2014-01-01

    The presence of reproductively altruistic castes is one of the primary traits of the eusocial societies. Adaptation and regulation of the sterile caste, to a certain extent, drives the evolution of eusociality. Depending on adaptive functions of the first evolved sterile caste, eusocial societies can be categorized into the worker-first and soldier-first lineages, respectively. The former is marked by a worker caste as the first evolved altruistic caste, whose primary function is housekeeping, and the latter is highlighted by a sterile soldier caste as the first evolved altruistic caste, whose task is predominantly colony defense. The apparent functional differences between these two fundamentally important castes suggest worker-first and soldier-first eusociality are potentially driven by a suite of distinctively different factors. Current studies of eusocial evolution have been focused largely on the worker-first Hymenoptera, whereas understanding of soldier-first lineages including termites, eusocial aphids, gall-dwelling thrips, and snapping shrimp, is greatly lacking. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge on biology, morphology, adaptive functions, and caste regulation of the soldier caste. In addition, we discuss the biological, ecological and genetic factors that might contribute to the evolution of distinct caste systems within eusocial lineages. PMID:24644427

  14. GMOs IN THE POLISH FRUIT AND VEGETABLES CONSUMER AWARENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilianna Jabłońska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of GMOs brings numerous benefi ts at the same time raising fears of threats to human health and the environment. The aim of this study is to present the way GMOs are perceived by fruit and vegetables consumers, their attitude to genetic manipulations and knowledge of the presence of GMOs on the Polish food market. A survey conducted among 200 people served to accomplish this aim. The research shows that the majority of the respondents see GM foods as hazardous to health and they refuse to buy transgenic fruit and vegetables. At the same time 80% of them do not have suffi cient knowledge about GMOs, their cultivation and presence on the market as GM food. This also refers to a group of people with a university degree. As many as 1/3 of the surveyed do not know whether GMOs are present on the Polish market, and only 9% indicated GMOs share of over 60% of the market, while nearly 70% of the respondents pointed to the presence of transgenic fruit and vegetables, listing a number of their species. This shows the need for widespread education and dissemination activities. 

  15. Family Functioning and Soldier PTSD: Correlates of Treatment Engagement and Military Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-08-1-0726 TITLE: Family Functioning and Soldier PTSD: Correlates of Treatment Engagement and Military Job Satisfaction ...and Military Job Satisfaction 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-08-1-0726 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Leyla Stambaugh, Ph.D.; Dawn Ohse, Ph.D. 5d...engagement, and Soldier job satisfaction in active duty Soldiers with PTSD. The specific aim was to identify facilitators of Soldier treatment

  16. NRPC ServCat priorities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — This document lists the Natural Resource Program Center’s priority ServCat documents. It is recommended that these documents- which include annual narrative reports,...

  17. APS 3D: a new benchmark in aspherical polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauch, Daniel; Mikulic, Dalibor; Veit, Christian

    2017-10-01

    The APS 3D system performs polishing and form correction in one step in order to reduce overall process time, reduce the number of polishing steps required and eliminate the need for highly skilled operators while providing a repeatable polishing process. This new 3D Polishing system yields better surface quality, and a better slope error, automatically determining the optimum speeds, feed rates and polish pressures to achieve a deterministic process based on the required quality parameters input by the operator. The process flow is always the same to ensure consistent quality and target quality values are defined before polishing begins.

  18. Scratching the Surface: A Comparison of Girl Soldiers from Three Geographic Regions of the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellings, Carolyn R.

    2008-01-01

    Over 300,000 children are estimated to be conscripted participants in conflicts throughout the world. Depending on the particular armed group that employs child soldiers, girls represent 6 to 50% of child soldiers. Despite this prevalence of involvement, the experience of girls as soldiers in war and political conflict has rarely been…

  19. Medically Documented Suicide Ideation Among U.S. Army Soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursano, Robert J; Kessler, Ronald C; Stein, Murray B; Naifeh, James A; Nock, Matthew K; Aliaga, Pablo A; Fullerton, Carol S; Wynn, Gary H; Ng, Tsz Hin Hinz; Dinh, Hieu M; Sampson, Nancy A; Kao, Tzu-Cheg; Schoenbaum, Michael; McCarroll, James E; Cox, Kenneth L; Heeringa, Steven G

    2017-10-01

    We used administrative data to examine predictors of medically documented suicide ideation (SI) among Regular Army soldiers from 2006 through 2009 (N = 10,466 ideators, 124,959 control person-months). Enlisted ideators (97.8% of all cases) were more likely than controls to be female, younger, older when entering service, less educated, never or previously deployed, and have a recent mental health diagnosis. Officer ideators were more likely than controls to be female, younger, younger when entering service, never married, and have a recent mental health diagnosis. Risk among enlisted soldiers peaked in the second month of service and declined steadily, whereas risk among officers remained relatively stable over time. Risk of SI is highest among enlisted soldiers early in Army service, females, and those with a recent mental health diagnosis. © 2016 The American Association of Suicidology.

  20. Former child soldiers' problems and needs: Congolese experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, Steinar; Holgersen, Helge

    2014-01-01

    With this article, we explore how staff working at transit centers and vocational training centers in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo experienced the problems and needs of former child soldiers. We argued that the staff's experience of the children's daily lives and their understanding of the sociocultural context of the conflict make their perspective a valuable source of information when trying to understand the phenomenon of child soldiering. Additionally, we reasoned that how the staff frame these children's problems influences how they attempt to aid the children. We conducted 11 semistructured interviews and analyzed these using a hermeneutical-phenomenological approach. We clustered our findings around six themes: unfavorable contextual factors, acting as if still in the army, addiction, symptoms of psychopathology, social rejection, and reintegration needs. The overarching message we observed was that the informants experienced that former child soldiers require help to be transformed into civilians who participate proactively in their society.

  1. Exoskeleton for Soldier Enhancement Systems Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, J.F.

    2000-09-28

    The development of a successful exoskeleton for human performance augmentation (EHPA) will require a multi-disciplinary systems approach based upon sound biomechanics, power generation and actuation systems, controls technology, and operator interfaces. The ability to integrate key components into a system that enhances performance without impeding operator mobility is essential. The purpose of this study and report are to address the issue of feasibility of building a fieldable EHPA. Previous efforts, while demonstrating progress and enhancing knowledge, have not approached the level required for a fully functional, fieldable system. It is doubtless that the technologies required for a successful exoskeleton have advanced, and some of them significantly. The question to be addressed in this report is have they advanced to the point of making a system feasible in the next three to five years? In this study, the key technologies required to successfully build an exoskeleton have been examined. The primary focus has been on the key technologies of power sources, actuators, and controls. Power sources, including internal combustion engines, fuel cells, batteries, super capacitors, and hybrid sources have been investigated and compared with respect to the exoskeleton application. Both conventional and non-conventional actuator technologies that could impact EHPA have been assessed. In addition to the current state of the art of actuators, the potential for near-term improvements using non-conventional actuators has also been addressed. Controls strategies, and their implication to the design approach, and the exoskeleton to soldier interface have also been investigated. In addition to these key subsystems and technologies, this report addresses technical concepts and issues relating to an integrated design. A recommended approach, based on the results of the study is also presented.

  2. Muzzle flash localization for the dismounted soldier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy Scott, Will

    2015-05-01

    The ability to accurately and rapidly know the precise location of enemy fire would be a substantial capability enhancement to the dismounted soldier. Acoustic gun-shot detections systems can provide an approximate bearing but it is desired to precisely know the location (direction and range) of enemy fire; for example to know from `which window' the fire is coming from. Funded by the UK MOD (via Roke Manor Research) QinetiQ is developing an imaging solution built around an InGaAs camera. This paper presents work that QinetiQ has undertaken on the Muzzle Flash Locator system. Key technical challenges that have been overcome are explained and discussed in this paper. They include; the design of the optical sensor and processing hardware to meet low size, weight and power requirements; the algorithm approach required to maintain sensitivity whilst rejecting false alarms from sources such as close passing insects and sun glint from scene objects; and operation on the move. This work shows that such a sensor can provide sufficient sensitivity to detect muzzle flash events to militarily significant ranges and that such a system can be combined with an acoustic gunshot detection system to minimize the false alarm rate. The muzzle flash sensor developed in this work operates in real-time and has a field of view of approximately 29° (horizontal) by 12° (vertical) with a pixel resolution of 0.13°. The work has demonstrated that extension to a sensor with realistic angular rotation rate is feasible.

  3. Caffeine use among active duty US Army soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Harris R; Stavinoha, Trisha; McGraw, Susan; White, Alan; Hadden, Louise; Marriott, Bernadette P

    2012-06-01

    Eighty-percent of the US adult population regularly consumes caffeine, but limited information is available on the extent and patterns of use. Caffeine use is a public health issue and its risks and benefits are regularly considered in scientific literature and the lay media. Recently, new caffeine-containing products have been introduced and are widely available on Army bases and are added to rations to maintain cognitive performance. This study surveyed caffeine consumption and demographic characteristics in 990 US Army soldiers. Data were weighted by age, sex, rank, and Special Forces status. Total caffeine intake and intake from specific products were estimated. Logistic regression was used to examine relationships between caffeine use and soldier demographic and lifestyle characteristics. Eighty-two percent of soldiers consumed caffeine at least once a week. Mean daily caffeine consumption was 285 mg/day (347 mg/day among regular caffeine consumers). Male soldiers consumed, on average, 303 mg/day and females 163 mg/day (regular consumers: 365 mg/day for male soldiers, 216 mg/day for female soldiers). Coffee was the main source of caffeine intake. Among young males, energy drinks were the largest source of caffeine intake, but their intake was not greater than older males. Regression analysis indicated an association of higher caffeine intake with male sex, white race, and tobacco use (Pcaffeine in levels accepted as safe, but some consume greater quantities than recommended, although definitive information on safe upper limits of caffeine intake is not available. Labels of caffeine-containing products should provide caffeine content so individuals can make informed decisions. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of Delayed Finishing/Polishing on Surface Roughness, Hardness and Gloss of Tooth-Coloured Restorative Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici, A. Ruya; Tuncer, Duygu; Antonson, Sibel; Onen, Alev; Kilinc, Evren

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of delayed finishing/polishing on the surface roughness, hardness and gloss of tooth-coloured restorative materials. Methods: Four different tooth-coloured restoratives: a flowable resin composite- Tetric Flow, a hybrid resin composite- Venus, a nanohybrid resin composite- Grandio, and a polyacid modified resin composite- Dyract Extra were used. 30 specimens were made for each material and randomly assigned into three groups. The first group was finished/polished immediately and the second group was finished/polished after 24 hours. The remaining 10 specimens served as control. The surface roughness of each sample was recorded using a laser profilometer. Gloss measurements were performed using a small-area glossmeter. Vickers microhardness measurements were performed from three locations on each specimen surface under 100g load and 10s dwell time. Data for surface roughness and hardness were analyzed by Kruskal Wallis test and data for gloss were subjected to one-way ANOVA and Tukey test (P Grandio samples showed significantly higher roughness than the delayed polished samples (P .05). The lowest hardness values were found under Mylar strip. Delayed finishing/polishing significantly increased the hardness of all materials. Conclusions: The effect of delayed finishing/polishing on surface roughness, gloss and hardness appears to be material dependent. PMID:20046480

  5. Efficacy of polishing kits on the surface roughness and color stability of different composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaagaoglu, H; Aslan, T; Gürbulak, A; Albayrak, H; Taşdemir, Z; Gumus, H

    2017-05-01

    Different polishing kits may have different effects on the composite resin surfaces. The aim of this study was to evaluate the surface roughness and color stability of four different composites which was applied different polishing technique. Thirty specimens were made for each composite resin group (nanohybrid, GrandioSo-GS; nanohybrid, Clearfil Majesty Esthetic-CME; hybrid, Valux Plus-VP; micro-hybrid, Ruby Comp-RC; [15 mm in diameter and 2 mm height]), with the different monomer composition and particle size from a total of 120 specimens. Each composite group was divided into three subgroups (n = 10). The first subgroup of the each composite subgroups served as control (C) and had no surface treatment. The second subgroup of the each composite resin groups was polished with finishing discs (Bisco Finishing Discs; Bisco Inc., Schaumburg, IL, USA). The third subgroup of the each composite resin was polished with polishing wheel (Enhance and PoGo, Dentsply, Konstanz, Germany). The surface roughness and the color differences measurement of the specimens were made and recorded. The data were compared using Kruskal-Wallis test, and regression analysis was used in order to examine the correlation between surface roughness and color differences of the specimens (α = 0.05). The Kruskal-Wallis test indicated significant difference among the composite resins in terms of ΔE (P composite resins in terms of surface roughness (P > 0.05). Result of the regression analysis indicated statistically significant correlation between Ra and ΔE values (P < 0.05, r2 = 0.74). The findings of the present study have clinical relevance in the choice of polishing kits used.

  6. Reliability analysis of high-speed tracked vehicles in the polish army

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kończak Jarosław

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Polish Armed Forces use tracked vehicles that serve as a core element of the ground combat forces. These vehicles are capable of fighting in all kinds of terrain conditions, in any season of the year. Combat missions are often fought in areas where even no dirt roads are available. The present paper assesses the reliability of tracked vehicles in the context of their irregular operation, as well as service- and maintenance-related vulnerability.

  7. Material removal mechanisms in abrasive vibration polishing of complex molds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinksmeier, E.; Riemer, O.; Schulte, H.

    2010-10-01

    Optical and medical industries are demanding a large variety of optical elements exhibiting complex geometries and multitude opto-functional areas in the range of a few millimeters [1]. Therefore, mold inserts made of steel or carbides must be finished by polishing for the replication of glass and plastic lenses [2]. For polishing theses complex components in the shape of localized cavities or grooves the application of rotating polishing pads is very limited. Established polishing processes are not applicable, so state of the art is a time consuming and therefore expensive polishing procedures by hand. An automated process with conventional polishing machines is impossible because of the complex mold insert geometry. The authors will present the development of a new abrasive polishing process for finishing these complex mold geometries to optical quality. The necessary relative velocity in the contact area between polishing pad and workpiece surface is exclusively realized by vibration motions which is an advantage over vibration assisted rotating polishing processes. The absence of rotation of the pad opens up the possibility to machine new types of surface geometries. The specific influence factors of vibration polishing were analyzed and will be presented. The determination of material removal behavior and polishing effect on planar steel samples has shown that the conventional abrasive polishing hypothesis of Preston is applicable to the novel vibration polishing process. No overlaid chemical material removal appears.

  8. Polish Academy of Sciences Great Dictionary of Polish [Wielki słownik języka polskiego PAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Žmigrodzki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a lexicographical project involving the development of the newest general dictionary of the Polish language: the Polish Academy of Sciences Great Dictionary of Polish [Wielki słownik języka polskiego PAN]. The project is coordinated by the Institute of Polish Language at the Polish Academy of Sciences and carried out in collaboration with linguists and lexicographers from several other Polish academic centres. The paper offers a brief description of the genesis of the project and the scope of information included in the dictionary, the organisation of work, the life of the dictionary on the Web as well as the plans for the future.

  9. Surface Roughness and Gloss of Actual Composites as Polished With Different Polishing Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues-Junior, S A; Chemin, P; Piaia, P P; Ferracane, J L

    2015-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the effect of polishing with different polishing systems on the surface roughness and gloss of commercial composites. One hundred disk-shaped specimens (10 mm in diameter × 2 mm thick) were made with Filtek P-90, Filtek Z350 XT, Opallis, and Grandio. The specimens were manually finished with #400 sandpaper and polished by a single operator using three multistep systems (Superfix, Diamond Pro, and Sof-lex), one two-step system (Polidores DFL), and one one-step system (Enhance), following the manufacturer's instructions. The average surface roughness (μm) was measured with a surface profilometer (TR 200 Surface Roughness Tester), and gloss was measured using a small-area glossmeter (Novo-Curve, Rhopoint Instrumentation, East Sussex, UK). Data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance and Tukey's test (α=0.05). Statistically significant differences in surface roughness were identified by varying the polishing systems (pGrandio when polished with Sof-Lex and Filtek Z250 and Opallis when polished with Enhance. Gloss was influenced by the composites (p<0.0001), the polishing systems (p<0.0001), and the interaction between them (p<0.0001). The one-step system, Enhance, produced the lowest gloss for all composites. Surface roughness and gloss were affected by composites and polishing systems. The interaction between both also influenced these surface characteristics, meaning that a single polishing system will not behave similarly for all composites. The multistep systems produced higher gloss, while the one-step system produced the highest surface roughness and the lowest gloss of all.

  10. Music for the injured soldier: a contribution of American women's military bands during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Jill M

    2007-01-01

    This study is an investigation of the contributions of women's military bands in the United States to the reconditioning of the injured American troops during World War II. Primary and secondary sources revealed that these bands welcomed home hospital ships, performed for convalescing soldiers in hospitals, and provided music for hospital dances. While each of the bands investigated served in similar capacities, only one, the 403rd Women's Army Corps (WAC) Band, was stationed at a hospital. While entertainment by women's bands was an important part of the Army Reconditioning Program for the injured, the study also revealed a working partnership that developed between these musicians and the medical community. Sixty years after the war, band members believe their performances in hospitals were the most important contribution of their service. Some historians have concluded that music used in military hospitals during the war was the impetus for the music therapy profession.

  11. Ladies in waiting: a group intervention for families coping with deployed soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskin, Vivian

    2011-07-01

    It is widely recognized that military service during wartime can take a toll on a soldier's psychological health. Recent work has revealed effects on the families left behind as well, as reflected, for example, in an increase in child abuse and neglect in these families. My interest in studying the transgenerational transmission of trauma led me to offer the National Guard a pro bono group therapy for women whose husbands had been deployed overseas. A slightly unorthodox approach paved the way not only to group treatment but, ultimately, individual treatment for these women and their children. My hope is that this work can serve as a model for other therapists who share my interest in treating the intergenerational transmission of trauma by implementing group and mother-child psychotherapy.

  12. Microbiological flora and nail polish: a brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayan, G M; Flournoy, D J; Schlageter, P

    1994-11-01

    Removing nail polish and prosthetic nails from operating room (OR) personnel prior to scrubbing and from patients prior to hand surgery is recommended but not practiced in many hospitals. There is concern that nail polish can act as a vehicle for the transfer of infectious agents. This study was designed to determine the incidence of microbiological flora of nail polish in a clinical setting.

  13. Monitoring of Robot Assisted Polishing through parameters of acoustic emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarev, Ruslan; Top, Søren; Bilberg, Arne

    The polishing process is essential for the surface generation of machine tooling components in advanced manufacturing. While robot assisted polishing is faster and more consistent than manual polishing, it can still consume a significant part of ma- chining time and operator presence time...

  14. 21 CFR 872.6030 - Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent. 872.6030... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6030 Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent. (a) Identification. An oral cavity abrasive polishing agent is a device in paste or powder form...

  15. The United States Army Comprehensive Soldier Fitness: A Critical Look

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    The broad narrative describes this methodology and how to interpret the data and provides any Soldier with a red score a hyperlink and phone number... Psychoanalysis Professor Stephen Soldz, stated “the problems identified with CSF are legion. It is time for the Army to step back from uncritically

  16. ["Happy shooting" injury of a German KFOR soldier in Kosovo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammito, S; Hartmann, V; Kerschowski, J; Klein, B

    2012-01-01

    In this case report we describe a 24-year-old German KFOR soldier who was injured in the night of New Year's Eve 2009/2010 during the Kosovo Mission by a falling bullet in the right shoulder. The falling bullet was a full metal jacket probably shot during a "happy shooting" by a civilian.

  17. The Herero genocide : German unity, settlers, soldiers, and ideas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gewald, J.B.; Bechhaus-Gerst, M.; Klein-Arendt, R.

    2003-01-01

    Between 1904 and 1908 imperial German troops committed genocide in German South West Africa, present-day Namibia. African survivors of the war were cruelly treated, placed in camps and put to work as forced labourers. This paper addresses the question of why German soldiers and settlers committed

  18. Child Soldiers in Africa: Solutions to a Complex Dilemma | Kalis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article focuses on the dilemma of using child soldiers in violent conflicts throughout Africa and on ways of resolving it in the future. The first section briefly examines some important domestic and international aspects and dimensions of the problem. Then, attention is shifted to particular individual countries on the ...

  19. Czech Soldiers during the Great War (1914-1918)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hladký, Ladislav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 3 (2016), s. 71-83 ISSN 0354-6497 Institutional support: RVO:67985963 Keywords : first world war * Austria-Hungary * Czech soldiers * eastern (Russian) front * southwest (Italian) front * Czechoslovak legionnaries * Czechoslovakia Subject RIV: AB - History OBOR OECD: History (history of science and technology to be 6.3, history of specific sciences to be under the respective headings)

  20. Postmodern Chapel Services for Generation X and Millennial Generation Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-13

    TERMS Chapels, Chaplains, Postmodern, Postmodernism, Generations, Generation X, Millenial Generation, Emergent Chruch, Emerging Churches, Seeker...new trends . Chapter One has six sections that introduce the problem, research question, assumptions, definitions, delimitations, and significance of... trending in any direction? Who are the majority of soldiers? 2 Society demographics. What is known about that majority from examining the

  1. Perception and practice of contraception among male soldiers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There is a popular belief among the general population that Nigerian soldiers tend to have large families but this has not been substantiated with evidence-based research. The Nigerian military health authority implements femaletargetted contraception strategies, with less focus on their husbands; who are the ...

  2. Soldier-worn augmented reality system for tactical icon visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David; Menozzi, Alberico; Clipp, Brian; Russler, Patrick; Cook, James; Karl, Robert; Wenger, Eric; Church, William; Mauger, Jennifer; Volpe, Chris; Argenta, Chris; Wille, Mark; Snarski, Stephen; Sherrill, Todd; Lupo, Jasper; Hobson, Ross; Frahm, Jan-Michael; Heinly, Jared

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes the development and demonstration of a soldier-worn augmented reality system testbed that provides intuitive 'heads-up' visualization of tactically-relevant geo-registered icons. Our system combines a robust soldier pose estimation capability with a helmet mounted see-through display to accurately overlay geo-registered iconography (i.e., navigation waypoints, blue forces, aircraft) on the soldier's view of reality. Applied Research Associates (ARA), in partnership with BAE Systems and the University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill (UNC-CH), has developed this testbed system in Phase 2 of the DARPA ULTRA-Vis (Urban Leader Tactical, Response, Awareness, and Visualization) program. The ULTRA-Vis testbed system functions in unprepared outdoor environments and is robust to numerous magnetic disturbances. We achieve accurate and robust pose estimation through fusion of inertial, magnetic, GPS, and computer vision data acquired from helmet kit sensors. Icons are rendered on a high-brightness, 40°×30° field of view see-through display. The system incorporates an information management engine to convert CoT (Cursor-on-Target) external data feeds into mil-standard icons for visualization. The user interface provides intuitive information display to support soldier navigation and situational awareness of mission-critical tactical information.

  3. An Ex-Soldier Finds a New Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Libby

    2012-01-01

    Matthew Reilly's roundabout journey to college took a painful, decisive turn after a nighttime crash in Iraq. In 2008, six months into his first combat tour with the Army, Mr. Reilly and nine soldiers from his platoon were pursuing an insurgent when their armored fighting vehicle slammed into a roadblock. It was 2 o'clock in the morning, and fresh…

  4. Factors associated with posttraumatic stress among peacekeeping soldiers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirkzwager, A.J.E.; Bramsen, I.; Ploeg, H.M. van der

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate positive and negative consequences of peacekeeping operations, help-seeking behaviour among peacekeepers, PTSD prevalence rates and factors associated with PTSD symptoms. A sample of 3,481 peacekeeping soldiers who participated in various peacekeeping operations was

  5. Factors associated with posttraumatic stress among peacekeeping soldiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirkzwager, A.J.E.; Bramsen, I.; van der Ploeg, H.M.

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate positive and negative consequences of peacekeeping operations, help-seeking behaviour among peacekeepers, PTSD prevalence rates and factors associated with PTSD symptoms. A sample of 3,481 peacekeeping soldiers who participated in various peacekeeping operations was

  6. Streamflow characteristics and trends along Soldier Creek, Northeast Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2017-08-16

    Historical data for six selected U.S. Geological Survey streamgages along Soldier Creek in northeast Kansas were used in an assessment of streamflow characteristics and trends. This information is required by the Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation for the effective management of tribal water resources, including drought contingency planning. Streamflow data for the period of record at each streamgage were used to assess annual mean streamflow, annual mean base flow, mean monthly flow, annual peak flow, and annual minimum flow.Annual mean streamflows along Soldier Creek were characterized by substantial year-to-year variability with no pronounced long-term trends. On average, annual mean base flow accounted for about 20 percent of annual mean streamflow. Mean monthly flows followed a general seasonal pattern that included peak values in spring and low values in winter. Annual peak flows, which were characterized by considerable year-to-year variability, were most likely to occur in May and June and least likely to occur during November through February. With the exception of a weak yet statistically significant increasing trend at the Soldier Creek near Topeka, Kansas, streamgage, there were no pronounced long-term trends in annual peak flows. Annual 1-day, 30-day, and 90-day mean minimum flows were characterized by considerable year-to-year variability with no pronounced long-term trend. During an extreme drought, as was the case in the mid-1950s, there may be zero flow in Soldier Creek continuously for a period of one to several months.

  7. A LONG WAY GONE – MEMOIRS OF A BOY SOLDIER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abel

    “This is how wars are fought now: by children, traumatized, hopped-up on drugs and wielding AK-47s. Children have ... It also challenges the military professional who romanticises deployment in Sub-. Saharan African states and who sees it as a means of stockpiling easy cash; of killing boredom as a career soldier in a ...

  8. Post traumatic stress disorder among former child soldiers attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    history of alcohol abuse. Children who experienced 10 or more traumatic war events were more likely than the rest to experience depressed mood. Return through a reception center or through a cleansing ritual did not protect against depression. Discussion: Post-traumatic stress disorder among former LRA child soldiers at ...

  9. Liberia's Child Soldiers: Prospects and Problems | Sesay | Scientia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The end of the cold war gave rise to expectations that Africa would benefit from the peace dividend. The euphoria was however short lived. In Liberia, a bloody civil war broke out in 1989 in which thousands of children were used as child soldiers. Surprisingly, not much is known about how they are settling back into civil ...

  10. Professional Training of Economists at Polish Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogienko, Olena

    2016-01-01

    Polish experience in professional training of economists at university has been generalized. Structural, content and procedural peculiarities of the training have been defined. It has been proved that key factors for reforming economic education in Poland are globalization, internationalization, integration, technologization and informatization.…

  11. Knowledge Mobilisation in the Polish Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazlagic, Jan; Erkol, Arif

    2015-01-01

    Poland has made substantial progress in improving the quality of its education system in recent years. This paper aims to describe the situation of the Polish education system from a knowledge management perspective and, to some extent, through innovation policies in education. The many challenges, this paper argues, can be tackled only through…

  12. Sexual Health of Polish Athletes with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Plinta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine sexual functioning of Polish athletes with disabilities (including paralympians. The study encompassed 218 people with physical disabilities, aged between 18 and 45 (149 men and 69 women. The entire research population was divided into three groups: Polish paralympians (n = 45, athletes with disabilities (n = 126 and non-athletes with disabilities (n = 47. The quality of sexual life of Polish paralympians was measured by using the Polish version of Female Sexual Function Index and International Index of Erectile Function. Clinically significant erectile dysfunctions were most often diagnosed in non-athletes (83.33% with 50% result of severe erectile dysfunctions, followed by athletes and paralympians with comparable results of 56.98% and 54.17% respectively (p = 0.00388. Statistically significant clinical sexual dysfunctions concerned lubrication, orgasm as well as pain domains, and prevailed among female non-athletes (68.42%, 68.42% and 57.89%. Practising sports at the highest level has a favourable effect on the sexuality of men and women with physical disabilities. Men with physical disabilities manifest more sexual disorders than women, an aspect which should be considered by health-care professionals working with people with disabilities.

  13. Technological Advances of Robot Assisted Polishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarev, Ruslan; Top, Søren; Grønbæk, Jens

    The efficient polishing of surfaces is very important in mould and die industry. Fine abrasive processes are widely used in industry for the first steps for the production of tools of high quality in terms of finishing accuracy, form and surface integrity. While manufacturing of most components r...

  14. Polish Complementary Schools in Iceland and England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinska, Malgorzata; Kowzan, Piotr; Ragnarsdóttir, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Since 2004, the opening of labour markets has spurred a considerable number of Poles to emigrate e.g. to Iceland and England. Families with school age children have had the challenge of adapting to foreign environments and school systems. Polish complementary schools have played an important, albeit ambivalent, role in this process. Through focus…

  15. Sport Psychology for the Soldier Athlete: A Paradigm Shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Vanessa M

    2018-02-06

    Competitive athletes train body and mind in preparation for competition with mental fortitude often providing the "winning edge." Similarly, the current-day warfighter faces significant physical and psychological challenges and must be prepared to respond to life-threatening danger with mental and physical agility. Sport Psychology for the Soldier Athlete recognizes the soldier as an elite athlete and provides training required to perform at the highest caliber. Through this curriculum, mental skills coaching in goal setting, imagery, positive self-talk, and heart rate control is integrated into routine physical fitness training. These skills commonly used by professional and Olympic athletes for optimal performance provide soldiers with the ability to manage every day military stressors. Sport Psychology for the Soldier Athlete supports GEN Milley's top priority of readiness and decreases the cost of Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) failures. Soldiers from a large military treatment facility participated in a 6-wk sport psychology mental skills training program led by an Army occupational therapist. The training that was integrated into regularly scheduled physical training consisted of 10 min of physical readiness training, 10 min of mental skills coaching followed by push-up, sit-up, and running drills focusing on the mental skills learned. Semi-annual APFT scores following the sport psychology training were compared with the five previous semi-APFT scores for the same company using analysis of variance. Results comparing company APFT scores to the previous five semi-annual tests showed statistical significance of 0.001 with the intervention group achieving an average 13- to 14-point improvement. Post-training survey showed 91% of participants recognizing the benefit of these "life skills" in other Army tasks such as weapons qualification, combat medic tasks, and career planning. Soldiers acknowledged this curriculum as quality hands-on training with the

  16. Transformation of the Polish Banking Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Stefański

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In the post-war period the banking system in Poland underwent two important system transitions: after 1946 and after 1989. The third transformation began after May 1, 2004, but it did not have a systemic character. The Polish banking sector started to operate on the Single European Market. The first part of the paper is devoted to the problems of the banks transformations after 1989 with a special focus on the quantitative development of banks in 19892008, and on subsequent privatisation and consolidation processes. The former intensified in 19891999, and the latter in 19992002. The consolidation process was very noticeable in the sector of cooperative banks after 1994. The second part of the paper includes an economic and financial analysis of the banks. A lot of attention was paid to the liquidity of the banking sector. It was assessed as good, which was confirmed by a short-term rating of Moodys and by the Financial Stability Report 2009, published by the National Bank of Poland in June 2009. The comparison of the net profit of the banking sector in 19972008 shows its dependence on the economic situation and policy. The number of banks with capital adequacy ratio well above the minimum required by the banking supervision is rising. The financial power ratings are not favorable for the domestic banks. The third part of the paper focuses on the development directions of the Polish banking sector. It may be concluded on the basis of the analysis that privatisation and consolidation processes will be continued. They will concentrate on the capital of foreign banks already operating in Poland. As compared with individual foreign banks, the potential of the Polish banking sector is week. The fourth part of the paper focuses on the presentation Polish banking sector in the context of European Union banking sector. The paper finishes with conclusions. Generally, Polish banks have to implement a strategy to enable them to compete on the Single

  17. Chemical mechanical glass polishing with cerium oxide: Effect of selected physico-chemical characteristics on polishing efficiency

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janoš, P.; Ederer, J.; Pilařová, V.; Henych, Jiří; Tolasz, Jakub; Milde, D.; Opletal, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 362, SEP (2016), s. 114-120 ISSN 0043-1648 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015073 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Chemical mechanical polishing * Ceria-based polishing powders * Polishing efficienc Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.531, year: 2016

  18. STUDY OF POLISHING AISI 316L WITH STRUCTURED ABRASIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François GOOSSENS

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Finishing process like polishing is usually used to obtain high quality mechanical surface characteristics such as texture and roughness. These operations are mainly handmade and need highly trained operators thus limiting their repeatability and profitability. To optimize the industrialization of the polishing process, it is therefore necessary to modelize the process to built efficient parameter database. The aim of this study is to characterise the polishing of 316L stainless steel with structured abrasive belts. The geometric data of the belts are given, and we then propose a model to determine material removal. An experimental test bench is set up to test this model and characterise the polishing process in terms of forces. It produces samples for different polishing conditions. The different polished surfaces are then analyzed thanks to the roughness and the wettability. Using experimental designs, we are able to validate the proposed model and identify the parameters that influence a polishing operation.

  19. Meningitis and Meningoencephalitis among Israel Defense Force Soldiers: 20 Years Experience at the Hadassah Medical Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikkel, Yoav Y; Ben-Hur, Tamir; Eliahou, Ruth; Honig, Asaf

    2015-11-01

    Meningitis and meningoencephalitis pose major risks of morbidity and mortality. To describe 20 years of experience treating infections of the central nervous system in Israel Defense Force (IDF) soldiers, including the common presentations, pathogens and sequelae, and to identify risk groups among soldiers. All soldiers who were admitted to the Hadassah University Medical Center (both campuses: Ein Kerem and Mt. Scopus) due to meningitis and meningoencephalitis from January 1993 to January 2014 were included in this retrospective study. Clinical, laboratory and radiologic data were reviewed from their hospital and army medical corps files. Attention was given to patients' military job description, i.e., combat vs. non-combat soldier, soldiers in training, and medical personnel. We identified 97 cases of suspected meningitis or meningoencephalitis. Six were mistakenly filed and these patients were found to have other disorders. Four soldiers were diagnosed with epidural abscess and five with meningitis due to non-infectious in flammatory diseases. Eighty-two soldiers in active and reserve duty had infectious meningitis or meningoencephalitis. Of these, 46 (56.1%) were combat soldiers and 31 (37.8%) non-combat; 20 (29.2%) were soldiers in training, 10 (12.2%) were training staff and 8 (9.8%) were medical staff. The main pathogens were enteroviruses, Epstein-Barr virus an d Neisseria meningitidis. In our series, soldiers in training, combat soldiers and medical personnel had meningitis and meningoencephalitis more than other soldiers. Enteroviruses are highly infectious pathogens and can cause outbreaks. N. meningitidis among IDF soldiers is still a concern. Early and aggressive treatment with steroids should be considered especially in robust meningoencephalitis cases.

