WorldWideScience

Sample records for poliomyelitis eradication initiative

  1. Poliomyelitis eradication: Rhetoric or reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Bhatnagar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the launch of Global Polio Eradication Initiative in 1988, disease burden has been reduced by more than 99% globally. Lately, India has witnessed a year without a case of poliomyelitis. It no longer stands endemic and is being regarded as a model for polio eradication efforts in other low income endemic countries: Pakistan, Nigeria and Afghanistan. The near elimination of wild polio virus in India has set forth new challenges of vaccine derived polio virus and need for newer strategies in oral poliomyelitis vaccine cessation preparatory phase. Stricter surveillance measures are needed to check for importations, any spread of virus in migratory populations and rapid containment of newly found virus. No stone should be left unturned in this last ditch effort for extermination of polio virus form environmental circulation. India's battle against polio will be cited as the biggest public health achievement or the most expensive public health failure.

  2. Poliomyelitis eradication in the Western Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangermann, R H; Bilous, J; Maher, C; Aylward, R B; Schnur, A; Sato, Y; Omi, S

    1997-02-01

    Polio eradication activities in the Western Pacific Region (WPR) have reduced the transmission of wild poliovirus to one remaining focus of endemic transmission in the Mekong Delta area of South Vietnam and Cambodia. There has been a high level of government commitment for national immunization days in all WPR countries in which poliomyelitis was previously endemic and for continuous improvement in acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance quality. The total number of reported confirmed poliomyelitis cases in 1995 (as of June 1996) was 432, only 7% of the total of 5825 cases reported in 1990. In 1995, wild poliovirus was isolated from only 19 of 4800 AFP patients from whom specimens were collected and analyzed. There has been one importation of wild poliovirus type 1 into China from a neighboring country. An international Regional Commission for the Certification of Poliomyelitis Eradication in the WPR has been formed and met for the first time in April 1996.

  3. Poliomyelitis eradication in China: 1953-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wen-Zhou; Wen, Ning; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Hai-Bo; Fan, Chun-Xiang; Zhu, Shuang-Li; Xu, Wen-Bo; Liang, Xiao-Feng; Luo, Hui-Ming; Li, Li

    2014-11-01

    Poliomyelitis has historically been endemic in China and has been considered an important cause of disability and death. We reviewed strategies and measures of poliomyelitis control and eradication from 1953 to 2012. Data from notifiable disease and routine immunization reporting systems and acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance were analyzed. About 20 000 poliomyelitis cases were reported annually in the prevaccine era. During 1965-1977, live, attenuated oral poliomyelitis vaccine (OPV) was administered to children through annual mass campaigns in the winter, and the number of poliomyelitis cases started to decline. A cold chain system was established during 1982, and OPV coverage increased during the early stage of the Expanded Programme on Immunization, from 1978 to 1988. Between 1989 and 1999, routine immunization was strengthened, supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) were conducted, and the AFP surveillance system was established. China reported a last indigenous poliomyelitis case in 1994 and was certified as free of polio in 2000. To maintain its polio-free status, China kept >90% coverage of 3 doses of OPV, conducted SIAs in high-risk areas, and maintained high-quality of AFP surveillance. China succeeded in stopping the outbreak in Xinjiang in 2011. China's polio-free status was achieved and maintained through strengthening routine immunization and implementing SIAs and AFP surveillance. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. [Possible method of eradication of poliomyelitis as an infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seĭbil', V B; Malyshkina, L P

    2012-01-01

    Problem of poliomyelitis eradication is examined in the review. After the eradication of wild poliovirus, vaccine poliomyelitis virus continues to circulate in the human population. In rare cases it can cause the development of the disease. The authors describe disadvantages of the use of oral and inactivated poliomyelitis vaccines and note that by using oral poliomyelitis vaccine and eradication only of wild poliovirus, eradication of poliomyelitis as an infection will not succeed. As one of the approaches to reach this goal the authors propose the use of various enterovirus interference. Use of live enterovirus vaccine is described and its advantages and disadvantages are examined.

  5. [How poliomyelitis is to be eradicated completely].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seĭbil', V B

    2002-01-01

    In 1988 the World Health Assembly resolved to eradicate poliomyelitis globally by the year 2000. The work continues. The problem arose how to quit the system of mass immunization with oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) without trouble and to achieve the disappearance of polioviruses worldwide. After the cessation of the OPV use a certain number of vaccine viruses may remain that will circulate among the ever growing number of nonimmune population. Live enterovirus vaccines prepared from nonpathogenic serotypes of ECHO virus are proposed for application to stop the circulation of vaccine poliovirus. These vaccines will make it possible to eliminate the remaining vaccine viruses from circulation and to complete the process of worldwide poliomyelitis eradication.

  6. [POLIOMYELITIS ERADICATION--ONE STEP TO ACHIEVE THE GOAL].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljubin-Sternak, Sunčanica; Kaić, Bernard; Vilibić-Čavlek, Tatjana; Mlinarić-Galinović, Gordana

    2014-12-01

    Poliomyelitis is a very old disease of humans, caused by poliovirus. With appearance of the epidemics in the 20th century, poliomyelitis became a global public health issue. In 1988, the World Health Organization started a campaign for global eradication of poliomyelitis and till now poliomyelitis cases have been reduced by more than 99%. In Croatia, the introduction of vaccination in 1961 resulted in dramatic reduction of paralytic disease. The European region, including Croatia was certified polio free in 2002. However, the final goal of the "polio-free world" has not yet been reached. To reinforce the campaign, the global polio eradication initiative has come up with the Polio Eradication & Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018 with detailed program how to resolve the main challenges: (a) continued transmission of wild polioviruses in endemic reservoirs; (b) reinfection of polio-free areas; and (c) outbreaks due to the circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPV). Global oral polio vaccine cessation will follow, with the introduction of universal use of inactivated polio vaccine.

  7. The final stages of the global eradication of poliomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassly, Nicholas C

    2013-08-05

    The global incidence of poliomyelitis has dropped by more than 99 per cent since the governments of the world committed to eradication in 1988. One of the three serotypes of wild poliovirus has been eradicated and the remaining two serotypes are limited to just a small number of endemic regions. However, the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) has faced a number of challenges in eradicating the last 1 per cent of wild-virus transmission. The polio endgame has also been complicated by the recognition that vaccination with the oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) must eventually cease because of the risk of outbreaks of vaccine-derived polioviruses. I describe the major challenges to wild poliovirus eradication, focusing on the poor immunogenicity of OPV in lower-income countries, the inherent limitations to the sensitivity and specificity of surveillance, the international spread of poliovirus and resulting outbreaks, and the potential significance of waning intestinal immunity induced by OPV. I then focus on the challenges to eradicating all polioviruses, the problem of vaccine-derived polioviruses and the risk of wild-type or vaccine-derived poliovirus re-emergence after the cessation of oral vaccination. I document the role of research in the GPEI's response to these challenges and ultimately the feasibility of achieving a world without poliomyelitis.

  8. National immunization days and status of poliomyelitis eradication--Philippines, 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-14

    The Western Pacific Regional Committee of the World Health Organization (WHO) resolved in 1988 to eradicate poliomyelitis in the region by 1995. Despite intensified surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP), reported cases of poliomyelitis decreased from 5485 in 1989 to 1909 in 1992. Of the five countries in the region that continue to report endemic poliomyelitis (Cambodia, People's Republic of China Laos, Republic of the Philippines, and Vietnam), reported incidence is lowest in Philippines, which also was the first country in the region to undertake national immunization days (NIDs) with oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV); in addition, other vaccines were administered at vaccination posts by trained health workers. This report assesses the impact of Philippines' first NID, which was initiated as part of its poliomyelitis eradication efforts, and summarizes progress toward eradication of poliomyelitis in Philippines.

  9. The Challenge of Global Poliomyelitis Eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garon, Julie R; Cochi, Stephen L; Orenstein, Walter A

    2015-12-01

    In the United States during the 1950's, polio was on the forefront of every provider and caregiver's mind. Today, most providers in the United States have never seen a case. The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI), which began in 1988 has reduced the number of cases by over 99%. The world is closer to achieving global eradication of polio than ever before but as long as poliovirus circulates anywhere in the world, every country is vulnerable. The global community can support the polio eradication effort through continued vaccination, surveillance, enforcing travel regulations and contributing financial support, partnerships and advocacy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Eradication of poliomyelitis in countries affected by conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangermann, R H; Hull, H F; Jafari, H; Nkowane, B; Everts, H; Aylward, R B

    2000-01-01

    The global initiative to eradicate poliomyelitis is focusing on a small number of countries in Africa (Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan) and Asia (Afghanistan, Tajikistan), where progress has been hindered by armed conflict. In these countries the disintegration of health systems and difficulties of access are major obstacles to the immunization and surveillance strategies necessary for polio eradication. In such circumstances, eradication requires special endeavours, such as the negotiation of ceasefires and truces and the winning of increased direct involvement by communities. Transmission of poliovirus was interrupted during conflicts in Cambodia, Colombia, El Salvador, Peru, the Philippines, and Sri Lanka. Efforts to achieve eradication in areas of conflict have led to extra health benefits: equity in access to immunization, brought about because every child has to be reached; the revitalization and strengthening of routine immunization services through additional externally provided resources; and the establishment of disease surveillance systems. The goal of polio eradication by the end of 2000 remains attainable if supplementary immunization and surveillance can be accelerated in countries affected by conflict.

  11. Certification of poliomyelitis eradication in Singapore and the challenges ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwee Ching; Tay, Joanne; Kwok, Cynthia Y H; Wee, Moi Kim; Ang, Li Wei; Kita, Yuske; Cutter, Jeffery L; Chan, Kwai Peng; Chew, Suok Kai; Goh, Kee Tai

    2012-11-01

    This study reviewed the epidemiological trends of poliomyelitis from 1946 to 2010, and the impact of the national immunisation programme in raising the population herd immunity against poliovirus. We also traced the efforts Singapore has made to achieve certification of poliomyelitis eradication by the World Health Organisation. Epidemiological data on all reported cases of poliomyelitis were obtained from the Communicable Diseases Division of the Ministry of Health as well as historical records. Coverage of the childhood immunisation programme against poliomyelitis was based on the immunisation data maintained by the National Immunisation Registry, Health Promotion Board. To assess the herd immunity of the population against poliovirus, 6 serological surveys were conducted in 1962, 1978, 1982 to 1984, 1989, 1993 and from 2008 to 2010. Singapore was among the fi rst countries in the world to introduce live oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) on a mass scale in 1958. With the comprehensive coverage of the national childhood immunisation programme, the incidence of paralytic poliomyelitis declined from 74 cases in 1963 to 5 cases from 1971 to 1973. The immunisation coverage for infants, preschool and primary school children has been maintained at 92% to 97% over the past decade. No indigenous poliomyelitis case had been reported since 1978 and all cases reported subsequently were imported. Singapore was certified poliomyelitis free along with the rest of the Western Pacific Region in 2000 after fulfilling all criteria for poliomyelitis eradication, including the establishment of a robust acute flaccid paralysis surveillance system. However, post-certification challenges remain, with the risk of wild poliovirus importation. Furthermore, it is timely to consider the replacement of OPV with the inactivated poliovirus vaccine in Singapore's national immunisation programme given the risk of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis and circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses.

  12. From Emergence to Eradication: The Epidemiology of Poliomyelitis Deconstructed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathanson, Neal; Kew, Olen M.

    2010-01-01

    Poliomyelitis has appeared in epidemic form, become endemic on a global scale, and been reduced to near-elimination, all within the span of documented medical history. Epidemics of the disease appeared in the late 19th century in many European countries and North America, following which polio became a global disease with annual epidemics. During the period of its epidemicity, 1900–1950, the age distribution of poliomyelitis cases increased gradually. Beginning in 1955, the creation of poliovirus vaccines led to a stepwise reduction in poliomyelitis, culminating in the unpredicted elimination of wild polioviruses in the United States by 1972. Global expansion of polio immunization resulted in a reduction of paralytic disease from an estimated annual prevaccine level of at least 600,000 cases to fewer than 1,000 cases in 2000. Indigenous wild type 2 poliovirus was eradicated in 1999, but unbroken localized circulation of poliovirus types 1 and 3 continues in 4 countries in Asia and Africa. Current challenges to the final eradication of paralytic poliomyelitis include the continued transmission of wild polioviruses in endemic reservoirs, reinfection of polio-free areas, outbreaks due to circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses, and persistent excretion of vaccine-derived poliovirus by a few vaccinees with B-cell immunodeficiencies. Beyond the current efforts to eradicate the last remaining wild polioviruses, global eradication efforts must safely navigate through an unprecedented series of endgame challenges to assure the permanent cessation of all human poliovirus infections. PMID:20978089

  13. Eradication of poliomyelitis in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An international campaign under the leadership of the. World Health Organisation is underway to eradicate polio from the world by the year 2000. South Africa may already be free of polio. However, to ensure eradication we need to move from a polio control programme to a polio eradication programme. This necessitates ...

  14. Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ado, J Mohammed; Etsano, Andrew; Shuaib, Faisal; Damisa, Eunice; Mkanda, Pascal; Gasasira, Alex; Banda, Richard; Korir, Charles; Johnson, Ticha; Dieng, Boubacar; Corkum, Melissa; Enemaku, Ogu; Mataruse, Noah; Ohuabunwo, Chima; Baig, Shahzad; Galway, Michael; Seaman, Vincent; Wiesen, Eric; Vertefeuille, John; Ogbuanu, Ikechukwu U; Armstrong, Gregory; Mahoney, Frank J

    2014-11-01

    Transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV) has never been interrupted in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Nigeria. Since 2003, infections with WPV of Nigerian origin have been detected in 25 polio-free countries. In 2012, the Nigerian government created an emergency operations center and implemented a national emergency action plan to eradicate polio. The 2013 revision of this plan prioritized (1) improving the quality of supplemental immunization activities (SIAs), (2) implementing strategies to reach underserved populations, (3) adopting special approaches in security-compromised areas, (4) improving outbreak response, (5) enhancing routine immunization and activities implemented between SIAs, and (6) strengthening surveillance. This report summarizes implementation of these activities during a period of unprecedented insecurity and violence, including the killing of health workers and the onset of a state of emergency in the northeast zone. This report reviews management strategies, innovations, trends in case counts, vaccination and social mobilization activities, and surveillance and monitoring data to assess progress in polio eradication in Nigeria. Nigeria has made significant improvements in the management of polio eradication initiative (pei) activities with marked improvement in the quality of SIAs, as measured by lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS). Comparing results from February 2012 with results from December 2013, the proportion of local government areas (LGAs) conducting LQAS in the 11 high-risk states at the ≥90% pass/fail threshold increased from 7% to 42%, and the proportion at the 80%-89% threshold increased from 9% to 30%. During January-December 2013, 53 polio cases were reported from 26 LGAs in 9 states in Nigeria, compared with 122 cases reported from 13 states in 2012. No cases of WPV type 3 infection have been reported since November 2012. In 2013, no polio cases due to any poliovirus type were detected in the northwest sanctuaries of Nigeria. In

  15. India's poliomyelitis eradication: a milestone in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Manoj; Bhatnagar, Nidhi; Sinha, Smita; Kaur, Ravneet

    2013-12-01

    India has recently completed 2 years without single case of poliomyelitis on 13 January 2013. This has brought South East Asian Region closer to eradication. Recently, India is being regarded as a role model for polio eradication efforts in other low-income endemic countries-Pakistan, Nigeria and Afghanistan. However, the near elimination of wild polio virus in India has set forth newer challenges. Stricter surveillance measures are now needed to check for importations spread of virus in migratory populations and rapid containment of newly found virus. India's battle against polio will soon be cited as biggest public health achievement or most expensive public health failure.

  16. A public health achievement under adversity: the eradication of poliomyelitis from Peru, 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobti, Deepak; Cueto, Marcos; He, Yuan

    2014-12-01

    The fight to achieve global eradication of poliomyelitis continues. Although native transmission of poliovirus was halted in the Western Hemisphere by the early 1990s, and only a few cases have been imported in the past few years, much of Latin America's story remains to be told. Peru conducted a successful flexible, or flattened, vertical campaign in 1991. The initial disease-oriented programs began to collaborate with community-oriented primary health care systems, thus strengthening public-private partnerships and enabling the common goal of poliomyelitis eradication to prevail despite rampant terrorism, economic instability, and political turmoil. Committed leaders in Peru's Ministry of Health, the Pan American Health Organization, and Rotary International, as well as dedicated health workers who acted with missionary zeal, facilitated acquisition of adequate technologies, coordinated work at the local level, and increased community engagement, despite sometimes being unable to institutionalize public health improvements.

  17. Faster Detection of Poliomyelitis Outbreaks to Support Polio Eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Isobel M; Chenoweth, Paul; Okayasu, Hiro; Donnelly, Christl A; Aylward, R Bruce; Grassly, Nicholas C

    2016-03-01

    As the global eradication of poliomyelitis approaches the final stages, prompt detection of new outbreaks is critical to enable a fast and effective outbreak response. Surveillance relies on reporting of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases and laboratory confirmation through isolation of poliovirus from stool. However, delayed sample collection and testing can delay outbreak detection. We investigated whether weekly testing for clusters of AFP by location and time, using the Kulldorff scan statistic, could provide an early warning for outbreaks in 20 countries. A mixed-effects regression model was used to predict background rates of nonpolio AFP at the district level. In Tajikistan and Congo, testing for AFP clusters would have resulted in an outbreak warning 39 and 11 days, respectively, before official confirmation of large outbreaks. This method has relatively high specificity and could be integrated into the current polio information system to support rapid outbreak response activities.

  18. [History of development of the live poliomyelitis vaccine from Sabin attenuated strains in 1959 and idea of poliomyelitis eradication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashkevich, V A

    2013-01-01

    In 1958 Poliomyelitis Institute in Moscow and Institute of Experimental Medicine in St. Petersburg received from A. Sabin the attenuated strains of poliomyelitis virus. The characteristics of the strains were thoroughly studied by A. A. Smorodintsev and coworkers. They found that the virulence of the strains fluctuated slightly in 10 consecutive passages through the intestine of the non-immune children. A part of the Sabin material was used by A. A. Smorodintsev and M. P. Chumakov in the beginning of 1959 for immunizing approximately 40000 children in Estonia, Lithuania, and Latvia. Epidemic poliomyelitis rate in these republics decreased from approximately 1000 cases yearly before vaccination to less than 20 in the third quarter of 1959. This was a convincing proof of the efficacy and safety of the vaccine from the attenuated Sabin strains. In 1959, according to A. Sabin's recommendation, a technology of live vaccine production was developed at the Poliomyelitis Institute, and several experimental lots of vaccine were prepared. In the second part of 1959, 13.5 million children in USSR were immunized. The epidemic poliomyelitis rate decreased 3-5 times in different regions without paralytic cases, which could be attributed to the vaccination. These results were the final proof of high efficiency and safety of live poliomyelitis vaccine from the attenuated Sabin strains. Based on these results, A. Sabin and M. P. Chumakov suggested in 1960 the idea of poliomyelitis eradication using mass immunization of children with live vaccine. 72 million persons up to 20 years old were vaccinated in USSR in 1960 with a 5 times drop in the paralytic rate. 50-year-long use of live vaccine results in poliomyelitis eradication in almost all countries worldwide. More than 10 million children were rescued from the death and palsy. Poliomyelitis eradication in a few countries where it still exists depends not on medical services but is defined by the attitude of their leaders to fight

  19. [Collective poliomyelitis immunity in the adult population and its impact on eradication of this infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seĭbil', V B; Malyshkina, L P; Lavrova, I K; Efimova, V F

    2007-01-01

    Collective poliomyelitis immunity was studied in 6339 donors from 19 towns and cities of Russia. Its stress substantially varied in different towns and cities. Studies of strain-specific antibodies to vaccine and wild viruses of poliomyelitis in donors from 4 towns established that the immune persons were more in the town where wild polioviruses had previously circulated than in those where the circulation of wild polioviruses had been limited and immunity resulted from vaccination. Circulation of vaccine viruses and reversion of their neurovirulent properties should be expected in the town where there are low collective poliomyelitis immunity rates. It is concluded that it is impossible to eradicate poliomyelitis as infection today; it is possible only to eliminate the disease if further vaccination of children is performed with live poliomyelitis vaccine.

  20. Outbreaks of paralytic poliomyelitis during 1996-2012: the changing epidemiology of a disease in the final stages of eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, Ondrej; Tangermann, Rudolf H; Wassilak, Steve G; Singh, Simarjit; Sutter, Roland W

    2014-11-01

    Despite substantial progress toward eradication of poliomyelitis, the risk of poliomyelitis outbreaks resulting from virus importations into polio-free areas persists. We reviewed the changing epidemiology of outbreaks in the final stages of the eradication initiative. Available literature on outbreaks of poliomyelitis caused by wild polioviruses between 1996 and 2012 was reviewed. During this period, there were 22 outbreaks involving 39 countries. Outbreaks ranged in size from 1 to 1335 cases. These outbreaks caused 4571 cases, representing 21% of all cases reported during this period. Five outbreaks involved multiple countries. In 76% of outbreaks (16/21) with a known age distribution, cases concentrated among children aged poliomyelitis had not occurred for many years. The changing epidemiology, with cases and higher case-fatality ratios among adults, increased the severity of these outbreaks. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Progress Toward Poliomyelitis Eradication - Nigeria, January-December 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolu, Omotayo; Nnadi, Chimeremma; Damisa, Eunice; Braka, Fiona; Siddique, Anisur; Archer, W Roodly; Bammeke, Philip; Banda, Richard; Higgins, Jeffrey; Edukugo, Aboyowa; Nganda, Gatei Wa; Forbi, Joseph C; Liu, Hongmei; Gidado, Saheed; Soghaier, Mohammed; Franka, Richard; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya; Burns, Cara C; Vertefeuille, John; Wiesen, Eric; Adamu, Usman

    2018-03-02

    Nearly three decades after the World Health Assembly launched the Global Polio Eradication Initiative in 1988, four of the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions have been certified polio-free (1). Nigeria is one of three countries, including Pakistan and Afghanistan, where wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission has never been interrupted. In September 2015, after >1 year without any reported WPV cases, Nigeria was removed from WHO's list of countries with endemic WPV transmission (2); however, during August and September 2016, four type 1 WPV (WPV1) cases were reported from Borno State, a state in northeastern Nigeria experiencing a violent insurgency (3). The Nigerian government, in collaboration with partners, launched a large-scale coordinated response to the outbreak (3). This report describes progress in polio eradication activities in Nigeria during January-December 2017 and updates previous reports (3-5). No WPV cases have been reported in Nigeria since September 2016; the latest case had onset of paralysis on August 21, 2016 (3). However, polio surveillance has not been feasible in insurgent-controlled areas of Borno State. Implementation of new strategies has helped mitigate the challenges of reaching and vaccinating children living in security-compromised areas, and other strategies are planned. Despite these initiatives, however, approximately 130,000-210,000 (28%-45%) of the estimated 469,000 eligible children living in inaccessible areas in 2016 have not been vaccinated. Sustained efforts to optimize surveillance and improve immunization coverage, especially among children in inaccessible areas, are needed.

  2. Eradication of poliomyelitis in South Africa | Blecher | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An international campaign under the leadership of the World Health Organisation is underway to eradicate polio from the world by the year 2000. South Africa may already be free of polio. However, to ensure eradication we need to move from a polio control programme to a polio eradication programme. This necessitates ...

  3. Progress Toward Poliomyelitis Eradication - Pakistan, January 2016-September 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhamidi, Youness; Mahamud, Abdirahman; Safdar, Muhammad; Al Tamimi, Wasan; Jorba, Jaume; Mbaeyi, Chukwuma; Hsu, Christopher H; Wadood, Zubair; Sharif, Salmaan; Ehrhardt, Derek

    2017-11-24

    In 1988, the World Health Assembly launched the Global Polio Eradication Initiative. Among the three wild poliovirus serotypes, only wild poliovirus (WPV) type 1 (WPV1) has been detected since 2012. Since 2014, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Nigeria remain the only countries with continuing endemic WPV1 transmission. This report describes activities conducted and progress made toward the eradication of poliovirus in Pakistan during January 2016-July 2017 and provides an update to previous reports (1,2). In 2016, Pakistan reported 20 WPV1 cases, a 63% decrease compared with 54 cases in 2015 (3). As of September 25, 2017, five WPV1 cases have been reported in 2017, representing a 69% decline compared with 16 cases reported during the same period in 2016 (Figure 1). During January-September 2017, WPV1 was detected in 72 of 468 (15%) environmental samples collected, compared with 36 of 348 (9%) samples collected during the same period in 2016. WPV1 was detected in environmental samples in areas where no polio cases are being reported, which indicates that WPV1 transmission is continuing in some high-risk areas. Interruption of WPV transmission in Pakistan requires maintaining focus on reaching missed children (particularly among mobile populations), continuing community-based vaccination, implementing the 2017-2018 National Emergency Action Plan (4), and improving routine immunization services.

  4. [Role of the National Poliovirus Laboratory for the Program of eradication and poliomyelitis surveillance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trallero, Gloria; Cabrerizo, María; Avellón, Ana

    2013-01-01

    The Spanish acute flaccid paralysis surveillance network is coordinated by the National Poliovirus Laboratory (NPL), which, since 1998, carries out polioviruses (PV) and other enteroviruses detected characterization by cell culture and molecular techniques. A total of 110,725 (70046+40679) samples were studied between 1998-2012 and enteroviruses were detected in 8% of these. Among these enteroviruses 241 PV were characterized as PV Sabin-like, except samples belong to an imported poliomyelitis case, all of which were characterised as vaccine derived PV type 2. The NPL has carried out the serotyping and the intratypic differentiation of all the isolated PV in Spain of any syndrome. It is shown that wild PV has not circulated in our country during the 15 years studied and that has led to the signing of the Act of the "eradication of poliomyelitis in Spain" by WHO in 2001, and the /"certification of the eradication of wild PV free for European countries" on 21 June 2002. Currently only 3 countries have endemic transmission of wild PV (Pakistan, Afghanistan and Nigeria). Until a complete worldwide eradication, was achieved, Spain will actively continue to participate in the maintenance of the poliomyelitis eradication infrastructure by monitoring and vaccination as well as the wild PV containment plan to avoid the spread of wild PV.

  5. Progress Toward Poliomyelitis Eradication - Afghanistan, January 2016-June 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Maureen; Shukla, Hemant; Nikulin, Joanna; Wadood, Mufti Zubair; Hadler, Stephen; Mbaeyi, Chukwuma; Tangermann, Rudolph; Jorba, Jaume; Ehrhardt, Derek

    2017-08-18

    Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Nigeria remain the only countries where the transmission of endemic wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) continues (1). This report describes polio eradication activities, progress, and challenges in Afghanistan during January 2016-June 2017 and updates previous reports (2,3). Thirteen WPV1 cases were confirmed in Afghanistan in 2016, a decrease of seven from the 20 cases reported in 2015. From January to June 2017, five WPV1 cases were reported, compared with six during the same period in 2016. The number of affected districts declined from 23 (including WPV1-positive acute flaccid paralysis [AFP] cases and positive environmental sewage samples) in 2015 to six in 2016. To achieve WPV1 eradication, it is important that Afghanistan's polio program continue to collaborate with that of neighboring Pakistan to track and vaccinate groups of high-risk mobile populations and strengthen efforts to reach children in security-compromised areas.

  6. Poliomyelitis eradication – the review of notifications from the years 2010-2016 sent to National IHR Focal Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radziszewski, Franciszek; Janiec, Janusz; Henszel, Łukasz; Izdebski, Radosław; Polański, Piotr

    Polio eradication programme was launched after World Health Assembly in 1988. Despite considerable decrease in reported cases it still constitutes a significant public health threat. All WHO member state is bound to appoint National IHR Focal Point, which operates based on International Health Regulations (2005), which were enacted during the World Health Assembly in 2005. In Poland National IHR Focal Point (IHR NFP in Poland) operates since 2007, and is located in the Department of Epidemiology, in National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene. Its aim is to acquire, assess and to transfer information on events which may constitute an international threat for the public health. IHR NFP in Poland has an access to WHO’s Event Information Site (EIS) as well as Early Warning and Response System (EWRS) with reading-only credentials. Both platforms are of limited access (1). Among recipients of IHR NFP notifications and information are experts from many fields such as epidemiology, virology, bacteriology and others- related to specific type of notification, as well as specific and appointed members of state’s administration and authorities in the field of public health. In this paper a review of notifications on the subject of poliomyelitis, sent to IHR NFP in Poland in the years 2010-2016 is presented, as well as references to poliomyelitis epidemiological situation were made based on the date from Global Polio Eradication Initiative.

