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Sample records for polish physiological society

  1. Treatment guidelines for Circadian Rhythm Sleep-Wake Disorders of the Polish Sleep Research Society and the Section of Biological Psychiatry of the Polish Psychiatric Association. Part I. Physiology, assessment and therapeutic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichniak, Adam; Jankowski, Konrad S; Skalski, Michal; Skwarło-Sońta, Krystyna; Zawilska, Jolanta B; Żarowski, Marcin; Poradowska, Ewa; Jernajczyk, Wojciech

    2017-10-29

    Majority of the physiological processes in the human organism are rhythmic. The most common are the diurnal changes that repeat roughly every 24 hours, called circadian rhythms. Circadian rhythms disorders have negative influence on human functioning. The aim of this article is to present the current understanding of the circadian rhythms physiological role, with particular emphasis on the circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders (CRSWD), principles of their diagnosis and chronobiological therapy. The guidelines are based on the review of recommendations from the scientific societies involved in sleep medicine and the clinical experiences of the authors. Researchers participating in the preparation of guidelines were invited by the Polish Sleep Research Society and the Section of Biological Psychiatry of the Polish Psychiatric Association, based on their significant contributions in circadian rhythm research and/or clinical experience in the treatment of such disorders. Finally, the guidelines were adjusted to the questions and comments given by the members of both Societies. CRSWD have a significant negative impact on human health and functioning. Standard methods used to assess CRSWD are sleep diaries and sleep logs, while the actigraphy, when available, should be also used. The most effective methods of CRSWD treatment are melatonin administration and light therapy. Behavioral interventions are also recommended. Afourteen-day period of sleep-wake rhythm assessment in CRSWD enables accurate diagnosis, adequate selection of chronobiological interventions, and planning adequate diurnal timing of their application. This type of assessment is quite easy, low-cost, and provides valuable indications how to adjust the therapeutic approach to the circadian phase of the particular patient.

  2. Polish adaptation of scoliosis research society-22 questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacki, Maciej; Misterska, Ewa; Laurentowska, Maria; Mankowski, Przemyslaw

    2009-05-01

    Polish adaptation of the original version of Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) instrument. The transcultural adaptation of SRS-22 and evaluation of its internal consistency. High psychometric value of the SRS-22 Questionnaire has made it an effective evaluation instrument in clinically assessing the functional status of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. First, 2 translators translated the original version into Polish. Afterwards, the translators identified differences between the translations and produced a consensus version. In the third stage, 2 native English speakers produced back translations. Finally, a team of 2 orthopedic surgeons, translators, a statistician and a psychologist reviewed all the translations to produce a prefinal version. The questionnaire was administered to 60 girls at the age of 16.6, SD 2.0 with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis treated with the Cotrel-Dubousset method in Pediatric Orthopaedics and Traumatology Clinic in Poznań. The internal consistency in the Polish version equaled 0.89 for the overall result and 0.81 for function, 0.81 for pain, 0.80 for mental health, 0.77 for self-image, and 0.69 for treatment satisfaction domains, respectively. The Polish version of SRS-22 is characterized by high internal consistency for all domains and for the overall score, which makes it an evaluation tool after surgical treatment compatible with the original SRS-22.

  3. Historical Roots of Generalized Trust in Polish Society

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    Borowiecki Łukasz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses how historical events shape generalized trust in contemporary Polish society. The analysis consists of a set of logistic regression models. The impact of historical variables is controlled for age, sex, education and the size of the municipality. This is the first quantitative study on Poland that links historical events with the current levels of trust among Polish citizens. The common knowledge is that the Partitions of Poland had negative impact on trust. Literature on the topic hints that historical demo? graphics should play a role too. The findings suggest that Partitions had little impact with only Greater Poland and Pomerania having lower levels of generalized trust. Historical literacy rate and the presence of Ukrainian or Belarusian population are negatively associated with generalized trust while the abrupt migrations after the World War I are positively associated. The rapid character of migration is supposed to positively impact generalized trust by forcing individuals to cooperate and rely on people with whom they have no personal ties.

  4. Proceedings of the 14. Congress of the Maria Sklodowska-Curie Polish Radiation Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lankoff, A.; Wojcik, A.

    2007-01-01

    Held every three years Congress of the Polish Radiation Research Society presents the latest achievements in the radiation research. In 2007 participants presented 9 plenary lectures, 38 section lectures and 61 posters. Communications and posters covered four disciplines: (a) radiobiology and radiotherapy, (b) radiation chemistry and photochemistry, (c) non-ionizing radiation, (d) radioprotection and the environmental radiation

  5. 10. national conference of Maria Sklodowska-Curie Polish Radiation Research Society. Abstract of papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The 10. national conference of M. Sklodowska-Curie Polish Radiation Research Society has given the opportunity to present novel Polish advisement in all fields of radiation research, e.g. radiation chemistry and biology, radiation processing, environmental study, mathematical modeling and simulation as well as different theoretical study. As a whole it may be treated as a review of actual state of art. The scientific progress since 1992 when the 9. national conference place up to now can be easy assessed on the base of presented material

  6. Polish Society of Endocrinology Position statement on endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowska, Aleksandra; Rachoń, Dominik; Milewicz, Andrzej; Ruchała, Marek; Bolanowski, Marek; Jędrzejuk, Diana; Bednarczuk, Tomasz; Górska, Maria; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja; Kos-Kudła, Beata; Lewiński, Andrzej; Zgliczyński, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    With the reference to the position statements of the Endocrine Society, the Paediatric Endocrine Society, and the European Society of Paediatric Endocrinology, the Polish Society of Endocrinology points out the adverse health effects caused by endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) commonly used in daily life as components of plastics, food containers, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. The statement is based on the alarming data about the increase of the prevalence of many endocrine disorders such as: cryptorchidism, precocious puberty in girls and boys, and hormone-dependent cancers (endometrium, breast, prostate). In our opinion, it is of human benefit to conduct epidemiological studies that will enable the estimation of the risk factors of exposure to EDCs and the probability of endocrine disorders. Increasing consumerism and the industrial boom has led to severe pollution of the environment with a corresponding negative impact on human health; thus, there is great necessity for the biomonitoring of EDCs in Poland.

  7. Financialization and the cultural attitude of Polish society towards the banking sector

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    Lech Kurkliński

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to changes in the cultural attitude of Polish society towards the banking sector under the conditions of progressing financialization and arising consequences for the banking sector. First of all, attention is focused on the cultural characteristics of Poles, their attitude towards finance, especially in the period of transition. The main reference to cultural conditions relates to the tendency to save, incur loans, and the attitude towards banks. It is complemented, among other things, by the model of cultural dimensions by G. Hofstede and S. Schwartz, in line with which attempts are made to explain the mechanisms shaping the financial (banking system and the financialization tendency. This picture is confronted with the present shape and evolution of the Polish banking sector since 1989, including the role of foreign capital. In particular, attention is focused on the image of banks towards challenges related to the global financial crisis and the main problem of Polish banking institutions, namely household mortgage debt in foreign currencies. The author presents a thesis that significant financialization cannot be indicated in Poland and the historical and cultural aspects do not cause its expansion to the same degree as in a number of other countries. However, certain features, such as preference for loans rather than savings, are favorable for this direction.

  8. Materials of 45. Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society. Volumes 1-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Scientific assemblies of Polish Chemical Society are the most important chemical meeting organised annually in Poland. Basic as well as application studies in all chemical branches have been extensively presented. The next subjects was proposed as scientific sessions and symposia topics: organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, physical chemistry, analytical chemistry, technology and chemical engineering, polymer chemistry, solid state chemistry, catalysis, biological chemistry, chemistry and technology of coal, environmental protection, didactics of chemistry, history of chemistry, young scientist forum, flow analysis, and high-energy materials

  9. Materials of jubilee scientific assembly of the Polish Chemical Society, Warsaw'94. Homo chemicus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Jubilee Scientific Assembly of the Polish Chemical Society has been held in 1994 in Warsaw. The general view on scientific progress in chemistry in Poland has been presented during plenary session. The conference has been divided into 15 sessions and 3 microsymposia covering the most important research fields in chemistry. Sessions topics were: analytical chemistry, chemistry of solid state materials, physical chemistry, coordination chemistry, medical chemistry, chemistry of metalorganic compounds, inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry, chemistry of polymers, young scientists forum, didactics and history of chemistry, catalysis, crystallochemistry, chemical technology, environment protection. Microsymposia's topics were as follows: chemistry of saccharides, electrochemistry, membranes and membrane processes

  10. Materials of yearly scientific assembly of Polish Chemical Society, Lublin 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Scientific conference accompanied the yearly assembly of Polish Chemical Society has bee held in 1995 in Lublin. The general review on scientific progress of the most important field of chemistry in Poland have been presented. The conference has been divided into 16 plenary sessions and 3 microsymposia. The sessions topics as follows: S-1 - physical chemistry; S-2 - physicochemistry of the surface; S-3 - catalysis; S-4 - chemical technology; S-5 - inorganic chemistry; S-6 - coordination chemistry; S-7 -crystallochemistry; S-8 - electrochemistry; S-9 - organic chemistry; S-10 -chemistry of polymers; S-11 - chemistry in medicine; S-12 - chemistry and technology of solid state materials; S-13 - young scientists forum; S-14 -didactics in chemistry; S-15 - theoretical chemistry; S-16 - environmental protection. Also the 3 microsymposia have been organized. It was: M-1 -chemistry of heteroorganic compounds; M-2 chromatography; M-3 - plasma chemistry

  11. Materials of yearly scientific assembly of Polish Chemical Society, Poznan 23-26 September 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society has been held in 1996 in Poznan. The general view on scientific progress of chemistry in Poland has been presented. The conference has been divided into 18 sessions covering the most important research fields in chemistry. The sessions topics were as follows: S-1 physical chemistry; S-2 photochemistry, radiation chemistry and chemical kinetics; S-3 catalysis; S-4 inorganic chemistry and coordination chemistry; S-5 organic chemistry; S-6 chemistry of hetero organic compounds; S-7 medical chemistry; S-8 crystallochemistry; S-9 environment protection; S-10 didactics in chemistry; S-11 analytical chemistry; S-12 chemical technology; S-13 chemical engineering; S-14 chemistry of polymers; S-15 young chemists forum; S-16 professor forum; S-17 membranes and membrane processes; S-18 supermolecular chemistry

  12. The diagnosis and management of food allergies. Position paper of the Food Allergy Section the Polish Society of Allergology.

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    Bartuzi, Zbigniew; Kaczmarski, Maciej; Czerwionka-Szaflarska, Mieczysława; Małaczyńska, Teresa; Krogulska, Aneta

    2017-10-01

    The paper concerns the current position of the Polish Society of Allergology Food Allergy Section on the diagnosis and management of food allergies. The aim of this position is to provide evidence-based recommendations on the diagnosis and management of patients with allergic hypersensitivity to foods. This position statement includes a systematic review of studies in three areas, namely, the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of food allergies. While taking into account the specific Polish setting, in this publication we also used the current European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) position paper and other current position statements, including those of the United States National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID).

  13. Abstracts Book of 42. Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry is the most important chemical forum of Polish chemists organised annually. The state of art of many fundamental and applied investigations have been presented and discussed. The following scientific sessions and microsymposia have been proposed: plenary session, analytical chemistry, inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry, chemistry and environment, chemistry and technology of polymers, chemistry didactics, electrochemistry, young scientists forum, chemical technology, chemical engineering, high energetics materials, computers in research and teaching of chemistry, structure modelling and polymer properties, silicon-organic compounds

  14. Summaries of the 40. Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Annual 40. Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry has been held in Gdansk on 22-26 September 1997. The most valuable scientific results obtained in Polish Laboratories have been presented in 22 main sections and 7 symposia directed especially at following subjects: analytical chemistry, biochemistry, solid state chemistry and material science, physical chemistry, heteroorganic and coordination chemistry, medical and pharmaceutical chemistry, metalorganic chemistry, inorganic and organic chemistry, polymers chemistry, chemistry and environment protection, theoretical chemistry, chemical didactics, photochemistry, radiation chemistry and chemical kinetics, chemical engineering, catalysis, crystallochemistry, chemical technology, electrochemistry, and instrumental methods

  15. Adrenal incidentaloma in adults - management recommendations by the Polish Society of Endocrinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarczuk, Tomasz; Bolanowski, Marek; Sworczak, Krzysztof; Górnicka, Barbara; Cieszanowski, Andrzej; Otto, Maciej; Ambroziak, Urszula; Pachucki, Janusz; Kubicka, Eliza; Babińska, Anna; Koperski, Łukasz; Januszewicz, Andrzej; Prejbisz, Aleksander; Górska, Maria; Jarząb, Barbara; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja; Glinicki, Piotr; Ruchała, Marek; Kasperlik-Załuska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    A wide use of imaging techniques results in more frequent diagnosis of adrenal incidenataloma. To analyse the current state of knowledge on adrenal incidentaloma in adults in order to prepare practical management recommendations. Following a discussion, the Polish Society of Endocrinology expert working group have analysed the available data and summarised the analysis results in the form of recommendations. Unenhanced adrenal computed tomography (CT) may be recommended as an initial assessment examination helpful in the differentiation between adenomas and "non-adenomatous" lesions. In the case of density > 10 Hounsfield units, CT with contrast medium washout assessment or MRI are recommended. However, in all patients with adrenal incidentaloma, hormonal assessment is recommended in order to exclude pheochromocytoma and hypercortisolism, notwithstanding the clinical picture or concomitant diseases. In addition, examination to exclude primary hyperaldosteronism is suggested in patients with diagnosed hypertension or hypokalaemia. Surgical treatment should be recommended in patients with adrenal incidentaloma, where imaging examinations suggest a malignant lesion (oncological indication) or with confirmed hormonal activity (endocrinological indication). The basis of the surgical treatment is laparoscopic adrenalectomy. Patients with suspected pheochromocytoma must be pharmacologically prepared prior to surgery. In patients not qualified for surgery, control examinations (imaging and laboratory tests) should be established individually, taking into consideration such features as the size, image, and growth dynamics of the tumour, clinical symptoms, hormonal tests results, and concomitant diseases.

  16. [Statement of the Polish Gynecological Society Expert Group on the use of Macmiror Complex 500].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The group of experts representing the Polish Gynecologic Society has issued this statement based on the review of available literature on the potential benefits of the use of Macmiror Complex 500 in obstetrical and gynecologic practice. Mixed Vaginitis (MV) eg. the vaginal infection caused by at least two out of the triad of pathogens (fungi, bacteria and Trichomonas Vaginalis [TV]), constitutes the type of vaginitis which is underestimated as for its prevalence. Mixed pathogens are responsible for as much as one third of all vaginal infections. Macmiror Complex 500 contains two active ingredients: nifuratel and nystatin. Macmiror Complex 500 affects all common causes of vulvovaginitis, i.e. bacteria, yeasts and TV. At the same time, it is not effective against Lactobacillus spp., which is a clear advantage in the treatment of vaginal infections. The antibacterial spectrum of nifuratel includes aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Moreover nifuratel is effective against Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma spp., it has an anti-trichomonal effect comparable to metranidazole and shows certain activity against Candida spp. Nystatin is effective against Candida albicans and is even very effective against Candida glabrata which is usually more resistant to imidazole antifungal agents. Nystatin's importance is rising due to the current increase of candidoses caused by non-albicans types. This increase is especially perceptible in recurring candidoses. The review of the available literature on the effectiveness of Macmiror Complex 500 in the OB/GYN practice leads to the following conclusions: the exeptionally broad antibacterial and antifungal and trichomonicidal activity of this formulation makes it a drug of choice in cases where MV is suspected. The possibility to treat both partners, favorable safety profile in pregnant patients and the availability of both vaginal ovules and the cream with applicator makes this drug an effective and suitable treatment option in

  17. Materials of 44. Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Scientific assemblies of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry are the most important chemical meeting organised annually in Poland. Basic as well as application studies in all chemical branches have been extensively presented. The next subjects was proposed as scientific sessions and symposia topics: solid state chemistry; didactics of chemistry; electrochemistry; biologically active compounds; geochemistry; organic chemistry; physical chemistry; environment quality and protection; coordination chemistry; chemical technology; polymers; explosive materials; analytical chemistry; theoretical chemistry

  18. Materials of 47. Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Scientific assemblies of Polish Chemical Society are the most important chemical meeting organised annually in Poland. Basic as well as application studies in all chemical branches have been extensively presented. The next subjects was proposed as scientific sessions and symposia topics: organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, physical chemistry, analytical chemistry, technology and chemical engineering, polymer chemistry, solid state chemistry, catalysis, biological chemistry, chemistry and technology of coal, environmental protection, didactics of chemistry, history of chemistry, young scientist forum

  19. Abstracts Book of 41. Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry is the most important scientific forum of Polish Chemists. The state of the art in many basic, fundamental and applied investigations has been presented and discussed. The following scientific sessions and microsymposia have been proposed: theoretical chemistry; molecular interactions; metal compounds - chemical, physical, electronic and biological aspects; catalysis and surface physico-chemistry; polymers - radiochemistry, modifications, physics and analytical methods; organic and bioorganic chemistry; physico-chemistry of condensed matter; chemical metallurgy; environmental protection; inorganic technology; chemistry and technology of coal; radiation chemistry; analytical chemistry; chemical engineering; young scientists forum; chemical didactics; petrochemistry; energetic materials; membranes and membrane processes; medical chemistry

  20. The diagnosis and management of food allergies. Position paper of the Food Allergy Section the Polish Society of Allergology

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    Zbigniew Bartuzi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper concerns the current position of the Polish Society of Allergology Food Allergy Section on the diagnosis and management of food allergies. The aim of this position is to provide evidence-based recommendations on the diagnosis and management of patients with allergic hypersensitivity to foods. This position statement includes a systematic review of studies in three areas, namely, the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of food allergies. While taking into account the specific Polish setting, in this publication we also used the current European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI position paper and other current position statements, including those of the United States National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID.

  1. Recognition of American Physiological Society Members Whose Research Publications Had a Significant Impact on the Discipline of Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, Charles M.

    2013-01-01

    Society members whose research publication during the past 125 yr had an important impact on the discipline of physiology were featured at the American Physiological Society (APS)'s 125th Anniversary symposium. The daunting and challenging task of identifying and selecting significant publications was assumed by the Steering Committee of the…

  2. Materials of 48. Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Scientific assemblies of Polish Chemical Society are the most important chemical meeting organised annually in Poland. Basic as well as application studies in all chemical branches have been extensively presented. The next subjects was proposed as scientific sessions and symposia topics: chemistry of metalorganic and supramolecular compounds; organic and bioorganic chemistry; coordination and bioinorganic chemistry; chemistry of polymers and biopolymers; physical and theoretical chemistry; catalysis; structural chemistry; analytical chemistry and environmental protection chemistry of materials and nanomaterials; technology and chemical engineering; didactics of chemistry; young scientist forum; chemistry for economy

  3. Abstracts Book of Jubilee Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Scientific Assemblies of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry are most important chemical discussion forum organised annually in Poland. Basic as well as application studies in all chemical branches have been extensively presented. The next subjects was proposed as sections and symposia topics: organic chemistry, physical chemistry (chemical kinetics, catalysis, thermodynamics), membranes and membrane processes, biological chemistry, biotechnology, metalorganic compounds and complexes, polymer chemistry, crystallochemical study, spectroscopy in nowadays chemistry, supramolecular chemistry, chemistry and technology of coal, high-energetic materials, environment protection, didactics in chemistry, radiation chemistry, photochemistry, electrochemistry, chemistry and technology of carbohydrates, theoretical and computer chemistry, young scientists forum, history of chemistry

  4. Work as a cultural and personal value: attitudes towards work in Polish society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarzyńska, Krystyna

    2002-01-01

    The meaning of work for Poles is analyzed here from 2 perspectives: macrosocial and individual. From the macrosocial perspective work attitudes are explained by 3 factors: traditional Polish Catholicism, cultural patterns (influence of noble class tradition), and experience of "real socialism." From an individual perspective some psychological and demographic predictors of an autonomous (intrinsic) work attitude are empirically tested. The autonomous attitude towards work is understood here as treating work as an important autonomous value versus only an instrumental means for earning money. The data was collected by means of standardized interviews run on a representative random sample of adult working Poles, N = 1340.

  5. Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society – update. Ultrasound examination of thyroid gland and ultrasound-guided thyroid biopsy

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    Anna Trzebińska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonography is a primary imaging technique in patients with suspected thyroid disease. It allows to assess the location, size and echostructures of the thyroid gland as well as detect focal lesions, along with indication of their size, echogenicity, echostructure and vascularity. Based on these features, ultrasound examination allows to predict abnormal focal lesions for biopsy and monitor the biopsy needle track. This paper presents the standards of thyroid ultrasound examination regarding ultrasound apparatus technical requirements, scanning techniques, readings, measurements, and the description of the examination. It discusses the ultrasound features of increased malignancy risk in focal lesions (nodules found in the thyroid gland. It presents indications for fine needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid gland for the visibility of single nodules (focal lesions and numerous lesions as well as discusses contraindications for thyroid biopsy. It describes the biopsy technique, possible complications and rules for post-biopsy monitoring of benign lesions. The paper is an update of the Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society issued in 2011. It has been prepared on the basis of current literature, taking into account the information contained in the following publications: Thyroid ultrasound examination and Recommendations of the Polish Ultrasound Society for the performance of the FNAB of the thyroid.

  6. Sustainable Civil-Society Engagement: Potentials of a Transnational Civil Society in French-German, Polish-German, and Czech-German Border Regions

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    Klaus Boehnke

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on representative survey data, the present study examines potentials for the sustainable development of a transnational civil society in French-German, Polish-German, and Czech-German border regions. The theoretical framework is a social capital approach in the tradition of Putnam. Transnational engagement is seen as a key element for the development of a border-crossing civil society. For the analysis, existing forms of social capital were classified according to their bridging and bonding functions and the potentials of local and transnational activities are described. Furthermore, using multilevel analysis, the predictive power of different variables like individual dispositions and specific contexts of the regions on cross-border activities are examined. Descriptively, the expected lower level of local civil-society engagement, in general, and also with regard to the transnational activities was found for post-socialist border regions. It is shown that, first and foremost, existing experience in civil-society engagement in the local context is a high-impact predictor for both transnational activities and an interest in such activities. Other variables like feelings of a historical burden or the economic situation of the region are less important.

  7. Exploring the opinions and experiences of patients with generic substitution: a representative study of Polish society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdowska, Aleksandra; Hermanowski, Tomasz

    2015-02-01

    Generics have the potential to contain drug therapy costs; successful implementation of generic substitution policy largely depends on consumers' willingness to choose generics. This study aims to analyse the opinions, experiences and preferences of Polish patients towards generic medicines. The study was performed in Poland. The survey was conducted in June 2013 by means of face-to-face interviews. Respondents were drawn from the general population according to a population structure. The study covered a representative sample of 1,000 Poles; the results can be generalized to apply to the Polish population at large. Fifty-two percent of respondents declared to be more often choosing generics, twenty-three percent did not have any specific preferences, and twenty-five percent were more willing to choose brand-name medicines. Past experience with cheaper generic medicines, secondary or lower education, low income and residence in specific regions of Poland were all significantly associated with an increased willingness to choose generics. Respondents' attitudes towards generics were mostly influenced by the opinions of doctors and pharmacists. According to respondents, attitudes towards generics among doctors, pharmacists, family and friends, and in the mass media were mostly positive. There was no relationship between the preference of respondents for generics and factors such as their age, life stage, gender, household size or urban/rural locality. As a result of substituting a brand-name drug with its generic equivalent, 72 % of respondents reported that they had not noticed any difference in drug effectiveness; 21 % had experienced a reduced effectiveness of treatment or increased side effects at least once; and 7 % claimed the generic worked better. The majority of respondents who used cheaper substitutes claimed that generics represented good or very good quality. The study demonstrates that, when choosing medicines, Poles rely mainly on the opinions of their

  8. Materials of the yearly scientific assembly of the Polish Chemical Society - Torun'93: chemistry of new materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Scientific conference accompanied the assembly of Polish Chemical Society has been held in 1993 in Torun. The conference has been divided into 12 sections and 4 symposia covering the most important research fields in chemistry. The general view on scientific progress has been presented during the plenary session. Then proceedings have performed in specialist sessions on: contemporary methods in organic chemistry chemistry, chemistry and physico-chemistry of polymers, coordination chemistry state-of-the-art prospects, absorption and absorbents, new chemical technologies of organic compounds, new chemical technologies of inorganic compounds, environment protection, new methods in analytical chemistry, photochemistry and chemical kinetics, crystallochemistry, history of chemistry and didactics, new substances in health protection, membranes and membrane techniques, electroactive organic compounds, zeolites - material properties

  9. Scientific conference on the occasion of the 200th anniversary of the foundation of the Kraków Learned Society (in Polish

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    Tomasz Pudłocki

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The author submittedto print the report of the scientific conference which had been organized on the occasion of the 200th anniversary of the foundation of the Kraków Learned Society. The session was held in December 9–10, 2015 as a result of cooperation between the Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences, the Jagiellonian University as well as the Scientific Archives of the Polish Academy of Sciences and the Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences in Kraków. It brought an international group of speakers together to discuss in their deliberations the various aspects of the Cracow Learned Society. The outcome of the meeting is the publication Towarzystwo Naukowe Krakowskie w 200-lecie założenia (1815–2015. Materiały konferencji naukowej 9–10 grudnia 2015, edited by Wanda Lohman (Kraków, 2016.

  10. Knowledge on the subject of human physiology among Polish high school students--a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwinczewska, Helena; Rozwadowska, Joanna; Traczyk, Anna; Majda, Szymon; Wysocki, Michał; Grabowski, Kamil; Kopeć, Sylwia; Głowacki, Roman; Węgrzyn, Katarzyna; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof A; Walocha, Jerzy A

    2014-01-01

    In most cases the only knowledge an individual will receive with regards to their own body and its proper functioning is during their high school education. The aim of this study was to evaluate high school students' knowledge about basic physiology. The research was carried out in five, randomly chosen high schools in Krakow, Poland. Young people in the age of 17-19 years were asked to fill in the questionnaire designed by the authors. The first part of the survey included personal data. The second part contained 20 close-ended questions assessing students' knowledge about the basics of human physiology. Question difficulty varied from easy through average, and up to difficult. The maximum number of points to achieve was 20. One-thousand-and eighty-three (out of 1179 invited--91.86%) Polish high school students (63.25% female) filled in a 20-item questionnaire constructed by the authors regarding basic human physiology. The mean age of the group was 17.66 ± 0.80 years. The mean score among the surveyed was 10.15 ± 3.48 (range 0-20). Only 26.04% of students achieved a grade of 60% or more, and only one person obtained the highest possible score. Females achieved significantly better scores than males (10.49 ± 3.38 vs. 9.56 ± 3.56; p physiology, obtained better results than those in their third year who had already finished the biology course (10.70 ± 3.27 vs. 9.81 ± 3.74 respectively; p physiology (10.70 ± 3.27 vs. 9.63 ± 2.74 respectively; p = 0.003). Over 23% of students did not know that mature red blood cells do not have cell nuclei and a similar number of them answered that humans have 500,000 erythrocytes in 1 mm3 of blood. Over 32% believed that plasma does not participate in the transport of respiratory gases, and 31% believed that endocrine glands secrete hormones within their immediate vicinity and into the blood. Our research has shown that young people, especially men, often lack basic physiological knowledge needed to make conscious and

  11. Accelerators for Society - TIARA 2012 Test Infrastructure and Accelerator Research Area (in Polish)

    CERN Document Server

    Romaniuk, R S

    2013-01-01

    TIARA (Test Infrastructure and Accelerator Research Area - Preparatory Phae) is an European Collaboration of Accelerator Technology, which by running research projects, technical, networks and infrastructural has a duty to integrate the research and technical communities and infrastructures in the global scale of Europe. The Collaboration gathers all research centers with large accelerator infrastructures. Other ones, like universities, are affiliated as associate members. TIARA-PP (preparatory phase) is an European infrastructural project run by this Consortium and realized inside EU-FP7. The paper presents a general overview of TIARA activities, with an introduction containing a portrait of contemporary accelerator technology and a digest of its applications in modern society.

  12. Recognition of American Physiological Society members whose research publications had a significant impact on the discipline of physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, Charles M

    2013-03-01

    Society members whose research publication during the past 125 yr had an important impact on the discipline of physiology were featured at the American Physiological Society (APS)'s 125th Anniversary symposium. The daunting and challenging task of identifying and selecting significant publications was assumed by the Steering Committee of the History of Physiology Interest Group, who requested recommendations and rationales from all Sections, select Interest Groups, and active senior APS members. The request resulted in recommendations and rationales from nine Sections, one Interest Group, and 28 senior members, identifying 38 publications and 43 members for recognition purposes. The publication recommendations included 5 individuals (Cournand, Erlanger, Gasser, Hubel, and Wiesel) whose research significantly contributed to their selection for the Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology, 4 individuals who received multiple recommendations [i.e., Cannon (3), Curran (2), Fenn (3), and Hamilton (2)], and 11 members who had been APS Presidents. Of the recommended articles, 33% were from the American Journal of Physiology, with the earliest being published in 1898 (Cannon) and the latest in 2007 (Sigmund). For the brief oral presentations, the History of Physiology Steering Committee selected the first choices of the Sections or Interest Group, whereas rationales and representation of the membership were used for the presentations by senior members.

  13. Polish society attitudes towards nuclear power, ionizing radiation applications and radioactive waste management (Report on public opinion polls)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latek, Stanislaw

    1999-01-01

    In Poland, during parliamentary debate on Foundations for the 'Polish energy policies up to 2010', the importance of public attitudes toward nuclear power has been recalled repeatedly in the context of the future development of nuclear power in Poland. In the governmental document, accepted by Polish Parliament on 1 January 1996, it has been stated that nuclear power plant construction is not foreseen up to the year 2010; nevertheless it has been assumed that the appraisals of the economic feasibility and of the public acceptance level for such investments will be conducted. Thus, the need for such assessments of public opinions and attitudes toward nuclear power has been recognized and accepted by the highest legislative power organ in Poland

  14. Treatment guidelines for Circadian Rhythm Sleep - Wake Disorders of the Polish Sleep Research Society and the Section of Biological Psychiatry of the Polish Psychiatric Association. Part II. Diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichniak, Adam; Jankowski, Konrad S; Skalski, Michał; Skwarło-Sońta, Krystyna; Zawilska, Jolanta B; Żarowski, Marcin; Poradowska, Ewa; Jernajczyk, Wojciech

    2017-10-29

    Circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders (CRSWD) are a group of disorders, in which the timing of sleep and wakefulness significantly differs from a patient's expectations or socially acceptable times. The aimof the article is to present the current principles for the diagnosis and treatment of CRSWD in adults and children. Guidelines proposed as CRSWD treatment standard are based on the recommendations from the scientific societies involved in the sleep research and medicine. Researchers participating in the guidelines preparation were invited by the Polish Sleep Research Society and the Section of Biological Psychiatry of the Polish Psychiatric Association based on their significant contribution to the circadian rhythm research and/or clinical experience in the treatment of these disorders. Finally, the guidelines were adjusted to the questions and comments given by the members of both Societies. Patients with endogenous CRSWD are often misdiagnosed and treated for insomnia or hypersomnia. Therefore, each patient reporting sleep-wake disorders should be interviewed about the quality of sleep and its timing during free days (e.g. weekends, holidays). Avalid CRSWD diagnosis can be also established by using sleep diaries/logs and actigraphy. The treatment of choice for CRSWD is chronotherapy, which involves melatonin application, light therapy, and behavioral interventions. Sleep disorders associated with shift work and time zone changes are a growing health problem. Interventions for these disorders should primarily focus on prevention. The main problem in the treatment of CRSWD is an invalid diagnosis. Hypnotics and/or psychostimulants are often used instead of chronotherapeutic interventions, what can alleviate symptoms but is not an effective treatment.

  15. The Music Repertoire of the Society of Jesus in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (1565–1773

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeż Tomasz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the research project coordinated by the University of Warsaw and financed by the Minister of Science and Higher Education as part of the “Tradition 1a” module of the National Programme for the Development of Humanities. The main task of this research project is the documentation of the Jesuit music repertory produced and disseminated on the territory of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

  16. Materials of 46. Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical. Volume 1,2,3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Scientific assemblies of Polish Chemical Society are the most important chemical meetings organised annually in Poland. Basic as well as application studies in all chemical branches have been extensively presented. The next subjects were proposed as scientific sessions and symposia topics: organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, physical chemistry, analytical chemistry, technology and chemical engineering, polymer chemistry, solid state chemistry, catalysis, biological chemistry, chemistry and technology of coal, environmental protection, didactics of chemistry, history of chemistry, young scientist forum as well as the reports of results of works sponsored by Committee of Scientific Research

  17. Dietary customs and food availability shape the preferences for basic tastes: A cross-cultural study among Polish, Tsimane' and Hadza societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokowska, Agnieszka; Pellegrino, Robert; Butovskaya, Marina; Marczak, Michalina; Niemczyk, Agnieszka; Huanca, Tomas; Sorokowski, Piotr

    2017-09-01

    Biological significance of food components suggests that preferences for basic tastes should be similar across cultures. On the other hand, cultural factors play an important role in diet and can consequently influence individual preference for food. To date, very few studies have compared basic tastes preferences among populations of very diverse environmental and cultural conditions, and research rather did not involve traditional populations for whom the biological significance of different food components might be the most pronounced. Hence, our study focused on basic taste preferences in three populations, covering a broad difference in diet due to environmental and cultural conditions, market availability, dietary habits and food acquirement: 1) a modern society (Poles, n = 200), 2) forager-horticulturalists from Amazon/Bolivia (Tsimane', n = 138), and 3) hunter-gatherers from Tanzania (Hadza, n = 85). The preferences for basic tastes were measured with sprays containing supra-threshold levels of sweet, sour, bitter, salty, and umami taste solutions. We observed several interesting differences between participating societies. We found that Tsimane' and Polish participants liked the sweet taste more than other tastes, while Hadza participants liked salty and sour tastes more than the remaining tastes. Further, Polish people found bitter taste particularly aversive, which was not observed in the traditional societies. Interestingly, no cross-cultural differences were observed for relative liking of umami taste - it was rated closely to neutral by members of all participating societies. Additionally, Hadza showed a pattern to like basic tastes that are more common to their current diet than societies with access to different food sources. These findings demonstrate the impact of diet and market availability on preference for basic tastes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Assisted reproductive medicine in Poland --Fertility and Sterility Special Interest Group of the Polish Gynaecological Society (SPiN PTG) 2012 report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicka, Anna; Spaczyńiski, Robert Z; Kurzawa, Rafał

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this report is to present data concerning results and complications related to infertility treatment using assisted reproductive technology (ART) and insemination (IUI) in Poland in 2012. The report was prepared by the Fertility and Sterility Special Interest Group of the Polish Gynaecological Society (SPiN PTG), based on individual data provided by fertility clinics. Reporting was voluntary data were not subject to external verification. The report presents the availability and the structure of infertility treatment services, the number of procedures performed, their effectiveness and the most common complications. In 2014, 34 Polish fertility clinics provided information to the report, presenting data from 2012. The total number of reported treatment cycles using ART was 17,116 (incl. 10,714 fresh IVF/ICSI) and 14,727 IUI. The clinical pregnancy rate per cycle was on average 33.7% for fresh IVF/ICSI and 13.3% for IUI. The prevalence of multiple births was 15.7% and 6.2%, in case of IVF/ICSI and IUI methods respectively The most frequent complication in the course of treatment using ART was ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS)--severe OHSS constituted 0.68% of all stimulated cycles. The SPiN PTG report shows the average effectiveness and safety of ART and was the only proof of responsibility and due diligence of fertility centres in Poland. However, due to the lack of a central register of fertility clinics, facultative participation in the report as well as incomplete information on pregnancy and delivery rate, the collected data do not reflect the full spectrum of Polish reproductive medicine.

  19. Materials from seminar session of the 3.general assembly of Polish Nuclear Society; 3.Walny Zjazd Polskiego Towarzystwa Nukleonicznego. Materialy sesji seminaryjnej

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This publication edited as a scientific report of the Institute of Atomic Energy contains papers presented on the seminar session accompanying the 3rd General Assembly of Polish Nuclear Society. Five of these are dealing with the present situation in Poland in the framework of the following subjects: foreseeing electricity demand as a significant factor of development of electricity generation sector and nuclear option choice; present state and development trends of nuclear technique applications in industry, agriculture, health and environment protection; radioactive waste management especially related to the storage of spent fuel from EWA and MARIA research reactors; present educational problems in nuclear science and technology. The problems of nuclear power could not be excluded from the session, although it does not exist in Poland and no plans foresee it currently. The paper on nuclear power contains an extensive summary of nuclear power development worldwide, its safety problems, economic competitiveness and public acceptance. The so called ``Sellafield phenomenon`` considering the growth of leukaemia deaths of children living near that reprocessing plant in England has been commented in mass media criticizing nuclear energy application. The paper on this problem present the results of investigations and hypotheses on reasons having caused this phenomenon. The declaration of the International Council of Nuclear Societies on the role of nuclear science and technology in supporting the development is also included in the report.

  20. 10. national conference of Maria Sklodowska-Curie Polish Radiation Research Society. Abstract of papers; 10. krajowy zjazd Polskiego Towarzystwa Badan Radiacyjnych im. Marii Sklodowskiej-Curie. Streszczenia referatow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The 10. national conference of M. Sklodowska-Curie Polish Radiation Research Society has given the opportunity to present novel Polish advisement in all fields of radiation research, e.g. radiation chemistry and biology, radiation processing, environmental study, mathematical modeling and simulation as well as different theoretical study. As a whole it may be treated as a review of actual state of art. The scientific progress since 1992 when the 9. national conference place up to now can be easy assessed on the base of presented material.

  1. Proceedings of the 21. Autumn School of Polish Radiation Research Society '' Chernobyl - 20 years after. Contamination of food and the environment and health effects. Nuclear power industry: for and against ''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachocki, K.

    2006-01-01

    21. Autumn Schools of the Polish Radiation Research Society held in 2006 '' Chernobyl - 20 years after. Contamination of food and the environment and health effects '' consisted of 35 lectures and scientific contributions. All aspects concerning accident in the Chernobyl NPP: technical, environmental, medical (direct and prolonged, as well) and safety problems were presented and discussed. Perspectives for the development of the nuclear power industry in Poland were also shown

  2. [Figures of first laureates of the Wiktor Dega medal (XXXVII Jubilee Congress of Polish Orthopaedic and Traumatologic Society, 10-13 September 2008)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Andrzej; Rapała, Kazimierz

    2008-01-01

    Figures of two outstanding orthopaedists Professor Stefan Malawski and Professor Jerzy Król rewarded with the medal of the name of Wiktor Degi were described. The medal is being granted by the Chapter of the Medal as regarding for outstanding achievements for the Polish and world orthopaedics and rehabilitation. Profesor Stefan Kazimierz Malawski was born 26. 12. 1920 in the Vilnius area. In Vilnius he stated his medical studies, which he continued in Lwow and graduated in 1946 at the Marie Curie Skłodowska in Lublin. Professor Malawski's main field of interest were related to the problems related to tuberculosis of bones and joints and trauma of the lumbar and cervical spine. In the problems of bone tuberculosis he remains an unquestioned authority in Poland. His deep understanding of these clinical problems can be found in his text-book "Tuberculosis of bones and joints", which was printed in 1976. The information pertaining diagnosis and surgical treatment remain extremely valuable today. Another field of interest of Professor Malawski are pathologies of the spine. Disc disease, neoplasms of the spine, spinal stenosis and infections of the spine, spondylolisthesis are among many of his interests. This very wide field of interest can be dound in his 3 tome publication Spondyloorthopedics. His 166 papars printed in Poland and abroad bear proof of the Professors wide field of interest and deep knowledge. Professor Malawski was the first surgeon in Poland to perform surgery on the front elements of the spine in tuberculotic paraplegia. In 1958 he implemented surgical treatment of spine tumor--both primary and metastatic, by resecting them and stabilizing the spine with grafts. In the early 70's he focused on spinal stenosis. In the years 1982-1986 he was the Chairman of the Board of the Polish Orthopedic and Trauma Society. Professor Malawski introdued a modern set of Rules and Regulations, greatly simplifying the decision making process during General assemblies

  3. Longitudinal and cross-sectional changes with age in selected anthropometric and physiological traits in hospitalized adults: an insight from the Polish Longitudinal Study of Aging (PLSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chmielewski Piotr

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal studies of aging concerning individuals with comparable lifestyle, diet, health profile, socioeconomic status, and income remain extraordinarily rare. The purposes of our ongoing project are as follows: (i to collect extensive data on biological and medical aspects of aging in the Polish population, (ii to determine factors affecting the rate and course of aging, (iii to understand how aging unfolds as a dynamic and malleable process in ontogeny, and (iv to find novel predictors of longevity. Our investigation followed 142 physically healthy asylum inmates, including 68 males and 74 females, for at least 25 years from the age of 45 years onward. Cross-sectional assessment involved 225 inmates, including 113 males and 112 females. All the patients lived for a very long time under similar and good environmental conditions at the hospital in Cibórz, Lubuskie Province. They maintained virtually the same daily schedule and lifestyle. The rate and direction of changes with age in selected anthropometric and physiological traits were determined using ANOVA, t-test, and regression analysis. There were sex differences in the rate and pattern of age-related changes in certain characteristics such as relative weight, red blood cell count, monocyte count, thymol turbidity value, systolic blood pressure, and body temperature. Body weight, the body mass index (BMI, and total bilirubin level increased with advancing age, while body height decreased with age in both sexes. In conclusion, the aging process was associated with many regressive alterations in biological traits in both sexes but the rate and pattern of these changes depended on biological factors such as age and sex. There were only few characteristics which did not change significantly during the period under study. On the basis of comparison between the pattern of longitudinal changes with aging and the pattern of cross-sectional changes with age in the analyzed traits, we were able

  4. Functional Median Polish

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Ying

    2012-08-03

    This article proposes functional median polish, an extension of univariate median polish, for one-way and two-way functional analysis of variance (ANOVA). The functional median polish estimates the functional grand effect and functional main factor effects based on functional medians in an additive functional ANOVA model assuming no interaction among factors. A functional rank test is used to assess whether the functional main factor effects are significant. The robustness of the functional median polish is demonstrated by comparing its performance with the traditional functional ANOVA fitted by means under different outlier models in simulation studies. The functional median polish is illustrated on various applications in climate science, including one-way and two-way ANOVA when functional data are either curves or images. Specifically, Canadian temperature data, U. S. precipitation observations and outputs of global and regional climate models are considered, which can facilitate the research on the close link between local climate and the occurrence or severity of some diseases and other threats to human health. © 2012 International Biometric Society.

  5. Polish visit

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    On 6 October, Professor Michal Kleiber, Polish Minister of Science and Chairman of the State Committee for Scientific Research, visited CERN and met both the current and designated Director General, Luciano Maiani and Robert Aymar. Professor Kleiber visited the CMS and ATLAS detector assembly halls, the underground cavern for ATLAS, and the LHC superconducting magnet string test hall. Michal Kleiber (left), Polish minister of science and Jan Krolikowski, scientist at Warsaw University and working for CMS, who shows the prototypes of the Muon Trigger board of CMS.

  6. Physiology of man and animals in the Tenth Five-Year Plan: Proceedings of the Thirteenth Congress of the I. P. Pavlov All-Union Physiological Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, K. A.

    1980-01-01

    Research in the field of animal and human physiology is reviewed. The following topics on problems of physiological science and related fields of knowledge are discussed: neurophysiology and higher nervous activity, physiology of sensory systems, physiology of visceral systems, evolutionary and ecological physiology, physiological cybernetics, computer application in physiology, information support of physiological research, history and theory of development of physiology. Also discussed were: artificial intelligence, physiological problems of reflex therapy, correlation of structure and function of the brain, adaptation and activity, microcirculation, and physiological studies in nerve and mental diseases.

  7. Homer Wheelon, M.D., physiologist, artist, and poet: origins of the tailpieces in journals of the American Physiological Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Lawrence P; Schramm, Diana C; Jackson, F Wilson

    2006-12-01

    Since 1953, illustrations have been inserted as "tailpieces" at the ends of articles in The American Journal of Physiology and The Journal of Applied Physiology. The drawings were made by Homer Wheelon, a member of the American Physiological Society from 1919 until his death in 1960. Forty-five years after his death, Wheelon is unknown, but he contributed 32 publications to the medical literature and trained J. Earl Thomas, an important 20th century gastrointestinal physiologist. Wheelon was born into poverty in 1883 to itinerant Methodist preachers, circumstances that guided his education and career choices. Throughout his life, Wheelon exhibited a fondness and talent for art and photography and an unusual breadth of intellectual interests and knowledge. Wheelon received a bachelor's degree from the University of Washington, then studied at the University of Oregon, Northwestern University, and St. Louis University. Earning his M.D. from St. Louis University and assuming a faculty position there, Wheelon and his graduate student, Thomas, conducted widely recognized gastrointestinal research. Returning to Seattle in 1921, Wheelon became a highly respected physician and hospital administrator, but he also found time to indulge his interest in visual art and poetry. In 1933, inspired by observing a rabbit being used in a pregnancy test, Wheelon began to write and illustrate an epic, 322-page poem, Rabbit No. 202, illustrations from which became the journals' tailpieces. The present study traces Wheelon's personal life and scientific career in an attempt to understand this complex man and the origins of his unusual poem and its drawings.

  8. Functional Median Polish

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Ying; Genton, Marc G.

    2012-01-01

    polish is demonstrated by comparing its performance with the traditional functional ANOVA fitted by means under different outlier models in simulation studies. The functional median polish is illustrated on various applications in climate science

  9. [Lysenkoism in Polish botany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Piotr

    2008-01-01

    Lysenkoism in Poland was never an autonomous phenomenon. The whole array of reasons for which it appeared in Polish science would require a separate study--here it only needs to be pointed out that the major reasons included terror on the part of the security service, lawlessness, the ubiquitous atmosphere of intimidation and terror, censorship, the diminishing sphere of civil liberties, political show trials, propaganda and denunciations. An important role in facilitating the introduction of Lysenkoism was played also by the reorganization of science after World War Two, the isolation of Polish science from science in the West, as well as the damage it had suffered during the war. At first, Lysenkoism was promoted in Poland by a small group of enthusiastic and uncritical proponents. A overview of the events connected with the ten years of Lysenkoism in Poland (end of 1948--beginning of 1958) shows a two-tier picture of how the 'idea' was propagated. The first tier consisted in the activities of the Association of Marxist Naturalists [Koło Przyrodników-Marksistów], which it engaged in since the end of 1948. The Association was later transformed into a Union of Marxist Naturalists, and this in turn merged, in 1952, with the Copernican Society of Polish Naturalists [Polskie Towarzystwo Przyrodników im. Kopernika]. It was that society which promoted Lysenkoism longest, until the end of 1956. The propaganda and training activities of the circle and the society prepared ground for analogous activities of the newly formed Polish Academy of Science (PAN), which--since its very establishment in 1952--engaged in promoting Lysenkoism through its Second Division. These activities were aimed at naturalists, initially at those who were prominent scientists (eg. the conference at Kuźnice, 1950/1951), and then at those who were only starting their academic career (including national courses in new biology at Dziwnów, 1952, or Kortowo, 1953 and 1955). The end to promoting

  10. Cancer morbidity among polishers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvholm, B; Thiringer, G; Axelson, O

    1982-01-01

    The mortality pattern among 86 men was determined to investigate the possible hazards of polishing steel. The men had polished steel with polishing paste for at least five years. The polishing pastes had contained tallow, beeswax, carnauba wax, alundum, carborundum, ferric oxide, and chalk. A total of 18 men had died compared with 13.3 expected. Four had died of stomach cancer compared with 0.44 expected (p less than 0.005). The mortality for other causes of death was not increased. The study does not permit any definite conclusion but indicates a possible cancer hazard among polishers. PMID:7066237

  11. Knowledge of participants of the 5th Polish Foot and Ankle Society (PFAS) Congress about the diagnosis and treatment of plano-valgus feet secondary to posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołodziej, Łukasz; Napiontek, Marek; Kazimierczak, Arkadiusz

    2013-01-01

    Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) ranks among the most common causes of adult acquired flatfoot deformity. The deformity develops gradually through characteristic stages and its early manifestations are often ignored or mis-diagnosed. The aim of the study was to gain an insight into what the participants of the 5th Polish Foot and Ankle Society Congress knew about the diagnosis and treatment of flatfoot. An anonymous survey described the clinical presentation of a hypothetical patient with fixed stage III (according to the Johnson and Strom classification) acquired flatfoot deformity in PTTD. A total of 65 questionnaires were distributed and 51 (78%) were completed and returned. The respondents included 40 orthopaedics consultants and 11 orthopaedics and traumatology resident doctors. The mean time of work experience of the specialists was 17.5 years and that of resident doctors, 3.5 years. The deformity was properly diagnosed by 36 respondents (71%), including 29 specialists (73%) and 7 resident doctors (63%). Proper operative treatment was selected by 28 respondents (52%): 24 specialists (60%) and 4 residents (36%). Overall, appropriate comprehensive diagnostic work-up and treatment was planned only by 19 respondents (35%), including 17 specialists (32%) and 2 residents (4%). Appropriate diagnostic work-up and treatment of acquired flatfoot deformity in PTTD was planned by less than half of the respondents and their work experience did not have any relation with the management they suggested. 1. There is a significant lack of knowledge about PTTD among residents. 2. The majority of PFAS members surveyed selected the correct method of diagnostic work-up and treatment, but the differences with respect to non-PFAS respondents were not statistically significant.

  12. Health Information in Polish (polski)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → Polish (polski) URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/polish.html Health Information in Polish (polski) To use the sharing features on this page, ...

  13. Polish Cartographical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedjeljko Frančula

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Polish Cartographical Review (PCR journal has been published in English four times a year since 2015. The journal is in open access and it is published by De Gruyter Open. It is edited by Polish scientists in collaboration with international experts.

  14. Polish polar research (outline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Ludwik Birkenmajer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes Polish research and discoveries in the Arctic and the Antarctic since the 19th century. The author is a geologist and since 1956 has been engaged in scientific field research on Spitsbergen, Greenland and Antarctica (23 expeditions. For many years chairman of the Committee on Polar Research of the Polish Academy of Sciences, he is now its Honorary Chairman.

  15. Polish Higher Education: Intersectoral Distinctiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musial, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes degrees of differences between the private and public sectors of Polish higher education. It finds them to be strong: Polish private institutions function very differently from Polish public institutions and these differences correspond with those found in the literature on higher education elsewhere in the world. Polish…

  16. IDENTITY AND NEGOTIATION OF BOUNDARIES AMONG YOUNG POLISH JEWS

    OpenAIRE

    Cukras-Stelągowska, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, I would like to look at the processes of building the cultural identity of the young generation of Polish Jews, primarily including the models of constructing modern identifications with the Polish society, the Jewish people and the State of Israel. I will present the results of my own studies, and of those conducted by a few other young researchers dealing with these issues. My main theoretical sources are within the interpretive paradigm. The research methodology was based ...

  17. Space Physiology within an Exercise Physiology Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jason R.; West, John B.