  20. The Impact of Behavioral Health Issues on Soldiers Returning from Deployment -- Assessing the Programs for Reintegration of South Carolina National Guard Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    have concerns about changes in a Soldier‘s demeanor and escort the Soldier to a healthcare facility, if needed.46 NCOERs: - Inform my Soldiers...Center for PTSD indicates that ―Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR), and Selective Serotonin...assignments that the individual must complete independently. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR), is another psychotherapy

  1. SPECTRAL METHODS IN POLISH EMOTIONAL SPEECH RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Powroźnik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article the issue of emotion recognition based on Polish emotional speech signal analysis was presented. The Polish database of emotional speech, prepared and shared by the Medical Electronics Division of the Lodz University of Technology, has been used for research. Speech signal has been processed by Artificial Neural Networks (ANN. The inputs for ANN were information obtained from signal spectrogram. Researches were conducted for three different spectrogram divisions. The ANN consists of four layers but the number of neurons in each layer depends of spectrogram division. Conducted researches focused on six emotional states: a neutral state, sadness, joy, anger, fear and boredom. The averange effectiveness of emotions recognition was about 80%.

  2. Food and drink serving contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselinović Janko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Food and drink catering service is almost as old as the civilization itself. Even though this vocation is a part of the catering activity, Serbian law does not foresee this contract section as personalized. Key legal sources for this kind of contract are business customs. Food and drink serving contract is a mixed-type contract and its legal nature is very interesting due to its complexity. Specific for this contract is the fact that it is not an ordinary service, but also an activity which requires a degree of culinary skills, knowledge of customs of other nations, as well as other skills. The very category of a good professional in business economy / hospitality industry is very dynamic, as it needs to be evaluated according to all given circumstances, which may be rather unpredictable. By considering the legal nature, but also the rights and obligations of the contracting parties, we tried to point to the questions that require a special attention. Legal sources that indirectly refer to food and drink serving contracts were taken into account. Apart from the Law on Obligatory Relations, we also considered here the Law on Tourism also pointing to the comparative law and jurisprudence.

  3. Effect of polishing on glycemic index and antioxidant properties of red and white basmati rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somaratne, G M; Prasantha, B D R; Dunuwila, G R; Chandrasekara, A; Wijesinghe, D G N G; Gunasekara, D C S

    2017-12-15

    Four different pigmented dark-red (red) and non-pigmented white basmati rice varieties were tested for their nutrient composition, glycemic index (GI), total phenolic content (TPC), total anthocyanin content (TAC) and antioxidant activity (AOA) at 10% and 100% polished levels. The red basmati had higher content of ash, protein, fat, TPC, TAC and AOA than white basmati. Red and white basmati varieties can be classified as low GI and medium GI rice, respectively. The degree of polishing had no effect on the GI. However, there was a significant negative correlation (r>-0.81; Pred basmati than white basmati varieties. Therefore, red basmati varieties can serve as low GI sources of functional food. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. PHT clean up demineralizer system and condensate polishing unit of advanced heavy water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, N.R.; Dhawan, M.L.

    2000-01-01

    The removal of corrosion and ionic impurities are important in reliable operation of nuclear plant to maintain water coolant chemistry. PHT clean up system and condensate polishing units are the purification systems in PHT to control the coolant chemistry and to protect the PHT system piping and equipment against corrosion. The above clean up system removes the fission and activation products from the coolant and minimise the activity (high dose) problems in operation and maintenance of the plant. It also serves as potential decontamination facility for periodic clean up of the PHT piping and equipment. The paper describes the estimation of corrosion products in PHT, selection of clean up flow to limit the crud concentration and design of ion exchangers for clean up system and condensate polishing unit of AHWR. (author)

  5. Polish 2012 growth references for preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kułaga, Zbigniew; Grajda, Aneta; Gurzkowska, Beata; Góźdź, Magdalena; Wojtyło, Małgorzata; Swiąder, Anna; Różdżyńska-Świątkowska, Agnieszka; Litwin, Mieczysław

    2013-06-01

    Growth references are useful in monitoring a child's growth, which is an essential part of child care. The aim of this paper is to provide updated growth references for Polish preschool children and to assess how well children in Poland match or diverge from the World Health Organization (WHO) growth standards/references and recent German height-for-age references. The height-, weight-, body mass index-for-age, and weight-for-height references were constructed with the LMS method using data from a recent, large, population-representative sample of 4,941 preschool children aged 3 to 6 years (the OLA study). In the case of boys, the third, 50th, and 97th height percentiles of new Polish and German references overlap almost completely, whereas the WHO growth standards/references percentiles are systematically lower. In the case of girls, comparison between the new Polish and German height references showed conformity on the third and 50th percentile, whereas body height values of the WHO standards/references are shorter. Polish children aged 3 to 6 years from for the nation representative sample, had significantly greater than zero mean z scores of height-, weight-, and BMI-for-age and weight-for-height, relative to the WHO growth standards/references. The number of children in the sample with height-for-age below -2 SD was significantly lower than expected and number of children with height-for-age above +2 SD was significantly higher than expected. The OLA study growth references can be recommended as national references for preschool children in Poland.

  6. Polish normalization of the Body Esteem Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Lipowska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Physical attractiveness plays an important part in one’s social functioning. The interest in one’s own appearance have been documented as widespread among the female population, but over the recent years it is more and more often emphasized that concentrating on body appearance concerns men as well. Franzoi and Shields (1984 created the Body Esteem Scale which allows to qualify the subject’s attitude towards his or her own body. The aim of the study was to create a Polish version of the Body Esteem Scale along with the norms for age and sex clusters. Participants and procedure The normalization sample consisted of 4298 participants: 1865 women aged 16 to 80 (M = 29.92; SD = 12.85 and 2433 men aged 16 to 78 (M = 28.74; SD = 11.50. Education levels among the participants were also controlled for. In order to create a Polish version of the Body Esteem Scale, translation was adopted as the adaptation strategy. Like the original one, the Polish scale comprises 35 items grouped into three gender specific subscales. The subscales for women include Sexual Attractiveness, Weight Concern, and Physical Condition, whereas the body esteem of is examined with regards to Physical Attractiveness, Upper Body Strength, and Physical Condition. Results Reliability of subscales was high both for females (Cronbach’s alpha from 0.80 to 0.89 and males (Cronbach’s alpha from 0.85 to 0.88. The given coefficients of reliability cover the original division into subscales adopted by the authors of BES. Conclusions We confirmed high reliability of the Polish version of the Body Esteem Scale, thus we recommend it as a diagnostic tool. Created norms allowed to refer results obtained in the course of research carried out on people with various disorders (e.g. eating disorders or body dysmorphic disorder with population data for corresponding age brackets.

  7. Polish Martial Law: The Crisis of Communism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Roman Catholic Church continued to exist, and a comparatively liberal cultural policy was in place, which continued a legitimate practice of most of...intervention. Their answers verify that for most Poles the fear 29 of losing sovereignty and Polish culture to Russian aggression overshadows all else, even...they going in? They did not,” Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, http://www.wilsoncenter.org/news/ docs/ Historia -Jachranka%20-%20Stan

  8. The Polish Cyborg. A Reflection on the Relationship between Man and Machine in Early Polish Modernism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Ranocchi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Far from being enthusiastic “modernolatry” of Italian futurism, Polish futurism demonstrates an attitude of ambivalence toward modernity. This is particularly evident in the Polish approach to that very synecdoche of modernity which is the machine. In his essay of 1923, the leader of the group, Bruno Jasieński, compares the fetishistic cult of the machine, which characterizes the Italian approach, with the utilitarian one of the Russians, exemplified by a quote from Majakovskij. To these two propositions, as a sort of Hegelian synthesis, he adds a Polish one consisting in the conception of the machine as a prosthesis, a continuation of the human body. Thereby he introduces an idea later known as “cyborg”. The category of cyborg is also useful to understand the work of another today almost forgotten Polish writer of the Twenties, Jerzy Sosnkowski. He was the author of a short novel, A Car, You and Me (Love of Machines, in which a whole chapter concerns the chief character’s dystopian nightmare wherein machines take control over the world. The third section of the essay deals with the idea of man a machine – an old, 18th century conception, which became actual anew in the 20th century and whose traces we can find among others in a well-known poem by Tytus Czyżewski. Thirty years before N. Wiener, Polish modernists seem to have sensed the social, political and anthropological implications of the mechanization of work.

  9. Characterization and Streptococcus mutans adhesion on air polishing dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Kazuhiro; Oda, Hirotake; Inatomi, Michitomo; Sato, Soh

    2014-07-01

    Air polishing is known as an effective and time saving tooth cleaning method. However, this method increased surface roughness and bacterial adhesion on dentin surface. The aim of this study was to characterize and examine Streptococcus mutans adhesion on dentin surface after air polishing as compared to the conventional method. The dentin blocks (4 × 4 × 1 mm) were polished by a rubber cup with polishing material (Polishing) and air-polished by 25 μm glycine (G25), 65 μm glycine (G65), and 65 μm sodium bicarbonate (NHC65) microparticles. Surface roughness (Ra) was measured by a laser electron microscope. The amount of adhered S. mutans was quantified using a resazurin reduction assay (alamarBlue(®)). The Ra of G25 and G65 was significantly (p < 0.01) smaller than that of NHC65 and greater than that of Polishing. However, there was no significant difference in S. mutans adhesion among Polishing, G25, and G65, while NHC65 showed significantly (p < 0.01) higher S. mutans adhesion. Within the limitations of this in vitro study, air polishing using glycine microparticles conditioned S. mutans adhesion on dentin surface in a similar fashion than the conventional method, and less than air polishing using sodium bicarbonate microparticles.

  10. The Bluebirds: World War I Soldiers' Experiences of Occupational Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Judith; Robinson, Katie; Moloney, Stephanie

    More is known about the experience of occupational therapists than the experience of patients during the profession's early years. We examined soldiers' experiences of occupational therapy in American Base Hospital 9 in France during World War I through analysis of a 53-line poem by Corporal Frank Wren contained in the unpublished memoir of occupational therapy reconstruction aide Lena Hitchcock. Historical documentary research methods and thematic analysis were used to analyze the poem, the memoir, and the hospital's published history. The poem describes the activities engaged in during occupational therapy, equipment used, and the context of therapy. It articulates positive dimensions of the experience of engaging in activities, including emotional benefits, diversion, and orthopedic benefits. Previous historical research has identified core philosophical premises about the use of occupational therapy; in this article, the enactment of these principles is established through the analysis of a soldier's account of receiving occupational therapy. Copyright © 2017 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  11. A new soldier beetle from Eocene Baltic amber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Fanti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The family Cantharidae is a worldwide distributed group of flattened and soft-bodied beetles displaying aposematic colouration. These beetles, commonly known as soldier beetles, have an extensive fossil record dating back to the Lower Cretaceous. The majority of fossil material, referred to Cantharidae, is known from amber inclusions. In this paper we describe and illustrate a new soldier beetle Kuskaella macroptera gen. et sp. nov. from the Baltic amber. It is characterised by pronotum of the male parallel-sided in basal third and abruptly narrowed towards apex, and of the female gradually and steadily narrowing from the basal margin to the apex; globular head; unequal maxillary palpomeres with the last segment elongated-globular and pointed; long elytra slightly surpassing the last abdominal segment. This finding is the first described species of both sexes preserved in a single amber piece.

  12. Education as alternative to violence: child soldiers in Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chema Caballero

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Education plays a key role in the process of rehabilitation and reintegracion of child soldiers and helps them to overcome the psysologial and moral impact of the war. Children see education as their gateway to a different life away from the violence and suffering they experienced during the years lived with the armed grups. The desire to change life makes children strive in this activity devouting great effort to stand out above the rest of their classmates. The disruption of the educational process generates great frustration for former child soldiers. Therefore, all reintegration and rehabilitation programs must invest time and resources to ensure that these children have secured their training until the end.

  13. Mental Health Care Use by Soldiers Conducting Counterinsurgency Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Attention - Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ( ADHD ) was diagnosed exclusively in those soldiers who deployed on ADHD medication and required refills...Insomnia 8 3 ADHD 3 1 Obsessive Compulsive Disorder 3 1 Generalized Anxiety Disorder 3 1 R/O Psychotic Disorder 3 1 Panic Disorder With Agoraphobia 2 1...of physical injury, expe- riencing traumatic events may trigger psychological disor- ders most notably, post-traumatic stress disorder

  14. Injury patterns of soldiers in the second Lebanon war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Dagan; Glassberg, Elon; Nadler, Roy; Hirschhorn, Gil; Marom, Ophir Cohen; Aharonson-Daniel, Limor

    2014-01-01

    In the second Lebanon war in 2006, the Israeli Defense Forces fought against well-prepared and well-equipped paramilitary forces. The conflict took place near the Israeli border and major Israeli medical centers. Good data records were maintained throughout the campaign, allowing accurate analysis of injury characteristics. This study is an in-depth analysis of injury mechanisms, severity, and anatomic locations. Data regarding all injured soldiers were collected from all care points up to the definitive care hospitals and were cross-referenced. In addition, trauma branch physicians and nurses interviewed medical teams to validate data accuracy. Injuries were analyzed using Injury Severity Score (ISS) (when precise anatomic data were available) and multiple injury patterns scoring for all. A total of 833 soldiers sustained combat-related injury during the study period, including 119 fatalities (14.3%). Although most soldiers (361) sustained injury only to one Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) region, the average number of regions per soldier was 2.0 but was 1.5 for survivors versus 4.2 for fatalities. Current war injury classifications have limitations that hinder valid comparisons between campaigns and settings. In addition, limitation on full autopsy in war fatalities further hinders data use. To partly compensate for those limitations, we have looked at the correlation between fatality rates and number of involved anatomic regions and found it to be strong. We have also found high fatality rates in some "combined" injuries such as head and chest injuries (71%) or in the abdomen and an extremity (75%). The use of multiinjury patterns analysis may help understand fatality rates and improve the utility of war injury analysis. Epidemiologic study, level III.

  15. The ontogeny of soldiers in Prorhinotermes simplex (Isoptera, Rhinotermitidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanus, Robert; Šobotník, Jan; Valterová, Irena; Lukáš, J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 3 (2006), s. 249-257 ISSN 0020-1812 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/05/2146; GA ČR GA206/06/1643 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : termite soldiers * ontogeny * biochemistry * defensive secretion Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.481, year: 2006

  16. Weight Measurements and Standards for Soldiers, Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    includes personalized eating , fitness, and APFT tools to help Soldiers stay fit and meet AR600-9 and APFT standards, and 2) a promotion program designed...Pennington Biomedical Research Center (PBRC) is delivering a program to the Louisiana Army National Guard (LANG) called Healthy Eating , Activity, and...and the Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) (3), i.e., height, weight, fatness estimates, and measures of fitness, 2) assess the unique health risk

  17. Soldier Cognitive Processes: Supporting Teleoperated Ground Vehicle Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    equipment items. Capitalizing on requirements and ideas of military units, deployed in combat and facing complex reconnaissance, security, and...operator so they remember to apply it to the robot. Another example is recognizing an IED. A Soldier might already know about telltale signs of...employ the ground robotic vehicle imposes a cognitive load on top of other military skills, perceptual decision-making skills, and communication

  18. Asthma and psychiatric disorders in male army recruits and soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev-Tzion, Raffi; Friedman, Tal; Shochat, Tzippy; Gazala, Eliyahu; Wohl, Yonit

    2007-05-01

    Numerous studies have shown an association between asthma and mental disorders. While elevated rates of asthma have been noted among psychiatric patients with anxiety disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder, several studies have found elevated rates of mental disorders among asthma patients. Such studies, however, have generally relied upon questionnaires and assessment by non-specialist physicians to diagnose mental disorders and asthma. To examine a possible association between asthma and psychiatric diagnoses in Israeli military recruits and soldiers. In this cross-sectional study we compared the prevalence of mental diagnoses in asthmatic recruits and soldiers with that in non-asthmatic recruits and soldiers. A total of 195,903 recruits and soldiers were examined by Israel Defense Forces recruiting offices and fitness boards. Diagnoses of asthma were based on a pulmonologist's diagnosis, including spirometry at rest and exercise testing as indicated; diagnoses of mental disorders were based on examination by a psychiatrist. The prevalence of asthma was found to be 7.8% (current) and 9.8% (lifetime). The prevalence of mental disorders was 13.4%. Current asthma was associated with an increased likelihood of any mental disorder (OR = 1.20, 95% Cl = 1.15-1.26), and specifically with mood and anxiety disorders (1.31, 1.19-1.46), introvert personality disorders (1.20, 1.12-1.28) and adjustment disorder (1.43, 1.26-1.62). Lifetime asthma was associated with an increased likelihood of the same disorders, but the association was not as powerful. The results validate the previously documented association between asthma and mental disorders, using a sample of unprecedented size and improved methodology. A multidisciplinary approach to asthma that incorporates mental health professionals in the treatment of poorly controlled asthma and perhaps of asthma in general is recommended.

  19. Proceedings from the Workshop on Nanoscience for the Soldier

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-02-09

    Health Support Predictive - Genetics , allergies, specific medications Preventive - Acting proactively with preventive medicine Point of care...Make soldier invisible across the EM spectrum (passive)❍ Adaptive camouflage ( chameleon )❍ ● Interactive textile/clothing Power/data...and imaging of the surrounding and mimicking it ( chameleon effect) 12. ANTENNA Appendix A http://www.aro.army.mil/phys/Nanoscience/sec4nano.htm (1

  20. Development of the Occupational Physical Assessment Test (OPAT) for Combat Arms Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    initiating the task, each Soldier practiced proper lifting technique using a pair of kettlebells . Then on the platform, while wearing a fighting load...body power) Soldiers held a 24-kg kettlebell attached to a fixed resistance of 100 lb and pulled it for 20 m and/or 90 s, whichever came first. The...Columbia, SC) on the rubber flooring described in the casualty drag. Soldiers were instructed to pull on the kettlebell attached to the rope while stepping

  1. Advanced space optics development in freeform optics design, ceramic polishing, rapid and extreme freeform polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyl, R.; Leplan, H.; Ruch, E.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper Safran-Reosc wants to share with the space community its recent work performed in the domain of space optics. Our main topic is a study about the advantages that freeform optical surfaces can offer to advanced space optics in term of compactness or performances. We have separated smart and extreme freeform in our design exploration work. Our second topic is to answer about the immediate question following: can we manufacture and test these freeform optics? We will therefore present our freeform optics capability, report recent achievement in extreme aspheric optics polishing and introduce to the industrialisation process of large off axis optics polishing for the ESO Extremely Large Telescope primary mirror segments. Thirdly we present our R-SiC polishing layer technology for SiC material. This technique has been developed to reduce costs, risks and schedule in the manufacturing of advanced SiC optics for Vis and IR applications.

  2. Prevalence, predictors and correlates of insomnia in US army soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingaman, Elizabeth A; Brownlow, Janeese A; Boland, Elaine M; Mosti, Caterina; Gehrman, Philip R

    2017-10-11

    The objective of this study was to investigate the rates, predictors and correlates of insomnia in a national sample of US Army soldiers. Data were gathered from the cross-sectional survey responses of the All-Army Study, of the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Service members. Participants were a representative sample of 21 499 US Army soldiers who responded to the All-Army Study self-administered questionnaire between 2011 and 2013. Insomnia was defined by selected DSM-5 criteria using the Brief Insomnia Questionnaire. The results highlight significant functional difficulties associated with insomnia among US soldiers, as well as insights into predictors of insomnia specific to this population. Insomnia was present in 22.76% of the sample. Predictors of insomnia status in logistic regression included greater number of current mental health disorders, less perceived open lines of communication with leadership, less unit member support and less education. Insomnia had global, negative associations with health, social functioning, support, morale, work performance and Army career intentions. The results provide the strongest evidence to-date that insomnia is common in a military population, and is associated with a wide array of negative factors in the domains of health, military readiness and intentions to remain in military careers. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  3. Limitations imposed by wearing armour on Medieval soldiers' locomotor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askew, Graham N; Formenti, Federico; Minetti, Alberto E

    2012-02-22

    In Medieval Europe, soldiers wore steel plate armour for protection during warfare. Armour design reflected a trade-off between protection and mobility it offered the wearer. By the fifteenth century, a typical suit of field armour weighed between 30 and 50 kg and was distributed over the entire body. How much wearing armour affected Medieval soldiers' locomotor energetics and biomechanics is unknown. We investigated the mechanics and the energetic cost of locomotion in armour, and determined the effects on physical performance. We found that the net cost of locomotion (C(met)) during armoured walking and running is much more energetically expensive than unloaded locomotion. C(met) for locomotion in armour was 2.1-2.3 times higher for walking, and 1.9 times higher for running when compared with C(met) for unloaded locomotion at the same speed. An important component of the increased energy use results from the extra force that must be generated to support the additional mass. However, the energetic cost of locomotion in armour was also much higher than equivalent trunk loading. This additional cost is mostly explained by the increased energy required to swing the limbs and impaired breathing. Our findings can predict age-associated decline in Medieval soldiers' physical performance, and have potential implications in understanding the outcomes of past European military battles.

  4. Soldier Health Habits and the Metabolically Optimized Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, Karl E; Breivik, Torbjorn J; Carter, Robert; Leyk, Dieter; Opstad, Per Kristian; Taverniers, John; Trousselard, Marion

    2016-11-01

    Human performance enhancement was the subject of a NATO workshop that considered the direct benefits of individual soldier health and fitness habits to brain health and performance. Some of the important health and fitness include physical activity and purposeful exercise, nutritional intake, sleep and rest behaviors, psychological outlook and mindfulness, and other physiologically based systemic challenges such as thermal exposure. These influences were considered in an integrated framework with insights contributed by each of five participating NATO member countries using representative research to highlight relevant interrelationships. Key conclusions are that (1) understanding the neurobiological bases and consequences of personal health behaviors is a priority for soldier performance research, and this also involves long-term brain health consequences to veterans and (2) health and fitness habits have been underappreciated as reliably effective performance enhancers and these should be preferred targets in the development of scientifically based recommendations for soldier brain health and performance. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  5. Sociality in Parasitic Flatworms: When Do Soldiers Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Vedrenne, A. E.

    2016-02-01

    Although not traditionally recognized as such, trematode infections in molluscan first intermediate hosts comprise colonies. When two trematode species simultaneously infect a snail host, one generally kills the other. Thus, there can be strong selective pressure for established trematode colonies to protect and defend against new infections. Recent findings demonstrate that some trematode species have a reproductive division of labor involving a reproductive and a soldier caste. Reproductives are larger and filled with offspring, while soldiers lack developing embryos, and are specialized for inter-trematode antagonism. This reproductive division of labor has now been documented for intramolluscan stages of fourteen trematode species from different geographic regions and host species. Further, literature descriptions of the life history of several species suggest that this phenomenon is widespread, although there are important intra- and inter-specific differences in colony structure. It has been predicted that trematode soldier castes would most likely evolve in taxa that are typically dominant in interspecific hierarchies, in situations of invasion risk, and among trematodes that infect longer lived hosts. Here I address these hypotheses and present the extent of evidence for trematode social organization.

  6. The Felin soldier system: a tailored solution for networked operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Sueur, Philippe

    2007-04-01

    Sagem Defense Securite has been awarded a 800M euro contract for the French infantrymen modernisation programme. This programme covers the development, the qualification and the production of about 32 000 soldier systems to equip all the French infantry starting fielding in 2008. The FELIN soldier system provides the infantryman with an integrated system increasing dramatically the soldier capability in any dismounted close combat domains. Man remains at the centre of the system, which can interface equipments or systems already fielded and future equipments to match any customer's needs. Urban operations are carefully addressed thanks to a versatile and modular solution and a dedicated C4I system, Sagem Defense Securite is a European leader in defence electronics and takes part of this major French Army transformation programme, which will play a key role in the Info Centric Network initiatives promoted in France and other countries. This paper summarises the system solutions selected by the French Army with a focus on the networked capabilities and the optronic devices.

  7. Soldiers' personal technologies on deployment and at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Nigel E; Fullerton, Nicole; Crumpton, Rosa; Metzger-Abamukong, Melinda; Fantelli, Emily

    2012-05-01

    Personal technologies such as smartphones, computers, and gaming devices, are ubiquitous in the civilian world. Consequently they represent ideal vehicles for disseminating psychological and other health resources and interventions. However, almost nothing is known about personal technology use in the U.S. military. We conducted the most comprehensive survey to date of the use, availability, and need for personal technologies by U.S. military service members. Our survey asked detailed questions about computers and the Internet, phones and smartphones, other mobile or portable technologies, gaming devices, and TV and video media used during deployment and at permanent duty station or home. We collected data by paper-and-pencil survey in 2010 and 2011 from 331 active Army service members at a processing and registration center in a large military installation in the western United States. Two cohorts were surveyed: Soldiers who had previously been deployed to a warzone and soldiers who had never been deployed. We measured high rates of personal technology use by service members at home across all popular electronic media. Soldiers at home essentially resembled civilian consumers in their use of popular technologies. Some technologies, including the Internet, gaming, and TV, were widespread on deployment. Others, most notably cellphones, were more restricted by availability, connectivity, opportunity, and military regulation in the warzone. Results will enable researchers and technology developers target their efforts on the most promising and popular technologies for psychological health in the military.

  8. Policing and Transgressing Borders: Soldiers, Slave Rebels, and the Early Modern Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjoleine Kars

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1763, a regiment of mercenary soldiers stationed on the border of Suriname and Berbice in South America, rebelled. The men had been sent to help subdue a large slave rebellion. Instead, they mutinied and joined the rebelling slaves. This paper reconstructs the mutiny from Dutch records and uses it to look at the role of soldiers as border crosser in the Atlantic world. Colonial historians have usually studied soldiers in their capacity of border enforcers, men who maintained the cultural and legal divisions that supported colonial authority. However, as I show, soldiers with great regularity crossed those same borders, threatening the very foundations of colonialism.

  9. Military Nutrition Research: Six Tasks to Address Medical Factors Limiting Soldier Effectiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ryan, Donna

    1998-01-01

    To assess, maintain or improve a soldier's physical/ physiological/psychological capability to function effectively under environmental and emotional stress and to minimize adverse effects of stress...

  10. Military Nutrition Research: Six Tasks to Address Medical Factors Limiting Soldier Effectiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ryan, Donna

    1997-01-01

    To assess, maintain, or improve a soldier's physical/physiological/psychological capability to function effectively under environmental and operational stress and to minimize adverse effects of stress...

  11. Assessing Constraints on Soldier Cognitive and Perceptual Motor Performance During Vehicle Motion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Metcalfe, Jason S; Davis, Jr., , James A; Tauson, Richard A; McDowell, Kaleb

    2008-01-01

    .... Because vehicle motion is a primary influence on the Soldier's performance, understanding the relationship between vehicle motion and performance is considered essential to solving the human factors...

  12. Combined foraging strategies and soldier behaviour in Nasutitermes aff. coxipoensis (Blattodea: Termitoidea: Termitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Camilla S; Cristaldo, Paulo F; Florencio, Daniela F; Cruz, Nayara G; Santos, Abraão A; Oliveira, Alexandre P; Santana, Alisson S; Ribeiro, Efrem J M; Lima, Ana P S; Bacci, Leandro; Araújo, Ana P A

    2016-05-01

    A range of behavioural strategies and sensory abilities allows animals to minimize costs involved in food search. By building a network of tunnels and presenting a large number of soldiers (i.e., trophically dependent individuals), Nasutitermes spp. termites feature behaviours that imply additional costs during this process. Here we evaluated N. aff. coxipoensis foraging strategies focusing on the role of soldiers during foraging. Field experiments were carried out via nests transplantation to dune areas, and laboratory experiments evaluated termite responses to sternal gland chemical signals from workers and soldiers. N. aff. coxipoensis presented primarily nocturnal foraging. Soldiers typically initiated foraging; however, in established trails, the number of workers was always higher than that of soldiers. The number of trails remained constant over time, while the number of tunnels increased linearly over time. A higher proportion of tunnels originated in surrounding areas than directly from the nests. At observation points with tunnels, there were more stationary than walking soldiers; the opposite was true at observation points without tunnels. In mixed groups, the workers chose to follow soldier chemical signals, and in these groups, soldiers were the first to follow trails. Our results allowed us to identify a not common foraging strategy in termite species; which included the establishment of trails followed by construction of tunnels. Such foraging strategies occur predominantly at night and soldiers play a key role in the foraging process. This foraging strategy reported here seems to be employed to optimize energetic gain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Hydrodynamic modelling in the Polish Zone of the Baltic Sea - an overview of Polish achievements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Jasińska

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a general overview of Polish experience and achievements with regard to hydrodynamic modelling in the Polish zone of the Baltic Sea. The first work started already at the end of the sixties when the first 1D and 2D hydrodynamic models were set up. With the development of numerical methods and increasing computational power a number of 1D, 2D and 3D models were set up and tested. Global, regional and local models cover the most important water bodies,i.e. the Pomeranian Bay - Szczecin Lagoon and Gulf of Gdansk - Vistula Lagoon systems.

  14. The wear of polished and glazed zirconia against enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janyavula, Sridhar; Lawson, Nathaniel; Lawson, Nathaniel; Cakir, Deniz; Beck, Preston; Ramp, Lance C; Burgess, John O

    2013-01-01

    The wear of tooth structure opposing anatomically contoured zirconia crowns requires further investigation. The purpose of this in vitro study was to measure the roughness and wear of polished, glazed, and polished then reglazed zirconia against human enamel antagonists and compare the measurements to those of veneering porcelain and natural enamel. Zirconia specimens were divided into polished, glazed, and polished then reglazed groups (n=8). A veneering porcelain (Ceramco3) and enamel were used as controls. The surface roughness of all pretest specimens was measured. Wear testing was performed in the newly designed Alabama wear testing device. The mesiobuccal cusps of extracted molars were standardized and used as antagonists. Three-dimensional (3D) scans of the specimens and antagonists were obtained at baseline and after 200 000 and 400 000 cycles with a profilometer. The baseline scans were superimposed on the posttesting scans to determine volumetric wear. Data were analyzed with a 1-way ANOVA and Tukey Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) post hoc tests (α=.05) Surface roughness ranked in order of least rough to roughest was: polished zirconia, glazed zirconia, polished then reglazed zirconia, veneering porcelain, and enamel. For ceramic, there was no measureable loss on polished zirconia, moderate loss on the surface of enamel, and significant loss on glazed and polished then reglazed zirconia. The highest ceramic wear was exhibited by the veneering ceramic. For enamel antagonists, polished zirconia caused the least wear, and enamel caused moderate wear. Glazed and polished then reglazed zirconia showed significant opposing enamel wear, and veneering porcelain demonstrated the most. Within the limitations of the study, polished zirconia is wear-friendly to the opposing tooth. Glazed zirconia causes more material and antagonist wear than polished zirconia. The surface roughness of the zirconia aided in predicting the wear of the opposing dentition

  15. Tribological approach to study polishing of road surface under traffic

    OpenAIRE

    KANE, Malal; DO, Minh Tan

    2007-01-01

    The polishing phenomenon of road pavements under the vehicle traffic constitutes the main mechanism inherent to the loss of skid resistance over time. A better understanding of this phenomenon would allow an improvement of road safety. This study comprises a review of laboratory test and a model simulating the polishing of road surfaces. The laboratory test uses a polishing machine so called 'Wehner-Schulze' which can reproduce the evolution of the road texture from specimens taken directly f...

  16. Polish Phoneme Statistics Obtained On Large Set Of Written Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Ziółko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The phonetical statistics were collected from several Polish corpora. The paper is a summaryof the data which are phoneme n-grams and some phenomena in the statistics. Triphonestatistics apply context-dependent speech units which have an important role in speech recognitionsystems and were never calculated for a large set of Polish written texts. The standardphonetic alphabet for Polish, SAMPA, and methods of providing phonetic transcriptions are described.

  17. Preparing polished crystal slices with high precision orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, S. Ipsen; Gerward, Leif; Pedersen, O.

    1974-01-01

    A polishing procedure is described which utilizes a high precision Laue technique for crystal orientation. Crystal slices with their final polished surfaces parallel to a crystallographic plane within 0.02° can be prepared. ©1974 The American Institute of Physics......A polishing procedure is described which utilizes a high precision Laue technique for crystal orientation. Crystal slices with their final polished surfaces parallel to a crystallographic plane within 0.02° can be prepared. ©1974 The American Institute of Physics...

  18. Visible Light Activated Photocatalytic Water Polishing System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal targets development of a LED light activated photocatalytic water polishing system that enables reduction of organic impurities (TOC and...

  19. Assessing operability of a novel polisher arrangement using MMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shor, S.W.W.

    1987-01-01

    A condensate polisher is intended to remove both particulate matter and ionic material from the condensate. Condensate polishers have normally been placed directly in the condensate system downstream of the condensate pumps. This inline location has certain disadvantages. These disadvantages are discussed. Placing the polisher in a sidestream location, where water is removed from the condensate system, pumped through the polisher, and then returned to the condensate system provides a solution to these disadvantages. Several possible types of sidestream installations is described. This has a polisher taking unpolished condensate from one compartment from one compartment of a divided hotwell in a specially modified condenser and returning polished condensate to the other compartment. The polisher is supplied by its own dedicated pumps, which have a head requirement sufficient only to overcome the pressure drop through the polisher circuit at a flow rate of 110% of maximum condensate flow. This concept is very attractive but has not yet been tested even though it is being installed in several new units. A simulation was, therefore, performed using MMS to provide confidence that this particular sidestream polisher arrangement was operationally viable

  20. Serving the world's poor, profitably.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prahalad, C K; Hammond, Allen

    2002-09-01

    By stimulating commerce and development at the bottom of the economic pyramid, multi-nationals could radically improve the lives of billions of people and help create a more stable, less dangerous world. Achieving this goal does not require MNCs to spearhead global social-development initiatives for charitable purposes. They need only act in their own self-interest. How? The authors lay out the business case for entering the world's poorest markets. Fully 65% of the world's population earns less than $2,000 per year--that's 4 billion people. But despite the vastness of this market, it remains largely untapped. The reluctance to invest is easy to understand, but it is, by and large, based on outdated assumptions of the developing world. While individual incomes may be low, the aggregate buying power of poor communities is actually quite large, representing a substantial market in many countries for what some might consider luxury goods like satellite television and phone services. Prices, and margins, are often much higher in poor neighborhoods than in their middle-class counterparts. And new technologies are already steadily reducing the effects of corruption, illiteracy, inadequate infrastructure, and other such barriers. Because these markets are in the earliest stages of economic development, revenue growth for multi-nationals entering them can be extremely rapid. MNCs can also lower costs, not only through low-cost labor but by transferring operating efficiencies and innovations developed to serve their existing operations. Certainly, succeeding in such markets requires MNCs to think creatively. The biggest change, though, has to come from executives: Unless business leaders confront their own preconceptions--particularly about the value of high-volume, low-margin businesses--companies are unlikely to master the challenges or reap the rewards of these developing markets.