  7. [Towards eradication of poliomyelitis in Vietnam and the western Pacific region, 1993].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morinière, B; Toda, K

    1994-01-01

    In 1988, the World Health Assembly established the goal of global eradication of poliomyelitis by the year 2000, and the Western Pacific Region (WPR) of WHO established the goal of regional eradication by 1995. Countries in the WPR with endemic poliomyelitis include China, Viet Nam, Cambodia, Laos, and the Philippines. Each country has a national plan of action for eradication, based on three main strategies: maintenance of high coverage with three doses of OPV through routine immunization; supplemental immunization with OPV, including annual National Immunization Days (NIDs); and surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis cases, including isolation of polioviruses in stool specimens. The number of confirmed poliomyelitis cases reported to WHO decreased from 2,635 cases in 1991 to 1,226 cases in 1993, mostly reflecting the decrease in China where supplemental immunization started in 1990 in high-incidence provinces. In six provinces in Viet Nam where immunization days took place in 1992, confirmed cases dropped from 168 in 1992 to 42 in 1993. China, the Philippines, Viet Nam and Laos have conducted NIDs in 1993-1994, with two doses of OPV administered to more than 100 millions children under 5 years of age. NIDs will be repeated in 1994 and 1995, and are planned in Cambodia in January-February 1995. NIDs receive strong support from national governments, and financial assistance from Rotary International, Unicef, the governments of Australia, Japan and Canada, and the US CDC. The apparent elimination of wild polioviruses from the Americas, and the substantial progress already made in the WPR, demonstrate the feasibility of eradicating polio in the WPR and other regions of the world.

  8. Active epidemiological surveillance in the program of poliomyelitis eradication in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevremović Ivana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The main strategy of the worldwide Program of Poliomyelitis Eradication is based on immunization with oral poliovirus vaccine and active epidemiological surveillance aimed to demonstrate the absence of wild poliovirus circulation. The specification of the surveillance in the program, reporting and investigation of certain syndrome – the acute flaccid paralysis - as a specific feature of surveillance of poliomyelitis, is a new experience both for clinicians and epidemiologists. Along with the achieved results, problems in conducting the active epidemiological surveillance in Serbia, applied measures, and suggestions for improving its quality were presented. This experience might help in implementing the active surveillance for some other diseases that could be prevented by vaccine immunization.

  9. Eradication and Current Status of Poliomyelitis in Pakistan: Ground Realities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafoor, Shazia; Sheikh, Nadeem

    2016-01-01

    Pakistan is among the last three countries along with Afghanistan and Nigeria, where polio virus is still endemic. More or less, with some fluctuations, numbers of reported cases in the past few years have shown a rising trend. Year 2014 pushed the country into the deep sea of difficulties, as number of cases rose to red alert level of 328. Security situation has adversely affected the whole immunization coverage campaign. In a country where 40 polio vaccinators have been killed since 2012, such a big number of cases is not a surprising outcome. Worse perception of parents about polio vaccine as in Karachi and FATA, the high risk zones, makes 100% coverage a dream. Minor and perhaps delayed payments to polio workers make them frustrated, resulting in decline of trained manpower for vaccination. Strong implementation of policies is required and those found guilty of attack on polio workers need to be punished. Targeted community awareness programme, strong surveillance network, and involvement of influential religious entities can help to root out polio disease from country. Present review is aimed at analyzing all barriers on the road to success in eradication of polio from Pakistan.

  10. Eradication and Current Status of Poliomyelitis in Pakistan: Ground Realities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazia Ghafoor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan is among the last three countries along with Afghanistan and Nigeria, where polio virus is still endemic. More or less, with some fluctuations, numbers of reported cases in the past few years have shown a rising trend. Year 2014 pushed the country into the deep sea of difficulties, as number of cases rose to red alert level of 328. Security situation has adversely affected the whole immunization coverage campaign. In a country where 40 polio vaccinators have been killed since 2012, such a big number of cases is not a surprising outcome. Worse perception of parents about polio vaccine as in Karachi and FATA, the high risk zones, makes 100% coverage a dream. Minor and perhaps delayed payments to polio workers make them frustrated, resulting in decline of trained manpower for vaccination. Strong implementation of policies is required and those found guilty of attack on polio workers need to be punished. Targeted community awareness programme, strong surveillance network, and involvement of influential religious entities can help to root out polio disease from country. Present review is aimed at analyzing all barriers on the road to success in eradication of polio from Pakistan.

  11. [The eradication of the poliomyelitis in the European Region of the World Health Organization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limia Sánchez, Aurora

    2013-01-01

    Poliomyelitis was considered an important event for the public health since the end of XIX century when this disease became epidemic. As soon as vaccines were available member states of the World Health Organization (WHO) in the European Region started to implement vaccination programmes against polio with an important impact in the incidence in this disease. In May 1988, the World Health Assembly resolution for the global eradication of poliomyelitis was adopted and the mechanisms to oversee the progress in the different WHO Regions were established. This article briefly reviews the history of polio in the WHO European Region, the process for certification and maintenance, the strategies for eradication and the current situation in the European Region and globally. The European Region was certified polio-free in 2002. Nevertheless, there are still three endemic countries in the world, some others use live attenuated vaccines as well as countries in the Horn of Africa are recently suffering the reintroduction of wild poliovirus. Considering these circumstances, the risk of reintroduction of poliovirus and the generation of outbreaks in the European Region exists, therefore high vaccination coverage against polio and good quality surveillance systems are needed to be guaranteed in every member state.

  12. [Eradication of poliomyelitis and emergence of pathogenic vaccine-derived polioviruses: from Madagascar to Cameroon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpeyroux, Francis; Colbère-Garapin, Florence; Razafindratsimandresy, Richter; Sadeuh-Mba, Serge; Joffret, Marie-Line; Rousset, Dominique; Blondel, Bruno

    2013-11-01

    The oral poliovaccine, a live vaccine made of attenuated poliovirus strains, is the main tool of the vaccination campaigns organised for eradicating poliomyelitis. these campaigns had led to the decline and, thereafter, to the disappearance of wild poliovirus strains of the three serotypes (1-3) in most parts of the world. However, when the poliovaccine coverage becomes too low, vaccine polioviruses can circulate in insufficiently immunized populations and become then pathogenic by mutations and genetic recombination with other enteroviruses of the same species, in particular some coxsackievirus A. These mutated and recombinant vaccine strains have been implicated in several epidemics of paralytic poliomyelitis. Two polio outbreaks associated with these pathogenic circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) occurred in 2001-2002 and 2005 in the South of Madagascar where vaccine coverage was low. These cVDPV, of serotype 2 or 3, were isolated from paralyzed children and some of their healthy contacts. Other cVDPV were isolated in the same region from healthy children in 2011, indicating that these viruses were circulating again. Vaccination campaigns could stop the outbreaks in 2002 and 2005, and most probably prevent another one in 2011. Therefore, the genetic plasticity of poliovaccine strains that threatens the benefit of vaccination campaigns is the target of an accurate surveillance and an important theme of studies in the virology laboratories of the Institut Pasteur international network. © 2013 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  13. [Monitoring of implementation of international programs of poliomyelitis eradication and measles and rubella elimination in the Republic of Belarus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring of implementation of international programs of poliomyelitis eradication, and measles and rubella elimination in the Republic of Belarus based on results of molecular-epidemiologic studies of 2009 - 2010. 271 viral agents isolated from children with acute flaccid paralysis syndrome, other diseases, healthy children and from sewage water within the framework of poliomyelitis control implementation were identified by serological and molecular methods. Blood sera of 528 patients with fever and rash were examined for the presence of IgM to measles and rubella virus, 418 - for the presence of IgM to parvovirus B19 and parvovirus DNA. Blood sera of 33 pregnant women and 64 children with signs of intrauterine infection were studied for IgM and IgG antibodies to rubella virus. Measles virus was isolated, N-gene sequence and phylogenetic analysis carried out. The studies performed confirmed that indigenous wild polioviruses in the country do not circulate, imported wild or vaccine-related polioviruses were also not detected. Measles and rubella morbidity in the Republic of Belarus was less than 1 in 1 000 000. 2 cases of rubella (2009) and 1 case of measles (2010) was detected during adequate control level: the rate of detection of patients with fever and rash, in whom measles and rubella diagnosis was excluded by the results of laboratory examination, was more than 2 in 100 000 of the population. The etiologic agent in more than 20% of diseases with fever and rash was parvovirus B19. A single case of measles was caused by genotype D8 virus imported from India. The data obtained give evidence to conformance of the poliomyelitis, measles, rubella, innate rubella syndrome control implemented in the Republic of Belarus to WHO recommendations; maintenance of status of country as free from poliomyelitis and achievement of main criteria of elimination of both measles and rubella by 2010.

  14. The Measles Initiative: moving toward measles eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Athalia S; Gay, Andrea

    2011-07-01

    The World Health Assembly should establish a target date for measles eradication based on continued progress toward existing mortality reduction goals. We have a safe, effective, and inexpensive vaccine; a proven elimination strategy; high country demand; and an effective global partnership. Since it was founded in 2001, the Measles Initiative has supported the vaccination of >900 million children in supplementary immunization activities. Largely as a result, global measles deaths decreased by 78% between 2000 and 2008, averting an estimated 4.3 million deaths. The Measles Initiative has exceeded its targets and evolved to address increasingly ambitious goals. The current challenges include a decline in funding and weak routine immunization systems in some countries. Skeptics of measles eradication raise 3 main objections: the yet-to-be-achieved polio eradication goal, the high cost, and the impact on health systems. These are important concerns that can be addressed with judicious program planning. All 6 World Health Organization regions have committed to measles elimination, and 5 have set a target date. The World Health Assembly has endorsed interim targets toward eradication, and an independent global measles advisory group has determined measles can and should be eradicated. A target date for eradication will focus efforts and capitalize on the achievements of the last decade. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2011.

  15. [Poliomyelitis--Challenges for the Last Mile of the Eradication Programme].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, O; Jahn, A; Razum, O

    2016-04-01

    The World Health Organisation initiated the Global Polio Eradication Initiative in the year 1988. With the large-scale application of routine and mass vaccinations in children under the age of 5 years, polio disease has become restricted to only 3 endemic countries (Afghanistan, Pakistan and Nigeria) by today. However, since the beginning of the 21st century, increasing numbers of secondary polio epidemics have been observed which were triggered through migration, political turmoil and weak health systems. In addition, there emerged serious technical (e. g., back-mutations of oral vaccine virus to wild virus) and socio-political (refusal of vaccinations in Muslim populations of Nigeria and Pakistan) problems with the vaccination in the remaining endemic countries. It thus appears questionable if the current eradiation initiative will reach its goal in the foreseeable future. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Pakistan's fight against poliomyelitis: introducing innovative strategies to address challenges and attain the goal of eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, N; Islam, O U; Bosan, A; Iqbal, T; Darwish, A; Bile, K M

    2010-01-01

    Pakistan, with Nigeria, India and Afghanistan, is one of the four remaining polio endemic countries in the world. Since the start of polio eradication initiative in 1994, the country has succeeded in reducing the number of polio cases from an estimated 20,000 annually to 89 in 2009. Furthermore, persistent transmission is largely localized to three transmission zones in which ten of the fifteen highest risk areas are situated. Insecurity, operational issues, governance lapses, low routineimmunization coverage, inadequate trickle-down of the political commitment existing at the national level to sub-national level and extensive population movement are the main barriers to the process. A robust strategic plan was developed for 2010-2012 encompassing district-specific plans and focused strategy on securitycompromised areas, performance-based payment, independent monitoring, attention to migratory populations, social mobilization, and strategic cooperation with Afghanistan. This will provide Pakistan a strong and imminent opportunity to interrupt polio virus circulation.

  17. Partition and poliomyelitis: an investigation of the polio disparity affecting Muslims during India's eradication program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid S Hussain

    Full Text Available Significant disparities in the incidence of polio existed during its eradication campaign in India. In 2006, Muslims, who comprise 16% of the population in affected states, comprised 70% of paralytic polio cases. This disparity was initially blamed on the Muslims and a rumor that the vaccination program was a plot to sterilize their children. Using the framework of structural violence, this paper describes how the socio-political and historical context of Muslim populations in India shaped the polio disparity.A qualitative study utilizing methods of rapid ethnography was conducted from May-August 2009 in Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India. Field methods included participant observation of vaccination teams, historical document research, and 107 interviews with both Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI stakeholders and families with vaccine-eligible children. Almost all respondents agreed that Aligarh was a highly segregated city, mostly due to riots after Partition and during the 1990s. Since the formation of segregated neighborhoods, most respondents described that "Muslim areas" had been underdeveloped compared to "Hindu areas," facilitating the physical transmission of poliovirus. Distrust of the government and resistance to vaccination were linked to this disparate development and fears of sterilization influenced by the "Family Planning Program" from 1976-1977.Ethnic violence and social marginalization since the Partition and during the rise of Hindu nationalism led to distrust of the government, the formation of segregated slums, and has made Muslims victims of structural violence. This led to the creation of disease-spreading physical environments, lowered vaccine efficacy, and disproportionately higher levels of resistance to vaccination. The causes of the polio disparity found in this study elucidate the nature of possible other health disparities affecting minorities in India.This study is limited by the manual coding of the

  18. From regional pulse vaccination to global disease eradication: insights from a mathematical model of poliomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Cameron J; Smith, Robert J; Bourouiba, Lydia

    2015-07-01

    Mass-vaccination campaigns are an important strategy in the global fight against poliomyelitis and measles. The large-scale logistics required for these mass immunisation campaigns magnifies the need for research into the effectiveness and optimal deployment of pulse vaccination. In order to better understand this control strategy, we propose a mathematical model accounting for the disease dynamics in connected regions, incorporating seasonality, environmental reservoirs and independent periodic pulse vaccination schedules in each region. The effective reproduction number, Re, is defined and proved to be a global threshold for persistence of the disease. Analytical and numerical calculations show the importance of synchronising the pulse vaccinations in connected regions and the timing of the pulses with respect to the pathogen circulation seasonality. Our results indicate that it may be crucial for mass-vaccination programs, such as national immunisation days, to be synchronised across different regions. In addition, simulations show that a migration imbalance can increase Re and alter how pulse vaccination should be optimally distributed among the patches, similar to results found with constant-rate vaccination. Furthermore, contrary to the case of constant-rate vaccination, the fraction of environmental transmission affects the value of Re when pulse vaccination is present.

  19. Polio Eradication Initiative (PEl) Emergency Plan: A Panacea for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods A review of related and available literature was conducted on the subject matter using the Google search engine, Google Scholar, and PubMed using the key words polio; eradication; Nigeria; and Global Polio Eradication Initiative. Result Much progress has been made towards achieving the required coverage ...

  20. Acute flaccid paralysis surveillance: looking beyond the global poliomyelitis eradication initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswathy, T S; Zahrin, H Nor; Apandi, M Y; Kurup, D; Rohani, J; Zainah, S; Khairullah, N S

    2008-11-01

    In 1992 surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases was introduced in Malaysia along with the establishment of a national referral laboratory at the Institute for Medical Research. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence, viral etiology and clinical picture of AFP cases below 15 years of age, reported from 2002 to 2007. Six hundred seventy-eight of 688 reported cases were confirmed as AFP by expert review. The clinical presentation of acute flaccid paralysis in these cases was diverse, the most commonly reported being Guillian-Barre syndrome (32.3%). Sixty-nine viruses were isolated in this study. They were Sabin poliovirus (25), Echovirus (22), Cocksackie B (11), EV71 (5), Cocksackie A (1), and untypable (5). Malaysia has been confirmed as free from wild polio since the surveillance was established.

  1. Polio Eradication Initiative (PEl) Emergency Plan: A Panacea for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TNHJOURNALPH

    and surmount the intractable problem of sub- optimal vaccine coverage which has remained a critical bottleneck in the successful eradication of the polio virus in Nigeria. It becomes pertinent therefore, to appraise this latest effort to avoid a recurrence of failure in subsequent polio eradication programs. METHODS. A review ...

  2. Poliomyelitis in the United States: A Historical Perspective and Current Vaccination Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farizo, Karen M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examines poliomyelitis in the United States by reviewing clinical manifestations and outcomes, history, recent epidemiologic characteristics, characteristics of currently available vaccines, controversies surrounding vaccination policy, current poliovirus vaccination recommendations, and prospects for worldwide eradication. Poliomyelitis remains…

  3. Vacunología en conflictos armados: una intervención puntual frente a poliomielitis en Afganistán Vaccinology in armed conflicts: a punctual intervention in poliomyelitis eradication in Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. López-González

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Las situaciones de conflicto armado suponen un hándicap para la erradicación de la poliomielitis por las dificultades de acceso a la población susceptible. En Afganistán, tras la operación militar que supuso la caída del régimen talibán, se llevó a cabo por sanitarios militares españoles una intervención dirigida a mejorar el nivel de protección frente a poliomielitis en la población infantil de la zona donde realizaban su misión. Solventados los obstáculos logísticos y de planificación, se efectuaron 2 rondas de vacunación con vacuna de polio inactivada (VPI. Un cuestionario mediado por un intérprete permitió una aproximación al escenario vacunal, proporcionando información sobre las características sociodemográficas de los niños que acudieron, su estado vacunal, sus conocimientos sobre las vacunas y el alcance de los medios empleados para difundir la intervención. Fueron inmunizados 293 y 321 niños en dos rondas. Se observó que muy pocos estaban vacunados con anterioridad (10% y mostraban un bajo conocimiento sobre las vacunas. Los padres no se implicaron en la campaña, que obtuvo mejor resultado de difusión por carteles (70% que por cuñas radiofónicas (10%. La vacunación es una iniciativa de salud que allana el camino hacia la paz.The situations of armed conflict suppose a handicap for the eradication of the poliomyelitis due to the difficulties to access the susceptible population. In Afghanistan, after the military operation which put an end to the Taliban regime, Spanish military sanitarians made an intervention in order to immunize the children of the zone where they were conducting their mission, against poliomyelitis. After having solved planning and logistic problems, two rounds of vaccination with IPV were made. A local translator helped to fill out a questionnaire about the state of immunization in that zone, providing information regarding the socio-demographic data of the children that showed up

  4. Anesthesia and Poliomyelitis: A Matched Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Alstine, Luke W; Gunn, Paul W; Schroeder, Darrell R; Hanson, Andrew C; Sorenson, Eric J; Martin, David P

    2016-06-01

    Poliomyelitis is a viral infectious disease caused by 1 of the 3 strains of poliovirus. The World Health Organization launched an eradication campaign in 1988. Although the number of cases of poliomyelitis has drastically declined, eradication has not yet been achieved, and there are a substantial number of survivors of the disease. Survivors of poliomyelitis present a unique set of challenges to the anesthesiologist. The scientific literature regarding the anesthetic management of survivors of poliomyelitis, however, is limited and primarily experiential in nature. Using a retrospective, matched cohort study, we sought to more precisely characterize the anesthetic implications of poliomyelitis and to determine what risks, if any, may be present for patients with a history of the disease. Using the Mayo Clinic Life Sciences System Data Discovery and Query Builder, study subjects were identified as those with a history of paralytic poliomyelitis who had undergone major surgery at Mayo Clinic Rochester between 2005 and 2009. For each case, 2 sex- and age-matched controls that underwent the same surgical procedure during the study period were randomly selected from a pool of possible controls. Medical records were manually interrogated with respect to demographic variables, comorbid conditions, operative and anesthetic course, and postoperative course. We analyzed 100 cases with 2:1 matched controls and found that the peri- and postoperative courses were very similar for both groups of patients. Pain scores, postanesthesia care unit admission, length of postanesthesia care unit stay, intensive care unit admission, length of intensive care unit stay, and initial extubation location were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Looking at pulmonary complications in our primary outcome, there was no significant difference between the 2 groups (17% vs 14% for polio versus control, respectively; conditional logistic regression odds ratio = 1.5; 95% confidence

  5. [Poliomyelitis case surveillance data management in Burkina Faso].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabo, Koiné Maxime; Nana, Félicité; Kouassi, Kouassi Lazare; Konfé, Salifou; Hien, Hervé; Saizonou, Jacques; Ouedraogo, Tinoaga Laurent

    2015-01-01

    The global initiative for poliomyelitis eradication can only remain relevant if survey systems are regularly assessed. In order to identify shortcomings and to propose improvement, the data collection and transmission during case investigation were assessed in the Banfora health district in Burkina Faso. The survey targeted six (6) primary health centres, the district laboratory and the national laboratory, all involved in the poliomyelitis surveillance system. Data from registers, forms documenting suspected cases, stool sample forms and weekly reports were collected by means of a data grid. Data from actors involved in the poliomyelitis case investigation system were collected by means of an individual questionnaire. The reactivity of investigating suspected cases was satisfactory with a median alert questionnaire notification time of 18 hours. The completeness of the reporting system was satisfactory. Nevertheless, the promptness of data management by primary heath centres and the national laboratory remained unsatisfactory. Evaluation of data management revealed logistic and organization shortcomings. The overall efficacy of the poliomyelitis surveillance could be improved by using management tools for laboratory supplies, collecting data related to the homes of suspected cases and implementing a cold chain maintenance plan.

  6. Twenty-Eight Years of Poliovirus Replication in an Immunodeficient Individual: Impact on the Global Polio Eradication Initiative.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glynis Dunn

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available There are currently huge efforts by the World Health Organization and partners to complete global polio eradication. With the significant decline in poliomyelitis cases due to wild poliovirus in recent years, rare cases related to the use of live-attenuated oral polio vaccine assume greater importance. Poliovirus strains in the oral vaccine are known to quickly revert to neurovirulent phenotype following replication in humans after immunisation. These strains can transmit from person to person leading to poliomyelitis outbreaks and can replicate for long periods of time in immunodeficient individuals leading to paralysis or chronic infection, with currently no effective treatment to stop excretion from these patients. Here, we describe an individual who has been excreting type 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus for twenty eight years as estimated by the molecular clock established with VP1 capsid gene nucleotide sequences of serial isolates. This represents by far the longest period of excretion described from such a patient who is the only identified individual known to be excreting highly evolved vaccine-derived poliovirus at present. Using a range of in vivo and in vitro assays we show that the viruses are very virulent, antigenically drifted and excreted at high titre suggesting that such chronic excreters pose an obvious risk to the eradication programme. Our results in virus neutralization assays with human sera and immunisation-challenge experiments using transgenic mice expressing the human poliovirus receptor indicate that while maintaining high immunisation coverage will likely confer protection against paralytic disease caused by these viruses, significant changes in immunisation strategies might be required to effectively stop their occurrence and potential widespread transmission. Eventually, new stable live-attenuated polio vaccines with no risk of reversion might be required to respond to any poliovirus isolation in the post-eradication

  7. Twenty-Eight Years of Poliovirus Replication in an Immunodeficient Individual: Impact on the Global Polio Eradication Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Glynis; Klapsa, Dimitra; Wilton, Thomas; Stone, Lindsay; Minor, Philip D.; Martin, Javier

    2015-01-01

    There are currently huge efforts by the World Health Organization and partners to complete global polio eradication. With the significant decline in poliomyelitis cases due to wild poliovirus in recent years, rare cases related to the use of live-attenuated oral polio vaccine assume greater importance. Poliovirus strains in the oral vaccine are known to quickly revert to neurovirulent phenotype following replication in humans after immunisation. These strains can transmit from person to person leading to poliomyelitis outbreaks and can replicate for long periods of time in immunodeficient individuals leading to paralysis or chronic infection, with currently no effective treatment to stop excretion from these patients. Here, we describe an individual who has been excreting type 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus for twenty eight years as estimated by the molecular clock established with VP1 capsid gene nucleotide sequences of serial isolates. This represents by far the longest period of excretion described from such a patient who is the only identified individual known to be excreting highly evolved vaccine-derived poliovirus at present. Using a range of in vivo and in vitro assays we show that the viruses are very virulent, antigenically drifted and excreted at high titre suggesting that such chronic excreters pose an obvious risk to the eradication programme. Our results in virus neutralization assays with human sera and immunisation-challenge experiments using transgenic mice expressing the human poliovirus receptor indicate that while maintaining high immunisation coverage will likely confer protection against paralytic disease caused by these viruses, significant changes in immunisation strategies might be required to effectively stop their occurrence and potential widespread transmission. Eventually, new stable live-attenuated polio vaccines with no risk of reversion might be required to respond to any poliovirus isolation in the post-eradication era. PMID:26313548

  8. The critical role of acute flaccid paralysis surveillance in the Global Polio Eradication Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangermann, Rudolf H; Lamoureux, Christine; Tallis, Graham; Goel, Ajay

    2017-05-01

    Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance is a key strategy used by the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) to measure progress towards reaching the global eradication goal. Supported by a global polio laboratory network, AFP surveillance is conducted in 179 of 194 WHO member states. Active surveillance visits to priority health facilities are used to assure all children <15 years with AFP are detected, followed by stool specimen collection and testing for poliovirus in WHO-accredited polio laboratories. The quality of AFP surveillance is regularly monitored with standardized surveillance quality indicators. In highest risk countries and areas, the sensitivity of AFP surveillance is enhanced by environmental surveillance (testing of sewage samples). Genetic sequencing of detected poliovirus isolates yields programmatically important information on polio transmission pathways. AFP surveillance is one of the most valuable assets of the GPEI, with the potential to serve as a platform to build integrated disease surveillance systems. Continued support to maintain AFP surveillance systems will be essential, to reliably monitor the completion of global polio eradication, and to assure that a key resource for building surveillance capacity is transitioned post-eradication to support other health priorities. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Comparison and Contrast of the Elimination Campaigns for Poliomyelitis and Leprosy: Which is More Feasible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malheiro, Luís; Pinto, Sofia Correia; Sarmento, Antonio; Santos, Lurdes

    2016-04-01

    As we approach the third decade since the WHO started addressing the eradication of poliomyelitis and leprosy, a reflection of the previous campaigns efficacy and an evaluation of further elimination feasibility is important to adapt and intensify the next steps. We performed a critical review of the poliomyelitis and leprosy eradication campaigns to evaluate their technical and operational feasibilities. Vaccination and active case search are highly effective tools against poliomyelitis. If political stability and good vaccination coverage is achieved, poliomyelitis will be an easy target for eradication. Leprosy, on the other hand, faces many barriers towards elimination. The lack of a high efficacy vaccine, the long asymptomatic but infective period, the lack of screening tests and a poorly established elimination target, prevents this disease from being eliminated. In a world where resources and funding are limited, it is apparent that poliomyelitis is a more feasible target for elimination than leprosy.

  10. Post-polio eradication: vaccination strategies and options for India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayakrishnan Thayyil

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In 1988, the World Health Organization (WHO resolved to eradicate poliomyelitis globally. Since then, the initiative has reported dramatic progress in decreasing the incidence of poliomyelitis and limiting the geographical extent of transmission. 2013 is recorded as the second consecutive year not reporting wild poliovirus (WPV from India. If the country can retain this position for one more year India will be declared as polio eradicated. What should be the future vaccination strategies? We searched and reviewed the full text of the available published literature on polio eradication via PubMed and examined Internet sources and websites of major international health agencies. The oral polio vaccine (OPV has been the main tool in the polio eradication program. Once WPV transmission is interrupted, the poliomyelitis will be caused only by OPV. India could expect 1 vaccine-associated paralytic polio per 4.2-4.6 million doses of OPV. Considering the threat of vaccine-derived viruses to polio eradication, WHO urged to develop a strategy to safely discontinue OPV after certification. The ultimate aim is to stop OPV safely and effectively, and eventually substitute with inactivated polio vaccine (IPV. The argument against the use of IPV is its cost. From India, field based data were available on the efficacy of IPV, which was better than OPV. IPV given intradermally resulted in seroconversion rates similar to full-dose intramuscular vaccine. The incremental cost of adopting IPV to replace OPV is relatively low, about US $1 per child per year, and most countries should be able to afford this additional cost.