    2013-01-01

    Compare and contrast strategies remain common pedagogical practices within physiological education. With the support of an American Physiological Society Teaching Career Enhancement Award, we have developed a junior- or senior-level undergraduate curriculum for exercise physiology that compares and contrasts the physiological adaptations of…

  18. Polish Semantic Parser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Grudzinska

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Amount of information transferred by computers grows very rapidly thus outgrowing the average man's capability of reception. It implies computer programs increase in the demand for which would be able to perform an introductory classitication or even selection of information directed to a particular receiver. Due to the complexity of the problem, we restricted it to understanding short newspaper notes. Among many conceptions formulated so far, the conceptual dependency worked out by Roger Schank has been chosen. It is a formal language of description of the semantics of pronouncement integrated with a text understanding algorithm. Substantial part of each text transformation system is a semantic parser of the Polish language. It is a module, which as the first and the only one has an access to the text in the Polish language. lt plays the role of an element, which finds relations between words of the Polish language and the formal registration. It translates sentences written in the language used by people into the language theory. The presented structure of knowledge units and the shape of understanding process algorithms are universal by virtue of the theory. On the other hand the defined knowledge units and the rules used in the algorithms ure only examples because they are constructed in order to understand short newspaper notes.

  19. An Unbiased View of the History of Polish Medical Physics by a Senior Polish Medical Physicist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chomicki, O. A.

    2008-01-01

    Here is a story told by Maria Sklodowska-Curie at the meeting of the International Committee of Intellectual Cooperation in 1921: 'In a free literary competition on the role and importance of elephants the Englishman's story was 'My adventures while shooting elephants in South Africa', the Frenchman was more concerned with 'The sexual and erotic life of elephants', while the Polish approach was invariably 'The elephant versus Poland's national independence', which seemed quite understandable in the light of over 120 years when Poland was partitioned and lost its independence. Since then this saying has become proverbial and came to express the unmistakably Polish tendency to see everything in terms of Polish interests. In my remarks and reminiscences on the history of the Polish Society of Medical Physics you will quickly recognize the same tendency. First, I will, among other things, try to open some old cupboards to 'produce good [things] from the store of good' (Matthew 12:35), especially concerning the first few years of the activity in medical physics in Poland, and second, I will draw some conclusions and/or offer suggestions based on what a senior medical physicist has seen for more than 50 years of his activity in this field. (author)

  20. Polish Americans. Second, Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopata, Helen Znaniecka

    This book examines Polonia, the Polish ethnic community in America created by three giant waves of immigration between 1880 and 1990. The complicated history of this ethnic group is reflected in the lives of increasing numbers of Polish Americans, including recent immigrants brought by political and economic changes, as they achieve middle class…

  1. A history of the Federation of European Societies of Plant Physiology FESPP since its foundation in 1978--including notes on events preceding the foundation and following re-naming as the Federation of European Societies of Plant Biology (FESPB) in 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenthaler, Hartmut

    2004-06-01

    After several years of close contacts and extensive discussion between various plant physiologists of different European countries, the Federation of European Societies of Plant Physiology (FESPP) was established in 1978 in Edinburgh. The aim of the FESPP was and remains to promote up-to-date plant physiology research in all European countries and to stimulate scientific cooperation and the exchange of scientists between the different member societies by organizing congresses and workshops as well as editing four (recently five) Federation-affiliated journals. The short History of FESPP presented here covers the preparatory years of the 1970s that led to its actual foundation in 1978, and then its further development up to and following the Federation's reconstitution in 2002 as the Federation of European Societies of Plant Biology (FESPB).

  2. Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017; Venice (Italy; October 31-November 4, 2017; Session "Cardiac Physiology and Pathology"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    --- Various Authors

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017; Venice (Italy; October 31-November 4, 201758th ESPR Annual Meeting, 7th International Congress of UENPS, 3rd International Congress of EFCNIORGANIZING INSTITUTIONSEuropean Society for Paediatric Research (ESPR, European Society for Neonatology (ESN, Union of European Neonatal & Perinatal Societies (UENPS, European Foundation for the Care of Newborn Infants (EFCNIORGANIZING COMMITTEELuc Zimmermann (President of ESPR, Morten Breindahl (President of ESN, Manuel Sánchez Luna (President of UENPS, Silke Mader (Chairwoman of the Executive Board and Co-Founder of EFCNISCIENTIFIC COMMITTEEVirgilio P. Carnielli (Congress President Chair, Pierre Gressens (Past Scientific President, Umberto Simeoni, Manon Benders, Neil Marlow, Ola D. Saugstad, Petra Hüppi, Agnes van den HoogenSession "Cardiac Physiology and Pathology"ABS 1. EVALUATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PATENT DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS AND THE PLATELET MASS INDEX IN PRETERM INFANTS • M. Kara, İ. Caner, K.Ş. Tekgündüz, İ. Polat, H. KeskinABS 2. DIAGNOSIS OF DIGEORGE SYNDROME: THE CONTRIBUTION OF MOLECULAR GENETICS • Y. Halleb, H. Hadj-Abdallah, S. Nouri, A. Touati, M. Bellallah, J. Mathlouthi, N. Mahdhaoui, H. Sboui, A. Saad, D. H’midaABS 3. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN SIZE OF PATENT DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS AND CO-MORBIDITIES • S. Bellis, Y. SinghABS 4. EFFICACY OF MEDICAL TREATMENT IN CLOSING PATENT DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS IN ELBW INFANTS • S. Bellis, Y. SinghABS 5. ACETAMINOPHEN FOR CLOSING PDA. SHOULD IT BE A FIRST LINE THERAPEUTIC OPTION? • I. Tofé, M.D. Ruiz, M.P. Jaraba, M.V. Rodriguez, R.L. Rueda, M.D. Ordoñez, M.J. ParragaABS 6. PATENT DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS WITH HEMODYNAMIC REPERCUSSION IN VERY LOW WEIGHT PRETERM INFANTS TREATED WITH ORAL IBUPROFEN PRESENTS A HIGH RATE OF BRONCHOPULMONARY DYSPLASIA • M.M. Lourenço, E. Sacramento, F. Carmona, C. Calixto, F. Martin-Celini, G.H. Seribelli, W.A. Gonçalves-FerriABS 7

  3. The Polish Mother on the defensive? The transformation of the myth and its impact on the motherhood of Polish women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Imbierowicz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this presentation is the attempt to define and to present the origins, socio-cultural content and the evolution of The Polish Mother myth, present in the polish national consciousness. The author tries to show how this myth was born, what functions it fulfilled and what forms it took in the changing historical and social reality, from the moment of loss of independence, through a period of real socialism, until the present day. The impact of this myth in the lives of real women and their motherhood is taken into consideration. Then, the author comparing the results of the latest polish sociological researches on the family and its transformation, and transformation of value systems together with theories about the specifics of life in the period of postmodernity, wonders whether it’s time to deconstruct the myth of The Polish Mother, because it does not fit the conditions of today’s world, which is characterized, above all, by the apotheosis of individuality, self-realization and freedom, or perhaps in polish society there is still strong traditionalism in thinking about motherhood, and the myth of The Polish Mother is still alive?

  4. Polishing large NaCl windows on a continuous polisher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, R.

    1979-01-01

    The Helios and Antares CO 2 fusion laser systems incorporate numerous large sodium chloride windows. These must be refinished periodically, making necessary a consistent and predictable polishing capability. A continuous polisher (or annular lap) which might at Kirtland's Developmental Optical Facility. Large NaCl windows had not been polished on this type of machine. The machine has proven itself capable of producing lambda/16 figures at 633 nm (HeNe) with extremely smooth surfaces on glass. Since then, we have been working exclusively on NaCl optics. Due to different polishing parameters between NaCl and glass, and the slight solubility of the pitch in the slurry, this phase presents new problems. The work on glass will be reviewed. Results on NaCl to date will be reported. The potential of this type of machine relative to prisms, thin and irregularly shaped optics will be discussed

  5. Detection of paint polishing defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebeggiani, S.; Wagner, M.; Mazal, J.; Rosén, B.-G.; Dahlén, M.

    2018-06-01

    Surface finish plays a major role on perceived product quality, and is the first thing a potential buyer sees. Today end-of-line repairs of the body of cars and trucks are inevitably to secure required surface quality. Defects that occur in the paint shop, like dust particles, are eliminated by manual sanding/polishing which lead to other types of defects when the last polishing step is not performed correctly or not fully completed. One of those defects is known as ‘polishing roses’ or holograms, which are incredibly hard to detect in artificial light but are clearly visible in sunlight. This paper will present the first tests with a measurement set-up newly developed to measure and analyse polishing roses. The results showed good correlations to human visual evaluations where repaired panels were estimated based on the defects’ intensity, severity and viewing angle.

  6. Tooth polishing: The current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri Alankar Sawai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Healthy teeth and gums make a person feel confident and fit. As people go about their daily routines and with different eating and drinking habits, the tooth enamel turns yellowish or gets stained. Polishing traditionally has been associated with the prophylaxis procedure in most dental practices, which patients know and expect. However, with overzealous use of polishing procedure, there is wearing of the superficial tooth structure. This would lead to more accumulation of local deposits. Also, it takes a long time for the formation of the fluoride-rich layer of the tooth again. Hence, now-a-days, polishing is not advised as a part of routine oral prophylaxis procedure but is done selectively based on the patients′ need. The article here, gives an insight on the different aspects of the polishing process along with the different methods and agents used for the same.

  7. Lysenko affair and Polish botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the slight impact of Lysenkoism upon Polish botany. I begin with an account of the development of plant genetics in Poland, as well as the attitude of scientists and the Polish intelligentsia toward Marxist philosophy prior to the World War II. Next I provide a short history of the introduction and demise of Lysenkoism in Polish science, with a focus on events in botany, in context with key events in Polish science from 1939 to 1958. The article outlines the little effects of Lysenkoism upon botanists and their research, as well as how botanists for the most part rejected what was often termed the "new biology." My paper shows that though Lysenko's theories received political support, and were actively promoted by a small circle of scientists and Communist party activists, they were never accepted by most botanists. Once the political climate in Poland altered after the events of 1956, Lysenko's theories were immediately abandoned.

  8. Elastic emission polishing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewenthal, M.; Loseke, K.; Dow, T.A.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01

    Elastic emission polishing, also called elastic emission machining (EEM), is a process where a stream of abrasive slurry is used to remove material from a substrate and produce damage free surfaces with controlled surface form. It is a noncontacting method utilizing a thick elasto-hydrodynamic film formed between a soft rotating ball and the workpiece to control the flow of the abrasive. An apparatus was built in the Center, which consists of a stationary spindle, a two-axis table for the workpiece, and a pump to circulate the working fluid. The process is controlled by a programmable computer numerical controller (CNC), which presently can operate the spindle speed and movement of the workpiece in one axis only. This apparatus has been used to determine material removal rates on different material samples as a function of time, utilizing zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) particles suspended in distilled water as the working fluid. By continuing a study of removal rates the process should become predictable, and thus create a new, effective, yet simple tool for ultra-precision mechanical machining of surfaces.

  9. Polish Toxic Currency Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Gontarski

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Toxic currency options are defined on the basis of the opposition to the nature (essence of an option contract, which is justified in terms of norms founded on the general law clause of characteristics (nature of a relation (which represents an independent premise for imposing restrictions on the freedom of contracts. So-understood toxic currency options are unlawful. Indeed they contravene iuris cogentis regulations. These include for instance option contracts, which are concluded with a bank, if the bank has not informed about option risk before concluding the contract; or the barrier options, which focus only on the protection of bank’s interests. Therefore, such options may appear to be invalid. Therefore, performing contracts for toxic currency options may be qualified as a criminal mismanagement. For the sake of security, the manager should then take into consideration filing a claim for stating invalidity (which can be made in a court verdict. At the same time, if the supervisory board member in a commercial company, who can also be a subject to mismanagement offences, commits an omission involving lack of reaction (for example, if he/she fails to notify of the suspected offence committed by the management board members acting to the company’s detriment when the management board makes the company conclude option contracts which are charged with absolute invalidity the supervisory board member so acting may be considered to act to the company’s detriment. In the most recent Polish jurisprudence and judicature the standard of a “good host” is treated to be the last resort for determining whether the manager’s powers resulting from criminal regulations were performed. The manager of the exporter should not, as a rule, issue any options. Issuing options always means assuming an obligation. In the case of currency put options it is an absolute obligation to purchase a given amount in euro at exchange rate set in advance. On the

  10. Polish-German bilingualism at school. A Polish perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulaczewska, Hanna

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the institutional frames for the acquisition of Polish literacy skills in Germany and the maintenance of Polish-German bilingualism after the repatriation of bilingual children to Poland. These processes are examined in the context of recent developments in the European domestic job market. While the European Union has placed proficiency in several languages among its educational objectives, and foreign languages have been made obligatory school subjects in all member countries, the potential advantages of internal European migrations for producing high-proficiency bilinguals are being ignored. Bilingualism resulting from migration and biculturalism enjoys little social prestige in the host countries. In Germany, there is significant regional variation in how school authorities react to challenges posed by the presence of minority languages. In many cases, the linguistic potential of many second-generation migrants and re-emigrants gets largely wasted because of lacking interest and incentives from German and Polish institutions alike.

  11. Sensory factors affecting female consumers' acceptability of nail polish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, C; Koppel, K; Adhikari, K

    2015-12-01

    sensory attributes, could help a nail polish manufacturer modify or improve their nail polish formulas. Nail polish manufacturers could use the consumer cluster information to improve their marketing strategies for specific categories of their products and to target their advertising on particular consumer groups. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  12. Sensing roughness and polish direction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Olesen, Anders Sig; Larsen, Henning Engelbrecht

    2016-01-01

    As a part of the work carried out in a project supported by the Danish Council for Technology and Innovation, we have investigated the option of smoothing standard CNC-machined surfaces. In the process of constructing optical prototypes, involving custom-designed optics, the development cost...... and time consumption can become prohibitive in a research budget. Machining the optical surfaces directly is expensive and time consuming. Alternatively, a more standardized and cheaper machining method can be used, calling for the object to be manually polished. During the polishing process, the operator...... needs information about the RMS-value of the surface roughness and the current direction of the scratches introduced by the polishing process. The RMS-value indicates to the operator how far he is from the final finish, and the scratch orientation is often specified by the customer in order to avoid...

  13. 35. Meeting of the Polish Biochemical Society. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    During the conference various works concerning biochemistry, molecular biology and medicine were presented. Many works applied X-rays, gamma radiation and laser radiation to induce various disorders (changes of metabolism and enzyme activity, damages of cell constituents) in model organisms and cell cultures

  14. 34. Meeting of the Polish Biochemical Society. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    During the conference various works concerning biochemistry, molecular biology and medicine were presented. Many works applied gamma radiation and laser radiation to induce various disorders (changes of metabolism and enzyme activity, damages of cell constituents) in model organisms and cell cultures

  15. Vitamin D Supplementation Guidelines for General Population and Groups at Risk of Vitamin D Deficiency in Poland—Recommendations of the Polish Society of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes and the Expert Panel With Participation of National Specialist Consultants and Representatives of Scientific Societies—2018 Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Rusińska

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionVitamin D deficiency is an important public health problem worldwide. Vitamin D deficiency confers a significant risk for both skeletal and non-skeletal disorders and a number of lifelong negative health outcomes. The objectives of this evidence-based guidelines document are to provide health care professionals in Poland, an updated recommendation for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of vitamin D deficiency.MethodsA systematic literature search examining the prevention and treatment strategies for vitamin D deficiency was conducted. Updated recommendations were developed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation system describing the strength of the recommendation and the quality of supporting evidence. Twenty-seven contributors representing different areas of expertise and medical specialties, including pediatricians, geriatricians, endocrinologists, epidemiologists, nephrologists, gynecologists and obstetricians evaluated the available published evidence related to vitamin D, formulated the goals of this document and developed a common consolidated position. The consensus group, representing six national specialist consultants and eight Polish and international scientific organizations/societies, participated in the process of grading evidence and drawing up the general and specific recommendations.ResultsThe updated recommendations define the diagnostic criteria for the evaluation of vitamin D status and describe the prevention and treatment strategies of vitamin D deficiency in the general population and in groups at increased risk of the deficiency. Age- and weight-specific recommendations for prevention, supplementation and treatment of vitamin D deficiency are presented, and detailed practice guidance is discussed regarding the management in primary and specialized health care.ConclusionVitamin D deficiency remains still highly prevalent in Poland, in all age groups. Currently, there

  16. Cannabinoids cases in polish athletes

    OpenAIRE

    A Pokrywka; Z Obmiński; D Kwiatkowska; R Grucza

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the number of cases and the profiles of Polish athletes who had occasionally been using marijuana or hashish throughout the period of 1998-2004, with respect to: sex, age, and discipline of sport as well as the period of testing (in- and out-of-competition). Results of the study were compared with some data reported by other WADA accredited anti-doping laboratories. Totally, 13 631 urine samples taken from Polish athletes of both sexes, aged 10-67 year...

  17. Graphite Composite Panel Polishing Fixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagopian, John; Strojny, Carl; Budinoff, Jason

    2011-01-01

    The use of high-strength, lightweight composites for the fixture is the novel feature of this innovation. The main advantage is the light weight and high stiffness-to-mass ratio relative to aluminum. Meter-class optics require support during the grinding/polishing process with large tools. The use of aluminum as a polishing fixture is standard, with pitch providing a compliant layer to allow support without deformation. Unfortunately, with meter-scale optics, a meter-scale fixture weighs over 120 lb (.55 kg) and may distort the optics being fabricated by loading the mirror and/or tool used in fabrication. The use of composite structures that are lightweight yet stiff allows standard techniques to be used while providing for a decrease in fixture weight by almost 70 percent. Mounts classically used to support large mirrors during fabrication are especially heavy and difficult to handle. The mount must be especially stiff to avoid deformation during the optical fabrication process, where a very large and heavy lap often can distort the mount and optic being fabricated. If the optic is placed on top of the lapping tool, the weight of the optic and the fixture can distort the lap. Fixtures to support the mirror during fabrication are often very large plates of aluminum, often 2 in. (.5 cm) or more in thickness and weight upwards of 150 lb (68 kg). With the addition of a backing material such as pitch and the mirror itself, the assembly can often weigh over 250 lb (.113 kg) for a meter-class optic. This innovation is the use of a lightweight graphite panel with an aluminum honeycomb core for use as the polishing fixture. These materials have been used in the aerospace industry as structural members due to their light weight and high stiffness. The grinding polishing fixture consists of the graphite composite panel, fittings, and fixtures to allow interface to the polishing machine, and introduction of pitch buttons to support the optic under fabrication. In its

  18. Materials of the 49 Congress of Polish Chemical Society and Polish Association of Chemical Engineers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namiesnik, J.; Zabiegala, B.; Skowronska, K.; Gdaniec-Pietryka, M.; Partyka, M.; Skarzynska, K.; Dubiella-Jackowska, A.; Gorecka, A.

    2006-01-01

    Book of Abstracts contains short descriptions of presentations grouped in 16 sections. Separate section was devoted to the radiochemistry, nuclear chemistry and radiochemical analysis. Some papers on the neutron activation analysis can be found also in the section A nalytical Chemistry

  19. Polish-Bulgarian-Russian, Bulgarian-Polish-Russian or Russian-Bulgarian-Polish dictionary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Koseska-Toszewa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Polish-Bulgarian-Russian, Bulgarian-Polish-Russian or Russian-Bulgarian-Polish dictionary? The trilingual dictionary (M. Duszkin, V. Koseska, J. Satoła and A. Tzoneva is being elaborated based on a working Polish-Bulgarian-Russian electronic parallel corpus authored by Maksim Duszkin, Violetta Koseska-Toszewa and Joanna Satoła-Staśkowiak, and works by A. Tzoneva. It is the first corpus comparing languages belonging to three different Slavic language groups: western, southern and eastern. Works on the dictionary are based on Gramatyka konfrontatywna bułgarsko-polska (Bulgarian-Polish confrontative grammar and the proposed there semantic-oriented interlanguage. Two types of classifiers have been introduced into the dictionary: classic and semantic. The trilingual dictionary will present a consistent and homogeneous set of facts of grammar and semantics. The Authors point out that in a traditional dictionary it is not clear for example whether aspect should be understood as imperfective / perfective form of a verb or as its meaning. Therefore in the dictionary forms and meaning are separated in a regular way. Imperfective verb form has two meanings: state and configuration of states and events culminating in state. Also perfective verb form has two meanings: event and configuration of states and events culminating in event. These meanings are described by the semantic classifiers, respectively, state and event, state1 and event1. The way of describing language units, mentioned in the article, gives a possibility to present language material (Polish, Bulgarian, Russian in any required order, hence the article’s title.

  20. Occupational physiology

    CERN Document Server

    Toomingas, Allan; Tornqvist, Ewa Wigaeus

    2011-01-01

    In a clear and accessible presentation, Occupational Physiology focuses on important issues in the modern working world. Exploring major public health problems-such as musculoskeletal disorders and stress-this book explains connections between work, well-being, and health based on up-to-date research in the field. It provides useful methods for risk assessment and guidelines on arranging a good working life from the perspective of the working individual, the company, and society as a whole.The book focuses on common, stressful situations in different professions. Reviewing bodily demands and r

  1. Cannabinoids cases in polish athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Pokrywka

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the number of cases and the profiles of Polish athletes who had occasionally been using marijuana or hashish throughout the period of 1998-2004, with respect to: sex, age, and discipline of sport as well as the period of testing (in- and out-of-competition. Results of the study were compared with some data reported by other WADA accredited anti-doping laboratories. Totally, 13 631 urine samples taken from Polish athletes of both sexes, aged 10-67 years, performing 46 disciplines of sport were tested. Cannabinoids were detected in 267 samples. Among Polish athletes the relative number of positive THC (tetrahydrocannabinol samples was one of the highest in Europe. The group of young Polish athletes (aged 16-24 years was the most THC-positive. THC-positive cases were noted more frequently in male athletes tested during out of competitions. The so-called contact sports (rugby, ice hockey, skating, boxing, badminton, body building and acrobatic sports were those sports, where the higher risk of cannabis use was observed. The legal interpretation of some positive cannabinoids results would be difficult because of some accidental and unintentional use of the narcotics by sportsmen. It was concluded that national anti-doping organizations (NADO’s, which are competent to judge whether the anti-doping rules were violated, should take into account the possibility of non-intentional doping use of cannabinoids via passive smoking of marijuana.

  2. Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences (Niger. J. Physiol. Sci.) is a biannual publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria. It covers diverse areas of research in physiological sciences, publishing reviews in current research areas and original laboratory and clinical research in physiological sciences. Other websites ...

  3. Polish energy-system modernisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdz, M.

    2003-01-01

    The Polish energy-system needs intensive investments in new technologies, which are energy efficient, clean and cost effective. Since the early 1990s, the Polish economy has had practically full access to modern technological devices, equipment and technologies. Introducing new technologies is a difficult task for project teams, constructors and investors. The author presents a set of principles for project teams useful in planning and energy modernisation. Several essential features are discussed: Energy-efficient appliances and systems; Choice of energy carriers, media and fuels; Optimal tariffs, maximum power and installed power; Intelligent, integrated, steering systems; Waste-energy recovery; Renewable-energy recovery. In practice there are several difficulties connected with planning and realising good technological and economic solutions. The author presents his own experiences of energy-system modernisation of industrial processes and building new objects. (Author)

  4. Energy savings in Polish buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markel, L.C.; Gula, A.; Reeves, G.

    1995-12-31

    A demonstration of low-cost insulation and weatherization techniques was a part of phase 1 of the Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficient Project. The objectives were to identify a cost-effective set of measures to reduce energy used for space heating, determine how much energy could be saved, and foster widespread implementation of those measures. The demonstration project focused on 4 11-story buildings in a Krakow housing cooperative. Energy savings of over 20% were obtained. Most important, the procedures and materials implemented in the demonstration project have been adapted to Polish conditions and applied to other housing cooperatives, schools, and hospitals. Additional projects are being planned, in Krakow and other cities, under the direction of FEWE-Krakow, the Polish Energie Cities Network, and Biuro Rozwoju Krakowa.

  5. SAFETY PLATFORM OF POLISH TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna CHRUZIK

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing the level of Polish transport safety culture can be seen that it is now dependent on the culture of safety management within the organization and the requirements and recommendations of law in this field for different modes of transport (air, rail, road, water. Of the four basic types of transport requirements are widely developed in the aviation, rail, and water – the sea. In order to harmonize the requirements for transport safety so it appears advisable to develop a platform for exchange of safety information for different modes of transport, and the development of good practices multimodal offering the possibility of improving Polish transport safety. Described in the publication of the proposal in addition to the alignment platform experience and knowledge in the field of transport safety in all its kinds, it can also be a tool for perfecting new operators of public transport.

  6. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowell, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    This invention is comprised of a polishing compound for plastic materials. The compound includes approximately by approximately by weight 25 to 80 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 12 parts mineral spirits, 50 to 155 parts abrasive paste, and 15 to 60 parts water. Preferably, the compound includes approximately 37 to 42 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, up to 8 parts mineral spirits, 95 to 110 parts abrasive paste, and 50 to 55 parts water. The proportions of the ingredients are varied in accordance with the particular application. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{trademark}, LEXAN{trademark}, LUCITE{trademark}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  7. Careers of young Polish chemists

    OpenAIRE

    Kosmulski, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Typical young Polish scientist is an alumnus of doctoral studies at the same university and department where he/she completed his/her Master degree. The career is continued by receiving a habilitation at the same university and department. Then a holder of habilitation is promoted to a tenured position at the same university and department. Detailed analysis of scientific careers of 154 recent Ph.D. recipients and of 16 habilitation candidates in chemistry from University of Warsaw is present...

  8. 19th Polish Control Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Kacprzyk, Janusz; Oprzędkiewicz, Krzysztof; Skruch, Paweł

    2017-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the KKA 2017 – the 19th Polish Control Conference, organized by the Department of Automatics and Biomedical Engineering, AGH University of Science and Technology in Kraków, Poland on June 18–21, 2017, under the auspices of the Committee on Automatic Control and Robotics of the Polish Academy of Sciences, and the Commission for Engineering Sciences of the Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences. Part 1 deals with general issues of modeling and control, notably flow modeling and control, sliding mode, predictive, dual, etc. control. In turn, Part 2 focuses on optimization, estimation and prediction for control. Part 3 is concerned with autonomous vehicles, while Part 4 addresses applications. Part 5 discusses computer methods in control, and Part 6 examines fractional order calculus in the modeling and control of dynamic systems. Part 7 focuses on modern robotics. Part 8 deals with modeling and identification, while Part 9 deals with problems related to security, fault ...

  9. Droughts in historical times in Polish territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limanowka, Danuta; Cebulak, Elzbieta; Pyrc, Robert; Doktor, Radoslaw

    2015-04-01

    Climate change is one of the key environmental, social and economical issues, and it is also followed by political consequences. Impact of climate conditions on countries' economy is increasingly recognized, and a lot of attention is given, both in the global scale and by the individual national governments. In years 2008-2010, at the Poland -Institute of Meteorology and Water Management-National Research Institute was realized the KLIMAT Project on Impact of climate change on environment, economy and society (changes, effects and methods of reducing them, conclusions for science, engineering practice and economic planning) No. POIG01-03-01-14-011/08. The project was financed by the European Union and Polish state budget in frame of Innovative Economy Operational Programme. A very wide range of research was carried out in the different thematic areas. One of them was "Natural disasters and internal safety of the country (civil and economical)." The problem of drought in Poland was developed in terms of meteorology and hydrology. "Proxy" Data Descriptions very often inform about dry years and seasons, hot periods without precipitation. Analysis of historical material allowed to extract the years that have experienced prolonged periods of high temperatures and rainfall shortages. Weather phenomenon defined as drought belongs to extreme events. This information was very helpful in the process of indexing and thus to restore the course and intensity of climatic elements in the past. The analysis covered the period from year 1000 to modern times. Due to the limited information from the period of 1000-1500 the authors focused primarily on the period from 1500 to 2010. Analysis of the collected material has allowed the development of a highly precise temporal structure of the possible occurrence of dry periods to Polish territory.

  10. The tourism attractiveness of Polish libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Miedzińska, Magdalena; Tanaś, Sławoj

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the article is to draw the reader's attention to the tourism attractiveness of renowned Polish libraries. These have attained a tourism function due to tourism exploration and penetration, but remain in the shadow of other Polish cultural assets. The article outlines the historical geography of Polish libraries, an analysis of tourism assets and an attempt to classify and catalogue libraries in Poland.

  11. Corporate Politics on Polish Millennials

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Roślik

    2017-01-01

    In the very beginning of this particular paper, an author is trying to determine and describe who Millennials actually are. Then, the basis of Millennials definition is analysing corporation’s activity over the past years regarding this age group. The main goal of the thesis is to bring their specific futures out and describe what corporations on Polish job market are doing to encourage them to work in their offices. Especially in Poland within the last years, it is observed that big multinat...

  12. Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency (FEWE) was established in Poland at the end of 1990. FEWE, as an independent and non-profit organization, has the following objectives: to strive towards an energy efficient national economy, and to show the way and methods by use of which energy efficiency can be increased. The activity of the Foundation covers the entire territory of Poland through three regional centers: in Warsaw, Katowice and Cracow. FEWE employs well-known and experienced specialists within thermal and power engineering, civil engineering, economy and applied sciences. The organizer of the Foundation has been Battelle Memorial Institute - Pacific Northwest Laboratories from the USA.

  13. Nasal Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregivers Contact ARS HOME ANATOMY Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ... Patient Education About this Website Font Size + - Home > ANATOMY > Nasal Physiology Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy ...

  14. Sexual activity of Polish adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Pastwa-Wojciechowska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The purpose of this research was to explore the subject of sexual activity in the Polish population, with special focus on age and gender differences, and sexual infidelity. Sexual activity is one of the basic factors in initiating and maintaining relationships. On the one hand, sexual activity enables us to meet natural needs and maintain an intimate relationship with another human being; on the other, it may allow us to overcome loneliness and social isolation by providing the opportunity to express feelings of closeness and unity. Material and method. The research was conducted on a representative group of 3,200 Poles aged between 15–49, with the support of a well-known Polish research company – TNS OBOP. Face-to-face and Pencil and Paper (PAPI interviews were carried out. Results. The results focus on two main issues: the age and motives of sexual initiation among teenagers (with a significant percentage starting their sexual activity at the age of 15, and the quality of the sexual lives of adults (average number of sexual partners, sexual infidelity and sexual satisfaction. Conclusion. There is dependence between the type of relationship and the performance or non-performance of sexual activity, as well as the quality of the relationship. Among both adolescents and adults, remaining in a stable relationship (partnership or marriage promotes loyalty. The performance of sexual goals turns out to be an important mechanism regulating the interpersonal aspects of a relationship, influencing their perception and evaluation.

  15. Buffered Electrochemical Polishing of Niobium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciovati, Gianluigi [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Tian, Hui [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Corcoran, Sean [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2011-03-01

    The standard preparation of superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities made of pure niobium include the removal of a 'damaged' surface layer, by buffered chemical polishing (BCP) or electropolishing (EP), after the cavities are formed. The performance of the cavities is characterized by a sharp degradation of the quality factor when the surface magnetic field exceeds about 90 mT, a phenomenon referred to as 'Q-drop.' In cavities made of polycrystalline fine grain (ASTM 5) niobium, the Q-drop can be significantly reduced by a low-temperature (? 120 °C) 'in-situ' baking of the cavity if the chemical treatment was EP rather than BCP. As part of the effort to understand this phenomenon, we investigated the effect of introducing a polarization potential during buffered chemical polishing, creating a process which is between the standard BCP and EP. While preliminary results on the application of this process to Nb cavities have been previously reported, in this contribution we focus on the characterization of this novel electrochemical process by measuring polarization curves, etching rates, surface finish, electrochemical impedance and the effects of temperature and electrolyte composition. In particular, it is shown that the anodic potential of Nb during BCP reduces the etching rate and improves the surface finish.

  16. Efficiency as a parameter for assessing the Polish healthcare system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Bogdan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Efficacy is defined as one of the most valid parameters of health system evaluation. It should be said that there is no consistent definition of the concept of effectiveness in health care, which would allow for the evaluation and comparison of health systems in the world. One can not point to the best or even near ideal of the health system. However, you can rank individual health systems with respect to the evaluation of individual parameters or groups of parameters. One of the possibilities is to evaluate the effectiveness of the system. Aim of the study. The aim of the article is to define and analyze particular types of system effectiveness in the context of the Polish health system. Description of knowledge. The literature on the subject is divided into operational and dynamic efficiency. Dynamic efficiency is divided into adaptive and innovative. The Polish health system is characterized by high operational efficiency. Operational efficiency determines the intensity of the system. The key factor for improving the health of the Polish society, as a factor of socio-economic development of the country is to improve the dynamic efficiency of the system. Conclusions. Health care in Poland has high operational efficiency while low dynamic efficiency, both adaptive and innovative, which clearly demonstrates the existence of a paradox of the overall effectiveness of the health care system in Poland.

  17. Polish Industry and Art at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    On 17 October 2000 the second Polish industrial and technological exhibition opened at CERN. The first one was held five years ago and nine of the companies that were present then have come back again this year. Six of those companies were awarded contracts with CERN in 1995. Three Polish officials were present at the Opening Ceremony today: Mrs Malgorzata Kozlowska, Under-secretary of State in the State Committee for Scientific Research, Mr Henryk Ogryczak, Under-secretary of State in Ministry of Economy and Prof. Jerzy Niewodniczanski, President of National Atomic Energy Agency. Professor Luciano Maiani welcomed the Polish delegation to CERN and stressed the important contribution of Polish scientists and industrialists to the work of the laboratory. Director General Luciano Maiani (back left) and head of SPL division Karl-Heinz Kissler (back right) visit the Poland at CERN exhibition… The exhibition offers Polish companies the opportunity to establish professional contacts with CERN. Nineteen companies...

  18. Personality of Polish gay men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Kwiatkowski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Sexuality is a part of one’s identity and personality that is shaped under the influence of biological and environmental factors and interactions with society. The results of research conducted so far and concerning the personality traits of gay men and women are not consistent, and only a small number of them concern the Polish population. Hence the objective of the present research was to provide personality profiles of men and women with different sexual orientations. Participants and procedure The participants (N = 346 included 84 gay women, 82 gay men, 95 heterosexual women and 85 heterosexual men. The following measures were used: a survey developed by the author, the Kinsey Scale, the EPQ-R (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised adapted by Brzozowski and Drwal (1995, and the Sixteen-factor Personality Questionnaire of Cattell adapted by Nowakowska (1970. Results The results support the hypothesis that gay women and heterosexual men share similar personality traits, while gay men have more diverse traits, similar to the traits typical for heterosexual women and men. In particular, personalities of gay men are described by such traits as progressive attitude, independence, or willingness to take risks, which means traits linked to factor Q1. The highest values of that factor are observable in the case of gay men, as compared to gay women, and also in comparison with heterosexual men and women. Conclusions Sexual orientation is responsible for differences in personality traits of the studied group to a greater extent than their biological sex.

  19. Autism Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Improving the lives of all affected by autism. The Autism Society is the nation's leading grassroots ... more Improving the lives of all affected by autism. The Autism Society is the nation's leading grassroots ...

  20. [The Polish adaptation of the public speaking anxiety questionnaire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodkiewicz, Jan; Miniszewska, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was the Polish adaptation of the shortened Public Speaking Anxiety Questionnaire GFER by Spitznagel and co-workers. GFER is a self-assessment method which consists of 16 statements and is designed to assess emotions, physiological reactions, and thoughts that appear in a situation of public speaking. GFER was used to examine 320 students from Lodz's universities. The State/Trait Anxiety Inventory - STAI by Spielberger, The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale by Zigmunt and Snaith and TCI by Cloninger were also used. The Polish version of GFER is a reliable and valid tool. The factor structure is similar to the original structure. As a result of the conducted analyses, there was obtained the 9-item version of the tool, which has a 2-factor structure - factor I: emotional and physiological reactions, factor II: worrying. The results obtained with GFER present a statistically significant correlation with other measures of anxiety and with the dimension of temperament: harm avoidance. The obtained results indicate that GFER may be used in both scientific research and therapeutic practice.

  1. Corporate Politics on Polish Millennials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Roślik

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the very beginning of this particular paper, an author is trying to determine and describe who Millennials actually are. Then, the basis of Millennials definition is analysing corporation’s activity over the past years regarding this age group. The main goal of the thesis is to bring their specific futures out and describe what corporations on Polish job market are doing to encourage them to work in their offices. Especially in Poland within the last years, it is observed that big multinational companies are paying special attention to Millennials and trying to hire them before competitors will do so. As a part of this paper, an author will describe corporate politics and practices on Thomson Reuters and BNY Mellon examples. Within this work, an author is also discussing key features and differences between this generation and Millennials parent’s generation. Additionally, there is a reference to corporate social responsibility concept and work-life balance issues.

  2. Determinants of Polish public debt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Stryjewski

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The crisis, which had its beginning in 2007, turned into the debt crisis of the countries. The examples of Greece, Ireland, Iceland or Spain showed the category of public debt in a new light. Poland, at the turn of 2010/2011 also achieved the upper level of public debt acceptable by the law. In the present situation of the European Union countries being in debt, and even insolvent, the situation in Poland becomes riskier. This article attempts at an empirical verification of the determinants of Polish public debt within 95 months (the data link with the period of time from January 2003 to November 2010. The verification of the main factors which cause the formation of public debt takes place by means of an appropriately verified econometric model.

  3. Zerodur polishing process for high surface quality and high efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tesar, A.; Fuchs, B.

    1992-08-01

    Zerodur is a glass-ceramic composite importance in applications where temperature instabilities influence optical and mechanical performance, such as in earthbound and spaceborne telescope mirror substrates. Polished Zerodur surfaces of high quality have been required for laser gyro mirrors. Polished surface quality of substrates affects performance of high reflection coatings. Thus, the interest in improving Zerodur polished surface quality has become more general. Beyond eliminating subsurface damage, high quality surfaces are produced by reducing the amount of hydrated material redeposited on the surface during polishing. With the proper control of polishing parameters, such surfaces exhibit roughnesses of < l Angstrom rms. Zerodur polishing was studied to recommend a high surface quality polishing process which could be easily adapted to standard planetary continuous polishing machines and spindles. This summary contains information on a polishing process developed at LLNL which reproducibly provides high quality polished Zerodur surfaces at very high polishing efficiencies

  4. Lay beliefs on Polish oncology in the evaluation of healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Synowiec-Piłat

    2017-12-01

    Negative assessment of Polish oncology perpetuates the fear of cancer in society. There is a need for constant improvement of the quality of medical oncology services, for building public trust in physicians, to fight inequalities in health, and to take into account the lay perspectives in developing strategies to combat cancer.

  5. Convergent Polishing: A Simple, Rapid, Full Aperture Polishing Process of High Quality Optical Flats & Spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suratwala, Tayyab; Steele, Rusty; Feit, Michael; Dylla-Spears, Rebecca; Desjardin, Richard; Mason, Dan; Wong, Lana; Geraghty, Paul; Miller, Phil; Shen, Nan

    2014-01-01

    Convergent Polishing is a novel polishing system and method for finishing flat and spherical glass optics in which a workpiece, independent of its initial shape (i.e., surface figure), will converge to final surface figure with excellent surface quality under a fixed, unchanging set of polishing parameters in a single polishing iteration. In contrast, conventional full aperture polishing methods require multiple, often long, iterative cycles involving polishing, metrology and process changes to achieve the desired surface figure. The Convergent Polishing process is based on the concept of workpiece-lap height mismatch resulting in pressure differential that decreases with removal and results in the workpiece converging to the shape of the lap. The successful implementation of the Convergent Polishing process is a result of the combination of a number of technologies to remove all sources of non-uniform spatial material removal (except for workpiece-lap mismatch) for surface figure convergence and to reduce the number of rogue particles in the system for low scratch densities and low roughness. The Convergent Polishing process has been demonstrated for the fabrication of both flats and spheres of various shapes, sizes, and aspect ratios on various glass materials. The practical impact is that high quality optical components can be fabricated more rapidly, more repeatedly, with less metrology, and with less labor, resulting in lower unit costs. In this study, the Convergent Polishing protocol is specifically described for fabricating 26.5 cm square fused silica flats from a fine ground surface to a polished ~λ/2 surface figure after polishing 4 hr per surface on a 81 cm diameter polisher. PMID:25489745

  6. Mass Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Christian

    2017-01-01

    the negative features usually ascribed by late nineteenth-century crowd psychology to spontaneous crowds, and attributes these to the entire social fabric. However, in contrast to crowd psychology, theorists of mass society often place greater emphasis on how capitalism, technological advances, or demographic......Mass society is a societal diagnosis that emphasizes – usually in a pejorative, modernity critical manner – a series of traits allegedly associated with modern society, such as the leveling of individuality, moral decay, alienation, and isolation. As such, the notion of mass society generalizes...... developments condition such negative features, and some theorists argue that mass society produces a propensity to totalitarianism. Discussions of mass society culminated in the early and mid-twentieth century....

  7. Technological Advances of Robot Assisted Polishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarev, Ruslan; Top, Søren; Grønbæk, Jens

    The efficient polishing of surfaces is very important in mould and die industry. Fine abrasive processes are widely used in industry for the first steps for the production of tools of high quality in terms of finishing accuracy, form and surface integrity. While manufacturing of most components....... In this study, the influence of polishing parameters and type of polishing media on fine abrasive surface finishing is investigated. Experimental study is covering 2D rotational surfaces that is widespread used in mould and dies industry. Application of it is essential for process intelligent control, condition...... monitoring and quality inspection....

  8. Planetary Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Carl Sagan, Bruce Murray and Louis Friedman founded the non-profit Planetary Society in 1979 to advance the exploration of the solar system and to continue the search for extraterrestrial life. The Society has its headquarters in Pasadena, California, but is international in scope, with 100 000 members worldwide, making it the largest space interest group in the world. The Society funds a var...

  9. Transforming Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Dahl Højgaard, Pia

    2017-01-01

    , was a result of transforming society from a feudal system to a capitalistic and market based economy. This story is interesting in itself - but it also provides a key to understanding the cadastral system of today. The system has evolved over time and now serves a whole range of functions in society. The paper...

  10. Rice Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.A. Counce; Davidi R. Gealy; Shi-Jean Susana Sung

    2002-01-01

    Physiology occurs tn physical space through chemical reactions constrained by anatomy and morphology, yet guided by genetics. Physiology has been called the logic of life. Genes encode structural and fimcdonal proteins. These proteins are subsequently processed to produce enzymes that direct and govern the biomechanical processes involved in the physiology of the...

  11. Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences (Niger. J. Physiol. Sci.) is a biannual publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria. It covers diverse areas of research in physiological sciences, publishing reviews in current research areas and original laboratory and clinical research in physiological ...

  12. Jewish problem in the Polish Communist Party

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cimek Henryk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Jews accounted for approx. 8-10% of the population of the Second Republic and in the communist movement (Polish Communist Party and Polish Communist Youth Union the rate was approx, 30%, while in subsequent years it much fluctuated. The percentage of Jews was the highest in the authorities of the party and in the KZMP. This had a negative impact on the position of the KPP on many issues, especially in its relation to the Second Republic.

  13. Electrolytic polishing system for space age materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coons, W.C.; Iosty, L.R.

    1976-01-01

    A simple electrolytic polishing technique was developed for preparing Cr, Co, Hf, Mo, Ni, Re, Ti, V, Zr, and their alloys for structural analysis on the optical microscope. The base electrolyte contains 5g ZnCl 2 and 15g AlCl 3 . 6H 2 O in 200 ml methyl alcohol, plus an amount of H 2 SO 4 depending on the metal being polished. Five etchants are listed

  14. Trace element analysis of nail polishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, G.; Mittal, V.K.; Sahota, H.S.

    1999-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique was used to measure the concentrations of various trace elements in nail polishes of popular Indian and foreign brands. The aim of the present experiment was to see whether trace elements could distinguish nail polishes of different Indian and foreign brands from forensic point of view. It was found that cesium can act as a marker to differentiate foreign and Indian brands. (author)

  15. Experimental Polish-Lithuanian Corpus with the Semantic Annotation Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Roszko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental Polish-Lithuanian Corpus with the Semantic Annotation Elements In the article the authors present the experimental Polish-Lithuanian corpus (ECorpPL-LT formed for the idea of Polish-Lithuanian theoretical contrastive studies, a Polish-Lithuanian electronic dictionary, and as help for a sworn translator. The semantic annotation being brought into ECorpPL-LT is extremely useful in Polish-Lithuanian contrastive studies, and also proves helpful in translation work.

  16. Laser polishing of additive manufactured Ti alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, C. P.; Guan, Y. C.; Zhou, W.

    2017-06-01

    Laser-based additive manufacturing has attracted much attention as a promising 3D printing method for metallic components in recent years. However, surface roughness of additive manufactured components has been considered as a challenge to achieve high performance. In this work, we demonstrate the capability of fiber laser in polishing rough surface of additive manufactured Ti-based alloys as Ti-6Al-4V and TC11. Both as-received surface and laser-polished surfaces as well as cross-section subsurfaces were analyzed carefully by White-Light Interference, Confocal Microscope, Focus Ion Beam, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive Spectrometer, and X-ray Diffraction. Results revealed that as-received Ti-based alloys with surface roughness more than 5 μm could be reduce to less than 1 μm through laser polishing process. Moreover, microstructure, microhardness and wear resistance of laser-polished zone was investigated in order to examine the thermal effect of laser polishing processing on the substrate of additive manufactured Ti alloys. This proof-of-concept process has the potential to effectively improve the surface roughness of additive manufactured metallic alloy by local polishing method without damage to the substrate.

  17. Conformal polishing approach: Tool footprint analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A Dieste

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Polishing process is one of the most critical manufacturing processes during a metal part production because it determines the final quality of the product. Free-form surface polishing is a handmade process with lots of rejected parts, scrap generation and time and energy consumption. Two different research lines are being developed: prediction models of the final surface quality parameters and an analysis of the amount of material removed depending on the polishing parameters to predict the tool footprint during the polishing task. This research lays the foundations for a future automatic conformal polishing system. It is based on rotational and translational tool with dry abrasive in the front mounted at the end of a robot. A tool to part concept is used, useful for large or heavy workpieces. Results are applied on different curved parts typically used in tooling industry, aeronautics or automotive. A mathematical model has been developed to predict the amount of material removed in function of polishing parameters. Model has been fitted for different abrasives and raw materials. Results have shown deviations under 20% that implies a reliable and controllable process. Smaller amount of material can be removed in controlled areas of a three-dimensional workpiece.

  18. Polishing of silicon based advanced ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klocke, Fritz; Dambon, Olaf; Zunke, Richard; Waechter, D.

    2009-05-01

    Silicon based advanced ceramics show advantages in comparison to other materials due to their extreme hardness, wear and creep resistance, low density and low coefficient of thermal expansion. As a matter of course, machining requires high efforts. In order to reach demanded low roughness for optical or tribological applications a defect free surface is indispensable. In this paper, polishing of silicon nitride and silicon carbide is investigated. The objective is to elaborate scientific understanding of the process interactions. Based on this knowledge, the optimization of removal rate, surface quality and form accuracy can be realized. For this purpose, fundamental investigations of polishing silicon based ceramics are undertaken and evaluated. Former scientific publications discuss removal mechanisms and wear behavior, but the scientific insight is mainly based on investigations in grinding and lapping. The removal mechanisms in polishing are not fully understood due to complexity of interactions. The role of, e.g., process parameters, slurry and abrasives, and their influence on the output parameters is still uncertain. Extensive technological investigations demonstrate the influence of the polishing system and the machining parameters on the stability and the reproducibility. It is shown that the interactions between the advanced ceramics and the polishing systems is of great relevance. Depending on the kind of slurry and polishing agent the material removal mechanisms differ. The observed effects can be explained by dominating mechanical or chemo-mechanical removal mechanisms. Therefore, hypotheses to state adequate explanations are presented and validated by advanced metrology devices, such as SEM, AFM and TEM.

  19. Interculutral Polish-Chinese QQing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Gajek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Working in tandem with the use of information and communication technologies is well-known and frequently used as a method of supporting learning of foreign languages in authentic communication. It is based on a constructivist approach to teaching. In the reported case study Polish and Chinese students discussed in English preprepared topics. The work shows the potential of e-learning at the micro level, as the language and intercultural task is implemented into an academic course without modification of the objectives and learning outcomes of the course. Evaluation carried out at the end of the project indicates that both groups perceived the task as a significant linguistic, cultural and personal experience. They stressed the importance of sharing “culture for culture” as the partner culture was new for most of them. The ability to talk and respond to information which was often strange, from the point of view of their own culture, allowed for learning intercultural competence ̔in action’.

  20. Lay beliefs on Polish oncology in the evaluation of healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synowiec-Piłat, Małgorzata

    2017-12-23

    Poland is among the countries which reported the highest rates of mortality from cancer. The health behaviours of people are influenced, among other things, by their beliefs about cancer, but their evaluation of oncological institutions and specialists seems also to be of great importance. Objectives. 1. How the respondents evaluate Polish oncology: a) the conditions of treatment in oncology hospitals, b) access to oncological medical services, c) the competence of oncologists. 2. What are the socio-cultural factors of the assessment of Polish oncology? 3. What is the influence of the grade level of the assessment of Polish oncology on the degree of fear and the knowledge about cancer? The study was carried out with a sample of 910 adult residents of Wroclaw in south-west Poland. Quota sampling was used. An interview questionnaire was used as the method. Analysis of the data showed a negative image of Polish oncology, according to the study participants: dissatisfaction with both treatment conditions and with access to medical services. Assessment of Polish oncology depends primarily on education, age and economic situation, as well as 'family history of cancer', and attitude towards doctors. The lower the rating of Polish oncology, the lower the medical knowledge, and the higher the level of fear of cancer. Negative assessment of Polish oncology perpetuates the fear of cancer in society. There is a need for constant improvement of the quality of medical oncology services, for building public trust in physicians, to fight inequalities in health, and to take into account the lay perspectives in developing strategies to combat cancer.