  1. Soldier-specific modification of the mandibular motor neurons in termites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Ishikawa

    Full Text Available Social insects exhibit a variety of caste-specific behavioral tendencies that constitute the basis of division of labor within the colony. In termites, the soldier caste display distinctive defense behaviors, such as aggressively attacking enemies with well-developed mandibles, while the other castes retreat into the colony without exhibiting any aggressive response. It is thus likely that some form of soldier-specific neuronal modification exists in termites. In this study, the authors compared the brain (cerebral ganglion and the suboesophageal ganglion (SOG of soldiers and pseudergates (workers in the damp-wood termite, Hodotermopsis sjostedti. The size of the SOG was significantly larger in soldiers than in pseudergates, but no difference in brain size was apparent between castes. Furthermore, mandibular nerves were thicker in soldiers than in pseudergates. Retrograde staining revealed that the somata sizes of the mandibular motor neurons (MdMNs in soldiers were more than twice as large as those of pseudergates. The enlargement of MdMNs was also observed in individuals treated with a juvenile hormone analogue (JHA, indicating that MdMNs become enlarged in response to juvenile hormone (JH action during soldier differentiation. This enlargement is likely to have two functions: a behavioral function in which soldier termites will be able to defend more effectively through relatively faster and stronger mandibular movements, and a developmental function that associates with the development of soldier-specific mandibular muscle morphogenesis in termite head. The soldier-specific enlargement of mandibular motor neurons was observed in all examined species in five termite families that have different mechanisms of defense, suggesting that such neuronal modification was already present in the common ancestor of termites and is significant for soldier function.

  2. Plasma electrolytic polishing of metalized carbon fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falko Böttger-Hiller

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Efficient lightweight structures require intelligent materials that meet versatile functions. Especially, carbon-fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRPs are gaining relevance. Their increasing use aims at reducing energy consumption in many applications. CFRPs are generally very light in weight, while at the same time being extremely stiff and strong (specific strength: CFRPs: 1.3 Nm kg–1, steel: 0.27 Nm kg–1; specific stiffness: CFRPs: 100 Nm kg–1, steel: 25 Nm kg–1. To increase performance and especially functionality of CFRPs, the integration of microelectronic components into CFRP parts is aspired. The functionalization by sensors, actuators and electronics can enable a high lightweight factor and a new level of failure-safety. The integration of microelectronic components for this purpose requires a working procedure to provide electrical contacts for a reliable connection to energy supply and data interfaces. To overcome this challenge, metalized carbon fibers are used. Metalized fibers are, similar to the usual reinforcing fibers, able to be soldered and therefore easy to incorporate into CFRPs. Unfortunately, metalized fibers have to be pre-treated by flux-agents. Until now, there is no flux which is suitable for mass production without destroying the polymer of the CFRP. The process of plasma electrolytic polishing (PeP could be an option, but is so far not available for copper. Thus, in this study, plasma electrolytic polishing is transferred to copper and its alloys. To achieve this, electrolytic parameters as well as the electrical setup are adapted. It can be observed that the gloss and roughness can be adjusted by means of this procedure. Finally, plasma electrolytic polishing is used to treat thin copper layers on carbon fibers.

  3. Competence of Irish and Polish Teachers in the Opinions of Young Polish Immigrants in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustyniak, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Since 2004, Ireland has experienced the arrival of immigrants from various countries from all over the world including Poland. The Polish came to Ireland with their families including children of school age obliged to attend compulsory education. These children have attended schools dissimilar from the ones they are accustomed to in their home…

  4. Wind Directions in the Polish Tatras,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-26

    The study of anemometric conditions in the iatra Aoun- tains with the usually available observation data presents a rather difficult problem for two...year are presented in Table 2 and Fig. 1. Analysis of the anemometric conditions in the Polish Ta- tras and at 2odhale, on the basis of the observational...Vol. 29, 1947. 9. Milata, W. "The Foehn," Wierchy, Vol. 20, 1950. 10. Orlicz, M. " Anemometric Conditions on Peaks in the 2atras," Wiad. Sluzhby Hydro

  5. Polish students' opinion about medicinal cannabis

    OpenAIRE

    Mazur, Rafał; Masternak, Sebastian; Pająk, Michał; Parszewska, Katarzyna; Skórzyńska-Dziduszko, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    Mazur Rafał, Masternak Sebastian, Pająk Michał, Parszewska Katarzyna, Skórzyńska-Dziduszko Katarzyna. Polish students’ opinion about medicinal cannabis. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2017;7(9):233-242. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.894710 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/4839 The journal has had 7 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. Part B item 1223 (26....

  6. Metaphors of Entrepreneurship among Polish Students: Preliminary Research Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Chmielecki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In Poland entrepreneurship is often viewed as an extremely risky process and entrepreneurs are often portrayed in a negative light. The research goals  of our exploratory study is to identify  the entreprenurship metaphors among Polish management students.   Research Design & Methods: Authors decided to run both qualitative and quantitative research.  In the first part we addressed 124 management students on three levels BA, MA and MBA.  The respondents were asked to give their metaphorical expressions on paper. The next step was to prepare a questionnaire based on 7 point Likert scale. This questionnaire was run among  BA management student group composed of 82 students Findings: Our results suggest that there are several major entrepreneurial narratives evident among all three groups including creativity and innovation, competition, war, journey, risk, adventure and exploitation.  Implications & Recommendations: The empirical findings serve as a starting point for further in-depth research in this area. It is recommended that in order to gain a complete picture of the issues underlying the results, both qualitative and quantitative research on a bigger sample should be undertaken. Contribution & Value Added: The originality of this work lies in studying some aspects of entrepreneurship metaphors among non-entrepreneurs in Poland.  With regards to the research limitation, it must be highlighted that it was a pilot study and the results cannot be generalized.

  7. Comprehensive Soldier Fitness (CSF) Experiment: Research Biases in the Development of the CSF

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    were geared toward reducing anxiety and 7 depression in middle schools, high...and teens can compare, and ultimately be transposed through the CSF, to developing resiliency of deployed Soldiers in combat zones. These studies...issues that Soldiers were having, mostly during or returning from deployments. Issues such as PTSD, depression , and suicide. Seligman helped the

  8. Relationship of Life Satisfaction and Job Satisfaction among Pakistani Army Soldiers

    OpenAIRE

    Summaira Naz

    2015-01-01

    The present study had two main objectives; first, to discover the relationships between job satisfaction and life satisfaction in Pakistani army soldiers, second, to find out the age, salary, marital status, and education differences on job satisfaction and life satisfaction in Pakistani army soldiers. In the present study two questionnaires; Job Satisfaction Scale JSS (Macdonald & Maclntyre, 1997) and Satisfaction With Life Scale (Diener, ...

  9. 'It's in my blood': the military habitus of former Zimbabwean soldiers in exile in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maringira, G.; Gibson, D.; Richters, A.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the habitus of soldiers who either deserted or resigned from the Zimbabwe National Army in the post-2000 crisis in Zimbabwe and now live in exile in Johannesburg, South Africa. It is based on the information provided by forty-four former soldiers who related their life

  10. Summary of Injury Prevention Activities Supporting the Army Soldier Medical Readiness Campaign, 2011-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-30

    collaborate with Army partners on injury prevention /human performance optimization projects, and enhance communication of evidence- based lessons learned to...6.2 APHC Injury Prevention contributions to SMRC IP 10.0: Improve Soldier Injury Prevention /Human Performance ...Soldier Medical Readiness Campaign Plan (SMR-CP), objectives to inform evidence- based injury prevention /human performance optimization programs and

  11. [Reconstructive investigations and identification measures in unknown soldiers of the Second World War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jopp-van Well, Eilin; Gehl, Axel; Säring, Dennis; Amling, Michael; Hahn, Michael; Sperhake, Jan; Augustin, Christa; Krebs, Oliver; Püschel, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    The article reports on the exhumation and identification of unknown soldiers from the Second World War. With the help of medicolegal investigation and reconstruction methods an American pilot presumably murdered by a shot to the head (lynch law) and an interned Italian soldier could be identified after about 70 years and brought back home.

  12. Revolting Soldiers: The Origins of Education in the Armies of the Empire in World War I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshier, Roger

    1985-01-01

    Explores the circumstances surrounding the creation of education schemes in the armies of the British Empire. Discusses attitudes toward war and toward the soldier's role in the early 1900s, attitudes of the soldiers toward war, the University of Vimy Ridge, the Canadian Khaki University, the Oatlands program, and education for the New Zealand…

  13. Prior Health Care Utilization Patterns and Suicide among U.S. Army Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Nicole S.; Harford, Thomas C.; Amoroso, Paul J.; Hollander, Ilyssa E.; Kay, Ashley B.

    2010-01-01

    Suicides among U.S. Army soldiers are increasing and, in January 2009, outpaced deaths due to combat. For this study, 1,873 army suicides identified through death, inpatient, and emergency room records were matched with 5,619 controls. In multivariate models, older, male, White, single, and enlisted soldiers with a prior injury (OR = 2.04, 95% CI…

  14. Indero: Intergenerational trauma and resilience between Burundian former child soldiers and their children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, S.; Tol, W.; de Jong, J.

    2014-01-01

    Since many former child soldiers are aging and having children of their own, this study aimed to understand how the effects of trauma are passed to the next generation. In this qualitative study, semistructured interviews, focus groups, and observations were conducted with 25 former child soldiers

  15. Chasing the care: soldiers experience following combat-related mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, Kyong; Davis, Linda L; Barroso, Julie

    2014-08-01

    One of the most common, yet most difficult to detect injuries sustained by U.S. soldiers in Iraq and Afghanistan is mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Left untreated, mTBI can negatively impact soldiers' postdeployment adjustment. This research describes the rehabilitation experiences of soldiers with a history of mTBI and their spouses. Nine soldiers with mTBI and their spouses participated in the study. A total of 27 interviews were conducted exploring couples' post-mTBI rehabilitation experiences. Participants consisted of active duty soldiers with mTBI who had returned from deployment within 2 years, and their civilian spouses. Strauss and Corbin's grounded theory methodology was used to collect and analyze the data. The majority of the soldiers and spouses who participated (16/18) indicated that uncertain prognosis and symptom management were the greatest challenges of post-mTBI. Other challenges, such as delayed diagnosis, limited access to mental health care, and difficulty navigating an unfamiliar military health care system was also reported. Because of mTBI's lack of visible manifestation, soldiers may confuse their mTBI symptoms with those of other deployment-related injuries and this leads to a delay in treatment. Future research should explore the standardization of post-mTBI rehabilitation programs and the effectiveness of soldier education to promote early detection and treatment. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  16. Growing up in armed groups: trauma and aggression among child soldiers in DR Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharin Hermenau

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Child soldiers are often both victims and perpetrators of horrendous acts of violence. Research with former child soldiers has consistently shown that exposure to violence is linked to trauma-related disorders and that living in a violent environment is correlated with enhanced levels of aggression. Objective: To gain more insight into the experiences and the mental health status of former child soldiers, we conducted a survey with N=200 former child soldiers and adult combatants in the DR Congo. Methods: We conducted semi-structured interviews concerning military experiences, experienced and perpetrated violence, and mental health. Results: Former child soldiers reported more experienced and perpetrated violence, a greater severity of trauma-related suffering, as well as higher appetitive aggression than adult ex-combatants. Appetitive aggression was related to more perpetrated violence, higher military ranks, voluntary recruitment and higher rates of reenlistments in former child soldiers. Conclusions: Our results indicate that growing up in an armed group is related to higher levels of trauma-related disorders and aggressive behavior. This may explain the challenge of reintegrating former child soldiers. It is thus important to consider mental health problems, particularly trauma-related disorders and aggressive behavior, of former child soldiers for designing adequate reintegration programs.

  17. Towards the design of an integrated protection system for the combat soldier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, H.; Schrijer, G.; Wegdam, F.; Houwelingen, T. van; Bree, J.L.M.J. van; Verhagen, T.L.; Reffeltrath, P.; Reulink, H.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation describes the concept for a clothing system that is under development in the framework of the Netherlands Soldier Modernisation Programme. Changes in the operational profile of the Netherlands combat soldier prompted the development of a new clothing system. The main objective is

  18. Diagnosis and Management of Borrelia turicatae Infection in Febrile Soldier, Texas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Anna M; Pietralczyk, Elizabeth; Lopez, Job E; Brooks, Christopher; Schriefer, Martin E; Wozniak, Edward; Stermole, Benjamin

    2017-05-01

    In August 2015, a soldier returned from field exercises in Texas, USA, with nonspecific febrile illness. Culture and sequencing of spirochetes from peripheral blood diagnosed Borrelia turicatae infection. The patient recovered after receiving doxycycline. No illness occurred in asymptomatic soldiers potentially exposed to the vector tick and prophylactically given treatment.

  19. Spontaneous cure of American cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania naiffi in two Dutch infantry soldiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Snoek, E. M.; Lammers, A. M.; Kortbeek, L. M.; Roelfsema, J. H.; Bart, A.; Jaspers, C. A. J. J.

    2009-01-01

    We report two Dutch infantry soldiers who acquired American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) during military jungle training in Surinam. The lesions had existed for 3 and 5 months, respectively, before the soldiers presented for treatment. The lesions occurred on the head and right thigh, and were

  20. COBESE - An integrated model approach to address the mobility versus vulnerability trade-off in soldier systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khoe, Y.S.; Horst, M.J. van der; Weiden, M.C. van der

    2014-01-01

    The introduction, analysis or development of soldier systems presents many questions regarding the optimum of possible combinations of burden, effectiveness and safety of the soldier system. The soldier is subject to a broad spectrum of physical loads as a consequence of the threats being

  1. The Evaluation of Efficiency of Polish Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bórawski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper was to recognize the efficiency of Polish agriculture. We have studied data from Main Statistical Office (MSO and compared the efficiency in the years 2000–2010. The data proved that the efficiency of Polish agriculture improved in the analyzed period. To measure the impact of macroeconomic variables we introduced these into the regression model. The macroeconomic factors included: X1 (nominal prices of land, X2 (land prices expressed in dt, X3 (inflation, X4 (investment in agriculture and hunting, X5 (balance of trade and X6 (GDP. We wanted to recognize the impact of macroeconomic factors on: Y1 (gross output, Y2 (intermediate consumption, Y3 (gross value added. Multiple regression was used to measure the impact of macroeconomic factors on global production of agriculture. The strongest impact on gross value added had: X4 (investment in agriculture and horticulture and X4 (trade balance. Poland is a member of European Union and the Common Agricultural Policy has improved the situation in agriculture. There are about 2 100 000 farms in Poland but only 300 000–400 000 are producing for the market. Other farms have social functions and are place for work for rural inhabitants.

  2. Food patterns of Polish older people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadolowska, L.; Danowska-Oziewicz, M.; Niedzwiedzka, E.

    2006-01-01

    Food patterns of Polish older people were separated and described. The research included 422 people aged 65+ years, living in 5 geographical locations. Participants of the study were selected in quota sampling. Criteria for recruitment included sex, age (65-^74 or 75+ years) and family status (li...... and small number of products fonning joint food patterns speak in advocacy of relatively small reciprocal relationship between different food items consumed by the seniors in Poland.......Food patterns of Polish older people were separated and described. The research included 422 people aged 65+ years, living in 5 geographical locations. Participants of the study were selected in quota sampling. Criteria for recruitment included sex, age (65-^74 or 75+ years) and family status...... (living alone or living with other people). Respondents were asked questions about consumption of 55 food products. The factor analysis allowed for separating 21 food patterns. They included from 1 to 3 groups of products, intake of which was mutually dependant. Big number of separated food patterns...

  3. Farmers' pensions and the Polish economic crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanis, J G

    1983-04-01

    The Polish Government, in 1977, inaugurated a new pension program that made old-age and invalidity benefits available for the first time to most farmers in that country. The evolution and eventual failure of that program were closely intertwined with a growing national economic crisis, manifested in widespread popular unrest and culminating in emergence of the Solidarity movement. The farmers' pension program was originally presented as both a social security measure and a vehicle for improving agricultural efficiency. The economic situation was expected to benefit as farms of older owners were passed to younger, presumably more efficient, successors, with the state sometimes acting as intermediary. A further step to bind the social security concept to agricultural efficiency came through relating the pension amount to the quantity of produce the individual farmer sold to the state over a number of years. The failure of these provisions and other unpopular features of the new program was aggravated by inflation and continuing deterioration of the Polish economy.

  4. Robotic Automation in Computer Controlled Polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D. D.; Yu, G.; Bibby, M.; Dunn, C.; Li, H.; Wu, Y.; Zheng, X.; Zhang, P.

    2016-02-01

    We first present a Case Study - the manufacture of 1.4 m prototype mirror-segments for the European Extremely Large Telescope, undertaken by the National Facility for Ultra Precision Surfaces, at the OpTIC facility operated by Glyndwr University. Scale-up to serial-manufacture demands delivery of a 1.4 m off-axis aspheric hexagonal segment with surface precision use of robots to automate currently-manual operations on CNC polishing machines, to improve work-throughput, mitigate risk of damage to parts, and reduce dependence on highly-skilled staff. Second is the use of robots to pre-process surfaces prior to CNC polishing, to reduce total process time. The third draws the threads together, describing our vision of the automated manufacturing cell, where the operator interacts at cell rather than machine level. This promises to deliver a step-change in end-to-end manufacturing times and costs, compared with either platform used on its own or, indeed, the state-of-the-art used elsewhere.

  5. The effect of one-step and multi-step polishing systems on the surface roughness and microhardness of novel resin composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, Ugur; Sancakli, Hande Sar; Yildiz, Esra

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the surface roughness and micro-hardness of three novel resin composites containing nanoparticles after polishing with one-step and conventional multi-step polishing systems. Methods: A total of 126 specimens (10 X 2 mm) were prepared in a metal mold using three nano-composites (Filtek Supreme XT, Ceram-X, and Grandio), 21 specimens of each resin composite for both tests (n=63 for each test). Following light curing, seven specimens from each group received no polishing treatment and served as controls for both tests. The specimens were randomly polished using PoGo and Sof-Lex systems for 30 seconds after being wet-ground with 1200-grit silicon carbide paper. The mean surface roughness of each polished specimen was determined with a profilometer. The microhardness was determined using a Vickers hardness measuring instrument with a 200-g load and 15 seconds dwell time. The data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test and the post hoc Dunn's multiple comparison tests at a significance level of .05. Results: Among all materials, the smoothest surfaces were obtained under a matrix strip (control) (P.05). The lowest hardness values for the three resin composites were obtained with a matrix strip, and there was a statistically significant difference compared with other polishing systems (P.05). Conclusion: The current one-step polishing system appears to be as effective as multi-step systems and may be preferable for polishing resin composite restorations. PMID:22509124

  6. Analytic tendencies in modern Polish and Russian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Sosnowski

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Analytic tendencies in modern Polish and Russian Modern Polish and Russian are characterized by some features which demonstrate an increasing level of analitism. In the process of transformation from synthetic to analytical language, a crucial role is played by prepositional units. In this research, analitism is understood in a traditional way as a morphological and syntactic phenomenon. The fact that the synthetic structure of a language may, in some conditions, turn into an analytical one, as happened in the case of Bulgarian and Macedonian, has been intriguing linguists ever since, and has made me attempt to answer the question: What is the condition of modern Polish and Russian, which are languages with a rich literary tradition and solid grammatical norms, which belong to a group of synthetic languages? The analytical tendencies in morphology include the following: a decrease in the number of cases in all inflected parts of speech; a more frequent use of uninflected nouns and adjectives; the growing importance of nouns with common gender, and, in particular, the use of forms of masculine gender to depict feminine gender; differences in expressing collectiveness in a group of nouns (using collective meaning for forms that have singular meaning; substituting case forms with prepositions; substituting case forms with subordinate clauses; substituting case forms with “helper” words. Analytical tendencies in the area of numeral functioning include: substituting inflected forms of ordinal numerals with cardinal ones; the gradual disappearing inflection of numerals; confusing the forms of noun cases after numerals; the disappearing declination of collective numerals; displacing other cases with so-called simple cases; changing the syntactical position which the numeral should be inflected in; abandoning the declination of first elements of collective numerals. During the study of analytic tendencies in morphology, it was necessary to examine

  7. Examination of soldier target recognition with direct view optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Frederick H.; Larkin, Gabriella; Bisordi, Danielle; Dorsey, Shauna; Marianucci, Damien; Goss, Lashawnta; Bastawros, Michael; Misiuda, Paul; Rodgers, Glenn; Mazz, John P.

    2017-10-01

    Target recognition and identification is a problem of great military and scientific importance. To examine the correlation between target recognition and optical magnification, ten U.S. Army soldiers were tasked with identifying letters on targets at 800 and 1300 meters away. Letters were used since they are a standard method for measuring visual acuity. The letters were approximately 90 cm high, which is the size of a well-known rifle. Four direct view optics with angular magnifications of 1.5x, 4x, 6x, and 9x were used. The goal of this approach was to measure actual probabilities for correct target identification. Previous scientific literature suggests that target recognition can be modeled as a linear response problem in angular frequency space using the established values for the contrast sensitivity function for a healthy human eye and the experimentally measured modulation transfer function of the optic. At the 9x magnification, the soldiers could identify the letters with almost no errors (i.e., 97% probability of correct identification). At lower magnification, errors in letter identification were more frequent. The identification errors were not random but occurred most frequently with a few pairs of letters (e.g., O and Q), which is consistent with the literature for letter recognition. In addition, in the small subject sample of ten soldiers, there was considerable variation in the observer recognition capability at 1.5x and a range of 800 meters. This can be directly attributed to the variation in the observer visual acuity.

  8. Review of the studies on nutrition in Polish preschool children. Part 1. Preschool menus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkiel, Sylwia; Chalcarz, Wojciech

    The last review of the literature on nutrition in Polish children covered the years 1980-1995. From that time living conditions in Poland have changed due to political and economic changes. Attitudes toward eating and healthy life-style have also changed. Therefore, it is necessary to summarise current knowledge about what Polish preschool children eat. The aim of this article was to present the areas of research on nutrition in Polish preschool children based on the review of the literature, and to present and summarise the results of the studies on the assessment of preschool menus. The review of the literature showed two main areas of research on nutrition in Polish preschool children: the assessment of meals planned and served to children at preschools, and the assessment of food behaviour and daily food and nutrient intake in preschool children. Studies on energy and nutrient content of preschool menus should be carried out regularly in order to improve nutrition of children during their stay at preschool and vegetarian menus should be studied to fill the gap in the literature. The methodology of assessing preschool meals should be the same in order to provide the possibility to compare both the results and the conclusions. Preschool menus should be adjusted to the needs of 3-year-old children and 4-6-year-old children separately. The nation-wide education programme for preschool staff should be worked out and implemented in order to teach the preschool staff about the current nutrition recommendations for children, as well as the nutritional needs of 3-year-old children and 4-6-year-old children. preschool children, nutrition, preschool menus, energy content, nutrient content.

  9. Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ – Psychometric properties of selected scales in the Polish version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Widerszal-Bazyl

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionniare (COPSOQ has many advantages as compared to other similar instruments, i.a., it is not related to one single theoretical model and it measures a wide spectrum of psychosocial working conditions that have shown proven impact on health. The aim of the article is to summarize information on psychometric properties of 11 scales in the Polish version: Quantitative Demands, Emotional Demands, Influence at Work, Social Support, Possibilities for Development, Meaning of Work, Role Clarity, Quality of Leadership, Job Insecurity, Job Satisfaction, and General Health. Material and Methods: Analyses were based on the results of 4 research projects, in which the Polish version of the COPCOQ scales has been used: on a representative sample of Polish nurses (N = 4354, job insecurity in 2 groups of civil servants (N = 295, N = 724, mobbing among teachers (N = 1037 and psychological consequences of restructuring (N = 1396. The following psychometric characteristics were analysed: internal reliability, theoretical validity, and factorial validity. Results: Internal reliability of the following 8 scales was found satisfactory: Quantitative Demands, Influence at Work, Social Support, Possibilities for Development, Meaning of Work, Quality of Leadership, Job Satisfaction, and General Health (Cronbach’s α = 0.7–0.91, depending on the scale. The results of exploratory factor analyses indicated factorial separateness of the above mentioned scales. Theoretical validity of 11 scales was confirmed; they were associated with variables that can be regarded as their validity criteria. Conclusions: The 8 COPSOQ scales, in the Polish version, can be recommended for using in the research involving psychosocial job characteristics. Mean scores on these scales and standard deviations given in the article can serve as reference points during an evaluation of received results. Med Pr 2017;68(3:329–348

  10. Global Citizenship Education in School Curricula. A Polish Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leek, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present global citizenship education from a Polish perspective. Analyzing the issue, the first part of this paper presents the development of citizenship education, followed by the current status of global citizenship education in Polish schools. In the second part of the study I draw attention to national curricula…

  11. Comparative study of performance of shoe polishes formulated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polyethylene pigment was generated from “pure water sachets” (one of the major environmental nuisance today) and used in the formulation of shoe polish using paraffin wax, white spirit, turpentine oil, and nitrocellulose. The polish was found to exhibit similar wrinkle resistance, inferior gloss, rub resistance; resistance to ...

  12. Polish anthropology on the eve of the new millennium

    OpenAIRE

    Drozdowski, Zbigniew

    1999-01-01

    Author summarizes the main achievements of Polish anthropology in the 20th century, presents the main research problems of this discipline in contemporary Poland and points at the potential dangers which may be faced by Polish anthropology in the forthcoming years.

  13. Influence of melt treatments and polished CVD diamond coated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Performances of the turning inserts (uncoated and polished CVD diamond coated) were evaluated in machining Al–7Si and Al–7Si–2.5Cu cast alloys under dry environment using a lathe. The polished CVD diamond coated insert outperformed the uncoated cutting insert which suffered from sizeable edge buildup leading to ...

  14. Social Obstacles Towards Success of Pupils in Polish Primary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakielska, Zofia

    In 1973, the Polish Minister of Education ordered objective competitions at the primary school level in the fields of Polish studies, Russian language, and math. In order to determine whether such subject competitions were justified and if they contributed equally to the development of interests and abilities among the rural and urban and…

  15. Etymology in the Polish Academy of Sciences Great Dictionary of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article offers an insight into etymological information provided in the Polish Academy of Sciences Great Dictionary of Polish (Pol. Wielki słownik języka polskiego PAN, WSJP PAN). The dictionary and the rules of producing the entries are briefly presented. These rules influence the way of working on etymology within ...

  16. The Czechoslovak-Polish Club in Brno (1925–1939)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baron, Roman

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 1 (2011), s. 43-64 ISSN 1803-6546 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80150510 Keywords : Czechoslovak-Polish solidarity * Czechoslovak-Polish relations * Brno * associations * Interwar Period Subject RIV: AB - History

  17. Soldier as Policeman in Southeast Asia 1945-1946

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This, coupled with a lack of European power in the area immediately after war, gave the people of Southeast Asia the courage to try and claim their...CI O DO ML Map 2 Indchin show g te 16h parllel [SORCEt Pte Denni, Trobled ays o peac (NewYork:St.BartnsPes 1987),P. 18 40 they arrived after the...January even the pretext that the soldiers could determine the difference was removed when they were ordered to "arrest every male ."’ 17 16 War Diary

  18. Comprehensive Soldier Fitness and the future of psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Martin E P; Fowler, Raymond D

    2011-01-01

    Psychology responded to the national needs in World War I and World War II and was itself transformed. National need calls a third time: unprecedented levels of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, suicide, and anxiety along with a need for a resilient Army capable of meeting the persistent warfare of the foreseeable future. As a large part of the Comprehensive Soldier Fitness program, positive psychology is meeting this need with new tests, with new fitness courses, and with resilience training. These developments may transform the practice of psychology and psychology's relation to medicine and education. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. A Study in the Implementation of a Distributed Soldier Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    is the resistance to killing one’s own species . Combat is like a roller coaster with highs being an adrenaline rush and lows coming after the rush...2001). Further discussion of “human psychology” can be found in appendix D. 4.5 Leadership Field Manual (FM) 6-22 is the Army’s keystone FM on...to assure the welfare of his/her Soldiers (Field Manual 6-22, 2006). b. Topic Definition: FM 6-22 is the U.S. Army’s keystone Field Manual on

  20. Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) of sapphire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Honglin

    The concept of chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) was examined for finishing sapphire. In this study sapphire was used as a model system for oxide ceramics. The removal rates were determined by weight loss. Surface quality and structure were characterized with surface probe microscopy (SPM). Polishing experiments were designed to test the chemically modified surface layer. A series of abrasives with various hardnesses including mono-crystalline and polycrystalline diamond, alpha and gamma alumina, zirconia, ceria and silica were used. Diaspore was also evaluated. The results indicated that, with similar particle size and shape, harder abrasives do not necessarily cause faster material removal and better surface finish, and abrasives with hardness equal to or less than sapphire such as alpha alumina and gamma alumina achieved the best surface finish and efficient material removal. A hypothesis was proposed that the sapphire surface was modified by water to form a thin hydration laver with structure and hardness close to diaspore. Abrasives with a hardness between diaspore and sapphire polished the c-plane of sapphire with good surface finish and efficient removal. SPM indicated the hydration layer on the c-plane surface was about 1 nm thick. Removal rate and surface finish as a function of pH were also examined on c-plane sapphire with nano-alumina abrasives. The removal rate as a function of pH was compared to the solubility behavior of alumina. The results showed the deviation of pH from the lowest solubility pH for alumina (pH = 5) was a driving force for the surface reaction to form a hydration layer. The anisotropy of sapphire strongly affects removal rate and surface quality in CMP. The relationships among orientation. pH and abrasive were studied for sapphire with c (0001), a (11-20), and m (10-10) planes. Based on the results, the CMP process for sapphire includes chemical reaction of the surface to form a thin reaction layer that is softer than sapphire

  1. Celiac disease on YouTube - a study of the Polish content available on the popular video-sharing website.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiedrowski, Mirosław; Mróz, Andrzej; Gajewska, Danuta; Nurzyński, Paweł; Deptała, Andrzej

    2017-10-23

    Celiac disease affects about 1% of the population. Since most Polish households have a broadband Internet connection, a lot of people use web resources to learn about health and disease. YouTube service (www.youtube.com) offers a lot of videos concerning celiac disease. However, the credibility of the Polish videos available on YouTube and concerning celiac disease has never been analyzed. The aim of the study was to determine whether the YouTube service offers valuable content for Polish people affected by celiac disease. One hundred and fifty-four unique videos devoted to celiac disease and available in the Polish language were identified and critically assessed. Each video was categorized due to its topic(s), and evaluated for its credibility by two independent researchers. In general, 127 (82.5%) videos were found to be credible. The most credible categories of content presented organizations and events related to celiac disease/celiac society, followed by culinary recipes (100.0, 100.0, and 95.6% of credible videos, respectively). The least trustworthy categories were devoted to pathobiology and advertisements (55.6 and 54.3% of credible videos, respectively). YouTube service can serve as a supplementary source of knowledge for people affected by celiac disease, after careful selection of trustworthy content.

  2. Human performance modeling for system of systems analytics :soldier fatigue.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, Craig R.; Campbell, James E.; Miller, Dwight Peter

    2005-10-01

    The military has identified Human Performance Modeling (HPM) as a significant requirement and challenge of future systems modeling and analysis initiatives as can be seen in the Department of Defense's (DoD) Defense Modeling and Simulation Office's (DMSO) Master Plan (DoD 5000.59-P 1995). To this goal, the military is currently spending millions of dollars on programs devoted to HPM in various military contexts. Examples include the Human Performance Modeling Integration (HPMI) program within the Air Force Research Laboratory, which focuses on integrating HPMs with constructive models of systems (e.g. cockpit simulations) and the Navy's Human Performance Center (HPC) established in September 2003. Nearly all of these initiatives focus on the interface between humans and a single system. This is insufficient in the era of highly complex network centric SoS. This report presents research and development in the area of HPM in a system-of-systems (SoS). Specifically, this report addresses modeling soldier fatigue and the potential impacts soldier fatigue can have on SoS performance.

  3. Relationships between soldiers' PTSD symptoms and spousal communication during deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Sarah; Loew, Benjamin; Allen, Elizabeth; Stanley, Scott; Rhoades, Galena; Markman, Howard

    2011-06-01

    Social support, including support from spouses, may buffer against posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The current study assessed whether the frequency of spousal communication during a recent deployment, a potentially important source of support for soldiers, was related to postdeployment PTSD symptoms. Data came from 193 married male Army soldiers who returned from military deployment within the past year. For communication modalities conceptualized as delayed (i.e., letters, care packages, and e-mails), greater spousal communication frequency during deployment was associated with lower postdeployment PTSD symptom scores, but only at higher levels of marital satisfaction (p = .009). At lower marital satisfaction, more delayed spousal communication during deployment was associated with more PTSD symptoms (p = .042). For communication modalities conceptualized as interactive (i.e., phone calls, instant messaging, instant messaging with video), the same general direction of effects was seen, but the interaction between communication frequency and marital satisfaction predicting PTSD symptoms did not reach significance. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  4. [Group psychotherapy of neuroses and personality disorders in regular soldiers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araszkiewicz, A; Florkowski, A; Lucki, Z

    1994-01-01

    Environmental conditions cause neuroses and symptoms of personality disorders in regular soldiers. Military service in highly formalized and hierarchical conditions makes it impossible to: express emotions (particularly negative ones), to arrange one's own time, to choose the position and place of work. Another important psychotraumatic factor is excessive load of work and responsibility for the sake of "the service". Psychotherapy is the main part of neurotic and personality disorder therapy in regular soldiers. The social context is the bass for theoretical assumptions of psychotherapy carried out by the authors. Based on the theory of learning, the aims of the applied psychotherapy are: eagerness for the elimination of symptoms and changing the mode of behaviour. Group psychotherapy is carried out in stationary conditions, in groups of 8 to 13 patients, for 8-9 weeks. The applied methods are: debating psychotherapy, interaction-communicative methods, psychodrawing, musicotherapy, choreotherapy and relaxation techniques. As the result of the therapy, about 89% of symptomatic improvement and about 81% of the change of attitude and behaviour were obtained.