  11. Poliomyelitis: Current Status in Iran and Worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Vakili

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Poliomyelitis (polio is a highly infectious viral disease, which mainly affects young children. The virus is transmitted by person-to-person spread mainly through the faecal-oral route or, less frequently, by a common vehicle (e.g. contaminated water or food and multiplies in the intestine, from where it can invade the nervous system and can cause paralysis. Initial symptoms of polio include fever, fatigue, headache, vomiting, stiffness in the neck, and pain in the limbs. In a small proportion of cases, the disease causes paralysis, which is often permanent. There is no cure for polio, it can only be prevented by immunization. Of the 3 types of wild poliovirus (type 1, type 2 and type 3, type 2 wild poliovirus transmission has been successfully stopped (since 1999. Today, despite a concerted global eradication campaign, poliovirus continues to affect children and adults in Afghanistan, Pakistan and some African countries (Nigeria. In Iran, the last laboratory-confirmed indigenous polio case was reported in 1997. Until poliovirus transmission is interrupted in these countries, all countries remain at risk of importation of polio, especially in the 'poliovirus importation belt' of countries from west Africa to the Horn of Africa.

  12. Initial Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in patients with cystic fibrosis: characteristics of eradicated and persistent isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tramper-Stranders, G. A.; van der Ent, C. K.; Molin, Søren

    2012-01-01

    with intermittent infection (34) were omitted from the study. Virulence assays, antimicrobial resistance, cytotoxicity and mutation frequencies were analysed in vitro. P. aeruginosa was genotyped by SNP-array. Transcriptomic profiles of two eradicated and two persistent strains were compared. Nineteen per cent......Clin Microbiol Infect 2012; 18: 567574 Abstract Despite intensive eradication therapy, some CF patients with early Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection rapidly develop a chronic infection. To elucidate factors associated with this persistence, bacterial characteristics of early P. aeruginosa isolates...... of patients developed persistent infection; 42% achieved eradication. Secretion of virulence factors and mutation frequencies were highly variable among both eradicated and persistent isolates and were not different between the groups. Cytotoxicity was present in 57% of eradicated vs. 100% of persistent...

  13. Initial Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in patients with cystic fibrosis: characteristics of eradicated and persistent isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramper-Stranders, G A; van der Ent, C K; Molin, S; Yang, L; Hansen, S K; Rau, M H; Ciofu, O; Johansen, H K; Wolfs, T F W

    2012-06-01

    Despite intensive eradication therapy, some CF patients with early Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection rapidly develop a chronic infection. To elucidate factors associated with this persistence, bacterial characteristics of early P. aeruginosa isolates were analysed that were either eradicated rapidly or persisted despite multiple antimicrobial treatments. Eighty-six early infection episodes were studied. First P. aeruginosa isolates from patients with eradication (36) or persistent infection (16) were included; isolates from patients with intermittent infection (34) were omitted from the study. Virulence assays, antimicrobial resistance, cytotoxicity and mutation frequencies were analysed in vitro. P. aeruginosa was genotyped by SNP-array. Transcriptomic profiles of two eradicated and two persistent strains were compared. Nineteen per cent of patients developed persistent infection; 42% achieved eradication. Secretion of virulence factors and mutation frequencies were highly variable among both eradicated and persistent isolates and were not different between the groups. Cytotoxicity was present in 57% of eradicated vs. 100% of persistent isolates (p <0.01). None of the isolates were resistant to antibiotics. The isolates were genotypically highly diverse. Multivariate analysis showed that in vitro determined bacterial characteristics could not predict persistence after first P. aeruginosa infection. Preliminary transcriptomic data showed increased expression of some genes related to a metabolic pathway. The early onset of chronic infection was not associated with (in vitro determined) bacterial characteristics only. Although the persistent isolates were more often cytotoxic, for the individual patient it was not possible to predict the risk of persistence based on bacterial characteristics. Unknown factors such as host-pathogen and pathogen-pathogen interactions should be further explored. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2011 European

  14. Polio eradication efforts in regions of geopolitical strife: the Boko ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rous boundary, with a length of about 1690 km. The last cases of poliomyelitis were reported in Cameroon and. Nigeria on 9 and 24 July 2014 respectively6,16. The WHO has called for these countries to eradicate WPV and pre- vent its spread6,17. The commitment of both countries to eradicate it and stop its spread is clear, ...

  15. MRI in acute poliomyelitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kornreich, L. [Imaging Department, The Schneider Children`s Medical Centre of Israel, Kaplan Street, Petah Tiqva 49202 (Israel)]|[Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Dagan, O. [The Intensive Care Unit, The Schneider Children`s Medical Centre of Israel, Beilinson Medical Campus, Petah Tiqva (Israel)]|[Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Grunebaum, M. [Imaging Department, The Schneider Children`s Medical Centre of Israel, Kaplan Street, Petah Tiqva 49202 (Israel)]|[Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    1996-05-01

    MRI can be used in the diagnosis of anterior horn infection and for assessing the extent of disease. There are no specific MRI signs to differentiate between the various possible pathogens. This is demonstrated in the present case of poliomyelitis, in which MRI of the spine played an important role in establishing the diagnosis. (orig.). With 1 fig.

  16. Poliomyelitis in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.K. Koloskova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of poliomyelitis in children. The history of this disease and the current state of morbidity in Ukraine are considered. The features of the clinical pattern in children are described. Diagnostic criteria and treatment methods are presented.

  17. MRI in acute poliomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornreich, L.; Dagan, O.; Grunebaum, M.

    1996-01-01

    MRI can be used in the diagnosis of anterior horn infection and for assessing the extent of disease. There are no specific MRI signs to differentiate between the various possible pathogens. This is demonstrated in the present case of poliomyelitis, in which MRI of the spine played an important role in establishing the diagnosis. (orig.). With 1 fig

  18. [Poliomyelitis in literature, cinema and television].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Vázquez, Susana; Carrillo, Jesús M; Águila-Maturana, Ana M

    2014-10-01

    Poliomyelitis is an infectious disease whose initial symptoms are fever, fatigue, headaches, vomiting, a stiff neck and pains in the limbs. In many cases, the sequelae are irreversible paralysis and may result in death if there is bulbar or respiratory compromise. A set of symptoms, called post-polio syndrome, which appears years after the acute infection, are also described. To analyse the way poliomyelitis has been dealt with in literature, cinema and television. Film and television writers and directors have shown an interest in poliomyelitis and have portrayed it in a correct and realistic manner, both in fiction and in biographies or documentary-type works. Nemesis, Silver wattle, Leave her to heaven or The fall are some examples of literary works on the subject. Cinema has also portrayed polio all the way back to silent movies, with titles such as The woman in his house, The Silver Streak, Sister Kenny or The sessions. This disease and its sequelae have also been portrayed on television in series such as Hospital Central, Grey's anatomy, House M.D. or Amar en tiempos revueltos, and in TV films like El asunto, Eleanor and Franklin or Warm Springs. Poliomyelitis has been portrayed in literature, cinema and television in a realistic manner, showing its symptoms, sequelae, and the personal, familial and social impact of this disease.

  19. Transitioning Lessons Learned and Assets of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative to Global and Regional Measles and Rubella Elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretsinger, Katrina; Strebel, Peter; Kezaala, Robert; Goodson, James L

    2017-07-01

    The Global Polio Eradication Initiative has built an extensive infrastructure with capabilities and resources that should be transitioned to measles and rubella elimination efforts. Measles continues to be a major cause of child mortality globally, and rubella continues to be the leading infectious cause of birth defects. Measles and rubella eradication is feasible and cost saving. The obvious similarities in strategies between polio elimination and measles and rubella elimination include the use of an extensive surveillance and laboratory network, outbreak preparedness and response, extensive communications and social mobilization networks, and the need for periodic supplementary immunization activities. Polio staff and resources are already connected with those of measles and rubella, and transitioning existing capabilities to measles and rubella elimination efforts allows for optimized use of resources and the best opportunity to incorporate important lessons learned from polio eradication, and polio resources are concentrated in the countries with the highest burden of measles and rubella. Measles and rubella elimination strategies rely heavily on achieving and maintaining high vaccination coverage through the routine immunization activity infrastructure, thus creating synergies with immunization systems approaches, in what is termed a "diagonal approach." © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  20. Optimal initiation of Helicobacter pylori eradication in patients with peptic ulcer bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyuk; Lee, Dong Ho; Jang, Eun Sun; Kim, Jaihwan; Shin, Cheol Min; Park, Young Soo; Hwang, Jin-Hyeok; Kim, Jin-Wook; Jeong, Sook-Hayng; Kim, Nayoung

    2015-02-28

    To evaluate when Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication therapy (ET) should be started in patients with peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB). Clinical data concerning adults hospitalized with PUB were retrospectively collected and analyzed. Age, sex, type and stage of peptic ulcer, whether endoscopic therapy was performed or not, methods of H. pylori detection, duration of hospitalization, and specialty of the attending physician were investigated. Factors influencing the confirmation of H. pylori infection prior to discharge were determined using multiple logistic regression analysis. The H. pylori eradication rates of patients who received ET during hospitalization and those who commenced ET as outpatients were compared. A total of 232 patients with PUB were evaluated for H. pylori infection by histology and/or rapid urease testing. Of these patients, 53.7% (127/232) had confirmed results of H. pylori infection prior to discharge. In multivariate analysis, duration of hospitalization and ulcer stage were factors independently influencing whether H. pylori infection was confirmed before or after discharge. Among the patients discharged before confirmation of H. pylori infection, 13.3% (14/105) were lost to follow-up. Among the patients found to be H. pylori-positive after discharge, 41.4% (12/29) did not receive ET. There was no significant difference in the H. pylori eradication rate between patients who received ET during hospitalization and those who commenced ET as outpatients [intention-to-treat: 68.8% (53/77) vs 60% (12/20), P=0.594; per-protocol: 82.8% (53/64) vs 80% (12/15), P=0.723]. Because many patients with PUB who were discharged before H. pylori infection status was confirmed lost an opportunity to receive ET, we should confirm H. pylori infection and start ET prior to discharge.

  1. [Poliomyelitis in Sergipe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, H A; Cardoso, J C; Teixeira, E M

    1994-06-01

    A retrospective study of poliomyelitis in Sergipe, Northeast of Brazil, is presented by the authors. The study was divided in three periods, taking in consideration the notification rate of positive cases and emphasizing the period from 1979 to 1989 through the study of 159 consecutive cases. The following information was gathered for each case: sex, age, origin, former immunization status and clinical development. Also evaluated were annual incidence, relationship of incidence/vaccinal coverage and geographic distribution. Comments were made about the change in the wild poliovirus circulation (P1 to P3) and about epidemiological outbreaks occurred in 1984 and 1986, and problems related to the lack of immunity in children with complete vaccinal scheme. Poliomyelitis was considered to be controlled in the State of Sergipe but the necessity of maintenance of effective epidemiological vigilance for all cases of acute and flabby paralysis in children under 14 years is emphasized.

  2. 38 CFR 3.379 - Anterior poliomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anterior poliomyelitis. 3... Specific Diseases § 3.379 Anterior poliomyelitis. If the first manifestations of acute anterior poliomyelitis present themselves in a veteran within 35 days of termination of active military service, it is...

  3. Polio Eradication Initiative contribution in strengthening immunization and integrated disease surveillance data management in WHO African region, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poy, Alain; Minkoulou, Etienne; Shaba, Keith; Yahaya, Ali; Gaturuku, Peter; Dadja, Landoh; Okeibunor, Joseph; Mihigo, Richard; Mkanda, Pascal

    2016-10-10

    The PEI Programme in the WHO African region invested in recruitment of qualified staff in data management, developing data management system and standards operating systems since the revamp of the Polio Eradication Initiative in 1997 to cater for data management support needs in the Region. This support went beyond polio and was expanded to routine immunization and integrated surveillance of priority diseases. But the impact of the polio data management support to other programmes such as routine immunization and disease surveillance has not yet been fully documented. This is what this article seeks to demonstrate. We reviewed how Polio data management area of work evolved progressively along with the expansion of the data management team capacity and the evolution of the data management systems from initiation of the AFP case-based to routine immunization, other case based disease surveillance and Supplementary immunization activities. IDSR has improved the data availability with support from IST Polio funded data managers who were collecting them from countries. The data management system developed by the polio team was used by countries to record information related to not only polio SIAs but also for other interventions. From the time when routine immunization data started to be part of polio data management team responsibility, the number of reports received went from around 4000 the first year (2005) to >30,000 the second year and to >47,000 in 2014. Polio data management has helped to improve the overall VPD, IDSR and routine data management as well as emergency response in the Region. As we approach the polio end game, the African Region would benefit in using the already set infrastructure for other public health initiative in the Region. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. [VACCINE-ASSOCIATED PARALYTIC POLIOMYELITIS IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION DURING THE PERIOD OF CHANGES IN VACCINATION SCHEDULE (2006-2013 yy.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, O E; Eremeeva, T P; Morozova, N S; Shakaryan, A K; Gmyl, A P; Yakovenko, M L; Korotkova, E A; Chernjavskaja, O P; Baykova, O Yu; Silenova, O V; Krasota, A Yu; Krasnoproshina, L I; Mustafina, A N; Kozlovskaja, L I

    2016-01-01

    The results of virologic testing of clinical materials and epidemiological analysis of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) cases obtained in 2006-2013 during AFP surveillance are presented. Among the 2976 cases of AFP 30 cases were VAPP. 15 cases were observed in OPV recipients, whereas 15 cases were observed in non-vaccinated contacts. The age of the patients varied from 4 months to 5.5 years (13.6 ± 12.4 months old). Children younger than 1 year constituted 63.3% of the group; boys were dominant (73.3%); 53.3% of children were vaccinated with OPV; the time period between receipt of OPV and onset of palsy was from 2 to 32 days (18.7 ± 8.2). Lower paraparesis was documented in 48.3% of patients; lower monoparesis in 37.9%; upper monoparesis, in 6.9%; tetraparesis with bulbar syndrome, in 6%. The majority of the patients (85.7%) had an unfavorable premorbid status. The violations of the humoral immunity were found in 73.9% cases: CVID (52.9%), hypogammaglobulinemia (41.2%); selective lgA deflciency (5.9%). In 70.6% cases damage to humoral immunity was combined with poor premorbid status. The most frequently observed (76%, p poliomyelitis in the Russian Federation, WHO Polio eradication initiative, WHO's European Regional Bureau, Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project No. 15-15-00147).

  5. Children with paralytic poliomyelitis: a cross-sectional study of knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of parents in Zamfara state, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogwumike, Omoyemi O; Kaka, Bashir; Adeniyi, Ade F

    2012-10-22

    Nigeria is one of the major African countries in which incidences of polio infection persist in spite of several eradication efforts. The preponderance of paralytic poliomyelitis particularly in the northern part of Nigeria raises the question as to whether parents of children affected with polio know how polio is contracted and spread, whether having a disabled child affects the parents' attitude towards these children, and what they believe about poliomyelitis in view of their socio-cultural and belief system in the sub-region. Zamfara State, in the north-west of Nigeria is one of the endemic areas where resistance to the global campaign on polio eradication was very high. Therefore this study was conducted to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of parents/primary caregivers of children affected with paralytic poliomyelitis in Zamfara State. This study is a cross-sectional survey in which the multistage probability sampling technique was used to randomly select two local government areas in Zamfara State where consenting parents/primary caregivers of children with paralytic poliomyelitis were purposively selected. The knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of parents were assessed with the aid of a 4-part 52-item structured researcher administered questionnaire and the data obtained were analyzed. Two hundred and seventeen parents/primary caregivers participated in the study. One hundred and forty-two, (65.4%) reported good, 51 (23.8%) reported fair, while 24 (11%) of participants reported poor knowledge of paralytic poliomyelitis. More respondents 120 (55.3%) showed a positive attitude towards children with paralytic poliomyelitis. Younger age (P=0.016) and paid employment (P=0.020) were positively associated with good knowledge of paralytic poliomyelitis. Female gender (P=0.020), higher educational level (P=0.015), being employed (P=0.010) and having from middle to high household income (P=0.016) were positively associated with a positive attitude toward

  6. From intense rejection to advocacy: how Muslim clerics were engaged in a polio eradication initiative in Northern Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sani-Gwarzo Nasir

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Gambo Aliyu and colleagues describe an approach to eradicating polio in Northern Nigeria by engaging Muslim clerics in influencing community perceptions. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  7. Morbidity and mortality following poliomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kay, L; Nielsen, N M; Wanscher, B

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In the world today 10-20 million people are still living with late effects of poliomyelitis (PM), but the long-term consequences of the disease are not well known. The aim of this study was to describe lifelong morbidity and mortality among Danes who survived PM. METHODS...... no major differences in morbidities between paralytic and non-paralytic PM cases. CONCLUSIONS: Poliomyelitis has significant long-term consequences on morbidity and mortality of both paralytic and non-paralytic cases....

  8. Identification and control of a poliomyelitis outbreak in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hui-Ming; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Xin-Qi; Yu, Wen-Zhou; Wen, Ning; Yan, Dong-Mei; Wang, Hua-Qing; Wushouer, Fuerhati; Wang, Hai-Bo; Xu, Ai-Qiang; Zheng, Jing-Shan; Li, De-Xin; Cui, Hui; Wang, Jian-Ping; Zhu, Shuang-Li; Feng, Zi-Jian; Cui, Fu-Qiang; Ning, Jing; Hao, Li-Xin; Fan, Chun-Xiang; Ning, Gui-Jun; Yu, Hong-Jie; Wang, Shi-Wen; Liu, Da-Wei; Wang, Dong-Yan; Fu, Jian-Ping; Gou, Ai-li; Zhang, Guo-Min; Huang, Guo-Hong; Chen, Yuan-Sheng; Mi, Sha-Sha; Liu, Yan-Min; Yin, Da-Peng; Zhu, Hui; Fan, Xin-Chun; Li, Xin-Lan; Ji, Yi-Xin; Li, Ke-Li; Tang, Hai-Shu; Xu, Wen-Bo; Wang, Yu; Yang, Wei-Zhong

    2013-11-21

    The last case of infection with wild-type poliovirus indigenous to China was reported in 1994, and China was certified as a poliomyelitis-free region in 2000. In 2011, an outbreak of infection with imported wild-type poliovirus occurred in the province of Xinjiang. We conducted an investigation to guide the response to the outbreak, performed sequence analysis of the poliovirus type 1 capsid protein VP1 to determine the source, and carried out serologic and coverage surveys to assess the risk of viral propagation. Surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis was intensified to enhance case ascertainment. Between July 3 and October 9, 2011, investigators identified 21 cases of infection with wild-type poliovirus and 23 clinically compatible cases in southern Xinjiang. Wild-type poliovirus type 1 was isolated from 14 of 673 contacts of patients with acute flaccid paralysis (2.1%) and from 13 of 491 healthy persons who were not in contact with affected persons (2.6%). Sequence analysis implicated an imported wild-type poliovirus that originated in Pakistan as the cause of the outbreak. A public health emergency was declared in Xinjiang after the outbreak was confirmed. Surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis was enhanced, with daily reporting from all public and private hospitals. Five rounds of vaccination with live, attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) were conducted among children and adults, and 43 million doses of OPV were administered. Trivalent OPV was used in three rounds, and monovalent OPV type 1 was used in two rounds. The outbreak was stopped 1.5 months after laboratory confirmation of the index case. The 2011 outbreak in China showed that poliomyelitis-free countries remain at risk for outbreaks while the poliovirus circulates anywhere in the world. Global eradication of poliomyelitis will benefit all countries, even those that are currently free of poliomyelitis.

  9. An assessment of the geographical risks of wild and vaccine-derived poliomyelitis outbreaks in Africa and Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Kathleen M; Lamoureux, Christine; Molodecky, Natalie A; Lyons, Hil; Grassly, Nicholas C; Tallis, Graham

    2017-05-26

    The international spread of wild poliomyelitis outbreaks continues to threaten eradication of poliomyelitis and in 2014 a public health emergency of international concern was declared. Here we describe a risk scoring system that has been used to assess country-level risks of wild poliomyelitis outbreaks, to inform prioritisation of mass vaccination planning, and describe the change in risk from 2014 to 2016. The methods were also used to assess the risk of emergence of vaccine-derived poliomyelitis outbreaks. Potential explanatory variables were tested against the reported outbreaks of wild poliomyelitis since 2003 using multivariable regression analysis. The regression analysis was translated to a risk score and used to classify countries as Low, Medium, Medium High and High risk, based on the predictive ability of the score. Indicators of population immunity, population displacement and diarrhoeal disease were associated with an increased risk of both wild and vaccine-derived outbreaks. High migration from countries with wild cases was associated with wild outbreaks. High birth numbers were associated with an increased risk of vaccine-derived outbreaks. Use of the scoring system is a transparent and rapid approach to assess country risk of wild and vaccine-derived poliomyelitis outbreaks. Since 2008 there has been a steep reduction in the number of wild poliomyelitis outbreaks and the reduction in countries classified as High and Medium High risk has reflected this. The risk of vaccine-derived poliomyelitis outbreaks has varied geographically. These findings highlight that many countries remain susceptible to poliomyelitis outbreaks and maintenance or improvement in routine immunisation is vital.

  10. Eradication of poliomyelitis in South Africa | Blecher | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Medical Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 84, No 10 (1994) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load here if your ...

  11. From smallpox eradication to contemporary global health initiatives: enhancing human capacity towards a global public health goal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantola, Daniel; Foster, Stanley O

    2011-12-30

    The eradication of smallpox owes its success first and foremost to the thousands of lay health workers and community members who, throughout the campaign and across continents, took on the roles of advocates, educators, vaccinators, care providers and contributors to epidemic surveillance and containment. Bangladesh provides a good example where smallpox eradication and the capacity enhancement needed to achieve this goal resulted in a two-way mutually beneficial process. Smallpox-dedicated staff provided community members with information guidance, support and tools. In turn, communities not only created the enabling environment for smallpox program staff to perform their work but acquired the capacity to perform essential eradication tasks. Contemporary global health programmes can learn much from these core lessons including: the pivotal importance of supporting community aspirations, capacity and resilience; the critical need to enhance commitment, capacity and accountability across the workforce; and the high value of attentive human resources management and support. We owe to subsequent global disease control, elimination and eradication ventures recognition of the need for social and behavioural science to inform public health strategies; the essential roles that civil society organizations and public-private partnerships can play in public health discourse and action; the overall necessity of investing in broad-based health system strengthening; and the utility of applying human rights principles, norms and standards to public health policy and practice. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Vaccine-associated Paralytic Poliomyelitis in Immunodeficient Children, Iran, 1995–2008

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-07-06

    This podcast describes paralytic poliomyelitis infections acquired by immune-deficient Iranian children following their exposure to live-virus polio vaccine. Olen Kew, Associate Director for Global Laboratory Science at CDC, discusses implications of the use of live-virus vaccines in global polio eradication efforts.  Created: 7/6/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases.   Date Released: 7/6/2010.

  13. Poliomyelitis and the control programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, R N

    1985-01-01

    Poliomyelitis, an acute infectious disease which chiefly affects the central nervous system, is included in the list of 20 communicable diseases which are to be reported monthly by all institutions to the State Bureau of Health Intelligence for onward transmission to India's Central Bureau of Health Intelligence (CBHI). The reported number of 17,441 cases of poliomyelitis (annual average) since 1974 fail to reflect the magnitude of the problem in India. Directorate General of Health Services (DHGS) in collaboration with the State health authorities organized sample lameness surveys of children 5-9 years in the community during 1981-82. Poliomyelitis was found to be the major cause of lameness in children 5-9 years (64.5%). Data on admission of poliomyelitis cases from selected hospital in metropolitan cities were collected. All the hospitals reported maximum number of polio cases (more than 78%) below the age of 2 years. This data reinforce the importance of improving vaccination coverage in the age group most affected. High incidence of poliomyelitis (45% of the cases) were observed during July, August, and September, corresponding to the well demarcated monsoon season. This suggests a need to intensify immunization coverage during the low polio incidence period, namely, November to April. Polio vaccine was introduced in the national immunization program in 1980. The schedule recommends 3 doses of oral polio vaccine (OPV), starting from the age of 3 months with intervals not less than 1 month. DPT and polio vaccine are administered to the child at the same time. 1 booster dose of OPV is recommended 12-18 months later. The live attenuated OPV, not produced in India is used in the national program. The requirement of the program is met by import of bulk concentrated vaccine separately for type 1, type 2, and type 3. Then, it is diluted, blended, and ampouled by Haffkine Biopharmaceutical Corporation, Ltd. The recent visit of Dr. Jonas Salk has raised the issue of

  14. New Strains Intended for the Production of Inactivated Polio Vaccine at Low-Containment After Eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlson, Sarah; Burlison, John; Giles, Elaine; Fox, Helen; Macadam, Andrew J; Minor, Philip D

    2015-12-01

    Poliomyelitis has nearly been eradicated through the efforts of the World Health Organization's Global Eradication Initiative raising questions on containment of the virus after it has been eliminated in the wild. Most manufacture of inactivated polio vaccines currently requires the growth of large amounts of highly virulent poliovirus, and release from a production facility after eradication could be disastrous; WHO have therefore recommended the use of the attenuated Sabin strains for production as a safer option although it is recognised that they can revert to a transmissible paralytic form. We have exploited the understanding of the molecular virology of the Sabin vaccine strains to design viruses that are extremely genetically stable and hyperattenuated. The viruses are based on the type 3 Sabin vaccine strain and have been genetically modified in domain V of the 5' non-coding region by changing base pairs to produce a cassette into which capsid regions of other serotypes have been introduced. The viruses give satisfactory yields of antigenically and immunogenically correct viruses in culture, are without measurable neurovirulence and fail to infect non-human primates under conditions where the Sabin strains will do so.

  15. [Inactivated poliovirus vaccines: an inevitable choice for eliminating poliomyelitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidor, J D; Jean-Denis, Shu

    2016-12-06

    The inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) is a very old tool in the fight against poliomyelitis. Though supplanted by oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) in the 1960s and 1970s, the IPV has now become an inevitable choice because of the increasingly recognized risks associated with continuous use of OPVs. Following the pioneering work of Jonas Salk, who established key principles for the IPV, considerable experience has accumulated over the years. This work has led to modern Salk IPV-containing vaccines, based on the use of inactivated wildtype polioviruses, which have been deployed for routine use in many countries. Very good protection against paralysis is achieved with IPV through the presence of circulating antibodies able to neutralize virus infectivity toward motor neurons. In addition, with IPV, a variable degree of protection against mucosal infection (and therefore transmission) through mucosal antibodies and immune cells is achieved, depending on previous exposure of subjects to wildtype or vaccine polioviruses. The use of an IPV-followed-by-OPV sequential immunization schedule has the potential advantage of eliminating the vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) risk, while limiting the risks of vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPVs). Sabin strain-derived IPVs are new tools, only recently beginning to be deployed, and data are being generated to document their performance. IPVs will play an irreplaceable role in global eradication of polio.