  1. Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017; Venice (Italy; October 31-November 4, 2017; Session "Neonatal Gastrointestinal Physiology and NEC"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    --- Various Authors

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017; Venice (Italy; October 31-November 4, 201758th ESPR Annual Meeting, 7th International Congress of UENPS, 3rd International Congress of EFCNIORGANIZING INSTITUTIONSEuropean Society for Paediatric Research (ESPR, European Society for Neonatology (ESN, Union of European Neonatal & Perinatal Societies (UENPS, European Foundation for the Care of Newborn Infants (EFCNIORGANIZING COMMITTEELuc Zimmermann (President of ESPR, Morten Breindahl (President of ESN, Manuel Sánchez Luna (President of UENPS, Silke Mader (Chairwoman of the Executive Board and Co-Founder of EFCNISCIENTIFIC COMMITTEEVirgilio P. Carnielli (Congress President Chair, Pierre Gressens (Past Scientific President, Umberto Simeoni, Manon Benders, Neil Marlow, Ola D. Saugstad, Petra Hüppi, Agnes van den HoogenSession "Neonatal Gastrointestinal Physiology and NEC"ABS 1. DETRIMENTAL MUCOSAL EFFECT OF IBUPROFEN IN THE IMMATURE HUMAN INTESTINE • E. Tremblay, E. Ferretti, M.-P. Thibault, D. Grynspan, K.M. Burghardt, M. Bettolli, C. Babakissa, E. Levy, J.-F. Beaulieu; Research Consortium on Child Intestinal InflammationABS 2. CORRELATION BETWEEN CALPROTECTIN LEVELS IN MECONIUM AND VITAMIN D STATUS IN CORD BLOOD: ASSOCIATION WITH INTESTINAL DISTRESS DURING NEONATAL PERIOD • S.H. Park, W.H. Kim, Y.M. LeeABS 3. COMPARISON OF FECAL CALPROTECTIN LEVELS ACCORDING TO FEEDING KINDS IN VERY PRETERM INFANTS • J.H. Park, N.H. Lee, S.Y. Shin, C.S. Kim, S.L. Lee, W.M. LeeABS 4. NEONATAL MORBIDITY OF EXTREME PRETERM INFANTS BEFORE AND AFTER THE INTRODUCTION OF A DONOR HUMAN MILK BANK AT THE PERINATAL CENTER GROßHADERN • V. Lieftüchter, M. Kujawa, A. Schuze, A.W. Flemmer, S. Herber-JonatABS 5. IS NEAR INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY A RELIABLE TECHNIQUE TO MEASURE GUT PERFUSION IN PRETERM INFANTS? • J. Banerjee, T.S. Leung, N. AladangadyABS 6. EARLY BIOCHEMICAL MARKERS ASSOCIATED WITH DEVELOPMENT OF NECROTIZING

  2. Civil Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Social Media Facebook @oasofficial Facebook Twitter @oas_official Twitter Newsletters Documents OAS Technology Social Development Summits of the Americas Sustainable Development T Telecommunications Terrorism Tourism Trade Treaties and Agreements W Women Y Youth Strategic Partners Permanent Observers Civil Society

  3. Smoking characteristics of Polish immigrants in Dublin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kabir, Zubair

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study examined two main hypotheses: a) Polish immigrants\\' smoking estimates are greater than their Irish counterparts (b) Polish immigrants purchasing cigarettes from Poland smoke "heavier" (>\\/= 20 cigarettes a day) when compared to those purchasing cigarettes from Ireland. The study also set out to identify significant predictors of \\'current\\' smoking (some days and everyday) among the Polish immigrants. METHODS: Dublin residents of Polish origin (n = 1,545) completed a previously validated Polish questionnaire in response to an advertisement in a local Polish lifestyle magazine over 5 weekends (July-August, 2007). The Office of Tobacco Control telephone-based monthly survey data were analyzed for the Irish population in Dublin for the same period (n = 484). RESULTS: Age-sex adjusted smoking estimates were: 47.6% (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 47.3%; 48.0%) among the Poles and 27.8% (95% CI: 27.2%; 28.4%) among the general Irish population (p < 0.001). Of the 57% of smokers (n = 345\\/606) who purchased cigarettes solely from Poland and the 33% (n = 198\\/606) who purchased only from Ireland, 42.6% (n = 147\\/345) and 41.4% (n = 82\\/198) were "heavy" smokers, respectively (p = 0.79). Employment (Odds Ratio [OR]: 2.89; 95% CI: 1.25-6.69), lower education (OR: 3.76; 95%CI: 2.46-5.74), and a longer stay in Ireland (>24 months) were significant predictors of current smoking among the Poles. An objective validation of the self-reported smoking history of a randomly selected sub-sample immigrant group, using expired carbon monoxide (CO) measurements, showed a highly significant correlation coefficient (r = 0.64) of expired CO levels with the reported number of cigarettes consumed (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Polish immigrants\\' smoking estimates are higher than their Irish counterparts, and particularly if employed, with only primary-level education, and are overseas >2 years.

  4. Polish Code of Ethics of a Medical Laboratory Specialist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elżbieta, Puacz; Waldemar, Glusiec; Barbara, Madej-Czerwonka

    2014-09-01

    Along with the development of medicine, increasingly significant role has been played by the laboratory diagnostics. For over ten years the profession of the medical laboratory specialist has been regarded in Poland as the autonomous medical profession and has enjoyed a status of one of public trust. The process of education of medical laboratory specialists consists of a five-year degree in laboratory medicine, offered at Medical Universities, and of a five-year Vocational Specialization in one of the fields of laboratory medicine such as clinical biochemistry, medical microbiology, medical laboratory toxicology, medical laboratory cytomorphology and medical laboratory transfusiology. An important component of medical laboratory specialists' identity is awareness of inherited ethos obtained from bygone generations of workers in this particular profession and the need to continue its further development. An expression of this awareness is among others Polish Code of Ethics of a Medical Laboratory Specialist (CEMLS) containing a set of values and a moral standpoint characteristic of this type of professional environment. Presenting the ethos of the medical laboratory specialist is a purpose of this article. Authors focus on the role CEMLS plays in areas of professional ethics and law. Next, they reconstruct the Polish model of ethos of medical diagnostic laboratory personnel. An overall picture consists of a presentation of the general moral principles concerning execution of this profession and rules of conduct in relations with the patient, own professional environment and the rest of the society. Polish model of ethical conduct, which is rooted in Hippocratic medical tradition, harmonizes with the ethos of medical laboratory specialists of other European countries and the world.

  5. APS 3D: a new benchmark in aspherical polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauch, Daniel; Mikulic, Dalibor; Veit, Christian

    2017-10-01

    The APS 3D system performs polishing and form correction in one step in order to reduce overall process time, reduce the number of polishing steps required and eliminate the need for highly skilled operators while providing a repeatable polishing process. This new 3D Polishing system yields better surface quality, and a better slope error, automatically determining the optimum speeds, feed rates and polish pressures to achieve a deterministic process based on the required quality parameters input by the operator. The process flow is always the same to ensure consistent quality and target quality values are defined before polishing begins.

  6. Network Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lars; Tække, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    the five strands of theory on the network society. Each theoretical position has its specific implications for acting toward strategic goals. In its entirety, the five perspectives give a thorough understanding of the conditions for successful strategic communication in the 21st century....

  7. Network Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lars; Tække, Jesper

    2018-01-01

    the five strands of theory on the network society. Each theoretical position has its specific implications for acting toward strategic goals. In its entirety, the five perspectives give a thorough understanding of the conditions for successful strategic communication in the 21st century....

  8. Polish Academy of Sciences Great Dictionary of Polish [Wielki słownik języka polskiego PAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Žmigrodzki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a lexicographical project involving the development of the newest general dictionary of the Polish language: the Polish Academy of Sciences Great Dictionary of Polish [Wielki słownik języka polskiego PAN]. The project is coordinated by the Institute of Polish Language at the Polish Academy of Sciences and carried out in collaboration with linguists and lexicographers from several other Polish academic centres. The paper offers a brief description of the genesis of the project and the scope of information included in the dictionary, the organisation of work, the life of the dictionary on the Web as well as the plans for the future.

  9. The emergence of Applied Physiology within the discipline of Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, Charles M

    2016-08-01

    Despite the availability and utilization of the physiology textbooks authored by Albrecht von Haller during the 18th century that heralded the modern age of physiology, not all physicians or physiologists were satisfied with its presentation, contents, or application to medicine. Initial reasons were fundamental disagreements between the "mechanists," represented by Boerhaave, Robinson, and von Haller, and the "vitalists," represented by the faculty and graduates of the Montpellier School of Medicine in France, notably, Bordeu and Barthez. Subsequently, objections originated from Europe, United Kingdom, and the United States in publications that focused not only on the teaching of physiology to medical and secondary students, but on the specific applications of the content of physiology to medicine, health, hygiene, pathology, and chronic diseases. At the turn of the 20th century, texts began to appear with applied physiology in their titles and in 1926, physician Samson Wright published a textbook entitled Applied Physiology that was intended for both medical students and the medical profession. Eleven years later, physicians Best and Taylor published The Physiological Basis of Medical Practice: A University of Toronto Texbook in Applied Physiology Although both sets of authors defined the connection between applied physiology and physiology, they failed to define the areas of physiology that were included within applied physiology. This was accomplished by the American Physiological Society (APS) Publications Committee in 1948 with the publication of the Journal of Appplied Physiology, that stated the word "applied" would broadly denote human physiology whereas the terms stress and environment would broadly include work, exercise, plus industrial, climatic and social factors. NIH established a study section (SS) devoted to applied physiology in 1964 which remained active until 2001 when it became amalgamated into other SSs. Before the end of the 20th century when

  10. 21 CFR 872.6030 - Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent. 872.6030... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6030 Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent. (a) Identification. An oral cavity abrasive polishing agent is a device in paste or powder form...

  11. Chemical Mechanical Polishing Optimization for 4H-SiC

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Neslen, Craig

    2000-01-01

    .... Preliminary chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) studies of 1 3/8" 4H-SiC wafers were performed in an attempt to identify the polishing parameter values that result in a maximum material removal rate and thus reduce substrate polishing time...

  12. Microbiological flora and nail polish: a brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayan, G M; Flournoy, D J; Schlageter, P

    1994-11-01

    Removing nail polish and prosthetic nails from operating room (OR) personnel prior to scrubbing and from patients prior to hand surgery is recommended but not practiced in many hospitals. There is concern that nail polish can act as a vehicle for the transfer of infectious agents. This study was designed to determine the incidence of microbiological flora of nail polish in a clinical setting.

  13. Monitoring of Robot Assisted Polishing through parameters of acoustic emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarev, Ruslan; Top, Søren; Bilberg, Arne

    The polishing process is essential for the surface generation of machine tooling components in advanced manufacturing. While robot assisted polishing is faster and more consistent than manual polishing, it can still consume a significant part of ma- chining time and operator presence time...

  14. Polish Qualitative Sociology: The General Features and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Konecki, Krzysztof Tomasz

    2005-01-01

    The article explores the development of Polish qualitative sociology in Poland by presenting its main intellectual routes and some of the general features of Polish sociology. Romanticism and inductionmethod are crucial elements for the development of this discipline in Poland and contribute to its. unigueness. The role of Florian Znaniecki in creating the Polish qualitative sociology is also underlined. Krzysztof Konecki

  15. Physiological parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natera, E.S.

    1998-01-01

    The physiological characteristics of man depend on the intake, metabolism and excretion of stable elements from food, water, and air. The physiological behavior of natural radionuclides and radionuclides from nuclear weapons testing and from the utilization of nuclear energy is believed to follow the pattern of stable elements. Hence information on the normal physiological processes occurring in the human body plays an important role in the assessment of the radiation dose received by man. Two important physiological parameters needed for internal dose determination are the pulmonary function and the water balance. In the Coordinated Research Programme on the characterization of Asian population, five participants submitted data on these physiological characteristics - China, India, Japan, Philippines and Viet Nam. During the CRP, data on other pertinent characteristics such as physical and dietary were simultaneously being collected. Hence, the information on the physiological characteristics alone, coming from the five participants were not complete and are probably not sufficient to establish standard values for the Reference Asian Man. Nonetheless, the data collected is a valuable contribution to this research programme

  16. Professional Training of Economists at Polish Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogienko, Olena

    2016-01-01

    Polish experience in professional training of economists at university has been generalized. Structural, content and procedural peculiarities of the training have been defined. It has been proved that key factors for reforming economic education in Poland are globalization, internationalization, integration, technologization and informatization.…

  17. Knowledge Mobilisation in the Polish Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazlagic, Jan; Erkol, Arif

    2015-01-01

    Poland has made substantial progress in improving the quality of its education system in recent years. This paper aims to describe the situation of the Polish education system from a knowledge management perspective and, to some extent, through innovation policies in education. The many challenges, this paper argues, can be tackled only through…

  18. Sexual Health of Polish Athletes with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Plinta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine sexual functioning of Polish athletes with disabilities (including paralympians. The study encompassed 218 people with physical disabilities, aged between 18 and 45 (149 men and 69 women. The entire research population was divided into three groups: Polish paralympians (n = 45, athletes with disabilities (n = 126 and non-athletes with disabilities (n = 47. The quality of sexual life of Polish paralympians was measured by using the Polish version of Female Sexual Function Index and International Index of Erectile Function. Clinically significant erectile dysfunctions were most often diagnosed in non-athletes (83.33% with 50% result of severe erectile dysfunctions, followed by athletes and paralympians with comparable results of 56.98% and 54.17% respectively (p = 0.00388. Statistically significant clinical sexual dysfunctions concerned lubrication, orgasm as well as pain domains, and prevailed among female non-athletes (68.42%, 68.42% and 57.89%. Practising sports at the highest level has a favourable effect on the sexuality of men and women with physical disabilities. Men with physical disabilities manifest more sexual disorders than women, an aspect which should be considered by health-care professionals working with people with disabilities.

  19. Directory of Polish Officials: A Reference Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-01

    Jan 86 Deputy Director Mondalski, Janusz Aug 83 Polish Steamship Company (Polski Zegluga Morska ) (PZM) Director Andruczyk, Mieczyslaw Jan...2<> Polski Kosciol Chrzescijan Baptystow 12° Polski Linie Oceaniczne ’"- Polski Towarzystwo Ekonomiczne ’’° Polski Zegluga Morska 102 Polski

  20. Polish students’ opinion about medicinal cannabis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Mazur

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: Polish students seem to be ready for introduction into medical marijuana and are aware of its therapeutic potential. The majority is in favor of sales in a controlled manner. The task of researchers should be accurate examination of the effectiveness of specific cannabinoids in the treatment of diseases.

  1. Transformation of the Polish Banking Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Stefański

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In the post-war period the banking system in Poland underwent two important system transitions: after 1946 and after 1989. The third transformation began after May 1, 2004, but it did not have a systemic character. The Polish banking sector started to operate on the Single European Market. The first part of the paper is devoted to the problems of the banks transformations after 1989 with a special focus on the quantitative development of banks in 19892008, and on subsequent privatisation and consolidation processes. The former intensified in 19891999, and the latter in 19992002. The consolidation process was very noticeable in the sector of cooperative banks after 1994. The second part of the paper includes an economic and financial analysis of the banks. A lot of attention was paid to the liquidity of the banking sector. It was assessed as good, which was confirmed by a short-term rating of Moodys and by the Financial Stability Report 2009, published by the National Bank of Poland in June 2009. The comparison of the net profit of the banking sector in 19972008 shows its dependence on the economic situation and policy. The number of banks with capital adequacy ratio well above the minimum required by the banking supervision is rising. The financial power ratings are not favorable for the domestic banks. The third part of the paper focuses on the development directions of the Polish banking sector. It may be concluded on the basis of the analysis that privatisation and consolidation processes will be continued. They will concentrate on the capital of foreign banks already operating in Poland. As compared with individual foreign banks, the potential of the Polish banking sector is week. The fourth part of the paper focuses on the presentation Polish banking sector in the context of European Union banking sector. The paper finishes with conclusions. Generally, Polish banks have to implement a strategy to enable them to compete on the Single

  2. Cryptozoology Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Reports of Loch Ness monsters, Bigfoot, and the Yeti spring u p from time to time, sparking scientific controversy about the veracity of these observations. Now an organization has been established to help cull, analyze, and disseminate information on the alleged creatures. The International Society of Cryptozoology, formed at a January meeting at the U.S. National Museum of Natural History of the Smithsonian Institution, will serve as the focal point for the investigation, analysis, publication, and discussion of animals of unexpected form or size or of unexpected occurrences in time or space.

  3. Surface Roughness and Gloss of Actual Composites as Polished With Different Polishing Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues-Junior, S A; Chemin, P; Piaia, P P; Ferracane, J L

    2015-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the effect of polishing with different polishing systems on the surface roughness and gloss of commercial composites. One hundred disk-shaped specimens (10 mm in diameter × 2 mm thick) were made with Filtek P-90, Filtek Z350 XT, Opallis, and Grandio. The specimens were manually finished with #400 sandpaper and polished by a single operator using three multistep systems (Superfix, Diamond Pro, and Sof-lex), one two-step system (Polidores DFL), and one one-step system (Enhance), following the manufacturer's instructions. The average surface roughness (μm) was measured with a surface profilometer (TR 200 Surface Roughness Tester), and gloss was measured using a small-area glossmeter (Novo-Curve, Rhopoint Instrumentation, East Sussex, UK). Data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance and Tukey's test (α=0.05). Statistically significant differences in surface roughness were identified by varying the polishing systems (pGloss was influenced by the composites (pone-step system, Enhance, produced the lowest gloss for all composites. Surface roughness and gloss were affected by composites and polishing systems. The interaction between both also influenced these surface characteristics, meaning that a single polishing system will not behave similarly for all composites. The multistep systems produced higher gloss, while the one-step system produced the highest surface roughness and the lowest gloss of all.

  4. Chemical mechanical glass polishing with cerium oxide: Effect of selected physico-chemical characteristics on polishing efficiency

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janoš, P.; Ederer, J.; Pilařová, V.; Henych, Jiří; Tolasz, Jakub; Milde, D.; Opletal, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 362, SEP (2016), s. 114-120 ISSN 0043-1648 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015073 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Chemical mechanical polishing * Ceria-based polishing powders * Polishing efficienc Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.531, year: 2016

  5. Regulatory Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Helen W.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Putcha, Lakshmi; Baker, Ellen; Smith, Scott M.; Stewart, Karen; Gretebeck, Randall; Nimmagudda, R. R.; Schoeller, Dale A.; Davis-Street, Janis

    1999-01-01

    As noted elsewhere in this report, a central goal of the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) was to ensure that cardiovascular and muscle function were adequate to perform an emergency egress after 16 days of spaceflight. The goals of the Regulatory Physiology component of the EDOMP were to identify and subsequently ameliorate those biochemical and nutritional factors that deplete physiological reserves or increase risk for disease, and to facilitate the development of effective muscle, exercise, and cardiovascular countermeasures. The component investigations designed to meet these goals focused on biochemical and physiological aspects of nutrition and metabolism, the risk of renal (kidney) stone formation, gastrointestinal function, and sleep in space. Investigations involved both ground-based protocols to validate proposed methods and flight studies to test those methods. Two hardware tests were also completed.

  6. Mathematical physiology

    CERN Document Server

    Sneyd, James

    2009-01-01

    There has been a long history of interaction between mathematics and physiology. This book looks in detail at a wide selection of mathematical models in physiology, showing how physiological problems can be formulated and studied mathematically, and how such models give rise to interesting and challenging mathematical questions. With its coverage of many recent models it gives an overview of the field, while many older models are also discussed, to put the modern work in context. In this second edition the coverage of basic principles has been expanded to include such topics as stochastic differential equations, Markov models and Gibbs free energy, and the selection of models has also been expanded to include some of the basic models of fluid transport, respiration/perfusion, blood diseases, molecular motors, smooth muscle, neuroendrocine cells, the baroreceptor loop, turboglomerular oscillations, blood clotting and the retina. Owing to this extensive coverage, the second edition is published in two volumes. ...

  7. STUDY OF POLISHING AISI 316L WITH STRUCTURED ABRASIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François GOOSSENS

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Finishing process like polishing is usually used to obtain high quality mechanical surface characteristics such as texture and roughness. These operations are mainly handmade and need highly trained operators thus limiting their repeatability and profitability. To optimize the industrialization of the polishing process, it is therefore necessary to modelize the process to built efficient parameter database. The aim of this study is to characterise the polishing of 316L stainless steel with structured abrasive belts. The geometric data of the belts are given, and we then propose a model to determine material removal. An experimental test bench is set up to test this model and characterise the polishing process in terms of forces. It produces samples for different polishing conditions. The different polished surfaces are then analyzed thanks to the roughness and the wettability. Using experimental designs, we are able to validate the proposed model and identify the parameters that influence a polishing operation.

  8. Physiological pseudomyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R

    1990-08-01

    Objective refraction through plus fogging lenses and base-in prisms revealed that normally accommodation is not completely relaxed when the stimulus to accommodation is zero. The myopic shift in the refractive error due to this focus error of accommodation was defined as physiological pseudomyopia. Two previously established features of accommodation are responsible for this behavior: (1) accommodation acts as a proportional control system for steady-state responses; and (2) the rest focus of accommodation is nonzero. It is proposed that the hyperopic shift in refraction observed in cycloplegia is the result of elimination of physiological pseudomyopia.

  9. Exercise physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiens, Bente; Richter, Erik; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    The passing of Professor Bengt Saltin on September 12, 2014 truly marks the end of an era. As editor of the Journal of Applied Physiology and one of Bengt’s many collaborators and colleagues, I wanted the Journal to celebrate his many seminal contributions by means of an Editorial. Professor Bent...

  10. Emissions from the Polish power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uliasz-Bochenczyk, Alicja; Mokrzycki, Eugeniusz

    2007-01-01

    Poland is a country where power and heat energy production is based on conventional fuel combustion, above all hard coal and lignite. In power plants and combined heat and power plants, fossil fuel combustion results in emitting to the atmosphere first of all SO 2 , NO x , CO, particulate matter, greenhouse gases for instance N 2 O and CO 2 . For many years the Polish power industry has tried to reduce the emission of air contaminants to the atmosphere. The reduction is feasible on account of various methods of emission reduction, which have been advanced and applied for many years. The paper presents conventional fuels used in the Polish professional power industry, as well as the principal emission types occurring there for the last 10 years and the undertaken reduction measures

  11. Chemical polishing of epitoxial silicon wafer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osada, Shohei

    1978-01-01

    SSD telescopes are used for the determination of the kind and energy of charged particles produced by nuclear reactions, and are the equipments combining ΔE counters and E counters. The ΔE counter is a thin SSD which is required to be thin and homogeneous enough to get the high resolution of measurement. The SSDs for ΔE counters have so far been obtained by polishing silicon plates mechanically and chemically or by applying electrolytic polishing method on epitaxial silicon wafers, but it was very hard to obtain them. The creative etching equipment and technique developed this time make it possible to obtain thin SSDs for ΔE counters. The outline of the etching equipment and its technique are described in the report. The etching technique applied for the silicon films for ΔE counters with thickness of about 10 μm was able to be experimentally established in this study. (Kobatake, H.)

  12. Polish normalization of the Body Esteem Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Lipowska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Physical attractiveness plays an important part in one’s social functioning. The interest in one’s own appearance have been documented as widespread among the female population, but over the recent years it is more and more often emphasized that concentrating on body appearance concerns men as well. Franzoi and Shields (1984 created the Body Esteem Scale which allows to qualify the subject’s attitude towards his or her own body. The aim of the study was to create a Polish version of the Body Esteem Scale along with the norms for age and sex clusters. Participants and procedure The normalization sample consisted of 4298 participants: 1865 women aged 16 to 80 (M = 29.92; SD = 12.85 and 2433 men aged 16 to 78 (M = 28.74; SD = 11.50. Education levels among the participants were also controlled for. In order to create a Polish version of the Body Esteem Scale, translation was adopted as the adaptation strategy. Like the original one, the Polish scale comprises 35 items grouped into three gender specific subscales. The subscales for women include Sexual Attractiveness, Weight Concern, and Physical Condition, whereas the body esteem of is examined with regards to Physical Attractiveness, Upper Body Strength, and Physical Condition. Results Reliability of subscales was high both for females (Cronbach’s alpha from 0.80 to 0.89 and males (Cronbach’s alpha from 0.85 to 0.88. The given coefficients of reliability cover the original division into subscales adopted by the authors of BES. Conclusions We confirmed high reliability of the Polish version of the Body Esteem Scale, thus we recommend it as a diagnostic tool. Created norms allowed to refer results obtained in the course of research carried out on people with various disorders (e.g. eating disorders or body dysmorphic disorder with population data for corresponding age brackets.

  13. Robotic Automation in Computer Controlled Polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D. D.; Yu, G.; Bibby, M.; Dunn, C.; Li, H.; Wu, Y.; Zheng, X.; Zhang, P.

    2016-02-01

    We first present a Case Study - the manufacture of 1.4 m prototype mirror-segments for the European Extremely Large Telescope, undertaken by the National Facility for Ultra Precision Surfaces, at the OpTIC facility operated by Glyndwr University. Scale-up to serial-manufacture demands delivery of a 1.4 m off-axis aspheric hexagonal segment with surface precision robots and computer numerically controlled ('CNC') polishing machines for optical fabrication. The objective was not to assess which is superior. Rather, it was to understand for the first time their complementary properties, leading us to operate them together as a unit, integrated in hardware and software. Three key areas are reported. First is the novel use of robots to automate currently-manual operations on CNC polishing machines, to improve work-throughput, mitigate risk of damage to parts, and reduce dependence on highly-skilled staff. Second is the use of robots to pre-process surfaces prior to CNC polishing, to reduce total process time. The third draws the threads together, describing our vision of the automated manufacturing cell, where the operator interacts at cell rather than machine level. This promises to deliver a step-change in end-to-end manufacturing times and costs, compared with either platform used on its own or, indeed, the state-of-the-art used elsewhere.

  14. ROUGHNESS ANALYSIS OF VARIOUSLY POLISHED NIOBIUM SURFACES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeill, G.; Reece, C.

    2008-01-01

    Niobium superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities have gained widespread use in accelerator systems. It has been shown that surface roughness is a determining factor in the cavities’ effi ciency and maximum accelerating potential achievable through this technology. Irregularities in the surface can lead to spot heating, undesirable local electrical fi eld enhancement and electron multipacting. Surface quality is typically ensured through the use of acid etching in a Buffered Chemical Polish (BCP) bath and electropolishing (EP). In this study, the effects of these techniques on surface morphology have been investigated in depth. The surface of niobium samples polished using different combinations of these techniques has been characterized through atomic force microscopy (AFM) and stylus profi lometry across a range of length scales. The surface morphology was analyzed using spectral techniques to determine roughness and characteristic dimensions. Experimentation has shown that this method is a valuable tool that provides quantitative information about surface roughness at different length scales. It has demonstrated that light BCP pretreatment and lower electrolyte temperature favors a smoother electropolish. These results will allow for the design of a superior polishing process for niobium SRF cavities and therefore increased accelerator operating effi ciency and power.

  15. Effects of polishing procedures on color stability of composite resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Umut Güler

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different polishing methods on color stability of posterior, universal and nanohybrid composite resin restorative materials upon exposure to a staining agent. Twenty-five specimens were prepared for each of 5 different composite resins (Filtek Z250, Filtek P60, Quadrant LC, Grandio and Filtek Supreme. Specimens were divided into 5 groups and different polishing procedures, including polishing discs (Pd, polishing discs then diamond polishing paste (PdP, polishing discs then a liquid polishing system (Biscover (PdB, and combinations of these (PdPB were used. Unpolished specimens served as the control (C. The specimens were stored for 48 h in a coffee solution. The color of all specimens was measured before and after exposure with a colorimeter, and total color change (DE* were calculated. The data were analyzed with a two-way ANOVA and the means were compared by Tukey HSD test (a=0.05. The lowest color difference was observed in the groups PdP and C, while the highest color difference was observed in PdPB, and PdB. When comparing the five different restorative materials, no significant difference was observed between FiltekP60 and FiltekZ250, and these materials demonstrated significantly less color change than Quadrant LC and the nanohybrid materials (Grandio, Filtek Supreme. The posterior (Filtek P60 and universal (Filtek Z250 composite resin restorative materials, which do not contain tetraethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA, were found to be less stainable than the nanohybrid (Grandio, Filtek Supreme and universal (Quadrant LC composite resins, which contain TEGDMA. The use of diamond polishing paste after polishing with polishing discs significantly decreased staining when compared to the groups that used polishing discs alone, for all restorative materials tested. The highest color change values were obtained for the specimens that were polished with the Biscover liquid polish

  16. Environmental physiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Summaries of research projects conducted during 1978 and 1979 are presented. Subject areas include: the effects of environmental pollutants on homeostasis of the hematopoietic system; pollutant effects on steroid metabolism; pollutant effects on pulmonary macrophages; effects of toxic gases on lung cells; the development of immunological methods for assessing lung damage at the cellular level; the response of erythropoietin concentration to various physiological changes; and the study of actinide metabolism in monkey skeletons

  17. Tribological approach to study polishing of road surface under traffic

    OpenAIRE

    KANE, Malal; DO, Minh Tan

    2007-01-01

    The polishing phenomenon of road pavements under the vehicle traffic constitutes the main mechanism inherent to the loss of skid resistance over time. A better understanding of this phenomenon would allow an improvement of road safety. This study comprises a review of laboratory test and a model simulating the polishing of road surfaces. The laboratory test uses a polishing machine so called 'Wehner-Schulze' which can reproduce the evolution of the road texture from specimens taken directly f...

  18. Polish Phoneme Statistics Obtained On Large Set Of Written Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Ziółko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The phonetical statistics were collected from several Polish corpora. The paper is a summaryof the data which are phoneme n-grams and some phenomena in the statistics. Triphonestatistics apply context-dependent speech units which have an important role in speech recognitionsystems and were never calculated for a large set of Polish written texts. The standardphonetic alphabet for Polish, SAMPA, and methods of providing phonetic transcriptions are described.

  19. Polish Qualitative Sociology: The General Features and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Konecki, Krzysztof Tomasz; Kacperczyk, Anna; Marciniak, Łukasz

    2005-01-01

    Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social Research,2005, 6(3) The article explores the development of Polish qualitative sociology in Poland by presenting its main intellectual routes and some of the general features of Polish sociology. Romanticism and inductionmethod are crucial elements for the development of this discipline in Poland and contribute to its. unigueness. The role of Florian Znaniecki in creating the Polish qualitative sociology is also underlined.

  20. Assessing operability of a novel polisher arrangement using MMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shor, S.W.W.

    1987-01-01

    A condensate polisher is intended to remove both particulate matter and ionic material from the condensate. Condensate polishers have normally been placed directly in the condensate system downstream of the condensate pumps. This inline location has certain disadvantages. These disadvantages are discussed. Placing the polisher in a sidestream location, where water is removed from the condensate system, pumped through the polisher, and then returned to the condensate system provides a solution to these disadvantages. Several possible types of sidestream installations is described. This has a polisher taking unpolished condensate from one compartment from one compartment of a divided hotwell in a specially modified condenser and returning polished condensate to the other compartment. The polisher is supplied by its own dedicated pumps, which have a head requirement sufficient only to overcome the pressure drop through the polisher circuit at a flow rate of 110% of maximum condensate flow. This concept is very attractive but has not yet been tested even though it is being installed in several new units. A simulation was, therefore, performed using MMS to provide confidence that this particular sidestream polisher arrangement was operationally viable

  1. Home geriatric physiological measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Toshiyo

    2012-10-01

    In an ageing society, the elderly can be monitored with numerous physiological, physical and passive devices. Sensors can be installed in the home for continuous mobility assistance and unobtrusive disease prevention. This review presents several modern sensors, which improve the quality of life and assist the elderly, disabled people and their caregivers. The main concept of geriatric sensors is that they are capable of providing assistance without limiting or disturbing the subject's daily routine, giving him or her greater comfort, pleasure and well-being. Furthermore, this review includes associated technologies of wearable/implantable monitoring systems and the 'smart-house' project. This review concludes by discussing future challenges of the future aged society.

  2. Home geriatric physiological measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Toshiyo

    2012-01-01

    In an ageing society, the elderly can be monitored with numerous physiological, physical and passive devices. Sensors can be installed in the home for continuous mobility assistance and unobtrusive disease prevention. This review presents several modern sensors, which improve the quality of life and assist the elderly, disabled people and their caregivers. The main concept of geriatric sensors is that they are capable of providing assistance without limiting or disturbing the subject's daily routine, giving him or her greater comfort, pleasure and well-being. Furthermore, this review includes associated technologies of wearable/implantable monitoring systems and the ‘smart-house’ project. This review concludes by discussing future challenges of the future aged society. (topical review)

  3. Slower nicotine metabolism among postmenopausal Polish smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmider, Leon; Delijewski, Marcin; Koszowski, Bartosz; Sobczak, Andrzej; Benowitz, Neal L; Goniewicz, Maciej L

    2018-06-01

    A non-invasive phenotypic indicator of the rate of nicotine metabolism is nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR) defined as a ratio of two major metabolites of nicotine - trans-3'-hydroxycotinine/cotinine. The rate of nicotine metabolism has important clinical implications for the likelihood of successful quitting with nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). We conducted a study to measure NMR among Polish smokers. In a cross-sectional study of 180 daily cigarette smokers (42% men; average age 34.6±13.0), we collected spot urine samples and measured trans-3'-hydroxycotinine (3-HC) and cotinine levels with LC-MS/MS method. We calculated NMR (molar ratio) and analyzed variations in NMR among groups of smokers. In the whole study group, an average NMR was 4.8 (IQR 3.4-7.3). The group of women below 51 years had significantly greater NMR compared to the rest of the population (6.4; IQR 4.1-8.8 vs. 4.3; IQR 2.8-6.4). No differences were found among group ages of male smokers. This is a first study to describe variations in nicotine metabolism among Polish smokers. Our findings indicate that young women metabolize nicotine faster than the rest of population. This finding is consistent with the known effects of estrogen to induce CYP2A6 activity. Young women may require higher doses of NRT or non-nicotine medications for most effective smoking cessation treatment. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Plasma electrolytic polishing of metalized carbon fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falko Böttger-Hiller

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Efficient lightweight structures require intelligent materials that meet versatile functions. Especially, carbon-fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRPs are gaining relevance. Their increasing use aims at reducing energy consumption in many applications. CFRPs are generally very light in weight, while at the same time being extremely stiff and strong (specific strength: CFRPs: 1.3 Nm kg–1, steel: 0.27 Nm kg–1; specific stiffness: CFRPs: 100 Nm kg–1, steel: 25 Nm kg–1. To increase performance and especially functionality of CFRPs, the integration of microelectronic components into CFRP parts is aspired. The functionalization by sensors, actuators and electronics can enable a high lightweight factor and a new level of failure-safety. The integration of microelectronic components for this purpose requires a working procedure to provide electrical contacts for a reliable connection to energy supply and data interfaces. To overcome this challenge, metalized carbon fibers are used. Metalized fibers are, similar to the usual reinforcing fibers, able to be soldered and therefore easy to incorporate into CFRPs. Unfortunately, metalized fibers have to be pre-treated by flux-agents. Until now, there is no flux which is suitable for mass production without destroying the polymer of the CFRP. The process of plasma electrolytic polishing (PeP could be an option, but is so far not available for copper. Thus, in this study, plasma electrolytic polishing is transferred to copper and its alloys. To achieve this, electrolytic parameters as well as the electrical setup are adapted. It can be observed that the gloss and roughness can be adjusted by means of this procedure. Finally, plasma electrolytic polishing is used to treat thin copper layers on carbon fibers.

  5. Terminology extraction from medical texts in Polish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, Małgorzata; Mykowiecka, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    Hospital documents contain free text describing the most important facts relating to patients and their illnesses. These documents are written in specific language containing medical terminology related to hospital treatment. Their automatic processing can help in verifying the consistency of hospital documentation and obtaining statistical data. To perform this task we need information on the phrases we are looking for. At the moment, clinical Polish resources are sparse. The existing terminologies, such as Polish Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), do not provide sufficient coverage for clinical tasks. It would be helpful therefore if it were possible to automatically prepare, on the basis of a data sample, an initial set of terms which, after manual verification, could be used for the purpose of information extraction. Using a combination of linguistic and statistical methods for processing over 1200 children hospital discharge records, we obtained a list of single and multiword terms used in hospital discharge documents written in Polish. The phrases are ordered according to their presumed importance in domain texts measured by the frequency of use of a phrase and the variety of its contexts. The evaluation showed that the automatically identified phrases cover about 84% of terms in domain texts. At the top of the ranked list, only 4% out of 400 terms were incorrect while out of the final 200, 20% of expressions were either not domain related or syntactically incorrect. We also observed that 70% of the obtained terms are not included in the Polish MeSH. Automatic terminology extraction can give results which are of a quality high enough to be taken as a starting point for building domain related terminological dictionaries or ontologies. This approach can be useful for preparing terminological resources for very specific subdomains for which no relevant terminologies already exist. The evaluation performed showed that none of the tested ranking procedures were

  6. [Professor Adam Nowosławski (1925-2012)--founder of the Polish School of Immunopathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madaliński, Kazimierz

    2012-01-01

    Professor dr med. Adam Nowosławski, has died at age of 87, on February 3, 2012, the founder of the Polish school of immunopathology, member of Polish Academy of Sciences and of Polish Academy of Art and Sciences. Professor was born on April 30, 1925 in Rzeszów (SE Poland). During the Second World War he took part in the anti-nazi resistance movement; he was the soldier of the 'Baszta' regiment of the Home Army. Subsequently, he was imprisoned in the Pawiak and concentration camps: Majdanek and Buchenwald. The medical studies he has completed at Warsaw Medical Academy between 1946-1951. The degree of doctor of medicine Prof. Adam Nowosławski has obtained in 1963, habilitation degree in the field of immunopathology--in 1966; the title of Professor he has obtained in 1980. His scientific achievements consist of 170 publications, including 101 original papers. His publications were quoted in several American books for students and physicians. Topics of his early papers concerned the immunopatogenesis ofPneumocystis carinii--induced pneumonia in premature babies, immunopatogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis, and the origin of rheumatoid factor. The enormous role in the field of hepatology played research on the virus of hepatitis B. These studies dealt with the discovery of HB core antigen which had the cellular localization different from HB surface antigen and with the parameters of the immune response to infection. Papers published on this topic were the mostly quoted in the literature and earned him national awards. The activity of Prof. Adam Nowosławski in the field of HIV/AIDS prevention was honored by the special prize of the Minister of Health. Professor was the honorary member of the two Societies: Polish Society of Pathologists and Polish Society of Hepatology. He was also the member of International Association for the Study of the Liver and International Academy of Pathology. Prof. Adam Nowosławski received the national medals: Polonia Restituta Crosses

  7. Physiological Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Eric D.

    The analysis of physiological sound in the peripheral auditory system solves three important problems. First, sound energy impinging on the head must be captured and presented to the transduction apparatus in the ear as a suitable mechanical signal; second, this mechanical signal needs to be transduced into a neural representation that can be used by the brain; third, the resulting neural representation needs to be analyzed by central neurons to extract information useful to the animal. This chapter provides an overview of some aspects of the first two of these processes. The description is entirely focused on the mammalian auditory system, primarily on human hearing and on the hearing of a few commonly used laboratory animals (mainly rodents and carnivores). Useful summaries of non-mammalian hearing are available [1]. Because of the large size of the literature, review papers are referenced wherever possible.

  8. Farmers' pensions and the Polish economic crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanis, J G

    1983-04-01

    The Polish Government, in 1977, inaugurated a new pension program that made old-age and invalidity benefits available for the first time to most farmers in that country. The evolution and eventual failure of that program were closely intertwined with a growing national economic crisis, manifested in widespread popular unrest and culminating in emergence of the Solidarity movement. The farmers' pension program was originally presented as both a social security measure and a vehicle for improving agricultural efficiency. The economic situation was expected to benefit as farms of older owners were passed to younger, presumably more efficient, successors, with the state sometimes acting as intermediary. A further step to bind the social security concept to agricultural efficiency came through relating the pension amount to the quantity of produce the individual farmer sold to the state over a number of years. The failure of these provisions and other unpopular features of the new program was aggravated by inflation and continuing deterioration of the Polish economy.

  9. The Czechoslovak-Polish Club in Brno (1925–1939)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baron, Roman

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 1 (2011), s. 43-64 ISSN 1803-6546 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80150510 Keywords : Czechoslovak-Polish solidarity * Czechoslovak-Polish relations * Brno * associations * Interwar Period Subject RIV: AB - History

  10. Phonematic translation of Polish texts by the neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bielecki, A.; Podolak, I.T.; Wosiek, J.; Majkut, E.

    1996-01-01

    Using the back propagation algorithm, we have trained the feed forward neural network to pronounce Polish language, more precisely to translate Polish text into its phonematic counterpart. Depending on the input coding and network architecture, 88%-95% translation efficiency was achieved. (author)

  11. Etymology in the Polish Academy of Sciences Great Dictionary of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article offers an insight into etymological information provided in the Polish Academy of Sciences Great Dictionary of Polish (Pol. Wielki słownik języka polskiego PAN, WSJP PAN). The dictionary and the rules of producing the entries are briefly presented. These rules influence the way of working on etymology within ...

  12. Polish Qualitative Sociology. Insight into the future of postdisciplinary research

    OpenAIRE

    Konecki, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    The paper desctibes the definitions of following concepts: multidisiplinarity, interdisciplinarity, transdysciplinarity, postdisciplinarity. MOreover it discuss the meanings of a concept of discipline. It describes the place of the Polish qualitative sociology in the context of postdisciplinary research. The main question of paper is: Does the POlish Qualitative Sociology has entered the postdisciplinary phase of research? DGS, UL Krzysztof Konecki

  13. The socio-economic and spatial transformation of Polish cities after 1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy J. Parysek

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the socio-economic and spatial transformation of Polish cities after 1989. The Polish changes reached the structures of the three basic subsystems of the state: political (power, social (society, and economic (the economy. The systemic transformation that has taken place in Poland after 1989 is most readily visible in towns, although it was introduced in the country as a whole. For the development and transforma-tion of towns, the most important were the introduction of local government structures and the market model of the economy. The restitution of local government has ensured towns an authentic manager authorised to perform his function by the local community. The in-troduction of the market model to the economy has resulted in its privatisation and the ap-pearance of enterprise and competition. Towns, especially the biggest cities, have become attractive locations for investment. Cities with a balanced economic structure and well-de-veloped infrastructure had much better chances for growth to start with. Unfortunately, the transformation period has also had some detrimental effects, the most important being un-employment and all kinds of social deviance. However, Polish cities are certainly different today and resemble Western cities to a greater extent than did the so-called socialist towns built along theoretically beautiful but practically ineffectual ideological lines.

  14. THE SOCIALIST YOUTH UNION (1957–1976 – POLISH COUNTERPART OF KOMSOMOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Sadowska

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The political system of the Polish People’s Republic was modelled on the Soviet one. Polish youth organizations had the ambitions of being counterparts of Komsomol: they adopted similar work methods and tried to play a similar role in the country. The obvious differences resulted from the specificity of each country and the differences in the societies. The most deeply rooted in the memory of Poles is the Socialist Youth Union, which, being the most stable, existed for almost 20 years with nearly 1.3 million members in the early 1970s. The Union was closely connected with the Polish United Workers’ Party and it had to accomplish two main kinds of political task: to select and prepare future members of the Party, both ordinary and those in the managerial positions, and to educate the whole young generation. The Party indeed treated the organization as its agency, an office dealing with the affairs of youths. However, non-political activity of the Union (culture, entertainment, tourism, etc. was much more effective and evaluated more positively. Actually, there was much more falsehood in the Union: many members were almost completely passive and the work was often only simulated.

  15. Note on the polishing of small spheres of ferrimagnetic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunberg, J. G.; Antier, G. [Centre d' etudes nucleaires de Grenoble - C.E.N.G. (France); Seiden, P. E. [Institut Fourier, Universite de Grenoble (France)

    1961-07-01

    This note describes a simple and rapid method that we have used for obtaining a high degree of polish on spheres of ferrimagnetic materials. A high surface polish is of particular importance if one desires to perform ferrimagnetic resonance experiments on very narrow linewidth materials such as Yttrium Iron Garnet. It is not possible to obtain the very narrow linewidths without polishing the sample with a very fine abrasive such as 'Linde A'. Although the methods presently used for the fine polishing of ferrite spheres give satisfactory results, the method described here is of particular interest because of its simplicity and speed. For example with the air-jet tumbling technique it can take as long as three days of polishing to obtain an acceptable surface while our method will give the same results in one to two hours. (author)

  16. Strategy for development of the Polish electricity sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dybowski, J. [Polish Power Grid Co., Warsaw (Poland)

    1995-12-01

    This paper represents the strategy for development of the Polish Electricity Sector dealing with specific problems which are common for all of East Central Europe. In 1990 Poland adopted a restructuring program for the entire energy sector. Very ambitious plans were changed several times but still the main direction of change was preserved. The most difficult period of transformation is featured by several contradictions which have to be balanced. Electricity prices should increase in order to cover the modernization and development program but the society is not able to take this burden in such a short time. Furthermore the new environment protection standards force the growth of capital investment program which sooner or later has to be transferred through the electricity prices. New economic mechanisms have to be introduced to the electricity sector to replace the old ones noneffective, centrally planned. This process has to follow slow management changes. Also, introduction of new electricity market is limited by those constraints. However, this process of change would not be possible without parallel governmental initiation like preparation of new energy law and regulatory frames.

  17. Chemical polishing of partially oxidized T-111 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teaney, P.E.

    1974-01-01

    The specimens were pressure-mounted in Bakelite and ground through 600 grit on silicon carbide papers. The specimens were rough-polished on a vibratory polisher for 4 to 6 h, using a water slurry of one micron alumina on Texmet, followed by 0.3-μ alumina on Texmet overnight. Final polishing was accomplished by continuous swabbing with a chemical polish. A chemical polish consisting of ten parts lactic acid, four parts nitric acid, and four parts hydrofluoric acid worked well for the T-111 parent material specimens; however, in the partially oxidized specimens, considerable pitting and staining occurred in the oxygen-affected zone and in the transition zone between the oxygen-affected zone and the parent material. A chemical polish was developed for the partially oxidized specimens by adjusting the ratio of the acids to ten parts lactic acid, two parts nitric acid, and two parts hydrofluoric acid. This slowed the chemical attack on the oxygen-affected zone considerably and, with continuous swabbing, the pitting and stain could be avoided. The specimens were rinsed and checked occasionally on the metallograph to determine when the proper polish had been obtained. Some specimens required intermittent polishing times up to 1 / 2 hour. No relationship could be established between the oxygen content of the specimen and the time required for chemical polishing in the partially oxidized specimens. However, the microstructure of the transition zone was the most difficult to obtain, and specimens with uniform reaction zones across the width of the specimen polished quicker than those with the transition zone

  18. Prevalence and socioeconomic determinants of leisure time physical activity among Polish farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernat, Elżbieta; Piątkowska, Monika; Mynarski, Władysław

    2018-03-14

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the leisure time physical activity of Polish farmers in the context of meeting health-related recommendations, and to diagnose the social and economic determinants. The analysis concerned leisure and transportation activities of various intensity and sedentary time. Farmers (n=153) aged over 18 were selected from a representative sample of Polish society (n=2039). In order to evaluate LTPA, the long version of the IPAQ was used. Statistically significant differences between the variables were tested using non-parametric tests. The relationship between the amount of exercise recommended by the WHO and studied socio-demographic criteria was assessed using log-linear analysis. The WHO health recommendations were met by 33.3% of farmers. Shares in LTPA (19.1%) and transportation (19.2%) significantly increased the chance of achieving these norms (OR=12.54 and 0.07, respectively). Along with age (≥40 years) and income (≥3000 PLN/Є750) of Polish farmers, the risk of insufficient physical activity increased. Average MET-min/week for LTPA was 299.8±583.4 and transportation - 521.2±1973.9. The average time of sitting during working days was 4.4±2.9, while it was 4.5±3.2 hrs/day during weekends. Health-promoting changes are necessary among Polish farmers, including an increase in the awareness of health benefits and the necessity of undertaking physically active ways of spending leisure time. It seems to be a legitimate action to develop a mini-tourist trail in the rural environment as a means of promoting physical activity also among women aged over 40, and from lower income groups, who are especially threatened by inactivity.

  19. Antigenic typing Polish isolates of canine parvovirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizak, B. [National Veterinary Research Institute, Pulawy (Poland); Plucienniczak, A. [Polish Academy ofd Sciences. Microbiology and Virology Center, Lodz (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    Polish strains of canine parvovirus isolated between 1982 and 1993 were examined to determine the extent to which the virus has evolved antigenically and genetically over eleven years. Two CPV isolates obtained in Warsaw in 1982 and Pulawy in 1993, were examined using monoclonal antibody typing, restriction analysis and sequencing VP-2 protein gene. Five other isolates from Warsaw and Pulawy were tested with the panel of monoclonal antibodies specific to CPV-2, CPV-2a and common for canine parvovirus, feline panleukopenia virus and milk enteritis virus. Results of the studies demonstrated that all isolates tested represented CPV-2a antigenic type. Rapid antigenic strain replacement recorded by Parrish and Senda in the U.S.A and Japan was not confirmed in Poland. (author). 30 refs, 2 tabs.

  20. Food patterns of Polish older people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadolowska, L.; Danowska-Oziewicz, M.; Niedzwiedzka, E.

    2006-01-01

    Food patterns of Polish older people were separated and described. The research included 422 people aged 65+ years, living in 5 geographical locations. Participants of the study were selected in quota sampling. Criteria for recruitment included sex, age (65-^74 or 75+ years) and family status...... (living alone or living with other people). Respondents were asked questions about consumption of 55 food products. The factor analysis allowed for separating 21 food patterns. They included from 1 to 3 groups of products, intake of which was mutually dependant. Big number of separated food patterns...... and small number of products fonning joint food patterns speak in advocacy of relatively small reciprocal relationship between different food items consumed by the seniors in Poland....

  1. Attitudes of Polish Consumers Toward Experiential Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Skorek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The experience economy is a concept that can be defned as a new way of perceiving the market offer of an enterprise, focusing on the customer experience. Enterprises, both in the production and service industries, are becoming similar to one another on a massive scale, which makes it increasingly diffcult to stand out. The response to this can be to offer the consumer an unforgettable experience related to a product or service provided by a company. Methodology: This study analysed the results of qualitative research on the attitudes and opinions of Polish consumers on experience marketing. Results/fndings: The results showed that participants of the study were prepared to transition from the economy based on products or services to an economy based on experiences at a moderate level. They declared a willingness to participate in experiences offered by companies but at the same time focus on the cost and utility of them

  2. Antigenic typing Polish isolates of canine parvovirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizak, B.; Plucienniczak, A.

    1995-01-01

    Polish strains of canine parvovirus isolated between 1982 and 1993 were examined to determine the extent to which the virus has evolved antigenically and genetically over eleven years. Two CPV isolates obtained in Warsaw in 1982 and Pulawy in 1993, were examined using monoclonal antibody typing, restriction analysis and sequencing VP-2 protein gene. Five other isolates from Warsaw and Pulawy were tested with the panel of monoclonal antibodies specific to CPV-2, CPV-2a and common for canine parvovirus, feline panleukopenia virus and milk enteritis virus. Results of the studies demonstrated that all isolates tested represented CPV-2a antigenic type. Rapid antigenic strain replacement recorded by Parrish and Senda in the U.S.A and Japan was not confirmed in Poland. (author). 30 refs, 2 tabs

  3. Using Contact and Education as a Means of Combating the Stigma of Mental Illness: An Example of a Polish Foundation "Ef Kropka"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrostek, Anna; Sonik, Janina; Krzyzanowska-Zbucka, Joanna; Switaj, Piotr; Nowak, Izabela; Anczewska, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Social stigma is widely recognized as a major barrier to recovery from mental illness. In Poland, as in other countries, the society perceives mental illnesses as an intimidating problem, while the people affected are often treated with reservation and a sense of distance. One of the first Polish organizations addressing stigmatization and social…

  4. Popularity of marijuana among Polish students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Pająk

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and the aim: Marijuana is the most commonly used drug in the world (excluding alcohol and tobacco. According to the literature about 16% of Poles at the age of 16 to 64 years old, at least once have used cannabis. The aim of study was to estimate the popularity of marijuana among students of Polish universities. We also asked questions about respondents’ attitude towards marijuana and opinions about its validation. Material and methods: The study was conducted in 2017 on 132 individuals – 60 men and 72 women. The results were analyzed in STATISTICA 10 at p<0.05. Results:Out of interviewees, 63.6% of them, at least once in their lives, have used marijuana. This is a percentage of up to four times greater than that one given in the literature for the general population. Even 80% of men and 50% of women have tried marijuana at least once in their lives. Students of Catholic University of Lublin reach for marijuana significantly more often than students of Medical University of Lublin. The majority of respondents (53% treats marijuana as a "soft" drug, though up 67.4% believe that it has the addictive potential. More than a half of respondents (56.8% stands for liberalization of rules relevant to marijuana in Poland. Vast majority (70% of respondents believes that marijuana is easily available in Poland. Conclusions: Marijuana is a drug popular among students. The criminalization of drug use in Poland is not effective for the prevention of its use, the majority of respondents believes that marijuana is easily available in Poland. Considering the negative health and social consequences of the current state, it is worth wondering about making changes in the education system and Polish drug law.