  5. Drug Use in Soldiers: Family and Peer Contextual Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Mojtaba; Darharaj, Mohammad; Kelly, Adrian B; Shahmiri, Hasan; Malekianjabali, Mona; Kheirolomoom, Seyedeh Leili

    2017-08-24

    Given the stressful nature of military life, people in the armed forces are vulnerable to substance use. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between family and peers with drug use among military forces in Iran. Convenience sampling was used to recruit a total of 422 draftees doing military service in army units in Tehran, Iran. Measures of family and peers' risk and protective factors, alcohol use, and other drug use were administered. Findings indicated significant relationships between family (i.e., family models for risk behavior, parent sanctions, and family controls) and peers (i.e., peer modeling for risk behavior, peer controls, support from friends) with drug use. A multiple regression analysis revealed that peer modeling for risk behavior, family models for risk behavior, and parent sanctions were significant predictors of drug use in soldiers. These results were consistent with the influence of family and peer on drug use amongst soldiers. Programs designed to reduce alcohol and other drug use may benefit from tailoring to fit risk and protective files amongst peer and family networks.

  6. The Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome Among Soldiers of the Military Police of Bahia State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, Romário Teixeira Braga; D'Oliveira, Argemiro

    2014-07-01

    The mortality rate of men is generally higher than that of women, irrespective of the age group. Currently, a key concern for health care professionals is the prevalence of risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. This study aimed at assessing the prevalence of individual risk factors for cardiovascular disease as well as the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among men serving in the Military Police Corps of the state of Bahia, Brazil. This service employs mostly men, and they are known to experience high levels of occupational stress and professional victimization. We conducted a cross-sectional study among military police soldiers (n = 452) who were candidates for a military police training course in Bahia, Brazil. All candidates who attended the selection process were evaluated according to the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Panel III in order to assess the presence of medical disorders that could contribute to cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. The authors identified a high prevalence of hypertension (55.76%), hypertriglyceridemia (50.85%), waist circumference of >102 cm (31.76%), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (30.46%), and impaired fasting glucose (28.15%) in our subjects. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 38.54%. The authors suggest that measures should be taken to ensure that military policemen receive continued medical care, both in their professional capacity and in their personal circumstances, and that attention be focused on intervention programs. © The Author(s) 2013.

  7. Natural History and Ecology of Soldier Beetles (Coleoptera: Cantharidae) in the Mexican Tropical Dry Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Hernández, Cisteil X

    2018-02-27

    Until today, most information about the natural history and ecology of soldier beetles came from temperate zones, mainly from Holarctic areas, while tropical regions have been poorly studied. The aim of this contribution is to compile and synthesize information concerning the natural history and ecology of Cantharidae (Coleoptera) from the Mexican tropical dry forest (TDF), to serve as a starting point for more in-depth study of the group in one of the Mexico's most endangered ecosystems. All compiled data on the family have been organized into the following topics: distributional patterns and habitat preferences, feeding behavior and host plants, and daily and seasonal activity cycles. For the first time, it was provided a list of host plants for TDF Cantharidae genera and species, and it was also observed a high ecological diversity in the phenology and behavior of TDF Cantharidae assemblages. Further research concerning cantharids and other TDF insects needs to have a more comprehensive and integrated approach toward understanding the patterns of distribution and diversity, and elucidating the role that cantharids play in ecosystems, especially in TDF, which is one of the most endangered ecosystem in the world.

  8. Brewing test with puffed polished rice. : Sake brewing with puffed polished rive (II)

    OpenAIRE

    家村, 芳次; 永田, 興四郎; 田端, 昇; 佐無田, 隆; 吉沢, 淑; YOSHITSUGU, IEMURA; KOSHIROU, NAGATA; NOBORU, TABATA; TAKASHI, SAMUTA; KIYOSHI, YOSHIZAWA; 菊正宗酒造株式会社; 山邑酒造株式会社; 灘五郷酒造組合; 熊本国税局鑑定官室; 国税庁醸造試験所

    1985-01-01

    Polished rice was puffed by continuous puffing equipment, then part of it was contracted under a vapor stream. These samples were used for sake brewing.Fermentation took place normally in very tested mash. Each sake produced differed slightly in alcohol concentration, nihonshudo, and acidity; they differed greatly in the content of amino acids, with that of sake made from puffed rice was lower than that of sake made from steamed rice, and that of sake made from contracted rice after puffing t...

  9. Plurilingualism and polish teenage learners of english

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Otwinowska‑Kasztelanic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Using several languages has become a norm for those who want to learn and work in the European Union. However, teaching for plurilingualism is also a challenge. The present paper first clarifies the notions of plurilingualism and multilingualism, then discusses the role of crosslinguistic similarity in language learning in the case of European languages. It also shows how lexical crosslinguistic similarity can be used in teaching typologically related and unrelated languages, and discusses the key factors in noticing such similarity. The research presented reports on examining and raising language awareness of Polish‑‑ English cognate vocabulary in the case of a group of Polish teenage learners of English. It presents the results of a small‑‑ scale study in quasi‑‑ experimental design, as well as qualitative research on the learners’ opinions and attitudes. Finally, the paper presents implications for language pedagogy and focuses on the fact that awareness raising may affect the learners’ plurilingual competence.

  10. Antigenic typing Polish isolates of canine parvovirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizak, B. [National Veterinary Research Institute, Pulawy (Poland); Plucienniczak, A. [Polish Academy ofd Sciences. Microbiology and Virology Center, Lodz (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    Polish strains of canine parvovirus isolated between 1982 and 1993 were examined to determine the extent to which the virus has evolved antigenically and genetically over eleven years. Two CPV isolates obtained in Warsaw in 1982 and Pulawy in 1993, were examined using monoclonal antibody typing, restriction analysis and sequencing VP-2 protein gene. Five other isolates from Warsaw and Pulawy were tested with the panel of monoclonal antibodies specific to CPV-2, CPV-2a and common for canine parvovirus, feline panleukopenia virus and milk enteritis virus. Results of the studies demonstrated that all isolates tested represented CPV-2a antigenic type. Rapid antigenic strain replacement recorded by Parrish and Senda in the U.S.A and Japan was not confirmed in Poland. (author). 30 refs, 2 tabs.

  11. Attitudes of Polish Consumers Toward Experiential Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Skorek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The experience economy is a concept that can be defned as a new way of perceiving the market offer of an enterprise, focusing on the customer experience. Enterprises, both in the production and service industries, are becoming similar to one another on a massive scale, which makes it increasingly diffcult to stand out. The response to this can be to offer the consumer an unforgettable experience related to a product or service provided by a company. Methodology: This study analysed the results of qualitative research on the attitudes and opinions of Polish consumers on experience marketing. Results/fndings: The results showed that participants of the study were prepared to transition from the economy based on products or services to an economy based on experiences at a moderate level. They declared a willingness to participate in experiences offered by companies but at the same time focus on the cost and utility of them

  12. Droughts in historical times in Polish territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limanowka, Danuta; Cebulak, Elzbieta; Pyrc, Robert; Doktor, Radoslaw

    2015-04-01

    Climate change is one of the key environmental, social and economical issues, and it is also followed by political consequences. Impact of climate conditions on countries' economy is increasingly recognized, and a lot of attention is given, both in the global scale and by the individual national governments. In years 2008-2010, at the Poland -Institute of Meteorology and Water Management-National Research Institute was realized the KLIMAT Project on Impact of climate change on environment, economy and society (changes, effects and methods of reducing them, conclusions for science, engineering practice and economic planning) No. POIG01-03-01-14-011/08. The project was financed by the European Union and Polish state budget in frame of Innovative Economy Operational Programme. A very wide range of research was carried out in the different thematic areas. One of them was "Natural disasters and internal safety of the country (civil and economical)." The problem of drought in Poland was developed in terms of meteorology and hydrology. "Proxy" Data Descriptions very often inform about dry years and seasons, hot periods without precipitation. Analysis of historical material allowed to extract the years that have experienced prolonged periods of high temperatures and rainfall shortages. Weather phenomenon defined as drought belongs to extreme events. This information was very helpful in the process of indexing and thus to restore the course and intensity of climatic elements in the past. The analysis covered the period from year 1000 to modern times. Due to the limited information from the period of 1000-1500 the authors focused primarily on the period from 1500 to 2010. Analysis of the collected material has allowed the development of a highly precise temporal structure of the possible occurrence of dry periods to Polish territory.

  13. Review of the studies on nutrition in Polish preschool children. Part 2. Meals prepared at preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkiel-Pawłowska, Sylwia; Chalcarz, Wojciech

    This article is the second part of the review of the studies on nutrition in Polish preschool children. In the first part, studies on preschool menus assessment were presented and summarised, whereas this article reviews the studies on the assessment of foods and meals prepared at preschool. The aim of this review was to present and summarise the results of the studies on the assessment of meals prepared for children at preschool based on the reports from the preschool food storeroom, the studies on chemical analysis of sample meals served at preschools and the studies on comparison of the results of chemical analysis to the results obtained by calculations obtained from computer programmes. The results of the studies on the assessment of meals prepared for children at preschool using various methods confirm most of the findings from the studies on the assessment of preschool menus. It is necessary to carry out more studies on energy and nutrient content assessment of preschool meals determined by chemical analysis of sample meals in order to provide more accurate information about the real nutritional value of meals served to children at preschool. It is essential to update the Polish food composition tables to enable more precise calculations of nutritional value of the meals planned for children at preschools which will improve the possibility of adjusting preschool meals to the real needs of both 3-year-old and 4-6-year-old children during their stay at preschool.

  14. Compliance with antimalarial chemoprophylaxis in German soldiers: a 6-year survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frickmann, H; Schwarz, N G; Holtherm, H-U; Maassen, W; Vorderwülbecke, F; Erkens, K; Fischer, M; Morwinsky, T; Hagen, R M

    2013-04-01

    Since 1992, German soldiers have been deployed in areas where malaria is endemic. Antimalarial chemoprophylaxis (CP) is directed according to the assessed risk and is provided free of charge. Compliance is crucial if its effect is to be reliable. This study analysed compliance with directed CP in German soldiers as well as its determinants. Between 2003 and 2009, standardized questionnaire-based interviews were performed with 2,149 out of approximately 100,000 German soldiers who were deployed during this period in areas where malaria is endemic. The questionnaires dealt with information that the soldiers had received about malaria prior to their missions, with their adherence to mosquito-protective and antimalarial chemoprophylactic procedures, and their estimations of their individual level of exposure. About 1,308 out of 2,149 interviewed soldiers had been ordered to take CP, allowing for an assessment of the outcome parameter "CP-compliance". About 76.9 % out of 1,308 soldiers to whom regular CP was directed took it regularly. The exposure variables "age", "satisfaction with malaria counselling", "perceived threat due to insects or mosquitoes" and "use of insect repellents" were positively associated with compliance with directed antimalarial CP. The study confirms the findings of the French and US armies that even free-of-charge access to antimalarial medication will not lead to 100 % acceptance. The compliance problem is aggravated by the generally low age of deployed soldiers. Adequate counselling is crucial to increase adherence to antimalarial CP.

  15. Differential Child Maltreatment Risk Across Deployment Periods of US Army Soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Christine M; Ross, Michelle E; Wood, Joanne N; Griffis, Heather M; Harb, Gerlinde C; Mi, Lanyu; Song, Lihai; Strane, Douglas; Lynch, Kevin G; Rubin, David M

    2016-01-01

    We described the risk for maltreatment among toddlers of US Army soldiers over different deployment cycles to develop a systematic response within the US Army to provide families appropriate supports. We conducted a person-time analysis of substantiated maltreatment reports and medical diagnoses among children of 112,325 deployed US Army soldiers between 2001 and 2007. Risk of maltreatment was elevated after deployment for children of soldiers deployed once but not for children of soldiers deployed twice. During the 6 months after deployment, children of soldiers deployed once had 4.43 substantiated maltreatment reports and 4.96 medical diagnoses per 10,000 child-months. The highest maltreatment rate among children of soldiers deployed twice occurred during the second deployment for substantiated maltreatment (4.83 episodes per 10,000 child-months) and before the first deployment for medical diagnoses of maltreatment (3.78 episodes per 10,000 child-months). We confirmed an elevated risk for child maltreatment during deployment but also found a previously unidentified high-risk period during the 6 months following deployment, indicating elevated stress within families of deployed and returning soldiers. These findings can inform efforts by the military to initiate and standardize support and preparation to families during periods of elevated risk.

  16. Differential Child Maltreatment Risk Across Deployment Periods of US Army Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Michelle E.; Wood, Joanne N.; Griffis, Heather M.; Harb, Gerlinde C.; Mi, Lanyu; Song, Lihai; Strane, Douglas; Lynch, Kevin G.; Rubin, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We described the risk for maltreatment among toddlers of US Army soldiers over different deployment cycles to develop a systematic response within the US Army to provide families appropriate supports. Methods. We conducted a person-time analysis of substantiated maltreatment reports and medical diagnoses among children of 112 325 deployed US Army soldiers between 2001 and 2007. Results. Risk of maltreatment was elevated after deployment for children of soldiers deployed once but not for children of soldiers deployed twice. During the 6 months after deployment, children of soldiers deployed once had 4.43 substantiated maltreatment reports and 4.96 medical diagnoses per 10 000 child-months. The highest maltreatment rate among children of soldiers deployed twice occurred during the second deployment for substantiated maltreatment (4.83 episodes per 10 000 child-months) and before the first deployment for medical diagnoses of maltreatment (3.78 episodes per 10 000 child-months). Conclusions. We confirmed an elevated risk for child maltreatment during deployment but also found a previously unidentified high-risk period during the 6 months following deployment, indicating elevated stress within families of deployed and returning soldiers. These findings can inform efforts by the military to initiate and standardize support and preparation to families during periods of elevated risk. PMID:26562128

  17. Medical Attrition from Commanders Training in the Israeli Defense Forces (IDF): A Cross-sectional Study on 23,841 Soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Oren; Kanevsky, Boris; Kutikov, M A J Sergey; Olsen, Cara H; Dudkiewicz, Israel

    2018-03-14

    Attrition from training is associated with substantial financial and personnel loss. There is a plethora of medical literature and research of attrition rates related to initial/phase 1 training (basic combat training); however, the analysis of second phase training (commanders training, consisting of schools that qualify junior commanders and officers for infantry and non-infantry combat units) is limited. The purpose of this study is to perform a comprehensive survey regarding to medical attrition from commanders training in the IDF (Israeli Defense Forces) in order to present the commanders of the IDF a detailed situation report that will serve as an evidence-based platform for future policy planning and implementation. A cross-sectional study including all soldiers (23,841) who participated in commanders training in the IDF in the period of 2012-2015 was performed. Soldiers for whom the attrition reason (medical or not medical) was missing were excluded from this study. Data were collected from the adjutancy-computerized system as well as the IDF's computerized medical consultation records package (CPR). Descriptive statistics were performed using mean, standard deviation, and median in order to express results. For the determination of statistical significance, chi-square test, Student's t-test, and Poisson regression models were used. Out of 23,841 soldiers that participated in this study, 75% (17,802) were males and 25% (6,039) were females. The overall attrition rate was 0.7% (164). The attrition rate for males was 0.86% (148 out of 17,082 males) and 0.26% (16 out of 6,039 females) for females. After adjusting for training unit, age, and BMI, the risk for attrition was 1.6 (160%) times higher for males as compared with females, and this result was statistically significant (IRR = 1.6, p = 0.01, CI 1.1, 2.2). The re-injury rate was 41% (68 out of 164 soldiers). The three most frequent diagnoses for attrition were orthopedics (66%), general surgery diagnoses

  18. Direct polishing of aluminum mirrors with higher quality and accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ziqiang; Yi, Zhang

    2015-09-10

    Diamond-turned aluminum mirrors have been widely used in modern optical systems. However, the machined surfaces have characteristic periodic tool marks, which contribute to reduced optical performance by creating effects such as scattering and distortion. This paper develops a new polishing technology to polish aluminum mirrors directly to remove tool marks and improve surface quality and surface accuracy. A Taguchi experiment was used to obtain optimal polishing conditions for reducing surface roughness, and computer-controlled optical surfacing technology was employed for form correction of aluminum mirrors.

  19. Reel-to-reel substrate tape polishing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selvamanickam, Venkat; Gardner, Michael T.; Judd, Raymond D.; Weloth, Martin; Qiao, Yunfei

    2005-06-21

    Disclosed is a reel-to-reel single-pass mechanical polishing system (100) suitable for polishing long lengths of metal substrate tape (124) used in the manufacture of high-temperature superconductor (HTS) coated tape, including multiple instantiations of a polishing station (114) in combination with a subsequent rinsing station (116) arranged along the axis of the metal substrate tape (124) that is translating between a payout spool (110a) and a take-up spool (110b). The metal substrate tape obtains a surface smoothness that is suitable for the subsequent deposition of a buffer layer.

  20. Quality in Air transport process of LOT Polish Airlines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Rozenberg

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the air transport process on scheduled long-haul flights of LOT Polish Airlines. Main focus is taken on price development of these routes. The introduction consists of a brief profile characterized LOT Polish Airlines. Next chapter summarizes the air transport process on scheduled longhaul flights. The frame of article is formed by price development statistics for scheduled long-haul flights to / from Beijing of LOT Polish Airlines and two other competing companies. Conclusion contains results of analysis and puts forward proposals to streamline of the air transport process on reviewed routes.

  1. Presentation of the verbs in Bulgarian-Polish electronic dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Dimitrova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Presentation of the verbs in Bulgarian-Polish electronic dictionary This paper briefly discusses the presentation of the verbs in the first electronic Bulgarian-Polish dictionary that is currently being developed under a bilateral collaboration between IMI-BAS and ISS-PAS. Special attention is given to the digital entry classifiers that describe Bulgarian and Polish verbs. Problems related to the correspondence between natural language phenomena and their presentations are discussed. Some examples illustrate the different types of dictionary entries for verbs.

  2. Profilometric analysis of root surfaces after using various polishing agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjan Jana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polishing is an important step in oral prophylaxis procedure which retards further accumulation of plaque on the root surfaces. Though polishing was done with various abrasive particles with different sizes over a long period of time, it was never been highlighted to evaluate the ideal polishing material and the particle size that would produce the ideal surface smoothness (Ra 5 μm are not able to produce the surface smoothness <0.2 μm. Only, submicron sized particles are able to produce the desired smoothness.

  3. Study on the influence of the rotational speed of polishing disk on material removal in aspheric surface compliant polishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyong Hu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available When a soft polishing tool is compressed on a stiff workpiece of curved surface, the contact area is a piece of the curved surface. In the process of aspheric surface polishing, the machining speed is always provided by the rotational speed of the spindle of a computer numerical control lathe. Yet, the polishing tool is usually made rotating to remove cutting scraps and broken abrasives from the contact area. The rotational speed of the polishing tool would change the distribution state of the relative speed in the whole contact area, and it would definitely change the volume of material removal in the surface of the workpiece. This article studies how the rotational speed of the polishing tool changes the distribution state of the relative speed in the whole contact area and material removal in the volume of the surface of the workpiece. The computing results show that the volume of material removal increases with the increase in both the rotational speed of polishing disk and the rotational speed of lathe spindle, but the polishing quality is totally not in this case.

  4. SERVING TIMES OF DISCONTINUOUS MATERIALS HANDLING MACHINES

    OpenAIRE

    PÉTER TELEK

    2014-01-01

    The performance of production systems highly depend on the effectiveness of the serving process, which consist of different materials handling operations depend on the applied machines. During the design process of serving systems there are key role of the characterisations of the handling equipment: they determine the applicability of the given machines. In my paper, I analyse the serving operations of discontinuous materials handling machines and define the time requirements of them. After ...

  5. Effect of Polishing Systems on Surface Roughness and Topography of Monolithic Zirconia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goo, C L; Yap, Auj; Tan, Kbc; Fawzy, A S

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different chairside polishing systems on the surface roughness and topography of monolithic zirconia. Thirty-five monolithic zirconia specimens (Lava PLUS, 3M ESPE) were fabricated and divided into five groups of seven and polished with the following: Group 1 (WZ)-Dura white stone followed by Shofu zirconia polishing kit; Group 2 (SZ)-Shofu zirconia polishing kit; Group 3 (CE)-Ceramiste porcelain polishers; Group 4 (CM)-Ceramaster porcelain polishers; and Group 5 (KZ)-Komet ZR zirconia polishers. All specimens were ground with a fine-grit diamond bur prior to polishing procedures to simulate clinical finishing. Baseline and post-polishing profilometric readings were recorded and delta Ra values (difference in mean surface roughness before and after polishing) were computed and analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Scheffe post hoc test (pzirconia.

  6. Minority Serving Institutions Reporting System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The database will be used to track SSA's contributions to Minority Serving Institutions such as Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU), Tribal Colleges...

  7. Soldier-Warfighter Operationally Responsive Deployer for Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Benny; Huebner, Larry; Kuhns, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The Soldier-Warfighter Operationally Responsive Deployer for Space (SWORDS) project was a joint project between the U.S. Army Space & Missile Defense Command (SMDC) and NASA. The effort, lead by SMDC, was intended to develop a three-stage liquid bipropellant (liquid oxygen/liquid methane), pressure-fed launch vehicle capable of inserting a payload of at least 25 kg to a 750-km circular orbit. The vehicle design was driven by low cost instead of high performance. SWORDS leveraged commercial industry standards to utilize standard hardware and technologies over customized unique aerospace designs. SWORDS identified broadly based global industries that have achieved adequate levels of quality control and reliability in their products and then designed around their expertise and business motivations.

  8. Polish electoral geography and its methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Rykiel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Differences in the understanding of electoral geography between social sciences are discussed in the article. Main fields and spatial scales of Polish electoral geography are identified. Main methods of multidimensional statistics are discussed. A necessity of a proper choice, based on theories of voting behaviour, of explaning variables to statistical models are emphasised. Regression analysis indicates only a formal usefulness in electoral geography, for quantitative relationships between variables in the model can be evidenced, which may be meaningless not only essentially, but even statistically. The application of canonical analysis in electoral geography brought a methodological turning-point to the statistical approach. This method allowed to combine: (1 the foundation of the selection of input variables on theories of voting behaviour; (2 the analysis of dependence of the electoral results on socio-economic characteristics of areas; (3 an identification of electoral options; (4 a quantification of the role of the historical heritage in the contemporary voting behaviour; and (5 the analysis of the stability of the electoral space. A well grounded opinion was weakened about the general competitiveness of right- and left-wing parties in Poland’s political space. Parties with similar rather than different programmes compete in given areas. It was indicated that elections have only formal influence on the structure of Parliament while the electoral system is decisive. Electoral, including territorial, manipulations also play their part. The empirical analysis indicated that Poland’s political space is polarised between the right-wing-oriented areas of the south-eastern half of the country and the left-wing-oriented areas of the north-western half. The political competition between the left and the right operates merely on the national scale, while it is not reflected territorially.The quantification of the influence of the nineteenth

  9. Polish Defense Policy in the Context of National Security Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    Antoni Podolski, Polska Strategia Bezpieczenstwa jako Praktyczna Implementacja Europejskiej Strategii Bezpeczenstwa –miedzy teoria a praktyka (Warszawa...Implementacja Europejskiej Strategii Bezpeczenstwa –miedzy teoria a praktyka (Warszawa: Center for International Relations, 2005), 13. Polish Ministry

  10. Super Polishing of Aluminum 6061-T6 Mirrors, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An innovative 2D super-polishing process for Aluminum 6061-T6 planar mirrors which removes diamond point turning (DPT) grooves and attains rms surface finishes below...

  11. The resettlement of Polish refugees after the second world war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Blaszczyk

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The passing of the Polish Resettlement Act and the creation of the different agencies related to it undoubtedly represented an unprecedented response to the challenge of mass migration in the UK.

  12. Production of rare earth polishing powders in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosynkin, V.D.; Ivanov, E.N.; Kotrekhov, V.A.; Shtutza, M.G.; Grabko, A.I.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Russia is a potent producer of polishing powders made of rare earth material presented as an extensive and well developed base. Considering the reserves, the facilities predisposition and the polishing agent (cerium dioxide) content the chief mineral source is loparite, apatite and monazite. The production of rare earth polishing powders is based on specially developed continuous technological processes, corrosion-proof equipment, ensuring a high and stable production quality. A special attention is paid to the radiation safety of the powders. The initial material for the rare earth polishing powders based on loparite is the fusion cake of rare earth chlorides obtained at that mineral chlorination. The technology of the polishing powder production from the REE fusion cake includes the following stages: dissolution of the REE fusion cake chlorides; - thorough cleaning of the REE fusion cake chlorides from radioactive and non-rare-earth impurities; chemical precipitation of REE carbonates, obtaining middlings with proper material and granulometric composition, thermal treatment of precipitated carbonates followed with the operations of drying and roasting; classification of roasted oxides, obtaining end products - polishing powders. The production of fluorine-containing powders includes the stage of their fluorination after the stage of carbonate precipitation. The stabilizing doping can be introduced both into the middlings during one of the technological process of powders manufacturing and into the end product. Rare earth polishing powders are manufactured in Russia by the Share Holding Company 'Chepetz Mechanical Plant' (ChMP Co.), the city of Glasov. The plant produces a number of polishing materials, such as; polishing powder Optinol, containing at least 50% by mass of cerium dioxide, used in the mass production of optical and other articles; polishing powder Optinol-10 with doping to improve the sedimentary and aggregate stability of the solid phase

  13. British and American English for Polish University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, Waldemar; Preston, Dennis R.

    1975-01-01

    This article attempts to assess the validity of dividing Polish students of English into British and American groups. The tests of the various hypotheses regarding linguistic and non-linguistic results of such divisions are described. (AM)

  14. Polish Defense Policy in the Context of National Security Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bieniek, Piotr S

    2006-01-01

    ...) and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Polish security policy and strategy is shaped by its geographical location, which places Poland in NATO's main strategic area opposite the Russian Federation and Belarus...

  15. Laser polishing of 3D printed mesoscale components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhaduri, Debajyoti, E-mail: debajyoti.bhaduri@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Penchev, Pavel; Batal, Afif; Dimov, Stefan; Soo, Sein Leung [Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Sten, Stella; Harrysson, Urban [Digital Metal, Höganäs AB, 263 83 Höganäs (Sweden); Zhang, Zhenxue; Dong, Hanshan [School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • Process optimisation for laser polishing novel 3D printed SS316L parts. • Evaluating the effects of key polishing parameters on SS316L surface roughness. • Detailed spectroscopic analysis of oxide layer formation due to laser polishing. • Comparative surface integrity analysis of SS parts polished in air and argon. • A maximum reduction in roughness of over 94% achieved at optimised polishing settings. - Abstract: Laser polishing of various engineered materials such as glass, silica, steel, nickel and titanium alloys, has attracted considerable interest in the last 20 years due to its superior flexibility, operating speed and capability for localised surface treatment compared to conventional mechanical based methods. The paper initially reports results from process optimisation experiments aimed at investigating the influence of laser fluence and pulse overlap parameters on resulting workpiece surface roughness following laser polishing of planar 3D printed stainless steel (SS316L) specimens. A maximum reduction in roughness of over 94% (from ∼3.8 to ∼0.2 μm S{sub a}) was achieved at the optimised settings (fluence of 9 J/cm{sup 2} and overlap factors of 95% and 88–91% along beam scanning and step-over directions respectively). Subsequent analysis using both X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES) confirmed the presence of surface oxide layers (predominantly consisting of Fe and Cr phases) up to a depth of ∼0.5 μm when laser polishing was performed under normal atmospheric conditions. Conversely, formation of oxide layers was negligible when operating in an inert argon gas environment. The microhardness of the polished specimens was primarily influenced by the input thermal energy, with greater sub-surface hardness (up to ∼60%) recorded in the samples processed with higher energy density. Additionally, all of the polished surfaces were free of the scratch marks, pits, holes

  16. Tourism-themed internet portals – are new media creating a new tourist? A case study of Polish students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jażdżewska Iwona

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Internet media have an influence on many tourism-related issues. This article presents the results of research into the role of tourism-themed portals in the trips taken by Polish university students between 2010 and 2012. The research sought to answer the following questions: whether tourism-related internet media have an influence on the students’ behaviour before, during the trip and when they arrive at their destination; how often they are used by the respondents during their trips; and whether Polish students actively participate in internet media by voicing their opinions. As it appears, internet media serve as one of the “travel companions” for young people. They are used when preparing the trip, the vast majority “take them” with them and check them during the trip, while almost half of them check them on vacation, e.g. to share their experience over the internet.

  17. Borel hierarchies in infinite products of Polish spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    with two product topologies: (i) the product of copies of the Polish topology on X, so that H is again a Polish space and (ii) the product of copies of the discrete topology on X. Define now the Borel hierarchy in the larger topology on H. To do so, we need some notation. An element of H will be denoted by h = (x1,x2,...,xn,.

  18. Evaluation of the COMSOL software electro-polishing of samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruchon, M.

    2007-01-01

    The niobium electro-polishing is efficient if a viscous layer exists at the surface. In order to define parameters of samples electro-polishing, opened with difficulty to the experiments, the simulation is essential. This report presents works realized with the COMSOL software. The Nernst Planck equations have been associated to the Navier Stockes ones for an incompressible fluid. The study of the potential behaviour on the viscous layer and the mobility value have been detailed. (A.L.B.)

  19. Borel hierarchies in infinite products of Polish spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E-mail: rana@isical.ac.in; maitra@stat.umn.edu. MS received 22 August 2005; revised 28 August 2006. Abstract. Let H be a product of countably infinite number of copies of an uncountable. Polish space X. Let ξ ( ξ ) be the class of Borel sets of additive class ξ for the product of copies of the discrete topology on X (the Polish ...

  20. Stem subsidence of polished and rough double-taper stems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kengo; Hirosaki, Kenichi; Takano, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Tadami

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose Many clinical reports have indicated that polished hip stems show better clinical results than rough stems of the same geometry. It is still unknown, however, what the mechanical effects are of different surface finishes on the cement at the cement-bone interface. We compared mechanical effects in an in vitro cemented hip arthroplasty model. Methods Two sizes of double-taper polished stems and matt-processed polished stems (rough stems) were fixed into composite femurs. A 1-Hz dynamic load was applied to the stems for 1 million cycles. An 8-h no-load period was set after every 16 h of load. Stem subsidence within the cement, and compressive force and horizontal cement creep at the cement-bone interface, were measured. Results Compared to rough stems, stem subsidence, compressive force and cement creep for polished stems were a maximum of 4, 12, and 7-fold greater, respectively. There was a strong positive correlation between stem subsidence and compressive force for polished stems. In contrast, a strong negative correlation was found between stem subsidence and compressive force for rough stems. There was also a statistically significant relationship between compressive force on the cement and cement creep for the polished stems, but no significant relationship was found for rough stems. Interpretation This is the first evidence that different surface finishes of stems can have different mechanical effects on the cement at the cement-bone interface. Stem subsidence in polished stems resulted in compressive force on the cement and cement creep. The mechanical effects that polished taper stems impart on cement at the cement-bone interface probably contribute to their good long-term fixation and excellent clinical outcome. PMID:19421909

  1. Lexical exponents of hypothetical modality in Polish and Lithuanian

    OpenAIRE

    Roman Roszko

    2015-01-01

    Lexical exponents of hypothetical modality in Polish and Lithuanian The article focuses on the lexical exponents of hypothetical modality in Polish and Lithuanian. The purpose for comparing and contrasting the lexical exponents of hypothetical modality is not only to identify all the lexemes in both languages but also find the answer to the following question: whether the morphological exponents of hypothetical modality (so-called modus relativus) familiar to the Lithuanian language have/...

  2. Reusing Ceramic Tile Polishing Waste In Paving Block Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Giordano Penteado; Carmenlucia Santos; de Carvalho; Eduardo Viviani; Cecche Lintz; Rosa Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Ceramic companies worldwide produce large amounts of polishing tile waste, which are piled up in the open air or disposed of in landfills. These wastes have such characteristics that make them potential substitutes for cement and sand in the manufacturing of concrete products. This paper investigates the use of ceramic tile polishing waste as a partial substitute for cement and sand in the manufacturer of concrete paving blocks. A concrete mix design was defined and then the sand was replaced...

  3. A Qualitative Study of Soldier Perceptions of the Relative Importance of MRE Portion Size and Variety

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bell, R

    1999-01-01

    .... Bliss, Biggs Army Airfield, and Fort Leonard Wood during 1997 to understand how soldiers perceive Meal, Ready-to-Eat portion size and MRE variety and to begin to determine what types of trade offs...

  4. Current Issues in the Use of Virtual Simulations for Dismounted Soldier Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Knerr, Bruce W

    2006-01-01

    Research on the use of virtual simulation to train Soldiers and leaders in small dismounted units has largely focused on the use of specially developed, relatively high-fidelity PC-based simulators...

  5. Impact of the Army Continuing Education System (ACES) on Soldier Retention and Performance: Data Analyses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sticha, Paul

    2003-01-01

    ...). The assessment of the effectiveness of these programs is based on their ability to enhance soldier performance and increase the prospects of promotion, as well as to reduce attrition and increase reenlistment...

  6. The Nation and the Soldier in German Civil-Military Relations, 1800-1945

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brumley, Donald W

    2005-01-01

    This study of civil-military relations addresses the parallel development of the professional soldier and the Prussian-German Army from 1806 until 1945, as well as the rise of nationalism in central...