  16. Key issues in the persistence of poliomyelitis in Nigeria: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangal, Tara D; Aylward, R Bruce; Mwanza, Michael; Gasasira, Alex; Abanida, Emmanuel; Pate, Muhammed A; Grassly, Nicholas C

    2014-02-01

    The completion of poliomyelitis eradication is a global emergency for public health. In 2012, more than 50% of the world's cases occurred in Nigeria following an unanticipated surge in incidence. We aimed to quantitatively analyse the key factors sustaining transmission of poliomyelitis in Nigeria and to calculate clinical efficacy estimates for the oral poliovirus vaccines (OPV) currently in use. We used acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance data from Nigeria collected between January, 2001, and December, 2012, to estimate the clinical efficacies of all four OPVs in use and combined this with vaccination coverage to estimate the effect of the introduction of monovalent and bivalent OPV on vaccine-induced serotype-specific population immunity. Vaccine efficacy was determined using a case-control study with CIs based on bootstrap resampling. Vaccine efficacy was also estimated separately for north and south Nigeria, by age of the children, and by year. Detailed 60-day follow-up data were collected from children with confirmed poliomyelitis and were used to assess correlates of vaccine status. We also quantitatively assessed the epidemiology of poliomyelitis and programme performance and considered the reasons for the high vaccine refusal rate along with risk factors for a given local government area reporting a case. Against serotype 1, both monovalent OPV (median 32.1%, 95% CI 26.1-38.1) and bivalent OPV (29.5%, 20.1-38.4) had higher clinical efficacy than trivalent OPV (19.4%, 16.1-22.8). Corresponding data for serotype 3 were 43.2% (23.1-61.1) and 23.8% (5.3-44.9) compared with 18.0% (14.1-22.1). Combined with increases in coverage, this factor has boosted population immunity in children younger than age 36 months to a record high (64-69% against serotypes 1 and 3). Vaccine efficacy in northern states was estimated to be significantly lower than in southern states (p≤0.05). The proportion of cases refusing vaccination decreased from 37-72% in 2008 to 21

  17. Coordination as a best practice from the polio eradication initiative: Experiences from five member states in the African region of the World Health Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeibunor, Joseph; Nsubuga, Peter; Salla, Mbaye; Mihigo, Richard; Mkanda, Pascal

    2016-10-10

    As part of the efforts to eradicate polioviruses in the African Region, structures were put in place to ensure coordinated mobilization and deployment of resources within the framework of the global polio eradication initiative (PEI). The successes of these structures made them not only attractive to other public health interventions, but also caused them to be deployed to the response efforts of other diseases interventions, without any systematic documentation. This article documents the contributions of PEI coordination units to other public health interventions in the African Region of World Health Organization METHODS: We reviewed the contributions of PEI coordination units to other public health interventions in five countries in the African Region. The analysis identified significant involvement of PEI coordination structures in the implementation of routine immunization programs in all the countries analyzed. Similarly, maternal and child health programs were planned, implemented, monitored and evaluation the Inter-Agency Coordination Committees of the PEI programs in the different countries. The hubs system used in PEI in Chad facilitated the efficient coordination of resources for immunization and other public health interventions in Chad. Similarly, in the Democratic Republic of Congo PEI led coordination activities benefited other public health programs like disease control and the national nutrition program, the national malaria control program, and the tuberculosis control program. In Nigeria, the polio Expert Review Committee effectively deployed the Emergency Operation Center for the implementation of prioritized strategies and activities of the National Polio Eradication Emergency Plan, and it was utilized in the response to Ebola Virus Disease outbreak in the country. The PEI-led coordination systems are thus recognized as having made significant contribution to the coordination and delivery of other public health interventions in the African

  18. [Poliomyelitis in Tajikistan. Protection of Russia from emergence and spread of wild poliomyelitis virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchenko, G G; Ezhlova, E B; Mel'nikova, A A; Lazikova, G F; Demina, Iu V; Frolova, N V

    2011-01-01

    Problem of emergence and spread of poliomyelitis in Russian Federation and neighboring states is examined. Measures taken in Russian Federation to prevent emergence of poliomyelitis cases caused by wild type virus are discussed, as well as treaties and agreements between Russia, Commonwealth of Independent States, Shanghai Cooperation Organization states regarding epidemiological control of poliomyelitis and acute flaccid paralysis. Measure planned by Federal Service for Surveillance for Protection of Consumers Rights and Human Welfare to prevent emergence of poliomyelitis and acute flaccid paralysis cases in Russian Federation and neighboring countries are presented.

  19. [Control of poliomyelitis and enterovirus infection in several areas of Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanenkova, N I; Bichurina, M A; Rosaeva, N R

    2011-01-01

    Control of poliovirus circulation by study of material from patients with acute flaccid paralysis and contact individuals, from children of risk groups; molecular characteristics of isolated polioviruses; monitoring of circulation of polioviruses and nonpoliomyelitis enteroviruses in population and the environment. Isolation and study of polioviruses and nonpoliomyelitis enteroviruses from various sources was performed in accordance with WHO recommendations. Prolonged persistence and circulation of vaccine related strains of polioviruses in children is demonstrated. Enterovirus serotypes that circulate in the population and the environment more frequently are determined. CONCLUSION. Long term control of poliomyelitis and acute flaccid paralysis in combination with additional control variants in children from risk groups and objects of the environment allowed to obtain valuable data on poliovirus and nonpoliomyelitis enteroviruses circulation for the Program of eradication of poliomyelitis.

  20. De poliomyelitis epidemie op Curacao in 1981

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Begeer, Jacobus Hermanus

    1986-01-01

    In deze studie wordt de poliomyelitis-epidemie beschreven die zich in de eerste helft van 1981 heeft voorgedaan op het eiland Curaeao en wordt onderzoek beschreven, dat naar aanleiding van deze epidemie werd verricht. ... Zie: Samenvatting

  1. Long-term mortality after poliomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nete Munk; Rostgaard, Klaus; Juel, Knud

    2003-01-01

    .18-3.37). Apart from polio patients with respiratory failure, long-term mortality did not appear to increase until 20 years after discharge. Contracting severe paralytic poliomyelitis at a young age seemed to increase long-term mortality. The most common causes of death were polio sequelae (standardized mortality...... patients. CONCLUSIONS: Survivors of poliomyelitis, especially severely paralyzed polio patients, have an increased long-term mortality....

  2. From their own perspective - constraints in the Polio Eradication Initiative: perceptions of health workers and managers in a district of Pakistan's Punjab province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushtaq Muhammad Umair

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The success of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative was remarkable, but four countries - Afghanistan, Pakistan, India and Nigeria - never interrupted polio transmission. Pakistan reportedly achieved all milestones except interrupting virus transmission. This paper describes the perceptions of health workers and managers regarding constraints in the Polio Eradication Initiative (PEI to ultimately provide evidence for designing future interventions. Methods A qualitative cross-sectional study using focus group discussions and in-depth interviews was conducted in the Nankana Sahib District of Pakistan's Punjab province. Study subjects included staff at all levels in the PEI at district headquarters, in all 4 tehsils (sub-districts and at 20 randomly selected primary health centers. In total, 4 FGD and 7 interview sessions were conducted and individual session summary notes were prepared and later synthesized, consolidated and subjected to conceptual analysis. Results The main constraints identified in the study were the poor condition of the cold chain in all aspects, poor skills and a lack of authority in resource allocation and human resource management, limited advocacy and communication resources, a lack of skills and training among staff at all levels in the PEI/EPI in almost all aspects of the program, a deficiency of public health professionals, poor health services structure, administrative issues (including ineffective means of performance evaluation, bureaucratic and political influences, problems in vaccination areas and field programs, no birth records at health facilities, and poor linkage between different preventive programs, unreliable reporting and poor monitoring and supervision systems, limited use of local data for interventions, and unclear roles and responsibilities after decentralization. Conclusion The study highlights various shortcomings and bottlenecks in the PEI, and the barriers identified should

  3. From their own perspective - constraints in the Polio Eradication Initiative: perceptions of health workers and managers in a district of Pakistan's Punjab province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Muhammad Umair; Shahid, Ubeera; Majrooh, Muhammad Ashraf; Shad, Mushtaq Ahmad; Siddiqui, Arif Mahmood; Akram, Javed

    2010-08-23

    The success of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative was remarkable, but four countries - Afghanistan, Pakistan, India and Nigeria - never interrupted polio transmission. Pakistan reportedly achieved all milestones except interrupting virus transmission. This paper describes the perceptions of health workers and managers regarding constraints in the Polio Eradication Initiative (PEI) to ultimately provide evidence for designing future interventions. A qualitative cross-sectional study using focus group discussions and in-depth interviews was conducted in the Nankana Sahib District of Pakistan's Punjab province. Study subjects included staff at all levels in the PEI at district headquarters, in all 4 tehsils (sub-districts) and at 20 randomly selected primary health centers. In total, 4 FGD and 7 interview sessions were conducted and individual session summary notes were prepared and later synthesized, consolidated and subjected to conceptual analysis. The main constraints identified in the study were the poor condition of the cold chain in all aspects, poor skills and a lack of authority in resource allocation and human resource management, limited advocacy and communication resources, a lack of skills and training among staff at all levels in the PEI/EPI in almost all aspects of the program, a deficiency of public health professionals, poor health services structure, administrative issues (including ineffective means of performance evaluation, bureaucratic and political influences, problems in vaccination areas and field programs, no birth records at health facilities, and poor linkage between different preventive programs), unreliable reporting and poor monitoring and supervision systems, limited use of local data for interventions, and unclear roles and responsibilities after decentralization. The study highlights various shortcomings and bottlenecks in the PEI, and the barriers identified should be considered in prioritizing future strategies.

  4. Poliomyelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the virus. Endemic transmission is continuing in Afghanistan, Nigeria and Pakistan. Failure to stop polio in ... least US$ 40–50 billion, mostly in low-income countries. Most importantly, success will mean that no ...

  5. Poliomyelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos ... To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Polio is a viral disease that can affect nerves and can lead ...

  6. European Pharmacopoeia biological reference preparation for poliomyelitis vaccine (inactivated): collaborative study for the establishment of batch No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J; Daas, A; Milne, C

    2016-01-01

    Inactivated poliomyelitis vaccines are an important part of the World Health Organization (WHO) control strategy to eradicate poliomyelitis. Requirements for the quality control of poliomyelitis vaccines (inactivated) include the use of an in vitro D antigen quantification assay for potency determination on the final lot as outlined in the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) monograph 0214. Performance of this assay requires a reference preparation calibrated in International Units (IU). A Ph. Eur. biological reference preparation (BRP) for poliomyelitis vaccine (inactivated) calibrated in IU has been established for this purpose. Due to the dwindling stocks of batch 2 of the BRP a collaborative study was run as part of the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare (EDQM) Biological Standardisation Programme to establish BRP batch 3 (BRP3). Twelve laboratories including Official Medicines Control Laboratories (OMCLs) and manufacturers participated. The candidate BRP3 (cBRP3) was from the same source and had the same characteristics as BRP batch 2 (BRP2). During the study the candidate was calibrated against the 3 rd International Standard for inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine using in-house D antigen ELISA assays in line with the Ph. Eur. monograph 0214. The candidate was also compared to BRP2 to evaluate the continuity. Based on the results of the study, values of 320 DU/mL, 78 DU/mL and 288 DU/mL (D antigen units/mL) (IU) for poliovirus type 1, 2 and 3 respectively were assigned to the candidate. In June 2016, the Ph. Eur. Commission adopted the material as Ph. Eur. BRP for poliomyelitis vaccine (inactivated) batch 3.

  7. Risk factors and short-term projections for serotype-1 poliomyelitis incidence in Pakistan: A spatiotemporal analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie A Molodecky

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan currently provides a substantial challenge to global polio eradication, having contributed to 73% of reported poliomyelitis in 2015 and 54% in 2016. A better understanding of the risk factors and movement patterns that contribute to poliovirus transmission across Pakistan would support evidence-based planning for mass vaccination campaigns.We fit mixed-effects logistic regression models to routine surveillance data recording the presence of poliomyelitis associated with wild-type 1 poliovirus in districts of Pakistan over 6-month intervals between 2010 to 2016. To accurately capture the force of infection (FOI between districts, we compared 6 models of population movement (adjacency, gravity, radiation, radiation based on population density, radiation based on travel times, and mobile-phone based. We used the best-fitting model (based on the Akaike Information Criterion [AIC] to produce 6-month forecasts of poliomyelitis incidence. The odds of observing poliomyelitis decreased with improved routine or supplementary (campaign immunisation coverage (multivariable odds ratio [OR] = 0.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.67-0.84; and OR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.66-0.85, respectively, for each 10% increase in coverage and increased with a higher rate of reporting non-polio acute flaccid paralysis (AFP (OR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.02-1.26 for a 1-unit increase in non-polio AFP per 100,000 persons aged <15 years. Estimated movement of poliovirus-infected individuals was associated with the incidence of poliomyelitis, with the radiation model of movement providing the best fit to the data. Six-month forecasts of poliomyelitis incidence by district for 2013-2016 showed good predictive ability (area under the curve range: 0.76-0.98. However, although the best-fitting movement model (radiation was a significant determinant of poliomyelitis incidence, it did not improve the predictive ability of the multivariable model. Overall, in Pakistan the risk of polio cases

  8. Risk factors and short-term projections for serotype-1 poliomyelitis incidence in Pakistan: A spatiotemporal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molodecky, Natalie A; Blake, Isobel M; O'Reilly, Kathleen M; Wadood, Mufti Zubair; Safdar, Rana M; Wesolowski, Amy; Buckee, Caroline O; Bandyopadhyay, Ananda S; Okayasu, Hiromasa; Grassly, Nicholas C

    2017-06-01

    Pakistan currently provides a substantial challenge to global polio eradication, having contributed to 73% of reported poliomyelitis in 2015 and 54% in 2016. A better understanding of the risk factors and movement patterns that contribute to poliovirus transmission across Pakistan would support evidence-based planning for mass vaccination campaigns. We fit mixed-effects logistic regression models to routine surveillance data recording the presence of poliomyelitis associated with wild-type 1 poliovirus in districts of Pakistan over 6-month intervals between 2010 to 2016. To accurately capture the force of infection (FOI) between districts, we compared 6 models of population movement (adjacency, gravity, radiation, radiation based on population density, radiation based on travel times, and mobile-phone based). We used the best-fitting model (based on the Akaike Information Criterion [AIC]) to produce 6-month forecasts of poliomyelitis incidence. The odds of observing poliomyelitis decreased with improved routine or supplementary (campaign) immunisation coverage (multivariable odds ratio [OR] = 0.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.67-0.84; and OR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.66-0.85, respectively, for each 10% increase in coverage) and increased with a higher rate of reporting non-polio acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) (OR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.02-1.26 for a 1-unit increase in non-polio AFP per 100,000 persons aged poliomyelitis, with the radiation model of movement providing the best fit to the data. Six-month forecasts of poliomyelitis incidence by district for 2013-2016 showed good predictive ability (area under the curve range: 0.76-0.98). However, although the best-fitting movement model (radiation) was a significant determinant of poliomyelitis incidence, it did not improve the predictive ability of the multivariable model. Overall, in Pakistan the risk of polio cases was predicted to reduce between July-December 2016 and January-June 2017. The accuracy of the model may be limited

  9. The effect of mass immunisation campaigns and new oral poliovirus vaccines on the incidence of poliomyelitis in Pakistan and Afghanistan, 2001-11: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Kathleen M; Durry, Elias; ul Islam, Obaid; Quddus, Arshad; Abid, Ni'ma; Mir, Tahir P; Tangermann, Rudi H; Aylward, R Bruce; Grassly, Nicholas C

    2012-08-04

    Pakistan and Afghanistan are two of the three remaining countries yet to interrupt wild-type poliovirus transmission. The increasing incidence of poliomyelitis in these countries during 2010-11 led the Executive Board of WHO in January, 2012, to declare polio eradication a "programmatic emergency for global public health". We aimed to establish why incidence is rising in these countries despite programme innovations including the introduction of new vaccines. We did a matched case-control analysis based on a database of 46,977 children aged 0-14 years with onset of acute flaccid paralysis between Jan 1, 2001, and Dec 31, 2011. The vaccination history of children with poliomyelitis was compared with that of children with acute flaccid paralysis due to other causes to estimate the clinical effectiveness of oral poliovirus vaccines (OPVs) in Afghanistan and Pakistan by conditional logistic regression. We estimated vaccine coverage and serotype-specific vaccine-induced population immunity in children aged 0-2 years and assessed their association with the incidence of poliomyelitis over time in seven regions of Afghanistan and Pakistan. Between Jan 1, 2001, and Dec 31, 2011, there were 883 cases of serotype 1 poliomyelitis (710 in Pakistan and 173 in Afghanistan) and 272 cases of poliomyelitis serotype 3 (216 in Pakistan and 56 in Afghanistan). The estimated clinical effectiveness of a dose of trivalent OPV against serotype 1 poliomyelitis was 12·5% (95% CI 5·6-18·8) compared with 34·5% (16·1-48·9) for monovalent OPV (p=0·007) and 23·4% (10·4-34·6) for bivalent OPV (p=0·067). Bivalent OPV was non-inferior compared with monovalent OPV (p=0·21). Vaccination coverage decreased during 2006-11 in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA), Balochistan, and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in Pakistan and in southern Afghanistan. Although partially mitigated by the use of more effective vaccines, these decreases in coverage resulted in lower vaccine-induced population

  10. The effect of mass immunisation campaigns and new oral poliovirus vaccines on the incidence of poliomyelitis in Pakistan and Afghanistan, 2001–11: a retrospective analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Kathleen M; Durry, Elias; ul Islam, Obaid; Quddus, Arshad; Abid, Ni'ma; Mir, Tahir P; Tangermann, Rudi H; Aylward, R Bruce; Grassly, Nicholas C

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Pakistan and Afghanistan are two of the three remaining countries yet to interrupt wild-type poliovirus transmission. The increasing incidence of poliomyelitis in these countries during 2010–11 led the Executive Board of WHO in January, 2012, to declare polio eradication a “programmatic emergency for global public health”. We aimed to establish why incidence is rising in these countries despite programme innovations including the introduction of new vaccines. Methods We did a matched case-control analysis based on a database of 46 977 children aged 0–14 years with onset of acute flaccid paralysis between Jan 1, 2001, and Dec 31, 2011. The vaccination history of children with poliomyelitis was compared with that of children with acute flaccid paralysis due to other causes to estimate the clinical effectiveness of oral poliovirus vaccines (OPVs) in Afghanistan and Pakistan by conditional logistic regression. We estimated vaccine coverage and serotype-specific vaccine-induced population immunity in children aged 0–2 years and assessed their association with the incidence of poliomyelitis over time in seven regions of Afghanistan and Pakistan. Findings Between Jan 1, 2001, and Dec 31, 2011, there were 883 cases of serotype 1 poliomyelitis (710 in Pakistan and 173 in Afghanistan) and 272 cases of poliomyelitis serotype 3 (216 in Pakistan and 56 in Afghanistan). The estimated clinical effectiveness of a dose of trivalent OPV against serotype 1 poliomyelitis was 12·5% (95% CI 5·6–18·8) compared with 34·5% (16·1–48·9) for monovalent OPV (p=0·007) and 23·4% (10·4–34·6) for bivalent OPV (p=0·067). Bivalent OPV was non-inferior compared with monovalent OPV (p=0·21). Vaccination coverage decreased during 2006–11 in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA), Balochistan, and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in Pakistan and in southern Afghanistan. Although partially mitigated by the use of more effective vaccines, these decreases in

  11. Eradicating malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breman, Joel G

    2009-01-01

    The renewed interest in malaria research and control is based on the intolerable toll this disease takes on young children and pregnant women in Africa and other vulnerable populations; 150 to 300 children die each hour from malaria amounting to 1 to 2 million deaths yearly. Malaria-induced neurologic impairment, anemia, hypoglycemia, and low birth weight imperil normal development and survival. Resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to drugs and Anopheles mosquitoes to insecticides has stimulated discovery and development of artemisinin-based combination treatments (ACTs) and other drugs, long-lasting insecticide-treated bednets (with synthetic pyrethroids) and a search for non-toxic, long-lasting, affordable insecticides for indoor residual spraying (IRS). Malaria vaccine development and testing are progressing rapidly and a recombinant protein (RTS,S/AS02A) directed against the circumsporozoite protein is soon to be in Phase 3 trials. Support for malaria control, research, and advocacy through the Global Fund for HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, the U.S. President's Malaria Initiative, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, WHO and other organizations is resulting in decreasing morbidity and mortality in many malarious countries. Sustainability of effective programs through training and institution strengthening will be the key to malaria elimination coupled with improved surveillance and targeted research.

  12. THE SMALL HOSPITAL'S ROLE IN POLIOMYELITIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Edward B.; Thelander, H. E.

    1952-01-01

    Medical skills should be developed by the staffs of smaller hospitals for the differential study of patients with symptoms resembling those of poliomyelitis in order to provide the rudiments of care for the occasional patient with mild poliomyelitis, to recognize the indications which point to the necessity of superior technical assistance, and to decide when it is appropriate to move patients to better equipped centers. The impetuous acquisition of mechanical aids for the treatment of special problems will be effective in small communities only to the extent that this equipment is kept serviceable and is operated by persons of sufficient skill. Epidemic situations in a small community can be met only by mobilization of facilities under adequate direction and by integration of care with that provided by larger treatment centers. PMID:12978885

  13. Post-polio syndrome: renaissance of poliomyelitis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Andre Barbosa de Lira

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Poliomyelitis is an acute and infectious viral disease, transmitted primarily through oral-fecal contact or directly, person to person. Approximately 90% of the individuals infected by the polio virus do not present symptoms; however, the affected individuals can show a variety of symptoms if the virus reaches the bloodstream. In up to 2% of cases, the virus reaches the central nervous system  preferably infecting and destroying the motor neurons, resulting in muscular weakness and acute flaccid paralysis. Despite the expressive reduction in the number of cases, many people live with the consequences of the acute illness, thus representing a burden to the public healthcare systems. Many of these people present new manifestations as signs and symptoms that are called post-polio syndrome. It can be defined and characterized by new neuromuscular symptoms, which occur at least 15 years after a period of clinical and functional stability in patients with previous history of symptomatic poliomyelitis. The signs and symptoms characterizing the post-polio syndrome include new muscular weakness, muscular fatigue and atrophy, pain in joints and muscles, sleep disorders, intolerance to cold, respiratory and swallowing difficulties, and recent weight gain. Therefore, the aim of this review is to present the physiological changes caused by the new manifestation of symptoms in individuals with poliomyelitis.

  14. Eradication of tetanus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thwaites, C. L.; Loan, H. T.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The causative agent of tetanus, Clostridium tetani is widespread in the environment throughout the world and cannot be eradicated. To reduce the number of cases of tetanus efforts are focussed on prevention using vaccination and post-exposure wound care. Sources of data Medline, Pubmed and Cochrane databases; World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund publications. Areas of agreement The maternal and neonatal tetanus elimination initiative has resulted in significant reductions in mortality from neonatal tetanus throughout the world. Areas of controversy Although there are few data available it is likely that large numbers of children and adults, particularly men, remain unprotected due to lack of booster immunization. Areas timely for developing research It remains unclear how HIV and malaria affect both responses to vaccination and transplacental transfer of antibodies or how this might affect timing of vaccination doses. PMID:26598719

  15. Lower limb fractures in adult patients with residua of poliomyelitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Few studies have been published in the literature regarding fractures of limbs in patients with poliomyelitis. We have conducted a retrospective study from 1992 to 2004 in order to present our data on fractures of lower limbs in adult patients with residua of poliomyelitis. During the thirteen-year period under study, only eight ...

  16. [Herd immunity against poliomyelitis in children in the Moscow Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seĭbil', V B; Malyshkina, L P; Tamazian, G V; Konopleva, T N; Uspenskaia, E S

    2009-01-01

    Herd immunity against poliomyelitis was studied in 1391 children and adolescents from 10 towns of the Moscow Region. It was ascertained that the values of herd immunity against poliomyelitis virus type 1 were high everywhere and those of herd immunity against poliomyelitis virus type 2 were high and very high in 9 towns and below the WHO minimum levels (80%). The values of herd immunity against poliomyelitis virus type 3; they were lower than the required minimum in 2 towns and very low in 2 other towns arouse alarm. The study of strain-specific antibodies to vaccine-derived and wild polioviruses has demonstrated that wild poliomyelitis viruses have not circulated in the areas of the examinees in the past decade.

  17. Long-standing poliomyelitis and psychological health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, Shimon; Gartsman, Irina; Meiner, Zeev; Schwartz, Isabella

    2015-01-01

    To compare the psychological health of the individuals with long-standing poliomyelitis, with or without post-polio syndrome (PPS), to the general population and to identify the role of work as well as other variables with regard to their psychological health. A cross-sectional study. One hundred and ninety-five polio patients attending postpolio clinic in Jerusalem. Emotional distress (ED) was measured using the general health questionnaire (GHQ-12). Demographic, medical, social and functional data were recorded using a specific structured questionnaire. Each polio patient was compared to four age- and sex-matched controls. ED was higher in the polio population as compared to the general population. Within the polio population ED was inversely correlated with work status. No correlation was found between ED and the functional level of polio participants and no difference was found in GHQ score between polio participants with or without post-polio. In addition, ED was less affected by subjective perception of physical health among polio patients as compared to the general population. Long-standing poliomyelitis is associated with decreased psychological health as compared to the general population. Yet, the resilience of polio survivors is manifested by their ability to block further decline of their psychological health in spite of deterioration in their physical health. Work appears as a significant source of resilience in the polio population. Implications for Rehabilitation Individuals with long-standing poliomyelitis often suffer from high emotional distress and may benefit from psychotherapy aimed at reducing distress. As active employment status is associated with increased mental health among polio survivors, encouraging participation at work needs to be a significant component of psychotherapeutic programs. Polio survivors, although physically disabled, may be relatively resilient, as their mental health is less affected by their negative health perception

  18. polio eradication in nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cumulative total of 302 as at Jan 2004), ... have further resulted in the previous cancellation of polio-vaccination campaigns in several key Northern. Nigeria states. The outcome ... eradicate the sufferings, paralysis and death associated with the ...

  19. Tsetse eradication: Zanzibar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Tsetse flies (Glossina sp.) continue to make livestock production difficult or impossible throughout a very large part of Africa. One of the most promising techniques for eradicating tsetse from certain locations is the environmentally safe Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). In collaboration with the Tanzanian authorities, the Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, to eradicate tsetse from Zanzibar using the SIT. (IAEA)

  20. A probable case of poliomyelitis imported to Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Chee Geap; Ong, Lai Choo; Goh, Khean Jin; Rahmat, Kartini; Fong, Choong Yi

    2015-12-01

    We report a previously well 10-month-old Somalian girl who acquired asymmetric lower limb weakness in July 2013 in Mogadishu, Banadir, before arriving in Malaysia at 12 months of age. In May 2013, there was a wild poliomyelitis outbreak in that area, as reported by the World Health Organization. Laboratory investigation, including cerebrospinal fluid, was unremarkable, and electrophysiological studies showed active axonal denervation in the left lower limb. The whole spine T2-weighted MRI revealed non-enhancing hyperintensities of the bilateral anterior horn cells, predominantly on the left side at T11-12. The viral isolations from two stool specimens at her presentation to our centre, 2 months after the onset of illness and 2 weeks apart, were negative. Despite lacking the acute virological evidence of poliomyelitis, in view of the girl's clinical, electrophysiological and classical spinal neuroradiological features, together with her temporal relationship with a World Health Organization reported wild poliomyelitis outbreak, we believe these findings are consistent with a diagnosis of imported poliomyelitis. A review at 30 months of age showed persistent left lower limb monoplegia with little recovery. Our patient reiterates the importance of maintaining awareness of wild polio importation, and keeping abreast of the latest news of global poliomyelitis outbreaks when treating patients with flaccid paralysis, even if they arrive from non-endemic poliomyelitis areas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Long-term mortality after poliomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nete Munk; Rostgaard, Klaus; Juel, Knud

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few studies have described mortality and cause of death among persons with a history of polio. METHODS: We identified a group of patients diagnosed with poliomyelitis in Copenhagen between 1919 and 1954. We obtained information on vital status through May 1997 and on cause of death...... by linkage with the Danish Civil Registration System and the Danish Cause-of-Death Register. Overall and cause-specific standardized mortality ratios served as the measure of mortality risk relative to that of the general population. RESULTS: We observed 1295 deaths among 5977 polio patients compared...... with an expected 1141 deaths (standardized mortality ratio = 1.14; 95% confidence interval = 1.07-1.20). Excess mortality was restricted to polio patients with a history of severe paralysis of the extremities (1.69; 1.32-2.15) or patients who had been treated for respiratory failure during the epidemics (2.71; 2...

  2. [Poliomyelitis and the post-polio syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dénes, Z; Varga, M

    2001-07-15

    In developed countries as well as in Hungary polio virus related disease disappeared completely due to the extensive administering of vaccine. As a result, young and middle-aged doctors have no experience of encountering acute polio virus infection but instead they meet its resultant impairments and disabilities. Persons who had suffered the onset of poliomyelitis 3 or 4 decades earlier, may to develop a new set of symptoms and functional declines. The criteria for post-polio syndrome were identified and its impairments and disabilities were described. It is only within the last decade that the adaptive changes in muscular tissue, insufficiently compensed denervation, together with the effects of physiotherapy, have become better known. The aim of this paper is to review the present situation concerning the struggle for keeping the polio virus in check, to give a short summary of the post-polio syndrome and to draw attention to the importance of rehabilitation.