  5. New perspectives in hydrodynamic radial polishing techniques for optical surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Elfego; Sohn, Erika; Luna, Esteban; Salas, Luis; Cordero, Alberto; González, Jorge; Núñez, Manuel; Salinas, Javier; Cruz-González, Irene; Valdés, Jorge; Cabrera, Victor; Martínez, Benjamín

    2004-09-01

    In order to overcome classic polishing techniques, a novel hydrodynamic radial polishing tool (HyDRa) is presented; it is useful for the corrective lapping and fine polishing of diverse materials by means of a low-cost abrasive flux and a hydrostatic suspension system that avoids contact of the tool with the working surface. This tool enables the work on flat or curved surfaces of currently up to two and a half meters in diameter. It has the advantage of avoiding fallen edges during the polishing process as well as reducing tool wear out and deformation. The functioning principle is based on the generation of a high-velocity, high-pressure, abrasive emulsion flux with radial geometry. The polishing process is repeatable by means of the control of the tool operational parameters, achieving high degrees of precision and accuracy on optical and semiconductor surfaces, with removal rates of up to 9 mm3/hour and promising excellent surface polishing qualities. An additional advantage of this new tool is the possibility to perform interferometric measurements during the polishing process without the need of dismounting the working surface. A series of advantages of this method, numerical simulations and experimental results are described.

  6. Celiac disease on YouTube - a study of the Polish content available on the popular video-sharing website.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiedrowski, Mirosław; Mróz, Andrzej; Gajewska, Danuta; Nurzyński, Paweł; Deptała, Andrzej

    2017-10-23

    Celiac disease affects about 1% of the population. Since most Polish households have a broadband Internet connection, a lot of people use web resources to learn about health and disease. YouTube service (www.youtube.com) offers a lot of videos concerning celiac disease. However, the credibility of the Polish videos available on YouTube and concerning celiac disease has never been analyzed. The aim of the study was to determine whether the YouTube service offers valuable content for Polish people affected by celiac disease. One hundred and fifty-four unique videos devoted to celiac disease and available in the Polish language were identified and critically assessed. Each video was categorized due to its topic(s), and evaluated for its credibility by two independent researchers. In general, 127 (82.5%) videos were found to be credible. The most credible categories of content presented organizations and events related to celiac disease/celiac society, followed by culinary recipes (100.0, 100.0, and 95.6% of credible videos, respectively). The least trustworthy categories were devoted to pathobiology and advertisements (55.6 and 54.3% of credible videos, respectively). YouTube service can serve as a supplementary source of knowledge for people affected by celiac disease, after careful selection of trustworthy content.

  7. Reel-to-reel substrate tape polishing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selvamanickam, Venkat; Gardner, Michael T.; Judd, Raymond D.; Weloth, Martin; Qiao, Yunfei

    2005-06-21

    Disclosed is a reel-to-reel single-pass mechanical polishing system (100) suitable for polishing long lengths of metal substrate tape (124) used in the manufacture of high-temperature superconductor (HTS) coated tape, including multiple instantiations of a polishing station (114) in combination with a subsequent rinsing station (116) arranged along the axis of the metal substrate tape (124) that is translating between a payout spool (110a) and a take-up spool (110b). The metal substrate tape obtains a surface smoothness that is suitable for the subsequent deposition of a buffer layer.

  8. Polishing Sapphire Substrates by 355 nm Ultraviolet Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Wei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to investigate a novel polishing technology with high efficiency and nice surface quality for sapphire crystal that has high hardness, wear resistance, and chemical stability. A Q-switched 355 nm ultraviolet laser with nanosecond pulses was set up and used to polish sapphire substrate in different conditions in this paper. Surface roughness Ra of polished sapphire was measured with surface profiler, and the surface topography was observed with scanning electronic microscope. The effects of processing parameters as laser energy, pulse repetition rate, scanning speed, incident angle, scanning patterns, and initial surface conditions on surface roughness were analyzed.

  9. Microscopic machining mechanism of polishing based on vibrations of liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Z G; Guo, Z N; Chen, X; Yu, Z Q; Yu, T M; Lee, W B

    2007-01-01

    A molecular dynamics method has been applied to study the mechanism of polishing based on vibrations of liquid. Movements of polishing particles and formations of impact dents are simulated and discussed. The abrasive effect between particle and machined substrate is evaluated empirically. Polishing qualities, including roughness and fractal character under multiple impacts, are obtained by numerical methods. Results show that the particle will vibrate and roll viscously on the substrate. Press, tear and self-organization effects will be responsible for the formation of impact dents. Simulation results are compared with experimental data to verify the conclusions

  10. Presentation of the verbs in Bulgarian-Polish electronic dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Dimitrova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Presentation of the verbs in Bulgarian-Polish electronic dictionary This paper briefly discusses the presentation of the verbs in the first electronic Bulgarian-Polish dictionary that is currently being developed under a bilateral collaboration between IMI-BAS and ISS-PAS. Special attention is given to the digital entry classifiers that describe Bulgarian and Polish verbs. Problems related to the correspondence between natural language phenomena and their presentations are discussed. Some examples illustrate the different types of dictionary entries for verbs.

  11. "Agricultural budget" and the competitiveness of the Polish agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Lenkiewicz, Stanisław; Rokicki, Bartłomiej

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the publication is to assess the impact of public support on the functioning of the Polish agriculture. In order to achieve this aim the publication includes an analysis of the system of direct payments and rural development policy instruments planned to be implemented in Poland within the CAP 2014-2020. The study also presents an analysis of regional diversity of the Polish agriculture and an assessment of the scale of agricultural investment made in recent years in all the Polish...

  12. Citizenship in civil society?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossewaarde, Marinus R.R.

    2007-01-01

    This article seeks to provide a conceptual framework to complement and guide the empirical analysis of civil society. The core argument is that civil society must be understood, not as a category of (post)industrialized society, but as one of individualized society. Civil society is characterized by

  13. Public Debt and Its Impact on the Polish Economy and Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin Rae

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To analyse the issue of public debt in Poland and examine its effect on other areas of socio-economic life as well as government policy.Approach: The question of public debt is placed in its historical context by looking at how it grew during the Communist system and influenced the transition period. The article draws on a range of secondary economic statistics and considers in detail a number of public policy issues, such as the reform of the pension system.Findings: One result of the large debt incurred by the end of the 1970s was that Poland became indebted to creditors in the West. This dependency helped to shape its economic policy at the end of the 1980s. The transition to a market economy placed new burdens on the country’s public services, primarily due to the resulting large deactivation of labour. Furthermore, the creation of a compulsory private pension system at the end of the 1990s diverted significant funds out of the government’s budget and swelled the country’s public debt. Since the outbreak of the economic crisis, Poland has avoided a recession by increasing public investment by utilising available European Union funds. However, due to internal and external limits on the size of its public debt, the government is being pressured to reduce this spending. In order to create more fiscal room, the government has partly dismantled the compulsory private pension system as a short-term solution to the growing debt crisis.Value: In the wake of the global financial crisis and economic turmoil in the European Union, the matter of public debt has taken on increased importance. This paper considers this question from a long-term perspective in a country that has been relatively successful during the international economic downturn. By examining public debt from this broad perspective, we can better understand the economic situation in Poland and the European Union, whilst also shedding light on some of the surrounding academic perspectives and public policy debates.

  14. 35. Meeting of the Polish Biochemical Society. Abstracts; 35. Zjazd Polskiego Towarzystwa Biochemicznego. Streszczenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    During the conference various works concerning biochemistry, molecular biology and medicine were presented. Many works applied X-rays, gamma radiation and laser radiation to induce various disorders (changes of metabolism and enzyme activity, damages of cell constituents) in model organisms and cell cultures.

  15. 34. Meeting of the Polish Biochemical Society. Abstracts; 34. Zjazd Polskiego Towarzystwa Biochemicznego. Streszczenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    During the conference various works concerning biochemistry, molecular biology and medicine were presented. Many works applied gamma radiation and laser radiation to induce various disorders (changes of metabolism and enzyme activity, damages of cell constituents) in model organisms and cell cultures.

  16. FINANCIAL SITUATION AND ATTITUDES TOWARDS SAVING IN POLISH SOCIETY:EVIDENCE FROM MICRO DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANETA MARIA KŁOPOCKA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Savings of the household sector are undoubtedly very important both in terms of micro- (for the optimum personal finance management and macroeconomics (from the perspective of the economic growth. Furthermore, the major transformation has occurred in the household saving behavior in Poland in recent years. This is due to sharp changes in the functioning of the households in the period of economic transformation and is the result of the global financial and economic crisis. This paper provides empirical evidence of the complex interrelations of income, level of optimism/pessimism, attitudes towards saving and households' consumption–savings decisions. There is a strong income and savings relationship due to the positive income effect on the household saving propensity (through the increased motivation and the long run planning acceptance and the saving ability due to ample satisfaction of household consumption needs. Higher income leads to the self-restraint rejection. The level of household optimism/pessimism exerts a substantial effect on the saving motives and attitudes towards saving. The decreasing expectations leads to the slope of the overall saving motivation. Moreover pessimists seem to reveal the lowest inclination to deliberate saving. Simultaneously, they seem to be most suspicious about the bank loan incurring. The level of optimism is positively associated with both the share of savers and the level of accumulated savings.

  17. Natural resources as a value important to the development of ecological consciousness of the polish society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żeber–Dzikowska Ilona

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors examine a very important issue concerning the concept of public consciousness and ecological consciousness of a human. They present ecological consciousness through indicating its level and factors that determine it. They discuss questions connected to shaping ecological consciousness in teachings of Saint John Paul II, sustainable development, eco-philosophy, and pro-ecological attitudes.

  18. About communication in social media – an analysis of the Polish Presidency Facebook Profile from a perspective of social communication theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyna Tomiczek

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The half year of the Polish Presidency on the one hand was a great challenge but from the other hand a tremendous chance to promote the country and society. Activities were taken up in many different areas – using new technologies was an important part of the project, including new media which by the creation of the Polish Presidency Facebook Profile turned out to be an integral part of Presidency. Using the possibility of providing a two-way communication proved that the potential of Facebook was understood. Running the fan page also showed a new face of diplomacy putting it in the area of public diplomacy.

  19. Starting physiology: bioelectrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Vander

    2015-12-01

    From a Cartesian perspective of rational analysis, the electric potential difference across the cell membrane is one of the fundamental concepts for the study of physiology. Unfortunately, undergraduate students often struggle to understand the genesis of this energy gradient, which makes the teaching activity a hard task for the instructor. The topic of bioelectrogenesis encompasses multidisciplinary concepts, involves several mechanisms, and is a dynamic process, i.e., it never turns off during the lifetime of the cell. Therefore, to improve the transmission and acquisition of knowledge in this field, I present an alternative didactic model. The design of the model assumes that it is possible to build, in a series of sequential steps, an assembly of proteins within the membrane of an isolated cell in a simulated electrophysiology experiment. Initially, no proteins are inserted in the membrane and the cell is at a baseline energy state; the extracellular and intracellular fluids are at thermodynamic equilibrium. Students are guided through a sequence of four steps that add key membrane transport proteins to the model cell. The model is simple at the start and becomes progressively more complex, finally producing transmembrane chemical and electrical gradients. I believe that this didactic approach helps instructors with a more efficient tool for the teaching of the mechanisms of resting membrane potential while helping students avoid common difficulties that may be encountered when learning this topic. Copyright © 2015 The American Physiological Society.

  20. Polish country study to address climate change: Strategies of the GHG`s emission reduction and adaptation of the Polish economy to the changed climate. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The Polish Country Study Project was initiated in 1992 as a result of the US Country Study Initiative whose objective was to grant the countries -- signatories of the United Nations` Framework Convention on Climate Change -- assistance that will allow them to fulfill their obligations in terms of greenhouse gases (GHG`s) inventory, preparation of strategies for the reduction of their emission, and adapting their economies to the changed climatic conditions. In February 1993, in reply to the offer from the United States Government, the Polish Government expressed interest in participation in this program. The Study proposal, prepared by the Ministry of Environmental Protection, Natural Resources and Forestry was presented to the US partner. The program proposal assumed implementation of sixteen elements of the study, encompassing elaboration of scenarios for the strategy of mission reduction in energy sector, industry, municipal management, road transport, forestry, and agriculture, as well as adaptations to be introduced in agriculture, forestry, water management, and coastal management. The entire concept was incorporated in macroeconomic strategy scenarios. A complementary element was the elaboration of a proposal for economic and legal instruments to implement the proposed strategies. An additional element was proposed, namely the preparation of a scenario of adapting the society to the expected climate changes.

  1. Scaling properties of Polish rain series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licznar, P.

    2009-04-01

    Scaling properties as well as multifractal nature of precipitation time series have not been studied for local Polish conditions until recently due to lack of long series of high-resolution data. The first Polish study of precipitation time series scaling phenomena was made on the base of pluviograph data from the Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences meteorological station located at the south-western part of the country. The 38 annual rainfall records from years 1962-2004 were converted into digital format and transformed into a standard format of 5-minute time series. The scaling properties and multifractal character of this material were studied by means of several different techniques: power spectral density analysis, functional box-counting, probability distribution/multiple scaling and trace moment methods. The result proved the general scaling character of time series at the range of time scales ranging form 5 minutes up to at least 24 hours. At the same time some characteristic breaks at scaling behavior were recognized. It is believed that the breaks were artificial and arising from the pluviograph rain gauge measuring precision limitations. Especially strong limitations at the precision of low-intensity precipitations recording by pluviograph rain gauge were found to be the main reason for artificial break at energy spectra, as was reported by other authors before. The analysis of co-dimension and moments scaling functions showed the signs of the first-order multifractal phase transition. Such behavior is typical for dressed multifractal processes that are observed by spatial or temporal averaging on scales larger than the inner-scale of those processes. The fractal dimension of rainfall process support derived from codimension and moments scaling functions geometry analysis was found to be 0.45. The same fractal dimension estimated by means of the functional box-counting method was equal to 0.58. At the final part of the study

  2. Polish electoral geography and its methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Rykiel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Differences in the understanding of electoral geography between social sciences are discussed in the article. Main fields and spatial scales of Polish electoral geography are identified. Main methods of multidimensional statistics are discussed. A necessity of a proper choice, based on theories of voting behaviour, of explaning variables to statistical models are emphasised. Regression analysis indicates only a formal usefulness in electoral geography, for quantitative relationships between variables in the model can be evidenced, which may be meaningless not only essentially, but even statistically. The application of canonical analysis in electoral geography brought a methodological turning-point to the statistical approach. This method allowed to combine: (1 the foundation of the selection of input variables on theories of voting behaviour; (2 the analysis of dependence of the electoral results on socio-economic characteristics of areas; (3 an identification of electoral options; (4 a quantification of the role of the historical heritage in the contemporary voting behaviour; and (5 the analysis of the stability of the electoral space. A well grounded opinion was weakened about the general competitiveness of right- and left-wing parties in Poland’s political space. Parties with similar rather than different programmes compete in given areas. It was indicated that elections have only formal influence on the structure of Parliament while the electoral system is decisive. Electoral, including territorial, manipulations also play their part. The empirical analysis indicated that Poland’s political space is polarised between the right-wing-oriented areas of the south-eastern half of the country and the left-wing-oriented areas of the north-western half. The political competition between the left and the right operates merely on the national scale, while it is not reflected territorially.The quantification of the influence of the nineteenth

  3. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: COLLOID POLISHING FILTER METHOD - FILTER FLOW TECHNOLOGY, INC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Filter Flow Technology, Inc. (FFT) Colloid Polishing Filter Method (CPFM) was tested as a transportable, trailer mounted, system that uses sorption and chemical complexing phenomena to remove heavy metals and nontritium radionuclides from water. Contaminated waters can be pro...

  4. The resettlement of Polish refugees after the second world war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Blaszczyk

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The passing of the Polish Resettlement Act and the creation of the different agencies related to it undoubtedly represented an unprecedented response to the challenge of mass migration in the UK.

  5. Comparative study of performance of shoe polishes formulated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GARZALI

    1Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Bayero University, Kano. 2College of Science ... carbon black pigment. Polyethylene polish like the one formulated using carbon black pigment was ... into fine black powder. Purification of Wax.

  6. Polish Defense Policy in the Context of National Security Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bieniek, Piotr S

    2006-01-01

    ...) and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Polish security policy and strategy is shaped by its geographical location, which places Poland in NATO's main strategic area opposite the Russian Federation and Belarus...

  7. Employability management practices in the Polish ICT sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marzec, I.; van der Heijden, Beatrice; Scholarios, D.; van der Schoot, E.; Jedrzejowicz, P.; Bozionelos, N.; Epitropaki, O.; Knauth, P.; Mikkelsen, A.; van der Heijde, C.M.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines current career thinking and employability management practices within the Polish Information and Communication Technology (ICT) sector. The aim of this contribution is to identify career management problems and to determine obstacles for implementing employability management

  8. Super Polishing of Aluminum 6061-T6 Mirrors, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An innovative 2D super-polishing process for Aluminum 6061-T6 planar mirrors which removes diamond point turning (DPT) grooves and attains rms surface finishes below...

  9. Production of rare earth polishing powders in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosynkin, V.D.; Ivanov, E.N.; Kotrekhov, V.A.; Shtutza, M.G.; Grabko, A.I.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Russia is a potent producer of polishing powders made of rare earth material presented as an extensive and well developed base. Considering the reserves, the facilities predisposition and the polishing agent (cerium dioxide) content the chief mineral source is loparite, apatite and monazite. The production of rare earth polishing powders is based on specially developed continuous technological processes, corrosion-proof equipment, ensuring a high and stable production quality. A special attention is paid to the radiation safety of the powders. The initial material for the rare earth polishing powders based on loparite is the fusion cake of rare earth chlorides obtained at that mineral chlorination. The technology of the polishing powder production from the REE fusion cake includes the following stages: dissolution of the REE fusion cake chlorides; - thorough cleaning of the REE fusion cake chlorides from radioactive and non-rare-earth impurities; chemical precipitation of REE carbonates, obtaining middlings with proper material and granulometric composition, thermal treatment of precipitated carbonates followed with the operations of drying and roasting; classification of roasted oxides, obtaining end products - polishing powders. The production of fluorine-containing powders includes the stage of their fluorination after the stage of carbonate precipitation. The stabilizing doping can be introduced both into the middlings during one of the technological process of powders manufacturing and into the end product. Rare earth polishing powders are manufactured in Russia by the Share Holding Company 'Chepetz Mechanical Plant' (ChMP Co.), the city of Glasov. The plant produces a number of polishing materials, such as; polishing powder Optinol, containing at least 50% by mass of cerium dioxide, used in the mass production of optical and other articles; polishing powder Optinol-10 with doping to improve the sedimentary and aggregate stability of the solid phase

  10. Research on high-efficiency polishing technology of photomask substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shijie; Xie, Ruiqing; Zhou, Lian; Liao, Defeng; Chen, Xianhua; Wang, Jian

    2018-03-01

    A method of photomask substrate fabrication is demonstrated ,that the surface figure and roughness of fused silica will converge to target precision rapidly with the full aperture polishing. Surface figure of optical flats in full aperture polishing processes is primarily dependent on the surface profile of polishing pad, therefor, a improved function of polishing mechanism was put forward based on two axis lapping machine and technology experience, and the pad testing based on displacement sensor and the active conditioning method of the pad is applied in this research. Moreover , the clamping deformation of the thin glass is solved by the new pitch dispensing method. The experimental results show that the surface figure of the 152mm×152mm×6.35mm optical glass is 0.25λ(λ=633nm) and the roughness is 0.32nm ,which has meet the requirements of mask substrate for 90 45nm nodes.

  11. Laser polishing of 3D printed mesoscale components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhaduri, Debajyoti; Penchev, Pavel; Batal, Afif; Dimov, Stefan; Soo, Sein Leung; Sten, Stella; Harrysson, Urban; Zhang, Zhenxue; Dong, Hanshan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Process optimisation for laser polishing novel 3D printed SS316L parts. • Evaluating the effects of key polishing parameters on SS316L surface roughness. • Detailed spectroscopic analysis of oxide layer formation due to laser polishing. • Comparative surface integrity analysis of SS parts polished in air and argon. • A maximum reduction in roughness of over 94% achieved at optimised polishing settings. - Abstract: Laser polishing of various engineered materials such as glass, silica, steel, nickel and titanium alloys, has attracted considerable interest in the last 20 years due to its superior flexibility, operating speed and capability for localised surface treatment compared to conventional mechanical based methods. The paper initially reports results from process optimisation experiments aimed at investigating the influence of laser fluence and pulse overlap parameters on resulting workpiece surface roughness following laser polishing of planar 3D printed stainless steel (SS316L) specimens. A maximum reduction in roughness of over 94% (from ∼3.8 to ∼0.2 μm S_a) was achieved at the optimised settings (fluence of 9 J/cm"2 and overlap factors of 95% and 88–91% along beam scanning and step-over directions respectively). Subsequent analysis using both X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES) confirmed the presence of surface oxide layers (predominantly consisting of Fe and Cr phases) up to a depth of ∼0.5 μm when laser polishing was performed under normal atmospheric conditions. Conversely, formation of oxide layers was negligible when operating in an inert argon gas environment. The microhardness of the polished specimens was primarily influenced by the input thermal energy, with greater sub-surface hardness (up to ∼60%) recorded in the samples processed with higher energy density. Additionally, all of the polished surfaces were free of the scratch marks, pits, holes, lumps

  12. Laser polishing of 3D printed mesoscale components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhaduri, Debajyoti, E-mail: debajyoti.bhaduri@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Penchev, Pavel; Batal, Afif; Dimov, Stefan; Soo, Sein Leung [Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Sten, Stella; Harrysson, Urban [Digital Metal, Höganäs AB, 263 83 Höganäs (Sweden); Zhang, Zhenxue; Dong, Hanshan [School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • Process optimisation for laser polishing novel 3D printed SS316L parts. • Evaluating the effects of key polishing parameters on SS316L surface roughness. • Detailed spectroscopic analysis of oxide layer formation due to laser polishing. • Comparative surface integrity analysis of SS parts polished in air and argon. • A maximum reduction in roughness of over 94% achieved at optimised polishing settings. - Abstract: Laser polishing of various engineered materials such as glass, silica, steel, nickel and titanium alloys, has attracted considerable interest in the last 20 years due to its superior flexibility, operating speed and capability for localised surface treatment compared to conventional mechanical based methods. The paper initially reports results from process optimisation experiments aimed at investigating the influence of laser fluence and pulse overlap parameters on resulting workpiece surface roughness following laser polishing of planar 3D printed stainless steel (SS316L) specimens. A maximum reduction in roughness of over 94% (from ∼3.8 to ∼0.2 μm S{sub a}) was achieved at the optimised settings (fluence of 9 J/cm{sup 2} and overlap factors of 95% and 88–91% along beam scanning and step-over directions respectively). Subsequent analysis using both X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES) confirmed the presence of surface oxide layers (predominantly consisting of Fe and Cr phases) up to a depth of ∼0.5 μm when laser polishing was performed under normal atmospheric conditions. Conversely, formation of oxide layers was negligible when operating in an inert argon gas environment. The microhardness of the polished specimens was primarily influenced by the input thermal energy, with greater sub-surface hardness (up to ∼60%) recorded in the samples processed with higher energy density. Additionally, all of the polished surfaces were free of the scratch marks, pits, holes

  13. Reusing Ceramic Tile Polishing Waste In Paving Block Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Giordano Penteado; Carmenlucia Santos; de Carvalho; Eduardo Viviani; Cecche Lintz; Rosa Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Ceramic companies worldwide produce large amounts of polishing tile waste, which are piled up in the open air or disposed of in landfills. These wastes have such characteristics that make them potential substitutes for cement and sand in the manufacturing of concrete products. This paper investigates the use of ceramic tile polishing waste as a partial substitute for cement and sand in the manufacturer of concrete paving blocks. A concrete mix design was defined and then the sand was replaced...

  14. Borel hierarchies in infinite products of Polish spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    with two product topologies: (i) the product of copies of the Polish topology on X, so that H is again a Polish space and (ii) the product of copies of the discrete topology on X. Define now the Borel hierarchy in the larger topology on H. To do so, we need some notation. An element of H will be denoted by h = (x1,x2,...,xn,.

  15. Polish Standard of the Technical Safety of Transmission Gas Pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkacz, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    The document is presenting the idea of the CNGI Norm called The Polish Standard of the Technical Safety of Transmission Gas Pipelines and the way of using it by companies associated in the Chamber of the Natural Gas Industry in the business activity. It will be applied to improve the quality and reliability of gas transmission after full opening of Polish natural gas market. (author)

  16. Factors influencing the surface quality of polished tool steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebeggiani, S; Rosén, B-G

    2014-01-01

    Today’s demands on surface quality of moulds for injection moulding of plastic components involve no/low defect contents and roughness levels in the nm-range for high gloss applications. Material properties as well as operating conditions influence the mould finish, and thus the final surface of moulded products. This paper focuses on how particle content and different polishing strategies influence final surface qualities of moulds. Visual estimations of polished tool steel samples were combined with non-contact 3D-surface texture analysis in order to correlate traditional assessments to more quantitative methods, and to be able to analyse the surfaces at nanometre-level. It was found that steels with a lower proportion of particles, like carbides and oxides, gave rise to smoother polished surfaces. In a comparative study of polishers from different polishing shops, it was found that while different surface preparation strategies can lead to similar final roughness, similar preparation techniques can produce high-quality surfaces from different steel grades. However, the non-contact 3D-surface texture analysis showed that not all smooth polished surfaces have desirable functional topographies for injection moulding of glossy plastic components. (paper)

  17. Study of Profile Changes during Mechanical Polishing using Relocation Profilometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaran, S. Chidambara; Shunmugam, M. S.

    2017-10-01

    Mechanical polishing is a finishing process practiced conventionally to enhance quality of surface. Surface finish is improved by mechanical cutting action of abrasive particles on work surface. Polishing is complex in nature and research efforts have been focused on understanding the polishing mechanism. Study of changes in profile is a useful method of understanding behavior of the polishing process. Such a study requires tracing same profile at regular process intervals, which is a tedious job. An innovative relocation technique is followed in the present work to study profile changes during mechanical polishing of austenitic stainless steel specimen. Using special locating fixture, micro-indentation mark and cross-correlation technique, the same profile is traced at certain process intervals. Comparison of different parameters of profiles shows the manner in which metal removal takes place in the polishing process. Mass removal during process estimated by the same relocation technique is checked with that obtained using weight measurement. The proposed approach can be extended to other micro/nano finishing processes and favorable process conditions can be identified.

  18. Polish Adaptation of Wrist Evaluation Questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecki, Piotr; Wawrzyniak-Bielęda, Anna; Romanowski, Leszek

    2015-01-01

    Questionnaires evaluating hand and wrist function are a very useful tool allowing for objective and systematic recording of symptoms reported by the patients. Most questionnaires generally accepted in clinical practice are available in English and need to be appropriately adapted in translation and undergo subsequent validation before they can be used in another culture and language. The process of translation of the questionnaires was based on the generally accepted guidelines of the International Quality of Life Assessment Project (IQOLA). First, the questionnaires were translated from English into Polish by two independent translators. Then, a joint version of the translation was prepared collectively and translated back into English. Each stage was followed by a written report. The translated questionnaires were then evaluated by a group of patients. We selected 31 patients with wrist problems and asked them to complete the PRWE, Mayo, Michigan and DASH questionnaires twice at intervals of 3-10 days. The results were submitted for statistical analysis. We found a statistically significant (pquestionnaires. A comparison of the PRWE and Mayo questionnaires with the DASH questionnaire also showed a statistically significant correlation (pquestionnaires was successful and that the questionnaires may be used in clinical practice.

  19. Automated visual inspection for polished stone manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Melvyn L.; Smith, Lyndon N.

    2003-05-01

    Increased globalisation of the ornamental stone market has lead to increased competition and more rigorous product quality requirements. As such, there are strong motivators to introduce new, more effective, inspection technologies that will help enable stone processors to reduce costs, improve quality and improve productivity. Natural stone surfaces may contain a mixture of complex two-dimensional (2D) patterns and three-dimensional (3D) features. The challenge in terms of automated inspection is to develop systems able to reliably identify 3D topographic defects, either naturally occurring or resulting from polishing, in the presence of concomitant complex 2D stochastic colour patterns. The resulting real-time analysis of the defects may be used in adaptive process control, in order to avoid the wasteful production of defective product. An innovative approach, using structured light and based upon an adaptation of the photometric stereo method, has been pioneered and developed at UWE to isolate and characterize mixed 2D and 3D surface features. The method is able to undertake tasks considered beyond the capabilities of existing surface inspection techniques. The approach has been successfully applied to real stone samples, and a selection of experimental results is presented.

  20. Thermodynamical motivation of the Polish energy policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziębik Andrzej

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Basing on the first and second law of thermodynamics the fundamental trends in the Polish energy policy are analysed, including the aspects of environmental protection. The thermodynamical improvement of real processes (reduction of exergy losses is the main way leading to an improvement of the effectivity of energy consumption. If the exergy loss is economically not justified, we have to do with an error from the viewpoint of the second law analysis. The paper contains a thermodynamical analysis of the ratio of final and primary energy, as well as the analysis of the thermo-ecological cost and index of sustainable development concerning primary energy. Analyses of thermo-ecological costs concerning electricity and centralized heat production have been also carried out. The effect of increasing the share of high-efficiency cogeneration has been analyzed, too. Attention has been paid to an improved efficiency of the transmission and distribution of electricity, which is of special importance from the viewpoint of the second law analysis. The improvement of the energy effectivity in industry was analyzed on the example of physical recuperation, being of special importance from the point of view of exergy analysis.

  1. Polish university as an (unattractive potential employer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baruk, Agnieszka Izabela

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents issues associated with the reasons for the fact that young potential employees are not interested in starting work at Polish universities. The article is theoretical-empirical in character. The theoretical part highlights the importance of a situation in which an entity is regarded as an attractive employer, which allows attracting the best employees. Particular attention is paid to the fact that a university needs to build its image as an employer, which results from its characteristics. The article strives to achieve three research goals, among others, identifying the reasons why respondents are not interested in starting work at a university and arranging these reasons hierarchically. Two research hypotheses were subject to preliminary verification: H1 – the main reason for the unwillingness to start work at a university are financial aspects; H2 – the main reason for the unwillingness to start work at a university are the aspects of prestige. The data collected in course of primary research were subject to quantitative analysis based on the method of average assessment analysis and the method of factor analysis. Their results show that the respondents were not interested in work at a university mainly because they wanted to test the knowledge and skills acquired during studies in other branches. At the same time, the aspects of finances and prestige didn’t play a major role. Thus, in case of the surveyed sample of respondents both research hypotheses have to be recognized as untrue.

  2. Mercury emissions from polish pulverized coalfired boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wichliński Michał

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current paper presents the research results carried out at one of Polish power plants at a pulverized hard coal-fired 225 MW unit. The research was carried out at full load of the boiler (100% MCR and focused on analysis of mercury content in the input fuel and limestone sorbent for wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD system, as well as investigation of mercury content in the combustion products, i.e. fly ash, slag, FGD product (gypsum and FGD effluents (waste. Within the framework of the present study the concentration of mercury vapor in the exhaust gas was also investigated. The analysis was performed using Lumex RA-915+ spectrometer with an attachment (RP-91C. The measurements were carried out at three locations, i.e. before the electrostatic precipitator (ESP, downstream the ESP, and downstream the wet FGD plant. Design of the measurement system allowed to determine both forms of mercury in the flue gas (Hg0 and Hg2+ at all measurement locations.Based on the measurement results the balance of mercury for a pulverized coal (PC boiler was calculated and the amount of mercury was assessed both in the input solids (fuel and sorbent, as well as the gaseous and solids products (flue gas, slag, ash, gypsum and FGD waste.

  3. Marketing Globalisation – Polish Market Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Nowacki

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of the 21st century has been yielded with an acceleration of transformations occurring in economies of the whole world. These changes relate to all the areas of economic life functioning. The most important manifestation thereof is a reinforcement of competitive phenomena. Among the most important reasons for such a state of affairs, there is mentioned globalisation. The course of its processes forces the organisation operating in the market to undertake adaptive actions. One of them is reorientation of marketing activities. The need to modify the previous marketing concepts results, first of all, from far reaching alterations in the sphere of consumption, just triggered by globalisationís impact. These trends are noticed in all the markets, also in the Polish one. The foreign enterprises operating in it more and more often use the concept of global marketing. This makes us to have reflection on what is the real effectiveness of such actions and what are the possibilities to form oneís competitive position owing to that. The article constitutes an attempt to provide answers to these questions.

  4. Study on chemical mechanical polishing of silicon wafer with megasonic vibration assisted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Ke; He, Qing; Li, Liang; Ren, Yi

    2017-09-01

    Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) is the primary method to realize the global planarization of silicon wafer. In order to improve this process, a novel method which combined megasonic vibration to assist chemical mechanical polishing (MA-CMP) is developed in this paper. A matching layer structure of polishing head was calculated and designed. Silicon wafers are polished by megasonic assisted chemical mechanical polishing and traditional chemical mechanical polishing respectively, both coarse polishing and precision polishing experiments were carried out. With the use of megasonic vibration, the surface roughness values Ra reduced from 22.260nm to 17.835nm in coarse polishing, and the material removal rate increased by approximately 15-25% for megasonic assisted chemical mechanical polishing relative to traditional chemical mechanical polishing. Average Surface roughness values Ra reduced from 0.509nm to 0.387nm in precision polishing. The results show that megasonic assisted chemical mechanical polishing is a feasible method to improve polishing efficiency and surface quality. The material removal and finishing mechanisms of megasonic vibration assisted polishing are investigated too. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Polish origins of the Faculty of Mathematical and Natural Sciences of the University of Fribourg and the Polish contribution to the Fribourg industrial revolution (in Polish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech KOCUREK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to high-tech companies founded by Poles at the end of the 19th century in the rural canton of Fribourg in Switzerland. The text is divided into two parts. In the first part, the author attempts to present the economic, social and political reality of Fribourg in a period of intense industrialization in the world and the formation of the liberal free market system. In this rapidly changing reality, the new Catholic-conservative authorities of the canton tried to lead to establishing of a comprehensive, but also different system of a “Christian republic”, whose aim was to achieve social justice consistent with the teachings of the Gospel. In order to complete the project, the cantonal government did not shy away from using the possibilities and measures offered by the contemporary world. Decision-makers, led by Georges Python, needed support from the society, who was aware of the changes. Due to this fact, it became necessary to establish a university capable of shaping new attitudes and views. However, the costs significantly exceeded the financial capabilities of the agricultural and relatively poor canton of Fribourg. In these less favourable circumstances, a conscious policy of industrialization was the way out of the deadlock. Newly created industrial institutions were to contribute to an increase of cash inflows to the canton and thus allow for the financing of the university, which would also become an intellectual foundation for the emerging industry. The activity of Polish scientists, which is the subject of the second part of the article, matched this philosophy perfectly. The Poles invited to cooperate with Python, i.e. Józef Wierusz-Kowalski, Ignacy Mościcki and Jan Modzelewski, created the foundations of the Faculty of Mathematical and Natural Sciences at the University of Fribourg. As members of the faculty, in addition to teaching, they conducted research into, among other things, nitric acid

  6. Computer-Controlled Cylindrical Polishing Process for Development of Grazing Incidence Optics for Hard X-Ray Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Gufran Sayeed; Gubarev, Mikhail; Speegle, Chet; Ramsey, Brian

    2010-01-01

    The presentation includes grazing incidence X-ray optics, motivation and challenges, mid spatial frequency generation in cylindrical polishing, design considerations for polishing lap, simulation studies and experimental results, future scope, and summary. Topics include current status of replication optics technology, cylindrical polishing process using large size polishing lap, non-conformance of polishin lap to the optics, development of software and polishing machine, deterministic prediction of polishing, polishing experiment under optimum conditions, and polishing experiment based on known error profile. Future plans include determination of non-uniformity in the polishing lap compliance, development of a polishing sequence based on a known error profile of the specimen, software for generating a mandrel polishing sequence, design an development of a flexible polishing lap, and computer controlled localized polishing process.

  7. Germanium content in Polish hard coals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makowska Dorota

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the policy of the European Union, it is necessary to search for new sources of scarce raw materials. One of these materials is germanium, listed as a critical element. This semi-metal is widely used in the electronics industry, for example in the production of semiconductors, fibre optics and solar cells. Coal and fly ash from its combustion and gasification for a long time have been considered as a potential source of many critical elements, particularly germanium. The paper presents the results of germanium content determination in the Polish hard coal. 23 coal samples of various coal ranks were analysed. The samples were collected from 15 mines of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin and from one mine of the Lublin Coal Basin. The determination of germanium content was performed with the use of Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with Electrothermal Atomization (GFAAS. The investigation showed that germanium content in the analysed samples was at least twice lower than the average content of this element in the hard coals analysed so far and was in the range of 0.08 ÷ 1.28 mg/kg. Moreover, the content of Ge in the ashes from the studied coals does not exceed 15 mg/kg, which is lower than the average value of Ge content in the coal ashes. The highest content of this element characterizes coals of the Lublin Coal Basin and young coals type 31 from the Vistula region. The results indicate a low utility of the analysed coal ashes as a source of the recovery of germanium. On the basis of the analyses, the lack of the relationship between the content of the element and the ash content in the tested coals was noted. For coals of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, the relationship between the content of germanium in the ashes and the depth of the seam was observed.

  8. The study of optimization on process parameters of high-accuracy computerized numerical control polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei-Ren; Huang, Shih-Pu; Tsai, Tsung-Yueh; Lin, Yi-Jyun; Yu, Zong-Ru; Kuo, Ching-Hsiang; Hsu, Wei-Yao; Young, Hong-Tsu

    2017-09-01

    Spherical lenses lead to forming spherical aberration and reduced optical performance. Consequently, in practice optical system shall apply a combination of spherical lenses for aberration correction. Thus, the volume of the optical system increased. In modern optical systems, aspherical lenses have been widely used because of their high optical performance with less optical components. However, aspherical surfaces cannot be fabricated by traditional full aperture polishing process due to their varying curvature. Sub-aperture computer numerical control (CNC) polishing is adopted for aspherical surface fabrication in recent years. By using CNC polishing process, mid-spatial frequency (MSF) error is normally accompanied during this process. And the MSF surface texture of optics decreases the optical performance for high precision optical system, especially for short-wavelength applications. Based on a bonnet polishing CNC machine, this study focuses on the relationship between MSF surface texture and CNC polishing parameters, which include feed rate, head speed, track spacing and path direction. The power spectral density (PSD) analysis is used to judge the MSF level caused by those polishing parameters. The test results show that controlling the removal depth of single polishing path, through the feed rate, and without same direction polishing path for higher total removal depth can efficiently reduce the MSF error. To verify the optical polishing parameters, we divided a correction polishing process to several polishing runs with different direction polishing paths. Compare to one shot polishing run, multi-direction path polishing plan could produce better surface quality on the optics.

  9. Infestation of Polish Agricultural Soils by Plasmodiophora Brassicae Along The Polish-Ukrainian Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jędryczka Małgorzata

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There has been a rapid, worldwide increase in oilseed rape production that has resulted in enormous intensification of oilseed rape cultivation, leading to tight rotations. This in turn, has caused an accumulation of pests as well as foliar and soil-borne diseases. Recently, clubroot has become one of the biggest concerns of oilseed rape growers. Clubroot is caused by the soil-borne protist Plasmodiophora brassicae Woronin. The pathogen may be present in groundwater, lakes, and irrigation water used in sprinkling systems. It can be easily transmitted from one field to another not only by water, but also by soil particles and dust transmitted by wind and on machinery. The aim of our overall study was to check for P. brassicae infestation of Polish agricultural soils. This paper presents the 2012 results of a study performed along the Polish-Ukrainian border in two provinces: Lublin (Lubelskie Voivodeship and the Carpathian Foothills (Podkarpackie Voivodeship, in south-east Poland. Monitoring was done in 11 counties, including nine rural and two municipal ones. In total, 40 samples were collected, out of which 36 were collected from fields located in rural areas and four from municipal areas, with two per municipal region. Each sample was collected at 8-10 sites per field, using a soil auger. The biotest to detect the presence of P. brassicae was done under greenhouse conditions using seedlings of the susceptible Brassicas: B. rapa ssp. pekinensis and the Polish variety of oilseed rape B. napus cv. Monolit. Susceptible plants grown in heavily infested soils produced galls on their roots. A county was regarded as free from the pathogen, if none of the bait plants became infected. The pathogen was found in three out of 40 fields monitored (7.5% in the Carpathian Foothill region. The fields were located in two rural counties. The pathogen was not found in Lublin province, and was also not detected in any of the municipal counties. The detection with

  10. Experimental Study on Abrasive Waterjet Polishing of Hydraulic Turbine Blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khakpour, H; Birglenl, L; Tahan, A; Paquet, F

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an experimental investigation is implemented on the abrasive waterjet polishing technique to evaluate its capability in polishing of surfaces and edges of hydraulic turbine blades. For this, the properties of this method are studied and the main parameters affecting its performance are determined. Then, an experimental test-rig is designed, manufactured and tested to be used in this study. This test-rig can be used to polish linear and planar areas on the surface of the desired workpieces. Considering the number of parameters and their levels, the Taguchi method is used to design the preliminary experiments. All experiments are then implemented according to the Taguchi L 18 orthogonal array. The signal-to-noise ratios obtained from the results of these experiments are used to determine the importance of the controlled polishing parameters on the final quality of the polished surface. The evaluations on these ratios reveal that the nozzle angle and the nozzle diameter have the most important impact on the results. The outcomes of these experiments can be used as a basis to design a more precise set of experiments in which the optimal values of each parameter can be estimated

  11. The social shaping of innovation in polish companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Anne

    2003-01-01

    The paper deals with strategies of innovation in Polish manufacturing companies. The point of departure is a theoretical framework of enterprise level innovation, and of the factors forming strategies of innovation on enterprise level. The paper analyses evidence from 23 Polish companies and pres......The paper deals with strategies of innovation in Polish manufacturing companies. The point of departure is a theoretical framework of enterprise level innovation, and of the factors forming strategies of innovation on enterprise level. The paper analyses evidence from 23 Polish companies...... and presents two cases more in detail. The analysis shows that the Polish companies have all been quite innovative, mostly in relation to product innovation. They choose innovation strategies, which are incremental more than radical, and they tend to differentiate their product range rather than to specialise....... They consider quality development a must in the fight for market shares and they adapt equipment and organisation to this goal. The factors forming and determining the strategies of the companies count the technological knowledge and expertise of the owner/founder, the structural changes of the market...

  12. [Adhesion of oral microorganisms on dental porcelain polished and glazed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-ning; Wen, Guo-jiang; Shi, Bin; Pan, Xin-hua

    2003-09-01

    This study compared the roughness of porcelain polished or glazed surfaces and the adhesion of oral streptococcus mutans to them in vitro. 30 porcelain samples were made. Porcelain samples in group A were polished with diamond paste. Porcelain samples were glazed in group B and were polished with Al2O3 (240#) bur in group C. Their roughness values were measured by profilometer. Standardized cell suspensions were incubated with test samples for one hour at 37 degrees C, then retained cells were counted by image analysis (percentage area of a microscopic field covered by cells). Roughness values of group A, B, C were respectively (0.1987 +/- 0.057) microm, (0.1990 +/- 0.091) microm, (0.4260 +/- 0.174) microm. There was no significantly difference between group A and group B. The roughness samples in group C were significantly rougher than that in the other groups. The amount of retained cells in group A, group B, group C was respectively (15.92 +/- 4.37)%, (16.39 +/- 6.31)% and (41.48 +/- 12.1)%. There was no significant difference between the cell adhesion on porcelain surface glazed and polished, but more bacteria adhered on the porcelain surface in group C. Porcelain surface polished treatment was clinically acceptable compared with its glazed. They all exhibited the least amount of bacteria adhesion. The more porcelain surface was rough, the more bacteria adhered on it.

  13. Initial polishing time affects gloss retention in resin composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waheeb, Nehal; Silikas, Nick; Watts, David

    2012-10-01

    To determine the effect of finishing and polishing time on the surface gloss of various resin-composites before and after simulated toothbrushing. Eight representative resin-composites (Ceram X mono, Ceram X duo, Tetric EvoCeram, Venus Diamond, EsteliteSigma Quick, Esthet.X HD, Filtek Supreme XT and Spectrum TPH) were used to prepare 80 disc-shaped (12 mm x 2 mm) specimens. The two step system Venus Supra was used for polishing the specimens for 3 minutes (Group A) and 10 minutes (Group B). All specimens were subjected to 16,000 cycles of simulated toothbrushing. The surface gloss was measured after polishing and after brushing using the gloss meter. Results were evaluated using one way ANOVA, two ways ANOVA and Dennett's post hoc test (P = 0.05). Group B (10-minute polishing) resulted in higher gloss values (GV) for all specimens compared to Group A (3 minutes). Also Group B showed better gloss retention compared to Group A after simulated toothbrushing. In each group, there was a significant difference between the polished composite resins (P gloss after the simulated toothbrushing.

  14. American Society of Echocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Society of Echocardiography Join Ase Renew Member Portal Log In Membership Member Portal Log In Join ASE Renew Benefits Rates FASE – Fellow of the American Society of Echocardiography Member Referral Program FAQs Initiatives Advocacy Awards, Grants, ...

  15. Reclaiming Society Publishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip E. Steinberg

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Learned societies have become aligned with commercial publishers, who have increasingly taken over the latter’s function as independent providers of scholarly information. Using the example of geographical societies, the advantages and disadvantages of this trend are examined. It is argued that in an era of digital publication, learned societies can offer leadership with a new model of open access that can guarantee high quality scholarly material whose publication costs are supported by society membership dues.

  16. Education of children in Polish family in a context of forming health culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. IERMAKOVA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - analysis of the approaches of family education in a Polish family in the direction of forming a culture of children's health. Material: The analysis of the publications of post-communist countries and Poland scientists. Used the results of a questionnaire on health culture. Results: It was found that healthsaving aspect of family education in Polish family plays a significant role in forming health culture. Highlighted in national traditions of family upbringing of a healthy child. It is noted that social support, as a result of active participation in the religious life, helps to better cope with the challenges of everyday life, reduces anxiety and excessive sadness, increases the feeling of well-being. There is a possibility in the Ukrainian family and the school to ensure the spiritual education of children, the right of parents to ensure the education and upbringing of their children in conformity with their own philosophical convictions. Considered necessary to strengthen the role of the family and school education of students in the context of building a culture of health. The main factors of a healthy lifestyle today's young people are: quality of food, measures to prevent stress, problems of environmental protection, sports, leisure. Conclusions: It is recommended to involve parents in various activities of the societies and volunteers of various organizations. Considered necessary to strengthen the role of the family and school education of students in the context of building a culture of health.

  17. The socio-economic and spatial transformation of Polish cities after 1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy J. Parysek

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the socio-economic and spatial transformation of Polishcities after 1989. The Polish changes reached the structures of the three basic subsystems ofthe state: political (power, social (society, and economic (the economy. The systemictransformation that has taken place in Poland after 1989 is most readily visible in towns,although it was introduced in the country as a whole. For the development and transformationof towns, the most important were the introduction of local government structures andthe market model of the economy. The restitution of local government has ensured townsan authentic manager authorised to perform his function by the local community. The introductionof the market model to the economy has resulted in its privatisation and the appearanceof enterprise and competition. Towns, especially the biggest cities, have becomeattractive locations for investment. Cities with a balanced economic structure and well-developedinfrastructure had much better chances for growth to start with. Unfortunately, thetransformation period has also had some detrimental effects, the most important being unemploymentand all kinds of social deviance. However, Polish cities are certainly differenttoday and resemble Western cities to a greater extent than did the so-called socialist townsbuilt along theoretically beautiful but practically ineffectual ideological lines.

  18. Material removal mechanisms in electrochemical-mechanical polishing of tantalum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, F.; Liang, H.

    2009-01-01

    Material removal mechanisms in tantalum chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) and electrochemical-mechanical polishing (ECMP) were investigated using the single frequency electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Through measuring the impedance of the tantalum surface, the single frequency EIS scan made it possible to observe the CMP and ECMP processes in situ. The impedance results presented competing mechanisms of removal and formation of a surface oxide layer of tantalum. Analysis indicated that the thickness of the oxide layer formed during polishing was related to the mechanical power correlated to the friction force and the rotating speed. Furthermore, the rate of growth and removal of the oxide film was a function of the mechanical power. This understanding is beneficial for optimization of CMP and ECMP processes.

  19. Research on Grinding and Polishing Force Control of Compliant Flange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chuang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The automation of the grinding and polishing process is important to improve the production efficiency of the part surfaces. In this paper, a new compliant flange mounted on the end of the industrial robots for the robotic grinding and polishing force control is developed. With regard to the non-linear and time-varying problem of the contact force, the mathematical model of the new force control system was presented and the fuzzy PID control strategy was used to drive the proposed system. Especially, the air spring and electric proportional valve is studied to establish the model. The simulation results show that the selected control strategy has quick response and good robustness, which satisfies the real-time requirements of the grinding and polishing force control in processing.

  20. [Polish medical ethics in the period 1945-1980].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichrowski, Marek

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this article is o present that main currents of Polish medical ethics in the years 1945-1980, which the author treats as the 'prehistory' of Poland's contemporary bioethics. The author begins by ascertaining the post-war disappearance of two Polish traditions--that of the Warsaw school of philosopher-physicians (known in the West as the Polish School of Philosophy of Medicine) and the Lwów-Warsaw School of Philosophy. The political system that come into being after 1945 was not conducive to the development of medical ethics, but several clear orientations may be discerned in the utterances of physicians, lawyers, moral technologlans and academic philosophers. The analysis begins with Catholic ethics in its archaic 1950s-vintage form. The author then presents the thinking of ethicians Independent of both the Church and Marxism (the milieu of the journal 'Etyka') as well as the deontological writings of physicians.

  1. Condensate polishing guidelines for PWR and BWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbins, P.; Crinigan, P.; Graham, B.; Kohlmann, R.; Crosby, C.; Seager, J.; Bosold, R.; Gillen, J.; Kristensen, J.; McKeen, A.; Jones, V.; Sawochka, S.; Siegwarth, D.; Keeling, D.; Polidoroff, T.; Morgan, D.; Rickertsen, D.; Dyson, A.; Mills, W.; Coleman, L.

    1993-03-01

    Under EPRI sponsorship, an industry committee, similar in form and operation to other guideline committees, was created to develop Condensate Polishing Guidelines for both PWR and BWR systems. The committee reviewed the available utility and water treatment industry experience on system design and performance and incorporated operational and state-of-the-art information into document. These guidelines help utilities to optimize present condensate polisher designs as well as be a resource for retrofits or new construction. These guidelines present information that has not previously been presented in any consensus industry document. The committee generated guidelines that cover both deep bed and powdered resin systems as an integral part of the chemistry of PWR and BWR plants. The guidelines are separated into sections that deal with the basis for condensate polishing, system design, resin design and application, data management and performance and management responsibilities

  2. Development of clean chemical mechanical polishing systems; Clean CMP system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujimura, M.; Hosokawa, M. [Ebara Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-20

    Described herein are clean chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) systems developed by Ebara. A CMP system needs advanced peripheral techniques, in addition to those for grinding adopted by the conventional system, in order to fully exhibit its inherent functions. An integrated design concept is essential for the CMP steps, including slurry supplying, polishing, washing, process controlling and waste fluid treatment. The Ebara has adopted a standard concept `Clean CMP, dry-in and dry-out of wafers,` and provided world`s highest grades of techniques for inter-layer insulating film, shallow trench isolation, plug and wiring. The head for the polishing module is specially designed by FEM, to improve homogeneity of wafers from the center to edges. The dresser is also specially designed, to improve pad surface topolody after dressing. A slurry dipsersing method is developed to reduce slurry consumption. Various washing modules, designed to have the same external shape, can be allocated to various functions. 10 figs.