  7. Soldier Performance and Heat Strain During Evaluation of a Combat Fitness Assessment in Northern Australia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cotter, James

    2000-01-01

    ...). A prototype CFA trial, conducted using 64 male soldiers of 3 Brigade, Townsville, allowed for the evaluation of both the CFA and the severity of heat strain experienced during physical training...

  8. Nazi medical experiments on Australian prisoners of war: Commentary on the testimony of an Australian soldier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, George M

    2015-12-01

    Archival research reveals that Australian prisoners of war were exposed to non-consensual medical experiments during World War II. This article discusses the first known case of an Australian soldier exposed to German medical experiments.

  9. Soldier Dimensions and Operational Readiness in U.S. Army Forces Deployed to Kosovo

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Castro, Carl

    1999-01-01

    .... In a recent study of U.S. Army units deployed to Kosovo in support of a multinational peacekeeping mission, soldier attitudes and health were surveyed on site, mid-way during a 6-month deployment...

  10. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in U.S. Soldiers Returning from Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoge, Charles W; McGurk, Dennis; Thomas, Jeffrey L; Cox, Anthony L; Engel, Charles C; Castro, Carl A

    2008-01-01

    .... Validated clinical instruments were used to compare soldiers reporting mild traumatic brain injury, defined as an injury with loss of consciousness or altered mental status (e.g., dazed or confused...

  11. From Rampart to Chamber House: Soldiers, Statesmen and the Dialogue of War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Redman, Edwin H

    2005-01-01

    .... Huntington, and Eliot Cohen. Clausewitz maintains that, because war is an extension of policy, both dialog and action must be two-way, even to the extent that the soldier become a statesman during war...

  12. The Physical and Psychological Status of Soldiers Zn Garrison Compared to Military Personnel in Bosnia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Castro, Carl

    2000-01-01

    .... Garrison units based in Germany. This report compares the Garrison data with data collected from 41,992 soldiers redeploying from Bosnia from November 1997 through March 1998 using scales to assess symptoms of post-traumatic stress...

  13. The Effects of an Auditory Versus a Visual Presentation of Information on Soldier Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Glumm, Monica

    1999-01-01

    This report describes a field study designed to measure the effects of an auditory versus a visual presentation of position information on soldier performance of land navigation and target acquisition tasks...

  14. U.S. Soldier Peacekeeping Experiences and Wellbeing After Returning from Deployment to Kosovo

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adler, Amy

    2000-01-01

    ... (alcohol consumption, sick days, and sleep). Findings indicated that soldiers reporting high levels of exposure to peacekeeping experiences reported more post-traumatic symptoms, greater use of conflict-related tactics, more alcohol consumption...

  15. Factors influencing the surface quality of polished tool steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebeggiani, S; Rosén, B-G

    2014-01-01

    Today’s demands on surface quality of moulds for injection moulding of plastic components involve no/low defect contents and roughness levels in the nm-range for high gloss applications. Material properties as well as operating conditions influence the mould finish, and thus the final surface of moulded products. This paper focuses on how particle content and different polishing strategies influence final surface qualities of moulds. Visual estimations of polished tool steel samples were combined with non-contact 3D-surface texture analysis in order to correlate traditional assessments to more quantitative methods, and to be able to analyse the surfaces at nanometre-level. It was found that steels with a lower proportion of particles, like carbides and oxides, gave rise to smoother polished surfaces. In a comparative study of polishers from different polishing shops, it was found that while different surface preparation strategies can lead to similar final roughness, similar preparation techniques can produce high-quality surfaces from different steel grades. However, the non-contact 3D-surface texture analysis showed that not all smooth polished surfaces have desirable functional topographies for injection moulding of glossy plastic components. (paper)

  16. Advanced method for the characterization of polishing suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trum, Christian J.; Sitzberger, Sebastian; Rascher, Rolf

    2017-06-01

    The industrial production of components for applications in the area of precision optics has a long-standing tradition in Germany. As in almost all branches of industry, the external circumstances, processes and products have changed over time. Large lots are becoming less frequent and the demand for special components is growing. In order to meet these requirements, it is necessary to adapt the production processes quickly and flexibly. In the field of chemo-mechanical polishing (CMP), this means that in addition to the process parameters such as speed, pressure and feed, the task-specific adaptation of suspension and polishing pad carriers gain in importance. Along with these changes, it is becoming increasingly important to compare and evaluate the properties of the various polishing suspensions. The procedures according to DIN 58750-3 and DIN 58750-4 are suitable for this purpose. Due to the clearly defined procedures and the constant boundary conditions, different suspensions can be compared and evaluated. The study presented here shows that this method can also lead to misinterpretations. Known relationships, such as the influence of the polishing pad, the concentration of the suspension and the influence of the processed materials play an important role. An extension of the procedure of DIN 58750-3 for the test of a polishing agent can help in a task-specific characterization of polishing slurries.

  17. Polish university as an (unattractive potential employer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baruk, Agnieszka Izabela

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents issues associated with the reasons for the fact that young potential employees are not interested in starting work at Polish universities. The article is theoretical-empirical in character. The theoretical part highlights the importance of a situation in which an entity is regarded as an attractive employer, which allows attracting the best employees. Particular attention is paid to the fact that a university needs to build its image as an employer, which results from its characteristics. The article strives to achieve three research goals, among others, identifying the reasons why respondents are not interested in starting work at a university and arranging these reasons hierarchically. Two research hypotheses were subject to preliminary verification: H1 – the main reason for the unwillingness to start work at a university are financial aspects; H2 – the main reason for the unwillingness to start work at a university are the aspects of prestige. The data collected in course of primary research were subject to quantitative analysis based on the method of average assessment analysis and the method of factor analysis. Their results show that the respondents were not interested in work at a university mainly because they wanted to test the knowledge and skills acquired during studies in other branches. At the same time, the aspects of finances and prestige didn’t play a major role. Thus, in case of the surveyed sample of respondents both research hypotheses have to be recognized as untrue.

  18. ECOLOGICAL IDEAS IN POLISH ARCHITECTURE - ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena SZPYTMA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Solutions in the field of ecological architecture appear more and more often in Poland. There are two approaches to eco-design: high-tech and low-tech. High-tech focuses on the use of the latest technological solvings. These means are often used in newly designed commercial buildings, such as the first Polish office building which uses passive technology, built in Katowice, in Euro-Centrum Science and Technology Park. It is intended especially for companies focusing on energy observance issues. Low-tech is usually used in small-scale buildings (for example a cottage in Jartypory village, and is focused on the use of inexpensive, traditional technologies and the daily conscious management of natural resources. Thinking about the impact on the environment and principles of sustainable development is also present in urban planning. In Siewierz, near Katowice, Poland’s first eco-village is being built, with full infrastructure, high-quality residential buildings, shops, offices and hotels. The range of applied solutions will allow residents for the economical exploitation of these buildings.

  19. Thermodynamical motivation of the Polish energy policy

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    Ziębik Andrzej

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Basing on the first and second law of thermodynamics the fundamental trends in the Polish energy policy are analysed, including the aspects of environmental protection. The thermodynamical improvement of real processes (reduction of exergy losses is the main way leading to an improvement of the effectivity of energy consumption. If the exergy loss is economically not justified, we have to do with an error from the viewpoint of the second law analysis. The paper contains a thermodynamical analysis of the ratio of final and primary energy, as well as the analysis of the thermo-ecological cost and index of sustainable development concerning primary energy. Analyses of thermo-ecological costs concerning electricity and centralized heat production have been also carried out. The effect of increasing the share of high-efficiency cogeneration has been analyzed, too. Attention has been paid to an improved efficiency of the transmission and distribution of electricity, which is of special importance from the viewpoint of the second law analysis. The improvement of the energy effectivity in industry was analyzed on the example of physical recuperation, being of special importance from the point of view of exergy analysis.

  20. Personality of Polish gay men and women

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    Marcin Kwiatkowski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Sexuality is a part of one’s identity and personality that is shaped under the influence of biological and environmental factors and interactions with society. The results of research conducted so far and concerning the personality traits of gay men and women are not consistent, and only a small number of them concern the Polish population. Hence the objective of the present research was to provide personality profiles of men and women with different sexual orientations. Participants and procedure The participants (N = 346 included 84 gay women, 82 gay men, 95 heterosexual women and 85 heterosexual men. The following measures were used: a survey developed by the author, the Kinsey Scale, the EPQ-R (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised adapted by Brzozowski and Drwal (1995, and the Sixteen-factor Personality Questionnaire of Cattell adapted by Nowakowska (1970. Results The results support the hypothesis that gay women and heterosexual men share similar personality traits, while gay men have more diverse traits, similar to the traits typical for heterosexual women and men. In particular, personalities of gay men are described by such traits as progressive attitude, independence, or willingness to take risks, which means traits linked to factor Q1. The highest values of that factor are observable in the case of gay men, as compared to gay women, and also in comparison with heterosexual men and women. Conclusions Sexual orientation is responsible for differences in personality traits of the studied group to a greater extent than their biological sex.

  1. Marketing Globalisation – Polish Market Experience

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    Robert Nowacki

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of the 21st century has been yielded with an acceleration of transformations occurring in economies of the whole world. These changes relate to all the areas of economic life functioning. The most important manifestation thereof is a reinforcement of competitive phenomena. Among the most important reasons for such a state of affairs, there is mentioned globalisation. The course of its processes forces the organisation operating in the market to undertake adaptive actions. One of them is reorientation of marketing activities. The need to modify the previous marketing concepts results, first of all, from far reaching alterations in the sphere of consumption, just triggered by globalisationís impact. These trends are noticed in all the markets, also in the Polish one. The foreign enterprises operating in it more and more often use the concept of global marketing. This makes us to have reflection on what is the real effectiveness of such actions and what are the possibilities to form oneís competitive position owing to that. The article constitutes an attempt to provide answers to these questions.

  2. Automated visual inspection for polished stone manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Melvyn L.; Smith, Lyndon N.

    2003-05-01

    Increased globalisation of the ornamental stone market has lead to increased competition and more rigorous product quality requirements. As such, there are strong motivators to introduce new, more effective, inspection technologies that will help enable stone processors to reduce costs, improve quality and improve productivity. Natural stone surfaces may contain a mixture of complex two-dimensional (2D) patterns and three-dimensional (3D) features. The challenge in terms of automated inspection is to develop systems able to reliably identify 3D topographic defects, either naturally occurring or resulting from polishing, in the presence of concomitant complex 2D stochastic colour patterns. The resulting real-time analysis of the defects may be used in adaptive process control, in order to avoid the wasteful production of defective product. An innovative approach, using structured light and based upon an adaptation of the photometric stereo method, has been pioneered and developed at UWE to isolate and characterize mixed 2D and 3D surface features. The method is able to undertake tasks considered beyond the capabilities of existing surface inspection techniques. The approach has been successfully applied to real stone samples, and a selection of experimental results is presented.

  3. Study on chemical mechanical polishing of silicon wafer with megasonic vibration assisted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Ke; He, Qing; Li, Liang; Ren, Yi

    2017-09-01

    Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) is the primary method to realize the global planarization of silicon wafer. In order to improve this process, a novel method which combined megasonic vibration to assist chemical mechanical polishing (MA-CMP) is developed in this paper. A matching layer structure of polishing head was calculated and designed. Silicon wafers are polished by megasonic assisted chemical mechanical polishing and traditional chemical mechanical polishing respectively, both coarse polishing and precision polishing experiments were carried out. With the use of megasonic vibration, the surface roughness values Ra reduced from 22.260nm to 17.835nm in coarse polishing, and the material removal rate increased by approximately 15-25% for megasonic assisted chemical mechanical polishing relative to traditional chemical mechanical polishing. Average Surface roughness values Ra reduced from 0.509nm to 0.387nm in precision polishing. The results show that megasonic assisted chemical mechanical polishing is a feasible method to improve polishing efficiency and surface quality. The material removal and finishing mechanisms of megasonic vibration assisted polishing are investigated too. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevalence and impact of short sleep duration in redeployed OIF soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxton, David D; Greenburg, David; Ryan, Jenny; Niven, Alexander; Wheeler, Gary; Mysliwiec, Vincent

    2011-09-01

    Short sleep duration (SSD) is common among deployed soldiers. The prevalence of SSD during redeployment, however, is unknown. Cross-sectional study of a brigade combat team (n = 3152 US Army soldiers) surveyed 90-180 days after completing a 6-15 month deployment to Iraq as part of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). Survey items targeted sleep habits and comorbid medical conditions. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to calculate adjusted odds ratios of medical comorbidities associated with SSD. US Army Infantry Post. All soldiers from a redeploying brigade combat team participated in a health assessment between 90 and 180 days upon return to Ft. Lewis from Iraq. None. A total of 2738 (86.9%) soldiers answered questions regarding self-perceived sleep and were included in the analysis. Mean sleep duration was 5.8 ± 1.2 hours. Nineteen hundred fifty-nine (72%) slept ≤ 6 h, but only 16% reported a daytime nap or felt their job performance was affected due to lack of sleep. Short sleep was more common among soldiers who reported combat exposure. After controlling for combat exposure, short sleep duration (SSD) was associated with symptoms of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, panic syndrome, and with high-risk health behaviors such as abuse of tobacco and alcohol products, and suicide attempts. SSD is common among redeployed soldiers. Soldiers who experienced combat are at increased risk for persistent SSD and comorbidities associated with SSD. Efforts to reestablish good sleep habits and aggressive evaluation of soldiers with persistent SSD following deployment may aid in the prevention and management of associated medical conditions.

  5. Infection Reduces Return-to-duty Rates for Soldiers with Type III Open Tibia Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    December 5, 2013, Revised: March 13, 2014, Accepted: March 31, 2014. From the Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation (M.A.N., J.C.R., T.C.B...Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation , San Antonio Military Medical Center, 3551 Roger Brooke Dr, Fort Sam Houston, San Antonio, TX 78234; email...soldiers. Clin Infect Diseases. 2004;39:971 979. 20. Stinner DJ, Burns TC, Kirk KL, Ficke JR. Return to duty rate of amputee soldiers in current conflicts

  6. Study of smoking habit among soldiers in Cairo Security Forces Hospital

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    Adel Mahmoud Khattab

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions: Cigarette smoking is a common habit among soldiers and it starts in a relatively young age mainly due to social influence. Respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms are the most frequent encountered complaints among soldiers. Main causes that led them to try quitting were health concerns and financial issues; as most of them spend a considerable percentage of their monthly income to obtain cigarettes. Unfortunately there was no organized positive support to help the quitters.

  7. Personal values in soldiers after military deployment: associations with mental health and resilience

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Zimmermann; Susanne Firnkes; Jens T. Kowalski; Johannes Backus; Stefan Siegel; Gerd Willmund; Andreas Maercker

    2014-01-01

    Background: After military deployment, soldiers are at an increased risk of developing posttraumatic psychiatric disorders. The correlation of personal values with symptoms, however, has not yet been examined within a military context.Method: Schwartz’s Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ), the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS), and the 11-item version of the Resilience Scale (RS-11) were completed by 117 soldiers of the German Armed Forces who had recently been deployed to Afghanist...

  8. Minimalist Running Shoes and Injury Risk Among United States Army Soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Tyson; Canham-Chervak, Michelle; Bushman, Timothy; Anderson, Morgan; North, William; Jones, Bruce H

    2016-06-01

    Minimalist running shoes (MRS) are lightweight, are extremely flexible, and have little to no cushioning. It has been thought that MRS will enhance running performance and decrease injury risk. To compare physical characteristics, fitness performance, and injury risks associated with soldiers wearing MRS and those wearing traditional running shoes (TRS). Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Participants were men in a United States Army brigade (N = 1332). Physical characteristics and Army Physical Fitness Test data were obtained by survey. Fitness performance testing was administered at the brigade, and the types of footwear worn were identified by visual inspection. Shoe types were categorized into 2 groups: TRS (stability, cushioning, and motion control) and MRS. Injuries from the previous 12 months were obtained from the Defense Medical Surveillance System. A t test was used to determine mean differences between personal characteristics, training, and fitness performance metrics by shoe type. Hazard ratios and 95% CIs were calculated to determine injury risk by shoe type, controlling for other risk factors. A majority of soldiers wore cushioning shoes (57%), followed by stability shoes (24%), MRS (17%), and motion control shoes (2%). Soldiers wearing MRS were slightly younger than those wearing TRS (P shoe type between soldiers wearing MRS compared with TRS. Soldiers who chose to wear MRS were younger and had higher physical performance scores compared with soldiers wearing TRS. When these differences are controlled, use of MRS does not appear to be associated with higher or lower injury risk in this population. © 2016 The Author(s).

  9. Archives of Voivodship Committee of Polish United Workers’ Party in Biała Podlaska

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    Dariusz Magier

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Documentation generated by the communist party after World War II constituted the part of Polish archival heritage. However, Party’s archives were not supervised by nationalarchival network. At the beginning they were storehouses of acts, and since 1955 they had been taken over by propaganda sections of voivodship committees of PZPR (Polish United Workers’ Party and later transformed into the archives of voivodship committees of the Party. The task to preserve documentation generated by the structures of the communist party in Poland was subsequently supervised by: Party HistoryInstitute at KC PZPR (Central Committee of Polish United Workers’ Party, Archives of KC PZPR, and since 1971 Central Archives of KC PZPR. Together with the archives of voivodship committees the net with its own regulations, staff and archival methodology was created. This article gives a detailed description of the activity of the organizational unit,that is the archives of the voivodship committee of the communist party. One of the smallest committees existing in Poland, a provincial Voivodship Committee of PZPR in Biała Podlaska, which operated from 1975 to 1990, serves as an example. The article discusses the reporting structure, handing-over, analysis and preservation of acts, means of recording, premises, system of training and control as well as characterizes the role of a supervisor of the Party’s voidovdship committee Archives played in the archives and chancery.

  10. Challenges in inbreeding estimation of large populations based on Polish Holstein-Friesian cattle pedigree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell-Kubiak, Ewa; Czarniecki, Łukasz; Strabel, Tomasz

    2018-04-11

    The aim of this study was to evaluate observed and future inbreeding level in Polish Holstein-Friesian cattle population. In total, over 9.8 mln animals were used in the analysis coming from the pedigree of Polish Federation of Cattle Breeders and Dairy Farmers. Inbreeding level, as an average per birth year, was estimated with the method accounting for missing parent information with the assumption of year 1950 as the base year of the population. If an animal had no ancestral records, an average inbreeding level from its birth year was assigned. Twice the average inbreeding level served as relatedness of the animal to the population, which enabled estimation of inbreeding in its offspring. The future inbreeding of potential offspring was estimated as an average of animals (bulls and cows) available for mating in a certain year. It was observed that 30-50% of animals born between 1985 and 2015 had no relevant ancestral information, which is caused by a high number of new animals and/or entire farms entering the national milk recordings. For the year 2015, the observed inbreeding level was 3.30%, which was more than twice the inbreeding with the classical approach (without missing parent information) and higher by 0.4% than the future inbreeding. The average increase of inbreeding in years 2010-2015 was 0.10%, which is similar to other countries monitored by World Holstein-Friesian Federation. However, the values might be underestimated due to low pedigree completeness. The estimates of future inbreeding suggested that observed inbreeding could be even lower and also increase slower, which indicates a constant need to monitor rate of increase in inbreeding over time. The most important aspect of presented results is the necessity to advise individual farmers to keep precise recordings of the matings on their farm in order to improve the pedigree completeness of Polish Holstein-Friesian and to use suitable mating programs to avoid too rapid growth of inbreeding.

  11. Effect of various polishing systems on the surface roughness and phase transformation of zirconia and the durability of the polishing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan; Vang, Mong-Sook; Park, Sang-Won; Lim, Hyun-Pil

    2017-03-01

    Although many systems are used to polish zirconia, a comparison of the performance of zirconia and feldspathic porcelain polishing systems is lacking. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the effects of 3 polishing systems on surface roughness, zirconia phase transformation, and durability of the polishing systems when applied to zirconia and feldspathic porcelain. Three polishing systems were evaluated: Z1, a zirconia polishing system; Z2, a zirconia polishing system, and F1, a feldspathic porcelain polishing system. Three ceramic systems were evaluated: PR and ZM zirconia specimens (diameter 15 mm, height 2 mm; 23 specimens each) and CB feldspathic porcelain specimens of the same size (15 specimens). A rough surface was created on the 3 types of specimens (15 specimens each) to model an occlusal adjustment under the same conditions. Polishing was carried out with the 3 polishing systems for 2 minutes each. Surface roughness was measured with a 3-dimensional (3D) optical profiler. The surface was also observed with a scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis was performed for 8 PR or ZM zirconia specimens polished by using the Z1 and Z2 systems for 8 minutes to evaluate the phase transformation of zirconia before, during, and after polishing. These specimens were compared and analyzed for phase transformation that might have occurred during the polishing of the specimens. After finishing the surface roughness experiment and the phase transformation experiment, the volumes of the polishers were measured with a 3D volume scanner and compared with those before the experiments to evaluate the durability of the polishing system. A statistical analysis of all data was performed using 2-way ANOVA and the Tukey honest significant difference test (α=.05). The 2 zirconia polishing systems (Z1, Z2) created a significantly (Pzirconia specimens for 8 minutes, the maximum percentages of monoclinic phase increased by 0.03% in the Z1 system and by 0

  12. Computer-Controlled Cylindrical Polishing Process for Development of Grazing Incidence Optics for Hard X-Ray Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Gufran Sayeed; Gubarev, Mikhail; Speegle, Chet; Ramsey, Brian

    2010-01-01

    The presentation includes grazing incidence X-ray optics, motivation and challenges, mid spatial frequency generation in cylindrical polishing, design considerations for polishing lap, simulation studies and experimental results, future scope, and summary. Topics include current status of replication optics technology, cylindrical polishing process using large size polishing lap, non-conformance of polishin lap to the optics, development of software and polishing machine, deterministic prediction of polishing, polishing experiment under optimum conditions, and polishing experiment based on known error profile. Future plans include determination of non-uniformity in the polishing lap compliance, development of a polishing sequence based on a known error profile of the specimen, software for generating a mandrel polishing sequence, design an development of a flexible polishing lap, and computer controlled localized polishing process.

  13. Antagonist wear by polished zirconia crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartkamp, Oliver; Lohbauer, Ulrich; Reich, Sven

    The aim of this in vivo study was to measure antagonist wear caused by polished monolithic posterior zirconia crowns over a 24-month period using the intraoral digital impression (IDI) technique. Thirteen zirconia crowns were placed in nine patients. The crowns and adjacent teeth were captured using an intraoral scanner (Lava C.O.S.). The corresponding antagonist teeth and the respective neighboring teeth were also scanned. Scanning was performed immediately after the restoration (baseline) as well as 12 and 24 months after crown placement. Geomagic Qualify software was used to superimpose the follow-up data sets onto the corresponding baseline data set, identify wear sites, and measure maximum vertical height loss in each individual wear site. Overall antagonist wear was then determined as the mean of wear rates measured in all of the individual antagonist units. In addition, wear rates in enamel and ceramic antagonists were analyzed as part of the scope of this study. The maximum mean wear with standard deviation (SD) in the overall sample with a total of nine patients, 13 antagonist units, and 98 evaluable wear sites was 86 ± 23 µm at 12 months, and 103 ± 39 µm at 24 months. The maximum mean wear in the enamel antagonist subgroup was 87 ± 41 µm at 12 months, and 115 ± 71 µm at 24 months; and in the ceramic antagonist subgroup 107 ± 22 µm at 12 months, and 120 ± 27 µm at 24 months. The wear rates determined in this study are comparable to those of existing studies. The IDI technique of wear analysis can be carried out in a practical manner and produces useful results.

  14. Germanium content in Polish hard coals

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    Makowska Dorota

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the policy of the European Union, it is necessary to search for new sources of scarce raw materials. One of these materials is germanium, listed as a critical element. This semi-metal is widely used in the electronics industry, for example in the production of semiconductors, fibre optics and solar cells. Coal and fly ash from its combustion and gasification for a long time have been considered as a potential source of many critical elements, particularly germanium. The paper presents the results of germanium content determination in the Polish hard coal. 23 coal samples of various coal ranks were analysed. The samples were collected from 15 mines of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin and from one mine of the Lublin Coal Basin. The determination of germanium content was performed with the use of Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with Electrothermal Atomization (GFAAS. The investigation showed that germanium content in the analysed samples was at least twice lower than the average content of this element in the hard coals analysed so far and was in the range of 0.08 ÷ 1.28 mg/kg. Moreover, the content of Ge in the ashes from the studied coals does not exceed 15 mg/kg, which is lower than the average value of Ge content in the coal ashes. The highest content of this element characterizes coals of the Lublin Coal Basin and young coals type 31 from the Vistula region. The results indicate a low utility of the analysed coal ashes as a source of the recovery of germanium. On the basis of the analyses, the lack of the relationship between the content of the element and the ash content in the tested coals was noted. For coals of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, the relationship between the content of germanium in the ashes and the depth of the seam was observed.

  15. Studies on polishing of Ti and Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloy with five dental abrasives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, T; Nakamura, T; Takashima, F; Maruyama, T; Taira, M; Takahashi, J

    2001-08-01

    Titanium (Ti) and Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloy were examined for their polishing behaviour by conducting manually controlled polishing tests using five dental abrasives [carborundum point (CR) and silicone points (R1 and R2)] driven by a high torque micromotor with rotational speeds ranging from 2000 to 15 000 r.p.m. Polishing of Ti resulted in less volume of removal upon polishing, a rougher surface and larger loss of abrasives, compared with polishing of Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloy. Polishing of Ti with a rotational speed of 15 000 r.p.m. led to the largest volume of removal upon polishing, whilst that of 10 000 r.p.m. produced the optimal volume for Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloy. It was concluded that Ti was much more difficult to polish, requiring special care (e.g. frequent exchange of abrasives). Development of new abrasives for polishing Ti is required.

  16. The study of optimization on process parameters of high-accuracy computerized numerical control polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei-Ren; Huang, Shih-Pu; Tsai, Tsung-Yueh; Lin, Yi-Jyun; Yu, Zong-Ru; Kuo, Ching-Hsiang; Hsu, Wei-Yao; Young, Hong-Tsu

    2017-09-01

    Spherical lenses lead to forming spherical aberration and reduced optical performance. Consequently, in practice optical system shall apply a combination of spherical lenses for aberration correction. Thus, the volume of the optical system increased. In modern optical systems, aspherical lenses have been widely used because of their high optical performance with less optical components. However, aspherical surfaces cannot be fabricated by traditional full aperture polishing process due to their varying curvature. Sub-aperture computer numerical control (CNC) polishing is adopted for aspherical surface fabrication in recent years. By using CNC polishing process, mid-spatial frequency (MSF) error is normally accompanied during this process. And the MSF surface texture of optics decreases the optical performance for high precision optical system, especially for short-wavelength applications. Based on a bonnet polishing CNC machine, this study focuses on the relationship between MSF surface texture and CNC polishing parameters, which include feed rate, head speed, track spacing and path direction. The power spectral density (PSD) analysis is used to judge the MSF level caused by those polishing parameters. The test results show that controlling the removal depth of single polishing path, through the feed rate, and without same direction polishing path for higher total removal depth can efficiently reduce the MSF error. To verify the optical polishing parameters, we divided a correction polishing process to several polishing runs with different direction polishing paths. Compare to one shot polishing run, multi-direction path polishing plan could produce better surface quality on the optics.

  17. The Person-Event Data Environment: leveraging big data for studies of psychological strengths in soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vie, Loryana L; Griffith, Kevin N; Scheier, Lawrence M; Lester, Paul B; Seligman, Martin E P

    2013-01-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) strives to efficiently manage the large volumes of administrative data collected and repurpose this information for research and analyses with policy implications. This need is especially present in the United States Army, which maintains numerous electronic databases with information on more than one million Active-Duty, Reserve, and National Guard soldiers, their family members, and Army civilian employees. The accumulation of vast amounts of digitized health, military service, and demographic data thus approaches, and may even exceed, traditional benchmarks for Big Data. Given the challenges of disseminating sensitive personal and health information, the Person-Event Data Environment (PDE) was created to unify disparate Army and DoD databases in a secure cloud-based enclave. This electronic repository serves the ultimate goal of achieving cost efficiencies in psychological and healthcare studies and provides a platform for collaboration among diverse scientists. This paper provides an overview of the uses of the PDE to perform command surveillance and policy analysis for Army leadership. The paper highlights the confluence of both economic and behavioral science perspectives elucidating empirically-based studies examining relations between psychological assets, health, and healthcare utilization. Specific examples explore the role of psychological assets in major cost drivers such as medical expenditures both during deployment and stateside, drug use, attrition from basic training, and low reenlistment rates. Through creation of the PDE, the Army and scientific community can now capitalize on the vast amounts of personnel, financial, medical, training and education, deployment, and security systems that influence Army-wide policies and procedures.

  18. Adaptation of the Four Forms of Employee Silence Scale in a Polish sample

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    Krystyna Adamska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Silence is understood as a decision not to speak up in situations of observed irregularities both in productivity and ethics. The study examined the validity of the Four Forms of Employee Silence Scale (FFESS in the Polish population. The scale is a four-factor measure designed to capture differently motivated tendencies to be silent in organizations. The scale distinguishes acquiescent, quiescent, prosocial and opportunistic silence. Employee silence has been linked to many important individual outcomes: failure to react to ethical transgressions, stress and depression, and lower creativity and productivity. Participants and procedure A total of 1044 employees of various organizations working for at least six months at a given position provided the responses for the validation study. Results The results confirmed the superiority of the four-factor model shown by adequate fit indexes: The FFESS has adequate internal consistency at both the scale and item levels. The criterion-related validity of the scale was established by correlating four forms of silence with measures of emotional attitude toward organization, procedural justice, relational contract and turnover intention. Conclusions The four forms of employee silence are empirically distinct concepts in the Polish sample. The scale may be used as the measurement of individual differences. It can also serve as a tool for diagnosing a climate of silence in an organization.

  19. Psychological effects of sexual harassment, appraisal of harassment, and organizational climate among U.S. Army soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, L N; Martin, L

    1998-02-01

    This study examines the effects of three types of unwanted sexual experiences in the workplace on the psychological well-being of male and female U.S. Army soldiers, and the mediating or moderating roles of appraisal of sexual harassment, organizational climate, and the sociodemographic profile of victims. A survey was administered to 1,060 male soldiers and 305 female soldiers between May and July, 1995, at three Army posts in the United States. Unwanted sexual experiences were found to be significant predictors of psychological symptoms for male and female soldiers. Certain aspects of organizational climate and appraisal of sexual harassment were also significant predictors of psychological symptoms.

  20. Applications of RFID technology in dismounted soldier solution systems – study of mCOP system capabilities

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    Chmielewski Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses application of RFID technology in Dismounted Soldier Solutions gathered from the development and demonstration of mCOP platform. The software has been developed to elaborate Network Enabled Capabilities in tactical environments. Presented research was a part of demonstration prepared for the European Defence Agency. The main aim of the tool is the delivery of command support capabilities utilizing data fusion and integration mechanisms implemented in heterogeneous military mobile networks. Application of military integration standards such as JC3IEDM, NFFI and TSO supports interoperability with BMS class systems. Utilisation of RFID technology in mCOP software has several purposes, mainly used for process automation of authorisation and personal identification. Indirectly such functionalities can be used for implementation of UAV supported - Blue Force Tracking and IFF services. This research elaborates a set of implemented ideas for such solutions. Developed system serves as a multi-level and multi-platform command and control system supporting military and crisis operations. A crucial part of the system - mCOP, the handheld application for tactical level commanders, serves as personal toolkit for location monitoring and combat situation distribution and management. The tool delivers a set of tailored functionalities supporting commander’s situation awareness and decision making process. The mCOP hosting device equipped with RFID delivers also means of tactical , emergency, micro network communication.

  1. Infestation of Polish Agricultural Soils by Plasmodiophora Brassicae Along The Polish-Ukrainian Border

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    Jędryczka Małgorzata

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There has been a rapid, worldwide increase in oilseed rape production that has resulted in enormous intensification of oilseed rape cultivation, leading to tight rotations. This in turn, has caused an accumulation of pests as well as foliar and soil-borne diseases. Recently, clubroot has become one of the biggest concerns of oilseed rape growers. Clubroot is caused by the soil-borne protist Plasmodiophora brassicae Woronin. The pathogen may be present in groundwater, lakes, and irrigation water used in sprinkling systems. It can be easily transmitted from one field to another not only by water, but also by soil particles and dust transmitted by wind and on machinery. The aim of our overall study was to check for P. brassicae infestation of Polish agricultural soils. This paper presents the 2012 results of a study performed along the Polish-Ukrainian border in two provinces: Lublin (Lubelskie Voivodeship and the Carpathian Foothills (Podkarpackie Voivodeship, in south-east Poland. Monitoring was done in 11 counties, including nine rural and two municipal ones. In total, 40 samples were collected, out of which 36 were collected from fields located in rural areas and four from municipal areas, with two per municipal region. Each sample was collected at 8-10 sites per field, using a soil auger. The biotest to detect the presence of P. brassicae was done under greenhouse conditions using seedlings of the susceptible Brassicas: B. rapa ssp. pekinensis and the Polish variety of oilseed rape B. napus cv. Monolit. Susceptible plants grown in heavily infested soils produced galls on their roots. A county was regarded as free from the pathogen, if none of the bait plants became infected. The pathogen was found in three out of 40 fields monitored (7.5% in the Carpathian Foothill region. The fields were located in two rural counties. The pathogen was not found in Lublin province, and was also not detected in any of the municipal counties. The detection with

  2. Delayed polishing technique on glass–ionomer restorations

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    Masao Irie

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This in vitro study evaluated the effect of polishing after 1-day storage in water on the gap-formation around a Class V and Class I restorations, using a resin-modified glass–ionomer and a conventional glass–ionomer materials. The study also examined the gap-formation in another two different cervical restorations, a cervical cavity: incisally bordered by enamel and cervically by dentin and a root surface cavity of these restorative materials, which may be effects of this polishing procedure. This study evaluated the effects of delayed versus immediate polishing to permit maturation on: (1 interfacial gap-formation around resin-modified (RMGIC and conventional (CGIC in three types of cervical restorations, (2 interfacial gap-formation around highly viscous conventional glass–ionomer cement (HCGIC in Class I restorations. After polishing procedure, either: (i immediately (3 or 6 min after setting or (ii after 24 h storage, the maximum the restored teeth were sectioned in a mesio-distal direction through the center of the restorations. The presence or absence of interfacial-gaps was measured at 14 points (each 0.5-mm apart along the cavity restoration interface. For various restorative cases, significant differences (p < 0.05 in gap-width or gap-incidence, were observed between polishing (i immediately and (ii after 1-day storage.