  3. A Transgenic Mouse Model of Poliomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Satoshi; Nagata, Noriyo

    2016-01-01

    Transgenic mice (tg mice) that express the human poliovirus receptor (PVR), CD155, are susceptible to poliovirus and develop a neurological disease that resembles human poliomyelitis. Assessment of the neurovirulence levels of poliovirus strains, including mutant viruses produced by reverse genetics, circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus, and vaccine candidates, is useful for basic research of poliovirus pathogenicity, the surveillance of circulating polioviruses, and the quality control of oral live poliovirus vaccines, and does not require the use of monkeys. Furthermore, PVR-tg mice are useful for studying poliovirus tissue tropism and host immune responses. PVR-tg mice can be bred with mice deficient in the genes involved in viral pathogenicity. This report describes the methods used to analyze the pathogenicity and immune responses of poliovirus using the PVR-tg mouse model.

  4. Shoulder arthroplasty for sequelae of poliomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werthel, Jean-David; Schoch, Bradley; Sperling, John W; Cofield, Robert; Elhassan, Bassem T

    2016-05-01

    Polio infection can often lead to orthopedic complications such as arthritis, osteoporosis, muscle weakness, skeletal deformation, and chronic instability of the joints. The purpose of this study was to assess the outcomes and associated complications of arthroplasty in shoulders with sequelae of poliomyelitis. Seven patients (average age, 70 years) were treated between 1976 and 2013 with shoulder arthroplasty for the sequelae of polio. One patient underwent reverse shoulder arthroplasty, 2 had a hemiarthroplasty, and 4 had total shoulder arthroplasty. Average follow-up was 87 months. Outcome measures included pain, range of motion, and postoperative modified Neer ratings. Overall pain scores improved from 5 to 1.6 points (on a 5-point scale) after shoulder arthroplasty. Six shoulders had no or mild pain at latest follow-up, and 6 shoulders rated the result as much better or better. Mean shoulder elevation improved from 72° to 129°, and external rotation improved from 11° to 56°. Average strength in elevation decreased from 3.9 to 3.4 postoperatively, and external rotation strength decreased from 3.9 to 3.3. This, however, did not reach significance. Evidence of muscle imbalance with radiographic instability was found in 4 shoulders that demonstrated superior subluxation, anterior subluxation, or both. This remained asymptomatic. No shoulder required revision or reoperation. Shoulder arthroplasty provides significant pain relief and improved motion in patients with sequelae of poliomyelitis. Muscle weakness may be responsible for postoperative instability, and careful selection of the patient with good upper extremity muscles must be made. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A New Method for Estimating the Coverage of Mass Vaccination Campaigns Against Poliomyelitis From Surveillance Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, K M; Cori, A; Durry, E; Wadood, M Z; Bosan, A; Aylward, R B; Grassly, N C

    2015-12-01

    Mass vaccination campaigns with the oral poliovirus vaccine targeting children aged poliomyelitis eradication effort. Monitoring the coverage of these campaigns is essential to allow corrective action, but current approaches are limited by their cross-sectional nature, nonrandom sampling, reporting biases, and accessibility issues. We describe a new Bayesian framework using data augmentation and Markov chain Monte Carlo methods to estimate variation in vaccination coverage from children's vaccination histories investigated during surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis. We tested the method using simulated data with at least 200 cases and were able to detect undervaccinated groups if they exceeded 10% of all children and temporal changes in coverage of ±10% with greater than 90% sensitivity. Application of the method to data from Pakistan for 2010-2011 identified undervaccinated groups within the Balochistan/Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa regions, as well as temporal changes in coverage. The sizes of these groups are consistent with the multiple challenges faced by the program in these regions as a result of conflict and insecurity. Application of this new method to routinely collected data can be a useful tool for identifying poorly performing areas and assisting in eradication efforts. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

  6. Theodore E. Woodward Award: The devastating backlash of a dread disease: poliomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, F Tremaine; Collins, Robert D

    2005-01-01

    The paper is in three parts. 1) A description of acute anterior poliomyelitis; 2) A summary of the condition of post-polio syndrome; 3) A description of two small epidemics of poliomyelitis juxtaposed and related to one another.

  7. Eradicating statelessness in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ignacio Mondelli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Considerable progress has been made towards eradicating statelessness in Latin America and the Caribbean since 2014 but there is still work to be done if it is to become the first world region to eradicate statelessness.

  8. Robustness against serum neutralization of a poliovirus type 1 from a lethal epidemic of poliomyelitis in the Republic of Congo in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, Jan Felix; Grard, Gilda; Lukashev, Alexander N; Kozlovskaya, Liubov I; Böttcher, Sindy; Uslu, Gökhan; Reimerink, Johan; Gmyl, Anatoly P; Taty-Taty, Raphaël; Lekana-Douki, Sonia Etenna; Nkoghe, Dieudonné; Eis-Hübinger, Anna M; Diedrich, Sabine; Koopmans, Marion; Leroy, Eric M; Drosten, Christian

    2014-09-02

    In 2010, a large outbreak of poliomyelitis with unusual 47% lethality occurred in Pointe Noire, Republic of Congo. Vaccine-mediated immunity against the outbreak virus was never investigated. A wild poliovirus 1 (WPV1) isolated from a fatal case (termed PV1-RC2010) showed a previously unknown combination of amino acid exchanges in critical antigenic site 2 (AgS2, VP1 capsid protein positions 221SAAL → 221PADL). These exchanges were also detected in an additional 11 WPV1 strains from fatal cases. PV1-RC2010 escaped neutralization by three different mAbs relevant for AgS2. Virus neutralization was tested in sera from fatal cases, who died before supplementary immunization (n = 24), Gabonese recipients of recent oral polio vaccination (n = 12), routinely vaccinated German medical students (n = 34), and German outpatients tested for antipoliovirus immunity (n = 17) on Vero, human rhabdomyosarcoma, and human epidermoid carcinoma 2 cells. Fatal poliomyelitis cases gave laboratory evidence of previous trivalent vaccination. Neutralizing antibody titers against PV1-RC2010 were significantly lower than those against the vaccine strain Sabin-1, two genetically distinct WPV1s isolated in 1965 and 2010 and two genetically distinct vaccine-derived PV strains. Of German vaccinees tested according to World Health Organization protocols, 15-29% were unprotected according to their neutralization titers (poliomyelitis eradication in populations with predominantly vaccine-derived immunity. Sustained vaccination coverage and clinical and environmental surveillance will be necessary.

  9. Population Immunity against Serotype-2 Poliomyelitis Leading up to the Global Withdrawal of the Oral Poliovirus Vaccine: Spatio-temporal Modelling of Surveillance Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons-Salort, Margarita; Molodecky, Natalie A; O'Reilly, Kathleen M; Wadood, Mufti Zubair; Safdar, Rana M; Etsano, Andrew; Vaz, Rui Gama; Jafari, Hamid; Grassly, Nicholas C; Blake, Isobel M

    2016-10-01

    Global withdrawal of serotype-2 oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV2) took place in April 2016. This marked a milestone in global polio eradication and was a public health intervention of unprecedented scale, affecting 155 countries. Achieving high levels of serotype-2 population immunity before OPV2 withdrawal was critical to avoid subsequent outbreaks of serotype-2 vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPV2s). In August 2015, we estimated vaccine-induced population immunity against serotype-2 poliomyelitis for 1 January 2004-30 June 2015 and produced forecasts for April 2016 by district in Nigeria and Pakistan. Population immunity was estimated from the vaccination histories of children poliomyelitis. District immunity estimates were spatio-temporally smoothed using a Bayesian hierarchical framework. Coverage estimates for immunisation activities were also obtained, allowing for heterogeneity within and among districts. Forward projections of immunity, based on these estimates and planned immunisation activities, were produced through to April 2016 using a cohort model. Estimated population immunity was negatively correlated with the probability of VDPV2 poliomyelitis being reported in a district. In Nigeria and Pakistan, declines in immunity during 2008-2009 and 2012-2013, respectively, were associated with outbreaks of VDPV2. Immunity has since improved in both countries as a result of increased use of trivalent OPV, and projections generally indicated sustained or improved immunity in April 2016, such that the majority of districts (99% [95% uncertainty interval 97%-100%] in Nigeria and 84% [95% uncertainty interval 77%-91%] in Pakistan) had >70% population immunity among children poliomyelitis was forecasted to improve in April 2016 compared to the first half of 2015 in Nigeria and Pakistan. These analyses informed the endorsement of OPV2 withdrawal in April 2016 by the WHO Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization.

  10. Fruit fly eradication: Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Fruit exports account for 9% of Argentina's total agricultural exports and generate annually close to $450 million. This could be increased but for fruit flies that cause damage equivalent to 15% to 20% of present production value of fruit and also deny export access to countries imposing quarantine barriers. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, to eradicate the Mediterranean fruit fly using the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). (IAEA)

  11. Nucleotide variation in Sabin type 3 poliovirus from an Albanian infant with agammaglobulinemia and vaccine associated poliomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foiadelli, Thomas; Savasta, Salvatore; Battistone, Andrea; Kota, Majlinda; Passera, Carolina; Fiore, Stefano; Bino, Silvia; Amato, Concetta; Lozza, Alessandro; Marseglia, Gian Luigi; Fiore, Lucia

    2016-06-10

    Vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) and immunodeficient long-term polio excretors constitute a significant public health burden and are a major concern for the WHO global polio eradication endgame. Poliovirus type 3 characterized as Sabin-like was isolated from a 5-month-old Albanian child with X-linked agammaglobulinemia and VAPP after oral polio vaccine administration. Diagnostic workup and treatment were performed in Italy. Poliovirus replicated in the gut for 7 months. The 5' non coding region (NCR), VP1, VP3 capsid proteins and the 3D polymerase genomic regions of sequential isolates were sequenced. Increasing accumulation of nucleotide mutations in the VP1 region was detected over time, reaching 1.0 % of genome variation with respect to the Sabin reference strain, which is the threshold that defines a vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV). We identified mutations in the 5'NCR and VP3 regions that are associated with reversion to neurovirulence. Despite this, all isolates were characterized as Sabin-like. Several amino acid mutations were identified in the VP1 region, probably involved in growth adaptation and viral persistence in the human gut. Intertypic recombination with Sabin type 2 polio in the 3D polymerase region, possibly associated with increased virus transmissibility, was found in all isolates. Gamma-globulin replacement therapy led to viral clearance and neurological improvement, preventing the occurrence of persistent immunodeficiency-related VDPV. This is the first case of VAPP in an immunodeficient child detected in Albania through the Acute Flaccid Paralysis surveillance system and the first investigated case of vaccine associated poliomyelitis in Italy since the introduction of an all-Salk schedule in 2002. We discuss over the biological and clinical implications in the context of the Global Polio Eradication Program and emphasize on the importance of the Acute Flaccid Paralysis surveillance.

  12. Research and clinical aspects of the late effects of poliomyelitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halstead, L.S.; Wiechers, D.O.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 32 selections. Some of the titles are: Late effects of Polio: Historical Perspectives; Sleep-Disordered Breathing as a Late Effect of Poliomyelitis; Clinical Subtypes, DNA Repair Efficiency, and Therapeutic Trials in the Post-Polio Syndromes; and Post-Polio Muscle Function.

  13. Poliomyelitis in Osun State, Nigeria: Two Confirmed Cases After 6 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Clinico-epidemological characteristics of two confirmed cases of poliomyelitis detected by Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) surveillance in Osun State of Nigeria after almost 6 years of the last confirmed case in the State was reported to provide information for formulating possible aetiological hypothesis and to adequately ...

  14. Circulatory autonomic failure 50 years after acute poliomyelitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Harkel, A. D.; van Lieshout, J. J.; Wieling, W.

    1991-01-01

    A 59-year old woman who presented with postural dizziness 50 years after an acute episode of poliomyelitis is described. There were no new neurological signs and no evidence of motor neuron disease. She had postural hypotension with an abnormal Valsalva. Investigations led to a diagnosis of

  15. Control of Influenza and Poliomyelitis with Killed Virus Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salk, Jonas; Salk, Darrell

    1977-01-01

    Discusses control of poliomyelitis and influenza by live and killed virus vaccines. Considered are the etiological agents, pathogenic mechanisms and epidemiology of each disease. Reviews recent scientific studies of the diseases. Recommends use of killed virus vaccines in controlling both diseases. (CS)

  16. The effect of a knee ankle foot orthosis incorporating an active knee mechanism on gait of a person with poliomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arazpour, Mokhtar; Chitsazan, Ahmad; Bani, Monireh Ahmadi; Rouhi, Gholamreza; Ghomshe, Farhad Tabatabai; Hutchins, Stephen W

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this case study was to identify the effect of a powered stance control knee ankle foot orthosis on the kinematics and temporospatial parameters of walking by a person with poliomyelitis when compared to a knee ankle foot orthosis. A knee ankle foot orthosis was initially manufactured by incorporating drop lock knee joints and custom molded ankle foot orthoses and fitted to a person with poliomyelitis. The orthosis was then adapted by adding electrically activated powered knee joints to provide knee extension torque during stance and also flexion torque in swing phase. Lower limb kinematic and kinetic data plus data for temporospatial parameters were acquired from three test walks using each orthosis. Walking speed, step length, and vertical and horizontal displacement of the pelvis decreased when walking with the powered stance control knee ankle foot orthosis compared to the knee ankle foot orthosis. When using the powered stance control knee ankle foot orthosis, the knee flexion achieved during swing and also the overall pattern of walking more closely matched that of normal human walking. The reduced walking speed may have caused the smaller compensatory motions detected when the powered stance control knee ankle foot orthosis was used. The new powered SCKAFO facilitated controlled knee flexion and extension during ambulation for a volunteer poliomyelitis person.

  17. Eradication of tephritid fruit fly pest populations: outcomes and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suckling, David Maxwell; Kean, John M.; Stringer, Lloyd D.; Cáceres-Barrios, Carlos; Hendrichs, Jorge; Reyes-Flores, Jesus; Dominiak, Bernard C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The number of insect eradication programmes is rising in response to globalisation. A database of arthropod and plant pathogen eradications covers 1050 incursion responses, with 928 eradication programmes on 299 pest and disease taxa in 104 countries (global eradication database b3.net.nz/gerda). METHODS: A subset of the database was assembled with 211 eradication or response programmes against 17 species of fruit flies (Tephritidae) in 31 countries, in order to investigate factors affecting the outcome. RESULTS: The failure rate for fruit fly eradication programmes was about 7%, with 0% for Ceratitis capitata (n=85 programmes) and 0% for two Anastrepha species (n=12 programmes), but 12% for 13 Bactrocera species (n=108 programmes). A number of intended eradication programmesagainst long-established populations were not initiated because of cost and other considerations, or evolved during the planning phase into suppression programmes. Cost was dependent on area, ranged from $US 0.1 million to $US 240 million and averaged about $US 12 million (normalised to $US in 2012). In addition to the routine use of surveillance networks, quarantine and fruit destruction, the key tactics used in eradication programmes were male annihilation, protein bait sprays (which can attract both sexes), fruit destruction and the sterile insect technique. CONCLUSIONS: Eradication success generally required the combination of several tactics applied on an area-wide basis. Because the likelihood of eradication declines with an increase in the area infested, it pays to invest in effective surveillance networks that allow early detection and delimitation while invading populations are small, thereby greatly favouring eradication success. (author)

  18. Eradication of tephritid fruit fly pest populations: outcomes and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, David Maxwell; Kean, John M; Stringer, Lloyd D; Cáceres-Barrios, Carlos; Hendrichs, Jorge; Reyes-Flores, Jesus; Dominiak, Bernard C

    2016-03-01

    The number of insect eradication programmes is rising in response to globalisation. A database of arthropod and plant pathogen eradications covers 1050 incursion responses, with 928 eradication programmes on 299 pest and disease taxa in 104 countries (global eradication database b3.net.nz/gerda). A subset of the database was assembled with 211 eradication or response programmes against 17 species of fruit flies (Tephritidae) in 31 countries, in order to investigate factors affecting the outcome. The failure rate for fruit fly eradication programmes was about 7%, with 0% for Ceratitis capitata (n = 85 programmes) and 0% for two Anastrepha species (n = 12 programmes), but 12% for 13 Bactrocera species (n = 108 programmes). A number of intended eradication programmes against long-established populations were not initiated because of cost and other considerations, or evolved during the planning phase into suppression programmes. Cost was dependent on area, ranged from $US 0.1 million to $US 240 million and averaged about $US 12 million (normalised to $US in 2012). In addition to the routine use of surveillance networks, quarantine and fruit destruction, the key tactics used in eradication programmes were male annihilation, protein bait sprays (which can attract both sexes), fruit destruction and the sterile insect technique. Eradication success generally required the combination of several tactics applied on an area-wide basis. Because the likelihood of eradication declines with an increase in the area infested, it pays to invest in effective surveillance networks that allow early detection and delimitation while invading populations are small, thereby greatly favouring eradication success. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Body composition assessment in Taiwanese individuals with poliomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kwang-Hwa; Lai, Chien-Hung; Chen, Shih-Ching; Hsiao, Wen-Tien; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Lee, Chi-Ming

    2011-07-01

    To measure the changes in the total and regional body fat mass, and assess the clinical usefulness of the body mass index (BMI) in detecting overweight subjects with sequelae of poliomyelitis. Prospective, cross-sectional study. General community. Subjects with poliomyelitis (n=17; age range, 42-57y; mean, 47y; 12 men, 5 women) and able-bodied people (n=17) matched by sex, age, body weight, and body height participated in the study. Not applicable. Total and regional body composition was measured with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Clinical characteristics such as blood pressure, serum biochemical studies, and habitual behaviors (daily cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and exercise regimen) of all participants were evaluated. Compared with able-bodied controls, subjects with poliomyelitis had a 50% greater total body fat mass, significant increases in the regional fat mass in every part of the body, and had the greatest increase of fat mass in the thorax. Nearly all the subjects (94%) with poliomyelitis were obese according to standards of body composition. However, one third of them had a BMI value of less than 25.0kg/m(2). People with poliomyelitis have a higher prevalence of obesity and a significant increase in total and regional fat mass. Current BMI underestimates the total body fat mass percentage compared with the control; therefore, a population-specific BMI should be used to address the prevalence of obesity in postpolio survivors. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A human quadrupedal gait following poliomyelitis: From the Dercum-Muybridge collaboration (1885).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanska, Douglas J

    2016-03-01

    Beginning in the late 1870s, before the invention of movie cameras or projectors, pioneering English American photographer Eadweard Muybridge photographed iconic image sequences of people and animals in motion using arrays of sequentially triggered single-image cameras. In 1885, Philadelphia neurologist Francis Dercum initiated a collaborative relationship with Muybridge at the University of Pennsylvania to photograph sequential images of patients with various neurologic disorders of movement, including an acquired pathologic quadrupedal gait in a young boy that developed as a consequence of poliomyelitis. This pathologic human quadrupedal gait was compared with other quadrupedal gaits filmed by Muybridge, including a toddler girl and an adult woman crawling on hands and knees, an adult woman bear crawling on hands and feet, and a baboon walking. All of the human quadrupedal gaits were lateral sequence gaits, whereas the baboon's walking gait was a diagonal sequence gait. Modern studies have confirmed the nonpathologic quadrupedal gait sequences of humans and nonhuman primates. Despite Dercum's assertion to the contrary, the limb placement pattern of the boy with a pathologic quadrupedal gait after poliomyelitis was not the typical gait of a primate quadruped, but rather was the typical gait sequence for normal human developmental and volitional quadrupedal gaits. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  1. WHO Polio Eradication Program: Problems and Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Kharit

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2013 WHO re-evaluated its main goals of the polio eradication program. A modernization program was accepted with regard to the National vaccination calendars worldwide which includes a step-by-step refusal from the living polio vaccine (OPV and a total transition to the inactivated polio vaccine (IPV starting in 2019. Because of the total eradication of the polio type 2 virus, as an intermediate step the 3-valence OPV was substituted with the 2-valence OPV, which does not contain the type 2 polio virus, in April 2016. The aim of the article is to present the history of polio prevention and to state the reasons for the adoption of 3rd edition of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative. The new approaches were defined for eradication of wild polio virus type 1 and vaccine related strains. A new strategy for global switch to inactivated polio vaccine by 2019 was suggested.

  2. Attempted eradication of Porphyrio porphyrio Linnaeus in the Florida Everglades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave EGGEMAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Porphyrio porphyrio (Fulica porphyrio Linnaeus was reported to the South Florida Water Management District in a Water Conservation Area and in constructed wetlands in the Everglades in 2006. A rapid assessment, including casual observations and surveys of land managers, indicated a limited number of P. porphyrio (~300 birds was present, and an eradication attempt was initiated. From 2006 – 2008, more than 3100 P. porphyrio were killed by shotgun from airboats during 73 hunts, suggesting the initial population assessment was severely underestimated. After removing nearly 1500 P. porphyrio in 2008, we concluded that eradication was not possible. Failure of this eradication attempt is attributed to P. porphyrio’s affinity with dense emergent vegetation, which greatly limited shooting effectiveness. Further, the failed eradication underscores the importance of a reporting network to improve early detection and the chance to eliminate naturalized or feral populations of non‐native species.

  3. Eradication of dracunculiasis from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, D R; Azam, M; Ruiz-Tiben, E; Kappus, K D

    1995-09-02

    In 1986 the World Health Organization targeted dracunculiasis (Guinea-worm disease), which seriously impairs socioeconomic development in 16 African countries, India, Pakistan, and Yemen, to be eradicated globally. The target date for eradication by the end of 1995 was established in 1991. Pakistan eradicated dracunculiasis from the country in October, 1993, after a national campaign which began in 1987 with a nationwide village-by-village search for cases. The infection, which is transmitted by drinking water from ponds containing infected water fleas, was eradicated by using health education, cloth filters, and the cyclopsicide, temephos; and in the later stages, by case containment. Methods pioneered in Pakistan's National Guinea Worm Eradication Program are now being applied in remaining endemic countries.

  4. Biological Feasibility of Measles Eradication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strebel, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Recent progress in reducing global measles mortality has renewed interest in measles eradication. Three biological criteria are deemed important for disease eradication: (1) humans are the sole pathogen reservoir; (2) accurate diagnostic tests exist; and (3) an effective, practical intervention is available at reasonable cost. Interruption of transmission in large geographical areas for prolonged periods further supports the feasibility of eradication. Measles is thought by many experts to meet these criteria: no nonhuman reservoir is known to exist, accurate diagnostic tests are available, and attenuated measles vaccines are effective and immunogenic. Measles has been eliminated in large geographical areas, including the Americas. Measles eradication is biologically feasible. The challenges for measles eradication will be logistical, political, and financial. PMID:21666201

  5. The golden jubilee of vaccination against poliomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, T Jacob

    2004-01-01

    Inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV), developed in the USA by Jonas Salk in the early 1950s, was field tested in 1954, and found to be safe and effective. The year 2004 marks the golden jubilee of this breakthrough. From 1955 IPV was used extensively in the US and polio incidence declined by more than 95 per cent. However, in 1962, when oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) became available, the national policy was shifted to its exclusive use, for reasons other than science and economics. The World Health Organisation (WHO) also adopted the policy of the exclusive use of OPV in developing countries. Thus IPV fell into disrepute in much of the world, while Northern European countries continued to use it. New research led to improving its potency, reducing its manufacturing costs and combining it with the diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine to simplify its administration and reduce programmatic costs. All countries that chose to persist with IPV eliminated poliovirus circulation without OPV-induced polio or the risk of live vaccine viruses reverting to wild-like nature. IPV is highly immunogenic, confers mucosal immunity and exerts herd protective effect, all qualities of a good vaccine. It can be used in harmony with the extendend programme on immunization (EPI) schedule of infant immunisation with DTP, thus reducing programmatic costs. During the last ten years IPV has once again regained its popularity and some 25 industrialised countries use it exclusively. The demand is increasing from other countries and the supply has not caught up, leaving market forces to dictate the sale price of IPV. Anticipating such a turn of events India had launched its own IPV manufacturing programme in 1987, but the project was closed in 1992. Today it is not clear if we can complete the job of global polio eradication without IPV, on account of the genetic instability of OPV and the consequent tendency of vaccine viruses to revert to wild-like properties. The option to use IPV is

  6. Vaccine-associated contact paralytic poliomyelitis with atypical neurological presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlazoroff, A; Bleicher, Z; Klein, C; Vure, E; Lahat, E; Gross, B; Handsher, R

    1987-09-01

    Paralytic poliomyelitis presenting with quadriparesis, transient encephalitis and bulbar symptoms in 2 patients in close contact with recently vaccinated children with trivalent live oral polio vaccine is described. Symmetrical lower motor neuron involvement of deltoid muscles with electromyographic confirmation was found. Upper motor neuron signs, with symmetrical hyperactive deep tendon reflexes developed in the lower extremities. Poliovirus Type-2 vaccine-like strain was cultured from one patient and both patients showed significant antibody titers rises to poliovirus. Attention is drawn to the possible clinical differences between vaccine associated poliomelitis and the usual features found in wild strain poliomyelitis. It is suggested that in selected cases, non-immunized contacts be given inactivated polio-vaccine when the vaccinees are immunized with the live oral-vaccine.

  7. The paralytic poliomyelitis epidemic of 1978 in Jordan: epidemiological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuri-Bulos, Najwa; Melnick, Joseph L.; Hatch, Milford H.; Dawod, Saleh T.

    1984-01-01

    Poliomyelitis is endemic in Jordan, but until 1978 there were no epidemics. In that year, 66 children were admitted to the Jordan University Hospital with a paralytic illness, compared with 13 in 1979 and 11 in 1980. The epidemic reached a peak in the summer and fall of 1978. While 54% of the patients had not received any vaccine, 19% had received 3 doses of oral poliovaccine; 82% of the cases were in children less than 2 years of age, and all belonged to the lower socioeconomic group. There were 28 deaths with complications of the disease. Poliovirus was isolated from 10 out of 14 rectal swab samples examined (9 with poliovirus 1, 1 with poliovirus 2), and from 4 out of 13 throat specimens from the same patients. It is concluded that as a result of improving living standards in Jordan and neighbouring countries, more epidemics may occur unless immunization efforts against poliomyelitis are intensified. PMID:6609022

  8. Outcomes of Total Knee Arthroplasty in Patients With Poliomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Zhi-Wei Jonathan; Pang, Hee Nee

    2016-11-01

    We report our experience with outcomes of poliomyelitis in the Asian population. Sixteen total knee replacements in 14 patients with polio-affected knees were followed up for at least 18 months. Follow-up assessment included scoring with the American Knee Society Score (AKSS), Oxford knee score, and Short Form 36 Health Survey scores. The mean AKSS improved from 25.59 preoperatively to 82.94 at 24 months, with greater improvement in the knee score. The mean Oxford knee score improved from 40.82 preoperatively to 20.53 at 24 months. The mean AKSS pain score rose from 2.35 to 47.66 at 24 months. The Short Form 36 Health Survey physical functioning and bodily pain scores improved for all patients. Primary total knee arthroplasty of poliomyelitis-affected limbs shows good outcomes, improving quality of life, and decreasing pain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Study on thermostabilizers for trivalent oral poliomyelitis vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. F. Leal

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Different formulations of trivalent oral poliomyelitis vaccine were tested, in order to obtain better thermostability, reduce corrosion of machinery and improve production costs. Magnesium chloride, sucrose, arginine and 199-Hank's medium were used in the formulations. The most appropriate formulation was a mixture of MgCl2 and arginine, which was highly thermostable, and had low production costs. The low corrosive formulation was rejected, due to low thermostability on storage.