  3. The Information Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiranya Nath

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article briefly discusses various definitions and concepts of the so-called information society. The term information society has been proposed to refer to the post-industrial society in which information plays a pivotal role. The definitions that have been proposed over the years highlight five underlying characterisations of an information society: technological, economic, sociological, spatial, and cultural. This article discusses those characteristics. While the emergence of an information society may be just a figment of one’s imagination, the concept could be a good organising principle to describe and analyse the changes of the past 50 years and of the future in the 21st century.

  4. Development of hybrid fluid jet/float polishing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaucamp, Anthony T. H.; Namba, Yoshiharu; Freeman, Richard R.

    2013-09-01

    On one hand, the "float polishing" process consists of a tin lap having many concentric grooves, cut from a flat by single point diamond turning. This lap is rotated above a hydrostatic bearing spindle of high rigidity, damping and rotational accuracy. The optical surface thus floats above a thin layer of abrasive particles. But whilst surface texture can be smoothed to ~0.1nm rms (as measured by atomic force microscopy), this process can only be used on flat surfaces. On the other hand, the CNC "fluid jet polishing" process consists of pumping a mixture of water and abrasive particles to a converging nozzle, thus generating a polishing spot that can be moved along a tool path with tight track spacing. But whilst tool path feed can be moderated to ultra-precisely correct form error on freeform optical surfaces, surface finish improvement is generally limited to ~1.5nm rms (with fine abrasives). This paper reports on the development of a novel finishing method, that combines the advantages of "fluid jet polishing" (i.e. freeform corrective capability) with "float polishing" (i.e. super-smooth surface finish of 0.1nm rms or less). To come up with this new "hybrid" method, computational fluid dynamic modeling of both processes in COMSOL is being used to characterize abrasion conditions and adapt the process parameters of experimental fluid jet polishing equipment, including: (1) geometrical shape of nozzle, (2) position relative to the surface, (3) control of inlet pressure. This new process is aimed at finishing of next generation X-Ray / Gamma Ray focusing optics.

  5. The corrosion resistance of Nitinol alloy in simulated physiological solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milošev, Ingrid; Kapun, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    The corrosion behaviour of Nitinol alloy containing nearly equi-atomic composition of nickel and titanium and its constituent metals (nickel and titanium) was investigated in simulated Hanks physiological solution (pH value 7.5) and pH modified simulated Hanks physiological solution (pH values 4.5 and 6.5) and by electrochemical method of anodic potentiodynamic polarization at 37 °C. In this chloride-rich medium the corrosion stability of Nitinol is limited by the susceptibility to localized corrosion and is in that sense more similar to nickel than to titanium. The corrosion stability of Nitinol is strongly dependent on the surface preparation—grinding, polishing or chemical etching. Whereas a ground surface is not resistant to localized corrosion, polished and chemically etched surfaces are resistant to this type of corrosion attack. The reasons for this behaviour were investigated through metallurgical, topographical and chemical properties of the surface as a function of surface preparation. For that purpose, scanning electron microscopy combined with chemical analysis, confocal microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used. The surface roughness decreased in the following order: chemically etched > ground > polished surface. Besides differences in topography, distinct differences in the chemical composition of the outermost surface are observed. Ground, rough surfaces comprised mainly titanium oxides and small amounts of nickel metal. Chemically etched and, especially, polished surfaces are composed of a mixture of titanium, nickel and titanium oxides, as studied by angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. These results emphasize the importance of detailed investigation of the metal surface since small differences in surface preparation may induce large differences in corrosion stability of material when exposed to corrosive environments. - Highlights: ► The corrosion resistance of Nitinol is dependent on the surface preparation.

  6. Barriers and Limitations of Mentoring in Polish Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Mesjasz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In Polish organizations one can recognize a lot of barriers in the mentoring implementation. According to the author, at the root of these barriers are hierarchies of values: social, national, organizational, and hierarchies of values represented by individual employees. The purpose of this article is to trace the sources of constraints in the mentoring implementation process. The analysis is carried out on several levels: from the broadest social perspective, through the national to the perspective of the organization. In the article, there are also presented actions that should be taken by Polish organizations to overcome barriers and constraints in the mentoring implementation process.

  7. Recurrent APC gene mutations in Polish FAP families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pławski Andrzej

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The molecular diagnostics of genetically conditioned disorders is based on the identification of the mutations in the predisposing genes. Hereditary cancer disorders of the gastrointestinal tracts are caused by mutations of the tumour suppressor genes or the DNA repair genes. Occurrence of recurrent mutation allows improvement of molecular diagnostics. The mutation spectrum in the genes causing hereditary forms of colorectal cancers in the Polish population was previously described. In the present work an estimation of the frequency of the recurrent mutations of the APC gene was performed. Eight types of mutations occurred in 19.4% of our FAP families and these constitute 43% of all Polish diagnosed families.

  8. Mechanistic, kinetic, and processing aspects of tungsten chemical mechanical polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, David

    This dissertation presents an investigation into tungsten chemical mechanical polishing (CMP). CMP is the industrially predominant unit operation that removes excess tungsten after non-selective chemical vapor deposition (CVD) during sub-micron integrated circuit (IC) manufacture. This work explores the CMP process from process engineering and fundamental mechanistic perspectives. The process engineering study optimized an existing CMP process to address issues of polish pad and wafer carrier life. Polish rates, post-CMP metrology of patterned wafers, electrical test data, and synergy with a thermal endpoint technique were used to determine the optimal process. The oxidation rate of tungsten during CMP is significantly lower than the removal rate under identical conditions. Tungsten polished without inhibition during cathodic potentiostatic control. Hertzian indenter model calculations preclude colloids of the size used in tungsten CMP slurries from indenting the tungsten surface. AFM surface topography maps and TEM images of post-CMP tungsten do not show evidence of plow marks or intergranular fracture. Polish rate is dependent on potassium iodate concentration; process temperature is not. The colloid species significantly affects the polish rate and process temperature. Process temperature is not a predictor of polish rate. A process energy balance indicates that the process temperature is predominantly due to shaft work, and that any heat of reaction evolved during the CMP process is negligible. Friction and adhesion between alumina and tungsten were studied using modified AFM techniques. Friction was constant with potassium iodate concentration, but varied with applied pressure. This corroborates the results from the energy balance. Adhesion between the alumina and the tungsten was proportional to the potassium iodate concentration. A heuristic mechanism, which captures the relationship between polish rate, pressure, velocity, and slurry chemistry, is presented

  9. Implementation of the Bulgarian-Polish online dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Dimitrova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of the Bulgarian-Polish online dictionary The paper describes the implementation of an online Bulgarian-Polish dictionary as a technological tool for applications in digital humanities. This bilingual digital dictionary is developed in the frame of the joint research project “Semantics and Contrastive Linguistics with a focus on a bilingual electronic dictionary” between IMI-BAS and ISS-PAS, supervised by L. Dimitrova (IMI-BAS and V. Koseska-Toszewa (ISS-PAS. In addition, the main software tools for web-presentation of the dictionary are described briefly.

  10. Laser polishing for topography management of accelerator cavity surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Liang [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Klopf, J. Mike [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Reece, Charles E. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Kelley, Michael J. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2015-07-20

    Improved energy efficiency and reduced cost are greatly desired for advanced particle accelerators. Progress toward both can be made by atomically-smoothing the interior surface of the niobium superconducting radiofrequency accelerator cavities at the machine's heart. Laser polishing offers a green alternative to the present aggressive chemical processes. We found parameters suitable for polishing niobium in all surface states expected for cavity production. As a result, careful measurement of the resulting surface chemistry revealed a modest thinning of the surface oxide layer, but no contamination.

  11. Confocal Raman spectrocopy for the analysis of nail polish evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, Maria; Vaz, Joana; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2015-06-01

    Nail polishes are cosmetic paints that may be susceptible of forensic analysis offering useful information to assist in a crime reconstruction. Although the nail polish appearance could allow a quick visual identification of the sample, this analysis is subjected to the perception and subjective interpretation of the forensic examiner. The chemical analysis of the nail polishes offers great deal of information not subjected to analyst interpretation. Confocal Raman spectroscopy is a well-suited technique for the analysis of paints due to its non-invasive and non-destructive nature and its ability to supply information about the organic and inorganic components of the sample. In this work, 77 regular and gel nail polishes were analyzed with confocal Raman spectroscopy using two laser wavelengths (532 and 780 nm). The sample behavior under the two laser wavelengths and the differences in the spectra taken at different points of the sample were studied for each nail polish. Additionally, the spectra obtained for all the nail polishes were visually compared. The results concluded that the longer laser wavelength prevents sample burning and fluorescence effects; the similarity among the spectra collected within the sample is not directly related with the presence of glitter particles; and 64% of the samples analyzed showed a characteristic spectrum. Additionally, the use of confocal Raman spectroscopy for the forensic analysis of nail polishes evidence in the form of flakes or smudges on different surfaces were studied. The results showed that both types of evidence can be analyzed by the technique. Also, two non-invasive sampling methods for the collection of the evidence from the nails of the suspect or the victim were proposed: (i) to use acetone-soaked cotton swabs to remove the nail varnishes and (ii) to scrape the nail polish from the nail with a blade. Both approaches, each exhibiting advantages and drawbacks in terms of transport and handling were appropriate

  12. Chemical Mechanical Polishing of Ruthenium, Cobalt, and Black Diamond Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peethala, Brown Cornelius

    Ta/TaN bilayer serves as the diffusion barrier as well as the adhesion promoter between Cu and the dielectric in 32 nm technology devices. A key concern of future technology devices (layer (vs. a bilayer of Ta/TaN) to act as a barrier. During patterning, they need to be planarized using conventional chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) to achieve a planar surface. However, CMP of these new barrier materials requires novel slurry compositions that provide adequate selectivity towards Cu and dielectric films, and minimize galvanic corrosion. Apart from the application as a barrier, Ru also has been proposed as a lower electrode material in metal-insulator-metal capacitors where high (> 50 nm/min) Ru removal rates (RRs) are required and as a stop layer in magnetic recording head fabrication where low (hydroxide (KOH). It was also determined that increased the ionic strength is not responsible for the observed increase in Ru removal rate. Benzotirazole (BTA) and ascorbic acid were added to the slurry to reduce the open circuit potential (Eoc) difference between Cu and Ru to ˜20 mV from about 550 mV in the absence of additives. A removal mechanism with KIO4 as the oxidizing agent is proposed based on the formation of several ruthenium oxides, some of which formed residues on the polishing pad below a pH of ˜7. Next, a colloidal silica-based slurry with hydrogen peroxide (H 2O2) as the oxidizer (1 wt%), and arginine (0.5 wt%) as the complexing agent was developed to polish Co at pH 10. The Eoc between Cu and Co at the above conditions was reduced to ˜20 mV compared to ˜250 mV in the absence of additives, suggestive of reduced galvanic corrosion during the Co polishing. The slurry also has the advantages of good post-polish surface quality at pH 10, and no dissolution rate. BTA at a concentration of 5mM in this slurry inhibited Cu dissolution rates and yielded a Cu/Co RR ratio of ˜0.8:1 while the open potential difference between Cu and Co was further reduced to ˜10

  13. Simulation and analysis of an alternative kinematics for improving the polishing uniformity over the surface of polished tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weingaertner, W. L.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigates the possibility of adopting a new kinematics at the industrial polishing lines of porcelain stoneware tile. An alternative motion of the transverse oscillation of the polishing heads is proposed, in which no radical changes in the industries facilities are required. The basic idea is to replace the purely sinus motion of the polishing heads by a rather trapezoid wavelike motion. In theory this could be achieved simply by adopting regular delays at the transverse oscillation motion. Consequences of this alternative kinematics were quantitatively analyzed considering the spatial homogeneity of polishing expected for tiles. Such homogeneity was represented by the coefficient of variation of the distribution of polishing time over the surface, which was in turn determined by means of computational simulations, taking into account the effect of multiple polishing heads.

    El presente trabajo investiga la posibilidad de adoptar una nueva cinemática en las líneas de pulido industrial de baldosas de gres porcelánico. Se propone una propuesta alternativa de la oscilación transversal de los cabezales pulidores, en el que no hay cambios radicales en las instalaciones de las industrias son necesarias. La idea básica consiste en sustituir el movimiento totalmente del seno de los cabezales pulidores por un movimiento ondulatorio trapezoide. En teoría, esto podría lograrse sólo mediante la adopción de los habituales retrasos en el movimiento de oscilación transversal. las consecuencias de esta cinemática fueron analizados cuantitativamente, teniendo en cuenta la homogeneidad espacial de pulido. Tal homogeneidad fora representada por el coeficiente de variación de la distribución de lo tiempo de pulido en la superficie, determinada por medio de simulaciones computacionales, teniendo también en cuenta el efecto de pulido de las cabezas múltiples.

  14. The View of Lithuanian Statehood Held by the Polish Underground during 1939-1944

    OpenAIRE

    Bubnys, Arūnas

    2006-01-01

    The article investigates the attitudes of Polish underground actors towards the statehood of Lithuania, its territorial integrity, and Lithuanian-Polish relations during the World War II. The author draws the conclusion that Polish underground political structures expressed a hostile and prejudiced attitude towards Lithuania. All the blame and responsibility for bad mutual relations is put on Lithuania and Lithuanians. Polish underground actors living in Vilnija were extremely hostile towards...

  15. Semi-strong informational efficiency in the Polish foreign exchange market

    OpenAIRE

    Luksz Goczek

    2015-01-01

    During the financial crisis a notion that the Polish exchange rate is not determined effectively was very dominant, because of a contagion effect of the global financial crisis on the Polish economy. In addition, many foreign exchange market analysts explained developments in the Polish exchange market trough a hypothesis that the Polish zloty exchange rate follows other exchange rates. This contradicts market efficiency as this would lead to profitable arbitrage possibility based on past inf...

  16. Indian Vacuum Society: The Indian Vacuum Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, T. K.

    2008-03-01

    The Indian Vacuum Society (IVS) was established in 1970. It has over 800 members including many from Industry and R & D Institutions spread throughout India. The society has an active chapter at Kolkata. The society was formed with the main aim to promote, encourage and develop the growth of Vacuum Science, Techniques and Applications in India. In order to achieve this aim it has conducted a number of short term courses at graduate and technician levels on vacuum science and technology on topics ranging from low vacuum to ultrahigh vacuum So far it has conducted 39 such courses at different parts of the country and imparted training to more than 1200 persons in the field. Some of these courses were in-plant training courses conducted on the premises of the establishment and designed to take care of the special needs of the establishment. IVS also regularly conducts national and international seminars and symposia on vacuum science and technology with special emphasis on some theme related to applications of vacuum. A large number of delegates from all over India take part in the deliberations of such seminars and symposia and present their work. IVS also arranges technical visits to different industries and research institutes. The society also helped in the UNESCO sponsored post-graduate level courses in vacuum science, technology and applications conducted by Mumbai University. The society has also designed a certificate and diploma course for graduate level students studying vacuum science and technology and has submitted a syllabus to the academic council of the University of Mumbai for their approval, we hope that some colleges affiliated to the university will start this course from the coming academic year. IVS extended its support in standardizing many of the vacuum instruments and played a vital role in helping to set up a Regional Testing Centre along with BARC. As part of the development of vacuum education, the society arranges the participation of

  17. Chewing Over Physiology Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulkader, Fernando; Azevedo-Martins, Anna Karenina; de Arcisio Miranda, Manoel; Brunaldi, Kellen

    2005-01-01

    An important challenge for both students and teachers of physiology is to integrate the differentareas in which physiological knowledge is didactically divided. In developing countries, such an issue is even more demanding, because budget restrictions often affect the physiology program with laboratory classes being the first on the list when it…

  18. Plant Physiology in Greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelink, E.; Kierkels, T.

    2015-01-01

    Since 2004 Ep Heuvelink and Tijs Kierkels have been writing a continuing series of plant physiology articles for the Dutch horticultural journal Onder Glas and the international edition In Greenhouses. The book Plant Physiology in Greenhouses consists of 50 of their plant physiology articles. The

  19. Human Dignity in Law – A Case Study of the Polish Legal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Butrymowicz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Human dignity is one of the most fundamental ideas in the entire international human rights system. As from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in 1948, the concept of the human dignity become used as a tool to protect the basic needs of humans. The other formal instruments of international human rights also make reference to dignity. Whereas international law widely accepted the inherence of dignity, controversies still arise around the source of the dignity. Polish lawmakers, on the other hand, have no doubt about the fact the concept of dignity comes from natural law. Poland, in her Constitution, refers to the teaching of John Paul II about the source, value and meaning of human dignity. There is no doubt that concept of human dignity, even when it is controversial, is the most widely accepted by all religions and political society in the world.

  20. Civil Society and Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgård, Lars

    An illustration of how important the relationship is between civil society anbd governance. A short historic journey with four snapshots of times and situations that have provided interesting evidence about the connection between civil society and governance. My goal for the short historic journey...... is to make clear and hopefully even verify that providing knowledge about the impact of civil society and citizens’ participation on governance is one of the most urgent research tasks in the current period of time....

  1. Effect of Polishing Systems on Surface Roughness and Topography of Monolithic Zirconia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goo, C L; Yap, Auj; Tan, Kbc; Fawzy, A S

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different chairside polishing systems on the surface roughness and topography of monolithic zirconia. Thirty-five monolithic zirconia specimens (Lava PLUS, 3M ESPE) were fabricated and divided into five groups of seven and polished with the following: Group 1 (WZ)-Dura white stone followed by Shofu zirconia polishing kit; Group 2 (SZ)-Shofu zirconia polishing kit; Group 3 (CE)-Ceramiste porcelain polishers; Group 4 (CM)-Ceramaster porcelain polishers; and Group 5 (KZ)-Komet ZR zirconia polishers. All specimens were ground with a fine-grit diamond bur prior to polishing procedures to simulate clinical finishing. Baseline and post-polishing profilometric readings were recorded and delta Ra values (difference in mean surface roughness before and after polishing) were computed and analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Scheffe post hoc test (pSEM) images of the ground but unpolished and polished specimens were acquired. Delta Ra values ranged from 0.146 for CE to 0.400 for KZ. Delta Ra values for KZ, WZ, and SZ were significantly greater than for CE. Significant differences in delta Ra values were also observed between KZ and CM. The SEM images obtained were consistent with the profilometric findings. Diamond-impregnated polishing systems were more effective than silica carbide-impregnated ones in reducing the surface roughness of ground monolithic zirconia.

  2. Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canedo, Luis

    2008-01-01

    In July 2007 physicians, biologists and physicists that have collaborated in previous meetings of the medical branch of the Mexican Physical Society constituted the Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism with the purpose of promote scientific study of the interaction of electromagnetic energy (at frequencies ranging from zero Hertz through those of visible light) and acoustic energy with biological systems. A second goal was to increase the contribution of medical and biological professionals in the meetings of the medical branch of the Mexican Physical Society. The following paragraphs summarize some objectives of the Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism for the next two years

  3. Study on combined polishing process of aspherical aluminum mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jinqiu; Peng, Xiaoqiang; Hu, Hao; Ge, Kunpeng

    2017-10-01

    The aluminum mirrors are widely used as important optical components in some vital fields such as astronomical instruments or military installations due to the unique advantages of aluminum alloy. In order to simplify the structure of optical system and improve the performance at the same time, it's a tendency that the optics will be designed to aspherical or other freeform shapes. However, the traditional techniques are falling to have adequate abilities to deal with the increasing demands of aluminum optics. For example, the tool marks leaved on the surface from single point diamond turning (SPDT) has obvious adverse effects to optical system. The deterministic and sub-aperture polishing process has showed the potential to fabricate complex shapes over the few years. But it's still recognized as a problem to polish bare aluminum directly because of its soft surface and active chemical characteristics. Therefore, a combination of magnetorheological finishing (MRF) and small tool polishing (STP) is applied to obtain high performance aluminum optics in this paper. A paraboloid aluminum mirror was polished with this proposed method, and the results showed that the surface texture of the sample is restrained from rms 0.409λ (λ=632.8nm) to rms 0.025λ, and the surface roughness is improved from average Ra 6 7nm to Ra 3 4nm.

  4. Using Nail Polish to Teach about Gender and Homophobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Nelta M.

    2010-01-01

    How might teachers help students investigate the relationship between gender and homophobia? This article describes an exercise that uses fingernail polish to do just that. The authors uses anecdotal evidence to describe the exercise in which students pair with someone of the opposite gender and paint each other's fingernails. Additionally, the…

  5. In-situ photopatterning of hydrogel microarrays in polished microchips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gümüscü, B.; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    2015-01-01

    We present a fabrication method which enables simple and eproducible photopatterning of micron- sized hydrogel arrays inside closed microchips. To achieve this, the glass cover of the microchip is thinned by mechanical grinding and polishing. This procedure reduces the spacing between the photomask

  6. Bioethanol productions from rice polish by optimization of dilute acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lignocellulose materials are abundant renewable resource for the production of biofuel from fermentative organism (Sacchromyces cervesiae). Rice polish is cheapest and abundant lignocelluloses resource and has potential to produce bioethanol. The main steps for the conversion of biomass into glucose required dilute ...

  7. An operational map of the Polish Coastal Front 1970

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Theis; Svenningsen, Stig Roar; Tinning, Morten

    2016-01-01

    The map of the Operational Plan for the Coastal Front, from Poland 1970 forms the basis for this paper. The map portraits the blueprint of the combined operational war plans for the Polish military in the late 1960’s and 70’s. It details the offensive against NATO countries and their forces...

  8. Social Interest in The Polish Doctrine of Monument Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoszczyszyn, Marek

    2017-10-01

    The paper discusses a controversy surrounding the latest amendment to the text of the Polish Parliament Act Conservation and the Care of Monuments (2015). It is a common dictum that any edifice cannot exist without good foundations. In this particular case of the mentioned above Act, definition of monument appears to be such a basis. A social interest is one of the constituent elements of the definition mentioned above. In the first part of the paper the notion of the social interest expression has been discussed, particularly from national and international points of view. The second part of the paper comprises some examples from the Polish monument preservation experience with the use of comparison method supported by case study. Only three big Polish cities: Warsaw, Wroclaw and Szczecin are involved in the presented case study but it must be emphasized that many other places on Polish territory experienced the same. Basing on the faith of these cities, the results and discussion chapter proves fundamental discrepancy in social interest notion between national and international scopes using some analytical methods. Finally, in the discussion chapter some proposals for the future amendment of monument definition in the Act of Conservation and the Care of Monuments have been provided.

  9. Financial repression, money growth, and seignorage: The Polish experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarle, B. van; Budina, N.

    1997-01-01

    Financial Repression, Money Growth and Seignorage: The Polish Experience. — A small analytical framework is developed to analyze the relation between reserve requirements, base money growth and seignorage revenues. From the analysis, the authors can derive of steady-state seignorage revenues as a

  10. Detection of Polish clinical Aspergillus fumigatus isolates resistant to triazoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nawrot, Urszula; Kurzyk, Ewelina; Arendrup, Maiken Cavling

    2018-01-01

    We studied the presence of triazole resistance of 121 Aspergillus fumigatus clinical isolates collected in two Polish cities, Warsaw and Wrocław, to determine if resistance is emerging in our country. We identified five itraconazole resistant isolates (4.13%) carrying the TR34/L98H alteration...

  11. Values Education--A Reality or Myth in Polish Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switala, Eugeniusz

    2015-01-01

    The United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD), which is coming to an end, will offer all kinds of summaries and reflections on this issue. The aim of this paper, strictly related with the goals of the DESD, is to answer the following questions: (1) "Is the Polish school ready to provide values education?"; (2)…

  12. Violation of interest-rate parity: a Polish example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przystawa, Jerzy; Wolf, Marek

    2000-09-01

    The mechanism of the so-called “Bagsik Oscillator” is presented and discussed. In essence, it is a repeated exploitation of arbitrage opportunities that resulted from a marked departure from the interest-rate parity relationship between the local Polish currency and the western currencies.

  13. Novel ceria-polymer microcomposites for chemical mechanical polishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutinho, Cecil A.; Mudhivarthi, Subrahmanya R.; Kumar, Ashok; Gupta, Vinay K.

    2008-01-01

    Abrasive particles are key components in slurries for chemical mechanical polishing (CMP). Since the particle characteristics determine surface quality of wafers during polishing, in this research, novel abrasive composite particles have been developed. These composite particles contain nanoparticles of ceria dispersed within cross-linked, polymeric microspheres such that the average mass fraction of ceria is approximately 50% in the particles. The microspheres are formed by co-polymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) with 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (MPS) and contain interpenetrating (IP) chains of poly(acrylic acid) (PAAc). Infrared spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy are employed to characterize the composite particles. Planarization of silicon dioxide wafers is studied on a bench-top CMP tester and the polished surfaces are characterized by ellipsometry, atomic force and optical microscopy. Slurries formed from the composite ceria-polymer particles lead to lower topographical variations and surface roughness than slurries of only ceria nanoparticles even though both slurries achieve similar removal rates of ∼100 nm/min for similar ceria content. Polishing with the novel composite particles gives surfaces devoid of scratches and particle deposition, which makes these particles suitable for the next generation slurries in CMP

  14. Novel ceria-polymer microcomposites for chemical mechanical polishing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutinho, Cecil A. [Department of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, University of South Florida (United States); Mudhivarthi, Subrahmanya R.; Kumar, Ashok [Nanomaterials and Nanomanufacturing Research Center, University of South Florida (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Florida (United States); Gupta, Vinay K. [Department of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, University of South Florida (United States)], E-mail: vkgupta@eng.usf.edu

    2008-12-30

    Abrasive particles are key components in slurries for chemical mechanical polishing (CMP). Since the particle characteristics determine surface quality of wafers during polishing, in this research, novel abrasive composite particles have been developed. These composite particles contain nanoparticles of ceria dispersed within cross-linked, polymeric microspheres such that the average mass fraction of ceria is approximately 50% in the particles. The microspheres are formed by co-polymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) with 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (MPS) and contain interpenetrating (IP) chains of poly(acrylic acid) (PAAc). Infrared spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy are employed to characterize the composite particles. Planarization of silicon dioxide wafers is studied on a bench-top CMP tester and the polished surfaces are characterized by ellipsometry, atomic force and optical microscopy. Slurries formed from the composite ceria-polymer particles lead to lower topographical variations and surface roughness than slurries of only ceria nanoparticles even though both slurries achieve similar removal rates of {approx}100 nm/min for similar ceria content. Polishing with the novel composite particles gives surfaces devoid of scratches and particle deposition, which makes these particles suitable for the next generation slurries in CMP.

  15. Empirical relations of sediment transport prediction in Polish multibanks shore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruszak, Z.

    1995-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative description of various elements of bottom sediment movement in Polish multibanks coastal region has been down. Empirical relations linking transport velocity, thickness of the drag layer and the transport volume with the generating wave-current background have been presented. Practical engineering advices on performance of various reports concerning coastal engineering or coastal zone ecology. (author)

  16. Diamond turning and polishing tests on new RSP aluminium alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, R. ter; Haan, M. de; Gubbels, G.P.H.; Senden, R.; Venrooy, B.W.H. van; Hoogstrate, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    For years now conventional aluminium 6061 T6 has widely been used for mirrors in astronomical instruments, being diamond turned or since a few years also being optically polished. This allows the development of optical systems that can be tested and operated at any temperature, without being

  17. The Profile of a Polish Mutual Fund Manager

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Filip

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim/purpose - The purpose of this paper is to identify the characteristics that are typical of mutual fund managers. Design/methodology/approach - The study concentrates on a set of socio-demographic data, such as: age, gender, education, experience, and professional qualifications of 336 portfolio managers. The applied research strategy relies on an analysis concerning a set of statistical metrics describing the population under examination. Findings - The average Polish fund manager is a 37-year-old man, a holder of a stock-broker or investment adviser license. He obtained the authorization from the Polish Financial Supervision Authority (KNF a few years after graduating from the Warsaw School of Economics (SGH. He has 11 years' experience in financial markets and 7 years' experience in the mutual fund industry. Research implications/limitations - The identification of managerial characteristics for the purpose of creating a profile of a Polish mutual fund manager will provide an important basis for further surveys and analyses aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of mutual funds. Originality/value/contribution - There are no investigations within the discussed area in Polish studies. Therefore, the identification of the characteristics that are typical of mutual fund managers will make a contribution to the finance literature.(original abstract

  18. Polish scientists in fish immunology: a short history : review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muiswinkel, van W.B.; Pilarczyk, A.

    2015-01-01

    This review describes the role played by Polish scientists in the field of fish immunology and vaccination starting around 1900. In the early days, most publications were dealing with a description of relevant cells and organs in fish. Functional studies (phagocytosis, antibody response) came later

  19. Clear and compelling evidence: the Polish tribunal on abortion rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Françoise; Nowicka, Wanda

    2002-05-01

    On 25 July 2001 the Polish Federation for Women and Family Planning organised a Tribunal on Abortion Rights in Warsaw, to publicize the negative consequences of the criminalization of abortion in Poland. A panel of Polish and foreign experts heard the testimonials of seven Polish women's experiences under the 1993 "Anti-Abortion Act". Only two of the seven women were able to tell their stories in person. One died in 2001, at the age of 21, of an unsafe abortion. One is legally blind after having carried her last pregnancy to term. One is in prison for infanticide, which in all likelihood was committed by her boyfriend. National and foreign journalists were in attendance, as well as observers from all walks of life--writers, students, mothers, activists, feminists, husbands. The evidence was clear and compelling. Restrictive abortion laws make abortion unsafe by pushing it underground, endanger women's health, create a climate where even those services that are allowed by law-become unavailable, and contravene standards set by international human rights law. The restrictive abortion law in Poland has not increased the number of births; it has only caused women and their families suffering. The Tribunal brought the issue of abortion into the media prior to an election campaign and galvanised Polish and other Eastern European women's groups to become more active in defence of abortion rights.

  20. Heavy Metal Contamination of Popular Nail Polishes in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golnaz Karimi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxic and hazardous heavy metals like arsenic, lead, mercury, zinc, chromium and iron are found in a variety of personal care products, e.g. lipstick, whitening toothpaste, eyeliner and nail color. The nails absorb the pigments of nail polishes and vaporized or soluble metals can easily pass it. The goal of this survey was to assess whether the different colors of nail polishes comply with maximum concentrations of heavy metals in the EPA’s guidelines. Methods: 150 samples of different popular brands of nail polishes in 13 colors (yellow, beige, silver, pink, white, violet, brown, golden, green, black, colorless, red and blue were randomly purchased from beauty shops in Tehran City, Iran, in 2014. Microwave digestion EPA method 3051 was used by a microwave oven to determine the amount of 5 heavy metals; Nickel, Chromium, Lead, Arsenic and Cadmium. One-way ANOVA, Two-way ANOVA, hierarchical cluster, and principal component analyses were applied by Statistica 7.0 software. Results: The concentrations of chrome, lead, nickel and arsenic showed significant differences between the colors (p<0.05. In all studied samples, the level of cadmium was beyond the safe maximum permissible limit (MPS, but no significance difference in the cadmium content was identified. Conclusion: Due to the high concentrations of toxic metals in many brands of nail polishes, meticulous quality control is recommended for these beauty products.

  1. Summary of Synthetic Lap Polishing Experiments at LLNL, FY95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, M A

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to support the optics finishing development work for the NIF, the National Ignition Facility. One of the major expenses for the construction of NIF is the cost of finishing of the large aperture optics. One way to significantly reduce the cost of the project is to develop processes to reduce the amount of time necessary to polish the more than 3,000 amplifier slabs. These slabs are rectangular with an aspect ratio of more than twenty to one and are made of a very temperature sensitive glass, Nd doped phosphate laser glass. As a result of this effort, we could potentially reduce the time necessary to polish each surface of an amplifier from 20-30 hours of run time to under an hour to achieve the same removal and still maintain a flatness of between one to three waves concave figure. We also feel confident that we can polish rectangular thermally sensitive glass flat by use of temperature control of the polishing platen, pad curvature, slurry concentration with temperature control, pad rotation, and pressure; although further, larger scale experiments are necessary to gain sufficient confidence that such a procedure could be successfully fielded

  2. Scope of Nursing Care in Polish Intensive Care Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Wysokiński

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The TISS-28 scale, which may be used for nursing staff scheduling in ICU, does not reflect the complete scope of nursing resulting from varied cultural and organizational conditions of individual systems of health care. Aim. The objective of the study was an attempt to provide an answer to the question what scope of nursing care provided by Polish nurses in ICU does the TISS-28 scale reflect? Material and Methods. The methods of working time measurement were used in the study. For the needs of the study, 252 hours of continuous observation (day-long observation and 3.697 time-schedule measurements were carried out. Results. The total nursing time was 4125.79 min. (68.76 hours, that is, 60.15% of the total working time of Polish nurses during the period analyzed. Based on the median test, the difference was observed on the level of χ2=16945.8, P<0.001 between the nurses’ workload resulting from performance of activities qualified into the TISS-28 scale and load resulting from performance of interventions within the scopes of care not considered in this scale in Polish ICUs. Conclusions. The original version of the TISS-28 scale does not fully reflect the workload among Polish nurses employed in ICUs.

  3. Doppler radar physiological sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Lubecke, Victor M; Droitcour, Amy D; Park, Byung-Kwon; Singh, Aditya

    2016-01-01

    Presents a comprehensive description of the theory and practical implementation of Doppler radar-based physiological monitoring. This book includes an overview of current physiological monitoring techniques and explains the fundamental technology used in remote non-contact monitoring methods. Basic radio wave propagation and radar principles are introduced along with the fundamentals of physiological motion and measurement. Specific design and implementation considerations for physiological monitoring radar systems are then discussed in detail. The authors address current research and commercial development of Doppler radar based physiological monitoring for healthcare and other applications.

  4. Myths and Truths from Exercise Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, H. Scott

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses some of the common myths in the field of exercise physiology. Some of the myths are misconstrued facts that have developed over time, such as the myth of localized fat reduction. Other myths are unproved or collective beliefs used to justify a social institution; we see this occur in the form of "fitness fads." Society is…

  5. Great Britain and German-Polish Relations, 1929–1931

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zotova Ekaterina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the study of British-German relations during the period of exacerbation of territorial disputes between Germany and Poland in 1929-1931. Germany was making plans for revising the eastern borders. It sought to enlist the support of the new Labour government. Britain didn’t only approve of Germany's intention to carry out revision of the Treaty of Versailles (reparation issue, the evacuation of the Rhineland and the change in the German-Polish border, but also supported the strengthening of the political and economic situation in Germany as a whole. Assistance to Germany was advantageous for Britain. Firstly, the British support helped to improve the capacity of the purchasing power of the German market as one of the traditional markets of the English sale. Secondly, the strengthening of the position of the German cabinet meant failure of the French policy in Europe at this stage. The defeat of France in a dispute on the issue of early evacuation of the Rhineland would seriously devalue the foreign policy initiatives of Paris. Thirdly, the British government hoped that Germany will go into orbit of British political influence. The identity of the positions of the German and the British cabinets were considered as the components of British policy success not only in relations with France and Italy, but also with Czechoslovakia and Poland. Since the formation of the MacDonald’s cabinet, anti-Polish moods increased in the British course for the settlement of German-Polish relations. However, the threat of an attack on Poland by Germany was regarded by the government of Britain as unacceptable way of resolving the German-Polish conflict. Britain tried to follow the traditional foreign policy concept of “balance of power”, but the inefficiency of British policy “mediation” in European affairs was clearly shown in times of growing financial and economic crisis. The issue of the German-Polish border remained unsolved.

  6. Society-ethics-risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruh, H.; Seiler, H.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the workshops which was reported in this volume, was the interpretation and evaluation of catastrophic risks for society in an interdisciplinary dialogue between representation of society, ethics, as well as natural science and technology. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  7. European Respiratory Society statement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miravitlles, Marc; Dirksen, Asger; Ferrarotti, Ilaria

    2017-01-01

    lung disease. A large proportion of individuals affected remain undiagnosed and therefore without access to appropriate care and treatment.The most recent international statement on AATD was published by the American Thoracic Society and the European Respiratory Society in 2003. Since then there has...

  8. World Society and Globalisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Veronika

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to illustrate discourses on globalisation and world society and to disclose the commonalities and differences of both scientific debates. In particular, it draws attention to theoretical concepts of globalisation and world society. This is considered fruitful for comprehending the complex mechanisms of…

  9. Refractions of Civil Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuzmanovic, Daniella

    The thesis investigates various perceptions of civil society among civic activists in Turkey, and how these perceptions are produced and shaped. The thesis is an anthropological contribution to studies of civil society in general, as well as to studies on political culture in Turkey....

  10. Transformation of Neolithic Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Rune

    and prepared the way for the appearance of Bronze Age societies. The great era of megalithic architecture came to an end as the production and exchange of gold, copper and bronze objects became the driving force in the development of Copper and Bronze Age societies. This development also had a great influence...

  11. On the Dictionary of Semantic Equivalents in Polish, Bulgarian and Russian"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Paweł Sosnowski

    2016-12-01

    presidency of the EU, a conference entitled Multilingual Competences for Professional and Social Success in Europe was held. It concluded with the following declaration: "Multilingualism is not only part of European heritage, but also a chance to develop a society which is open, respectful of cultural diversity and ready for cooperation". However, the chief obstacles that prevents the EU from attaining the full integration of its economies and societies are language barriers. This dictionary will help overcome these barriers by promoting Slavic languages. The target audience of the dictionary are speakers of Polish, both in Poland and all around the world: experts in Slavic languages, scholars, lexicographers, encyclopaedia writers, students, etc.   O Leksykonie odpowiedniości semantycznych w języku polskim, bułgarskim i rosyjskim Leksykon jest pierwszym polskim dziełem leksykograficznym, prezentującym odpowiedniości semantyczne w trzech największych językach słowiańskich, z grupy zachodniej (polski, południowej (bułgarski i wschodniej (rosyjski. W dobie badań interdyscyplinarnych i budowania zintegrowanej wielonarodowościowej Europy opisana publikacja wychodzi naprzeciw wyzwaniom XXI wieku, promując wielojęzyczność, umożliwiając kontakty międzynarodowe w najróżniejszych dziedzinach. Językiem opisu stał się największy słowiański język Unii Europejskiej – język polski. Publikacja jest przeznaczona dla polskiego odbiorcy i wszystkich użytkowników języka polskiego na świecie – specjalistów-slawistów, badaczy języków słowiańskich, leksykografów, encyklopedystów, studentów itp. Leksykon uwzględnia najnowsze zjawiska i dziedziny życia społecznego. Innowacyjność publikacji polega na możliwości dołączania dowolnej liczby leksykonów innych języków (nie tylko słowiańskich (co przedstawiono w szeregu publikacji poświęconych dziełu. Ze względu na nowoczesne rozwiązania metodologiczne zastosowane w

  12. Symmetry or asymmetry? Cross-border openness of service providers in Polish-Czech and Polish-German border towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dołzbłasz Sylwia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The symmetry and/or asymmetry in terms of cross-border openness of service providers is examined in this article, for the cases of two border twin towns: Cieszyn/Český Těšín at the Polish-Czech border, and Gubin/Guben at the Polish-German border. To assess the level of openness of firms towards clients from the other side of the border, four trans-border categories were examined: neighbour’s language visible at store location; business offers in the language of the neighbour; the possibilities of payment in the neighbour’s currency; and the staff’s knowledge of the language. This enabled a comparison of both parts of the particular twin towns in relation to the character of cross-border openness, as well as an assessment of their symmetry/asymmetry. Comparisons of Gubin/Guben and Cieszyn/Český Těšín with respect to the analysed features were also carried out. The analysis shows significant variation in the level of cross-border openness towards clients from neighbouring countries. Whereas in the Polish-Czech town a relative symmetry was observed, in the Polish-German case, significant asymmetry was noted.

  13. Pseudo-random tool paths for CNC sub-aperture polishing and other applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Christina R; Walker, David D

    2008-11-10

    In this paper we first contrast classical and CNC polishing techniques in regard to the repetitiveness of the machine motions. We then present a pseudo-random tool path for use with CNC sub-aperture polishing techniques and report polishing results from equivalent random and raster tool-paths. The random tool-path used - the unicursal random tool-path - employs a random seed to generate a pattern which never crosses itself. Because of this property, this tool-path is directly compatible with dwell time maps for corrective polishing. The tool-path can be used to polish any continuous area of any boundary shape, including surfaces with interior perforations.

  14. Strain-free polished channel-cut crystal monochromators: a new approach and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasman, Elina; Montgomery, Jonathan; Huang, XianRong; Lerch, Jason; Assoufid, Lahsen

    2017-08-01

    The use of channel-cut crystal monochromators has been traditionally limited to applications that can tolerate the rough surface quality from wet etching without polishing. We have previously presented and discussed the motivation for producing channel cut crystals with strain-free polished surfaces [1]. Afterwards, we have undertaken an effort to design and implement an automated machine for polishing channel-cut crystals. The initial effort led to inefficient results. Since then, we conceptualized, designed, and implemented a new version of the channel-cut polishing machine, now called C-CHiRP (Channel-Cut High Resolution Polisher), also known as CCPM V2.0. The new machine design no longer utilizes Figure-8 motion that mimics manual polishing. Instead, the polishing is achieved by a combination of rotary and linear functions of two coordinated motion systems. Here we present the new design of C-CHiRP, its capabilities and features. Multiple channel-cut crystals polished using the C-CHiRP have been deployed into several beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). We present the measurements of surface finish, flatness, as well as topography results obtained at 1-BM of APS, as compared with results typically achieved when polishing flat-surface monochromator crystals using conventional polishing processes. Limitations of the current machine design, capabilities and considerations for strain-free polishing of highly complex crystals are also discussed, together with an outlook for future developments and improvements.

  15. Influence of polishing on surface roughness following toothbrushing wear of composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla-Vecchia, Karine Battestin; Taborda, Talita Damas; Stona, Deborah; Pressi, Heloísa; Burnett Júnior, Luiz Henrique; Rodrigues-Junior, Sinval Adalberto

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of different polishing systems on the surface roughness of composite resins following procedures to simulate the effects of toothbrushing over time. Four currently available commercial composites were used to make 128 cylindrical specimens. The specimens were randomly allocated to polishing with a 1-step polisher or 1 of 3 multistep polishers (n = 8 per group). The baseline surface roughness was measured, and the specimens were submitted to 5000, 10,000, and 20,000 brushing cycles to represent toothbrushing throughout 6, 12, and 24 months, respectively. Results showed that surface roughness was influenced by the type of composite and polishing system and was not influenced by the simulated toothbrushing time. However, the surface roughness, as challenged by toothbrushing wear, was affected by the interaction among the composite, the polisher, and the toothbrushing time. The 1-step polisher produced the highest surface roughness and influenced toothbrushing wear resistance of some composites.

  16. Information society studies

    CERN Document Server

    Duff, Alistair S

    2013-01-01

    We are often told that we are ""living in an information society"" or that we are ""information workers."" But what exactly do these claims mean, and how might they be verified? In this important methodological study, Alistair S. Duff cuts through the rhetoric to get to the bottom of the ""information society thesis."" Wide-ranging in coverage, this study will be of interest to scholars in information science, communication and media studies and social theory. It is a key text for the newly-unified specialism of information society studies, and an indispensable guide to the future of this disc

  17. Climate and Ancient Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Climate, and human responses to it, have a strongly interconnected relationship. This when climate change occurs, the result of either natural or human causes, societies should react and adapt to these. But do they? If so, what is the nature of that change, and are the responses positive...... or negative for the long-term survival of social groups? In this volume, scholars from diverse disciplines including archaeology, geology and climate sciences explore scientific and material evidence for climate changes in the past, their causes, their effects on ancient societies and how those societies...

  18. Polish media and public opinion on NPP Mochovce commissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latek, Stanislaw

    1999-01-01

    The so called 'Mochovce Problem' was one of the major topics in Polish media in the period from May to July 1998. The nuclear power plant commissioning caused an unexpectedly strong reaction, especially in the newspapers, slightly less so in electronic media. Faced with clearly hostile media reaction to Mochovce NPP, the National Atomic Energy Agency representatives, together with atomic and nuclear experts, undertook to change these attitudes. In numerous interviews, letters to the editors and talks with journalists, they attempted to correct the mistakes, explain the true safety situation in the nuclear power plant, by whom it was constructed, who supervised and tested the systems and so on. The completion of Mochovce NPP construction improved significantly the electricity balance in Slovakia, thus decreasing the pressure for continuing the operation of older Bohunice V1 units beyond their design lifetime. For this reason, as well as in view of striving for improvement in environmental factors beyond Polish southern border, especially after Kyoto/97 decisions on greenhouse gases emissions, the public opinion in Poland should support the Mochovce NPP construction. In 1996 Poland has signed with Slovakia a bilateral inter-governmental agreement on the prompt notification on nuclear accidents and on the cooperation in the nuclear safety and radiological protection matters. On the basis of this agreement the experts from Polish National Atomic Energy Agency are in perpetual contact with Slovakian Nuclear Regulatory Body and in each and every moment can obtain full and comprehensive information on the plant parameters iportant for nuclear safety. The experts explanations, together with the NAEA top management visit to the plant itself, brought some results. The media became less aggressive, and Polish public and authorities - contrary to the Austrians - do not protest loudly against the commissioning of this newest European NPP. Now, in December 1998, the tune of

  19. Society for Ambulatory Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SAMBA Link Digital Newsletter Educational Bibliography Research IARS/Anesthesia & Analgesia SCOR About SCOR Sponsor SAMBA Meetings Affinity Sponsor Program We Represent Ambulatory and Office-Based Anesthesia The Society for Ambulatory Anesthesia provides educational opportunities, ...

  20. Changing Anthropology, Changing Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varughese, Heather

    2009-01-01

    Fifty years after the founding of the field of medical anthropology, the Society for Medical Anthropology of the American Anthropological Association held its first independent meeting on September 24-27, 2009, at Yale University. PMID:20027281

  1. American Epilepsy Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for the AES Annual Meeting. More info here . Epilepsy Currents American Epilepsy Society Journal Impact Factor More ... P450 enzyme overexpression during spontaneous recurrent seizures More Epilepsy Professional News AES Status Epilepticus guideline for treatment ...

  2. Pediatric Endocrinology Nurses Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Join Now International Welcome to PENS The Pediatric Endocrinology Nursing Society (PENS) is committed to the development ... nurses in the art and science of pediatric endocrinology nursing. Learn More Text1 2018 PENS Call for ...

  3. American Geriatrics Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Learn More Social Media Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Instagram Social Media Bar Right Menu Annual Meeting Donate to our Foundation Contact Us American Geriatrics Society 40 Fulton St., 18th Floor New York, NY ...

  4. Society of Interventional Radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Picture yourself in L.A. Register now SIR Essentials Purchase/register Search SIR's entire catalog for educational ... Quality Improvement Clinical practice MACRA Matters Health Policy, Economics, Coding Toolkits Society of Interventional Radiology 3975 Fair ...

  5. Society of Thoracic Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Apply for Membership Membership Directory Pay Your Dues Industry Mailing List License & eBlast Communications Programs Advertise on ... Hotel Discount Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. ...

  6. Valie EXPORT Society. Overlok

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Valie EXPORT Society asutasid 23. okt. 1999. a. Frankfurdis Kadi Estland, Killu Sukmit ja Mari Laanemets, kui olid külastanud austria naiskunstniku Valie Exporti näitust. Rühmituse aktsioonide kirjeldus

  7. Valie EXPORT Society Rooseumis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Malmös Rooseumi Kaasaegse Kunsti Keskuses näitus "Baltic Babel". Projekt koosneb Läänemeremaade linnades tegutsevate innovatiivsete gruppide aktsioonidest. Kuraator Charles Esche. Esinejatest (Eestist Valie Export Society: Kadi Estland, Killu Sukmit)

  8. The Society for Scandinavian Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grand, Karina Lykke

    2016-01-01

    The Society for Nordic Art & the Scandinavian Society [Selskabet for Nordisk Kunst & Skandinavisk Selskab]......The Society for Nordic Art & the Scandinavian Society [Selskabet for Nordisk Kunst & Skandinavisk Selskab]...

  9. Nuclear technology and society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Tatsujiro; Tanaka, Yutaka; Taniguchi, Taketoshi; Oyama, Kosuke

    1999-01-01

    This special issue of Journal of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan deals with the relation between nuclear technology and society, and is composed of four papers: (1) Nuclear energy and international politics - sociotechnics around plutonium utilization; (2) Risk recognition and benefit recognition of nuclear facilities and social acceptance; (3) Environmental risk management and radioactive waste problem; and, (4) Public administration around the relation between nuclear energy and society. (1) describes the historical development of nuclear energy since its birth, focusing on how the leading countries tried to control nuclear proliferation. Peaceful utilization of nuclear energy is closely connected with the Non-proliferation problem. (1) also discusses the relation of plutonium utilization of Japan with international society. (2) discusses how nuclear facilities can be accepted by society, analyzing the background of risk recognition, in particular, of psychological character of mass society. (3) introduces an new approach (risk-based or risk-informed regulation) of environmental risk management for radioactive waste disposal problem, focusing on HLW (high-level waste). (4) explains the approach from public administration to nuclear energy and general energy policy and introduces PPA (participatory policy analysis) as a means for policy making. (M.M.)

  10. Natural immunity factors in Polish mixed breed rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarz-Deptuła, B; Niedźwiedzka-Rystwej, P; Adamiak, M; Hukowska-Szematowicz, B; Trzeciak-Ryczek, A; Deptuła, W

    2015-01-01

    Mixed-breed rabbits in Poland are widely used for diagnostic and scientific research and as utility animals, therefore there is a need to know their immunological status, as well as their haematological status. In this study natural immunity factors were analyzed in Polish mixed-breed rabbits and Polish mixed-breed rabbits with addition of blood of meet-breed, considering the impact of sex and season of the year (spring, summer, autumn, winter) using measurement of non-specific cellular and humoral immunity parameters in peripheral blood. The study has revealed that there is a variety between the two commonly used mixed-breed types of rabbits, especially when sex and season is concerned, which is crucial for using these animals in experiments.

  11. Impact of polishing on the light scattering at aerogel surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnyakov, A.Yu.; Barnyakov, M.Yu.; Bobrovnikov, V.S.; Buzykaev, A.R.; Danilyuk, A.F.; Katcin, A.A.; Kononov, S.A.; Kirilenko, P.S.; Kravchenko, E.A.; Kuyanov, I.A.; Onuchin, A.P.; Ovtin, I.V.; Predein, A.Yu.; Protsenko, R.S.

    2016-01-01

    Particle identification power of modern aerogel RICH detectors strongly depends on optical quality of radiators. It was shown that wavelength dependence of aerogel tile transparency after polishing cannot be described by the standard Hunt formula. The Hunt formula has been modified to describe scattering in a thin layer of silica dust on the surface of aerogel tile. Several procedures of polishing of aerogel tile have been tested. The best result has been achieved while using natural silk tissue. The resulting block has optical smooth surfaces. The measured decrease of aerogel transparency due to surface scattering is about few percent. This result could be used for production of radiators for the Focusing Aerogel RICH detectors.

  12. Problems in laser repair welding of polished surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Skumavc

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents problems in laser repair welding of the tools for injection moulding of plastics and light metals. Tools for injection moulding of the car headlamps are highly polished in order to get a desirable quality of the injected part. Different light metals, glasses, elastomers, thermoplastics and thermosetting polymers are injected into the die cavity under high pressures resulting in the surface damages of the tool. Laser welding is the only suitable repair welding technique due to the very limited sputtering during deposition of the filler metal. Overlapping of the welds results in inhomogeneous hardness of the remanufactured surface. Results have shown strong correlation between hardness and surface waviness after final polishing of the repair welded surface.