  3. Nail polish as a source of exposure to triphenyl phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelsohn, Emma; Hagopian, Audrey; Hoffman, Kate; Butt, Craig M; Lorenzo, Amelia; Congleton, Johanna; Webster, Thomas F; Stapleton, Heather M

    2016-01-01

    Triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) is primarily used as either a flame retardant or plasticizer, and is listed as an ingredient in nail polishes. However, the concentration of TPHP in nail polish and the extent of human exposure following applications have not been previously studied. We measured TPHP in ten different nail polish samples purchased from department stores and pharmacies in 2013-2014. Concentrations up to 1.68% TPHP by weight were detected in eight samples, including two that did not list TPHP as an ingredient. Two cohorts (n=26 participants) were recruited to assess fingernail painting as a pathway of TPHP exposure. Participants provided urine samples before and after applying one brand of polish containing 0.97% TPHP by weight. Diphenyl phosphate (DPHP), a TPHP metabolite, was then measured in urine samples (n=411) and found to increase nearly seven-fold 10-14h after fingernail painting (pexposure, ten participants also painted their nails and painted synthetic nails adhered to gloves on two separate occasions, and collected urine for 24h following applications. Urinary DPHP was significantly diminished when wearing gloves, suggesting that the primary exposure route is dermal. Our results indicate that nail polish may be a significant source of short-term TPHP exposure and a source of chronic exposure for frequent users or those occupationally exposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. ServAR: An augmented reality tool to guide the serving of food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollo, Megan E; Bucher, Tamara; Smith, Shamus P; Collins, Clare E

    2017-05-12

    Accurate estimation of food portion size is a difficult task. Visual cues are important mediators of portion size and therefore technology-based aids may assist consumers when serving and estimating food portions. The current study evaluated the usability and impact on estimation error of standard food servings of a novel augmented reality food serving aid, ServAR. Participants were randomised into one of three groups: 1) no information/aid (control); 2) verbal information on standard serving sizes; or 3) ServAR, an aid which overlayed virtual food servings over a plate using a tablet computer. Participants were asked to estimate the standard serving sizes of nine foods (broccoli, carrots, cauliflower, green beans, kidney beans, potato, pasta, rice, and sweetcorn) using validated food replicas. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests compared median served weights of each food to reference standard serving size weights. Percentage error was used to compare the estimation of serving size accuracy between the three groups. All participants also performed a usability test using the ServAR tool to guide the serving of one randomly selected food. Ninety adults (78.9% female; a mean (95%CI) age 25.8 (24.9-26.7) years; BMI 24.2 (23.2-25.2) kg/m 2 ) completed the study. The median servings were significantly different to the reference portions for five foods in the ServAR group, compared to eight foods in the information only group and seven foods for the control group. The cumulative proportion of total estimations per group within ±10%, ±25% and ±50% of the reference portion was greater for those using ServAR (30.7, 65.2 and 90.7%; respectively), compared to the information only group (19.6, 47.4 and 77.4%) and control group (10.0, 33.7 and 68.9%). Participants generally found the ServAR tool easy to use and agreed that it showed potential to support optimal portion size selection. However, some refinements to the ServAR tool are required to improve the user experience. Use of the

  5. Prevalence of Bystander Intervention Opportunities and Behaviors Among U.S. Army Soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliman, Toby D; Shannahoff, Molly E; Metzler, Jonathan N; Toblin, Robin L

    2018-01-01

    The bystander intervention model is one approach utilized to reduce risky behaviors within the U.S. Army; however, it is unclear how frequently soldiers experience opportunities to intervene and whether they already intervene in such situations. The present analysis aims to ascertain frequencies for opportunities to intervene and the rates at which soldiers intervene when presented with such opportunities. Soldiers ( N = 286) were asked whether they had witnessed particular risky behavior scenarios of interest to the Army (i.e., suicide-related behaviors, alcohol misuse, or sexual harassment/assault) during the previous 2 months and whether they had intervened in those scenarios. Prevalence rates within this sample were calculated to determine the frequency of such situations and subsequent interventions. Logistic regression was used to ascertain any differences in witnessing scenarios by demographic groups. Nearly half (46.8%) of the soldiers reported witnessing at least one scenario involving risky behaviors. Most soldiers who witnessed an event relating to suicide or alcohol misuse also reported consistently intervening (87.9% and 74.4%, respectively), whereas just half consistently intervened in response to scenarios relating to sexual harassment/assault (49.2%). Lower ranking soldiers were twice as likely as higher ranks to witness scenarios involving alcohol misuse (odds ratio = 2.18, 95% confidence interval [1.11, 4.26]) and sexual harassment/assault (odds ratio = 2.21, 95% confidence interval [1.05, 4.62]). These data indicate that soldiers regularly encounter opportunities to intervene in risky behaviors, and while a majority intervened in such scenarios, more training is warranted, particularly around sexual assault and harassment. This supports the notion that bystander intervention training is a worthwhile investment for the Army.

  6. Depicted serving size: cereal packaging pictures exaggerate serving sizes and promote overserving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Aner; Niemann, Stina; Wansink, Brian

    2017-02-06

    Extensive work has focused on the effects of nutrition label information on consumer behavior on the one hand, and on the effects of packaging graphics on the other hand. However, little work has examined how serving suggestion depictions - graphics relating to serving size - influence the quantity consumers serve themselves. The current work examines the prevalence of exaggerated serving size depictions on product packaging (study 1) and its effects on food serving in the context of cereal (study 2). Study 1 was an observational field survey of cereal packaging. Study 2 was a mixed experimental cross-sectional design conducted at a U.S. university, with 51 student participants. Study 1 coded 158 US breakfast cereals and compared the serving sizes depicted on the front of the box with the suggested serving size stated on the nutrition facts panel. Study 2 measured the amount of cereal poured from exaggerated or accurate serving size depictions. Study 1 compared average servings via t-tests. Study 2 used a mixed model with cereal type as the repeated measure and a compound symmetry covariance matrix. Study 1 demonstrated that portion size depictions on the front of 158 cereal boxes were 65.84% larger (221 vs. 134 calories) than the recommended portions on nutrition facts panels of those cereals. Study 2 showed that boxes that depicted exaggerated serving sizes led people to pour 20% more cereal compared to pouring from modified boxes that depicted a single-size portion of cereal matching suggested serving size. This was 45% over the suggested serving size. Biases in depicted serving size depicted on cereal packaging are prevalent in the marketplace. Such biases may lead to overserving, which may consequently lead to overeating. Companies should depict the recommended serving sizes, or otherwise indicate that the depicted portion represents an exaggerated serving size.

  7. Depicted serving size: cereal packaging pictures exaggerate serving sizes and promote overserving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aner Tal

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive work has focused on the effects of nutrition label information on consumer behavior on the one hand, and on the effects of packaging graphics on the other hand. However, little work has examined how serving suggestion depictions - graphics relating to serving size - influence the quantity consumers serve themselves. The current work examines the prevalence of exaggerated serving size depictions on product packaging (study 1 and its effects on food serving in the context of cereal (study 2. Methods Study 1 was an observational field survey of cereal packaging. Study 2 was a mixed experimental cross-sectional design conducted at a U.S. university, with 51 student participants. Study 1 coded 158 US breakfast cereals and compared the serving sizes depicted on the front of the box with the suggested serving size stated on the nutrition facts panel. Study 2 measured the amount of cereal poured from exaggerated or accurate serving size depictions. Study 1 compared average servings via t-tests. Study 2 used a mixed model with cereal type as the repeated measure and a compound symmetry covariance matrix. Results Study 1 demonstrated that portion size depictions on the front of 158 cereal boxes were 64.7% larger (221 vs. 134 calories than the recommended portions on nutrition facts panels of those cereals. Study 2 showed that boxes that depicted exaggerated serving sizes led people to pour 17.8% more cereal compared to pouring from modified boxes that depicted a single-size portion of cereal matching suggested serving size. This was 42% over the suggested serving size. Conclusions Biases in depicted serving size depicted on cereal packaging are prevalent in the marketplace. Such biases may lead to overserving, which may consequently lead to overeating. Companies should depict the recommended serving sizes, or otherwise indicate that the depicted portion represents an exaggerated serving size.

  8. A notational analysis of elite tennis serve and serve-return strategies on slow surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillet, Eric; Leroy, David; Thouvarecq, Régis; Stein, Jean-François

    2009-03-01

    A notational analysis of singles events at the French Open Grand Slam tournament was undertaken in 2005 and 2006 to characterize the game patterns and strategies of serve and serve-return and to determine their influence on the point issue on a clay court surface. One hundred sixteen men's singles matches were video analyzed. The flat serve (57.6%), particularly down the "T" location (50.3%), allowed servers to win significantly more points than the topspin (24.1%) and slice serves (18.3%). When the topspin was the first serve strategy, servers kept a high percentage of points won from the serve (52.4%). This strategy was essentially used on the second serve (91.6%) by playing the "T" location in the deuce court and the wide zone in the advantage court. Returns to the central zone allowed receivers to win more points (73.3% on first serve and 65.9% on second serve) than plays to external locations. The results highlight the high impact of the first shots of all opponents on the rally. Even on clay, the slowest court surface, serves and serve-returns remain the strokes that most influence the match results in modern tennis games.

  9. Polish Version of the Managing the Emotions of Others Scale (MEOS): Psychometric Properties and Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Konrad S; Zajenkowski, Marcin; Stolarski, Maciej; Styła, Rafał; Zajenkowska, Anna; Jędrasik-Styła, Małgorzata; Linke, Magdalena

    2016-04-01

    The present study aimed to test the psychometric properties of the Polish version of the managing the emotions of others scale (MEOS). MEOS consists of six dimensions: mood enhancing (Enhance), mood worsening (Worsen), concealing emotions from others (Conceal), use of inauthentic displays for self-serving purposes (Inauthentic), poor emotion skills (Poor skills), and use of diversion to enhance another's mood (Divert). The results showed that among MEOS dimensions, Enhance was the most strongly related to performance-based emotional intelligence. Among the Dark Triad, Narcissism was related to the greatest number of MEOS subscales-all except Poor skills. The results indicated that the MEOS has a similar factor structure, reliability, and pattern of correlations with personality and emotional intelligence in Poland as in previous studies. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. [Polish medical ethics in the period 1945-1980].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichrowski, Marek

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this article is o present that main currents of Polish medical ethics in the years 1945-1980, which the author treats as the 'prehistory' of Poland's contemporary bioethics. The author begins by ascertaining the post-war disappearance of two Polish traditions--that of the Warsaw school of philosopher-physicians (known in the West as the Polish School of Philosophy of Medicine) and the Lwów-Warsaw School of Philosophy. The political system that come into being after 1945 was not conducive to the development of medical ethics, but several clear orientations may be discerned in the utterances of physicians, lawyers, moral technologlans and academic philosophers. The analysis begins with Catholic ethics in its archaic 1950s-vintage form. The author then presents the thinking of ethicians Independent of both the Church and Marxism (the milieu of the journal 'Etyka') as well as the deontological writings of physicians.

  11. Body conformation comparison of Czech and Polish Hucul horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zita Matoušová Malbohanová

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of 17 body measures and 11 indices of body conformation on 209 breeding individuals of the Hucul horse were used to analyse the effect of country of origin (Poland and the Czech Republic, sex (stallions and mares, age (5 classes and sire line (Gurgul, Goral, Oušor, Hroby, Polan, Pietrosu, Prislop. All horses were measured by one person. Measures and indexes were analysed by the GLM procedure. The main effect was the country of origin. Highly significant differences were found between both Polish and Czech horses in two thirds of measurements and in more than half of indices. The Czech Hucul horses are significantly higher, longer, wider in pelvis and have longer head than Polish horses. On the contrary to the Czech horses are Polish horses more compact, massive and have deeper chest. Their cannon bone in relation to height of wither is wider.

  12. Human Factors in Nuclear Power Engineering in Polish Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kaczmarek-Kacprzak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper “Human factors in nuclear power engineering in Polish conditions” focuses on analysis of dynamics of preparing Polish society to build fi rst nuclear power plant in XXI century in Poland. Authors compare experience from constructing nuclear power plant Sizewell B (Great Britain and Sizewell C, which is in preparation phase with polish nuclear power program. Paper includes aspects e.g. of creating nuclear safety culture and social opinion about investment. Human factors in nuclear power engineering are as well important as relevant economical and technical factors, but very often negligible. In Poland where history about Czarnobyl is still alive, and social opinion is created on emotions after accident in Fukushima, human factors are crucial and should be under comprehensive consideration.

  13. The social shaping of innovation in polish companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Anne

    2003-01-01

    The paper deals with strategies of innovation in Polish manufacturing companies. The point of departure is a theoretical framework of enterprise level innovation, and of the factors forming strategies of innovation on enterprise level. The paper analyses evidence from 23 Polish companies...... and presents two cases more in detail. The analysis shows that the Polish companies have all been quite innovative, mostly in relation to product innovation. They choose innovation strategies, which are incremental more than radical, and they tend to differentiate their product range rather than to specialise....... They consider quality development a must in the fight for market shares and they adapt equipment and organisation to this goal. The factors forming and determining the strategies of the companies count the technological knowledge and expertise of the owner/founder, the structural changes of the market...

  14. [The historical significance of the Polish medical faculty in Edinburgh].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, K

    1999-01-01

    The Polish Medical Faculty at the University of Edinburgh was a unique phenomenon in the history of universities. Established during the Second World War in 1941 as an entirely autonomous Polish academic institution, the Faculty trained 228 doctors and awarded 19 PhD degrees during its nine years of formal existence (1941-1949). In reviewing its almost 60-year old history, seen in the context of the involvement of the elite of both the political and academic establishments, the splendour of various celebrations and its graduates devotion in keeping the "Edinburgh experiment" alive, the author makes a case for the long-term historical and psychological significance of events well outlasting the period of formal activity of the Faculty. The history of the Faculty is well documented, but the long term outcome in terms of its lasting historical importance is gradually emerging with the passage of time. It has become an indisputable testimony to the generosity and hospitality of the Scottish (political and) academic establishment and a lasting proof of the special liaison between the Scots and the Poles. The Faculty's importance and psychological significance to the rich historical heritage of Polish medicine and the notion of patriotism and loyalty to Polishness have become apparent in the ensuing decades of its carefully maintained tradition. The existence of the Polish Medical Faculty has become an extraordinary asset in the history of Scottish universities, but for the Polish tradition both in Poland and throughout its rich diaspora it constitutes an increasingly valuable historical event which deserves to be cultivated and passed on to younger generations so that it may continue bringing further dividends, so important to national identity, achievement, dignity and pride.

  15. Verbalization the Concept of Dignity in Polish Dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaban Vasylyna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The object of the study is the concept of DIGNITY. The justification of the research is predetermined by the lack of such investigation in Polish linguistics. The background for the article is also determined by the lack of similar studies in the sphere of Cognitive Linguistics. Purpose: The article aims at analysing the cultural concept of DIGNITY in the minds of the bearers of the Polish language and culture based on the data incorporated from the lexicographical sources and collection of folk sayings and proverbs. Results: The article dwells upon the most important features of this concept in the Polish language and culture. The study investigates the language conceptualization of this concept in the system of the Polish language and folk maxims and sayings. The definition of the lexeme of dignity reveals the compliance with higher moral principles and the understanding of value; good name, good character claiming attention and respect; the last name. DIGNITY is the principal regulating mechanism of behaviour and development of positive human values which become apparent in the process of human interaction. A man of worth respects himself and is as well proud to be an honourable man. DIGNITY concerns both a separate human and the society in general; it could be regarded as both individual and collective notion. Discussion: The suggested analysis revealed cultural and linguistic peculiarities of the concept of DIGNITY in the Polish language and culture. The conducted research is not exhaustive since it provides potential perspectives for further research of the Polish concept of DIGNITY, in particular, in terms of comparative studies with correlative concepts in Ukrainian and English languages and cultures with the help of the cognitive definition method.

  16. Laser polishing of 3D printed mesoscale components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaduri, Debajyoti; Penchev, Pavel; Batal, Afif; Dimov, Stefan; Soo, Sein Leung; Sten, Stella; Harrysson, Urban; Zhang, Zhenxue; Dong, Hanshan

    2017-05-01

    Laser polishing of various engineered materials such as glass, silica, steel, nickel and titanium alloys, has attracted considerable interest in the last 20 years due to its superior flexibility, operating speed and capability for localised surface treatment compared to conventional mechanical based methods. The paper initially reports results from process optimisation experiments aimed at investigating the influence of laser fluence and pulse overlap parameters on resulting workpiece surface roughness following laser polishing of planar 3D printed stainless steel (SS316L) specimens. A maximum reduction in roughness of over 94% (from ∼3.8 to ∼0.2 μm Sa) was achieved at the optimised settings (fluence of 9 J/cm2 and overlap factors of 95% and 88-91% along beam scanning and step-over directions respectively). Subsequent analysis using both X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES) confirmed the presence of surface oxide layers (predominantly consisting of Fe and Cr phases) up to a depth of ∼0.5 μm when laser polishing was performed under normal atmospheric conditions. Conversely, formation of oxide layers was negligible when operating in an inert argon gas environment. The microhardness of the polished specimens was primarily influenced by the input thermal energy, with greater sub-surface hardness (up to ∼60%) recorded in the samples processed with higher energy density. Additionally, all of the polished surfaces were free of the scratch marks, pits, holes, lumps and irregularities that were prevalent on the as-received stainless steel samples. The optimised laser polishing technology was consequently implemented for serial finishing of structured 3D printed mesoscale SS316L components. This led to substantial reductions in areal Sa and St parameters by 75% (0.489-0.126 μm) and 90% (17.71-1.21 μm) respectively, without compromising the geometrical accuracy of the native 3D printed samples.

  17. Risk of Suicide Attempt Among Soldiers in Army Units With a History of Suicide Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursano, Robert J; Kessler, Ronald C; Naifeh, James A; Herberman Mash, Holly; Fullerton, Carol S; Bliese, Paul D; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Ng, Tsz Hin Hinz; Aliaga, Pablo A; Wynn, Gary H; Dinh, Hieu M; McCarroll, James E; Sampson, Nancy A; Kao, Tzu-Cheg; Schoenbaum, Michael; Heeringa, Steven G; Stein, Murray B

    2017-09-01

    Mental health of soldiers is adversely affected by the death and injury of other unit members, but whether risk of suicide attempt is influenced by previous suicide attempts in a soldier's unit is unknown. To examine whether a soldier's risk of suicide attempt is influenced by previous suicide attempts in that soldier's unit. Using administrative data from the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (STARRS), this study identified person-month records for all active-duty, regular US Army, enlisted soldiers who attempted suicide from January 1, 2004, through December 31, 2009 (n = 9650), and an equal-probability sample of control person-months (n = 153 528). Data analysis was performed from August 8, 2016, to April 10, 2017. Logistic regression analyses examined the number of past-year suicide attempts in a soldier's unit as a predictor of subsequent suicide attempt, controlling for sociodemographic features, service-related characteristics, prior mental health diagnosis, and other unit variables, including suicide-, combat-, and unintentional injury-related unit deaths. The study also examined whether the influence of previous unit suicide attempts varied by military occupational specialty (MOS) and unit size. Of the final analytic sample of 9512 enlisted soldiers who attempted suicide and 151 526 control person-months, most were male (86.4%), 29 years or younger (68.4%), younger than 21 years when entering the army (62.2%), white (59.8%), high school educated (76.6%), and currently married (54.8%). In adjusted models, soldiers were more likely to attempt suicide if 1 or more suicide attempts occurred in their unit during the past year (odds ratios [ORs], 1.4-2.3; P < .001), with odds increasing as the number of unit attempts increased. The odds of suicide attempt among soldiers in a unit with 5 or more past-year attempts was more than twice that of soldiers in a unit with no previous attempts (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 2.1-2.6). The

  18. The Impact of Diet Protein and Carbohydrate on Select Life-History Traits of The Black Soldier Fly Hermetia illucens (L. (Diptera: Stratiomyidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A. Cammack

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the impact of diet protein and carbohydrate percentages as well as moisture on the immature development, survivorship, and resulting adult longevity and egg production of the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L. (Diptera: Stratiomyidae. Moisture impacted development and corresponding life-history traits more than protein:carbohydrate content; larvae were unable to develop on diets at 40% moisture. Larvae fed diets at 70% moisture developed faster, grew larger, and required less food than those reared on diets at 55% moisture. Larvae reared on the balanced diet (21% protein:21% carbohydrate at 70% moisture developed the fastest on the least amount of food and had the greatest survivorship to the prepupal stage. Adult emergence and longevity were similar across treatments, indicating immature life-history traits were impacted the most. The control (Gainesville house fly diet was superior to the artificial diets for all parameters tested. These differences could indicate that other constituents (e.g., associated microbes serve a role in black soldier fly development. These data are valuable for industrialization of this insect as a “green” technology for recycling organic waste, which can be highly variable, to produce protein for use as feed in the livestock, poultry, and aquaculture industries, as well as for bioenergy production.

  19. Evolution of polish E-commerce - main trends and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Chodak, Grzegorz

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present main phases of Polish e-commerce development and to show its major trends. The author also tries to predict future directions of its development. The whole e-commerce process of development is divided into five phases. The first part of the paper presents the beginnings of Polish e-commerce. Then the following stages of development are discussed with presentation of some key figures e.g. percentage of individuals who ordered goods or services over the Inter...

  20. Polish as a Foreign Language: New Context, Regulations and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popławska Anna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article provides an overview of the developments in Poland after the collapse of communism in 1989 from the point of view of foreign language teaching, including a swift reorientation and transition from a public school system with Russian as the main foreign language, to a diversified language teaching market focused on teaching English and other languages. A particular stress is placed on a relatively new phenomenon, being an increased demand and new opportunities for teaching Polish as a foreign language to be further promoted as a result of anticipated amendments to legal regulations governing the status and certification of the Polish language.

  1. Laser polishing for topography management of accelerator cavity surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Liang [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Klopf, J. Mike [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Reece, Charles E. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Kelley, Michael J. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2015-07-20

    Improved energy efficiency and reduced cost are greatly desired for advanced particle accelerators. Progress toward both can be made by atomically-smoothing the interior surface of the niobium superconducting radiofrequency accelerator cavities at the machine's heart. Laser polishing offers a green alternative to the present aggressive chemical processes. We found parameters suitable for polishing niobium in all surface states expected for cavity production. As a result, careful measurement of the resulting surface chemistry revealed a modest thinning of the surface oxide layer, but no contamination.

  2. Mechanistic, kinetic, and processing aspects of tungsten chemical mechanical polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, David

    This dissertation presents an investigation into tungsten chemical mechanical polishing (CMP). CMP is the industrially predominant unit operation that removes excess tungsten after non-selective chemical vapor deposition (CVD) during sub-micron integrated circuit (IC) manufacture. This work explores the CMP process from process engineering and fundamental mechanistic perspectives. The process engineering study optimized an existing CMP process to address issues of polish pad and wafer carrier life. Polish rates, post-CMP metrology of patterned wafers, electrical test data, and synergy with a thermal endpoint technique were used to determine the optimal process. The oxidation rate of tungsten during CMP is significantly lower than the removal rate under identical conditions. Tungsten polished without inhibition during cathodic potentiostatic control. Hertzian indenter model calculations preclude colloids of the size used in tungsten CMP slurries from indenting the tungsten surface. AFM surface topography maps and TEM images of post-CMP tungsten do not show evidence of plow marks or intergranular fracture. Polish rate is dependent on potassium iodate concentration; process temperature is not. The colloid species significantly affects the polish rate and process temperature. Process temperature is not a predictor of polish rate. A process energy balance indicates that the process temperature is predominantly due to shaft work, and that any heat of reaction evolved during the CMP process is negligible. Friction and adhesion between alumina and tungsten were studied using modified AFM techniques. Friction was constant with potassium iodate concentration, but varied with applied pressure. This corroborates the results from the energy balance. Adhesion between the alumina and the tungsten was proportional to the potassium iodate concentration. A heuristic mechanism, which captures the relationship between polish rate, pressure, velocity, and slurry chemistry, is presented

  3. Implementation of the Bulgarian-Polish online dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Dimitrova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of the Bulgarian-Polish online dictionary The paper describes the implementation of an online Bulgarian-Polish dictionary as a technological tool for applications in digital humanities. This bilingual digital dictionary is developed in the frame of the joint research project “Semantics and Contrastive Linguistics with a focus on a bilingual electronic dictionary” between IMI-BAS and ISS-PAS, supervised by L. Dimitrova (IMI-BAS and V. Koseska-Toszewa (ISS-PAS. In addition, the main software tools for web-presentation of the dictionary are described briefly.

  4. Confocal Raman spectrocopy for the analysis of nail polish evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, Maria; Vaz, Joana; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2015-06-01

    Nail polishes are cosmetic paints that may be susceptible of forensic analysis offering useful information to assist in a crime reconstruction. Although the nail polish appearance could allow a quick visual identification of the sample, this analysis is subjected to the perception and subjective interpretation of the forensic examiner. The chemical analysis of the nail polishes offers great deal of information not subjected to analyst interpretation. Confocal Raman spectroscopy is a well-suited technique for the analysis of paints due to its non-invasive and non-destructive nature and its ability to supply information about the organic and inorganic components of the sample. In this work, 77 regular and gel nail polishes were analyzed with confocal Raman spectroscopy using two laser wavelengths (532 and 780 nm). The sample behavior under the two laser wavelengths and the differences in the spectra taken at different points of the sample were studied for each nail polish. Additionally, the spectra obtained for all the nail polishes were visually compared. The results concluded that the longer laser wavelength prevents sample burning and fluorescence effects; the similarity among the spectra collected within the sample is not directly related with the presence of glitter particles; and 64% of the samples analyzed showed a characteristic spectrum. Additionally, the use of confocal Raman spectroscopy for the forensic analysis of nail polishes evidence in the form of flakes or smudges on different surfaces were studied. The results showed that both types of evidence can be analyzed by the technique. Also, two non-invasive sampling methods for the collection of the evidence from the nails of the suspect or the victim were proposed: (i) to use acetone-soaked cotton swabs to remove the nail varnishes and (ii) to scrape the nail polish from the nail with a blade. Both approaches, each exhibiting advantages and drawbacks in terms of transport and handling were appropriate

  5. Documented family violence and risk of suicide attempt among U.S. Army soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursano, Robert J; Stein, Murray B; Herberman Mash, Holly B; Naifeh, James A; Fullerton, Carol S; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Ng, Tsz Hin Hinz; Aliaga, Pablo A; Wynn, Gary H; Dinh, Hieu M; McCarroll, James E; Sampson, Nancy A; Kao, Tzu-Cheg; Schoenbaum, Michael; Heeringa, Steven G; Kessler, Ronald C

    2018-04-01

    Suicide attempt (SA) rates in the U.S. Army increased substantially during the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. This study examined associations of family violence (FV) history with SA risk among soldiers. Using administrative data from the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS), we identified person-month records of active duty, Regular Army, enlisted soldiers with medically documented SAs from 2004 to 2009 (n = 9650) and a sample of control person-months (n = 153,528). Logistic regression analyses examined associations of FV with SA, adjusting for socio-demographics, service-related characteristics, and prior mental health diagnosis. Odds of SA were higher in soldiers with a FV history and increased as the number of FV events increased. Soldiers experiencing past-month FV were almost five times as likely to attempt suicide as those with no FV history. Odds of SA were elevated for both perpetrators and those who were exclusively victims. Male perpetrators had higher odds of SA than male victims, whereas female perpetrators and female victims did not differ in SA risk. A discrete-time hazard function indicated that SA risk was highest in the initial months following the first FV event. FV is an important consideration in understanding risk of SA among soldiers. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Associations of childhood bullying victimization with lifetime suicidal behaviors among new U.S. Army soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Sills, Laura; Kessler, Ronald C; Ursano, Robert J; Rosellini, Anthony J; Afifi, Tracie O; Colpe, Lisa J; Heeringa, Steven G; Nock, Matthew K; Sampson, Nancy A; Sareen, Jitender; Schoenbaum, Michael; Sun, Xiaoying; Jain, Sonia; Stein, Murray B

    2017-08-01

    Prior studies have documented associations of childhood bullying victimization with suicidal behaviors. However, many failed to adjust for concomitant risk factors and none investigated this relationship in military personnel. This study aimed to estimate independent associations of childhood bullying victimization with suicidal behaviors among U.S. Army soldiers. Soldiers reporting for basic training completed a cross-sectional survey assessing mental disorders, suicidal behaviors, and childhood adversities including two types of bullying victimization: (1) Physical Assault/Theft and (2) Bullying Comments/Behaviors. Associations of childhood bullying experiences with suicidal behaviors were estimated using discrete-time survival analysis of person-year data from 30,436 soldiers. Models adjusted for sociodemographic factors, childhood maltreatment by adults, and mental disorders. After comprehensive adjustment for other risk factors, more frequent Physical Assault/Theft by peers during childhood was associated with increased odds of lifetime suicidal ideation (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.11-1.26, P Bullying Comments/Behaviors were associated with increased risk of ideation (AOR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.26-1.35, P bullying victimization, exposure to the most persistent bullying was associated with two- to fourfold increase in risk for suicidal behaviors. Childhood bullying victimization is associated with lifetime suicidal behaviors among new soldiers. Exposure to Bullying Comments/Behaviors during childhood is associated with progression from suicidal ideation to plan. Improved recognition of these relationships may inform risk mitigation interventions for soldiers. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Interpersonal conflict and referrals to counseling among married soldiers following return from deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Deborah A; Clinton-Sherrod, A Monique; Johnson, Ruby E

    2012-10-01

    Deployment represents a significant potential strain on military families. The impact of postdeployment stresses may be increased if family coping resources are diminished by returning service members' physical injuries, mental health issues, or substance abuse. This article examines the health and mental health correlates of self-reported concerns regarding interpersonal conflict among married soldiers following return from deployment and the likelihood that soldiers acknowledging such concerns are referred to counseling services. Among 20,166 married Army soldiers completing Post-Deployment Health Reassessments, 18% reported having experienced serious interpersonal conflict with their spouse, family members, close friends, or coworkers. Results indicate that interpersonal conflict was more common among those who reported health problems, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and alcohol abuse. Among soldiers reporting interpersonal conflict and not already receiving services, 11% were referred to service. Findings support the need to communicate with soldiers and their spouses about the availability of services following return from deployment and to continue efforts to reduce stigma associated with seeking treatment.

  8. Suboptimal Nutritional Characteristics in Male and Female Soldiers Compared to Sports Nutrition Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, Kim; Darnell, Matthew E; Lovalekar, Mita; Baker, Rachel A; Nagai, Takashi; San-Adams, Thida; Wirt, Michael D

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nutrient intake of male and female Soldiers in the 101 st Airborne Division (Air Assault) compared to sports nutrition standards for athletes, and to identify suboptimal eating characteristics that may impair physical performance and jeopardize military readiness. Male and female Soldiers from the 101 st Airborne Division (Air Assault) completed a 24-hour dietary recall and nutrition history questionnaire before anthropometric and body composition measurements were taken. Compared to sports nutrition guidelines, Soldiers of the 101 st under consume carbohydrates (males: 3.9 ± 2.0 vs. 5.0 g/kg, p < 0.001; females: 4.0 ± 2.1 vs. 5.0 g/kg, p = 0.001), male Soldiers eat too much fat (32.4% of kcal vs. <30% of kcal, p = 0.000) and saturated fat (males: 10.5 ± 3.9% of kcal vs. 10.0% of kcal, p = 0.044), and both males and females follow a meal pattern that may not optimize energy availability throughout the day. Eating too much fat and under fueling carbohydrate may negatively impact the adaptations to physical training and compromise overall health. Although Soldiers continue to participate in arduous training programs, future research should be aimed at determining the energy and macronutrient needs to fuel and recover from specific types of military training. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  9. Zombie soldier beetles: Epizootics in the goldenrod soldier beetle, Chauliognathus pensylvanicus (Coleoptera: Cantharidae) caused by Eryniopsis lampyridarum (Entomophthoromycotina: Entomophthoraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinkraus, Donald C; Hajek, Ann E; Liebherr, Jim K

    2017-09-01

    Adult goldenrod soldier beetles, Chauliognathus pensylvanicus, were found infected by the fungus Eryniopsis lampyridarum (Entomophthoromycotina) in Arkansas during September - October (1996, 2001, 2015 and 2016). Living and dead infected beetles were found on flowering frost aster, Symphyotrichum pilosum, common boneset, Eupatorium perfoliatum, and Canada goldenrod, Solidago canadensis. Live and dead beetles (n=446) were collected in 1996 from S. pilosum flowers and held individually in the laboratory for determination of fungal prevalence. Of the beetles collected, 281 (63%) were males and 165 (37%) were females. A total of 90 beetles were infected with E. lampyridarum, an overall prevalence of 20.2%. Prevalence in males was 19.6% (n=55 infected/281 males total) and prevalence in females was 21.2% (n=35 infected /165 females total). Conidia were produced from 57% of the infected beetles, 23% of the infected beetles produced resting spores, and 20% contained the hyphal body stage. Infected beetles produced either conidia or resting spores but never both in the same host. Post-mortem morphological changes in the hosts due to E. lampyridarum were observed periodically for 24h. Shortly before death, by unknown mechanisms, dying infected beetles tightly clamped their mandibles into flower heads and ca. 15-22h later (between 2400 and 0700h) the fungus caused dead beetles to raise their elytra and expand their metathoracic wings. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Removing Mid-Spatial Frequency (MSF) Errors Using Stress-Polishing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This IRAD proposes to evaluate how stress polishing can be used to extend the application of super-polishing to fast aspheres and freeforms, removing sub-aperture...