  10. Poliomyelitis and its elimination in Cuba: an historical overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldarraín, Enrique

    2013-04-01

    Polio was first detected in Cuba in the late 19th century among residents of the US community on the Isla de Pinos (Isle of Pines, now Isle of Youth), apparently introduced through migration from the USA. The first outbreak was reported in 1906 on the Isle, with the first epidemic reported in the former province of Las Villas in 1909. The epidemics subsequently intensified, by 1934 becoming periodic every four to five years, and accompanied by high morbidity, mortality and crippling sequelae, primarily among children. To review and analyze the history of polio and its control in Cuba, from the disease's first appearance in 1898 until WHO/PAHO certification of elimination in 1994. The historiological method was used; archival documents, medical records, and available polio morbidity and mortality statistics from the Ministry of Public Health's National Statistics Division before 1959 and from 1959 through 2000 were reviewed. Crude morbidity and mortality rates were calculated using population estimates at mid-period. Reports and scientific publications describing polio vaccination campaigns and their results were also reviewed, and key informants were interviewed. After initial introduction of polio in Cuba, five major epidemics occurred between 1932 and 1958: in 1934 (434 cases, 82 deaths); 1942 (494 cases, 58 deaths); 1946 (239 cases, 33 deaths), 1952 (492 cases, 15 deaths) and 1955 (267 cases, 8 deaths). Between 1957 and 1961 the disease's endemicity reached epidemic levels, with the last outbreak occurring in 1961, with 342 cases, 30% of them in children aged >4 years. In 1962, Cuba launched a nationwide polio vaccination campaign, the first of annual campaigns thereafter carried out in the framework of a coherent national program aimed at polio elimination. Using the Sabin oral vaccine and targeting the entire pediatric population in a single time period, five million doses were administered in the first campaign, reaching 87.5% of the target population aged 1

  11. Theodore E. Woodward Award: The Devastating Backlash of a Dread Disease: Poliomyelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, F. Tremaine; Collins, Robert D

    2005-01-01

    The paper is in three parts. 1) A description of acute anterior poliomyelitis; 2) A summary of the condition of post-polio syndrome; 3) A description of two small epidemics of poliomyelitis juxtaposed and related to one another. PMID:16555605

  12. Concomitant CNS pathology in a patient with amyotropic lateral sclerosis following poliomyelitis in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casula, M.; Steentjes, K.; Aronica, E.; van Geel, B. M.; Troost, D.

    2011-01-01

    Post-polio syndrome (PPS) develops in approximately 30% of polio survivors several decades after the acute attack of paralytic poliomyelitis. Some of these patients develop post-poliomyelitis muscular atrophy (PPMA) which is characterized by a slowly progressive muscle weakness. Due to its

  13. Tuberculosis eradication versus control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Schito

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the World Health Organization (WHO, 10.4 million people died of tuberculosis (TB in 2015, and the disease is now the number one cause of death from a preventable infectious disease worldwide. A bold vision is needed from global leaders to end the TB epidemic and plans to this end have been proposed. However enthusiasm must be matched by tangible and achievable goals based on the science and available funding. In order to reach the target and goals set by the WHO End TB Strategy, the challenges for TB eradication need to be addressed. In order to achieve the targets, several areas need to be bolstered, including the requirement to better identify and treat existing drug-susceptible cases and diagnose all the drug-resistant forms of the disease. Although treatment is available for most TB patients, stock-outs and other delays are problematic in some settings, resulting in ongoing transmission, especially for the drug-resistant forms of the disease. Despite the fact that a majority of multidrug-resistant cases are linked to treatment, the cure rate is only 50%, which highlights the need for safer, shorter, and more efficacious drug regimens that are more tolerable to patients. Prospects for a more efficacious vaccine are limited, with no correlates of protection identified; thus the availability of a vaccine by 2025 is highly improbable. Support for instituting infection control methods should be prioritized to subvert transmission while patients seek treatment and care. Finally, more adequate financial mechanisms should be instituted to reduce patient expenditures and support national TB programs. Moreover, funding to support basic science, drug development, clinical trials, vaccine development, diagnostics, and implementation research needs to be secured in order to reduce global TB incidence in the future.

  14. [A disease of the distant past: information about poliomyelitis and post- poliomyelitis syndrome in the Spanish/Portuguese press, 1995-2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Juan Antonio Rodríguez; Santos, Inês Guerra

    2015-01-01

    The change in the social perception of poliomyelitis in the Iberian Peninsula through content analysis of two large-circulation newspapers between 1995 and 2009 is examined. The disappearance from the journalistic agenda of poliomyelitis and people living with the after-effects of the disease led it to be excluded from the public agenda. Poliomyelitis was associated with poverty and ignorance in distant countries that were susceptible to cooperation activities and only came to public attention when it was perceived as a threat to the West, linked to health crises or in a metaphorical sense. Thus, post-poliomyelitis syndrome was barely visible in the Portuguese case and poorly represented in Spain by association.

  15. Diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis, yellow fever and hepatitis B seroprevalence among HIV1-infected migrants. Results from the ANRS VIHVO vaccine sub-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaert, Jimmy; Abgrall, Sophie; Lele, Nathalie; Batteux, Frederic; Slama, Lilia Ben; Meritet, Jean-Francois; Lebon, Pierre; Bouchaud, Olivier; Grabar, Sophie; Launay, Odile

    2015-09-11

    Few data are available on the seroprotection status of HIV1-infected patients with respect to vaccine-preventable diseases. To describe, in a population of HIV1-infected migrants on stable, effective ART therapy, the seroprevalence of diphtheria, poliomyelitis, tetanus, yellow fever antibodies and serostatus for hepatitis B, and to identify factors associated with seroprotection. Vaccine responses against diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis and yellow fever were also studied. Sub-Saharan African patients participating in the ANRS-VIHVO cohort were enrolled prior to travel to their countries of origin. Serologic analyses were performed in a central laboratory before and after the trip. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with initial seroprotection. 250 patients (99 men and 151 women) were included in the seroprevalence study. Median age was 45 years (IQR 39-52), median CD4 cell count was 440/μL (IQR 336-571), and 237 patients (95%) had undetectable HIV1 viral load. The initial seroprevalence rates were 69.0% (95%CI 63.2-74.7) for diphtheria, 70.7% (95%CI 65.0-76.3) for tetanus, and 85.9% (95%CI 81.6-90.2) for yellow fever. Only 64.4% (95%CI 58.5-70.3) of patients had protective antibody titers against all three poliomyelitis vaccine strains before travel. No serological markers of hepatitis B were found in 18.6% of patients (95%CI 13.7-23.3). Patient declaration of prior vaccination was the only factor consistently associated with initial seroprotection. We found a low prevalence of seroprotection against diphtheria, poliomyelitis, tetanus and hepatitis B. HIV infected migrants living in France and traveling to their native countries need to have their vaccine schedule completed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Experiences with smallpox eradication in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Quadros, Ciro A

    2011-12-30

    The smallpox eradication campaign operated in Ethiopia from 1970 until 1977. During this time Ethiopia had only 84 hospitals, 64 health centres and fewer than 400 physicians in a country of 25 million people. In 1970 smallpox vaccination was relatively unknown in the country, and the government actually contested the fact that smallpox was present in the country. Most of the resources of the Ministry of Health were used for malaria eradication. Initial pessimism from the Ministry of Health and others was eventually overcome as the smallpox eradication campaign continued to pick up steam but many remained unenthusiastic. Ethiopia was the first country in the world to start its smallpox eradication campaign from day one with the strategy of "Surveillance and Containment". Establishing a surveillance system in a country with a limited health infrastructure was a daunting challenge. At the end of the first year of the programme in 1971, 26,000 cases of smallpox had been registered through the growing surveillance system. Throughout revolution of 1974 the smallpox campaign was the only UN program to operate in the country; in fact it expanded with the hire of many locals leading to a "nationalized" program. This development ushered in the most successful final phase of the program. As the program progressed cases were diminishing in most regions, however transmission continued in the Ogaden desert. Over the course of the campaign approximately 14.3 million US dollars was spent. Working conditions were extremely challenging and a variety of chiefs, guerrillas, landowners and governments had to be appeased. The programme was successful due to the dedicated national and international staff on the ground and by having the full support of the WHO HQ in Geneva. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The challenge of changing the inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine in Latin America: declaration of the Latin American Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases (SLIPE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falleiros-Arlant, Luiza Helena; Avila-Agüero, María Luisa; Brea del Castillo, José; Mariño, Cristina

    2014-10-01

    Even though we have already covered 99% of the path to eradicate poliomyelitis from the world, this disease is still causing paralysis in children. Its eradication means not only the end of wild poliovirus circulation, but vaccine-derived poliovirus circulation as well. Taking into account different factors such as: current epidemiological data, adverse events of the attenuated oral poliomyelitis vaccine (OPV), the availability of an injectable inactivated vaccine (IPV) without the potential of causing the severe adverse events of the oral vaccine (OPV), the efficacy and effectiveness of the IPV in several countries of the world where it has been used for several years, the rationale of changing the vaccination schedule in different Latin American countries; the Latin American Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases (SLIPE) announces its recommendation of switching to IPV in Latin America, by this Declaration, with an Action Plan for 2014-2015 period as regards vaccination against polio policies in Latin America. 1. The optimal proposed schedule consists of four IPV doses (three doses in the primary schedule plus a booster dose), whether IPV is combined or not with other indicated vaccines in the immunization program of the country. During the OPV to IPV transition phase, an alternative schedule is acceptable; 2. Countries should set optimal strategies in order to maintain and improve vaccination coverage, and implement a nominal immunization registry; 3. Improving the Epidemiological Surveillance of Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) and setting up an environmental surveillance program; 4. Setting up strategies for introducing IPV in National Immunization Programs, such as communicating properly with the population, among others; 5. Bringing scientific societies closer to decision makers; 6. Ensuring optimal supply and prices for IPV introduction; 7. Training vaccination teams; 8. Enhancing the distribution and storing logistics of vaccines. In addition to the

  18. Population Immunity against Serotype-2 Poliomyelitis Leading up to the Global Withdrawal of the Oral Poliovirus Vaccine: Spatio-temporal Modelling of Surveillance Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Reilly, Kathleen M.; Etsano, Andrew; Vaz, Rui Gama; Jafari, Hamid; Grassly, Nicholas C.; Blake, Isobel M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Global withdrawal of serotype-2 oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV2) took place in April 2016. This marked a milestone in global polio eradication and was a public health intervention of unprecedented scale, affecting 155 countries. Achieving high levels of serotype-2 population immunity before OPV2 withdrawal was critical to avoid subsequent outbreaks of serotype-2 vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPV2s). Methods and Findings In August 2015, we estimated vaccine-induced population immunity against serotype-2 poliomyelitis for 1 January 2004–30 June 2015 and produced forecasts for April 2016 by district in Nigeria and Pakistan. Population immunity was estimated from the vaccination histories of children non-polio acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) reported through polio surveillance, information on immunisation activities with different oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) formulations, and serotype-specific estimates of the efficacy of these OPVs against poliomyelitis. District immunity estimates were spatio-temporally smoothed using a Bayesian hierarchical framework. Coverage estimates for immunisation activities were also obtained, allowing for heterogeneity within and among districts. Forward projections of immunity, based on these estimates and planned immunisation activities, were produced through to April 2016 using a cohort model. Estimated population immunity was negatively correlated with the probability of VDPV2 poliomyelitis being reported in a district. In Nigeria and Pakistan, declines in immunity during 2008–2009 and 2012–2013, respectively, were associated with outbreaks of VDPV2. Immunity has since improved in both countries as a result of increased use of trivalent OPV, and projections generally indicated sustained or improved immunity in April 2016, such that the majority of districts (99% [95% uncertainty interval 97%–100%] in Nigeria and 84% [95% uncertainty interval 77%–91%] in Pakistan) had >70% population immunity among children immunity

  19. [Poliomyelitis in The Netherlands, 1979-1991: immunity and exposure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rümke, H C; Oostvogel, P M; van der Veer, M; van Steenis, G; van Loon, A M

    1993-07-10

    An overview is presented of serological and virological studies on poliovirus immunization and circulation in the Netherlands, performed between 1979 and 1991. In this period, only three patients with poliomyelitis were notified. All had acquired the infection abroad. The vaccinations in the national immunization programme, using inactivated poliovirus vaccine, build a strong immunity. This can also be seen in age-stratified serological profiles of the Dutch population. In these surveys, persons from the time at which vaccination was offered have neutralizing antibodies. Older persons, especially those born between 1930 and 1945, sometimes lack antibodies. However, 85-90% of them show a rapid booster response upon vaccination, demonstrating immunological memory. Hence, they will be protected against poliomyelitis upon contact with wild poliovirus. Virological data show a regular import of poliovirus, especially in adoptive children tested on entry into the Netherlands, coming from developing countries. Nearly all other virus isolates in Dutchmen were related to import from such countries. None of the imported patients or other persons in whom poliovirus was detected spread the virus over the country. It demonstrates that as a rule the herd immunity of the well-vaccinated Dutch population is good. Exceptions occur, however, as demonstrated by the epidemics in 1978 and 1992. Large socio-geographic clusters of susceptible people who refuse vaccinations are not sufficiently protected.

  20. Morbidity and mortality following poliomyelitis - a lifelong follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, L; Nielsen, N M; Wanscher, B; Ibsen, R; Kjellberg, J; Jennum, P

    2017-02-01

    In the world today 10-20 million people are still living with late effects of poliomyelitis (PM), but the long-term consequences of the disease are not well known. The aim of this study was to describe lifelong morbidity and mortality among Danes who survived PM. Data from official registers for a cohort of 3606 Danes hospitalized for PM in the period 1940-1954 were compared with 13 762 age- and gender-matched controls. Compared with controls, mortality was moderately increased for both paralytic as well as non-paralytic PM cases; Hazard Ratio, 1.31 (95% confidence interval, 1.18-1.44) and 1.09 (95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.19), respectively. Hospitalization rates were approximately 1.5 times higher among both paralytic and non-paralytic PM cases as compared with controls. Discharge diagnoses showed a broad spectrum of diseases. There were no major differences in morbidities between paralytic and non-paralytic PM cases. Poliomyelitis has significant long-term consequences on morbidity and mortality of both paralytic and non-paralytic cases. © 2016 EAN.

  1. Investing in justice: ethics, evidence, and the eradication investment cases for lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Theodore C; Merritt, Maria W; Tediosi, Fabrizio

    2015-04-01

    It has been suggested that initiatives to eradicate specific communicable diseases need to be informed by eradication investment cases to assess the feasibility, costs, and consequences of eradication compared with elimination or control. A methodological challenge of eradication investment cases is how to account for the ethical importance of the benefits, burdens, and distributions thereof that are salient in people's experiences of the diseases and related interventions but are not assessed in traditional approaches to health and economic evaluation. We have offered a method of ethical analysis grounded in theories of social justice. We have described the method and its philosophical rationale and illustrated its use in application to eradication investment cases for lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis, 2 neglected tropical diseases that are candidates for eradication.

  2. Eradication of the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett, by mass release of sterile flies in Okinawa prefecture, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakinohana, H.; Kuba, H.; Kohama, T.; Kinjo, K.; Taniguchi, M.; Nakamori, H.; Tanahara, A.; Sokei, Y.

    1997-01-01

    In 1972, MAFF, Japan and the Okinawa Prefectural Government initiated an experimental eradication project of the melon fly from Kume Island, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan using the sterile insect technique (SIT). Following the successful eradication on Kume Island in 1978, large scale SIT was started to eradicate the melon fly on the 3 groups of islands, Miyako, Okinawa and Yaeyama of Okinawa Prefecture, Japan in 1984, 1986 and 1989, and eradication was achieved in 1987, 1990 and 1993, respectively. For the successful eradication on Miyako, Okinawa and Yaeyama groups of islands, about 6,340, 30,940 and 15,440 million sterile melon flies were released, respectively

  3. Therapeutic options after failed Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hulst, R. W.; Weel, J. F.; van der Ende, A.; ten Kate, F. J.; Dankert, J.; Tytgat, G. N.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Many of the currently used Helicobacter pylori eradication regimens fail to cure 5-20% of the patients. Those patients will remain at risk of developing a potentially fatal complication of peptic ulcer disease. Therefore, a new attempt to cure H. pylori infection after initial failure of

  4. [Collective immunity against poliomyelitis among the population of several regions of Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seybil, V B; Malyshkina, L P; Ageeva, O T; Kosolapova, E I; Mnozhina, E G; Groshenkova, E V; Krivtsov, N V; Gurianova, N I; Daltsaeva, M K; Fomina, N S

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this work was to estimate the collective immunity against poliomyelitis among the population of 8 regions and republics of Russia. The rates of the collective immunity against poliomyelitis allow the polio vaccination quality to be estimated and the population protection rate to be simultaneously demonstrated. A total of 8 regions (2138 people) were tested. The antibodies to the polioviruses of 1-3 types were determined against the vaccine Sabin strains in the neutralization test in the RD cell line. As a result, we found that vaccination against poliomyelitis in all observed regions was maintained at the required high level. Thus, the number of people with antibodies to the polio in most regions and age groups approximates or reaches 100%, while GMT is also high. This work demonstrated the necessity of the continuation of vaccination against poliomyelitis and control over collective immunity.

  5. De poliomyelitis epidemie op Curacao in 1981 : Een klinisch en epidemiologisch onderzoek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Begeer, Jacobus Hermanus

    1986-01-01

    In deze studie wordt de poliomyelitis-epidemie beschreven die zich in de eerste helft van 1981 heeft voorgedaan op het eiland Curaeao en wordt onderzoek beschreven, dat naar aanleiding van deze epidemie werd verricht. ... Zie: Samenvatting

  6. Poverty eradication in a carbon constrained world

    OpenAIRE

    Hubacek, Klaus; Baiocchi, Giovanni; Feng, Kuishuang; Patwardhan, Anand

    2017-01-01

    The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change aims to keep warming below 2 °C while recognizing developing countries’ right to eradicate extreme poverty. Poverty eradication is also the first of the Sustainable Development Goals. This paper investigates potential consequences for climate targets of achieving poverty eradication. We find that eradicating extreme poverty, i.e., moving people to an income above $1.9 purchasing power parity (PPP) a day, does not jeopardize the climate target even...

  7. "The Impact of Malaria Eradication on Fertility"

    OpenAIRE

    Adrienne M. Lucas

    2011-01-01

    The malaria eradication campaign that started in Sri Lanka in the late 1940s virtually eliminated malaria transmission on the island. I use the pre-eradication differences in malaria endemicity within Sri Lanka to identify the effect of malaria eradication on fertility and child survival. Malaria eradication increased the number of live births through increasing age specific fertility and causing an earlier first birth. The effect of malaria on the transition time to higher order births is in...

  8. Differential preference for pertussis and poliomyelitis vaccines in urban versus rural parents in Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The Global Polio Eradication Initiative is close to achieving its goal. Oral polio vaccines rarely cause vaccine-associated paralytic polio or circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus outbreaks. To diminish these risks, inactivated polio vaccine was reintroduced in most industrialized countries in the 1990s. Another vaccine, acellular pertussis, was also incorporated to circumvent the reactogenicity of whole-cell pertussis (wP); the latter is currently used in most developing countries. However...

  9. THE PATHOLOGIC EFFECTS OF STREPTOCOCCI FROM CASES OF POLIOMYELITIS AND OTHER SOURCES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Carroll G.

    1917-01-01

    Streptococci cultivated from the tonsils of thirty-two cases of poliomyelitis were used to inoculate various laboratory animals. In no case was a condition induced resembling poliomyelitis clinically or pathologically in guinea pigs, dogs, cats, rabbits, or monkeys. On the other hand, a considerable percentage of the rabbits and a smaller percentage of some of the other animals developed lesions due to streptococci. These lesions consisted of meningitis, meningo-encephalitis, abscess of the brain, arthritis, tenosynovitis, myositis, abscess of the kidney, endocarditis, pericarditis, and neuritis. No distinction in the character or frequency of the lesions could be determined between the streptococci derived from poliomyelitic patients and from other sources. Streptococci isolated from the poliomyelitic brain and spinal cord of monkeys which succumbed to inoculation with the filtered virus failed to induce in monkeys any paralysis or the characteristic histological changes of poliomyelitis. These streptococci are regarded as secondary bacterial invaders of the nervous organs. Monkeys which have recovered from infection with streptococci derived from cases of poliomyelitis are not protected from infection with the filtered virus, and their blood does not neutralize the filtered virus in vitro. We have failed to detect any etiologic or pathologic relationship between streptococci and epidemic poliomyelitis in man or true experimental poliomyelitis in the monkey. PMID:19868109

  10. Children with paralytic poliomyelitis: utilization of physiotherapy services in Zamfara State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogwumike, Omoyemi O; Kaka, Bashir; Adeniyi, Ade F

    2013-02-01

    Physiotherapy is usually indicated for health promotion and the rehabilitation of individuals with paralytic poliomyelitis. The endemic nature of this condition in children in Zamfara State, Nigeria necessitated investigation into the utilization of physiotherapy services by parents or primary caregivers of children affected with polio in this sub-region. Parents and primary caregivers of children with paralytic poliomyelitis were recruited using a purposive multi-stage sampling procedure in a cross-sectional survey. Factors associated with the utilization of physiotherapy services were assessed based on questions extracted from a 4-part, 52-item structured questionnaire originally designed for a study which investigated knowledge, attitude, and beliefs of parents of children with paralytic poliomyelitis. A total of 217 participants were included in this study. The mean age was 32.29 ± 9.89 years and the mean knowledge of polio score was 62.0 ± 17.3%. The mean age of the children with paralytic poliomyelitis was 6.41 ± 2.50 years. Only 27.2% of the parents or primary caregivers had utilized physiotherapy service for their children at some point. No association existed between utilization of physiotherapy service and 'knowledge of paralytic poliomyelitis', 'employment status', and 'family income' of respondents. Explanations for low utilization of physiotherapy services for children with paralytic poliomyelitis by parents or primary caregivers are discussed.

  11. Experience of vaccination with inactivated poliomyelitis vaccines in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudnadóttir, M

    1981-01-01

    Iceland, as a few other European countries, has used inactivated vaccine against poliomyelitis from the beginning in 1956. No cases of paralytic polio occurred since 1960. For 17 years neither isolations of poliovirus nor suspected cases of the clinical disease have been recorded. Studies on neutralizing antibodies in sera of vaccinees were not too encouraging after 4 injections. A 5th vaccination of IPV was therefore given to those children who lacked antibodies to any type of poliovirus. One month after the 5th injection 70% had antibodies against all 3 types of poliovirus and only 2% lacked antibodies against both types 1 and 3. In countries where no virus to boost immunity exists any longer during the life of an individual it may be necessary to secure booster effects at regular intervals after primary vaccination and later in life. This will be included in the vaccination schedule against polio in Iceland.

  12. Public Health Response to Imported Case of Poliomyelitis, Australia, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Rosemary; Moran, Rodney; Brown, Lynne; Meagher, Julian; Roberts, Jason A.; Thorley, Bruce R.

    2009-01-01

    Australia, along with 36 other countries in the Western Pacific Region, was declared free of poliomyelitis by the World Health Organization in October 2000. Yet, the persistence of wild poliovirus in the 4 remaining polio-endemic countries—Afghanistan, India, Nigeria, and Pakistan—poses a risk for its importation into all countries declared polio free. We describe the public health response and outcomes resulting from the importation of a wild poliovirus infection in Melbourne, Australia, in July 2007. This response, based on an assessment of the risk for transmission, included offering vaccination with inactivated polio vaccine to the contacts and placing the index patient in isolation and the household contacts in quarantine until consecutive fecal specimens were negative for poliovirus by culture. The experience gained from the polio importation event in Australia may assist other polio-free countries to prepare for, and respond to, a similar event. No secondary clinical cases resulted from this importation. PMID:19891859

  13. Vaccine-derived poliomyelitis 12 years after infection in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, Aaron S; Harper, Jane; Murray, Andrew; Lexau, Catherine; Bahta, Lynn; Christensen, Jaime; Cebelinski, Elizabeth; Fuller, Susan; Kline, Susan; Wallace, Gregory S; Shaw, Jing H; Burns, Cara C; Lynfield, Ruth

    2011-06-16

    A 44-year-old woman with long-standing common variable immunodeficiency who was receiving intravenous immune globulin suddenly had paralysis of all four limbs and the respiratory muscles, resulting in death. Type 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus was isolated from stool. The viral capsid protein VP1 region had diverged from the vaccine strain at 12.3% of nucleotide positions, and the two attenuating substitutions had reverted to the wild-type sequence. Infection probably occurred 11.9 years earlier (95% confidence interval [CI], 10.9 to 13.2), when her child received the oral poliovirus vaccine. No secondary cases were identified among close contacts or 2038 screened health care workers. Patients with common variable immunodeficiency can be chronically infected with poliovirus, and poliomyelitis can develop despite treatment with intravenous immune globulin.

  14. [A battle won: the elimination of poliomyelitis in Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaple, Enrique Beldarraín

    2015-01-01

    Poliomyelitis was introduced in Cuba in the late nineteenth century by American residents in Isla de Pinos. The first epidemics occurred in 1906 and 1909 and increased in intensity between 1930 and 1958. The scope of the paper is to reconstruct the history of the disease and its epidemics in Cuba prior to 1961, the first National Polio Vaccination Campaign (1962) and its results, as well as analyze the ongoing annual vaccination campaigns through to certified elimination of the disease (1994). The logical historical method was used and archival documents and statistics from the Ministry of Health on morbidity and mortality through 2000 were reviewed. Gross morbidity and mortality rates were calculated and interviews with key figures were conducted.

  15. Application of monoclonal antibody panels in the virological and epidemiological review of poliomyelitis in Poland, 1981-1990.

    OpenAIRE

    Jarzabek, Z.; Zabicka, J.; John, A.; Howlett, J.; Dunn, G.; Wood, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody panels developed to differentiate vaccine-derived and wild-type strains of polio-viruses were applied to isolates from cases of paralytic poliomyelitis, non-paralytic poliomyelitis, and healthy excreters of poliovirus from Poland. All isolates from poliomyelitis cases were shown to be vaccine-derived, as were most other strains. However, two strains associated with meningitis had wild-type antigenic phenotypes and, as shown by partial genomic sequencing, wild-type genotype...

  16. Distinct Clinic-Pathological Features of Early Differentiated-Type Gastric Cancers after Helicobacter pylori Eradication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyuki Horiguchi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Gastric cancer is discovered even after successful eradication of H. pylori. We investigated clinic pathological features of early gastric cancers after H. pylori eradication. Methods. 51 early gastric cancers (EGCs from 44 patients diagnosed after successful H. pylori eradication were included as eradication group. The clinic-pathological features were compared with that of 131 EGCs from 120 patients who did not have a history of H. pylori eradication (control group. Results. Compared with control group, clinic-pathological features of eradication group were characterized as depressed (p<0.0001, reddish (p=0.0001, and smaller (p=0.0095 lesions, which was also confirmed in the comparison of six metachronous lesions diagnosed after initial ESD and subsequent successful H. pylori eradication. Prevalence of both SM2 (submucosal invasion greater than 500 μm and unexpected SM2 cases tended to be higher in eradication group (p=0.077, 0.0867, resp.. Prevalence of inconclusive diagnosis of gastric cancer during pretreatment biopsy was also higher in the same group (26.0% versus 1.6%, p<0.0001. Conclusions. Informative clinic pathological features of EGC after H. pylori eradication are depressed, reddish appearances, which should be treated as a caution because histological diagnosis of cancerous tissue is sometimes difficult by endoscopic biopsy.