  13. E-TOURISM SERVICES IN POLISH TOURISTS' OPINIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Papińska-Kacperek

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available E-tourism is most often related only with web pages of travel agencies or aggregators offering many services, where it is possible to make transactions electronically. Whereas many applications and devices are applied in tourism, like the audio guides and mobile guides (sometimes with augmented reality functions, electronic cards in museums, 2D codes systems, web pages for individual tourists, geographic information systems (e.g. Google Street View, social network sites recommendation, and profiles of cities on social networks sites like Facebook. Polish tourists' opinions about mentioned innovative tools will be presented as the report from the survey conducted among students and graduates from three Polish universities. The objectives of the study are: investigating the popularity of e-tourist services in Poland and verifying whether municipal authorities promote e-tourism initiatives.

  14. Legal aspects of Polish Tax and Social Security in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Parlińska

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper are describing legal aspects of treatment of farming sector in the tax and social security system in Poland. Tax System in Polish Agriculture is an integral part of Polish Tax System. Most taxes paid by farmers are property taxes, which supplied the budget of main local authority in Poland (municipality. In some cases farmers pay also personal income tax and value added tax like those, who run specific agricultural production as well individual farmers who operate through a limited liability company are subject to corporate income tax. The social security fund for farmers (known as KRUS was speared in 1990 from the social security system (ZUS. Farmers receive similar benefits with regard to health care, education, and social welfare although the contributions into the farmers system are lower then under the ZUS system.

  15. Edge effect modeling of small tool polishing in planetary movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi-xin; Ma, Zhen; Jiang, Bo; Yao, Yong-sheng

    2018-03-01

    As one of the most challenging problems in Computer Controlled Optical Surfacing (CCOS), the edge effect greatly affects the polishing accuracy and efficiency. CCOS rely on stable tool influence function (TIF), however, at the edge of the mirror surface,with the grinding head out of the mirror ,the contact area and pressure distribution changes, which resulting in a non-linear change of TIF, and leads to tilting or sagging at the edge of the mirror. In order reduce the adverse effects and improve the polishing accuracy and efficiency. In this paper, we used the finite element simulation to analyze the pressure distribution at the mirror edge and combined with the improved traditional method to establish a new model. The new method fully considered the non-uniformity of pressure distribution. After modeling the TIFs in different locations, the description and prediction of the edge effects are realized, which has a positive significance on the control and suppression of edge effects

  16. Africa and Its People in the Polish Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Średziński Paweł

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The African continent is treated by the Polish media marginally and usually seen through the lens of four domains of stereotypical perceptions that are associated with difficult life conditions, threats and dangers, beautiful and wild nature, as well as original and diverse cultures. Monitoring of the Polish media has become very important in this situation. That is why the results of first media monitoring report were published in 2011 by ‘Africa Another Way’ Foundation. Five years later the monitoring was repeated. It is hard to resist the impression that Africa is still viewed as this poor, underdeveloped and dangerous continent. And the way it is presented translates into the way individuals of African descent are perceived.

  17. Restaurants and hotels expenditure in Polish households of the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piekut Marlena

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The age of household members is an important factor for expenditures. The aim of the study is to investigate the level of expenditure on restaurants and hotels incurred in Polish households of the elderly in 2004-2013 and to identify the factors affecting such expenditures. The source of information used in the study was the household budget survey of the Central Statistical Office of Poland. The main methods used in this study were variance analysis and regression analysis. Restaurants and hotels expenditure increases every year together with their share in total household expenditure. The most important factors affecting the restaurants and hotels spending in Polish households of the elderly are: income per capita and the level of education of the head of the family. The study on consumption determinants at different groups leads to better understanding of consumer behavior circumstances and thereby ensuring a good quality of life for the people of the elderly.

  18. A new strategy for the restructuring of Polish energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowski, R.H.; Tallat, J.

    2006-01-01

    In accordance with strategic planning in the military, the leader (in this case the Minister of Economy) is responsible for setting goals, finding the right people to accomplish these goals (those working in the energy sector), analysing the current situation (state of the energy sector) and evaluating available resources (conventional and renewable energy resources). In terms of economic planning (this term is proper for an economy that sets numerous laws and quotas), the goal is to get the Polish economy out of economic slump, which is the result of seventeen years of improper government practices, into a state of prosperity corresponding to no less than the European average. The only way of accomplishing this goal of high economic growth and catching up with highly-developed countries is to develop local inexpensive energy resources. This study focuses on the potential to develop abundant Polish geothermal resources as well as natural gas based co-generation. (author)

  19. Macroeconomic Reasons of Debts in Polish Health Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Szymańska

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of debts in polish health service. Author analyzes the macroeconomic reasons of this situation. As a main reasons are indicated: a specificity of the health service market, which leads to a inefficient allocation of health services, lack of reliable data on health care system, too low level of public expenditure on a health care, inappropriate allocation of public capital and a monopolistic position of the payer.

  20. Ion beam polishing for three-dimensional electron backscattered diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saowadee, Nath; Agersted, Karsten; Ubhi, H.S.

    2013-01-01

    averaging and/or poor 3D-EBSD data quality. In this work a low kV focused ion beam was successfully implemented to automatically polish surfaces during 3D-EBSD of La- and Nb-doped strontium titanate of volume 12.6 × 12.6 × 3.0 μm. The key to achieving this technique is the combination of a defocused low k...

  1. Polish epistolography in Ukrainian polemic of the 17th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhareva Svitlana Volodymyrivna

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The block of Polish epistolary in the system of polemical prose of the 17th century is analyzed in the article. It's indicated in its genre features, holistic character, publicistic and artistic level. Special attention is paid to the epistolary style of Hypatij Potij, Andrew Muzhylovski and Klyryk from Ostrog. Innovative and classical elements of epistolary heritage of the Baroque epoch are identified.

  2. Sports metaphors in Polish written commentaries on politics

    OpenAIRE

    Jarosław Wiliński

    2015-01-01

    This paper seeks to investigate what sports metaphors are used in Polish written commentaries on politics and what special purpose they serve. In particular, the paper examines structural metaphors that come from the lexicon of popular sports, such as boxing, racing, track and field athletics, sailing, etc. The language data, derived from English Internet websites, has been grouped and discussed according to source domains. Applying George Lakoff and Mark Johnson’s approach to metaphor, the p...

  3. [Polish forensic entomology--the past, present and future perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowronek, Rafał; Chowaniec, Czesław

    2010-01-01

    Forensic medicine increasingly more often benefits from the achievements of other biological sciences, which may be used in post mortem investigation. One of them is forensic entomology--the science based on the knowledge about biology of insects preying on cadavers. The objective of this article is to present the history of Polish forensic entomology, its present state and possibilities and directions of further development.

  4. Mutual Fund Performances of Polish Domestic Equity Fund Managers

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Ömer Faruk; Ünal, Gözde

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the article: The main purpose of the paper is empirically evaluating selectivity skills and market timing ability of Polish fund managers during the period from January 2009 to November 2014. After the global financial crisis of 2008, in this period of quantitative easing (QE), thanks to an increase in the money supply, a capital flow from developed countries to developing countries was observed. In this study, we try to analyse that although the financial market in Pol...

  5. Consolidation Processes: Raiders & Targets in Polish Financial Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Poteraj, Jarosław

    2004-01-01

    The work consists of five chapters, an annex and an appendix. In the first chapter the author describes the point of consolidation processes, presents: the meaning of consolidation processes, active and institutional aspects of merger execution, gives a classification of the consolidation processes and considers conditions of execution of consolidations processes in the Polish law, The next chapter concerns reasons of consolidation processes. The author describes there in turn: motives of the...

  6. Mutual Fund Performances of Polish Domestic Equity Fund Managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ömer faruk tan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: The main purpose of the paper is empirically evaluating selectivity skills and market timing ability of Polish fund managers during the period from January 2009 to November 2014. After the global financial crisis of 2008, in this period of quantitative easing (QE, thanks to an increase in the money supply, a capital flow from developed countries to developing countries was observed. In this study, we try to analyse that although the financial market in Poland made an incredible progress, whether fund managers show better or worse performance than the market. Methodology/Methods: In order to evaluate fund manager performances, Jensen alpha (1968 is computed, which depicts selectivity skills of fund managers. For determining market timing ability of fund managers, Treynor & Mazuy (1966 regression analysis and Henriksson & Merton (1981 regression analysis are applied. Fund performances are evaluated using Warsaw Stock Exchange Index as the benchmark index. Scientific aim: In this study, we have tried to evaluate selectivity skills and market timing ability of Polish fund managers. A total of 14 equity fund managers’ performances are analysed. The study can be guiding especially for investors who are interested in Polish equity fund performances in a period where emerging stock markets outperformed with quantitative easing. Findings: Jensen (1968 alphas indicate that over this period fund managers did not have selective ability, as none of the 14 funds had statistically significant positive alphas. Furthermore, Treynor & Mazuy (1966 and Henriksson & Merton (1981 regression analysis indicate that over the same period fund managers did not also have market timing ability, as again none of the 14 funds had statistically significant positive coefficients. Conclusions: In this work, we can detect that in the era of quantitative easing, although the financial market in Poland made an incredible progress, the fund returns were

  7. Fracking in the Polish press: Geopolitics and national identity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaspal, Rusi; Nerlich, Brigitte; Lemańcyzk, Szczepan

    2014-01-01

    In a context of resource scarcity and political instability, new energy sources and technologies are being explored in many parts of the world and exploited in some. One of these new energy sources is shale gas and one of the countries seeking to decrease its energy dependence and increase its energy security is Poland which is largely dependent on gas and oil imports from Russia. This article presents the results of a thematic content analysis of articles reporting on shale gas/fracking published in Gazeta Wyborcza and Rzeczpospolita, two leading Polish newspapers, from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2012. Findings suggest that in media reporting the geopolitical dimension of fracking overrides the technological/scientific dimension and that representations are overwhelmingly positive. Positive representations are bolstered through particular linguistic framings. It is argued that the Polish press has polarized the debate on fracking in a particular (positive) direction, which has silenced an open and constructive debate concerning energy policy in Poland and constructed criticism of fracking as counter-normative and “un-Polish.” The potential socio-political and policy implications of these media representations are discussed. - Highlights: • The general tone of Polish media reporting is positive and emphatic about the benefits of fracking. • The geopolitical dimension of fracking overrides the technological/scientific dimension. • The implementation of fracking is constructed as a national priority. • Opposition to fracking is constructed as counter-normative and “anti-Polish”. • Representations impede open and constructive dialogue about energy policy

  8. Cogeneration – development and prospect in Polish energy sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matuszewska Dominika

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Next 10-15 years are crucial for condition of Polish energy sector in light of challenges arising mainly from increasing demand for electric energy, need of reducing greenhouse gases emissions and shutdowns of old units. In this situation cogeneration can be one of the most rational way to meet those circumstances. This paper analyzes present development of cogeneration in Poland and its prospect for future.

  9. Chemical etching and polishing of InP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurth, E.; Reif, A.; Gottschalch, V.; Finster, J.; Butter, E.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes possibilities of several chemical preparations for the selective cleaning of InP surfaces. The investigations of the surface states after the chemical treatment were carried out by means of XPS measurements. A pre-etching with (NH 4 ) 2 S 2 O 8 :H 2 SO 4 :H 2 O and a polishing with 1% bromine in methanol produce optically smooth (100)-and (111) P surfaces free of oxides. (author)

  10. Between Positivism, Narrativism and Idealisation in Polish Methodology of History

    OpenAIRE

    Brzechczyn, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    This paper has two main purposes. Its primary purpose is to present the reception of the discussion between positivism and narrativism in Polish methodology of history. A secondary one is to paraphrase, using the notion apparatus of the idealisational theory of science, the issue of the accuracy of explanation. The paper consists of six parts. In the first, Hempel’s deductive-nomological (or covering law) model of explanation is presented. In the second part, the main tenets and assumptions o...

  11. Comparison of fertility ratios, attitudes and beliefs of Polish and Czech women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Brodziak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: The aim of this study was to estimate some basic data related to the fertility in the chosen groups of Polish and Czech women. We have tried to acquire and analyze the attitudes and beliefs of these women in motherhood and the desire to have children. These data enable to verify the interdisciplinary hypothesis explaining the decline of birth rate and low fertility in European countries. Materials and methods: The authors performed the survey by means of a questionnaire formulated after a comprehensive discussion of possible reasons of birth rate decline. They have tried through the questions of the survey to verify the hypothesis that the decline is the result of the cumulative mental changes occurring in contemporary societies. The questionnaire completed 90 Polish women students pursuing complementary studies of nursing in Higher School of Applied Sciences in Nysa, during the academic year 2012/2013. The questionnaire also completed 53 Czech women students pursuing part-time studies and training at the Tomas Bata University in Zlin (the Czech Republic. Results: The above surveyed 90 Polish women gave birth to 132 children, so fertility rates is 1.46. The average age at the birth of the first child was 24.7 years, of the second child 27.5 and of the third child 31.7 years. The surveyed 53 Czech women gave birth to 86 children, so fertility rates is 1.62. The average age at birth of the first child was 24.7 years, of the second child 27.2 and of the third child 27,5 years. The authors present also convictions, beliefs and attitudes of the women under study. Conclusions: The multifaceted and interdisciplinary hypothesis (theoretical model formulated at the outset of our work, can be useful for attempts to estimate the pro-family attitudes in different populations of women. The results in the light of compliance with the proposed theoretical model allow for the formulation of proposals for action, which would counteract the

  12. Solving the problem of smoking in the Polish enterprises during 2003-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniowska, Elżbieta; Puchalski, Krzysztof

    2018-01-15

    is neglected while the downward trend of smoking in the Polish society has slowed down. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2018;31(3):261-280. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  13. Advances in physiological computing

    CERN Document Server

    Fairclough, Stephen H

    2014-01-01

    This edited collection will provide an overview of the field of physiological computing, i.e. the use of physiological signals as input for computer control. It will cover a breadth of current research, from brain-computer interfaces to telemedicine.

  14. Phun Week: Understanding Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limson, Mel; Matyas, Marsha Lakes

    2009-01-01

    Topics such as sports, exercise, health, and nutrition can make the science of physiology relevant and engaging for students. In addition, many lessons on these topics, such as those on the cardiovascular, respiratory, and digestive systems, align with national and state life science education standards. Physiology Understanding Week (PhUn…

  15. The attractiveness of family medicine among Polish medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowin, Ewelina; Horst-Sikorska, Wanda; Michalak, Michał; Avonts, Dirk; Buczkowski, Krzysztof; Lukas, Witold; Korman, Tomasz; Litwiejko, Alicja; Chlabicz, Sławomir

    2014-06-01

    In many developed countries tuning supply and demand of medical doctors is a continuous challenge to meet the ever changing needs of community and individual patients. The long study period for medical doctors creates the opportunity to observe the current career preferences of medical students and evolution in time. To investigate the career choices of Polish students in different stages of their medical education. Medical students at five Polish medical universities were questioned about their career aspirations in the first, third and sixth year. A total of 2020 students were recruited for the survey. Among first year students 17% preferred family medicine as final career option, compared to 20% in the third year, and 30% in the sixth year (significant trend, P family medicine: 71% women versus 62% women in the group with a preference for a non-family medicine orientation (P = 0.008). Medical students rejecting a career as a family doctor stated that the impossibility to work in a hospital environment was the determining factor. The opportunity for professional development seems to be an important determining factor in the choice of a medical specialty in Poland. The proportion of Polish students choosing family medicine increases during their progress in medical education, with one third of students interested in a career in family medicine by year six.

  16. Cleaning, abrasion, and polishing effect of novel perlite toothpaste abrasive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo

    2013-01-01

    This study was intended to optimize perlite particle size and morphology for better tooth cleaning and lower tooth abrasion, and to evaluate the performance of a whitening toothpaste containing the optimized perlite abrasive for tooth cleaning, abrasion, and polishing. Perlite toothpaste abrasive samples were prepared by air classifying a commercial expanded perlite product. The tooth cleaning and abrasion properties for these classified perlite samples were reported via the pellicle cleaning ratio (PCR) and relative dentin abrasion (RDA). Performance of the whitening toothpaste containing the optimized perlite abrasive in tooth cleaning, polishing, and abrasion was evaluated against a widely used synthetic high-cleaning silica. Air classification removes large perlite particles and also physically changes perlite particle morphology from mostly three dimensional and angular particles to mainly two dimensional and platy particles. All the classified samples show good tooth cleaning effect, but tooth abrasion decreases significantly with decreasing particle size. Compared to high-cleaning silica whitening toothpaste, the whitening toothpaste containing the optimized perlite abrasive (PerlClean) is slightly better at tooth cleaning, lower in tooth abrasion, and significantly better at tooth polishing. Fine platy perlite particles are effective in tooth cleaning with low tooth abrasion. The enhanced performance of optimized perlite toothpaste abrasive compared to high-cleaning silica in a whitening toothpaste is attributed to the optimized particle size distribution and the unique platy particle geometry.

  17. Mirror surface metrology and polishing for AXAF/TMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slomba, A.; Babish, R.; Glenn, P.

    1985-01-01

    The achievement of the derived goals for mirror surface quality on the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), Technology Mirror Assembly (TMA) required a combination of state-of-the-art metrology and polishing techniques. In this paper, the authors summarize the derived goals and cover the main facets of the various metrology instruments employed, as well as the philosophy and technique used in the polishing work. In addition, they show how progress was measured against the goals, using the detailed error budget for surface errors and a mathematical model for performance prediction. The metrology instruments represented a considerable advance on the state-of-the-art and fully satisfied the error budget goals for the various surface errors. They were capable of measuring the surface errors over a large range of spatial periods, from low-frequency figure errors to microroughness. The polishing was accomplished with a computer-controlled process, guided by the combined data from various metrology instruments. This process was also tailored to reduce the surface errors over the full range of spatial periods

  18. The Persistence of Abnormal Returns: Analysis of Polish Manufacturing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Puziak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The ultimate goal of a company is to build the enterprise value, which is achievable thanks to abnormal profits generated in particular period. Moreover, firms are expected to take measures to maintain abnormal profit in the future. On the other hand, abnormal profits attract competitors, who increase competition and as a result abnormal profits disappear. The persistence of profit is a term that describes a situation, when the company is successful in maintaining the abnormal profit over time. The main aim of this paper is to investigate the persistence of abnormal profit in Polish manufacturing sector. In other words, the question is whether Polish manufacturing companies are able to maintain their abnormal profits over time. The persistence of abnormal profits is investigated using dynamic panel model with generalized method-of-moments estimators. The method is applied to a panel of 5303 Polish companies from manufacturing sector observed over the period 2006-2014. This paper contributes to the existing literature in two ways. First, analysis is performed for developing country. Second, analysis is performed both at the level of entire sector and at division level. Three main conclusions can be drawn from the conducted research: there are significant differences between profit rates within the same industry at division level; estimated persistence of abnormal profit coefficients are at moderate level; there are substantial differences between estimated persistence of profit coefficients for divisions in the same industry.

  19. The prevalence of burnout syndrome in Polish anaesthesiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiołek, Aleksandra; Gorczyca, Piotr; Misiołek, Hanna; Gierlotka, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    Burnout syndrome is a psychological response to chronic work-related stress characterized by low enthusiasm towards the job, high psychological exhaustion, indolence and guilt. Being a medical doctor, both in Poland and in other countries, is one of the most stressful occupations and anaesthesiology is considered one of the most stressful specializations, which justify carrying out of the study on Polish anaesthesiologists. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of burnout syndrome in Polish anaesthesiologists Non-randomized cross-sectional study was carried out and data were gathered through a self-administrated questionnaire. The sample consisted of 373 Polish anaesthesiologists, 57.6% were women and 42.4% were men. A 66% response rate was achieved. The Burnout Syndrome was measured by the Spanish Burnout Inventory. The prevalence burnout risk was almost 70%. The percentage of participants who indicated very high levels of burnout was 18%; 5.9% of whom fell into profile 2 considered to be clinical. The instrument applied was reliable with Cronbach's alphas exceeding 0.70. The sample is characterized by high burnout risk with 5.9% of clinical cases. Participation in prevention programs is recommended.

  20. A Comparative Analysis of Polish and Czech International New Ventures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Danik

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to compare the characteristics of Polish and Czech companies which follow the Born Global internationalization model. More concretely, the analysis aims to discover the differences or similarities in terms of the internationalization paths of Polish and Czech SMEs in the characteristics of their managers in terms of the so-called “international vision” and in their innovativeness level. The introductory part of article provides a description of this internationalization model and the International New Ventures traits (INV and summarizes the recent studies on this topic conducted in Poland and Czech Republic. In the empirical part, the International New Ventures from the two countries are compared. The Polish sample includes 105 companies which were surveyed with use of computer assisted telephone interviews in autumn 2014. For the Czech Republic, the sample consists of 54 small and medium-sized companies, which were surveyed using the computer assisted web interviews from November 2013 till January 2014. The surveyed companies in both countries fulfilled the definition of Born Globals. Descriptive statistics, cross-tabulation analysis and non-parametric tests are applied to accomplish the goals of the paper.

  1. Fungal Biomass Protein Production from Trichoderma harzianum Using Rice Polishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sibtain; Mustafa, Ghulam; Arshad, Muhammad; Rajoka, Muhammad Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    Industrially important enzymes and microbial biomass proteins have been produced from fungi for more than 50 years. High levels of crude protein as much as 45% are present in fungal biomass with balanced essential amino acids. The aim of this study was to access the potential of Trichoderma harzianum to produce fungal biomass protein from rice polishings. Maximum biomass yield was obtained at 5% (w/v) rice polishings after 72 h of incubation at 28°C at pH 4. Carbon and nitrogen ratio of 20 : 1 gave significantly higher production of fungal biomass protein. The FBP in the 75 L fermenter contained 49.50% crude protein, 32.00% true protein, 19.45% crude fiber, 9.62% ash, 11.5% cellulose content, and 0.325% RNA content. The profile of amino acids of final FBP exhibited that all essential amino acids were present in great quantities. The FBP produced by this fungus has been shown to be of good nutritional value for supplementation to poultry. The results presented in this study have practical implications in that the fungus T. harzianum could be used successfully to produce fungal biomass protein using rice polishings.

  2. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae isolated from 21 Polish farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmudzki, J; Szczotka, A; Nowak, A; Strzelecka, H; Grzesiak, A; Pejsak, Z

    2012-01-01

    Swine dysentery (SD) is a common disease among pigs worldwide, which contributes to major production losses. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of B. hyodysenteriae, the etiological agent of SD, is mainly performed by the agar dilution method. This method has certain limitations due to difficulties in interpretation of results. The aim of this study was the analysis of antimicrobial susceptibility of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae (B. hyodysenteriae) Polish field isolates by broth microdilution procedure. The study was performed on 21 isolates of B. hyodysenteriae, collected between January 2006 to December 2010 from cases of swine dysentery. VetMIC Brachyspira panels with antimicrobial agents (tiamulin, valnemulin, doxycycline, lincomycin, tylosin and ampicillin) were used for susceptibility testing of B. hyodysenteriae. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by the broth dilution procedure. The lowest antimicrobial activity was demonstrated for tylosin and lincomycin, with inhibition of bacterial growth using concentrations > 128 microg/ml and 32 microg/ml, respectively. In the case of doxycycline, the MIC values were < or = 2.0 microg/ml. No decreased susceptibility to tiamulin was found among the Polish isolates and MIC values for this antibiotic did not exceed 1.0 microg/ml. The results of the present study confirmed that Polish B. hyodysenteriae isolates were susceptible to the main antibiotics (tiamulin and valnemulin) used in treatment of swine dysentery. Further studies are necessary to evaluate a possible slow decrease in susceptibility to tiamulin and valnemulin of B. hyodysenteriae strains in Poland.

  3. Surface qualities after chemical-mechanical polishing on thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Wei-En; Lin, Tzeng-Yow; Chen, Meng-Ke; Chen, Chao-Chang A.

    2009-01-01

    Demands for substrate and film surface planarizations significantly increase as the feature sizes of Integrated Circuit (IC) components continue to shrink. Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP), incorporating chemical and mechanical interactions to planarize chemically modified surface layers, has been one of the major manufacturing processes to provide global and local surface planarizations in IC fabrications. Not only is the material removal rate a concern, the qualities of the CMP produced surface are critical as well, such as surface finish, defects and surface stresses. This paper is to examine the CMP produced surface roughness on tungsten or W thin films based on the CMP process conditions. The W thin films with thickness below 1000 nm on silicon wafer were chemical-mechanical polished at different down pressures and platen speeds to produce different surface roughness. The surface roughness measurements were performed by an atomic force microscope (DI D3100). Results show that the quality of surface finish (R a value) is determined by the combined effects of down pressures and platen speeds. An optimal polishing condition is, then, possible for selecting the down pressures and platen speeds.

  4. Preparation of cerium oxide for lens polishing powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Injarean, Uthaiwan; Rodthongkom, Chouvana; Pichestapong, Pipat; Changkrurng, Kalaya

    2003-10-01

    Cerium is an element of rare earth group which is called lanthanide series. It is found in the ores like monazite and xenotime which are the tailings of tin mines in the south of Thailand. Cerium is used mostly as lens polishing powder besides the applications in other industries. In this study, cerium extracted from monazite ore breakdown by alkaline process was used for the preparation of lens polishing powder. Cerium hydroxide cake from the process was dissolved by hydrochloric acid and precipitated with oxalic acid. The oxalate precipitate then was calcined to oxide powder and its particle size was measured. Precipitation conditions being studied are concentration of feed cerium chloride solution, concentration of oxalic acid used for the precipitation, concentration of sulfuric acid used as precipitation control reagent and the precipitation temperature. It was found that the appropriate precipitation conditions yielded the fine oxide powder with particle size about 12μm. The oxide powder can be ground to the size of 1-3 μm which is suitable for making lens polishing powder

  5. Knowledge of chronic total occlusion among Polish interventional cardiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryniarski, Krzysztof L; Zabojszcz, Michał; Dębski, Grzegorz; Marchewka, Jakub; Legutko, Jacek; Surowiec, Sławomir; Siudak, Zbigniew; Żmudka, Krzysztof; Dudek, Dariusz; Bryniarski, Leszek

    2015-01-01

    Chronic total occlusion (CTO) recanalization is indicated in patients with symptoms and evidence of ischemia, but in most cases those types of lesions are still treated medically. In the last few years CTO angioplasty technique has changed dramatically due to considerable advances in techniques and dedicated equipment. An attempt to assess the state of knowledge of technical aspects of CTO angioplasty of coronary arteries among Polish interventional cardiologists. Questionnaire survey performed during two major Polish invasive cardiology workshops. In the study there participated 113 physicians with an average length of work experience of 13 years, most of them cardiologists certified as independent primary operators. The majority of respondents recognized the need of prevention of thrombotic complications through control of activated coagulation time during the CTO procedures. Prevention of renal complications and X-ray protection are also recognized as a significant part of the procedures. The benefits from the use of over-the-wire microcatheters and balloons, the proper choice of dedicated guidewires, contralateral injections and retrograde technique are underestimated. Despite satisfactory knowledge about indications and qualification for the CTO procedure, the awareness of procedural aspects (particularly the retrograde technique) as well as the dedicated CTO equipment among Polish interventional cardiologists is still insufficient.

  6. McDonald’s as a Cultural Brand in the Landscape of Attitudes of Polish Customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Komańda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: The analysis of the attitudes of Polish customers towards McDonald’s based on the identification of opposite social attitudes towards globalisation processes and perception of cultural brands. Methodology/methods: The qualitative analysis of the record of Internet users’ discussion has been conducted. The record of the discussion shall be regarded as an expression of opinion by an incidental group of respondents. For the purposes of the conducted research programmes weftQDA 1.0.1 and QSR NVIVO 10 have been used. Scientific aim: Utilization of postmodern interpretation of the socio-cultural context of running business for purposes of strategic management. Findings: The main differences between the supporters of the attitudes towards McDonald’s were related to two problems. Firstly, the discussion concerns what McDonald’s really is (how its service should be classified. Secondly, the thread of the discourse concerns the quality of McDonald’s offer. Further discussion involved the issues of impact of McDonald’s on the domestic business, and lifestyle of contemporary Poles and their dining habits. Conclusions: The landscape of attitudes of Polish customers towards McDonald’s is the issue of uncertainty in the strategic management within this company. It seems there is a need for paying attention to national cultural features of Poles and different attitudes of contemporary society expressed as a postmodern response to globalisation. Each group of problems mentioned may become an opportunity or a threat for McDonald’s business activity in Poland.

  7. Civil society sphericules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufte, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    the organization strategizes about and seeks to articulate amongst Tanzanian youth. Situated in the ‘perverse confluence’ (Dagnino, 2011) between neoliberal and radical democratic agendas in the communicative practices of civil society-driven media platforms, Femina navigates between identities as an NGO, a social...... movement and a media initiative. In the context of the growing literature on social networking sites and their affordances, dynamics and structures, the case of Femina illustrates how a civil society sphericule emerges within the dynamic co-evolution of new and old media platforms. The study is furthermore...... an example of the difficult shift in civil society practice, from service provision to an agenda of public service monitoring, social accountability and community engagement....

  8. Society and education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moutsios, Stavros

    in Europe. Elaborating on the Castoriadian ontology, the book delves into the magma of social imaginary significations that characterise and associate pivotal epochs of the continent’s history, Classical Greece and Modernity, and exemplifies their incarnation in educational systems and in the formation...... countries. Nevertheless, as Moutsios suggests, the European tradition, notwithstanding its ideological usage by much of social sciences, contains an indissoluble critical and self-reflective dimension, which needs to be sustained and advanced in education and its cross-cultural comparison, perhaps, more......'Society and Education: An Outline of Comparison' explores the relation of society to education in Europe, as well as its comparative perspective towards overseas societies and their institutions. It is an enquiry into the social-historical institution of education and cross-cultural studies...

  9. Producing Civil Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt, Liv Egholm; Hein Jessen, Mathias

    Since the beginning of the 1990’s, civil society has attracted both scholarly and political interest as the ‘third sphere’ outside the state and the market not only a normatively privileged site of communication and ‘the public sphere’, but also as a resource for democratization processes...... and social cohesion, as well as a provider of welfare services from a welfare state in dire straits. However, such a view upholds a sharp distinction between the three sectors and their distinct logic. This article claims that the separation of spheres is a fundamental part of our ‘social imaginary......’ and as such dominates our way of thinking about civil society. Yet, this view hinders the understanding of how civil society is not a pre-existing or given sphere, but a sphere which is constantly produced both discursively, conceptually and practically. Through two examples; 1,the case of philanthropy in the beginning...

  10. Can Reduced-Step Polishers Be as Effective as Multiple-Step Polishers in Enhancing Surface Smoothness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemaloglu, Hande; Karacolak, Gamze; Turkun, L Sebnem

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of various finishing and polishing systems on the final surface roughness of a resin composite. Hypotheses tested were: (1) reduced-step polishing systems are as effective as multiple-step systems on reducing the surface roughness of a resin composite and (2) the number of application steps in an F/P system has no effect on reducing surface roughness. Ninety discs of a nano-hybrid resin composite were fabricated and divided into nine groups (n = 10). Except the control, all of the specimens were roughened prior to be polished by: Enamel Plus Shiny, Venus Supra, One-gloss, Sof-Lex Wheels, Super-Snap, Enhance/PoGo, Clearfil Twist Dia, and rubber cups. The surface roughness was measured and the surfaces were examined under scanning electron microscope. Results were analyzed with analysis of variance and Holm-Sidak's multiple comparisons test (p One-gloss, Enamel Plus Shiny, and Venus Supra groups. (1) The number of application steps has no effect on the performance of F/P systems. (2) Reduced-step polishers used after a finisher can be preferable to multiple-step systems when used on nanohybrid resin composites. (3) The effect of F/P systems on surface roughness seems to be material-dependent rather than instrument- or system-dependent. Reduced-step systems used after a prepolisher can be an acceptable alternative to multiple-step systems on enhancing the surface smoothness of a nanohybrid composite; however, their effectiveness depends on the materials' properties. (J Esthet Restor Dent 29:31-40, 2017). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Science and Society Colloquium

    CERN Multimedia

    Randi, J

    1991-01-01

    Mr. Randi will give an update of his lecture to the American Physical Society on the occasion of his award of the 1989 Forum Prize. The citation said: "for his unique defense of Science and the scientific method in many disciplines, including physics, against pseudoscience, frauds and charlatans. His use of scientific techniques has contributed to refuting suspicious and fraudulent claims of paranormal results. He has contributed significantly to public understanding of important issues where science and society interact". He is a professional magician and author of many books. He worked with John Maddox, the Editor of Nature to investigate the claims of "water with memory".

  12. Advanced information society(7)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Toshihiro

    Various threats are hiding in advanced informationalized society. As we see car accident problems in motorization society light aspects necessarily accompy shady ones. Under the changing circumstances of advanced informationalization added values of information has become much higher. It causes computer crime, hacker, computer virus to come to the surface. In addition it can be said that infringement of intellectual property and privacy are threats brought by advanced information. Against these threats legal, institutional and insurance measures have been progressed, and newly security industry has been established. However, they are not adequate individually or totally. The future vision should be clarified, and countermeasures according to the visions have to be considered.

  13. Ferocious Enemies and Noble Heroes: Images of “Us” and “Them” in Polish American Textbooks (until the 1930s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Walaszek

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethnic schools had an important role to play in propagating profiles of “ideal” heroes and members of society among immigrant communities. Consequently, it was often the role of school coursebooks to inform pupils of the messages adults wanted to transmit to the younger generation. In this paper the author attempts to describe contents of various textbooks used in Polish-American parochial schools. Invention of national mythology and simplification of facts was necessary to facilitate the memorizing process as required. But to form group solidarity one also had to identify common enemies. Various textbooks published in the U.S.A. before World War I did not help immigrants’ children to acculturate to their American realities. Being very didactic, they focused mainly on Polish realities and Polish history. Only after World War I did an American presence become more visible in books used in the first grade. In thirties Felicians predominantly used textbooks written in the U.S.A., mainly by S. M. Cyryla (Magdalena Tobaka. The heroes they presented were characterized schematically, and the ideals found therein were alien to Polish-American children. Polska by S. Mary Cyryla, was the book on which this analysis was based. The image of Poles and “other” nations is surprisingly defined in black and white. Foreign nations are depicted as cruel, monstrous, villain, pagan, barbaric, etc. “Us”, the Poles, are seen as brave, just, good, wise, honest, faithful, etc., they “have loved faith, country, and language” etc. Cyryla’s textbook tried to engender feelings of community by dividing the world into “us” and “them”, thereby provoking antagonism towards “them.” Polish personality traits were very much in keeping with the images and self-stereotypes which Polish society had about itself. In constructing a positive and ideal self-image, it was useful for “others” and “strangers” to be depicted as “enemies”.

  14. Rationality in Society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flache, Andreas; Dijkstra, Jacob; Wright, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary theories of rational behavior in human society augment the orthodox model of rationality both by adding various forms of bounded rationality and relaxing the assumptions of self-interest and materialistic preferences. This entry discusses how these extensions of the theory of rational

  15. The Mediated Transparent Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backer, Lise

    2001-01-01

    in the mediated transparent society. The paper concludes that, based on these analyses, the mediated panopticism working on the business segment is not an effective disciplinary apparatus, which can guarantee that business corporations are carrying out important ecological or ethical improvements....

  16. Leukemia & Lymphoma Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be the exclusive property of The Leukemia & Lymphoma Society which in its sole discretion may use this material as it sees fit. I agree to the terms of the Standard Photography Release.* Submit * This field is required * Please fix the validation error messages in the Form Your story was ...

  17. MARX EMBRYOLOGY OF SOCIETY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WOUTERS, A

    This article presents a new interpretation of Marx's dialectical method. Marx conceived dialectics as a method for constructing a model of society. The way this model is developed is analogous to the way organisms develop according to the German embryologist Karl Ernst von Baer, and, indeed, Marx's

  18. Exploratory of society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederman, L.-E.; Conte, R.; Helbing, D.; Nowak, A.; Schweitzer, F.; Vespignani, A.

    2012-11-01

    A huge flow of quantitative social, demographic and behavioral data is becoming available that traces the activities and interactions of individuals, social patterns, transportation infrastructures and travel fluxes. This has caused, together with innovative computational techniques and methods for modeling social actions in hybrid (natural and artificial) societies, a qualitative change in the ways we model socio-technical systems. For the first time, society can be studied in a comprehensive fashion that addresses social and behavioral complexity. In other words we are in the position to envision the development of large data and computational cyber infrastructure defining an exploratory of society that provides quantitative anticipatory, explanatory and scenario analysis capabilities ranging from emerging infectious disease to conflict and crime surges. The goal of the exploratory of society is to provide the basic infrastructure embedding the framework of tools and knowledge needed for the design of forecast/anticipatory/crisis management approaches to socio technical systems, supporting future decision making procedures by accelerating the scientific cycle that goes from data generation to predictions.

  19. Italian Society of Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The abstracts of most of the papers read at the 53 National Congress of the Italian Society of Physics are presented. The Congress developed in ten sessions: high energy and elementary particle physics, physics of nuclei, condensed matter, quantum electronics, cosmic physics, geophysics, general physics, electronics and applied physics, health physics and hystory of physics. An author index is also included

  20. The Duplex Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorr, Alvin L.

    1984-01-01

    The duplex society, in which the poor live in close proximity to others but in a separate compartment, is already with us. Unless something deeply changes about family income, more than one-third of future generations will come to adulthood having spent a portion of their childhood in official poverty. (RM)

  1. Afghanistan, state and society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kværnø, Ole

    In June 2007, the RAND Corporation and the Royal Danish Defence College hosted a conference titled “Afghanistan: State and Society, Great Power Politics, and the Way Ahead”. The two-day event, held in Copenhagen, was attended by more than 100 politicians, scholars, academics, and representative...

  2. Radiation protection and society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skryabin, A.M.

    1997-01-01

    The radiological protection of population, living on the contaminated territories, is actual 10 years after the Chernobyl accident. Eventually, the whole system of countermeasures application is aimed to protect society as a complex community of individuals . The variety of levels of society, i.e. family, settlement on the whole, can be considered as certain harmonic systems differing in their public consciousness levels and lifestyles, this explain the difference in their 'behaviour' in terms of radiation protection and attitude to the information obtained. Each level of society possesses a certain degree of liberty of choice, that finally influence the magnitude and the character of dose distribution within certain population groups. In general, the dose distribution in the settlement can be explained only on the bases of 'family' analysis. This concerns the rural settlement as a society too. All rural settlement can be divided into two or three classes: with low, high and intermediate social features. Small settlements (< 100 persons), where the advanced in age persons with low material income and high degree of natural economy are applied to the first class. This results in higher doses (2-3 fold), than in the settlements with higher social level. The analysis shows that in socially 'waning' settlements the countermeasures are less efficient and the term of their action is shorter. (this class is the largest, About 50% among all the rural settlements). Due to the deterioration of the economic situation in the Republic of Belarus after 1991-1992 resulted in the increase of doses mainly in the habitants first of all of this class of settlements. It seems problematic to increase countermeasures efficiency in this class of settlements without the refuse of the accustomed lifestyle and radical improvement of social-demographic and economic conditions. The present material shows the necessity of the differential approach based on 'society-analysis' in the

  3. Consumption in the Information Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zherebin, V. M.; Ermakova, N. A.; Makhrova, O. N.

    2010-01-01

    The current state of the economy in the developed countries make it possible to characterize them using concepts and terms such as the postindustrial society, the new economy, the service economy, the creative economy, the posteconomic society, the information society, the knowledge society, and the consumer society. Among these terms and…

  4. Neologisms in bilingual digital dictionaries (on the example of Bulgarian-Polish dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Dimitrova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Neologisms in bilingual digital dictionaries (on the example of Bulgarian-Polish dictionary The paper discusses the presentation of neologisms in the recent version of the Bulgarian-Polish digital dictionary. We also continue the discussion of important problems related to the classifiers of the verbs as headwords of the digital dictionary entries. We analyze some examples from ongoing experimental version of the Bulgarian-Polish digital dictionary.

  5. Poland, a workforce in transition: Exploring leadership styles and effectiveness of Polish vs. Western expatriate managers

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenberg, Jacob; Pieczonka, Artur; Eisenring, Martin; Mironski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Given the cultural differences between Western Europe and Poland, differences are expected in leadership styles and behaviours between Polish and Western managers. Our study explored Polish employees’ perceptions and attitudes toward expatriate Western versus local managers. The main method was surveying Polish employees working under Western managers in three mid-size companies. We supplemented the survey with in-depth interviews with five West European middle managers working in Poland. We ...

  6. An Exploratory Study of the Factors That May Affect Female Consumers’ Buying Decision of Nail Polishes

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Chen; Adhikari, Koushik; Koppel, Kadri

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine what factors female consumers valued more when they buy nail polish. Ninety-eight female consumers participated in a nail polish consumer study at the Sensory Analysis Center, Kansas State University. A questionnaire containing a check-all-that-apply (CATA) question, behavior questions and demographic questions was presented to each consumer. In the CATA question, the factors that may affect consumers’ decision to buy a nail polish were asked, incl...

  7. Composite adaptive control of belt polishing force for aero-engine blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhsao, Pengbing; Shi, Yaoyao

    2013-09-01

    The existing methods for blade polishing mainly focus on robot polishing and manual grinding. Due to the difficulty in high-precision control of the polishing force, the blade surface precision is very low in robot polishing, in particular, quality of the inlet and exhaust edges can not satisfy the processing requirements. Manual grinding has low efficiency, high labor intensity and unstable processing quality, moreover, the polished surface is vulnerable to burn, and the surface precision and integrity are difficult to ensure. In order to further improve the profile accuracy and surface quality, a pneumatic flexible polishing force-exerting mechanism is designed and a dual-mode switching composite adaptive control(DSCAC) strategy is proposed, which combines Bang-Bang control and model reference adaptive control based on fuzzy neural network(MRACFNN) together. By the mode decision-making mechanism, Bang-Bang control is used to track the control command signal quickly when the actual polishing force is far away from the target value, and MRACFNN is utilized in smaller error ranges to improve the system robustness and control precision. Based on the mathematical model of the force-exerting mechanism, simulation analysis is implemented on DSCAC. Simulation results show that the output polishing force can better track the given signal. Finally, the blade polishing experiments are carried out on the designed polishing equipment. Experimental results show that DSCAC can effectively mitigate the influence of gas compressibility, valve dead-time effect, valve nonlinear flow, cylinder friction, measurement noise and other interference on the control precision of polishing force, which has high control precision, strong robustness, strong anti-interference ability and other advantages compared with MRACFNN. The proposed research achieves high-precision control of the polishing force, effectively improves the blade machining precision and surface consistency, and

  8. How to Investigate Polish Clusters’ Attractiveness for Inward FDI? Addressing Ambiguity Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Götz Marta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to assess whether, and in what fashion, managers of Polish cluster organizations perceive the attractiveness of foreign direct investment in Polish clusters This research is exploratory and qualitative in nature. The complex nature of Polish clusters, which can benefit from and be competitively challenged by, FDI are identified and a conceptual framework for assessing that nature is proposed; specifically, research using the grounded theory method (GTM.

  9. Research on Laser Micro Polishing of SLS Technology Sintered Iron-Based Powder Surface

    OpenAIRE

    Gerda Vaitkūnaitė; Vladislav Markovič; Olegas Černašėjus

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes laser micro polishing of 1.2083 steel samples produced applying selective laser sintering (SLS) method. The study has evaluated the distribution of the shape, size and temperature of the laser beam treated area in the surface layer of sintered and laser polished samples. Experimental tests have shown the impact of the technical parameters of laser micro polishing on the width and hardness of the impact zone of the treated sample. The microstructure analysis of laser treat...

  10. Development of on the machine process monitoring and control strategy in Robot Assisted Polishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilny, Lukas; Bissacco, Giuliano

    2015-01-01

    Robot Assisted Polishing (RAP) can be used to polish rotational symmetric and free form components achieving surface roughness down to Sa 10 nm. With the aim to enable unmanned robust and cost efficient application of RAP, this paper presents the development of a monitoring and control strategy....... The multisensory approach was experimentally validated in polishing with bonded abrasives demonstrating its suitability for process control in RAP....

  11. Reproduction, physiology and biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter summarizes fundamental knowledge and recent discoveries about the reproduction, physiology and biochemistry of plant-parasitic nematodes. Various types of reproduction are reviewed, including sexual reproduction and mitotic and meiotic parthenogenesis. Although much is known about the p...

  12. Endogenous Pyrogen Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisel, William R.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the physiology of endogenous pyrogen (EP), the fever-producing factor of cellular origin. Included are: its hormone-like role, its molecular nature, bioassay procedures, cellular production and mechanisms of EP action. (SA)

  13. Biophysics and cell physiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazur, P.

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported on research activities in the fields of physiology and low-temperature biology of mammalian embryos; effects of sub-zero temperatures on eggs and embryos of sea urchins; survival of frozen-thawed human red cells; effects of radiation on physiology of Escherichia coli; transfer of triplet electronic energy in dinucleotides; effects of x radiation on DNA degradation; energy deposition by neutrons; photosynthesis; excision repair of uv-induced pyrimidine dimers in DNA of plant cells

  14. Physiology of Ramadan fasting

    OpenAIRE

    Shokoufeh Bonakdaran

    2016-01-01

    Considering the emphasis of Islam on the importance of fasting, Muslims attempt to fast from dawn until sunset during the holy month of Ramadan. Fasting is associated with several benefits for normal and healthy individuals. However, it could pose high risks to the health of diabetic patients due to certain physiological changes. This study aimed to compare the physiological changes associated with fasting in healthy individuals and diabetic patients during Ramadan. Furthermore, we reviewed t...

  15. Personalized physiological medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ince, Can

    2017-12-28

    This paper introduces the concept of personalized physiological medicine that is specifically directed at the needs of the critically ill patient. This differs from the conventional view of personalized medicine, characterized by biomarkers and gene profiling, instead focusing on time-variant changes in the pathophysiology and regulation of various organ systems and their cellular and subcellular constituents. I propose that personalized physiological medicine is composed of four pillars relevant to the critically ill patient. Pillar 1 is defined by the frailty and fitness of the patient and their physiological reserve to cope with the stress of critical illness and therapy. Pillar 2 involves monitoring of the key physiological variables of the different organ systems and their response to disease and therapy. Pillar 3 concerns the evaluation of the success of resuscitation by assessment of the hemodynamic coherence between the systemic and microcirculation and parenchyma of the organ systems. Finally, pillar 4 is defined by the integration of the physiological and clinical data into a time-learning adaptive model of the patient to provide feedback about the function of organ systems and to guide and assess the response to disease and therapy. I discuss each pillar and describe the challenges to research and development that will allow the realization of personalized physiological medicine to be practiced at the bedside for critically ill patients.

  16. Effects of Polishing Bur Application Force and Reuse on Sintered Zirconia Surface Topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, N G; Tsujimoto, A; Baruth, A G

    2018-03-16

    Limited information is available on how to polish and finish zirconia surfaces following computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM), specifically, how differing application forces and reuse of zirconia polishing systems affect zirconia topography. To determine the effect of differing, clinically relevant, polishing application forces and multiple usages of polishing burs on the surface topography of CAD/CAM zirconia. One hundred twenty 220-grit carbide finished zirconia disks were sintered according to manufacturer's directions and divided into two groups for the study of two coarse polishing bur types. Each group was divided into subgroups for polishing (15,000 rpm) at 15 seconds for 1.0 N, 4.5 N, or 11 N of force using a purpose-built fixture. Subgroups were further divided to study the effects of polishing for the first, fifth, 15th, and 30th bur use, simulating clinical procedures. Unpolished surfaces served as a control group. Surfaces were imaged with noncontact optical profilometry (OP) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to measure average roughness values (Ra). Polishing burs were optically examined for wear. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed on burs and zirconia surfaces. One-way ANOVA with post hoc Tukey HSD (honest significant difference) tests (α=0.05) were used for statistical analyses. AFM and OP Ra values of all polished surfaces were significantly lower than those of the unpolished control. Different polishing forces and bur reuse showed no significant differences in AFM Ra. However, significant differences in OP Ra were found due to differing application forces and bur reuse between the first and subsequent uses. SEM and optical micrographs revealed notable bur wear, increasing with increasing reuse. SEM and AFM micrographs clearly showed polished, periodic zirconia surfaces. Nanoscale topography, as analyzed with kurtosis and average groove depth, was found dependent on the specific polishing bur type. These in

  17. Acoustic emission-based in-process monitoring of surface generation in robot-assisted polishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilny, Lukas; Bissacco, Giuliano; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    The applicability of acoustic emission (AE) measurements for in-process monitoring of surface generation in the robot-assisted polishing (RAP) was investigated. Surface roughness measurements require interruption of the process, proper surface cleaning and measurements that sometimes necessitate...... automatic detection of optimal process endpoint allow intelligent process control, creating fundamental elements in development of robust fully automated RAP process for its widespread industrial application....... removal of the part from the machine tool. In this study, stabilisation of surface roughness during polishing rotational symmetric surfaces by the RAP process was monitored by AE measurements. An AE sensor was placed on a polishing arm in direct contact with a bonded abrasive polishing tool...

  18. Surface analysis of polished fused-silica laser lenses by ion-scattering spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orvek, K.; Steward, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    New advances in high-powered glass lasers, particularly the NOVA system, have resulted in a need for lenses having higher damage threshold values than those now available. It is currently thought that surface contaminants on the lenses are responsible for initiating part of the damage. These contaminants are apparently introduced during the final polishing stages. In this study, we used ion-scattering spectrometry (ISS) to identify contaminants arising through the use of different polishing techniques. Five lenses were studied, each having undergone different polishing procedures. The first lens was not polished after receiving it from the manfacturer (No. 381). Ion microprobe data were available for this lens, and they were compared to ISS results. The second lens had been polished with rouge, a polishing compound no longer in use (No. 796). This sample served as a further check on the ISS results. The third lens was studied as received from the manufacturer - with no handling or cleaning (No. 802). The final two lenses had both been polished using high-purity ceria, cerium oxide (No. 800 and No. 801). The difference between these two was that No. 800 was polished using a nylon lap, and No. 801 was polished using pitch as a lap. The 800-series lenses were all made from the same batch, and constituted the major part of the investigation

  19. Damage-free polishing of monocrystalline silicon wafers without chemical additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biddut, A.Q.; Zhang, L.C.; Ali, Y.M.; Liu, Z.

    2008-01-01

    This investigation explores the possibility and identifies the mechanism of damage-free polishing of monocrystalline silicon without chemical additives. Using high resolution electron microscopy and contact mechanics, the study concludes that a damage-free polishing process without chemicals is feasible. All forms of damages, such as amorphous Si, dislocations and plane shifting, can be eliminated by avoiding the initiation of the β-tin phase of silicon during polishing. When using 50 nm abrasives, the nominal pressure to achieve damage-free polishing is 20 kPa

  20. Macroeconomic, legal, administrative and cultural factors of technological innovations1 in Polish industrial enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Sudoł

    2016-12-01

    The vast majority of experts participating in the study positively assessed the cultural conditions of technological innovativeness in Polish enterprises. Experts also provided negative cultural characteristics of Poles.