  11. Bibliography of English-Polish Contrastive Studies in Poland (as of August 1976).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieszek, Aleksandra

    This bibliography lists books, articles, papers, theses and dissertations describing English-Polish contrastive studies conducted in Poland. There are 403 works listed in both languages, divided into two groups: General Works and English-Polish Contrastive Studies. (CHK)

  12. Simulation and analysis of an alternative kinematics for improving the polishing uniformity over the surface of polished tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weingaertner, W. L.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigates the possibility of adopting a new kinematics at the industrial polishing lines of porcelain stoneware tile. An alternative motion of the transverse oscillation of the polishing heads is proposed, in which no radical changes in the industries facilities are required. The basic idea is to replace the purely sinus motion of the polishing heads by a rather trapezoid wavelike motion. In theory this could be achieved simply by adopting regular delays at the transverse oscillation motion. Consequences of this alternative kinematics were quantitatively analyzed considering the spatial homogeneity of polishing expected for tiles. Such homogeneity was represented by the coefficient of variation of the distribution of polishing time over the surface, which was in turn determined by means of computational simulations, taking into account the effect of multiple polishing heads.

    El presente trabajo investiga la posibilidad de adoptar una nueva cinemática en las líneas de pulido industrial de baldosas de gres porcelánico. Se propone una propuesta alternativa de la oscilación transversal de los cabezales pulidores, en el que no hay cambios radicales en las instalaciones de las industrias son necesarias. La idea básica consiste en sustituir el movimiento totalmente del seno de los cabezales pulidores por un movimiento ondulatorio trapezoide. En teoría, esto podría lograrse sólo mediante la adopción de los habituales retrasos en el movimiento de oscilación transversal. las consecuencias de esta cinemática fueron analizados cuantitativamente, teniendo en cuenta la homogeneidad espacial de pulido. Tal homogeneidad fora representada por el coeficiente de variación de la distribución de lo tiempo de pulido en la superficie, determinada por medio de simulaciones computacionales, teniendo también en cuenta el efecto de pulido de las cabezas múltiples.

  13. A structural model of burnout syndrome, coping behavior and personality traits in professional soldiers of the Slovene armed forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maša Serec

    2012-04-01

    Conclusions: To reduce burnout in the Slovenian Army, it may be of great benefit to provide training of effective stress-coping mechanisms, and create peer support groups among soldiers. Such intervention should be especially beneficial for soldiers with a vulnerable personality structure (high neuroticism and psychoticism and low extraversion.

  14. A Randomized Clinical Trial of the Collaborative Assessment and Management of Suicidality vs. Enhanced Care as Usual for Suicidal Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    and/or issued; degrees obtained that are supported by this award; development of cell lines, tissue or serum repositories; infomatics such as...be managed outpatient; he admitted the Soldier into Coastal Harbor for residential treatment. 4. (N=5) The Soldier was separating/PCS/TDY within 12

  15. Potential biodiesel and biogas production from corncob by anaerobic fermentation and black soldier fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wu; Li, Qing; Zheng, Longyu; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Jibin; Yu, Ziniu; Zhang, Yanlin

    2015-10-01

    Bioenergy has become attractive as alternatives of gradually exhausted fossil fuel. Obtaining high grade bioenergy from lignocellulose is attractive that can gradually meet the demand. This study reported biogas and biodiesel were produced from corncob by a two-step bioprocess, biogas was produced from corncob by anaerobic fermentation, then biogas residue was converted by black soldier fly larvae, and then biodiesel was produced from larvae grease. 86.70 L biogas was obtained from 400 g corncob with the accumulation of biogas yield of 220.71 mL/g VS(added) by anaerobic digestion. Besides, 3.17 g of biodiesel was produced from grease after inoculating black soldier fly larvae into 400 g biogas residue. Meanwhile, the results showed that the addition of black soldier fly larvae could be effective for the degradation of lignocellulose and the accumulation of grease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Mental disorders in German soldiers after deployment - impact of personal values and resilience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Peter; Firnkes, Susanne; Kowalski, Jens; Backus, Johannes; Alliger-Horn, Christina; Willmund, Gerd; Hellenthal, Andrea; Bauer, Amanda; Petermann, Franz; Maercker, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    Soldiers are at increased risk of developing mental health disorders after military deployment. The impact of personal values on psychological symptomatology based on an empirical working model has not yet been studied in a military environment. 117 German Armed Forces soldiers completed the Portrait-Values-Questionnaire (PVQ), the Patient-Health-Questionnaire (PHQ) and the Resilience-Scale (RS-11) after their deployment to Afghanistan. In the regression analyses the values hedonism, benevolence, tradition, self-direction and universalism had a differential significant impact on depression, anxiety and somatoform symptoms of the PHQ. The RS-11 sum scale values were negatively correlated with symptomatology. Personal values and resilience seem to be associated with psychological symptomatology in soldiers after military deployment. The results can contribute to the further development of both preventive and therapeutic approaches. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Personal values in soldiers after military deployment: associations with mental health and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Peter; Firnkes, Susanne; Kowalski, Jens T; Backus, Johannes; Siegel, Stefan; Willmund, Gerd; Maercker, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    After military deployment, soldiers are at an increased risk of developing posttraumatic psychiatric disorders. The correlation of personal values with symptoms, however, has not yet been examined within a military context. Schwartz's Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ), the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS), and the 11-item version of the Resilience Scale (RS-11) were completed by 117 soldiers of the German Armed Forces who had recently been deployed to Afghanistan (n=40 undergoing initial psychiatric treatment, n=77 untreated). Logistic regression showed that the value types of hedonism (-), power (-), tradition (+), and universalism (+) were significantly correlated with the probability and severity of PTSD and whether the participant was in treatment or not. The effects were partially mediated by the RS-11 scale values. Value types seem to be associated with psychiatric symptoms in soldiers after deployment. These results could contribute to the further development of therapeutic approaches.

  18. Personal values in soldiers after military deployment: associations with mental health and resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Zimmermann

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: After military deployment, soldiers are at an increased risk of developing posttraumatic psychiatric disorders. The correlation of personal values with symptoms, however, has not yet been examined within a military context. Method: Schwartz's Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ, the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS, and the 11-item version of the Resilience Scale (RS-11 were completed by 117 soldiers of the German Armed Forces who had recently been deployed to Afghanistan (n=40 undergoing initial psychiatric treatment, n=77 untreated. Results: Logistic regression showed that the value types of hedonism (−, power (−, tradition (+, and universalism (+ were significantly correlated with the probability and severity of PTSD and whether the participant was in treatment or not. The effects were partially mediated by the RS-11 scale values. Conclusions: Value types seem to be associated with psychiatric symptoms in soldiers after deployment. These results could contribute to the further development of therapeutic approaches.

  19. Overview of outcome data of potential meditation training for soldier resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Brian

    2011-11-01

    In order to identify potential training to enhance comprehensive soldier fitness, this analysis searched MEDLINE via PubMed and elsewhere for 33 reasonably significant modalities, screening over 11,500 articles for relevance regarding soldier resilience. Evaluation of modalities that are exclusively educational or cognitive/behavioral in nature is deferred. Using the volume and quality of research over 40 parameters distributed among the five domains of resilience (physical, emotional, spiritual, social, and family life), these data allow culling of most of the meditative modalities and discrimination among the remaining techniques. The resulting order of merit is Transcendental Meditation, mindfulness, and progressive muscle relaxation. Transcendental Meditation, mindfulness, and progressive muscle relaxation, in that order, have the most supporting data. Fortuitously, they also represent a cross section of the domain of techniques regarded as meditation, stress management, or relaxation, with three very different mechanisms of action. They are suitable potential options for improving soldier resilience.

  20. Relationship of Life Satisfaction and Job Satisfaction among Pakistani Army Soldiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Summaira Naz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study had two main objectives; first, to discover the relationships between job satisfaction and life satisfaction in Pakistani army soldiers, second, to find out the age, salary, marital status, and education differences on job satisfaction and life satisfaction in Pakistani army soldiers. In the present study two questionnaires; Job Satisfaction Scale JSS (Macdonald & Maclntyre, 1997 and Satisfaction With Life Scale (Diener, et al., 1985; were administered to a sample (N=400 along with a demographic sheet. The results of the study revealed a significant positive correlation between job satisfaction and life satisfaction of Pakistani army soldiers. The findings of the study also showed a significant age, education, salary, and marital status differences in job satisfaction and life satisfaction. Age, marital status, and salary variables had positive correlation with job satisfaction and life satisfaction but education had a negative association with job satisfaction and life satisfaction

  1. Present and future role of chemical mechanical polishing in wafer bonding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gui, C.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Lambeck, Paul

    Almost all direct wafer bonding has been conducted between chemical-mechanically polished substrates or between thin films that were present on top of the polished substrates. Introducing chemical mechanical polishing in the wafer bonding will make a large range of materials suitable for direct

  2. Development of a multisensory arm for process monitoring in Robot Assisted Polishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilny, Lukas; Dalla Costa, Giuseppe; Bissacco, Giuliano

    2015-01-01

    Robot Assisted Polishing (RAP) process is capable of achieving surface roughness down to Sa 10 nm on industrial components. In RAP, a robot arm carries a polishing module with controlled contact force utilizing oscillating or rotating tools. In this work a multisensory polishing arm with integrated...

  3. Influence of the brittle behavior of work materials on polishing characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Satoshi; Gemma, Masaya; Hayashi, Keitoku; Kondo, Yasuo; Yamaguchi, Kenji; Yakou, Takao; Arakawa, Susumu

    2017-09-01

    Diamond electrodeposited wire tools are frequently used to cut thin wafers from hard and brittle materials. However, microcracks sometimes appear during the slicing process. The appearance of microcracks adversely affects slicing efficiency and slicing accuracy. In this study, we examine the influence of brittle behavior on the polishing characteristics such as polishing depth and tool wear. This is the first step toward investigating the influence of the brittle behavior of work materials on slicing characteristics. Ceramics such as alumina, silicon carbide, and zirconia are used as work materials. Even with the same degree of hardness, we found that the polishing depth values were greater for materials exhibiting brittle behavior. In the polishing of high-hardness materials, abrasive grains were badly damaged during the initial stages of polishing. Damage to the abrasive paper was less in wet polishing as compared with dry polishing. Moreover, wet polishing had a greater polishing depth than dry polishing. The polishing characteristics of the brittle materials were similar to the grooving characteristics produced using wire tools; however, both these characteristics depend on the brittle behavior of the work materials. Therefore, by performing simple polishing tests, estimating the state of grooving or slicing using wire tools is possible.

  4. Patterns of Language Use: Polish Migrants from the 1980s and Their Children in Melbourne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuner, Beata

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the retention of Polish language and culture by first generation Polish migrants from the 1980s and their second generation offspring (aged 15-24) from endogamous and exogamous marriages. We examine various domains such as the home, social networks, visits to Poland, institutions of learning, the Polish media, the Polish…

  5. Polish Migrant Parents of Secondary School Boys in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkacz, Daria; McGhee, Derek

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the parents of secondary school Polish boys and their capacity to realise their educational and professional aspirations for their children. Our primary finding is that although many Polish parents face considerable challenges in manoeuvring through the educational system, some Polish parents display a level of agency…

  6. Risk factors for disability discharge in enlisted active duty Army soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccirillo, Amanda L; Packnett, Elizabeth R; Cowan, David N; Boivin, Michael R

    2016-04-01

    The rate of permanent disability retirement in U.S. Army soldiers and the prevalence of combat-related disabilities have significantly increased over time. Prior research on risk factors associated with disability retirement included soldiers retired prior to conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. To identify risk factors for disability discharge among soldiers enlisted in the U.S. Army during military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. In this case-control study, cases included active duty soldiers evaluated for disability discharge. Controls, randomly selected from soldiers with no history of disability evaluation, were matched to cases based on enlistment year and sex. Conditional logistic regression models calculated odds of disability discharge. Attributable fractions estimated burden of disability for specific pre-existing condition categories. Poisson regression models compared risk of disability discharge related to common disability types by deployment and combat status. Characteristics at military enlistment with increased odds of disability discharge included a pre-existing condition, increased age or body mass index, white race, and being divorced. Musculoskeletal conditions and overweight contributed the largest proportion of disabilities. Deployment was protective against disability discharge or receiving a musculoskeletal-related disability, but significantly increased the risk of disability related to a psychiatric or neurological condition. Soldiers with a pre-existing condition at enlistment, particularly a musculoskeletal condition, had increased odds of disability discharge. Risk of disability was dependent on condition category when stratified by deployment and combat status. Additional research examining conditions during pre-disability hospitalizations could provide insight on specific conditions that commonly lead to disability discharge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. In-situ photopatterning of hydrogel microarrays in polished microchips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gümüscü, B.; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    2015-01-01

    We present a fabrication method which enables simple and eproducible photopatterning of micron- sized hydrogel arrays inside closed microchips. To achieve this, the glass cover of the microchip is thinned by mechanical grinding and polishing. This procedure reduces the spacing between the photomask

  8. Diamond turning and polishing tests on new RSP aluminium alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, R. ter; Haan, M. de; Gubbels, G.P.H.; Senden, R.; Venrooy, B.W.H. van; Hoogstrate, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    For years now conventional aluminium 6061 T6 has widely been used for mirrors in astronomical instruments, being diamond turned or since a few years also being optically polished. This allows the development of optical systems that can be tested and operated at any temperature, without being

  9. [Surveillance of hospital acquired pneumonia in Polish hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rózańska, Anna; Wójkowska-Mach, Jadwiga; Bulanda, Małgorzata; Heczko, Piotr B

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze epidemiology of hospital acquired infections in Polish hospitals, according to type and size of hospital. Data gathered between year 2002 and 2004 in the Active Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System, developed and conducted by Polish Society of Hospital Infections, were used in the analysis. Epidemiology of PNEU was described with the usage of cumulative incidence and incidence density rates. The average cumulative incidence rate was 0.29%; incidence density rate: 0.41 per thousand, and incidence density among ventilated patients: 1.57 per thousand. Differences in morbidity detected in hospitals were statistically important only in hospitals of different size. Morbidity of PNEU in intensive care units was much higher than in other wards, and differences were statistically important. PNEU and VAP epidemiology in Polish intensive care units indicates serious problems in hospital infections control: high values of morbidity in non-teaching ICUs reflect the huge risk of developing infections in Polish hospitals. Low rates in ICUs of teaching hospitals reflect lack of surveillance and detection of infections in such hospitals.

  10. Advanced surface polishing using gas cluster ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insepov, Z.; Hassanein, A.; Norem, J.; Swenson, D. R.

    2007-08-01

    The gas cluster ion beam (GCIB) treatment can be an important treatment for mitigation of the Q-slope in superconducting cavities. The existing surface smoothening methods were analyzed and a new surface polishing method was proposed based on employing extra-large gas cluster ions (X-GCIB).

  11. Detection of Polish clinical Aspergillus fumigatus isolates resistant to triazoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nawrot, Urszula; Kurzyk, Ewelina; Arendrup, Maiken Cavling

    2018-01-01

    We studied the presence of triazole resistance of 121 Aspergillus fumigatus clinical isolates collected in two Polish cities, Warsaw and Wrocław, to determine if resistance is emerging in our country. We identified five itraconazole resistant isolates (4.13%) carrying the TR34/L98H alteration in ...

  12. Abrasive properties of modified oxides for finish polishing of steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroleva, L. F.

    2017-12-01

    The study of modified chromium and aluminum oxides, demonstrates that finish polishing by modified hydroxocomplexes based on a solid solution of iron and aluminum oxides provide a surface nanoroughness of 0.02 to 0.005 µm for the hardened ShKh15 steel (American Standard AISI 52100).

  13. [Polish doctors graves at the cemeteries in Edinburgh].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebertt, S

    1994-01-01

    The first part of the text reviews the cultural links between Poland and Scotland. These links were originated in the 14th century and were created by scottish students travelling to Poland to seek learning in the then polish centre of excellence Jagiellonian University in Cracow. There were also some learned Scots who ventured to Poland, seeking work. Some of them achieved positions of distinction. The first Polish medical men attended the University of Edinburgh in the 18th century. In the 19th century, following the suppression of the polish uprising against Russia, there were a small group of Poles seeking asylum in Scotland. A few of them enlisted at the University of Edinburgh at the medical faculty. The above history is described in detail in Annotations. In the second part of the paper all the polish medical and veterinary doctors whose graves are located in various cemeteries in Edinburgh are listed in chronological order of their deaths. As full as possible personal data, the kind of medical work, and location of their graves are given. Greater details, whenever obtainable, are dealt with in Annotations. The total of thirty deceased between 1942 and 1993 are described.

  14. An operational map of the Polish Coastal Front 1970

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Theis; Svenningsen, Stig Roar; Tinning, Morten

    2016-01-01

    The map of the Operational Plan for the Coastal Front, from Poland 1970 forms the basis for this paper. The map portraits the blueprint of the combined operational war plans for the Polish military in the late 1960’s and 70’s. It details the offensive against NATO countries and their forces in No...

  15. The Teaching of English in Polish Educational Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Teresa Ann; Butler, Norman L.; Kritsonis, William Allan; Herrington, David

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the strengths and weaknesses of native and non-native teachers of English in Polish schools, and is the result of the Dr. Butler's experience as a teacher of English in Poland. It is argued that native teachers of English should be employed in Poland because they teach in their own language, use current idioms, provide…

  16. The Meanings of Learning as Described by Polish Migrant Bloggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popow, Monika

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the meanings given to learning by Polish migrant bloggers. It presents the result of an analysis of ten blogs, written by Poles living abroad. The blogs under analysis were chosen on the basis of random sample. The analysed material was categorised by recurring themes, which included: learning in Poland, language acquisition,…

  17. Bioethanol productions from rice polish by optimization of dilute acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lignocellulose materials are abundant renewable resource for the production of biofuel from fermentative organism (Sacchromyces cervesiae). Rice polish is cheapest and abundant lignocelluloses resource and has potential to produce bioethanol. The main steps for the conversion of biomass into glucose required dilute ...

  18. Clear and compelling evidence: the Polish tribunal on abortion rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Françoise; Nowicka, Wanda

    2002-05-01

    On 25 July 2001 the Polish Federation for Women and Family Planning organised a Tribunal on Abortion Rights in Warsaw, to publicize the negative consequences of the criminalization of abortion in Poland. A panel of Polish and foreign experts heard the testimonials of seven Polish women's experiences under the 1993 "Anti-Abortion Act". Only two of the seven women were able to tell their stories in person. One died in 2001, at the age of 21, of an unsafe abortion. One is legally blind after having carried her last pregnancy to term. One is in prison for infanticide, which in all likelihood was committed by her boyfriend. National and foreign journalists were in attendance, as well as observers from all walks of life--writers, students, mothers, activists, feminists, husbands. The evidence was clear and compelling. Restrictive abortion laws make abortion unsafe by pushing it underground, endanger women's health, create a climate where even those services that are allowed by law-become unavailable, and contravene standards set by international human rights law. The restrictive abortion law in Poland has not increased the number of births; it has only caused women and their families suffering. The Tribunal brought the issue of abortion into the media prior to an election campaign and galvanised Polish and other Eastern European women's groups to become more active in defence of abortion rights.

  19. Using Nail Polish to Teach about Gender and Homophobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Nelta M.

    2010-01-01

    How might teachers help students investigate the relationship between gender and homophobia? This article describes an exercise that uses fingernail polish to do just that. The authors uses anecdotal evidence to describe the exercise in which students pair with someone of the opposite gender and paint each other's fingernails. Additionally, the…

  20. Polish scientists in fish immunology: a short history : review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muiswinkel, van W.B.; Pilarczyk, A.

    2015-01-01

    This review describes the role played by Polish scientists in the field of fish immunology and vaccination starting around 1900. In the early days, most publications were dealing with a description of relevant cells and organs in fish. Functional studies (phagocytosis, antibody response) came later

  1. Heavy Metal Contamination of Popular Nail Polishes in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golnaz Karimi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxic and hazardous heavy metals like arsenic, lead, mercury, zinc, chromium and iron are found in a variety of personal care products, e.g. lipstick, whitening toothpaste, eyeliner and nail color. The nails absorb the pigments of nail polishes and vaporized or soluble metals can easily pass it. The goal of this survey was to assess whether the different colors of nail polishes comply with maximum concentrations of heavy metals in the EPA’s guidelines. Methods: 150 samples of different popular brands of nail polishes in 13 colors (yellow, beige, silver, pink, white, violet, brown, golden, green, black, colorless, red and blue were randomly purchased from beauty shops in Tehran City, Iran, in 2014. Microwave digestion EPA method 3051 was used by a microwave oven to determine the amount of 5 heavy metals; Nickel, Chromium, Lead, Arsenic and Cadmium. One-way ANOVA, Two-way ANOVA, hierarchical cluster, and principal component analyses were applied by Statistica 7.0 software. Results: The concentrations of chrome, lead, nickel and arsenic showed significant differences between the colors (p<0.05. In all studied samples, the level of cadmium was beyond the safe maximum permissible limit (MPS, but no significance difference in the cadmium content was identified. Conclusion: Due to the high concentrations of toxic metals in many brands of nail polishes, meticulous quality control is recommended for these beauty products.

  2. Polish adaptation of scoliosis research society-22 questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacki, Maciej; Misterska, Ewa; Laurentowska, Maria; Mankowski, Przemyslaw

    2009-05-01

    Polish adaptation of the original version of Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) instrument. The transcultural adaptation of SRS-22 and evaluation of its internal consistency. High psychometric value of the SRS-22 Questionnaire has made it an effective evaluation instrument in clinically assessing the functional status of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. First, 2 translators translated the original version into Polish. Afterwards, the translators identified differences between the translations and produced a consensus version. In the third stage, 2 native English speakers produced back translations. Finally, a team of 2 orthopedic surgeons, translators, a statistician and a psychologist reviewed all the translations to produce a prefinal version. The questionnaire was administered to 60 girls at the age of 16.6, SD 2.0 with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis treated with the Cotrel-Dubousset method in Pediatric Orthopaedics and Traumatology Clinic in Poznań. The internal consistency in the Polish version equaled 0.89 for the overall result and 0.81 for function, 0.81 for pain, 0.80 for mental health, 0.77 for self-image, and 0.69 for treatment satisfaction domains, respectively. The Polish version of SRS-22 is characterized by high internal consistency for all domains and for the overall score, which makes it an evaluation tool after surgical treatment compatible with the original SRS-22.

  3. Jules Verne - a new polishing technique related to FJP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, S.M.; Fähnle, O.W.; Meeder, M.; Wons, T.; Braat, J.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    A variation on the fluid jet polishing (FJP) technique, arbitrarily named Jules Verne (JV), will be described in this article. Jules Verne is a glass processing technique that removes material due to the fact that the tool and the surface are in close contact, and a slurry moves in between the tool

  4. Undiagnosed nephrogenic diabetes insipidus as a cause of acute urinary retention in a young soldier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung Jin; Shin, Y S; Choi, H; Kim, M K; Jeong, Y B; Park, J K

    2016-10-01

    We present a case of undiagnosed nephrogenic diabetes insipidus as a cause of acute urinary retention in a 21-year-old male soldier. Soldiers live in close quarters, and have a regimented lifestyle that may not allow for frequent voiding; therefore, undiagnosed nephrogenic diabetes insipidus may result in acute urinary retention. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. SOLDIERS' CODES OF CONDUCT IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES AROUND THE WORLD. A COMPARATIVE OUTLOOK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice MOMPEYSSIN

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In all countries around the world, the duties of the soldier are codified in detail, but in very different ways, according to the various histories, and cultural backgrounds of the respective Nations. As this soldier has the right to legally use a powerful lethal force, a lot is required from him, which is normal. He is now most often a professional. He has mainly to master perfectly his weapons, to respect the Law of Armed Conflicts and to apply the principle of humanity. But his leaders have to guide him and his Nation to understand and support him.

  6. Serving the fuel cycle: preparing tomorrow's packagings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roland, V.

    2001-01-01

    The main fleet of transport packagings serving today the fuel cycle was born more than 20 years ago. Or was it they? The present paper will show that serving the fuel cycle by preparing tomorrow's logistics is actually an on-going process, rather than a rupture. We shall review the great packagings of the fuel cycle: In the front end, the major actors are the UF 4 , UF 6 , enriched UF 6 , UO 2 powders, fresh fuel packagings. In the back end of the fuel cycle, we find the dry transport casks of the TN-12, TN-17, TN-13, family and also the Excellox wet flasks. In the waste management, a whole fleet of containers, culminating in the TN Gemini, are available or being created. (author)

  7. Great Britain and German-Polish Relations, 1929–1931

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zotova Ekaterina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the study of British-German relations during the period of exacerbation of territorial disputes between Germany and Poland in 1929-1931. Germany was making plans for revising the eastern borders. It sought to enlist the support of the new Labour government. Britain didn’t only approve of Germany's intention to carry out revision of the Treaty of Versailles (reparation issue, the evacuation of the Rhineland and the change in the German-Polish border, but also supported the strengthening of the political and economic situation in Germany as a whole. Assistance to Germany was advantageous for Britain. Firstly, the British support helped to improve the capacity of the purchasing power of the German market as one of the traditional markets of the English sale. Secondly, the strengthening of the position of the German cabinet meant failure of the French policy in Europe at this stage. The defeat of France in a dispute on the issue of early evacuation of the Rhineland would seriously devalue the foreign policy initiatives of Paris. Thirdly, the British government hoped that Germany will go into orbit of British political influence. The identity of the positions of the German and the British cabinets were considered as the components of British policy success not only in relations with France and Italy, but also with Czechoslovakia and Poland. Since the formation of the MacDonald’s cabinet, anti-Polish moods increased in the British course for the settlement of German-Polish relations. However, the threat of an attack on Poland by Germany was regarded by the government of Britain as unacceptable way of resolving the German-Polish conflict. Britain tried to follow the traditional foreign policy concept of “balance of power”, but the inefficiency of British policy “mediation” in European affairs was clearly shown in times of growing financial and economic crisis. The issue of the German-Polish border remained unsolved.

  8. Polish Geophysical Solid Earth Infrastructure Contributing to EPOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debski, W.; Mutke, G.; Suchcicki, J.; Jozwiak, W.; Wiejacz, P.; Trojanowski, J.

    2012-04-01

    In this poster we present the current state of the main polish solid-earth-orientated infrastructures and shortly described history of their development, current state, and some plans for their future development. The presen- tation concentrates only on the classical infrastructure leaving aside for the while the the geodetic-orientated infrastructure, like GPS network and the GPS processing data centers, gravimetric infrastructure and others of this type. Polish broadband seismic infrastructure consists of 7 permanent broadband stations incorporated into the VEBSN initiative running at the polish territory and one operated in collaboration with NORSAR is settled at the Hornsund (Svalbard) polish polar station. All stations are equipped with STS-2 seismometers and polish MK-6 seismic stations providing 120 dB dynamics 100Hz sampling and data transmission in a real time to processing center. Besides this permanent broadband seismic network (PLSN) the Central Institute of Mining is running the permanent regional, short period network at the Upper Silesia area dedicated to the detailed monitoring of seismicity induced by the black coal mining activity in this area. The network consists of As the mining activity is the main source of seismicity in Poland also all mines are running underground short period networks, like for example Rudna-Polkowice copper mine seismic network consisting of 64 underground located short period seimometers. In that area, especially around the Zelazny Most: the huge post-floating artificial lake the, IGF PAS is running the local seismic array consisting of 4 short period seismometers. Besides these permanent network IGF PAN is running the portable seismic network for detailed mapping a possible natural seismic activity in selected regions of Poland. Important contribution to classical geophysical observation in the electro-magnetic field are provided by three permanent geomagnetic observatories (one at Hornsund) and supporting set of 10

  9. Serving Diverse Knowledge Systems in Academia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William F. Birdsall

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Libraries and academic disciplines are experiencing a major transformation to the digital era. A challenge for libraries is to adapt and coordinate their transformation with differing rates and types of changes in teaching, research, and scholarly communication among the disciplines they serve. This paper argues libraries need to acknowledge the diversity of knowledge systems and adopt a strategy that requires collaboration between libraries and multiple communities of knowing in the development and provision of heterogeneous services.

  10. Toss differences between the slice serve and the kick serve in tennis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Carboch

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pre-contact information of servers' motion is important for receiving players in tennis. Objective: The aim of this study is to examine whether serving players use the same ball toss for kick serve (KS and slice serve (SS at two different directions of serves, from the receiver's view. Methods: 10 male right-handed professional tennis players with an average ATP ranking of 533 were videotaped from the receiver's view using a high-speed video camera (200 Hz. Firstly, they served SS and then KS from deuce court. After reaching 3 successful SS and 3 KS to the correct location, the same procedure followed from the ad court. Kinematic analysis was used to obtain the point of ball release, vertical toss peak and racquet-ball contact. Results: Even though the release point was found nearly in the same location, the vertical toss peak of KS was horizontally to the right compared to SS and the point of racquet ball-contact of KS was even more to the right by approximately 30 cm from the receiver's view. Similar findings were obtained from deuce court and ad court. Conclusions: We found differences in the ball toss execution between KS and SS. The serve toss can provide useful information for receiving players. Serving players should use the same toss for each type of serve to hide their intention.

  11. Research brief : Serving Bowl Selection Biases the Amount of Food Served

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van E.; Shimizu, M.; Wansink, B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine how common serving bowls containing food for multiple persons influence serving behavior and consumption and whether they do so independently of satiation and food evaluation. Methods: In this between-subjects experiment, 68 participants were randomly assigned to either a

  12. Understanding Foreign Future and Deconstructing Polish Past: The Experiences of Schooling under a Communist Rule Recollected by Contemporary Polish Migrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustulka, Paula; Slusarczyk, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The article elaborates on the recollections of schooling under the communist rule in Poland as presented in biographical interviews with contemporary Polish migrants living in the United Kingdom, Germany, and Norway. An analysis of childhood and schooling nexus is elicited on two platforms, specifically as (1) interviewees' first-hand experiences…

  13. Symmetry or asymmetry? Cross-border openness of service providers in Polish-Czech and Polish-German border towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dołzbłasz Sylwia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The symmetry and/or asymmetry in terms of cross-border openness of service providers is examined in this article, for the cases of two border twin towns: Cieszyn/Český Těšín at the Polish-Czech border, and Gubin/Guben at the Polish-German border. To assess the level of openness of firms towards clients from the other side of the border, four trans-border categories were examined: neighbour’s language visible at store location; business offers in the language of the neighbour; the possibilities of payment in the neighbour’s currency; and the staff’s knowledge of the language. This enabled a comparison of both parts of the particular twin towns in relation to the character of cross-border openness, as well as an assessment of their symmetry/asymmetry. Comparisons of Gubin/Guben and Cieszyn/Český Těšín with respect to the analysed features were also carried out. The analysis shows significant variation in the level of cross-border openness towards clients from neighbouring countries. Whereas in the Polish-Czech town a relative symmetry was observed, in the Polish-German case, significant asymmetry was noted.

  14. Pseudo-random tool paths for CNC sub-aperture polishing and other applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Christina R; Walker, David D

    2008-11-10

    In this paper we first contrast classical and CNC polishing techniques in regard to the repetitiveness of the machine motions. We then present a pseudo-random tool path for use with CNC sub-aperture polishing techniques and report polishing results from equivalent random and raster tool-paths. The random tool-path used - the unicursal random tool-path - employs a random seed to generate a pattern which never crosses itself. Because of this property, this tool-path is directly compatible with dwell time maps for corrective polishing. The tool-path can be used to polish any continuous area of any boundary shape, including surfaces with interior perforations.

  15. Long-Term Results of a Monocentric Series of Soldiers After Latarjet Procedure for Anterior Shoulder Instability. Implications for the Assessment of Soldiers' Medical Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de l'Escalopier, Nicolas; Barbier, Olivier; Demoures, Thomas; Ollat, Didier; Versier, Gilbert

    2018-01-01

    Stabilizing surgery of the shoulder with a coracoid graft according to Latarjet is a recognized surgical treatment for anterior instability of the shoulder. This pathology frequently affects soldiers. Postoperatively, the potential risk of recurrence or of secondary shoulder arthritis can limit the practitioner in their ability assessment. The aim of this study is to analyze the long-term outcomes of this surgery in a military population, in order to assess the possible implications for French soldiers' medical ability. Twenty soldiers operated on the shoulder by Latarjet procedure by the same surgeon were retrospectively reviewed after more than 15 yr. All of them did regular physical activity for leisure or competitions. None had preoperative osteoarthritis injuries. The number of dislocation recurrences, the functional score, and the rate of radiographic osteoarthritis were assessed. After more than 16.3 yr (extremes: 15-24 yr), none displayed a dislocation recurrence. The average Rowe's score was 91.8 ± 9.9. The average subjective shoulder value was 89.2 ± 9.7. All patients had resumed sport. Three of them developed level 1 or 2 radiological signs of osteoarthritis according to Samilson. No level 3 or 4 osteoarthritis was found. Among all the patients, 14 still did regular physical activity. In view of our results and of those from the literature, the results of treatment for anterior shoulder instability with the Latarjet procedure are good, even very good in the long term. These data must be considered to favor this procedure for soldiers with shoulder instability and from a medico-administrative viewpoint for military patients in order to pursue their careers without any job restrictions. © Association of Military Surgeons of the United States 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Aflatoxin B1 Tolerance and Accumulation in Black Soldier Fly Larvae (Hermetia illucens) and Yellow Mealworms (Tenebrio molitor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Guido; Fels-Klerx, H J van der; Rijk, Theo C de; Oonincx, Dennis G A B

    2017-06-02

    Crops contaminated with fungal mycotoxins such as aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) are often downgraded or removed from the food chain. This study aimed to evaluate the tolerance and accumulation of AFB1 in two insect species to determine whether they could be used to retain condemned mycotoxin contaminated crops in the food chain. First, instar black soldier fly larvae ( Hermetia illucens , BSF) and yellow mealworm ( Tenebrio molitor , YMW) were fed poultry feed spiked with AFB1 and formulated to contain levels of 0.01, 0.025, 0.05, 0.10, 0.25, and up to 0.5 mg/kg dry feed. Poultry feed without any additions and feed with only the solvent added served as controls. The AFB1 in the feed did not affect survival and body weight in the BSF and YMW larvae ( p > 0.10), indicating a high tolerance to aflatoxin B1 in both species. Furthermore, AFB1 and aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) were below the detection limit (0.10 µg/kg) in BSF larvae, whereas the YMW had AFB1 levels that were approximately 10% of the European Union's legal limit for feed materials and excreted AFM1. It is concluded that both BSF larvae and YMW have a high AFB1 tolerance and do not accumulate AFB1.