  17. Restless legs syndrome in patients with sequelae of poliomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumru, Hatice; Portell, Enric; Barrio, Manuela; Santamaria, Joan

    2014-10-01

    No studies have examined the association between RLS and the sequelae of poliomyelitis (PM). We studied the frequency and severity of RLS in a group of consecutive patients with the sequelae of poliomyelitis (PM) and the effect of treatment with dopaminergic drugs. A diagnosis of RLS was made according to the criteria of the International RLS Study Group, and severity was assessed by the RLS rating scale. Information on sex, age, age at onset, site affected by PM, disease duration of PM, and history of post-polio syndrome (pPS) was obtained in a cohort of 52 PM patients. The mean age was 55.9 ± 6.5 years; 39 patients had post-polio syndrome (75%). RLS was diagnosed in 21 (40.4%) patients. Sixteen of the 21 patients (76.2%) with RLS had pPS, which was similar to the non-RLS group (74.2% patients with pPS). RLS symptoms were very severe in 5 patients, severe in 13, moderate in 2 and mild in 1. Nineteen of the 21 patients with RLS had symptoms predominantly in the more affected lower limb (90% of patients). Sixteen patients received dopaminergic agonist treatment with a significant reduction in their scores on the RLS severity scale from 28.3 ± 4.7 to 6.9 ± 7.3 (p < 0.001). RLS occurs frequently in patients with PM, both in those with and without pPS, and responds well to treatment with dopaminergic drugs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization of mutations in the VP(1) region of Sabin strain type 1 polioviruses isolated from vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis cases in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Pooneh; Tabatabaie, H; Gouya, Mohammad M; Zahraie, Mohsen; Mahmudi, M; Ziaie, A; Rad, K Samimi; Shahmahmudi, Sh; Musavi, T; Azad, T Mokhtari; Nategh, R

    2007-08-01

    The live-attenuated oral polio vaccine used to interrupt poliovirus transmission is genetically unstable. Reversion of some attenuating mutations, which normally occurs during vaccine strain replication in some recipients, and can rarely cause vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP). The poliovirus eradication program designed by the World Health Organization (WHO) includes immunization with OPV in addition to careful surveillance of all acute-flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases. In Iran we last isolated imported wild poliovirus in 2000 and the immunization coverage was 100% in 2002. During 2001, there were three AFP cases with residual paralysis from which Sabin-like type 1 polioviruses were isolated in our national polio laboratory. The complete VP(1) region of the three isolates was sequenced and amino acid substitutions associated with these neurovirulent isolates were recorded. These isolates had either 4, 2 or 1 nucleotide substitution(s) in the VP(1) region, corresponding to amino acid change in the VP(1) of isolate 1 of either (H-[149]->Y), (T-[106]->A) or (I-[90]->L), respectively. Surveillance of the VAPP cases in countries where endemic transmission has recently ceased increases our understanding of the important neurovirulent mutations in vaccine-strain isolates and assists in planning the next step in the eradication program in these countries.

  19. To Learn Is To Grow, I: Aldo Leopold, Predator Eradication, and Games Refuges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolph, Gary E.

    1998-01-01

    Follows the evolution in the thinking of Aldo Leopold, a game manager who was initially an advocate of predator eradication but who came to see predators as playing an important role in normally functioning ecosystems. (DDR)

  20. Comorbidity profile of poliomyelitis survivors in a Chinese population: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jiunn-Horng; Lin, Herng-Ching

    2011-06-01

    Previous reports of comorbid conditions in poliomyelitis survivors mainly focused on some disease categories, such as respiratory diseases, gastrointestinal diseases, psychiatric diseases, neurological diseases and cancer. Data regarding a wide spectrum of medical comorbidities in patients with poliomyelitis is still sparse. This study aimed to investigate and profile the wide range of comorbidities among the survivors of paralytic poliomyelitis in a Chinese population. In total, 2,032 paralytic poliomyelitis patients were selected as the study group and the comparison group consisted of 10,160 randomly selected enrollees. The comorbidities for analysis were based on a modified version of the Elixhauser Comorbidity Index. Conditional logistic regression analyses were computed to investigate the risk of comorbidities for these two groups. As compared to controls, patients with paralytic poliomyelitis had significantly higher prevalence of hypertension, ischemic heart disease, hyperlipidemia, congestive heart failure, cardiac arrhythmias, peripheral vascular disorder, stroke, paralysis, migraines, Parkinson's disease, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, pulmonary circulation disorders, chronic pulmonary disease, liver disease, peptic ulcers, hepatitis B or C, deficiency anemias, depression, and lymphoma. Most of the differences are of clinical interest, ORs often being between 2 and 3. No significant difference between poliomyelitis patients and controls was observed in the prevalence of SLE, tuberculosis, alcohol abuse and drug abuse. Our findings demonstrate that survivors of paralytic poliomyelitis in Taiwan are at higher risk of having multiple medical comorbidities although some potential confounding factors including educational level, marital status, obesity and physical activity are not available in our database. The pattern is generally consistent with previous observations from Western populations. Nevertheless, we found several novel associations

  1. Results of a study of the reactogenic and immunogenic properties of live anti-poliomyelitis vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SMORODINTSEV, A A; DAVIDENKOVA, E F; DROBYSHEVSKA YA, A I; ILYENKO, V I; GOREV, N E; KURNOSOVA, L M; KLYUCHAREVA, T E

    1959-01-01

    The authors have studied the harmlessness and immunogenic properties of live poliomyelitis vaccine made in Leningrad from Sabin strains of low pathogenicity for monkeys. More than 20 000 children of pre-school (6 months to 3 years) and school age (7-14 years) were each given 100 000 tissue-culture infective doses of virus of types 1, 2 and 3, injected either in three stages at monthly intervals in the form of monovaccines, or in two stages, a monovaccine of type 1 being followed after a month's interval by injection of a divalent vaccine of types 2 and 3. The vaccination caused no symptoms of lesions of the central nervous system or other organs. In the blood of the inoculated children there was a regular build-up of virus-neutralizing antibodies to the serotypes mentioned, the intensity of which depended on the antibody level before vaccination and was in a constant relationship to the multiplication of the virus in the intestinal canal. The antibody titre was maintained at high levels for 6-9 months after immunization and fell a little after 12-18 months. The vaccinal virus is easily transferred from vaccinated children to contact groups, which are gradually vaccinated by this natural means.Lengthy and numerous passages of vaccinal strains through the intestinal canal of normal, susceptible children showed that strains may periodically appear which have a higher neurotropic activity for monkeys. This activity, however, did not increase in subsequent passage and returned to the initial level.

  2. The physiological challenges of the 1952 Copenhagen poliomyelitis epidemic and a renaissance in clinical respiratory physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, John B.

    2005-01-01

    The 1952 Copenhagen poliomyelitis epidemic provided extraordinary challenges in applied physiology. Over 300 patients developed respiratory paralysis within a few weeks, and the ventilator facilities at the infectious disease hospital were completely overwhelmed. The heroic solution was to call upon 200 medical students to provide round-the-clock manual ventilation using a rubber bag attached to a tracheostomy tube. Some patients were ventilated in this way for several weeks. A second challenge was to understand the gas exchange and acid-base status of these patients. At the onset of the epidemic, the only measurement routinely available in the hospital was the carbon dioxide concentration in the blood, and the high values were initially misinterpreted as a mysterious “alkalosis.” However, pH measurements were quickly instituted, the PCO2 was shown to be high, and modern clinical respiratory acid-base physiology was born. Taking a broader view, the problems highlighted by the epidemic underscored the gap between recent advances made by physiologists and their application to the clinical environment. However, the 1950s ushered in a renaissance in clinical respiratory physiology. In 1950 the coverage of respiratory physiology in textbooks was often woefully inadequate, but the decade saw major advances in topics such as mechanics and gas exchange. An important development was the translation of the new knowledge from departments of physiology to the clinical setting. In many respects, this period was therefore the beginning of modern clinical respiratory physiology. PMID:16020437

  3. A Programme for the Eradication of the New World Screwworm from North Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The recent establishment of the New World Screwworm (NWS), Cochliomyia hominivorax, in North Africa poses an enormous threat to that continent, as well as the Mediterranean Basin and the Middle East. Because of the urgent need to initiate an eradication programme as soon as possible, three consultants met in Vienna from 8 to 19 January 1990 to prepare a programme outlining the eradication of the NWS from North Africa. Emphasis was placed on the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) portion of an eradication programme. At the time the report was prepared the NWS had been reported only from Libya, therefore the report deals with eradication from that country. The document will be used by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture as a guide to assist FAO in NWS eradication from North Africa.

  4. Baseline patterns of bone scintigraphy in patients with established post-poliomyelitis paralysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marafi, Fahad A.; Esmail, Abdulredha A.; Elgazzar, Abdelhamid H.; Al-Said Ali, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Post-poliomyelitis syndrome causes variable musculoskeletal manifestations including pain, muscle weakness and fatigue. These manifestations are commonly secondary to overuse and misuse of muscles and joints and could follow a fall. Bone scan can be useful in determining the underlying cause and follow-up. The objective of this study was to describe the late scintigraphic patterns on bone scan following poliomyelitis. Bone scans of 8 adult patients (7 female and 1 male), aged 35 to 53 years, who were known to have paralytic poliomyelitis, were retrospectively studied. Six patients had unilateral while 1 had bilateral disease. All patients had three-phase bone scan and 5 had SPECT study as well. Studies were reviewed by two qualified nuclear medicine physicians and findings were recorded and analyzed. Several patterns were consistently identified: decreased blood pool activity in the affected lower limb of all patients; deformed ipsilateral hemi-pelvis with reduced uptake on the affected side in all patients with unilateral disease; stress changes with increased uptake in the bones of the contra-lateral lower extremity; and degenerative changes in multiple joints (shoulder, knee, hip, ankle and spine). Significant scoliosis was only noted in the patient with bilateral disease. Scintigraphic patterns on bone scan associated with the post-poliomyelitis syndrome and persistent weakness following a distant episode of poliomyelitis have been described. Awareness of these characteristic scintigraphic findings may facilitate an accurate diagnosis and lead to more appropriate patient management. (orig.)

  5. Baseline patterns of bone scintigraphy in patients with established post-poliomyelitis paralysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marafi, Fahad A.; Esmail, Abdulredha A.; Elgazzar, Abdelhamid H. [Mubarak Alkabeer Hospital and Kuwait University, Departments of Nuclear Medicine, P.O. Box 24923, Safat (Kuwait); Al-Said Ali, Ali [Ministry of Health, Department of Surgery, Mubarak Alkabeer Hospital, Safat (Kuwait)

    2010-09-15

    Post-poliomyelitis syndrome causes variable musculoskeletal manifestations including pain, muscle weakness and fatigue. These manifestations are commonly secondary to overuse and misuse of muscles and joints and could follow a fall. Bone scan can be useful in determining the underlying cause and follow-up. The objective of this study was to describe the late scintigraphic patterns on bone scan following poliomyelitis. Bone scans of 8 adult patients (7 female and 1 male), aged 35 to 53 years, who were known to have paralytic poliomyelitis, were retrospectively studied. Six patients had unilateral while 1 had bilateral disease. All patients had three-phase bone scan and 5 had SPECT study as well. Studies were reviewed by two qualified nuclear medicine physicians and findings were recorded and analyzed. Several patterns were consistently identified: decreased blood pool activity in the affected lower limb of all patients; deformed ipsilateral hemi-pelvis with reduced uptake on the affected side in all patients with unilateral disease; stress changes with increased uptake in the bones of the contra-lateral lower extremity; and degenerative changes in multiple joints (shoulder, knee, hip, ankle and spine). Significant scoliosis was only noted in the patient with bilateral disease. Scintigraphic patterns on bone scan associated with the post-poliomyelitis syndrome and persistent weakness following a distant episode of poliomyelitis have been described. Awareness of these characteristic scintigraphic findings may facilitate an accurate diagnosis and lead to more appropriate patient management. (orig.)

  6. Long-term socio-economic consequences and health care costs of poliomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nete Munk; Kay, Lise; Wanscher, Benedikte

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide 10–20 million individuals are living with disabilities after acute poliomyelitis. However, very little is known about the socio-economic consequences and health care costs of poliomyelitis. We carried out a historical register-based study including 3606 individuals hospitalised for poli......Worldwide 10–20 million individuals are living with disabilities after acute poliomyelitis. However, very little is known about the socio-economic consequences and health care costs of poliomyelitis. We carried out a historical register-based study including 3606 individuals hospitalised....... Paralytic and non-paralytic polio survivors had a 2.5 [HR = 2.52 (95 % confidence interval (CI); 2.29–2.77)] and 1.4 [HR = 1.35 (95 % CI; 1.23–1.49)]-fold higher risk, respectively, of receiving disability pension compared with controls. Personal health care costs were considerably higher in all age groups...... in both groups of polio survivors. Individuals with a history of poliomyelitis are well educated, have a slightly lower employment rate, an income similar to controls, but a considerably higher cost in the health care system....

  7. [Analysis of fatigue associated to periodic limb movement during sleep in former poliomyelitis patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, A R; Correa, F I; Correa, J C F; Oliveira, L V F

    2012-01-01

    Following poliomyelitis, patients may experience sleep disorders stemming from periodic limb movement, leading to fatigue and compromised muscle function the following day. To establish the presence or absence of muscle fatigue in these patients using electromyography and relating the data to polysomnographic findings. An analytical cross-sectional study was carried out involving 19 individuals with motor sequelae in the lower limbs stemming from poliomyelitis. Quantitative tests for the assessment of neurophysiological aspects (knee-jerk/Achilles reflexes and peripheral muscle strength of rectus femoris) and a sleep study (standard, level I polysomnography) were administered. A statistically significant difference was detected (p fatigue associated to sleep disorder. Individuals with sequelae from poliomyelitis exhibit sleep disorders that may lead to muscle fatigue. Periodic limb movement may contribute to this phenomenon.

  8. Physiotherapy for poliomyelitis: a descriptive study in the Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Silvia; Coldiron, Matthew E; Nicholas, Sarala; Llosa, Augusto E; Mouniaman-Nara, Isabelle; Ngala, Joseph; Grais, Rebecca F; Porten, Klaudia

    2014-10-23

    A large poliomyelitis outbreak occurred in 2010 in the Republic of Congo. This paper describes the demographic and clinical characteristics of poliomyelitis cases and their outcomes following physiotherapy. Demographic and clinical data were collected on 126 individuals between November 23, 2010 and March 23, 2011. The male/female ratio was 2.5 and the median age was 19 years (IQR: 13.5-23). The most severe forms of the disease were more common in older patients, 81 of the 126 patients (64.3%) had multiple evaluations of muscle strength. Among patients with multiple evaluations, 38.1% had improved strength at final evaluation, 48.3% were stable and 13.6% had decreased strength. Most acute poliomyelitis patients receiving physiotherapy had improved or stable muscle strength at their final evaluation. These descriptive results highlight the need for further research into the potential benefits of physiotherapy in polio affected patients.

  9. Relapsing acute encephalopathy: a complication of diphtheria-tetanus-poliomyelitis immunization in a young boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, J; Chabrol, B; Moulene, E; Pinsard, N

    1996-02-01

    Neurological complications of immunizations are rare. We report the case of relapsing acute encephalitis in a boy after two subsequent diphtheria-tetanus-poliomyelitis vaccinations. First the clinical signs were those of acute disseminated encephalitis. During the second episode, the boy experienced optic neuritis. Recovery was complete after both events. Because of the close temporal relationship of both these demyelinating episodes with the immunizations, we favour a cause and effect relationship. The observation of a 7-year-old boy who developed relapsing acute encephalitis after two diphtheria-tetanus-poliomyelitis vaccinations and a similar case in the literature suggests that this neurological manifestation may occur as a very rare complication of diphtheria-tetanus-poliomyelitis vaccination.

  10. Introduction of Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine and Impact on Vaccine-Associated Paralytic Poliomyelitis - Beijing, China, 2014-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dan; Ma, Rui; Zhou, Tao; Yang, Fan; Wu, Jin; Sun, Hao; Liu, Fang; Lu, Li; Li, Xiaomei; Zuo, Shuyan; Yao, Wei; Yin, Jian

    2017-12-15

    When included in a sequential polio vaccination schedule, inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) reduces the risk for vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP), a rare adverse event associated with receipt of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). During January 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended introduction of at least 1 IPV dose into routine immunization schedules in OPV-using countries (1). The Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018 recommended completion of IPV introduction in 2015 and globally synchronized withdrawal of OPV type 2 in 2016 (2). Introduction of 1 dose of IPV into Beijing's Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) on December 5, 2014 represented China's first province-wide IPV introduction. Coverage with the first dose of polio vaccine was maintained from 96.2% to 96.9%, similar to coverage with the first dose of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccine (DTP) (96.5%-97.2%); the polio vaccine dropout rate (the percentage of children who received the first dose of polio vaccine but failed to complete the series) was 1.0% in 2015 and 0.4% in 2016. The use of 3 doses of private-sector IPV per child decreased from 18.1% in 2014, to 17.4% in 2015, and to 14.8% in 2016. No cases of VAPP were identified during 2014-2016. Successful introduction of IPV into the public sector EPI program was attributed to comprehensive planning, preparation, implementation, robust surveillance for adverse events after immunization (AEFI), and monitoring of vaccination coverage. This evaluation provided information that helped contribute to the expansion of IPV use in China and in other OPV-using countries.

  11. Surveillance of poliomyelitis in Northern Italy: Results of acute flaccid paralysis surveillance and environmental surveillance, 2012-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrinelli, Laura; Bubba, Laura; Primache, Valeria; Pariani, Elena; Battistone, Andrea; Delogu, Roberto; Fiore, Stefano; Binda, Sandro

    2017-02-01

    Although in the last years poliovirus (PV) transmission has been reported at the lowest levels ever recorded, the spread of virus from endemic countries endures; the high levels of immigration flows across the Mediterranean Sea jeopardize Italy for PV reintroduction. The World Health Organization (WHO) strategic plan for global poliomyelitis (polio) eradication indicates the nationwide surveillance of Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) as the gold standard for detecting cases of polio. In addition, the Environmental Surveillance (ES), seeking the presence of PV and Non-Polio Enterovirus (NPEV) in sewage, is recognized as a powerful tool to confirm PV circulation in absence of AFP cases, especially in polio-free countries. Here we report the results of AFP surveillance (AFPS) and ES in Lombardy (Northern Italy) from 2012 to 2015. Forty-eight AFP cases were identified during the study period. No AFP case was caused by PV infection. NPEVs were identified in 6.3% (3/48) of AFP cases. The annual AFP incidence rate was 0.87/100'000 children <15 y in 2012, 1.42/100'000 in 2013, 1.02/100'000 in 2014, and 0.47/100'000 in 2015; according to WHO indicators, the sensitivity of AFPS was adequate in 2013 and 2014. Completeness of case investigation raised progressively during the study period to achieve the WHO standards in 2014 (92.3%) and 2015 (100%). Completeness of follow-up increased from 72.7% in 2012 to 100% in 2014. In the framework of the ES conducted in Milan, 268 wastewater samples were collected from 2012 to 2015 and no PVs were isolated. In contrast, NPEVs were detected in 65.3% (175/268) of samples. All NPEVs characterized belonged to enterovirus species B: echovirus type 11, 6 and 3 were the most frequently detected viruses, representing 29.1% (41/141), 20.6% (29/141) and 9.2% (13/141) of genotyped NPEVs, respectively. Keeping strong and encouraging both AFPS and ES is crucial to ensure that PV will not return unnoticed in Italy - as well as in other polio

  12. [Epidemiological studies on the poliomyelitis in Spain before the vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Navarro, J Ferrán

    2013-01-01

    The eradication of polio in Spain is one of the most important health milestones of the twentieth century, not only for public health but also for the effect it had on scientific knowledge in our country, in the medical field. Knowledge of international literature by our epidemiologists and virologists, was important, as reflected in the studies of outbreaks, virological studies and clinical studies. For public health represented, throughout the twentieth century, an effort geared to make decisions based on scientific knowledge. For epidemiology represented the application of new ways of working and, therefore, its modernization.

  13. Association between Helicobacter pylori eradication and the risk of coronary heart diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiunn-Wei; Tseng, Kuo-Lun; Hsu, Chien-Ning; Liang, Chih-Ming; Tai, Wei-Chen; Ku, Ming-Kun; Hung, Tsung-Hsing; Yuan, Lan-Ting; Nguang, Seng-Howe; Yang, Shih-Cheng; Wu, Cheng-Kun; Chiu, Chien-Hua; Tsai, Kai-Lung; Chang, Meng-Wei; Huang, Chih-Fang; Hsu, Pin-I; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Chuah, Seng-Kee

    2018-01-01

    renal diseases were risk factors for CHD in patients without eradication whilst younger age (< 65 years old) initiated with H. pylori therapy was a protective factor. In conclusion, the trend of decrease in CHD occurrence after early H. pylori eradication in addition to the significant decrease in composite end points for CHD and death, the significantly lower cumulative CHD rate in younger patients < 65 years old with H. pylori treated within 365 days suggested that there was positive association between H. pylori eradication and CHD.

  14. Association between Helicobacter pylori eradication and the risk of coronary heart diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiunn-Wei Wang

    and renal diseases were risk factors for CHD in patients without eradication whilst younger age (< 65 years old initiated with H. pylori therapy was a protective factor. In conclusion, the trend of decrease in CHD occurrence after early H. pylori eradication in addition to the significant decrease in composite end points for CHD and death, the significantly lower cumulative CHD rate in younger patients < 65 years old with H. pylori treated within 365 days suggested that there was positive association between H. pylori eradication and CHD.

  15. Citizenship or Repression? Coca, Eradication and Development in the Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Grisaffi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available For over two decades the US has funded repressive forced coca eradication in Peru, Colombia and Bolivia to reduce the illegal cocaine trade. These policies have never met their stated goals and have generated violence and poverty. In 2006 Bolivia definitively broke with the US anti-narcotics model, replacing the militarized eradication of coca crops with a community-based coca control strategy. The program substantially reduced the coca crop while simultaneously respecting human rights and allowing farmers to diversify their livelihoods. This article outlines the elements of the Bolivian initiative that ensure its continued successful functioning. It explores to what extent this model can be translated to other Andean contexts.

  16. A 5-Year Longitudinal Study of Fatigue in Patients With Late-Onset Sequelae of Poliomyelitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tersteeg, Irene M.; Koopman, Fieke S.; Stolwijk-Swüste, Janneke M.; Beelen, Anita; Nollet, Frans

    2011-01-01

    Tersteeg IM, Koopman FS, Stolwijk-Swuste JM, Beelen A, Nollet F, on behalf of the CARPA Study Group. A 5-year longitudinal study of fatigue in patients with late-onset sequelae of poliomyelitis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2011; 92:899-904. Objectives: To study the severity and 5-year course of fatigue in

  17. Vaccine-derived poliomyelitis and postpolio syndrome: an Italian Cutter Incident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarascio, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Post-polio syndrome is a condition characterized by increased muscle weakness, atrophy, fatigue and pain developing several years after the acute polio event. We describe a 52-year-old patient who experienced post-polio syndrome; he had contracted acute paralytic poliomyelitis at 12 months of age, shortly after the third dose of Salk polio vaccine. PMID:25057364

  18. Vaccine-derived poliomyelitis and postpolio syndrome: an Italian Cutter Incident

    OpenAIRE

    Lusi, Elena Angela; Guarascio, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Post-polio syndrome is a condition characterized by increased muscle weakness, atrophy, fatigue and pain developing several years after the acute polio event. We describe a 52-year-old patient who experienced post-polio syndrome; he had contracted acute paralytic poliomyelitis at 12 months of age, shortly after the third dose of Salk polio vaccine.

  19. Macro EMG follow-up study in post-poliomyelitis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanyi, B.; Ongerboer de Visser, B. W.; Nelemans, P. J.; de Visser, M.

    1994-01-01

    We investigated the muscle strength and motor unit (MU) territory of five patients with postpolio syndrome (PPS), six stable patients with prior poliomyelitis, and five healthy volunteers. The MU territory was assessed by measuring amplitudes of motor unit potentials (MUPs) recorded by the macro EMG

  20. Seroepidemiology of diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis and pertussis : evaluation of the national immunisation programme in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melker, de H.

    1999-01-01

    In view of the evaluation of the National Immunisation Programme in the Netherlands the main objectives were to obtain insight into the immunity to diphtheria, tetanus and poliomyelitis, into the occurrence of pertussis and to improve serodiagnosis of pertussis.

    In a

  1. Een onderzoek naar de invloed van endogene factoren bij de paralytische vorm van poliomyelitis acuta anterior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witkop-Oostenrijk, Geerdina Ali

    1955-01-01

    Het onderzoek in dit proefschrift beschreven, had ten doel na te gaan of endogene factoren een rol zouden kunnen spelen bij het optreden van paralysen bij poliomyelitis acuta anterior. Nadat uit de literatuurgegevens was gebleken, dat voor deze gedachte wel reden bestond en omdat de mogelijkheden om

  2. [State of collective immunity against poliomyelitis in some regions of Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seĭbil', V B; Malyshkina, L P; Khishtova, S N; Lesnikova, M V; Baryshnikova, A S; Konopleva, T N; Mnozhina, E G; Agafonova, T V; Vladimirova, L A

    2013-01-01

    Study the state of collective immunity against poliomyelitis in 7 regions of Russia in the last 3 years. 2579 sera were studied for antibodies against poliomyelitis virus. Antibodies (AT) against 3 types of viruses were determined in neutralization reaction in RD cell culture, the state of collective immunity in the examined individuals was evaluated by the percent of individuals with AT against a type of poliovirus and geometric mean AT titer. The circulation of wild polioviruses was judged by the presence of strain specific AT against wild and vaccine viruses in the examined children (311 sera were studied). The indicators of collective immunity against poliomyelitis in both select examined regions and select age groups were generally high. The data obtained allow to make a conclusion that the quality of vaccine prophylaxis in the examined regions is good. Introduction of wild poliovirus type 1 from Tajikistan in 2010 caused disease in 7 residents of Russia whereas an epidemic that had affected more than 700 individuals emerged in Tajikistan. The studies carried out confirmed the necessity to continue qualitative poliomyelitis vaccine prophylaxis in the country despite the lack of circulation of wild polioviruses that can be introduced at any time.

  3. Custom rotating hinge total knee arthroplasty in patients with poliomyelitis affected limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Jeeshan; Hanna, Sammy A; Kayani, Babar; Miles, Jonathan; Pollock, Robin C; Skinner, John A; Briggs, Timothy W; Carrington, Richard W

    2015-05-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in limbs affected by poliomyelitis is a technically challenging procedure. These patients often demonstrate acquired articular and metaphyseal angular deformities, bone loss, narrowness of the intramedullary canals, impaired quadriceps strength, flexion contractures and ligamentous laxity producing painful hyperextension. Thus, using condylar knee designs in these patients will likely result in early failure because of instability and abnormal load distribution. The aim of this study was to assess the outcomes associated with use of the customised (SMILES) rotating-hinge knee system at our institution for TKA in poliomyelitis-affected limbs. We retrospectively reviewed the outcome of 14 TKAs using the (SMILES) prosthesis in 13 patients with limbs affected by poliomyelitis. All patients had painful unstable knees with hyperextension. There were ten females and three males with a mean age of 66 years (range 51-84) at time of surgery. Patients were followed up clinically, radiologically and functionally with the Oxford knee score (OKS). Mean follow-up was 72 months (16-156). There were no immediate or early complications. One patient fell and sustained a peri-prosthetic fracture at seven months requiring revision to a longer stem. Radiological evaluation showed satisfactory alignment with no signs of loosening in all cases. Mean OKS improved from 11.6 (4-18) to 31.5 (18-40) postoperatively (p poliomyelitis. The device compensates well for ligamentous insufficiency as well as for any associated bony deformity.

  4. Poverty eradication: a new paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pethe, V P

    1998-08-01

    This article offers a new paradigm for eradicating poverty in India. It was assumed incorrectly by Mahatma Gandhi that a good society without mass poverty would follow after independence. India copied Western models of development and developed giant factories, big dams, and megacities. Agriculture did not expand the number of jobs for people. The Western paradigm failed in India because of the false assumption of "trickle down" of income to the masses. The targeted programs to the poor did not directly benefit enough of the poor. Mega-industrialization led to reduced employment and higher skill needs. The model failed mainly because it was a proxy and relied on indirect ways of reaching the poor. The models failed to be adapted to conditions in India. The Swadeshi paradigm is a direct model for addressing mass poverty. Poverty is affected by immediate, intermediate, and ultimate determinants. Poverty begets social and economic problems, such as ignorance, ill health, high fertility, unemployment, and crime. In India and developing countries, mass poverty results from under use of human resources; lack of equal opportunities; and an outdated non-egalitarian social structure, an unjust global economic order, human cruelty, and erosion of ethical values. Indians are squandering their precious resources mimicking Western consumerism. Poverty leads to rapid population growth. People become productive assets with universal literacy, compulsory and free education, health services and sanitation, vocational training, and work ethics. India needs people-oriented policies with less emphasis on capital accumulation.