  1. [Analysis of posttraumatic stress disorders in Polish soldiers who returned from stabilization mission in Iraq].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotnicka, Justyna

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the survey was to establish whether PTSD is present among Polish soldiers returning from a one-year deployment to Iraq and an analysis of its individual symptoms. Sixty soldiers were examined, including 30 who returned from the Iraqi mission and 30 who remained in Poland. Five analysing devices were used: (IPSA), (STAI), (BDI), a PTSD questionnaire and a socio-demographical form. A significant number of soldiers experienced a traumatic event during the mission in Iraq. Although the Iraq deployment did not change the level of depression and anxiety among the two groups of soldiers, disproportions were found in the range of anger level intensity, which was significantly higher among soldiers who returned from Iraq. Stabilisation mission and the experience of a traumatic event influenced the biological and psychological functioning patterns among soldiers who returned from Iraq. The manifestations of this were emotional and physiological reactions that the soldiers experienced (nightmares, excessive sweating, increased heartbeat rate, stressful reactions in situations similar to the traumatic occurrence and intensified responses to them). However, contrary to the assumptions, it was not concluded that soldiers who returned from Iraq are suffering from PTSD.

  2. Nuclear energy and society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobajima, Makoto; Shimooka, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Yasumasa; Fujii, Yasuhiko; Misima, Tsuyoshi

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear energy has a strong relation to a society. However, due to accidents and scandals having occurred in recent years, people's reliability to nuclear energy has significantly swayed and is becoming existence of a worry. Analyzing such a situation and grasping the problem contained are serious problems for people engaging in nuclear field. In order that nuclear energy is properly used in society, communication with general public and in nuclear power plant site area are increasingly getting important as well as grasping the situation and surveying measures for overcoming the problems. On the basis of such an analysis, various activities for betterment of public acceptance of nuclear energy by nuclear industry workers, researchers and the government are proposed. (J.P.N.)

  3. Branding Cities, Changing Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    Societal changes are seldom discussed in the literature on city branding. The time element is important because it highlights the fluctuating reality of society. The city brand message freezes the place but in fact, the city branding exercise is a continuous process. Society emerges too. City...... brands are supposed to accentuate the uniqueness of the city, be built from the bottom-up and reflect the city's identity. This paper highlights three paradoxes, pointing out that city branding processes can also make cities more alike, bring about societal changes and forge new city identities. A city...... branding campaign does not just present the city, it may change the city. The relationships between the branding exercise and the city are intertwined in the evolution of the place....

  4. International Trade and Economic Growth in the Polish Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryk Gurgul

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of examinations of linear and nonlinear causalities performed for international trade involving the Polish economy and its economic growth. In order to infer the impact of the world crisis on the Polish economy, two samples have been studied (containing quarterly data – a full sample (Q1 1996–Q3 2009 and pre-crisis sample (Q1 1996–Q3 2008. The results of linear causality tests support the existence of feedback between the growth rate of exports and growth in gross domestic product (GDP irrespectively of the time period chosen. For both the samples examined, no direct causal links between the growth rates of GDP and imports were detected. One can only suppose the existence of indirect links before the crisis. Bidirectional causality was found for growth rates of exports and imports only for the pre-crisis sample. Some weak evidence of a causal link running from the growth rate of imports to the growth rate of exports was also found for the period that covers the crisis, which may be interpreted as a confirmation of the fact that growth in imports also precedes growth in exports in bullish periods. It results from our computations that, at the time of the financial crisis of 2008, the main factor that caused Polish GDP growth to remain positive was domestic demand. The results of nonlinear causality analysis provided only weak evidence for causality running from GDP to exports, from GDP to imports and from imports to exports. (original abstract

  5. Analysis of the Motor Activities of Professional Polish Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzejewski Marcin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aims of the present study were to determine the activity profiles of a large sample of Polish Premier League soccer players during elite-standard soccer matches depending on their position on the pitch and the intensity range of physical activity. Material and methods. The study sample comprised 1,178 players in 5 outfield positions: external defenders (ED, n = 289, central defenders (CD, n = 307, central midfield players (CM, n = 327, external midfield players (EM, n = 152, and forwards (F, n = 103. Altogether, 81 Polish League games held during four domestic seasons (2010-2011, 2011-2012, 2012-2013, and 2013-2014 were used in the analysis. A semi-automatic computerised player tracking system (Amisco Pro®, version 1.0.2, Nice, France was applied to create the match activity profiles of the teams. Results. The results of statistical analysis revealed that the average total distance covered by all the players (n = 1,178 was 11,313 ± 852 m. With respect to the players’ position on the pitch, the central midfielders travelled the longest average distance (11,894 ± 765 m during the game. The longest distance was covered in the V1 intensity range (62%, followed by V2 (15%, V3 (10%, V4 (8%, V5 (3%, and V6 (2%. Conclusions. The objective of this study was to verify the differences among playing positions and to quantify the demands placed on elite Polish soccer players in each individual position during match play. While analysing elite-level match play in terms of the overall distance covered in different categories of intensity, we found a number of statistically significant differences between different playing positions. The data presented in this study can be regarded as norms for elite soccer players, serve for present and future comparison, and represent the scientific basis for developing position-specific conditioning/training protocols in soccer.

  6. Congress of the Polish Chamber of Tourism - Egypt 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Napierała

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to assess the effectiveness of the Congress of the Polish Chamber of Tourism 2017 in the elaboration of joint applications regarding the provision of substantive and logistical support to entrepreneurs as well as the pursuit of comprehensive regulation of tourism law; adaptation of Polish law to European standards. Research problems: What is the legal status in the field of tourism law regarding outgoing tourism, incoming tourism and MICE, children and youth tourism, domestic tourism and accommodation facilities, travel agents and air transport? What are the main problems of the industries and what are their solutions proposed? What is the position and conclusions of the Congress? Research methods: study of documents, source materials, study of Congress materials, interviews with participants of the Congress, personal participation in the Congress. The PIT Congress took place on 25.11. - 2.12.2017 in Egypt (Marsa Alam: "Groundbreaking changes in tourism law: challenges and problems". The aim of the Congress was to develop a common position in the field of tourism law on outgoing tourism, incoming tourism and MICE, children and youth tourism, domestic tourism and accommodation facilities, travel agents and air transport. PIT is the largest nationwide organization of the economic self-government of the tourism industry. Polish Chamber of Tourism, which is a full member of the European Union of Travel Agencies of the European Union (ECTAA. From the beginning of its existence (25 years of activity, it has been successfully applying for a new shape of tourist business in Poland. Conclusions: - trainings should be carried out using the latest laws, - substantive and logistical support should be provided to entrepreneurs, - strive for comprehensive regulation of tourism law, - tourism needs a host so that it can be prioritized as an important branch of the economy.

  7. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF INNOVATION PROJECTS IN POLISH INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Zwolak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the dependency of the net income from the sales of new and significantly modernised products on the expenditure on (1 marketing and staff training as well as on the expenditure on (2 land, buildings and structures; machinery, technical equipment and tools; and means of transportation within the scope of product and process innovations in Polish industry in 2010. Furthermore the study was intended to determine the effectiveness of the abovementioned expenditure aggregated to descriptive variables (1 and 2. In the study, the correlation and regression methods as well as the least squares method was applied.The estimation resulted in the determination of functional dependency of net sales income on the expenditure on marketing and staff training (0.5040 as well as on the expenditure on land, buildings and structures; machinery, technical equipment and tools; and means of transportation (0.8064 in the field of innovative processes in industry. The net sales income increased more than proportionally relative to the combined effect of the aforementioned expenditure (1.3104. The total increase in the aforementioned expenditure by 10% resulted in the increase in net sales income by 13.1%. The determined power regression model may have practical implications for the economic evaluation of expenditure in innovative processes in Polish industry in the future, as well as for the forecast (prediction.The expenditure application in innovative processes may also have social implications connected to the increase in the value-in-use of products and with the increase in the social efficiency of work in Polish industry.

  8. Database for content of mercury in Polish brown coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrząb, Krzysztof

    2018-01-01

    Poland is rated among the countries with largest level of mercury emission in Europe. According to information provided by the National Centre for Balancing and Management of Emissions (KOBiZE) more than 10.5 tons of mercury and its compounds were emitted into the atmosphere in 2015 from the area of Poland. Within the scope of the BazaHg project lasting from 2014 to 2015 and co-financed from the National Centre of Research and Development (NCBiR) a database was set up with specification of mercury content in Polish hard steam coal, coking coal and brown coal (lignite) grades. With regard to domestic brown coal the database comprises information on coal grades from Brown Coal Mines of `Bełchatów', `Adamów', `Turów' and `Sieniawa'. Currently the database contains 130 records with parameters of brown coal, where each record stands for technical analysis (content of moisture, ash and volatile particles), elemental analysis (CHNS), content of chlorine and mercury as well as net calorific value and combustion heat. Content of mercury in samples of brown coal grades under test ranged from 44 to 985 μg of Hg/kg with the average level of 345 μg of Hg/kg. The established database makes up a reliable and trustworthy source of information about content of mercury in Polish fossils. The foregoing details completed with information about consumption of coal by individual electric power stations and multiplied by appropriate emission coefficients may serve as the background to establish loads of mercury emitted into atmosphere from individual stations and by the entire sector of power engineering in total. It will also enable Polish central organizations and individual business entities to implement reasonable policy with respect of mercury emission into atmosphere.

  9. Society and Social Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janani Harish

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Society is the source of immense power. Over the past few centuries humanity has record­ed phenomenal growth in its collective capacity for accomplishment, as reflected in the 12-fold growth in global per capita income since 1800. The remarkable achievements in living standards, longevity, science, technology, industry, education, democracy, human rights, peace and global governance are the result of the exponential development of the capacity of society to harness human energies and convert them into social power for productive purposes. Today, humanity possesses the power and capabilities needed to fully meet the multi-dimensional challenges confronting global society. The source of this energy is people. Human energy is transformed into social power by the increasing reach, frequency and complexity of human relationships. Society is a complex living network of organized relationships between people. Its power issues from channelizing our collective energies in productive ways by means of organizing principles such as coordination, systems, specialization of function, hierarchy of authority, and integration. This immense social power remains largely underutilized. Social science needs to evolve a comprehensive, trans-disciplinary understanding of the roots of social power and the process by which it is generated, distributed and applied. This knowledge is the essential foundation for formulating effective social policies capable of eradicating forever persistent poverty, unemployment and social inequality. This article is based on a series of lectures delivered by the author in the WAAS-WUC course on “Toward a Trans-disciplinary Science of Society” at Dubrovnik on September 1-3, 2014. It traces the development of social power in different fields to show that human and social capital are inexhaustible in potential. The more we harness them, the more they grow. Unleashing, directing, channeling and converting human potential into social

  10. Quality and human society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, W.

    1991-02-01

    Quality of products and services is seen as a necessity in our modern world. Quality also has important cross-links to safety in our society. It is however suggested, that human beings are living in their industrial environment under the stress of a fractured personality with anxieties and frustrations. Some cultural comparisons with other industrial nations are given. Quality control tailored to human nature is recommended.

  11. Cooking and Society

    OpenAIRE

    Teplá, Hedvika

    2012-01-01

    The bachelor thesis "Cooking and Society" focuses on cooking, a process of food preparation. The thesis analyzes cooking as a leisure activity, type of housework and it also discusses the relation between cooking and cultural identity. It focuses on the importance of national and ethnic cuisine and deals with the differences in cooking influenced by religion and social stratification. The thesis also deals with the acquisition of cooing skills and transgeneral transfer of cooking skills. It d...

  12. Man in Society

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单祝堂

    1994-01-01

    Men usually want to have their own way.They want to thinkand act as they like.No one,however,can have his own way all thetime.A man cannot live in society without considering the interestsof others as well as his own interests.’Society’ means a groupof people with the same laws and the same way of life.People in

  13. The new totalitarian society

    OpenAIRE

    Vlajki Emil

    2011-01-01

    The new totalitarian society is a euphemized expression denoting the New World Order, which in itself denotes the American globalization. The underpinning of this mindset is rationality, which is characteristic of Western civilization. Christianity engendered rationality by introducing it through St. Thomas Aquinas, Aristotle, and especially formal logic. Since it is obvious that religion and logic cannot ultimately be harmonized, this combination has proven lethal in many cases throughout hi...

  14. Creativity In Conscience Society

    OpenAIRE

    Ion Gh. Rosca; Dumitru Todoroi

    2011-01-01

    Creativity is a result of brain activity which differentiates individuals and could ensure an important competitive advantage for persons, for companies, and for Society in general. Very innovative branches – like software industry, computer industry, car industry – consider creativity as the key of business success. Natural Intelligence Creativity can develop basic creative activities, but Artificial Intelligence Creativity, and, especially, Conscience Intelligence Creativity should be devel...

  15. Radiation Sensitivity of Societies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uray, I.; Hille, R.; Rohloff, F.

    1998-01-01

    Investigating the mean dose values as well as dose distributions of the inhabitants in a large number of settlements maybe set down, that the generally calculated mean exposure is a good measure to estimate the collective dose for a settlement or for a large region. Its uncertainty is however too high, and the dose distribution is very broad (250-300%) to estimate the external exposure of any single person. However, models may take into account more details of influencing factors. First of all the surveying of the local contamination density distribution could be more detailed and more accurate. Measure and distribution of the internal exposure (is not the subject of the present work, but it is similarly problematic. In this situation it is very difficult to search the dose-effect relationships exactly, and is also difficult to satisfy the people that their fears are unjustified. Society pays the costs of the nuclear industry and of the possible consequences as well. But society can neither control the nuclear industry nor the possible consequences at all. Both science and single people are waiting for more and detailed information. If we can not decrease the r adiation sensitivity of societies , then the consequences of Chernobyl will be growing unnecessarily, and it can strongly retard the justified development of the nuclear industry as well. (author)

  16. The new totalitarian society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlajki Emil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The new totalitarian society is a euphemized expression denoting the New World Order, which in itself denotes the American globalization. The underpinning of this mindset is rationality, which is characteristic of Western civilization. Christianity engendered rationality by introducing it through St. Thomas Aquinas, Aristotle, and especially formal logic. Since it is obvious that religion and logic cannot ultimately be harmonized, this combination has proven lethal in many cases throughout history. For instance, the Inquisition, which, contrary to what happened at scholastic universities, severely berated rational thinking in practice. Catholicism helped carry out genocide against the Jews, and Orthodoxy is in a certain manner tied in with Stalinism. The new totalitarian society is anchored in American Protestantism. On the whole, Christian rationalism is a sphere of science, techniques and technologies efficiently employed to promote the West to the status of a society of plenty and the conception of human rights, which turn into their opposite and irrational behavior of the worst kind. An example of such inhumanity is the attack against Yugoslavia/Serbia in 1999.

  17. Effect of polishing instruments and polishing regimens on surface topography and phase transformation of monolithic zirconia: An evaluation with XPS and XRD analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Haj Husain, Nadin; Camilleri, Josette; Özcan, Mutlu

    2016-12-01

    Polishing procedures might alter monolithic zirconia (MZ) surface resulting in phase changes that can be deleterious for clinical performance and antagonist tooth wear. This study investigated the topographical features and phase transformation in MZ after polishing with different regimens simulating the clinical workflow. ​ MZ specimens (Katana Zirconia HT, Kuraray-Noritake) (12×12×1.8 mm(3)) were grinded and polished using one of the five systems assessed: BG: Silicone carbide polishers (Brownie, Greenie, Super Greenie); CG: Diamond impregnated ceramic polisher kit (Ceragloss); EV: Synthetically bonded grinder interspersed with diamond (EVE Kit); SL: Urethane coated paper with aluminium oxide grits (Soflex Finishing and Polishing System Kit) and DB: Diamond bur (8 µm). Polished specimens were initially roughened with 220 µm diamond burs (Grinding Bur-GB) (10 s, 160.000160,000 rpm) and considered for baseline measurements. Polishing regimens were performed for 10 s using a slow-speed hand piece under water-cooling except for SL, in a custom made device (750 g; 5000 and 75,000 rpm). Surface roughnesses, phase changes (XRD) were assessed, surface characterization was performed (SEM, EDS). The highest roughness was obtained with the EV system (1.11 µm) compared to those of other systems (0.13-0.4 µm) (pθ and minor peak at 34.94°2θ. While GB, CG, EV, SL and DB exhibited a peak shift to the left, BG demonstrated a right peak shift on the 2θ scale. Monoclinic phase change was not noted in any of the groups. All polishing methods, except BG, exhibited a peak shift towards the lower angles of the 2-theta scale. Since the peak shifts were in the order of fractions of an angle they are attributed to stress formation rather than a phase change in the material. Thus, all polishing systems tested may not be detrimental for the phase transformation of MZ. EV system resulted in the highest roughness and none of the polishing regimens restored the polishability to the

  18. Rights and obligations of communal enterprises under Polish administrative law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipek, J.

    1992-01-01

    The paper elucidates the legal environment in which Polish power producing and distributing enterprises operate. In particular, the different forms of communal enterprises are described: public owned companies; public owned companies serving ''higher purposes''; communal enterprises operating on the strength of special laws; forms of organization subject to private law. Over the long term the rules in the sphere of the communal economy can be simplified. As the administrative judiciary develops, comprehensive administrative surveillance will become superfluous. The communal enterprises render their services to the citizen. The legal remedies at the citizen's disposal are the administrative complaint and the appeal to the administrative courts. (orig./HSCH) [de

  19. RISK IDENTIFICATION TOOLS – POLISH MSMES COMPANIES PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Gorzeń-Mitka

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to present risk identification tools in Polish micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs. Risk identification is a key element of the risk management process in companies. Correctly fitting risk identification tools affect the accuracy of management decisions. The result of research is to identify the leading risk identification tools used by MSMEs. The study was conducted in 2010-2012 using a mixed survey-monographic method and questionnaires. The qualitative data were obtained during the study.

  20. Discriminant analysis in Polish manufacturing sector performance assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Dziechciarz

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a presentation of the preliminary results of a larger project on the determination of the attractiveness of manufacturing branches. Results of the performance assessment of Polish manufacturing branches in 2000 (section D „Manufacturing” – based on NACE – Nomenclatures des Activites de Communite Europeene are shown. In the research, the classical (Fisher’s linear discriminant analysis technique was used for the analysis of the profit generation ability by the firms belonging to a certain production branch. For estimation, the data describing group level was used – for cross-validation, the classes data.

  1. Theorizing Polish migration across Europe: perspectives, concepts, and methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta M. Goździak

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Theorizing Polish migration across Europe: perspectives, concepts, and methodologies With the focus on the post-2004 mobility of Polish citizens, in this article we discuss two interrelated questions; namely, what are the most productive ways to theorize contemporary Polish migration, and what are the most fruitful methodologies aimed at understanding Polish migration and Poles on the move? In the first part of this article we unpack three interrelated theoretical frameworks: ‘liquid migration’, ‘regimes of mobility,’ and ‘transnationalism’. The methodological discussion in the second part of the article focuses mainly on outlining and contextualizing the most common approaches to migration phenomena. By critically introducing quantitative and qualitative methodologies, we explore and indicate the advantages of the ethnographic perspective and the merits and predicaments of research engagement in multiple sites.   Polskie migracje w Europie: perspektywy, koncepcje, metodologie Z naciskiem na mobilność obywateli polskich po przyłączeniu Polski do Unii Europejskiej w 2004 roku, w niniejszym artykule staramy się odpowiedzieć na dwa powiązane ze sobą pytania: jakie są najbardziej wydajne sposoby teoretyzowania współczesnej migracji polskiej oraz jakie są najbardziej owocne metody badawcze mające na celu zrozumienie polskiej migracji po akcesji do UE? W pierwszej części artykułu przedstawiamy więc trzy powiązane ze sobą koncepcje teoretyczne: „płynna migracja”, „reżimy mobilności” oraz transnarodowość. Dyskusja metodologiczna w drugiej części artykułu skupia się natomiast głównie na przedstawieniu najczęściej stosowanej metodyki i metodologii w badaniach zjawisk migracyjnych. Wprowadzając krytyczną perspektywę na temat ilościowych i jakościowych metod badawczych, staramy się wskazać wartość poznawczą perspektywy etnograficznej oraz wady i zalety etnograficznego zaangażowania badawczego w

  2. Circular motion and Polish Doughnuts in NUT spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefremov, Paul I.

    The astrophysical relevance of the NUT spacetime(s) is a matter of debate due to pathological properties exhibited by this solution. However, if it is realised in nature, then we should look for the characteristic imprints of it on possible observations. One of the major sources of data on black hole astrophysics is the accretion process. Using a simple but fully analytical ``Polish Doughnuts'' model of accretion disk one gets both qualitative and quantitative differences from the Kerr spacetime produced by the presence of the gravitomagnetic charge. The present paper is based on our work Jefremov & Perlick (2016).

  3. Advanced ion exchange resins for PWR condensate polishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, B.; Tsuzuki, S.

    2002-01-01

    The severe chemical and mechanical requirements of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) condensate polishing plant (CPP) present a major challenge to the design of ion exchange resins. This paper describes the development and initial operating experience of improved cation and anion exchange resins that were specifically designed to meet PWR CPP needs. Although this paper focuses specifically on the ion exchange resins and their role in plant performance, it is also recognized and acknowledged that excellent mechanical design and operation of the CPP system are equally essential to obtaining good results. (authors)

  4. Specificity of Geotechnical Measurements and Practice of Polish Offshore Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogumil Laczynski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As offshore market in Europe grows faster and faster, new sea areas are being managed and new ideas on how to use the sea potential are being developed. In North Sea, where offshore industry conducts intensive expansion since late 1960s, numerous wind farms, oil and gas platforms and pipelines have been put into operation following extensive research, including geotechnical measurement. Recently, a great number of similar projects is under development in Baltic Sea, inter alia in Polish EEZ, natural conditions of which vary from the North Sea significantly. In this paper, those differences are described together with some solutions to problems thereby arising.

  5. Polish Decadence: Leopold Staff's Igrzysko in the European Context

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    Julia Przybos

    2012-03-01

    expression. It is my hypothesis that taken out of its secular context, religious revisionism of the kind practiced by French decadents may be seen as shocking transgression in a fiercely catholic country like Poland. In the country that lost its independence in 1794 and was ever since seeking to regain it, Catholic Church was perceived as an essential ally in the struggle against main occupying powers: Orthodox Russia, and Protestant Prussia. In the course of the 19th century Catholicism and patriotism had been effectively fused in Polish national conscience. In this charged political context a Polish author revisiting Church dogma or tradition was at risk of being perceived not only as a religious outcast but also as a traitor to the cause of Polish independence. To test my hypothesis I propose to examine Igrzysko (Game, a forgotten play by Leopold Staff. Admired today chiefly as a poet, the young Staff wrote Igrzysko in Poland after a long sojourn in Paris where he had lived among the international crowd of fin de siècle writers and artists. The play was first produced in Lemberg in 1909 and after a few performances vanished forever from Polish theatrical repertoire. Leopold Staff's play is set in ancient Rome and depicts tribulations of an actor who, while impersonating a Christian awaiting crucifixion, converts to Christianity. In his play, Staff revives the legend of Saint Genesius, an actor in Arles who died a martyr's death in 286 under Diocletian. In Spain, Saint Genesius's legend inspired Lope de Vega who wrote Acting is Believing (Lo fingido verdadero, 1607. In France, it was the source for Jean Rotrou's Saint Genest (1646. All told, the legend of Genesius is a popular theme for artists who wish to explore the distinction between art and life. An important addition to this old tradition, Staff's play contains, however, a decadent and potentially scandalous twist. Unlike in Acting is Believing and Saint Genest, the protagonist's conversion is very short

  6. Condensate polisher application for PWR steam generator corrosion control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawochka, S.G.; Leibovitz, J.; Siegwarth, D.P.; Pearl, W.L.

    1981-01-01

    The evolution of corrosion attack modes particularly in recirculating U-tube PWR steam generators has dictated a thorough review of the advantages and disadvantages of condensate polishing. Analytical modeling techniques to qualitatively predict crevice chemistry variations resulting from steam generator bulk water variations have allowed valuable insights to be developed. Modeling results complemented by steam generator and laboratory corrosion data will be employed to set condensate demineralizer effluent specifications consistent with control of steam generator corrosion. Laboratory and plant studies are being performed to demonstrate achievability of necessary effluent specifications. (author)

  7. Between positivism and narrativism in Polish methodology of history

    OpenAIRE

    Brzechczyn, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    This paper has two main purposes. Its primary purpose is to present the reception of the discussion between positivism and narrativism in the Polish methodology of history. A secondary one is to paraphrase, using the notion apparatus of the idealisational theory of science, the issue of the accuracy of explanation. The article consists of six parts. In the first part, Hempel’s deductive-nomological (or covering-law) model of explanation is presented. In the second part, the main tenets and as...

  8. The Unification of Terminology in Terms of Impact of Employees on Decisions Taken in European Business Entities and Polish Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giedrewicz-Niewińska Aneta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the consequences of improper management of European businesses, set solely on profit, is the global financial crisis, felt even today by many societies. Previous negative experience has led to a growing interest in the world at present, in the model in which employees are guaranteed involvement in the management of transnational entities. A new, universal legal framework for the functioning of this model has been created by the European Union. Instead of creating a single transnational legal system, it was decided to create a model for employee involvement in management by coordinating national systems. The aim of this study is to analyse the terminology related to the issue of workers’ involvement in the management of European business entities. This analysis will aim to determine whether the legal language used in the EU regulations and directives relating to workers’ involvement in management and implementing acts allows coordination between legal systems of the Member States. In this context, it is particularly important to determine whether the terminology used in EU acts is consistent with the terminology used in Polish implementing laws and how EU terminology fits into current understanding in the Polish legal tradition of institutions of employee involvement in the management of the workplace.

  9. Proceedings of the 13. Annual meeting of the Federation of Societies on Experimental Biology; 23. Brazilian congress on biophysics; 30. Brazilian congress on pharmacology and experimental therapeutics; 33. Brazilian congress on physiology; 14. Brazilian congress on clinical research; 22. Brazilian congress on neuroscience and behaviour. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Several aspects concerning neuroscience and behavior, compared physiology, endocrinology, pharmacology, molecular immunology and immuno diagnosis, biochemistry, genetic and toxicology of either animals, plants and microorganisms are studied. Topics such as cell membrane structures (including receptors), enzymatic assays, biological pathways, structural chemical analysis, metabolism, biological functions, blood pressure regulation are focused. The use of radiolabelled compounds, e.g. radioassay, radioimmunoassay, radioreceptor assay, are the most applied techniques

  10. Dehydration: physiology, assessment, and performance effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheuvront, Samuel N; Kenefick, Robert W

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a comprehensive review of dehydration assessment and presents a unique evaluation of the dehydration and performance literature. The importance of osmolality and volume are emphasized when discussing the physiology, assessment, and performance effects of dehydration. The underappreciated physiologic distinction between a loss of hypo-osmotic body water (intracellular dehydration) and an iso-osmotic loss of body water (extracellular dehydration) is presented and argued as the single most essential aspect of dehydration assessment. The importance of diagnostic and biological variation analyses to dehydration assessment methods is reviewed and their use in gauging the true potential of any dehydration assessment method highlighted. The necessity for establishing proper baselines is discussed, as is the magnitude of dehydration required to elicit reliable and detectable osmotic or volume-mediated compensatory physiologic responses. The discussion of physiologic responses further helps inform and explain our analysis of the literature suggesting a ≥ 2% dehydration threshold for impaired endurance exercise performance mediated by volume loss. In contrast, no clear threshold or plausible mechanism(s) support the marginal, but potentially important, impairment in strength, and power observed with dehydration. Similarly, the potential for dehydration to impair cognition appears small and related primarily to distraction or discomfort. The impact of dehydration on any particular sport skill or task is therefore likely dependent upon the makeup of the task itself (e.g., endurance, strength, cognitive, and motor skill). © 2014 American Physiological Society.

  11. Science, Society and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, K. S.; Teich, A. H.

    2010-12-01

    Apart from the journals they produce, scientific societies play an important role in communicating scientific findings and norms to the broader society. The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) includes among its goals to promote and defend the integrity of science and its use; provide a voice for science on societal issues; promote the responsible use of science in public policy; and increase public engagement with science and technology. AAAS websites and programs, including Communicating Science (www.aaas.org/communicatingscience), Working with Congress (http://www.aaas.org/spp/cstc/wwc/book.htm) and ScienceCareers.org (http://sciencecareers.sciencemag.org), provide tools for scientists to become more directly engaged in effectively communicating their findings and involved in the policy process. Education programs work to build the next generation of scientists and a science-literate public. To bridge the current communication gap between scientists, the public and policymakers, AAAS, like other scientific societies, maintains policy and outreach programs with limited budgets and staff. AAAS works to engage policymakers and provide scientific underpinning to key issues through congressional briefings, meetings, policy briefs, and media outreach. AAAS responds to challenges to accepted scientific findings and processes through op-eds, letters to government officials, resolutions, and Board statements. Some of these initiatives occur on a local level in partnership with local civic leaders, whose endorsement makes them more powerful. On a national scale, they assure that the voice of science is included in the debate. The changing media landscape presents opportunities and challenges for future AAAS endeavors.

  12. Risk and society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubiana, M.; Vrousos, C.; Pages, J.P.; Carde, C.

    1999-01-01

    This book brings together the communications presented at the colloquium 'risk and society' held in Paris (France) on November 1998. During this colloquium, the various aspects of risk and of its management were discussed by medical specialists, historians, industrialists, engineers, philosophers, lawyers, politicians and administration representatives. The first theme concerns the controversies generated by the development of some activities (genetics, bio-technologies, nuclear and radiations use). The second theme concerns the management of risks and the way to conciliate the point of view of authorities and citizens (confidence of the public with respect to experts, scientists, industrialists, government and administrative representatives, role played by the media). The debates that took place during the colloquium have shown that the public opinion concerning the nuclear activities or the new technologies greatly depends on the ideological attitudes and on the public's likes and dislikes with respect to some categories of actors (distrust with respect to public decisions, fears with respect to changes and future, nostalgia of the past). The following aspects are reviewed: Notions of risk and hazard (risk and health, risk in today's society, medicine and society, the point of view of the industrialists and of the scientific and technical specialists); from the psychological aspects of the risk to its social aspects (survey of the risk assessment battlefield, social attenuation and amplification of risk, the feeling of risks in Europe, insecurity and delinquency, controversies around radioactivity and health); the negotiation and communication about risks (risk and public health, negotiation around risks, risks and information dissemination about the public debate, communication and crisis, evolution of risk communication, comparison between American and European approaches, the Seveso directive); the public debate and the evolution of risks management (the

  13. Human physiology in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernikos, J.

    1996-01-01

    The universality of gravity (1 g) in our daily lives makes it difficult to appreciate its importance in morphology and physiology. Bone and muscle support systems were created, cellular pumps developed, neurons organised and receptors and transducers of gravitational force to biologically relevant signals evolved under 1g gravity. Spaceflight provides the only microgravity environment where systematic experimentation can expand our basic understanding of gravitational physiology and perhaps provide new insights into normal physiology and disease processes. These include the surprising extent of our body's dependence on perceptual information, and understanding the effect and importance of forces generated within the body's weightbearing structures such as muscle and bones. Beyond this exciting prospect is the importance of this work towards opening the solar system for human exploration. Although both appear promising, we are only just beginning to taste what lies ahead.

  14. Plant Physiology and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taiz, Lincoln; Zeiger, Eduardo; Møller, Ian Max

    Throughout its twenty-two year history, the authors of Plant Physiology have continually updated the book to incorporate the latest advances in plant biology and implement pedagogical improvements requested by adopters. This has made Plant Physiology the most authoritative, comprehensive......, and widely used upper-division plant biology textbook. In the Sixth Edition, the Growth and Development section (Unit III) has been reorganized and expanded to present the complete life cycle of seed plants from germination to senescence. In recognition of this enhancement, the text has been renamed Plant...... Physiology and Development. As before, Unit III begins with updated chapters on Cell Walls and Signals and Signal Transduction. The latter chapter has been expanded to include a discussion of major signaling molecules, such as calcium ions and plant hormones. A new, unified chapter entitled Signals from...

  15. Membership in cooperative societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eba Gaminde Egia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we will analyze the practical application of one of the cooperative principles, «voluntary and free membership», referring to the entering of members in cooperative societies. We will first explain the meaning of this principle, and then bring up its normative regulation, with special emphasis on those aspects in which our autonomic laws differ, and ending with a brief reference to the economic aspect and the different ways to make contributions and their consequences.Received: 31 May 2017Accepted: 14 October 2017Published online: 22 December 2017

  16. The post Chernobyl society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xenofontov, Ion.

    2011-01-01

    The disaster from the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl that took place on April 26, 1986 is considered to be the worst ecologic disaster in Europe during the entire nuclear power producing history (estimated on the highest level, the seventh). The disaster had an poisonous impact on people's health and ambitions, it also gave birth to a new vision on the impact of the human factor on the universe. The post Chernobyl society is an alarming sign as regarding the human surviving perspectives, and a violent lesson on the 'global biography'. (author)

  17. Advanced information society (9)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Hiroki

    This article discusses the U.S. and European national strategies and policies for information society. Coping with the declining competitiveness in high-tech products and Japanese technological advantages both have been trying hard to strengthen technology base and to deregulate the telecommunications services markets. The U.S. approach in 1980's, unlike its liberalist principle, has been characterized by technological protectlonism and defense-oriented policies. European Communities' approach has been more comprehensive and systematic, investing heavily telecommunication infrastructure, deregulating domestic market, and promoting cooperation of member countries. However, both of these approaches have, so far, been unable to achieve a considerable success.

  18. Connecting Science with Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    awareness of the important questions of our society reflected in scientific research and of the answers produced by these research activities. The CRIS2010 conference, entitled “Bringing Science to Society”, therefore seeks to highlight the role of Current Research Information Systems for communicating......, for driving innovation or for disseminating results to the scientific community and beyond. And, as a look at the CRIS2010 conference program will tell, there are many more, often little known purposes for which CRIS are used. These applications stimulate with their demands the progress in designing, building...

  19. Transnationalising Civil Society?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Bak

    The paper takes a transnational perspective on developing an analytical framework for understanding how transnationalism interacts with civil society and how immigrant organisations use transnational strategies to challenge the pre-given positions of immigrants within given integration......- and citizenship-regimes. Locating transnationalism as part of the political opportunity structure also indicates that the state(s) to some degree can facilitate transnationalism, directly and indirectly. A substantial part of political engagement now occurs via transnational channels. What is uncertain is to what...

  20. The plutonium society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mez, L.; Richter, M.

    1981-01-01

    The lectures of an institute are reported on, which took place between 25th and 27th January 1980 in Berlin. The subsequent public panel discussion with representations from the political parties is then documentated in a few press-reports. The themes of the 8 lectures are: views and facts on plutonium, plutonium as an energy resource, military aspects of the production of plutonium, economic aspects of the plutonium economy, the position of the trade unions on the industrial reconversion, the alleged inevitability of a plutonium society and the socio-political alternatives and perspectives of nuclear waste disposal. (UA) [de

  1. Patient monitoring in Polish assisted reproductive technology centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Krawczak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2014, the Polish non-governmental patient association ‘Our Stork’ (Nasz Bocian introduced the ‘Patient monitoring in ART centres’ research project to gather previously unrecorded information on the situation of infertile people and the provision of assisted reproductive treatment in Poland. When the research project began, assisted reproductive treatment centres were unregulated by the state, a situation that had existed for more than 28 years following the birth of the first Polish test-tube baby in 1987. Patients signed civil contracts, remaining unprotected in terms of safety of treatment and recognition of their rights, and their presumed social position was described by doctors as ‘disciplined patients’ – a reflection of what Michele Foucault described as biopolitics. The research project comprised patient questionnaires (responses from 722 patients provided the basis for the document ‘Patient Recommendations in Infertility Treatment’, analysis of civil contracts and their accuracy in the context of patients’ legal rights in Poland, and in-depth interviews with assisted reproductive treatment centres’ owners, doctors, midwives, and patients to explore patient care. The data reveal that there is a lack of patient-centred care among doctors and medical staff in Poland and that following the passing into law of the 2015 Infertility Act, which introduced state regulation of assisted reproductive treatment centres, the situation for patients worsened.

  2. THE LOW PRICE EFFECT ON THE POLISH MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Zaremba

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the characteristics of the low price anomaly, which implies higher returns to stocks with a low nominal price. The research aims to broaden academic knowledge in a few ways. Firstly, we deliver some fresh evidence on the low price effect from the Polish market. Secondly, we analyze the interdependence between the low price effect and other return factors: value, size and liquidity. Thirdly, we investigate whether the low price effect is present after accounting for liquidity. Fourthly, we check to see whether the low price effect is robust to transaction costs. The paper is composed of three main sections. In the beginning, we review the existing literature. Next, we present the data sources and research methods employed. Finally, we discuss our research findings. Our computations are based on all the stocks listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange (WSE in the years 2003-2013. We have concluded that the low price effect is present on the Polish market, although the statistical significance is very weak and it disappears entirely after accounting for transaction costs and liquidity.

  3. Professional activity of Polish peri- and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żołnierczuk-Kieliszek, Dorota; Janiszewska, Mariola; Mielniczuk, Agata; Dziedzic, Małgorzata A; Firlej, Ewelina

    2016-11-01

    The menopausal transition as one of the stages in women's life can bring many ailments which complicate the accomplishment of professional duties. The situation of women on the Polish job market is determined by many barriers and stereotypes which impede women's access to jobs and professional promotions. The aim of the study was to estimate the professional status and job satisfaction of women aged 40-65. The research was carried out by a survey method, a poll technique in the period from January to March 2016. An original questionnaire consisting of 35 questions was used as a research tool. The analysis of obtained results shows that the arithmetic mean of the age of women in full-time employment was 51.84 years whereas the arithmetic mean of the age of women in part-time or seasonal employment was 52.64. Women aged 45-60 were characterised by a significantly lower job satisfaction than women over 60 years of age. The highest percentage of women in full-time employment lived in large cities. The financial situation of working women determined their job satisfaction. Well-off respondents were more pleased with their jobs than women in a worse financial situation. There is a strong need of education about counteraction of gender and age discrimination on the Polish labour market. The struggle against discrimination requires support on each level of the state administration through the implementation of numerous regulations facilitating the final period and resumption of women's professional activity.

  4. Influence of Polish Arms, Armour and Militaria on Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenkiewicz, Z. S.

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Up to approximately the 15th century the arms and the armament of a Polish knight were very similar in style to those used in the west: heavy Armour, heavy sword, and heavy horse. However, in the face of the continuous attacks by Tartars, and later on Turks, on Polish territories, the enemy consisting of very light cavalry, on small but very quick and manageable horses, the heavy knights were of little use. Long before the 15th century the armament and the tactics had to be slowly modified and adapted to the enemy's armament and stratagems.

    Hasta antes del siglo XV, las armas y armamento de los caballeros polacos eran muy similares en estilo a los utilizados en Occidente: una pesada armadura, una pesada espada, un pesado caballo. Sin embargo, frente a los contínuos ataques al territorio polaco, primero de los tártaros y posteriormente de los turcos, utilizando una caballería muy ligera montando caballos de pequeño tamaño pero muy rápidos y manejables, los caballeros tan pesadamente armados eran de poca utilidad. Tácticas y armamento hubieron de adaptarse a las del enemigo. [traducido por la redacción

  5. FOOD SAFETY SYSTEMS’ FUNCTIONING IN POLISH NETWORKS OF GROCERY STORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł NOWICKI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the way how the food safety systems are functioning in Polish networks of grocery stores. The study was conducted in the fourth quarter of 2012 in the south‐eastern Poland. There were chosen three organizations that meet certain conditions: medium size Polish grocery network without participation of foreign capital and up to 30 retail locations within the group. Studies based on a case study model. The research found that regular and unannounced inspections carried out to each store's, impact on increasing safety of food offered and the verification of GHP requirements on the headquarters level has a significant impact on the safety of food offered as well as on the knowledge and behavior of employees. In addition it was found that the verification and analysis of food safety management system is an effective tool for improving food safety. It was also shown that in most cases there is no formal crisis management system for the food protection in the surveyed companies and employees are only informed of what to do in case of an emergency.

  6. Calibration of a Credit Rating Scale for Polish Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Wójcicka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing number of bankruptcy announcements means that even greater attention is being paid to the correct evaluation of the probability of default (PD and decisions made on the basis of it. Reliable estimation of the likelihood of a company's bankruptcy reduces risk, not only for the company itself but also for all co-operating companies and financial institutions. The financial crisis has led to a tightening up of the conditions for gaining finance from banks. However, it is not only the evaluation of PD itself that is so important but also the correct classification of companies according to their PD level ("good" or "bad" companies. There is very little consideration about possible adjustments of the credit risk scale, as usually the American scale is adopted with no changes which seems incorrect.This paper stresses the importance of correct calibration of the credit rating scale. It should not be assumed (as it was in the past that once a scale is defined it remains fixed and independent of the country. Therefore, the research carried out on Polish companies shows that the credit rating scale should be changed and the default point (i.e. "cut-off" point should be higher than in the past. The author uses a modified classification matrix based on the probability of default. The paper compares the classification of quoted Polish companies according to their credit risk level (PD with the actual occurrence of default when various default "cut-off" points are used. (original abstract

  7. Endogenous or exogenous origin of vaginal candidiasis in Polish women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnichowska-Polanowskai, Magdalena; Wojciechowska-Koszko, Iwona; Klimowicz, Bogumia; Szymaniak, Ludmia; Krasnodebska-Szponder, Barbara; Szych, Zbigniew; Giedrys-Kalemba, Stefania

    2013-01-01

    Vaginal candidiasis is a common problem of clinical practice. Many studies have been conducted to explain its origin but only a few have included Polish women. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and similarity of oral, anal and vaginal Candida albicans strains isolated from Polish women with vaginal candidiasis. The study involved 20 from 37 recruited women. Swab samples were collected from their vagina, anus, and oral cavity at two-month intervals. All the women were treated with nystatin. Yeast were recovered and identified by the germ-tube test, API /Vitek system, typed by API ZYM and RAPD-PCR. Chi-square test was used to analyze the data. A total of 170 Candida albicans isolates were recovered from 180 samples collected 3 times from 3 sites of 20 women. Positive yeast vaginal cultures were found in all patients before administration of nystatin. Vaginal yeast recovery rate was decreased statistically significant in both follow-up visits (p= 0.001; p= 0.003). The same and different genotypes/biotypes were found concomitantly in a few body sites and/ or repeatedly at time interval from the same body site. The results support the concept of dynamic exchange of yeast within one woman and endogenous or exogenous origin of vaginal candidiasis.

  8. WHAT MOTIVATES POLISH COMMUNITY PHARMACISTS TO PURSUIT OF POSTGRADUATE EDUCATION?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinska-Stroschein, Magdalena; Kurczewska, Urszula; Orszulak-Michalak, Daria

    2017-03-01

    Due to increasing importance of the advisory role for physicians and patients played by the pharmacist over the last decade, it seems appropriate to evaluate if and why pharmacists are interested in postgraduate medical education. The purpose of the study was to develop and validate an instrument to assess such motives, with special interest to Polish community pharmacists. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by a sample of participants of community pharmacist specialization programs and it was analyzed in relation to participants of other postgraduate courses. They were asked to rank their motives on a Likert-like scale and the underlying dimensions for study motives were identified using exploratory and confirmatory techniques. The reasons for taking specialization for community pharmacists were similar as compared to participants of other postgraduate studies. However, the autotelic factor was not so strong and the crucial reason was that such postgraduate training was required to be promoted in work. Basing on Polish results, we propose the division of motives into three groups - autotelic, instrumental and coincidental. The validated self-administered questionnaire based on this division displayed acceptable construct validity and internal consistency, and therefore can be proposed as an example tool to assess the particular motives and expectations of potential postgraduate students and employees in the pharmaceutical job market. The promotion of postgraduate education among pharmacists can improve the quality of pharmaceutical service.

  9. Evaluation of Rock Bolt Support for Polish Hard Rock Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypkowski, Krzysztof

    2018-03-01

    The article presents different types of rock bolt support used in Polish ore mining. Individual point resin and expansion rock bolt support were characterized. The roof classes for zinc and lead and copper ore mines were presented. Furthermore, in the article laboratory tests of point resin rock bolt support in a geometric scale of 1:1 with minimal fixing length of 0.6 m were made. Static testing of point resin rock bolt support were carried out on a laboratory test facility of Department of Underground Mining which simulate mine conditions for Polish ore and hard coal mining. Laboratory tests of point resin bolts were carried out, especially for the ZGH Bolesław, zinc and lead "Olkusz - Pomorzany" mine. The primary aim of the research was to check whether at the anchoring point length of 0.6 m by means of one and a half resin cartridge, the type bolt "Olkusz - 20A" is able to overcome the load.The second purpose of the study was to obtain load - displacement characteristic with determination of the elastic and plastic range of the bolt. For the best simulation of mine conditions the station steel cylinders with an external diameter of 0.1 m and a length of 0.6 m with a core of rock from the roof of the underground excavations were used.

  10. Evaluation of landslide monitoring in the Polish Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Brian D.; Baum, Rex L.; Mrozek, Teresa; Nescieruk, Piotr; Perski, Zbigniew; Raczkowski, Wojciech; Graniczny, Marek

    2011-01-01

    In response to the June 15, 2010 request from the Polish Geological Institute (PGI) to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for assistance and advice regarding real-time landslide monitoring, landslide specialists from the USGS Landslide Hazard Program visited PGI headquarters and field sites in September 2010. During our visit we became familiar with characteristics of landslides in the Polish Carpathians, reviewed PGI monitoring techniques, and assessed needs for monitoring at recently activated landslides. Visits to several landslides that are monitored by PGI (the Just, Hańczowa, Szymbark, Siercza and Łasńica landslides) revealed that current data collection (monthly GPS and inclinometer surveys, hourly piezometers readings) is generally sufficient for collecting basic information about landslide displacement, depth, and groundwater conditions. Large landslides are typically hydrologically complex, and we would expect such complexity in Carpathian landslides, given the alternating shale and sandstone stratigraphy and complex geologic structures of the flysch bedrock. Consequently groundwater observations could be improved by installing several piezometers that sample the basal shear zone of each landslide being monitored by PGI. These could be supplemented by additional piezometers at shallower depths to help clarify general flow directions and hydraulic gradients. Remedial works at Hańczowa

  11. Pertussis outbreak in Polish shooters with adverse event analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Skrzypiec-Spring

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In addition to different injuries, infections are the most common reason for giving up training altogether or reducing its volume and intensity, as well as a lack of opportunities to participate in sports competitions. Nowadays, a slow but constant re‑emergence of pertussis, especially among teenagers and young adults, including athletes, can be observed. This paper describes an outbreak of pertussis among professional Polish shooters, focusing on the transmission of Bordetella pertussis infection between members of the national team, its influence on performance capacity and adverse event analysis. From 9 June, 2015 to 31 July, 2015, a total of 4 confirmed and suspected cases of pertussis were reported among members of the Polish Sport Shooting National Team, their relatives and acquaintances. Pertussis significantly decreased exercise performance of the first athlete, a 35-year-old woman, interrupted her training, and finally resulted in failure to win a medal or quota place. Pertussis also significantly decreased performance of the second athlete, a 25-year-old shooter. The other cases emerged in their families. Whooping cough is a real threat to athletes and should be prevented. Preventive measures include appropriate immunization, constant medical supervision, as well as early isolation, diagnostic tests and treatment of all infected sport team members. Regular administration of booster doses of the acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdpa every 5 years seems reasonable.

  12. Five Martyr Brothers. First Polish hermits and their worship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Blaschke

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Brothers Benedict and John, students of Romuald, came to Poland at the invitation of Otto III to convert pagans. Soon the Italian hermits were joined by Polish brothers Isaac and Matthew, who helped them in learning the Slavic language. The hermits, as well as Christinus, well killed in 1003 by thugs who wanted to steal money given by Duke Boleslav to an expedition to Rome, which was aimed at obtaining papal consent for conducting missionary work. Although the hermits died as victims of a robbery, killed by fellow Christians, the pope canonized them as martyrs. Their lives are relatively well-documented: the earliest and the most credible story of the five brothers by Bruno of Querfurt was written as early as five years after their death, although remained unknown until 1883. Another early account is the life of St. Romuald by Piotr Damiani of 1041. The martyrs have been also associated with yet another mysterious work – a gravestone unearthed in 1959 at the external wall of the north Roman apse of the Gniezno Cathedral, considered by most researchers the oldest epigraphic item on the Polish soil. However, the identification of the warriors mentioned in the inscription with 11th century martyrs raises many doubts. The article discusses the above matters, as well as the subject of the development of the worship of the martyr brothers.

  13. The Minister Council decree about conditions for to bring into the Polish customs area, to take away from the Polish customs area, and to transit through this area nuclear materials, radioactive sources and device including such sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.

    2002-01-01

    The decree refers to conditions for to bring into the Polish customs area, to take away from the Polish customs area, and to transit through this area nuclear materials, radioactive sources and devices containing such sources

  14. Is hypochondriasis a significant problem among polish adolescents? An attempt of assessment of severe form of health anxiety in polish population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Kocjan

    2017-08-01

    [Conclusions] The study provides evidence about moderate intensification of health anxiety among polish adolescent. Health anxiety level was significantly higher among medical students versus non-medical students group.

  15. A novel vibration assisted polishing device based on the flexural mechanism driven by the piezoelectric actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilian Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The vibration assisted polishing has widely application fields because of higher machining frequency and better polishing quality, especially the polishing with the non-resonant mode that is regarded as a kind of promising polishing method. This paper reports a novel vibration assisted polishing device, consisting of the flexible hinge mechanism driven by the piezoelectric actuators, which is suitable for polishing planes or curve surfaces with slow curvature. Firstly, the generation methods of vibration trajectory are investigated for the same frequency and different frequency signals’ inputs, respectively, and then the types of elliptic and Lissajous’s vibration trajectories are generated respectively. Secondly, a flexural mechanism consisting of the right circular flexible hinges and the leaf springs is developed to produce two-dimensional vibration trajectory. Statics and dynamics investigating of this flexible mechanism are finished in detail. The analytical models about input and output compliances of the flexural mechanism are established according to the matrix-based compliance modeling, and the dynamic model of the flexural mechanism based on the Euler-Lagrange equation is also presented. The finite element model of the flexural mechanism was established to carry out the numerical simulation in order to testify the rationality of device design. Finally, the polishing experiment is carried out to prove the effectiveness of the vibration device. The experimental results show that this novel vibration assisted polishing device developed in this study can remove more effectively the cutting marks left by last process and obviously reduce the workpiece surface roughness.

  16. The beginnings of the reception of Ludwik Fleck’s ideas in Polish (1936-1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Jarnicki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the beginnings of the reception of Ludwik Fleck’s theory of thought styles and thought collectives in Polish, from his first polemics with Izydora Dąmbska in 1936 to the first edition of the Polish translation of Entstehung und Entwicklung

  17. Are Polish Primary School Pupils in Favor of Wearing Uniforms? Snapshot Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asotska, Julia; Butler, Norman L.; Davidson, Barry S.; Griffith, Kimberly Grantham; Brown, Veda E.; Kritsonis, Wiilliam Allan

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss whether Polish primary school pupils want to wear uniforms, and it is motivated by the Polish government's recently proposed policy: Zero Tolerance for Violence at School. Seventy one pupils, who attend Podstawowka Nr30 school in Cracow, were surveyed, and the authors found that most pupils are not in…

  18. The place of polish in the multilingual space of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Neprytska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the position of the Polish language in the multilingual space of the European Union and determines the key factors which facilitate its gaining popularity and spreading in Europe. A large territory and population determine the significant presence of Polish in the European Union. Intense economic development facilitates popularization of learning and using Polish in the business medium, however, English was and still remains the dominating language of business. Active work of the state on improving the reputation of the country abroad, civilizational (value­based unity with other nations of the EU, favorable geographical position, common Indo­European roots of Germanic, Romanic and Slavonic  languages as well as usage of the Latin type create favorable conditions for the development and popularization of Polish on the territory of the EU. The article also mentions a number of concerns, which are rooted in the historical past of a dependent or semi­dependent existence of the Polish people, namely, the existence of the Polish and culture in the shade of German and Russian culture space, the negative international image of modern Poland, which was formed at the beginning of the 1990­s, the low level of Europeans’ familiarization with the Polish culture, absence of popularity and economic necessity of learning Polish abroad.