  17. Strain-free polished channel-cut crystal monochromators: a new approach and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasman, Elina; Montgomery, Jonathan; Huang, XianRong; Assoufid, Lahsen

    2017-08-23

    The use of channel-cut crystal monochromators has been traditionally limited to applications that can tolerate the rough surface quality from wet etching without polishing. We have previously presented and discussed the motivation for producing channel cut crystals with strain-free polished surfaces [1]. Afterwards, we have undertaken an effort to design and implement an automated machine for polishing channel-cut crystals. The initial effort led to inefficient results. Since then, we conceptualized, designed, and implemented a new version of the channel-cut polishing machine, now called C-CHiRP (Channel-Cut High Resolution Polisher), also known as CCPM V2.0. The new machine design no longer utilizes Figure-8 motion that mimics manual polishing. Instead, the polishing is achieved by a combination of rotary and linear functions of two coordinated motion systems. Here we present the new design of C-CHiRP, its capabilities and features. Multiple channel-cut crystals polished using the C-CHiRP have been deployed into several beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). We present the measurements of surface finish, flatness, as well as topography results obtained at 1-BM of APS, as compared with results typically achieved when polishing flat-surface monochromator crystals using conventional polishing processes. Limitations of the current machine design, capabilities and considerations for strain-free polishing of highly complex crystals are also discussed, together with an outlook for future developments and improvements.

  18. Strain-free polished channel-cut crystal monochromators: a new approach and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasman, Elina; Montgomery, Jonathan; Huang, XianRong; Lerch, Jason; Assoufid, Lahsen

    2017-08-01

    The use of channel-cut crystal monochromators has been traditionally limited to applications that can tolerate the rough surface quality from wet etching without polishing. We have previously presented and discussed the motivation for producing channel cut crystals with strain-free polished surfaces [1]. Afterwards, we have undertaken an effort to design and implement an automated machine for polishing channel-cut crystals. The initial effort led to inefficient results. Since then, we conceptualized, designed, and implemented a new version of the channel-cut polishing machine, now called C-CHiRP (Channel-Cut High Resolution Polisher), also known as CCPM V2.0. The new machine design no longer utilizes Figure-8 motion that mimics manual polishing. Instead, the polishing is achieved by a combination of rotary and linear functions of two coordinated motion systems. Here we present the new design of C-CHiRP, its capabilities and features. Multiple channel-cut crystals polished using the C-CHiRP have been deployed into several beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). We present the measurements of surface finish, flatness, as well as topography results obtained at 1-BM of APS, as compared with results typically achieved when polishing flat-surface monochromator crystals using conventional polishing processes. Limitations of the current machine design, capabilities and considerations for strain-free polishing of highly complex crystals are also discussed, together with an outlook for future developments and improvements.

  19. Influence of polishing on surface roughness following toothbrushing wear of composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla-Vecchia, Karine Battestin; Taborda, Talita Damas; Stona, Deborah; Pressi, Heloísa; Burnett Júnior, Luiz Henrique; Rodrigues-Junior, Sinval Adalberto

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of different polishing systems on the surface roughness of composite resins following procedures to simulate the effects of toothbrushing over time. Four currently available commercial composites were used to make 128 cylindrical specimens. The specimens were randomly allocated to polishing with a 1-step polisher or 1 of 3 multistep polishers (n = 8 per group). The baseline surface roughness was measured, and the specimens were submitted to 5000, 10,000, and 20,000 brushing cycles to represent toothbrushing throughout 6, 12, and 24 months, respectively. Results showed that surface roughness was influenced by the type of composite and polishing system and was not influenced by the simulated toothbrushing time. However, the surface roughness, as challenged by toothbrushing wear, was affected by the interaction among the composite, the polisher, and the toothbrushing time. The 1-step polisher produced the highest surface roughness and influenced toothbrushing wear resistance of some composites.

  20. Enamel demineralization after different methods of interproximal polishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellak, Andreas F; Riepe, Esther M; Seubert, Andreas; Korbmacher-Steiner, Heike M

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the demineralization rate in human enamel after interproximal polishing (IPP) and to detect possible correlations with the IPP method used, with special emphasis on the surface characteristics of the enamel being treated. This in vitro study tested five IPP systems (Profin Directional System®, Intensiv ProxoStrip®, OS discs®, ARS Safe-Tipped Bur Kit® and Ortho-Strips Set®) that are currently available on the market. Each of the five examination groups comprised 12 randomly selected teeth, while the control group consisted of six teeth. The teeth were placed in an artificial model for each group. The proximal contacts were then resolved by IPP. To allow detection of any surface characteristics, one surface was not further processed after IPP, while the other side was additionally polished. After IPP, the teeth were exposed to a pH-cycling model with alternating phases of demineralization and remineralization. Substance loss was analyzed using optical emission spectrometry. Data were subjected to simple analysis of variance (ANOVA) performed with Tukey's test. Comparison between the groups with and without polishing was conducted using the t test for independent samples. The significance level was set at p Rotor Stripping® system (ARS; 145.34 ± 20.37 μm). In all of the examination groups, subsequent polishing of the surfaces did not significantly reduce the amount of demineralization (polished 119.64 ± 28.61 μm; unpolished 114.16 ± 28.61 μm). No correlation between surface morphology and the degree of susceptibility of human enamel was detected. However, it must be taken into consideration that there was no potential bacterial colonization in this in vitro erosive set-up. Thus, in contrast to previous explanations, the outermost fluorapatite layer and the individual composition of the enamel may have a greater impact on the solubility of the enamel and the amount of enamel loss after IPP than

  1. Efficiency of three different polishing methods on enamel and cementum: A scanning electron microscope study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhary, Zoya; Mohan, Ranjana

    2018-01-01

    Tooth polishing is an integral part of clinical dentistry. The main purpose of polishing is to smoothen the surface of the tooth and minimize the deposition of plaque to allow a healthy periodontal maintenance postscaling. Today, polishing by different methods is available to a clinician. Traditional bristle brush and rubber-cup polishing are being widely practiced and gradually getting replaced by novel air polisher. Pros and cons of each method should be weighed before its clinical applications. To evaluate and compare the efficiency of three different polishing systems on enamel as well as on cementum surfaces by scanning electron microscope (SEM). A total of 120 samples were divided into three groups randomly - Group 1 (bristle brush), Group 2 (rubber cup), and Group 3 (air polisher) - with 20 samples each of enamel and cementum, which were subdivided into 10 control and 10 test group (subjected to polishing). The samples were analyzed by SEM at ×1000 magnification, and the data obtained were compiled and subjected to statistical analysis. Polishing with bristle brush demonstrated less surface roughness and debris when compared to air polisher at P = 0.58, P = 0.03 for enamel surface and P = 0.003, P = 0.21 for cementum, respectively. The surface roughness was reduced considerably by rubber cup at P = 0.03 for enamel and P = 0.003 for cementum, compared to air polisher at P = 0.99 and P = 0.21 for enamel and cementum, respectively. The results indicate that polishing with rubber cup was more effective and statistically significant when compared to bristle brush polishing and air polisher for the crown and root surface smoothening and debris removal.

  2. Comprehensive Soldier Fitness: A Vision for Psychological Resilience in the U.S. Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, George W., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The stress and strain on the U.S. Army's community due to nearly a decade of protracted war is well documented in the press and in scientific literature. In response, the Army's Comprehensive Soldier Fitness (CSF) program is a preventive program that seeks to enhance psychological resilience among all members of the Army community, which includes…

  3. Family Characteristics Associated With Child Maltreatment Across the Deployment Cycle of U.S. Army Soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strane, Douglas; Lynch, Kevin G; Griffis, Heather M; Taylor, Christine M; Harb, Gerlinde C; Mi, Lanyu; Song, Lihai; French, Benjamin; Rubin, David M

    2017-09-01

    Soldier deployment can create a stressful environment for U.S. Army families with young children. Prior research has identified elevated rates of child maltreatment in the 6 months immediately following a soldier's return home from deployment. In this study, we longitudinally examine how other child- and family-level characteristics influence the relationship of deployment to risk for maltreatment of dependent children of U.S. Army soldiers. We conducted a person-time analysis of substantiated reports and medical diagnoses of maltreatment among the 73,404 children of 56,087 U.S. Army soldiers with a single deployment between 2001 and 2007. Cox proportional hazard models estimated hazard rates of maltreatment across deployment periods and simultaneously considered main effects for other child- and family-level characteristics across periods. In adjusted models, maltreatment hazard was highest in the 6 months following deployment (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.63, p Army to better direct resources that prevent and address child maltreatment. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  4. Child Soldiers in Africa: Solutions to a Complex Dilemma by Martin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    strategies that will discourage the use of child soldiers and punish those groups and governments that do. It is extremely important that the United States support these endeavours in their early stages so that effective .... the Mozambican National Resistance group RENAMO during the 1980s at the age of 10 explains,.

  5. Effects of Concentration Disruption on Simulated Basic Rifle Marksmanship Scores among Stryker Brigade Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlson, Carl; Hammermeister, Jon

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the hypothesis that the presence of anxiety symptoms is less related to simulated basic rifle marksmanship (S-BRM) performance than is cognitive disruption. The sample was comprised of 82 Stryker Brigade Soldiers at a large military post in the Pacific Northwest. Simulated rifle marksmanship was assessed using the Engagement…

  6. Evolution of low-profile and lightweight electrical connectors for soldier-worn applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gans, Eric; Lee, Kang; Jannson, Tomasz; Walter, Kevin

    2011-06-01

    In addition to military radios, modern warfighters carry cell phones, GPS devices, computers, and night-vision aids, all of which require electrical cables and connectors for data and power transmission. Currently each electrical device operates via independent cables using conventional cable and connector technology. Conventional cables are stiff and difficult to integrate into a soldier-worn garment. Conventional connectors are tall and heavy, as they were designed to ensure secure connections to bulkhead-type panels, and being tall, represent significant snag-hazards in soldier-worn applications. Physical Optics Corporation has designed a new, lightweight and low-profile electrical connector that is more suitable for body-worn applications and operates much like a standard garment snap. When these connectors are mated, the combined height is <0.3 in. - a significant reduction from the 2.5 in. average height of conventional connectors. Electrical connections can be made with one hand (gloved or bare) and blindly (without looking). Furthermore, POC's connectors are integrated into systems that distribute data or power from a central location on the soldier's vest, reducing the length and weight of the cables necessary to interconnect various mission-critical electronic systems. The result is a lightweight power/data distribution system offering significant advantages over conventional electrical connectors in soldier-worn applications.

  7. Reading at the Front: Books and Soldiers in the First World War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcliffe, Marcella P.

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the reading and educational practices of common soldiers during the First World War. It argues that the question of how war libraries were imagined and constructed by civilians needs to be framed in the larger context of pre-war Edwardian debates surrounding the "value of books" in society. Indeed, it was within…

  8. Psychological resilience and the gene regulatory impact of posttraumatic stress in Nepali child soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohrt, Brandon A; Worthman, Carol M; Adhikari, Ramesh P; Luitel, Nagendra P; Arevalo, Jesusa M G; Ma, Jeffrey; McCreath, Heather; Seeman, Teresa E; Crimmins, Eileen M; Cole, Steven W

    2016-07-19

    Adverse social conditions in early life have been linked to increased expression of proinflammatory genes and reduced expression of antiviral genes in circulating immune cells-the conserved transcriptional response to adversity (CTRA). However, it remains unclear whether such effects are specific to the Western, educated, industrialized, rich, and democratic (WEIRD) cultural environments in which previous research has been conducted. To assess the roles of early adversity and individual psychological resilience in immune system gene regulation within a non-WEIRD population, we evaluated CTRA gene-expression profiles in 254 former child soldiers and matched noncombatant civilians 5 y after the People's War in Nepal. CTRA gene expression was up-regulated in former child soldiers. These effects were linked to the degree of experienced trauma and associated distress-that is, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity-more than to child soldier status per se. Self-perceived psychological resilience was associated with marked buffering of CTRA activation such that PTSD-affected former child soldiers with high levels of personal resilience showed molecular profiles comparable to those of PTSD-free civilians. These results suggest that CTRA responses to early life adversity are not restricted to WEIRD cultural contexts and they underscore the key role of resilience in determining the molecular impact of adverse environments.

  9. The Social Welfare of Soldiers' Families in Yenisei Province (1914–1917

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesya M. Dolidovich

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Authors examine the question of the types, scale, efficiency of public aid and social support of soldiers' families in Yenisei province during the First World War. Particular attention is paid to the activities of cities and urban guardianship organizations that have paid to families of the mobilized amount exceeding the amount of state benefits. It is shown that in the rural guardianship organizations did not have more money. They failed to organize labor help with the agricultural work. Soldiers' families reduced tillage, many of them wanted to move to the provincial center. Siberian city were not a major commercial and industrial centers, their budgets have been modest. Siberia had no zemstvo institutions, therefore, the city suffered heavy costs for the solution of many other problems caused by wartime (the organization of assistance to refugees and the injured, the fight against the high cost and lack of, the development of cooperatives, and others, they were making regular payments for all-Russian charitable societies. The flow of donations to urban guardianship and charitable organizations has decreased dramatically in 1916, and the number in need has increased significantly, the municipal government began to curtail payments to soldiers' families. The discontent of the soldiers' wives resulted in the pogroms of malls and attacks against members of municipal self-government bodies of Minusinsk, Krasnoyarsk, Kansk in 1916–1917.

  10. The evolution of symmetrical snapping in termite soldiers need not lead to reduced chemical defence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kyjaková, Pavlína; Dolejšová, Klára; Krasulová, Jana; Bednárová, Lucie; Hadravová, Romana; Pohl, Radek; Hanus, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 4 (2015), s. 818-825 ISSN 0024-4066 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-25354P Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : termites * soldiers * chemical defence * diterpene * cavitene * frontal gland Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.984, year: 2015

  11. Army Reserve Components: Improvements Needed to Data Quality and Management Procedures to Better Report Soldier Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    surgery, or pregnancy . However, once a medical treatment provider determines that a soldier has a condition that does not appear to meet medical...801-7077, or TDD (202) 512-2537. Orders may be paid for using American Express, Discover Card , MasterCard, Visa, check, or money order. Call for

  12. Professional soldier assessment of a rifle-mounted target hand-off system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levesque, J.; Banko, K.; Binsch, O.

    2015-01-01

    The miniaturization of digital image acquisition and processing hardware, positional sensors, and batteries has enabled the creation of assisted targeting systems light enough to be integrated onto small firearms to increase the probability of soldiers detecting and hitting targets. As well, the

  13. Nutrient utilisation by black soldier flies fed with chicken, pig, or cow manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonincx, D.G.A.B.; Huis, van A.; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare the suitability of chicken, pig, and cow manure as feed for larvae of the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens (L.); Diptera: Stratiomyidae). Newly hatched larvae were inoculated on moistened manure (33% dry matter). Water and dried manure were added three

  14. In-patient, short-term group psychotherapy – a therapeutic option for Bundeswehr soldiers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Peter; Kröger, Norbert; Willmund, Gerd; Ströhle, Andreas; Heinz, Andreas; Hahne, Hans Heiner

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study is to assess the efficacy of short-term group psychotherapy rooted in depth psychology for Bundeswehr soldiers suffering from depressive, neurotic, stress, or personality disorders. Method: 103 participants in the in-patient, closed group setting were evaluated prospectively and compared with a non-randomized waitlisted control group. Results: In all relevant SCL-90-R (Symptom-Check-List-90) and MMPI-K (Minnesota-Multiphasic-Personality-Inventory short-form) scales therapy resulted in significant improvements as compared with the initial values. The control group did not show any significant changes, the therapy group was significantly superior to the control group in the scales of MMPI-K and the GSI-Scale of the SCL-90-R. For soldiers with a stress-reactive disorder (F43), no differences in efficacy could be identified compared with the other diagnosis groups. Conclusion: The results were considered to indicate that in-patient, short-term group psychotherapy may, in combination with additional setting components, be helpful in improving psychological symptoms in German soldiers. The indication range of group therapy offered to Bundeswehr soldiers should be expanded to also include primary prophylaxis and the treatment of mental-health problems following deployments abroad, if applicable. PMID:19742280

  15. In-patient, short-term group psychotherapy - a therapeutic option for Bundeswehr soldiers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Peter; Kröger, Norbert; Willmund, Gerd; Ströhle, Andreas; Heinz, Andreas; Hahne, Hans Heiner

    2008-12-19

    This study is to assess the efficacy of short-term group psychotherapy rooted in depth psychology for Bundeswehr soldiers suffering from depressive, neurotic, stress, or personality disorders. 103 participants in the in-patient, closed group setting were evaluated prospectively and compared with a non-randomized waitlisted control group. In all relevant SCL-90-R (Symptom-Check-List-90) and MMPI-K (Minnesota-Multiphasic-Personality-Inventory short-form) scales therapy resulted in significant improvements as compared with the initial values. The control group did not show any significant changes, the therapy group was significantly superior to the control group in the scales of MMPI-K and the GSI-Scale of the SCL-90-R. For soldiers with a stress-reactive disorder (F43), no differences in efficacy could be identified compared with the other diagnosis groups. The results were considered to indicate that in-patient, short-term group psychotherapy may, in combination with additional setting components, be helpful in improving psychological symptoms in German soldiers. The indication range of group therapy offered to Bundeswehr soldiers should be expanded to also include primary prophylaxis and the treatment of mental-health problems following deployments abroad, if applicable.

  16. Short Report: High Incidence of Shigellosis Among Peruvian Soldiers Deployed in the Amazon River Basin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Franca R; Sanchez, Jose L; Meza, Rina; Batsel, Tanis M; Burga, Rosa; Canal, Enrique; Block, Karla; Perez, Juan; Bautista, Christian T; Escobedo, Jorge

    2004-01-01

    ...). Most (83 of 90; 92%) of the Shigella isolates were S. flexneri, of which 57 (69%) were serotype 2a. Seventy-six percent of Shigella isolates were resistant to sulfamethoxazole/ trimethoprim and all were sensitive to ciprofloxacin. Peruvian soldiers may be an excellent population in which to test the efficacy of S. flexneri vaccines in advanced development.

  17. Nutritional composition of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) prepupae reared on different organic waste substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spranghers, Thomas; Ottoboni, Matteo; Klootwijk, Cindy; Ovyn, Anneke; Deboosere, Stefaan; Meulenaer, De Bruno; Michiels, Joris; Eeckhout, Mia; Clercq, De Patrick; Smet, De Stefaan

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Black soldier fly larvae are converters of organic waste into edible biomass, of which the composition may depend on the substrate. In this study, larvae were grown on four substrates: chicken feed, vegetable waste, biogas digestate, and restaurant waste. Samples of prepupae and

  18. The Civil War Soldier: Romantic and Realist. Teacher and Student Manuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caton, Jay; And Others

    This social studies unit provides an impressionistic study of the Civil War soldier and of his changing attitudes toward that war. It contrasts the periods of his optimism early in the war and his nostalgic recollection of events after the war with the despair he experienced from 1862 to 1865. The materials are essentially anecdotal in character…

  19. Predicting and explaining behavioral intention and hand sanitizer use among US Army soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Naiqing; Roberts, Kevin R

    2017-04-01

    Using hand sanitizers can reduce bacterial contamination and is an efficient and inexpensive method of preventing infections. The purpose of this study was to explore the behavioral intention (low and absolute), attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control of hand sanitizer use among US Army soldiers. A questionnaire was developed following an expert panel (N = 5) review and 2 pilot studies (N = 35) to ensure questionnaire validity and clarity. Surveys were distributed among nontrainee soldiers during lunch periods. A total of 201 surveys were collected. Results indicated that attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral controls explained 64% of the variance in behavioral intention. Attitude remained the strongest predictor of behavior (β = 0.70, P sanitizers hold significantly different behavioral and normative beliefs than low intenders. Other soldiers create negative social pressure about using hand sanitizers, indicating that if other soldiers use hand sanitizers, they will refuse to do so. Intervention to ensure use of hand sanitizer should focus on strengthening behavioral and normative beliefs among low intenders. This should increase the overall well being of the military. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Gait retraining as part of the treatment programme for soldiers with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Gait retraining as part of a treatment programme for exercise-related leg pain (ERLP) was introduced in the sports medicine department of the Royal ... Conclusion: Soldiers with exercise-related leg pain (ERLP), among them patients with Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome, respond well to a treatment programme ...

  1. Sleep quality of German soldiers before, during and after deployment in Afghanistan-a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danker-Hopfe, Heidi; Sauter, Cornelia; Kowalski, Jens T; Kropp, Stefan; Ströhle, Andreas; Wesemann, Ulrich; Zimmermann, Peter L

    2017-06-01

    In this prospective study, subjective sleep quality and excessive daytime sleepiness prior to, during and after deployment of German soldiers in Afghanistan were examined. Sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; PSQI) and daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale; ESS) were assessed in 118 soldiers of the German army, who were deployed in Afghanistan for 6 months (deployment group: DG) and in 146 soldiers of a non-deployed control group (CG) at baseline. Results of the longitudinal analysis are reported, based on assessments conducted prior to, during the deployment and afterwards in the DG, and in the CG in parallel. Sleep quality and daytime sleepiness in the DG were already impaired during the predeployment training phase and remained at that level during the deployment phase, which clearly indicates the need for more attention on sleep in young soldiers, already at this early stage. The percentage of impaired sleepers decreased significantly after deployment. Programmes to teach techniques to improve sleep and reduce stress should be implemented prior to deployment to reduce sleep difficulties and excessive daytime sleepiness and subsequent psychiatric disorders. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  2. The post-conflict treatment of child soldiers: A study of Liberian child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chamber–modeled after the framework set forth by former United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan in response in Sierra Leone–would incorporate principles of Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR) to encourage both domestic political transition and a changed understanding of what is a child soldier ...

  3. Use of body armor protection with fighting load impacts soldier performance and kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loverro, Kari L; Brown, Tyler N; Coyne, Megan E; Schiffman, Jeffrey M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this evaluation was to examine how increasing body armor protection with and without a fighting load impacted soldiers' performance and mobility. Thirteen male soldiers performed one performance (repeated 30-m rushing) and three mobility tasks (walk, walk over and walk under) with three different body armor configurations and an anterior fighting load. Increasing body armor protection, decreased soldier performance, as individual and total 30-m rush times were significantly longer with greater protection. While increasing body armor protection had no impact on mobility, i.e. significant effect on trunk and lower limb biomechanics, during the walk and walk over tasks, greater protection did significantly decrease maximum trunk flexion during the walk under task. Adding fighting load may negatively impact soldier mobility, as greater maximum trunk extension was evident during the walk and walk over tasks, and decreased maximum trunk flexion exhibited during the walk under task with the fighting load. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  4. Psychotrauma and effective treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder in soldiers and peacekeepers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quarcoo David

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Psychotrauma occurs as a result to a traumatic event, which may involve witnessing someone's actual death or personally experiencing serious physical injury, assault, rape and sexual abuse, being held as a hostage, or a threat to physical or psychological integrity. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is an anxiety disorder and was defined in the past as railway spine, traumatic war neurosis, stress syndrome, shell shock, battle fatigue, combat fatigue, or post-traumatic stress syndrome (PTSS. If untreated, post-traumatic stress disorder can impair relationships of those affected and strain their families and society. Deployed soldiers are especially at a high risk to be affected by PTSD but often receive inadequate treatment. Reviews to date have focused only on a single type of treatment or groups of soldiers from only one country. The aim of the current review was to evaluate characteristics of therapeutic methods used internationally to treat male soldiers' PTSD after peacekeeping operations in South Eastern Europe and the Gulf wars. This systematic literature review returned results pertaining to the symptoms, diagnosis, timing and effectiveness of treatment. Sample groups and controls were relatively small and, therefore, the results lack generalizability. Further research is needed to understand the influence and unique psychological requirements of each specific military operation on the internationally deployed soldiers.

  5. Children of former child soldiers and never-conscripted civilians: a preliminary intergenerational study in Burundi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, S.; de Jong, J.; O'Hara, R.; Koopman, C.

    2013-01-01

    Studies around the world show that former child soldiers (FCSs) have mental health strengths and limitations, and highlight the important role of families and communities in reintegration to society. However, there are limited data that examine the mental health risks and protective factors of the

  6. Transference-Focused Psychotherapy with former child soldiers: meeting the murderous self

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draijer, N.; Van Zon, P.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the application of transference-focused psychotherapy (TFP) to the treatment of former child soldiers suffering from dissociative identity disorder. It focuses on the problems with aggression faced in psychotherapy. TFP provides a psychodynamic, object relations model to

  7. From Soldiers to Children: Developmental Sciences Transform the Construct of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Bridget A.

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was first included in the American Psychiatric Association's "Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders" in 1980. Long used to describe the reactions of soldiers affected by stress in combat situations, PTSD is now recognised as a disorder affecting abused and neglected infants and…

  8. Disgust and the development of posttraumatic stress among soldiers deployed to Afghanistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhard, Iris M.; Olatunji, Bunmi O.; de Jung, Peter J.

    Although the DSM-IV recognizes that events can traumatize by evoking horror, not just fear, the role of disgust in the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has received little research attention. In a study of soldiers deployed to Afghanistan, we examined whether reports of

  9. Physical fitness, training volume, and self-determined motivation in soldiers during a peacekeeping mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyrstad, Sindre M; Miller, Blake W; Hallén, Jostein

    2007-02-01

    The goal was to register physical training volume and to measure changes in physical fitness in soldiers during a peacekeeping mission. The relationship between these factors and motivation for physical training was also investigated. Physical training volume was registered and maximal oxygen uptake, 3-km run time, sit-ups, push-ups, and chin-ups were tested before and after 1 year of service for 71 Norwegian soldiers in the international Kosovo Force. Self-determined motivation was measured at the end of the service. Physical training volume was 117 +/- 77 minutes/week. The average maximal oxygen uptake decreased by 2.5 +/- 0.8% (p < 0.01). Intrinsic motivation positively predicted physical training volume (p < 0.01). A large variation in training volume was found, and only one-third of the soldiers improved physical fitness and maintained body weight. Fostering intrinsic motivation toward physical training is key to increasing training volume. However, obligatory training could ensure a minimum of physical training among the soldiers who were least motivated for physical training.

  10. A Re-Entry Program for Peacekeeping Soldiers: Promoting Personal and Career Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwood, Marvin J.; Black, Timothy G.; McLean, Holly B.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a program developed to assist with military personnel's transition back into Canadian society by aiding with their personal and career readjustment. Group-based life review and therapeutic enactment counseling interventions are used to identify critical incidents and facilitate the resolution of stress-related reactions soldiers have…

  11. Psychotrauma and effective treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder in soldiers and peacekeepers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitzthum, Karin; Mache, Stefanie; Joachim, Ricarda; Quarcoo, David; Groneberg, David A

    2009-01-01

    Psychotrauma occurs as a result to a traumatic event, which may involve witnessing someone's actual death or personally experiencing serious physical injury, assault, rape and sexual abuse, being held as a hostage, or a threat to physical or psychological integrity. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder and was defined in the past as railway spine, traumatic war neurosis, stress syndrome, shell shock, battle fatigue, combat fatigue, or post-traumatic stress syndrome (PTSS). If untreated, post-traumatic stress disorder can impair relationships of those affected and strain their families and society. Deployed soldiers are especially at a high risk to be affected by PTSD but often receive inadequate treatment. Reviews to date have focused only on a single type of treatment or groups of soldiers from only one country. The aim of the current review was to evaluate characteristics of therapeutic methods used internationally to treat male soldiers' PTSD after peacekeeping operations in South Eastern Europe and the Gulf wars. This systematic literature review returned results pertaining to the symptoms, diagnosis, timing and effectiveness of treatment. Sample groups and controls were relatively small and, therefore, the results lack generalizability. Further research is needed to understand the influence and unique psychological requirements of each specific military operation on the internationally deployed soldiers. PMID:19643016

  12. Inequality in MINUSMA: African Soldiers are in the Firing Line in Mali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrecht, Peter; Cold-Ravnkilde, Signe Marie; Haugegaard, Rikke

    2016-01-01

    African and European soldiers in the United Nations peacekeeping mission in Mali (MINUSMA) work under very different conditions regarding levels of training, equipment, general support from their governments and the fact that African troops are deployed in the most dangerous areas. The UN should...

  13. Psychotrauma and effective treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder in soldiers and peacekeepers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitzthum, Karin; Mache, Stefanie; Joachim, Ricarda; Quarcoo, David; Groneberg, David A

    2009-07-30

    Psychotrauma occurs as a result to a traumatic event, which may involve witnessing someone's actual death or personally experiencing serious physical injury, assault, rape and sexual abuse, being held as a hostage, or a threat to physical or psychological integrity. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder and was defined in the past as railway spine, traumatic war neurosis, stress syndrome, shell shock, battle fatigue, combat fatigue, or post-traumatic stress syndrome (PTSS). If untreated, post-traumatic stress disorder can impair relationships of those affected and strain their families and society. Deployed soldiers are especially at a high risk to be affected by PTSD but often receive inadequate treatment. Reviews to date have focused only on a single type of treatment or groups of soldiers from only one country. The aim of the current review was to evaluate characteristics of therapeutic methods used internationally to treat male soldiers' PTSD after peacekeeping operations in South Eastern Europe and the Gulf wars.This systematic literature review returned results pertaining to the symptoms, diagnosis, timing and effectiveness of treatment. Sample groups and controls were relatively small and, therefore, the results lack generalizability. Further research is needed to understand the influence and unique psychological requirements of each specific military operation on the internationally deployed soldiers.

  14. Chemistry and Anatomy of the Frontal Gland in Soldiers of the Sand Termite Psammotermes hybostoma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krasulová, Jana; Hanus, Robert; Kutalová, Kateřina; Šobotník, Jan; Sillam-Dusses, David; Tichý, Michal; Valterová, Irena

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 5 (2012), s. 557-565 ISSN 0098-0331 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/1570 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : termites * frontal gland of soldiers * chemical defense * Rhinotermitidae * Psammotermes hybostoma Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.462, year: 2012

  15. Civil Wars, Child Soldiers and Post Conflict Peace Building in West

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    Sierra Leonean (1991-2002) civil wars that ensued there-from caused untold consequences on sub-Saharan Africa: violation of the African. Charter on the Right of the African Child, child soldier phenomenon and their atrocities, refugees resulting from internal displacement, a threatened sub-regional peace, etc (see Sriram ...

  16. Gender differences in suicide and suicide attempts among US Army soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguen, Shira; Skopp, Nancy A; Zhang, Ying; Smolenski, Derek J

    2015-02-28

    In order to best tailor suicide prevention initiatives and programs, it is critical to gain an understanding of how service members׳ suicide risk factors may differ by gender. We aimed to better understand gender differences in suicide and suicide attempts among soldiers, including demographic, military, mental health, and other risk factors. We also examined risk factors uniquely associated with suicide and suicide attempts. We conducted a retrospective study of 1857 US Army soldiers who died by suicide or attempted suicide between 2008 and 2010 and had a Department of Defense Suicide Event Report. Female and male soldiers had more similarities than differences when examining risk factors associated with suicide. The only gender difference approaching significance was workplace difficulties, which was more strongly associated with suicide for female soldiers, compared to their male counterparts. Among suicide decedents, the most common risk factor was having a failed intimate relationship in the 90 days prior to suicide. Among those who attempted suicide, the most common risk factor was a major psychiatric diagnosis. Better understanding both gender differences and risk factors uniquely associated with suicide has critical prevention and public health implications as we work to better understand preventable mortality in our youngest generation of service members. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  17. Extreme Scalability: Designing Interfaces and Algorithms for Soldier-Robotic Swarm Interaction, Year 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Christopher Stachowiak , Susan Hill, and Krishna Pillalamarri ARL-TR-5222 June 2010 Approved for...Interfaces and Algorithms for Soldier-Robotic Swarm Interaction, Year 2 Ellen C. Haas, Christopher Stachowiak , Susan Hill, and Krishna Pillalamarri Human...Haas, Susan Hill, Christopher Stachowiak , Krishna Pillalamarri, and MaryAnne Fields 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER

  18. The Single Soldier Quality of Life Initiative: Great Expectations of Privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-01

    as AT&T) in each SQ if host nation telephone service (such as TELEKOM in Germany) cable pairs are available. s. Install official military telephones...t. When such services are available, permit soldiers to contract with a host nation telephone service (such as TELEKOM ) for private telephones in

  19. Acquaintance molestation and youth-serving organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanning, Kenneth V; Dietz, Park

    2014-10-01

    This article is based not only on the research literature but also on the extensive field experience of the authors in consulting with investigators, attorneys, and organizations on the prevention, investigation, prosecution, and civil litigation of molestation of children within or in connection with youth-serving organizations. Acquaintance molesters have often pursued careers or sought out paid or volunteer work with organizations through which they can meet children. To address the problem of such offenders, it is necessary for youth-serving organizations to recognize the diversity of sexual activity, the phenomena of "nice-guy" offenders and compliant child victims, and the grooming/seduction process, each of which is reviewed here. The four most important protection practices for organizations are screening; management, and supervision; response to suspicions, allegations, and complaints; and prevention and awareness programs. The authors recommend general approaches to each of these and describe the reasons many organizations resist implementing available preventive measures. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Virtual Globes: Serving Science and Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Qureshi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Virtual Globes reached the mass market in 2005. They created multi-million dollar businesses in a very short time by providing novel ways to explore data geographically. We use the term “Virtual Globes” as the common denominator for technologies offering capabilities to annotate, edit and publish geographic information to a world-wide audience and to visualize information provided by the public and private sectors, as well as by citizens who volunteer new data. Unfortunately, but not surprising for a new trend or paradigm, overlapping terms such as “Virtual Globes”, “Digital Earth”, “Geospatial Web”, “Geoportal” or software specific terms are used heterogeneously. We analyze the terminologies and trends in scientific publications and ask whether these developments serve science and society. While usage can be answered quantitatively, the authors reason from the literature studied that these developments serve to educate the masses and may help to democratize geographic information by extending the producer base. We believe that we can contribute to a better distinction between software centered terms and the generic concept as such. The power of the visual, coupled with the potential of spatial analysis and modeling for public and private purposes raises new issues of reliability, standards, privacy and best practice. This is increasingly addressed in scientific literature but the required body of knowledge is still in its infancy.