  19. Mathematical modelling of a self-polishing antifouling paint exposed to seawater: A parameter study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Søren; Pedersen, M. S.; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2002-01-01

    , and to suggest ways of controlling biocide release rates. A case study with an antifouling paint based on the well-known tributyltin self-polishing copolymer system showed that the rate of paint polishing was influenced, to various degrees, by the following parameters: seawater pH and concentration of Na...

  20. The effect of European integration on exchange rate dependence: the Polish accession to the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiel, J.H.; van Giersbergen, N.P.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of the Polish accession to the European Union (EU) on the dependence between the euro-US dollar and Polish zloty-US dollar exchange rate. The dependence is estimated by means of copulas as suggested by Patton (2006). This approach allows to first specify and

  1. Effect of One-Step and Multi-Steps Polishing System on Enamel Roughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Sumali

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The final procedures of orthodontic treatment are bracket debonding and cleaning the remaining adhesive. Multi-step polishing system is the most common method used. The disadvantage of that system is long working time, because of the stages that should be done. Therefore, dental material manufacturer make an improvement to the system, to reduce several stages into one stage only. This new system is known as one-step polishing system. Objective: To compare the effect of one-step and multi-step polishing system on enamel roughness after orthodontic bracket debonding. Methods: Randomized control trial was conducted included twenty-eight maxillary premolar randomized into two polishing system; one-step OptraPol (Ivoclar, Vivadent and multi-step AstroPol (Ivoclar, Vivadent. After bracket debonding, the remaining adhesive on each group was cleaned by subjective polishing system for ninety seconds using low speed handpiece. The enamel roughness was subjected to profilometer, registering two roughness parameters (Ra, Rz. Independent t-test was used to analyze the mean score of enamel roughness in each group. Results: There was no significant difference of enamel roughness between one-step and multi-step polishing system (p>0.005. Conclusion: One-step polishing system can produce a similar enamel roughness to multi-step polishing system after bracket debonding and adhesive cleaning.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v19i3.136

  2. Microstructure of pulsed-laser deposited PZT on polished and annealed MGO substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    King, S.L.; Coccia, L.G.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Boyd, I.W.

    1996-01-01

    Thin films of Lead-Zirconate-Titanate (PZT) have been grown by pulsed-laser-deposition (PLD) onto polished MgO substrates both with and without pre-annealing. The surface morphology of polished MgO substrates, which are widely used for deposition, is examined by AFM. Commercially available,

  3. Word Boundaries in L2 Speech: Evidence from Polish Learners of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Geoffrey

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic and perceptual studies investgate B2-level Polish learners' acquisition of second language (L2) English word-boundaries involving word-initial vowels. In production, participants were less likely to produce glottalization of phrase-medial initial vowels in L2 English than in first language (L1) Polish. Perception studies employing word…

  4. 'Polished' cinema : Over de receptie van het werk van Andrzej Kondratiuk in Polen en het groteske

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gusc, I.

    2012-01-01

    Despite being brutally slated at times, Andrzej Kondratiuk’s films were also often admired and praised by Polish film critics. Their inability to uniformly categorise and value Kondratiuk’s highly unconventional work has led to him being set aside, and labelled as, a ‘separate’ filmmaker in Polish

  5. Development of a multisensory arm for process monitoring in Robot Assisted Polishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilny, Lukas; Dalla Costa, Giuseppe; Bissacco, Giuliano

    2015-01-01

    A multisensory polishing arm with integrated three component force sensor, a miniature acoustic emission (AE) sensor and an accelerometer was developed for process monitoring in Robot Assisted Polishing (RAP) process. The arm design was optimized for integration of a force and an AE sensor. The f...

  6. OSSM2008 Polish Moessbauer Community Meeting: Program, Abstracts and List of Participants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The Polish Moessbauer Community Meeting - OSSM2008 has been organized by Polish scientists using the Moessbauer spectroscopy in their research. Main subjects of the meeting are investigations of modern materials electronic structure by means of Moessbauer effect (ME), using ME in biological test of tissue diseases and ME investigation of physical properties of different steels

  7. Holocaust Education in Polish Public Schools: Between Remembrance and Civic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milerski, Boguslaw

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzes the historical and political context of Holocaust education, and its implementation in Polish schools. Perceptions of the Holocaust continue to change, influenced by Poland's social and political situation. The Polish historical context is quite specific; it includes the long history of Poles and Jews as neighbors, with local…

  8. Effect finishing and polishing procedures on the surface roughness of IPS Empress 2 ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaventura, Juliana Maria Capelozza; Nishida, Rodrigo; Elossais, André Afif; Lima, Darlon Martins; Reis, José Mauricio Santos Nunes; Campos, Edson Alves; de Andrade, Marcelo Ferrarezi

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the surface roughness of IPS Empress 2 ceramic when treated with different finishing/polishing protocols. Sixteen specimens of IPS Empress 2 ceramic were made from wax patterns obtained using a stainless steel split mold. The specimens were glazed (Stage 0-S0, control) and divided into two groups. The specimens in Group 1 (G1) were finished/polished with a KG Sorensen diamond point (S1), followed by KG Sorensen siliconized points (S2) and final polishing with diamond polish paste (S3). In Group 2 (G2), the specimens were finished/polished using a Shofu diamond point (S1), as well as Shofu siliconized points (S2) and final polishing was performed using Porcelize paste (S3). After glazing (S0) and following each polishing procedure (S1, S2 or S3), the surface roughness was measured using TALYSURF Series 2. The average surface roughness results were analyzed using ANOVA followed by Tukey post-hoc tests (α = 0.01) RESULTS: All of the polishing procedures yielded higher surface roughness values when compared to the control group (S0). S3 yielded lower surface roughness values when compared to S1 and S2. The proposed treatments negatively affected the surface roughness of the glazed IPS Empress 2 ceramic.

  9. Polish Foreign Trade: The Quality Catch-up and the Influence of Foreign Direct Investments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates how the Polish transition process has expressed itself in export and inward foreign direct investments (FDI), and the relations between export and FDI. Since 1988, the number of Polish products able to compee in export markets has steadily increased. The quality level...

  10. Efficacy of polishing kits on the surface roughness and color stability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Different polishing kits may have different effects on the composite resin surfaces. The aim of this study was to evaluate the surface roughness and color stability of four different composites which was applied different polishing technique. Materials and Methods: Thirty specimens were made for each composite ...

  11. Wear characteristics of polished and glazed lithium disilicate ceramics opposed to three ceramic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, Osamu; Koizumi, Hiroyasu; Akazawa, Nobutaka; Kodaira, Akihisa; Okamura, Kentaro; Matsumura, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the wear characteristics of a heat-pressed lithium disilicate ceramic material opposed to feldspathic porcelain, a lithium disilicate glass ceramic, and zirconia materials. Ceramic plate specimens were prepared from feldspathic porcelain (EX-3 nA1B), lithium disilicate glass ceramics (e.max CAD MO1/C14), and zirconia (Katana KT 10) and then ground or polished. Rounded rod specimens were fabricated from heat-pressed lithium disilicate glass ceramic (e.max press LT A3) and then glazed or polished. A sliding wear testing apparatus was used for wear testing. Wear of glazed rods was greater than that of polished rods when they were abraded with ground zirconia, ground porcelain, polished porcelain, or polished lithium disilicate ceramics. For both glazed and polished rods, wear was greater when the rods were abraded with ground plates. The findings indicate that application of a polished surface rather than a glazed surface is recommended for single restorations made of heat-pressed lithium disilicate material. In addition, care must be taken when polishing opposing materials, especially those used in occlusal contact areas. (J Oral Sci 58, 117-123, 2016).

  12. Status of physiology education in US Doctor of Pharmacy programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammed A; Khan, Seher A; Talukder, Rahmat M

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the current status of physiology education in US Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) programs. A survey instrument was developed and distributed through SurveyMonkey to American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) Biological Sciences section members of 132 PharmD programs. Survey items focused on soliciting qualitative and quantitative information on the delivery of physiology curricular contents and faculty perceptions of physiology education. A total of 114 programs responded to the survey, resulting in a response rate of 86%. Out of 114 schools/colleges, 61 programs (54%) offered standalone physiology courses, and 53 programs (46%) offered physiology integrated with other courses. When integrated, the average contact hours for physiology contents were significantly reduced compared with standalone courses (30 vs. 84 h, P US PharmD programs remains. The reduction of physiology contents is evident when physiology is taught as a component of integrated courses. Given current trends that favor integrated curricula, these data suggest that additional collaboration among basic and clinical science faculty is required to ensure that physiology contents are balanced and not underemphasized in a PharmD curriculum. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Nuclear power and modern society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarek, A.

    1999-01-01

    A treatise consisting of the following sections: Development of modern society (Origin of modern society; Industrial society; The year 1968; Post-industrial society; Worldwide civic society); Historic breaks in the development of the stationary power sector (Stationary thermal power; Historic breaks in the development of nuclear power); Czech nuclear power engineering in the globalization era (Major causes of success of Czech nuclear power engineering; Future of Czech nuclear power engineering). (P.A.)

  14. Fighting alcoholism among railway workers in the light of early 20th Century Polish-language temperance publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Krasińska

    2016-12-01

    Discussion and conclusions: The Polish-language temperance periodicals provide, among other things, valuable information referring to as yet unknown though essential problem of fighting alcoholism among railway workers in Europe, USA and the Polish territories of the Three Partitions.

  15. Polish and German Press Reports on Cooperation between the Foreign Ministers of Both Countries in Resolving the Conflict in Ukraine (February–June 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patecka-Frauenfelder Anna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Polish-German relations in the first half of 2014 were dominated by the Ukraine crisis. This study is an attempt to answer the question of how Polish and German press assessed the cooperation of both countries in resolving the conflict in Ukraine; to what extent the most widely read magazines associated themselves with the decisions of their politicians and the feelings of their own societies and how much understanding they showed for the arguments of their EU partner. The analysis focuses on the unprecedented mission of the Weimar Triangle foreign ministers to Ukraine in February 2014, which led to an agreement between the Ukrainian opposition and President Viktor Yanukovych. A turning point was the visit paid by Radoslaw Sikorski and Frank-Walter Steinmeier to St. Petersburg in June 2014. The next meetings agreed on by EU partners were held without inviting the Polish partner. In view of the speed of events in the selected time interval, the articles subjected to analysis were taken from the most widely read online editions of national daily newspapers in Poland and Germany.

  16. Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT – indications, mechanism, and efficacy Position paper prepared by the Section of Immunotherapy, Polish Society of Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Jutel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available SLIT ( sublingual immunotherapy induces allergen-specific immune tolerance by sublingual administration of a gradually increasing dose of an allergen. The mechanism of SLIT is comparable to those during SCIT (subcutaneous immunotherapy, with the exception of local oral dendritic cells, pre-programmed to elicit tolerance. In the SLIT dose, to achieve the same efficacy as in SCIT, it should be 50–100 times higher with better safety profile. The highest quality evidence supporting the efficacy of SLIT lasting 1 – 3 years has been provided by the large scale double-blind, placebo-controlled (DBPC trials for grass pollen extracts, both in children and adults with allergic rhinitis. Current indications for SLIT are allergic rhinitis (and conjunctivitis in both children and adults sensitized to pollen allergens (trees, grass, Parietaria , house dust mites ( Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae , cat fur, as well as mild to moderate controlled atopic asthma in children sensitized to house dust mites. There are positive findings for both asthma and new sensitization prevention. Severe adverse events, including anaphylaxis, are very rare, and no fatalities have been reported. Local adverse reactions develop in up to 70 – 80% of patients. Risk factors for SLIT adverse events have not been clearly identified. Risk factors of non-adherence to treatment might be dependent on the patient, disease treatment, physician-patient relationship, and variables in the health care system organization.

  17. Multi-objective optimization of circular magnetic abrasive polishing of SUS304 and Cu materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, NhatTan; Yin, ShaoHui; Chen, FengJun; Yin, HanFeng [Hunan University, Changsha (China); Pham, VanThoan [Hanoi University, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Tran, TrongNhan [Industrial University of Ho Chi Minh City, HCM City (Viet Nam)

    2016-06-15

    In this paper, a Multi-objective particle swarm optimization algorithm (MOPSOA) is applied to optimize surface roughness of workpiece after circular magnetic abrasive polishing. The most important parameters of polishing model, namely current, gap between pole and workpiece, spindle speed and polishing time, were considered in this approach. The objective functions of the MOPSOA depend on the quality of surface roughness of polishing materials with both simultaneous surfaces (Ra1, Ra2), which are determined by means of experimental approach with the aid of circular magnetic field. Finally, the effectiveness of the approach is compared between the optimal results with the experimental data. The results show that the new proposed polishing optimization method is more feasible.

  18. Long Distance Solidarity: Polish Public Opinion and the Boer War 1899–1902

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szlanta Piotr

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The bloody conflict which was taking place in South Africa in the years 1899-1902 was followed with a great interest by Polish public opinion. Its greatest part strongly sympathized with the Boer republics. Their burgers were idealized and presented by the Polish press as brave fighters for independence, who dared to stand up against the world empire to defend their rights while Great Britain was attributed full responsibility for the outbreak of the war. For many Poles the Boers personified the general idea of freedom fighters and symbolized all suppressed nations. Their sad fate seemed to be quite similar to the Polish one and this similarity was the main source of sympathy toward defenders of the Transvaal and Free Orange State. Voices of few Polish intellectuals, who called for a more objective and not so emotional view on the war, could not change the pro-Boers stance of the greatest part of Polish public opinion.

  19. Polishing and toothbrushing alters the surface roughness and gloss of composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamonkhantikul, Krid; Arksornnukit, Mansuang; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Kanehira, Masafumi; Finger, Werner J

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the surface roughness and gloss of composite resins after using two polishing systems and toothbrushing. Six composite resins (Durafill VS, Filtek Z250, Filtek Z350 XT, Kalore, Venus Diamond, and Venus Pearl) were evaluated after polishing with two polishing systems (Sof-Lex, Venus Supra) and after toothbrushing up to 40,000 cycles. Surface roughness (Ra) and gloss were determined for each composite resin group (n=6) after silicon carbide paper grinding, polishing, and toothbrushing. Two-way ANOVA indicated significant differences in both Ra and gloss between measuring stages for the composite resins tested, except Venus Pearl, which showed significant differences only in gloss. After polishing, the Filtek Z350 XT, Kalore, and Venus Diamond showed significant increases in Ra, while all composite resin groups except the Filtek Z350 XT and Durafill VS with Sof-Lex showed increases in gloss. After toothbrushing, all composite resin demonstrated increases in Ra and decreases in gloss.

  20. A Practical Joke in Public Sphere – a Polish Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Brzozowska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to show multiple layers of discourse and the consequences of a particular practical joke that has been played at a local public event and has become a theme for media coverage nationwide. Students in one of Polish high schools brought a goat as a present to their headmaster and handed it in during their commencement ceremony. Some event participants reported it to the Animal Welfare Society claiming that the goat was mistreated. It seemed that it was not eager to be led on a leash and it urinated, which was interpreted as a sign of discomfort and stress. The story became a headline first in the local and then in the national press and television, and was accompanied by heated discussions on social media. Photos were posted on the official school website. Multiple comments were very aggressive towards the school, its students and teachers alike. Some students used the opportunity to create a goat fan page – a good source of rapidly appearing jokes. The discussions evoked by the incident, lead to the questions about political correctness and about the possibilities and consequences of making practical jokes in the contemporary public sphere. The analysis of the case makes it possible to create the communication model showing the reverberations caused by the incident in the public sphere. The perspectives of the participants involved in different communication roles are highlighted in the model, altogether with the links marking the relations between particular parties involved.

  1. Comparison of Various Databases for Estimation of Dietary Polyphenol Intake in the Population of Polish Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Witkowska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of the study was to estimate the consumption of polyphenols in a population of 6661 subjects aged between 20 and 74 years representing a cross-section of the Polish society, and the second objective was to compare the intakes of flavonoids calculated on the basis of the two commonly used databases. Daily food consumption data were collected in 2003–2005 using a single 24-hour dietary recall. Intake of total polyphenols was estimated using an online Phenol-Explorer database, and flavonoid intake was determined using following data sources: the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA database combined of flavonoid and isoflavone databases, and the Phenol-Explorer database. Total polyphenol intake, which was calculated with the Phenol-Explorer database, was 989 mg/day with the major contributions of phenolic acids 556 mg/day and flavonoids 403.5 mg/day. The flavonoid intake calculated on the basis of the USDA databases was 525 mg/day. This study found that tea is the primary source of polyphenols and flavonoids for the studied population, including mainly flavanols, while coffee is the most important contributor of phenolic acids, mostly hydroxycinnamic acids. Our study also demonstrated that flavonoid intakes estimated according to various databases may substantially differ. Further work should be undertaken to expand polyphenol databases to better reflect their food contents.

  2. Polish Adult Reading Test (PART) - construction of Polish test for estimating the level of premorbid intelligence in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakuła-Juchnowicz, Hanna; Stecka, Mariola

    2017-08-29

    In view of unavailability in Poland of the standardized methods to measure PIQ, the aim of the work was to develop a Polish test to assess the premorbid level of intelligence - PART(Polish AdultReading Test) and to measureits psychometric properties, such as validity, reliability as well as standardization in the group of schizophrenia patients. The principles of PART construction were based on the idea of popular worldwide National Adult Reading Test by Hazel Nelson. The research comprised a group of 122 subjects (65 schizophrenia patients and 57 healthy people), aged 18-60 years, matched for age and gender. PART appears to be a method with high internal consistency and reliability measured by test-retest, inter-rater reliability, and the method with acceptable diagnostic and prognostic validity. The standardized procedures of PART have been investigated and described. Considering the psychometric values of PART and a short time of its performance, the test may be a useful diagnostic instrument in the assessment of premorbid level of intelligence in a group of schizophrenic patients.

  3. POLYMORPHISM OF PROLACTIN RECEPTOR GENE (PRLR IN THE POLISH LANDRACE AND POLISH LARGE WHITE SWINE POPULATION AND REPRODUCTIVE TRAITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGATA ZIÓŁKOWSKA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prolactin receptor gene was found in pig chromosome 16, and it is one of the genes with a significant effect on reproduction traits in sows. The objective of the research was to determine polymorphism of the prolactin receptor gene in pigs of two maternal breeds: Polish Landrace and Polish Large White, as well as analyse relations between particular allelomorphic variants, and reproduction traits of examined sows. Two PRLR gene alleles, A and B, were isolated, they were obtained after AluI restriction gene digestion of the PCR product with the length of 163 bp; furthermore, three genotypes were identified: PRLRAA – 85, 59, 19 bp; PRLRAB – 104, 85, 59, 19 bp; PRLRBB – 104, 59 bp. We assessed 122 sows, in terms of their age at the first farrowing, as well as the sizes of the two subsequent litters. No statistically significant differences were found in the examined reproduction traits in sows with different allelomorphic relations, both within each breed and between breeds. Obtained results indicate that it is necessary to conduct further research on a larger animal group.

  4. Simulated Exercise Physiology Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, James R., Jr.; Pivarnik, James M.

    This book consists of a lab manual and computer disks for either Apple or IBM hardware. The lab manual serves as "tour guide" for the learner going through the various lab experiences. The manual contains definitions, proper terminology, and other basic information about physiological principles. It is organized so a step-by-step procedure may be…

  5. Physiology Flies with Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Amita

    2017-11-30

    The 2017 Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology has been awarded to Jeffrey Hall, Michael Rosbash, and Michael Young for elucidating molecular mechanisms of the circadian clock. From studies beginning in fruit flies, we now know that circadian regulation pervades most biological processes and has strong ties to human health and disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Personalized physiological medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ince, Can

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of personalized physiological medicine that is specifically directed at the needs of the critically ill patient. This differs from the conventional view of personalized medicine, characterized by biomarkers and gene profiling, instead focusing on time-variant

  7. Physiological responses to hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Thomas; Thoresen, Marianne

    2015-04-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia is the only treatment currently recommended for moderate or severe encephalopathy of hypoxic‒ischaemic origin in term neonates. Though the effects of hypothermia on human physiology have been explored for many decades, much of the data comes from animal or adult studies; the latter originally after accidental hypothermia, followed by application of controlled hypothermia after cardiac arrest or trauma, or during cardiopulmonary bypass. Though this work is informative, the effects of hypothermia on neonatal physiology after perinatal asphyxia must be considered in the context of a prolonged hypoxic insult that has already induced a number of significant physiological sequelae. This article reviews the effects of therapeutic hypothermia on respiratory, cardiovascular, and metabolic parameters, including glycaemic control and feeding requirements. The potential pitfalls of blood‒gas analysis and overtreatment of physiological changes in cardiovascular parameters are also discussed. Finally, the effects of hypothermia on drug metabolism are covered, focusing on how the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and dosing requirements of drugs frequently used in neonatal intensive care may change during therapeutic hypothermia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Face of Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul White

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relationship between the physiology of the emotions and the display of character in Victorian Britain. Charles Bell and others had begun to link certain physiological functions, such as respiration, with the expression of feelings such as fear, regarding the heart and other internal organs as instruments by which the emotions were made visible. But a purely functional account of the emotions, which emerged through the development of reflex physiology during the second half of the century, would dramatically alter the nature of feelings and the means of observing them. At the same time, instinctual or acquired sympathy, which had long underpinned the accurate reading of expressions, became a problem to be surmounted by new 'objectively'. Graphic recording instruments measuring a variety of physiological functions and used with increasing frequency in clinical diagnostics became of fundamental importance for tracing the movement of feelings during the period prior to the development of cinematography. They remained, in the form of devices such as the polygraph, a crucial and controversial means of measuring affective states, beneath the potentially deceptive surface of the body.

  9. Communicating Science to Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illingworth, Samuel; Muller, Jennifer; Leather, Kimberley; Morgan, William; O'Meara, Simon; Topping, David; Booth, Alastair; Llyod, Gary; Young, Dominique; Bannan, Thomas; Simpson, Emma; Percival, Carl; Allen, Grant; Clark, Elaine; Muller, Catherine; Graves, Rosemarie

    2014-05-01

    "Nothing in science has any value to society if it is not communicated." So goes the 1952 quote from Anne Roe, the noted twentieth century American psychologist and writer. She went on to say that "scientists are beginning to learn their social obligations", and now over 60 years later there is certainly evidence to support her assertions. As scientists, by communicating our research to the general public we not only better inform the tax payer where their money is being spent, but are also able to help put into context the topical environmental challenges and issues that society faces, as well as inspiring a whole new generation of future scientists. This process of communication is very much a two-way street; by presenting our work to people outside of our usual spheres of contemporaries, we expose ourselves to alternative thoughts and insights that can inspire us, as scientists, to take another look at our research from angles that we had never before considered. This work presents the results and experiences from a number of public engagement and outreach activities across the UK, in which geoscientists engaged and interacted with members of the general public. These include the design and implementation of Raspberry Pi based outreach activities for several hundred high school students; the process of running a successful podcast (http://thebarometer.podbean.com); hosting and participating in science events for thousands of members of the general public (e.g. http://www.manchestersciencefestival.com and http://sse.royalsociety.org/2013); and creating a citizen science activity that involved primary school children from across the UK. In communicating their research it is imperative that scientists interact with their audience in an effective and engaging manner, whether in an international conference, a classroom, or indeed down the pub. This work also presents a discussion of how these skills can be developed at an early stage in the careers of a research

  10. Nanotechnology and society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, Kenneth H.

    2007-01-01

    Past experience has shown that the successful introduction of a new technology requires careful attention to the interactions between the technology and society. These interactions are bi-directional: on the one hand, technology changes and challenges social patterns and, on the other hand, the governance structures and values of the society affect progress in developing the technology. Nanotechnology is likely to be particularly affected by these kinds of interactions because of its great promise and the unusually early public attention it has received. Moreover, it represents a new kind of experiment in packaging a rather wide range of fundamental research activities under a single 'mission-like' umbrella. Although this gives it more impetus as a field, it sets a higher bar for showing successful applications early on and because it links disparate fields, regulatory regimes reasonable for one kind of nanotechnology development may be inappropriately extended to others. There are a number of lessons to be gleaned from experience with the introduction of other technologies, which offer guidance with respect to what pitfalls to avoid and what issues to be sensitive to as we move forward with the development of nanotechnology applications. The problems encountered by nuclear power point out the dangers of over-promising and the role the need for the technology plays in ameliorating fears of risk. The public reaction to biomedical engineering and biotechnology highlights, in addition, the cultural factors that come into play when technologies raise questions about what is 'natural' and what is 'foreign' and what conceptions are involved in defining 'personhood'. In all cases, it has been clear that a main task for those introducing new technology is building public trust-in the safety of the technologies and the integrity of those introducing it. The advocates of nanotechnology have already shown that they are generally aware of the need to consider the public

  11. Analysis of the causes and consequences of falls from scaffolding using the Polish construction industry as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoła, A.; Hoła, B.; Szóstak, M.

    2017-10-01

    The results of research published in many publications indicate that the scale of the problem of accidents at work in the construction industry is significant. Fatal and serious accidents, which in the construction industry are often a result of a fall from a height and associated with working on scaffolding, have a particularly strong impact on society. Systematic controls carried out on Polish construction sites indicate irregularities in the area of ensuring safety on scaffolding. As a result of conducted own studies, dozens of accidents caused by falls from scaffolding were selected from the total number of accidents at work in the construction industry and then analysed. The aim of the research was to identify the causes of these accidents and their consequences. The results of studies conducted in this area will be the content of the article.

  12. Computer-Controlled Cylindrical Polishing Process for Large X-Ray Mirror Mandrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Gufran S.; Gubarev, Mikhail; Speegle, Chet; Ramsey, Brian

    2010-01-01

    We are developing high-energy grazing incidence shell optics for hard-x-ray telescopes. The resolution of a mirror shells depends on the quality of cylindrical mandrel from which they are being replicated. Mid-spatial-frequency axial figure error is a dominant contributor in the error budget of the mandrel. This paper presents our efforts to develop a deterministic cylindrical polishing process in order to keep the mid-spatial-frequency axial figure errors to a minimum. Simulation software is developed to model the residual surface figure errors of a mandrel due to the polishing process parameters and the tools used, as well as to compute the optical performance of the optics. The study carried out using the developed software was focused on establishing a relationship between the polishing process parameters and the mid-spatial-frequency error generation. The process parameters modeled are the speeds of the lap and the mandrel, the tool s influence function, the contour path (dwell) of the tools, their shape and the distribution of the tools on the polishing lap. Using the inputs from the mathematical model, a mandrel having conical approximated Wolter-1 geometry, has been polished on a newly developed computer-controlled cylindrical polishing machine. The preliminary results of a series of polishing experiments demonstrate a qualitative agreement with the developed model. We report our first experimental results and discuss plans for further improvements in the polishing process. The ability to simulate the polishing process is critical to optimize the polishing process, improve the mandrel quality and significantly reduce the cost of mandrel production

  13. Surface changes of metal alloys and high-strength ceramics after ultrasonic scaling and intraoral polishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyung-In; Noh, Hyo-Mi; Park, Eun-Jin

    2017-06-01

    This study was to evaluate the effect of repeated ultrasonic scaling and surface polishing with intraoral polishing kits on the surface roughness of three different restorative materials. A total of 15 identical discs were fabricated with three different materials. The ultrasonic scaling was conducted for 20 seconds on the test surfaces. Subsequently, a multi-step polishing with recommended intraoral polishing kit was performed for 30 seconds. The 3D profiler and scanning electron microscopy were used to investigate surface integrity before scaling (pristine), after scaling, and after surface polishing for each material. Non-parametric Friedman and Wilcoxon signed rank sum tests were employed to statistically evaluate surface roughness changes of the pristine, scaled, and polished specimens. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Surface roughness values before scaling (pristine), after scaling, and polishing of the metal alloys were 3.02±0.34 µm, 2.44±0.72 µm, and 3.49±0.72 µm, respectively. Surface roughness of lithium disilicate increased from 2.35±1.05 µm (pristine) to 28.54±9.64 µm (scaling), and further increased after polishing (56.66±9.12 µm, P scaling (from 1.65±0.42 µm to 101.37±18.75 µm), while its surface roughness decreased after polishing (29.57±18.86 µm, P scaling significantly changed the surface integrities of lithium disilicate and zirconia. Surface polishing with multi-step intraoral kit after repeated scaling was only effective for the zirconia, while it was not for lithium disilicate.

  14. Surface geometry of three packable and one hybrid composite after polishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Martin; Bruegger, Hilka; Klimek, Joachim

    2003-01-01

    This study evaluated the surface quality of four composite materials after polishing with six different polishing techniques. Eighty specimens were made using three packable composites (Definite/Degussa, SureFil/ Dentsply and Solitaire/Heraeus-Kulzer) and one hybrid composite (Herculite XRV/Kerr). Five specimens of each material were polished using flexible Sof-Lex discs. The remaining 75 specimens of each composite were prepared using three finishing protocols: a single 30 microm diamond (n = 25), two finishing diamonds (30/20 microm; n = 25) and a 30 microm diamond followed by a tungsten carbide finishing bur (n = 25). Final polishing of each of the three finishing groups was accomplished with SuperBuff, Diafix-oral, OneGloss, Astropol and HaWe Composite Polishers (n = 5, each). Surface roughness was evaluated quantitatively by laser-stylus profilometry. Average roughness (R(a)) was calculated; statistical analysis of the data was performed with two-way ANOVA and Scheffé post-hoc tests. The polished surfaces were examined qualitatively by SEM. The results showed significant effects on surface roughness from the different composites (p = 0.011) and polishing systems (p < 0.001). After polishing, the Solitaire surfaces (R(a) = 0.72 microm) were smoother than Definite (R(a) = 0.87 microm) and SureFil (R(a) = 0.89 microm) and significantly smoother than Herculite (R(a) = 0.92 microm; p = 0.011). Three of the polishing methods (SuperBuff, Diafix-oral and Astropol) achieved lower R(a)-values than Sof-Lex discs. The polishing quality of the one-step systems SuperBuff and Diafix-oral was strongly affected by the initial finishing protocol.

  15. Avian reproductive physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Gibbons, Edward F.; Durrant, Barbara S.; Demarest, Jack

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the many physiological factors associated with egg production , fertility, incubation, and brooding in nondomestic birds is limited. Science knows even less about reproduction in most of the 238 endangered or threatened birds. This discussion uses studies of nondomestic and, when necessary, domestic birds to describe physiological control of reproduction. Studies of the few nondomestic avian species show large variation in physiological control of reproduction. Aviculturists, in order to successfully propagate an endangered bird, must understand the bird's reproductive peculiarities. First, investigators can do studies with carefully chosen surrogate species, but eventually they need to confirm the results in the target endangered bird. Studies of reproduction in nondomestic birds increased in the last decade. Still, scientists need to do more comparative studies to understand the mechanisms that control reproduction in birds. New technologies are making it possible to study reproductive physiology of nondomestic species in less limiting ways. These technologies include telemetry to collect information without inducing stress on captives (Howey et al., 1987; Klugman, 1987), new tests for most of the humoral factors associated with reproduction, and the skill to collect small samples and manipulate birds without disrupting the physiological mechanisms (Bercovitz et al., 1985). Managers are using knowledge from these studies to improve propagation in zoological parks, private and public propagation facilities, and research institutions. Researchers need to study the control of ovulation, egg formation, and oviposition in the species of nondomestic birds that lay very few eggs in a season, hold eggs in the oviduct for longer intervals, or differ in other ways from the more thoroughly studied domestic birds. Other techniques that would enhance propagation for nondomestlc birds include tissue culture of cloned embryonic cells, cryopreservation of embryos

  16. Libraries in society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansson, Michael; Skouvig, Laura Henriette Christine

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to investigate the phenomenon of openness in relation to library development. The term openness is presented and related to library development from historical and theoretical perspectives. The paper elaborates on the differences over time on to how openness has been...... understood in a library setting. Historically, openness in form of the open shelves played a crucial role in developing the modern public library. The paper examines this openness-centred library policy as adopted by Danish public libraries in the beginning of the 20th century by applying the theories...... by Michel Foucault on discourse and power to the introduction of open shelves. Furthermore, the paper discusses current challenges facing the modern public library in coping with openness issues that follow from changes in society and advances in technology. These influences and developments are not least...

  17. Behaviorism and Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapfl, Jon E

    2016-05-01

    A probable list of causes for the limited acceptance of behaviorism in our society is identified. This is followed by a summary review of the proposed solutions identified in other papers in this special issue of The Behavior Analyst, most of which relate to either better marketing of either the behavior analytic process or the results achieved as a consequence. One paper proposes a more broad conception of behavior analysis. This paper endorses the solutions identified in previous papers and then goes on to propose an even more broad conception of behavior analysis and makes the point that behavior analysis is unlikely to flourish unless behavior analysts understand a good deal more about the cultural and other contextual features of the environments in which they work.

  18. Making Sense for Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heide, J. J.; Grus, M. M.; Nouwens, J. C. A. J.

    2017-09-01

    The Netherlands is a densely populated country. Cities in the metropolitan area (Randstad) will be growing at a fast pace in the coming decades1. Cities like Amsterdam and Rotterdam are being overrun by tourists. Climate change effects are noticed in cities (heavy rains for instance). Call for circular economy rises. Traffic increases. People are more self-reliant. Public space is shared by many functions. These challenges call for smart answers, more specific and directly than ever before. Sensor data is a cornerstone of these answers. In this paper we'll discuss the approaches of Dutch initiatives using sensor data as the new language to live a happy life in our cities. Those initiatives have been bundled in a knowledge platform called "Making sense for society" 1 https://www.cbs.nl/nl-nl/nieuws/2016/37/pbl-cbs-prognose-groei-steden-zet-door (in dutch)

  19. Nuclear Research and Society

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggermont, G

    2000-07-01

    In 1998, SCK-CEN took the initiative to include social sciences and humanities into its research programme. Within this context, four projects were defined, respectively on sustainability and nuclear development; transgenerational ethics related to the disposal of long-lived radioactive waste; legal aspects and liability; emergency communication and risk perception. Two reflection groups were established, on expert culture and ethical choices respectively, in order to deepen insight while creating exchange of disciplinary approaches of the committed SCK-CEN researchers and social scientists. Within the context of SCK-CEN's social sciences and humanities programme, collaborations with various universities were initiated, teams consisting of young doctorate and post-doctorate researchers and university promotors with experience in interaction processes of technology with society were established and steering committees with actors and external experts were set up for each project. The objectives and main achievements in the four projects are summarised.

  20. Nuclear Research and Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggermont, G.

    2000-01-01

    In 1998, SCK-CEN took the initiative to include social sciences and humanities into its research programme. Within this context, four projects were defined, respectively on sustainability and nuclear development; transgenerational ethics related to the disposal of long-lived radioactive waste; legal aspects and liability; emergency communication and risk perception. Two reflection groups were established, on expert culture and ethical choices respectively, in order to deepen insight while creating exchange of disciplinary approaches of the committed SCK-CEN researchers and social scientists. Within the context of SCK-CEN's social sciences and humanities programme, collaborations with various universities were initiated, teams consisting of young doctorate and post-doctorate researchers and university promotors with experience in interaction processes of technology with society were established and steering committees with actors and external experts were set up for each project. The objectives and main achievements in the four projects are summarised

  1. Food, energy and society

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimental, D; Pimental, M

    1979-01-01

    Twelve chapters are presented in this book - the first four of which concern hunter-gatherer society, the development of agricultural systems, and an introduction to the relative energy costs of manpower, animal power and machines in food production. The main section of the book (Chapters 6-9) documents the energy use in the production of livestock, grain and legumes, fruit, vegetable and forage, and fish. Comparisons of energy inputs and outputs are made for different crops and for countries at different levels of development. The final section of the book covers food processing, packaging and transport costs. The message of the book is that a switch from the high overall protein and high animal protein diet in the industrialized countries is overdue. Such a move, the author maintains, will reduce the total fossil fuel requirements for food production and enable more people to be adequately fed. The author also recommends extensive use of bicycles for transportation.

  2. War and society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upeniece V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A discussion of effects of war on society is desirable as it can stimulate nations and their politicians to refrain in their international and non-international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of the state. The prohibition of the use of force is a valid norm of customary international law and is fixed in the Charter of the United Nations. Any specific use of force can be lawful only if it is based on exceptions of this rule (action of self-defence under the Article 51 or action under specific authorization by the Security Council under Chapter VII. However the main issue is how to ensure that the other states respect this principle of non-use of force.

  3. Expectations from Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blowers, A.

    2008-01-01

    Prof. A. Blowers observed that the social context within which radioactive waste management is considered has evolved over time. The early period where radioactive waste was a non-issue was succeeded by a period of intense conflict over solutions. The contemporary context is more consensual, in which solutions are sought that are both technically sound and socially acceptable. Among the major issues is that of inter-generational equity embraced in the question: how long can or should our responsibility to the future extend? He pointed out the differences in timescales. On the one hand, geo-scientific timescales are very long term, emphasizing the issue of how far into the future it is possible to make predictions about repository safety. By contrast, socio cultural timescales are much shorter, focusing on the foreseeable future of one or two generations and raising the issue of how far into the future we should be concerned. He listed. the primary expectations from society which are: safety and security to alleviate undue burdens to future generations and flexibility in order to enable the future generations to have a stake in decision making. The need to reconcile the two had led to a contemporary emphasis on phased geological disposal incorporating retrievability. However, the long timescales for implementation of disposal provided for sufficient flexibility without the need for retrievability. Future generations would inevitably have sold stake in decision making. Prof. A.. Blowers pointed out that society is also concerned with participation in decision making for implementation. The key elements for success are: openness and transparency, staged process, participation, partnership, benefits to enhance the well being of communities and a democratic framework for decision making, including the ratification of key decisions and the right for communities to withdraw from the process up to a predetermined point. This approach for decision making may also have

  4. [A study of different polishing techniques for amalgams and glass-cermet cement by scanning electron microscope (SEM)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakaboura, A; Vougiouklakis, G; Argiri, G

    1989-01-01

    Finishing and polishing an amalgam restoration, is considered as an important and necessary step of the restorative procedure. Various polishing techniques have been recommended to success a smooth amalgam surface. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of three different polishing treatments on the marginal integrity and surface smoothness of restorations made of three commercially available amalgams and a glass-cermet cement. The materials used were the amalgams, Amalcap (Vivadent), Dispersalloy (Johnson and Johnson), Duralloy (Degussa) and the glass-cermet Katac-Silver (ESPE). The occlusal surfaces of the restorations were polished by the methods: I) round bur, No4-rubber cup-zinc oxide paste in a small brush, II) round bur No 4-bur-brown, green and super green (Shofu) polishing cups and points successively and III) amalgam polishing bur of 12-blades-smooth amalgam polishing bur. Photographs from unpolished and polished surfaces of the restorations, were taken with scanning electron microscope, to evaluate the polishing techniques. An improvement of marginal integrity and surface smoothness of all amalgam restorations was observed after the specimens had been polished with the three techniques. Method II, included Shofu polishers, proved the best results in comparison to the methods I and III. Polishing of glass-cermet cement was impossible with the examined techniques.

  5. The National Cardiac Societies of the European Society of Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atar, Dan

    2015-06-01

    The National Cardiac Societies are one of the Constituent Bodies of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). They are the backbone of the ESC and together form the "Cardiology of Europe" in 56 European and Mediterranean countries.

  6. Work Engagement – A Systematic Review of Polish Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollak Anita

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade work engagement has gained both business and academia attention. With growing number of studies and meta-analyses the concept of work engagement is one of the pillars of positive work and organizational psychology. This systematic review presents the current state of research on work engagement in Poland. Results confirmed that work-engagement studies have not yet reached the threshold to conduct meta-analysis. The review of measurement methods and synthesis of findings allows to identify strengths and gaps in Polish studies. Discussion of limitations and biases in current research is accompanied with urge to overcome them and develop thriving stream of research on work engagement.

  7. Constraints on Negative Prefixation in Polish Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe a negative prefix, NEG-, in Polish Sign Language (PJM) which appears to be indigenous to the language. This is of interest given the relative rarity of prefixes in sign languages. Prefixed PJM signs were analyzed on the basis of both a corpus of texts signed by 15 deaf PJM users who are either native or near-native signers, and material including a specified range of prefixed signs as demonstrated by native signers in dictionary form (i.e. signs produced in isolation, not as part of phrases or sentences). In order to define the morphological rules behind prefixation on both the phonological and morphological levels, native PJM users were consulted for their expertise. The research results can enrich models for describing processes of grammaticalization in the context of the visual-gestural modality that forms the basis for sign language structure.

  8. Four Riders of the Apocalypse of the Polish Bureaucracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieżun Witold

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article was originally published in Polish as: Witold Kieżun, Czterej jeźdźcy apokalipsy polskiej biurokracji, Kultura, No. 3/630, Paris 2000. The Literary Institute (publisher of the “Kultura” monthly expressed its interest in and consent to the publication of an English-language version of this article. Professor Witold Kieżun also gave his consent to the translation of his text and its posting in the pages of the journal Foundations of Management. The text was written in 1999 and introduced subsequent to January 1 of that year, regarding the reform of the administrative division of Poland, which involved, among other things, three-stage structure of territorial division and the introduction of counties as administrative units (editorial note.

  9. Polish Accession to the European Union: Participating Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaszewski Waldemar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In May 2014 it was aready ten years since Poland’s accession to the European Union. The accession was preceded by a long period of political action and negotiations between the Polish and the EU institutions. The process of integration was extremely complex. It covered almost all areas of economic, legal and civil aspects of the aspiring country’s economy, in which all necessary requirements had to be met. The aim of the article was to present the institutional framework created for efficient implementation of the process of accession. The considerations involved especially an institutional method. The research resulted in poining out both the actually efficient and less efficient bodies participating in the process of integration.

  10. 16th French-German-Polish Conference on Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Korytowski, Adam; Maurer, Helmut; Szymkat, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    This book contains extended, in-depth presentations of the plenary talks from the 16th French-German-Polish Conference on Optimization, held in Kraków, Poland in 2013. Each chapter in this book exhibits a comprehensive look at new theoretical and/or application-oriented results in mathematical modeling, optimization, and optimal control. Students and researchers involved in image processing, partial differential inclusions, shape optimization, or optimal control theory and its applications to medical and rehabilitation technology, will find this book valuable. The first chapter by Martin Burger provides an overview of recent developments related to Bregman distances, which is an important tool in inverse problems and image processing. The chapter by Piotr Kalita studies the operator version of a first order in time partial differential inclusion and its time discretization. In the chapter by Günter Leugering, Jan Sokołowski and Antoni Żochowski, nonsmooth shape optimization problems for variational inequa...

  11. Uranium in the Bunter sediments of the Polish area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saldan, M.; Strzelecki, R.

    1980-01-01

    Uranium mineralization occurring in the Triassic sediments in the Polish area is discussed. Systematic work conducted for over ten years revealed the presence of uranium mineralization in the following geological units: Peribaltic syneclize, Fore-Sudetic monocline, Zary pericline and Pomerania trough. Out of three uranium-bearing horizons which can be correlated with each other two (the lower and the middle) are connected with the Middle Bunter, while the upper horizon is related to the Upper Bunter. Mineralization was found in sandstones, conglomerates, mudstones and claystones and, in the Fore-Sudetic monocline, also in carbonates. Among uranium minerals uranium black and coffinite were identified. In addition to uranium, increased vanadium, selenium and molybdenum contents were found in the sandstones. Some of the uranium-bearing horizons are of economic value. (author)

  12. Polish model of electric energy market-bulk energy tariff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malysa, H.

    1994-01-01

    The key problem of electric energy supply industry reform is gradually launching a competitive wholesale generation market since 1994. In process of this transformation the important role plays bulk energy supply tariff in electricity transactions between Polish Power Grid Company and distribution and retail supply companies (distributors). Premises, factors and constrains having influence on shaping of the bulk energy supply tariff are presented. A brief outline of economic foundation for calculation of demand charges and energy rate is given. Particular attention has been paid to description of bulk energy supply tariff structure. The scope and manner of adjustment of this tariff to circumstances and constrains in the initial stage of the wholesale electric energy market have been described as well. (author). 8 refs

  13. Old age in Polish and American tv series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOANNA ANIOŁ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The educational and socialization role of the media is not the latest novelty, however there are niches that have not been developed yet. Realizing the opinion-forming role of the mass media, which may be reflected in social behaviours, the authors of this article will analyse the content of chosen media products. The image of elderly people presented by the most popular Polish and American series will be examined. The research aims to find whether Desperate Housewives and Colours of happiness (original title: Barwy szczęścia adjust the image of old age to the social-demographic situation, which is constantly changing in the majority of countries. Does the colossus – television promote stereotypes which make age discrimination morally approved – or just the opposite – a well thought out image, shaping the recognition and respect for people in their “third age”?

  14. RESEARCH OF REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS FAILURES IN POLISH FISHING VESSELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar KOSTRZEWA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Temperature is a basic climatic parameter deciding about the quality change of fishing products. Time, after which qualitative changes of caught fish don’t exceed established, acceptable range, is above all the temperature function. Temperature reduction by refrigeration system of the cargo hold is a basic technical method, which allows extend transport time. Failures of refrigeration systems in fishing vessels have a negative impact on the environment in relation to harmful refrigerants emission. The paper presents the statistical analysis of failures occurred in the refrigeration systems of Polish fishing vessels in 2007‐2011 years. Analysis results described in the paper can be a base to draw up guidelines, both for designers as well as operators of the marine refrigeration systems.

  15. Acidizing of Zechstein Main Dolomite in the Polish lowlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierdzychi, W

    1966-07-01

    The first acidizing of Zechstein Dolomite in the Polish Lowlands was carried out in 1961. In the initial stage, a tendency existed toward multistage acidizing, and preheated acidizing fluid was used. In a preliminary operation, an acid having the concentration 12-36% was used for washing out the borehole. No additives were utilized except formalin for corrosion inhibition. In order to increase the absorption capacity, hydraulic perforations were used. The composition of acidizing fluid was determined in a preliminary study for any individual reservoir. From laboratory study, it was concluded also that the required time of 3-4 hr was sufficient for the exhaustion of acid. The pre-heating of the acid at the bottom of the hole by exothermic reaction with metallic magnesium was abandoned in the later stage of operations.

  16. Strategies for sustainable development of the Polish electric power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janiczek, R.

    1996-01-01

    The key features of sustainable development of the Polish electric power industry are discussed. Priorities and limitations for changes and power demand forecasts are described. Results of least-cost planning for existing power plants' modernization and generation expansion with environmental impacts are presented. The least-cost strategy is given by the optimal upgrades of older plants until year 2002 and by expansion of gas-fired units. The limited availability of gas after 2010 will lead to the construction of new coal-fired plants. For the next planning process, an integrated resource planning methodology is proposed, which includes dynamic optimization of supply and demand side options. Innovative mechanisms are shown to overcome barriers of development like long-terms contracts and decentralization of the power system planning process. (author)

  17. The first Polish conference: Special glasses and amorphous materials. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The present issue brings a collection of papers submitted to the 1. Polish Conference on special glasses and amorphous materials, held on June 1993 at the University of Mining and Metallurgy in Cracow. It was a survey of the research topics and attainments of the research teams working in this referring to the nature of the glassy state of the matter and the relation between glasses and other amorphous materials, properties of these materials as well as modern methods of their synthesis both at low and high temperatures. Some of the results presented at the Conference have already found application in industry. Here belong, among others, the works on optic fibres. Several new materials which have been recently elaborated may also find interesting and new practical application. (author)

  18. Grinding and polishing of conformal windows and domes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fess, Edward; Ross, James; Matthews, Greg

    2017-05-01

    Conformal optics require special manufacturing techniques to produce them to optical tolerances. In many cases the materials used are very hard optical ceramics that present additional manufacturing challenges due to their hardness and grain structure. OptiPro has developed grinding technologies such as OptiSonic grinding, as well as sub-aperture polishing technologies like UltraForm Finishing (UFF) to manufacture these challenging components. We have also developed a custom computer aided manufacturing (CAM) software package, ProSurf, to generate the complex tool paths for both grinding and polishing processes. One of the main advantages of ProSurf over traditional CAM software packages is that it uses metrology feedback for deterministic corrections. The metrology input can be obtained from OptiPro's 5-axis UltraSurf metrology system, which is capable of measuring these complex shapes to sub-micron accuracies. Through the development of these technologies much work has been performed in creating, measuring and analyzing the alignment fiducials or datum's used to qualify the location of the optical surfaces. Understanding the sensitivity of the optical surface to any datum misalignment is critical to knowing not only where the part is in space, but how good the optical surfaces are to each other. Working with the optical designer to properly tolerance surfaces to these datums is crucial. This paper will present the technologies developed by OptiPro to manufacture conformal windows as well as information related to the optical surfaces sensitivity to datums and how accurately those datums can be measured.

  19. Book-tax conformity in Polish private companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Białek-Jaworska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to identify whether financial income differs significantly from the tax base in Poland and what determines these differences between accounting and taxable results in Polish private entities that are not listed on the stock exchange. In this paper, besides examining the level of book-tax conformity in Poland, we investigate the determinants of book-tax differences in the one-book and twobook accounting systems, with deferred income tax. We use the single factor ANOVA variance analysis, robust fixed effects estimator and the fixed effects linear model with an AR(1 disturbance estimator for panel data of 26,657 private limited liability and non-public joint-stock companies for the period of 2003–2014 (177,667 firm-year observations. The originality of this paper results from the deep quantita-tive analysis of the determinants of book-tax conformity on a novel dataset of Polish private firms. We confirm a strong significant influence of tax law on the shape of the one-book accounting system in Poland. Larger enterprises show fewer book-tax differences. Book-tax conformity is lower in private companies that incur financial losses and in private companies conducting the one-book accounting system. Family-owned companies have higher mean and median book-tax conformity than businessgroups members, due to higher demand for information from their accounts to support stewardship func-tions and to monitor the activities of the management board in the business groups.

  20. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Poland [Polish version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Poland has made commendable efforts to develop a solid energy policy framework over the last years. As energy security is a high policy priority, the country is enhancing gas supply security by building an LNG terminal, expanding underground storage capacity and increasing domestic gas production. Polish plans for developing electricity and gas cross-border links will also contribute to regional security of supply. In addition, the government has announced an ambitious nuclear programme by 2030, envisaging the first unit to enter operation by 2022. Other achievements include energy intensity improvements, an increased share of renewables and a stronger focus on energy research and development (R&D). Despite these positive developments, there is room for improving Poland’s energy strategy. First, a more integrated energy and climate policy is needed to put Poland firmly on a low-carbon path while enhancing energy security. Second, energy policy could put more emphasis on promoting competition to make the energy markets more efficient. Decarbonising Poland’s power sector will be a particularly significant challenge requiring huge investments. Coal accounts for 55% of Polish primary energy supply and 92% of electricity generation, raising significant climate change and environmental challenges. To this end, Poland’s efforts to improve energy efficiency and to diversify the country’s energy mix are praiseworthy and should be pursued. The government’s attention to R&D on clean coal technologies, including carbon capture and storage (CCS) is also encouraging. The government could put more focus on the positive role that gas can play in decarbonising the electricity mix, especially if Poland’s potential resources of unconventional gas are confirmed. To tap these resources, it will be vital to put the necessary legal and regulatory framework in place. This in-depth review analyses the energy challenges facing Poland and provides sectoral critiques and