  5. How long does denervation take in poliomyelitis? Or is it a lifetime?”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Guney Senol

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: This study aims to determine the period of reinnervation in patients with poliomyelitis. This research was conducted to identify the appearance of denervation potentials in patients with poliomyelitis as indicators for reinnervation. Materials and Methods: A total of 246 male patients with poliomyelitis were assessed electrophysiologically between 1988 and 2007. The mean age was 22.8 (18–42. It has been an average of 19.9 ± 4.9 years since the beginning of complaints from the patients. Results: The patients had no complaints of newly developing muscle weakness, fatigue, muscle and joint pain, and difficulties in breathing and swallowing. Neurological examinations revealed the absence of myotomal pain and sensory loss. Upon assessment of the patients' limbs, the following findings were revealed: two patients had left upper and lower limb involvement, two patients had left upper and right lower limb involvement, 6 patients had left upper limb involvement, 12 patients had both lower limb involvement, 105 patients had left lower limb involvement, 1 patient had both upper limb involvement, 2 patients had right lower and upper limb involvement, 12 patients had right upper limb involvement, 6 patients had both lower limb involvement, 95 patients had right lower limb involvement, and 3 had all the three extremities affected. The needle electromyography revealed the presence of denervation potentials in 25.2% (62 of the patients. Conclusion: When poliovirus attacks the motor neuron, this neuron may be completely destroyed, damaged, or unaffected. Reinnervation occurs when nearby functioning motor units send out terminal axon sprouts to reinnervate the damaged muscle fibers. As a consequence of poliomyelitis, several muscle fibers become atrophic and fibrotic, but others continue to survive. This study showed that patients with a history of poliomyelitis experienced denervation with subsequent reinnervation for many years.

  6. A Comparison of Er:YAG Laser with Photon-Initiated Photoacoustic Streaming, Nd:YAG Laser, and Conventional Irrigation on the Eradication of Root Dentinal Tubule Infection by Enterococcus faecalis Biofilms: A Scanning Electron Microscopy Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Ozses Ozkaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the antimicrobial efficacy of Er:YAG laser activation with photon-initiated photoacoustic streaming (PIPS, Nd:YAG laser disinfection, and conventional irrigation on Enterococcus faecalis biofilms using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Biofilms were grown on 110 root halves and divided into the following: Groups 1 and 2 (saline and 1% NaOCl with apical position of PIPS, resp., Groups 3 and 4 (saline and 1% NaOCl with coronal position of PIPS, resp., Groups 5 and 6 (Nd:YAG laser after saline and 1% NaOCl irrigation, resp. and Groups 7, 8, and 9 (conventional irrigation with 1% NaOCl, 6% NaOCl, and saline, resp.. SEM images of the apical, middle, and coronal levels were examined using a scoring system. Score differences between Groups 1 and 2 were insignificant at all levels in the remaining biofilm. Group 4 had significantly greater bacterial elimination than Group 3 at all levels. Differences in Nd:YAG laser irradiation between Groups 5 and 6 were insignificant. Groups 7 and 8 were insignificantly different, except at the middle level. Saline group had a higher percentage of biofilms than the others. In this study, PIPS activation with NaOCl eliminates more E. faecalis biofilms in all root canals regardless of the position of the fiber tip.

  7. Are probiotics useful in Helicobacter pylori eradication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, Matjaž; Orel, Rok

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is considered an etiologic factor for the development of peptic ulcer disease, gastric adenocarcinoma, and MALT lymphoma. Therapeutic schemes to eradicate the bacteria are based on double antibiotic therapy and proton pump inhibitor. Despite many therapeutic improvements in H. pylori eradication treatment, it is still associated with high infection rate also in developed countries. Bacterial resistance and adverse events occurrence are among most frequent causes for anti- H. pylori treatment failure. Several studies have reported that certain probiotic strains can exhibit inhibitory activity against H. pylori bacteria. In addition, some probiotic strains can reduce the occurrence of side effects due to antibiotic therapy and consequently increase the H. pylori eradication rate. The results of the prospective double-blind placebo-controlled studies suggest that specific probiotics, such as S. boulardii and L. johnsonni La1 probably can diminish the bacterial load, but not completely eradicate the H. pylori bacteria. Furthermore, it seems that supplementation with S. boulardii is a useful concomitant therapy in the standard H. pylori eradication treatment protocol and most probably increases eradication rate. L. reuteri is equally effective, but more positive studies are needed. Finally, probiotic strains, such as S. boulardii, L. reuteri and L. GG, decrease gastrointestinal antibiotic associated adverse effects. PMID:26457024

  8. Tracking progress toward global polio eradication, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    In January 2012, polio eradication was declared a "programmatic emergency for global public health" by the Executive Board of the World Health Organization (WHO). Since the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) began in 1988, progress has been tracked by surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases and testing of linked stool specimens for polioviruses (PVs) in WHO-accredited Global Polio Laboratory Network (GPLN) laboratories, complemented by sewage testing (environmental surveillance) in selected areas. Monitoring AFP surveillance quality at national and subnational administrative levels using standard performance indicators identifies potential gaps where PV circulation might go undetected; monitoring specimen transport and laboratory reporting timeliness identifies areas where reporting delays could lead to late response, permitting ongoing transmission. This report provides an assessment of 2010-2011 performance indicators for AFP surveillance at national and subnational levels in polio-affected countries and laboratory reporting at the regional level, updated from 2009-2010. Overall, 16 (62%) of 26 countries with circulating wild PV (WPV) met national AFP surveillance indicator targets during both 2010 and 2011. All three countries with reestablished WPV transmission and 16 of 19 countries with WPV outbreaks had substantial proportions (>20%) of their respective populations living in areas with underperforming surveillance during 2010 or 2011. Targets for timely reporting of PV isolation and type characterization results were met in three of six WHO regions in 2010 and five regions in 2011. To achieve polio eradication, efforts are needed to improve AFP surveillance and laboratory performance.

  9. Surveillance to Track Progress Toward Polio Eradication - Worldwide, 2016-2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Tracie J; Diop, Ousmane M; Jorba, Jaume; Chavan, Smita; Ahmed, Jamal; Anand, Abhijeet

    2018-04-13

    Global efforts to eradicate polio began in 1988, and four of the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions currently have achieved poliofree certification. Within the remaining two regions with endemic poliomyelitis (African and Eastern Mediterranean), Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan have never interrupted transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV). The primary means of detecting poliovirus transmission is surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) among children aged surveillance is supplemented by environmental surveillance for polioviruses in sewage from selected locations. Genomic sequencing of isolated polioviruses enables the mapping of transmission by time and place, assessment of potential gaps in surveillance, and identification of the emergence of VDPVs (3). This report presents poliovirus surveillance data from 2016-2017, with particular focus on six countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) and 20 countries in the African Region (AFR) that reported WPV or circulating VDPVs (cVDPVs) during 2011-2017. Included in the 20 AFR countries are the three most affected by the 2014-2015 Ebola virus disease (Ebola) outbreak (Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone), even though only one (Guinea) reported WPV or cVDPVs during the surveillance period. During 2017, a total of 14 (70%) of the 20 AFR countries and five (83%) of the six EMR countries met both surveillance quality indicators at the national level; however, provincial-level variation was seen. Surveillance strengthening activities are needed in specific countries of these regions to provide evidence supporting ultimate certification of the interruption of poliovirus circulation.

  10. Comparative assessment of Oral Hygiene and Periodontal status among children who have Poliomyelitis at Udaipur city, Rajasthan, India

    OpenAIRE

    Tak, Mridula; Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Sharda, Archana; Asawa, Kailash; Tak, Aniruddh; Jalihal, Sagar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess and compare the oral hygiene and periodontal status among children with Poliomyelitis having upper limb disability, lower limb disability and both upper and lower disability at Udaipur city, Rajasthan, India. Study design: Total sample comprised of 344 Poliomyelitis children (upper limb disability: 33.4%; lower limb disability: 33.7%; both upper and lower limb disability: 32.9%) in the age group of 12-15 years. Clinical examination included recording Simplified Oral Hygie...

  11. Eradication of measles: remaining challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzmann, Heidemarie; Hengel, Hartmut; Tenbusch, Matthias; Doerr, H W

    2016-06-01

    , epidemiological and virological surveillance by the use of modern laboratory diagnostics and reporting systems. By consequent implementation of carefully designed epidemiologic and prophylactic measures, it should be possible to eradicate MeV globally out of mankind, as the closely related morbillivirus of rinderpest could be successfully eliminated out of the cattle on a global scale.

  12. Development, persistence, and significance of type 2, poliomyelitis complement-fixing antibody in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CASALS, J; OLITSKY, P K; SABIN, A B

    1952-07-01

    Sera from 81 patients with a diagnosis of paralytic or non-paralytic poliomyelitis, and from 159 individuals of similar age groups giving no history of the disease, were tested with a high titered, complement-fixing poliomyelitis antigen of Type 2 (Lansing-like). The antigen consisted of brain tissue from newborn mice injected with the MEF1 strain of virus as previously adapted to these animals. The presence or absence of Type 2 neutralizing antibody in the sera under test was found not to affect the complement fixation. Positive reactions were obtained with 57 per cent of the sera deriving from non-paralytic patients and in 70 per cent from paralytics, when the specimens were tested at a dilution of 1:16. The complement-fixing antibody was often present in highest titer as early as 24 hours after the onset of poliomyelitis, and in almost all instances within 7 days. In about half of the patients a 4-fold or greater drop in titer occurred within 3 months, with little or no change in the others. The incidence of titers of 1:16 or higher with the control sera varied with the season of the year at which they were procured, 3 per cent of the winter samples proving positive and 13 per cent of the summer. The tests of sera from the group of patients from whom poliomyelitis virus was recovered, disclosed no significant differences between those having the paralytic and those having the non-paralytic disease. Type 1 (Brunhilde-like) strains of virus were recovered from many of the patients yielding positive tests, although they presented no evidence of previous or concurrent infection with Type 2 virus. This finding shows that Type 1 virus can give rise in patients to Type 2 complement-fixing antibody. The application of these data to the serologic diagnosis of poliomyelitis infection in man will of necessity be limited until information is obtained on the development, persistence, and significance of complement-fixation reactions with antigens deriving from Type 1 and

  13. Which factors affect the success or failure of eradication campaigns against alien species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese Pluess

    Full Text Available Although issues related to the management of invasive alien species are receiving increasing attention, little is known about which factors affect the likelihood of success of management measures. We applied two data mining techniques, classification trees and boosted trees, to identify factors that relate to the success of management campaigns aimed at eradicating invasive alien invertebrates, plants and plant pathogens. We assembled a dataset of 173 different eradication campaigns against 94 species worldwide, about a half of which (50.9% were successful. Eradications in man-made habitats, greenhouses in particular, were more likely to succeed than those in (semi-natural habitats. In man-made habitats the probability of success was generally high in Australasia, while in Europe and the Americas it was higher for local infestations that are easier to deal with, and for international campaigns that are likely to profit from cross-border cooperation. In (semi- natural habitats, eradication campaigns were more likely to succeed for plants introduced as an ornamental and escaped from cultivation prior to invasion. Averaging out all other factors in boosted trees, pathogens, bacteria and viruses were most, and fungi the least likely to be eradicated; for plants and invertebrates the probability was intermediate. Our analysis indicates that initiating the campaign before the extent of infestation reaches the critical threshold, starting to eradicate within the first four years since the problem has been noticed, paying special attention to species introduced by the cultivation pathway, and applying sanitary measures can substantially increase the probability of eradication success. Our investigations also revealed that information on socioeconomic factors, which are often considered to be crucial for eradication success, is rarely available, and thus their relative importance cannot be evaluated. Future campaigns should carefully document

  14. Poverty eradication in a carbon constrained world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubacek, Klaus; Baiocchi, Giovanni; Feng, Kuishuang; Patwardhan, Anand

    2017-10-24

    The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change aims to keep warming below 2 °C while recognizing developing countries' right to eradicate extreme poverty. Poverty eradication is also the first of the Sustainable Development Goals. This paper investigates potential consequences for climate targets of achieving poverty eradication. We find that eradicating extreme poverty, i.e., moving people to an income above $1.9 purchasing power parity (PPP) a day, does not jeopardize the climate target even in the absence of climate policies and with current technologies. On the other hand, bringing everybody to a still modest expenditure level of at least $2.97 PPP would have long-term consequences on achieving emission targets. Compared to the reference mitigation pathway, eradicating extreme poverty increases the effort by 2.8% whereas bringing everybody to at least $2.97 PPP would increase the required mitigation rate by 27%. Given that the top 10% global income earners are responsible for 36% of the current carbon footprint of households; the discourse should address income distribution and the carbon intensity of lifestyles.

  15. First-ever Ischemic Stroke after a Flight in a Patient with Prior Poliomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chiang Chang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Survivors of poliomyelitis sometimes travel by air with mobility assistance. However, prolonged seating during long-haul flights may also possibly produce stroke events on polio-inflicted patients. A 48-year-old polio-inflicted male suffered a stroke after an extended flight. A two-dimensional echocardiography was normal without detected patent foramen ovale or dyskinetic segment. The venodynamic variables were all within normal limits. MR Imaging studies revealed acute cerebral infarction in the distribution of the right middle cerebral artery and posterior watershed area. Hematological examination revealed positive anti-cardiolipin IgG antibody which might contribute to the risk of thrombosis as an underlying condition in addition to immobilization. This is the first presentation of ischemic stroke after a flight in a patient with prior poliomyelitis. In addition to decompression sickness, economy class stroke syndrome and postpoliomyelitis syndrome, the physician should also take other coagulation disorders into consideration during the investigation.

  16. A specific complement-fixation test for infection with poliomyelitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CASALS, J; OLITSKY, P K; ANSLOW, R O

    1951-08-01

    A complement-fixing antigen has been developed, using as source of material CNS tissue from newborn mice infected with the newborn mouse-adapted strain of the Lansing type, MEF1 virus. With this antigen, specific reactions have been obtained with sera from mice, cotton rats, and monkeys immunized with the Lansing-type virus, and from monkeys and chimpanzees convalescent from infection with this virus. Twenty-one of 35 human sera obtained from individuals convalescent from poliomyelitis were positive and 6 of 22 from apparently normal persons having Lansing-neutralizing antibody, while this held true for only 1 of 19 from those having no Lansing-neutralizing antibody. The fact that positive results were found in sera from patients having an infection with poliomyelitis virus of the Brunhilde type and at the same time no Lansing-neutralizing antibody brings up the possibility of the existence of a cross-reaction in complement fixation between the two types.

  17. CHALLENGING ISSUES OF EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SURVEILLANCE OVER ENTEROVIRAL NON- POLIOMYELITIS INFECTIONS IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doan S. I.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Enteroviruses are widespread everywhere and present a serious problem for public health. Purpose: to study the epidemic process of enteroviral non-poliomyelitis infections in Ukraine. Material and methods: the official reports of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine on the isolation of enteroviruses from healthy and sick persons as well as environmental objects were studied. The detection of enteroviruses RNA was performed using the PCR method. Results: the epidemic process of non-poliomyelitis enterovirus infections is characterized by varying intensity in long-term and annual dynamics, expressed territorial unevenness, a general trend towards the decrease in the frequency of enterovirus isolation against the background of increasing incidence of enteroviral meningitis. In the strain structure, Coxsackie B and ECHO viruses predominate. Conclusions: it is necessary to improve the epidemiological control of enterovirus infections by optimizing the structure and scope of research.

  18. Neurologic disorders: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, multiple sclerosis, and poliomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfinkle, T J; Kimmelman, C P

    1982-01-01

    The patient who has multiple cranial neuropathies may pose a diagnostic dilemma. The neurologic disorders of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, and poliomyelitis often cause bulbar dysfunctions such as diplopia, facial weakness, slurred or hypernasal speech, dysphagia, and hoarseness. In general, treatment is supportive and is directed toward restoring or aiding lost function (i.e., tracheostomy, esophagostomy, and cricopharyngeal myotomy). The relative infrequency of these disorders can lead to delays in diagnosis and rehabilitative therapy.

  19. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF LESIONS IN PERIPHERAL GANGLIA IN CHIMPANZEE AND IN HUMAN POLIOMYELITIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodian, David; Howe, Howard A.

    1947-01-01

    1. The peripheral ganglia of eighteen inoculated chimpanzees and thirteen uninoculated controls, and of eighteen fatal human poliomyelitis cases, were studied for histopathological evidence of the route of transmission of virus from the alimentary tract to the CNS. 2. Lesions thought to be characteristic of poliomyelitis in inoculated chimpanzees could not be sharply differentiated from lesions of unknown origin in uninoculated control animals. Moreover, although the inoculated animals as a group, in comparison with the control animals, had a greater number of infiltrative lesions in sympathetic as well as in sensory ganglia, it was not possible to make satisfactory correlations between the distribution of these lesions and the routes of inoculation. 3. In sharp contrast with chimpanzees, the celiac and stellate ganglia of the human poliomyelitis cases were free of any but insignificant infiltrative lesions. Lesions in human trigeminal and spinal sensory ganglia included neuronal damage as well as focal and perivascular inflitrative lesions, as is well known. In most ganglia, as in monkey and chimpanzee sensory ganglia, these were correlated in intensify with the degree of severity of lesions in the region of the CNS receiving their axons. This suggested that lesions in sensory ganglia probably resulted from spread of virus centrifugally from the CNS, in accord with considerable experimental evidence. 4. Two principal difficulties in the interpretation of histopathological findings in peripheral ganglia were revealed by this study. The first is that the specificity of lesions in sympathetic ganglia has not been established beyond doubt as being due to poliomyelitis. The second is that the presence of characteristic lesions in sensory ganglia does not, and cannot, reveal whether the virus reached the ganglia from the periphery or from the central nervous system, except in very early preparalytic stages or in exceptional cases of early arrest of virus spread and of

  20. [Optic neuritis as a complication in preventive tetanus-diphtheria-poliomyelitis vaccination: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhard, C; Choi, M; Wilhelm, H

    2001-01-01

    The preventive value of vaccinations is generally accepted. Public recommended vaccinations are administered frequently and therefore even rare complications may occur. We report on a 56-year-old patient who suffered from an acute unilateral optic neuritis, following ten days after vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus and poliomyelitis. A complete remission occurred within six weeks after intravenous megadose prednisolone. Neurological and ophthalmological complications following vaccinations are rare, and in most cases reversible.

  1. Targeting HIV latency: pharmacologic strategies toward eradication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Sifei; Siliciano, Robert F.

    2013-01-01

    The latent reservoir for HIV-1 in resting CD4+ T cells remains a major barrier to HIV-1 eradication, even though highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) can successfully reduce plasma HIV-1 levels to below the detection limit of clinical assays and reverse disease progression. Proposed eradication strategies involve reactivation of this latent reservoir. Multiple mechanisms are believed to be involved in maintaining HIV-1 latency, mostly through suppression of transcription. These include cytoplasmic sequestration of host transcription factors and epigenetic modifications such as histone deacetylation, histone methylation and DNA methylation. Therefore, strategies targeting these mechanisms have been explored for reactivation of the latent reservoir. In this review, we discuss current pharmacological approaches toward eradication, focusing on small molecule latency-reversing agents, their mechanisms, advantages and limitations. PMID:23270785

  2. Post-poliomyelitis syndrome as a possible viral disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreina Baj

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes current concepts on post-polio syndrome (PPS, a condition that may arise in polio survivors after partial or complete functional recovery followed by a prolonged interval of stable neurological function. PPS affects 15–20 million people worldwide. Epidemiological data are reported, together with the pathogenic pathways that possibly lead to the progressive degeneration and loss of neuromuscular motor units. As a consequence of PPS, polio survivors experience new weakness, generalized fatigue, atrophy of previously unaffected muscles, and a physical decline that may culminate in the loss of independent life. Emphasis is given to the possible pathogenic role of persistent poliovirus infection and chronic inflammation. These factors could contribute to the neurological and physical decline in polio survivors. A perspective is then given on novel anti-poliovirus compounds and monoclonal antibodies that have been developed to contribute to the final phases of polio eradication. These agents could also be useful for the treatment or prevention of PPS. Some of these compounds/antibodies are in early clinical development. Finally, current clinical trials for PPS are reported. In this area, the intravenous infusion of normal human immunoglobulins appears both feasible and promising.

  3. Post-poliomyelitis syndrome as a possible viral disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baj, Andreina; Colombo, Martina; Headley, Joan L; McFarlane, John R; Liethof, Mary-Ann; Toniolo, Antonio

    2015-06-01

    This review summarizes current concepts on post-polio syndrome (PPS), a condition that may arise in polio survivors after partial or complete functional recovery followed by a prolonged interval of stable neurological function. PPS affects 15-20 million people worldwide. Epidemiological data are reported, together with the pathogenic pathways that possibly lead to the progressive degeneration and loss of neuromuscular motor units. As a consequence of PPS, polio survivors experience new weakness, generalized fatigue, atrophy of previously unaffected muscles, and a physical decline that may culminate in the loss of independent life. Emphasis is given to the possible pathogenic role of persistent poliovirus infection and chronic inflammation. These factors could contribute to the neurological and physical decline in polio survivors. A perspective is then given on novel anti-poliovirus compounds and monoclonal antibodies that have been developed to contribute to the final phases of polio eradication. These agents could also be useful for the treatment or prevention of PPS. Some of these compounds/antibodies are in early clinical development. Finally, current clinical trials for PPS are reported. In this area, the intravenous infusion of normal human immunoglobulins appears both feasible and promising. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. [Poliomyelitis--why we must continue to vaccinate!].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windorfer, A; Beyrer, K

    2005-02-24

    The eradication of polio--that is the worldwide elimination of the wild poliovirus--is now within reach. The current success of this international project is due largely to the rigorous immunization of the general population. Both live oral polio vaccine (OPV) and inactivated vaccine (IPV) administered by injection are applied, the pros and cons of each having to be weighed up. Since 1998, only the dead IPV vaccine has been recommended in Germany. It is essential that the acceptance of the need for immunization should not decline, and that the inoculation rate in countries in which polio has apparently been eliminated, should not fall below the critical threshold of about 85-80%. If in the future this figure is not reached, the population would be put at risk by the re-introduction of the polio virus into the country. Even when global elimination has been achieved, vaccination must be continued for several years. The recommended immunization schedule covers three vaccinations for basic immunization plus a booster vaccination in adolescence.

  5. Comparative assessment of dentition status among poliomyelitis children in Udaipur, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Tak, Mridula; Sharda, Archana J; Asawa, Kailash; Ramesh, Gayathri; Sandesh, Nagarajappa

    2013-01-01

    To determine and compare the dental caries experience and treatment needs of children with Poliomyelitis at Udaipur, India. Total sample comprised of 344 children with Poliomyelitis (upper limb disability: 33.4%; lower limb disability: 33.7%; both upper and lower limb disability: 32.8%) in the age group of 12-15 years. Clinical examination included recording Dentition Status and Treatment Needs. Chi-square test, Analysis of variance (ANOVA), multiple logistic and stepwise linear regressions were used for statistical analysis. The mean decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) score (4.47 ± 3.09) was found to be highest among children with Poliomyelitis having both upper and lower limb impairment (p < .05). Stepwise and logistic regression analysis showed that the best predictors for dental caries were disability, socioeconomic status and snacks in between meals. A significant relationship of dental caries with limb involved in impairment draws immediate attention for a planned approach in improving the oral health. ©2012 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Respiratory failure in a patient with antecedent poliomyelitis: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or post-polio syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terao, Shin-ichi; Miura, Naofumi; Noda, Aiji; Yoshida, Mari; Hashizume, Yoshio; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Sobue, Gen

    2006-10-01

    We report a 69-year-old man who developed paralytic poliomyelitis in childhood and then decades later suffered from fatal respiratory failure. Six months before this event, he had progressive weight loss and shortness of breath. He had severe muscular atrophy of the entire right leg as a sequela of the paralytic poliomyelitis. He showed mild weakness of the facial muscle and tongue, dysarthria, and severe muscle atrophy from the neck to proximal upper extremities and trunk, but no obvious pyramidal signs. Electromyogram revealed neurogenic changes in the right leg, and in the paraspinal, sternocleidomastoid, and lingual muscles. There was a slight increase in central motor conduction time from the motor cortex to the lumbar anterior horn. Pulmonary function showed restrictive ventilation dysfunction, which was the eventual cause of death. Some neuropathological features were suggestive of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), namely Bunina bodies. In patients with a history of paralytic poliomyelitis who present after a long stable period with advanced fatal respiratory failure, one may consider not only respiratory impairment from post-polio syndrome but also the onset of ALS.

  7. Negative or positive? The iron lung and poliomyelitis-Zurich, 1951.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichel, T; Dreux, M L

    2017-03-01

    During the poliomyelitis epidemics of the last century hospitals were inundated with patients in acute respiratory failure. Between 1946 and 1949, Nandor (Ferdinand) Eichel documented the use of the iron lung in children with acute poliomyelitis at the University Children's Hospital, Zurich. The aim was to assess the effectiveness of the Iron lung and negative pressure respiratory support for this indication and to establish its role in the context of other existing therapies at the time. Eichel produced his review and data as the Inaugural Dissertation towards his medical degree from the the University of Zurich, published in 1951. The dissertation was written in German and first translated into English in 2014. The current paper explores the findings of the dissertation and explains why there has been the transition to techniques of respiratory support today. It includes a biography of Dr F. N. Eichel and an update on the current status of poliomyelitis. The original dissertation was found in the home of Nandor's son and was of great interest to the current authors, Nandor's granddaughter and her colleague.

  8. Bilateral custom-fit total knee arthroplasty in a patient with poliomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardy, Nicolas; Chambat, Pierre; Murphy, Colin G; Fayard, Jean-Marie

    2014-09-01

    In limbs affected by poliomyelitis, total knee arthroplasty results in satisfactory pain relief. However, the risk of failure is high, especially if the preoperative quadriceps power is low. Therefore, treating osteoarthritis in the current patient represented a challenging procedure. A 66-year-old man presented with tricompartmental osteoarthritis of both knees, with valgus deformity of 14° on the left knee and 11° on the right knee. He walked with a bilateral knee recurvatum of 30° and a grade 1 quadriceps power. The authors treated both knees with cemented custom-fit hinged total knee arthroplasty with 30° of recurvatum in the tibial keel. Clinical scores showed good results 1 year postoperatively, especially on the subjective data of quality of life and function. At follow-up, radiographs showed good total knee arthroplasty positioning on the right side and a small mechanical loosening at the end of the tibial keel on the left side. Only 5 studies (Patterson and Insall; Moran; Giori and Lewallen; Jordan et al; and Tigani et al) have reported total knee arthroplasty results in patients with poliomyelitis. This study reports an original case of bilateral custom-fit hinged total knee arthroplasty in a patient with poliomyelitis. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of this type of procedure in the literature. The key point is the degree of recurvatum that is needed to allow walking, avoiding excessive constraints on the implants that can lead to early mechanical failure. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Combined tibial lengthening and ankle arthrodesis for patients with certain type of sequelae of poliomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chi-Chuan

    2017-01-01

    Following far advancement of modern medicine and technology, functional disability in a certain type of sequelae of poliomyelitis may be effectively improved. Eight consecutive adult patients with unilateral sequelae of poliomyelitis were treated. These patients had shortened lower extremity of an average of 4.8 cm (range, 4.0-5.5 cm) in the lesion side. Muscle power of the ipsilateral knee was nearly intact (grade 4 or 5) but the ankle extension was completely flaccid. The tibia was osteotomized and lengthened with external fixation. Consequently, all external fixators were converted to plates supplemented with autogenous corticocancellous bone graft and bone graft substitute. Ankle arthrodesis was performed concomitantly. Seven patients were followed up for an average of 3.7 years (range, 2.2-5.4 years). All seven lengthened sites healed with an average union time of 3.9 months (range, 3.5-4.5 months) after plating. One ankle infection occurred. Gait function significantly improved by modified Mazur scoring evaluation ( p = 0.02). At the latest follow-up, all patients had a minimal or unnoticed limp in level walking. The described combined techniques may be an excellent alternate for treating selected patients with sequelae of poliomyelitis. The procedure is not complex but the efficiency is extremely prominent.

  10. Frequency and clinical manifestations of post-poliomyelitis syndrome in a brazilian tertiary care center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrahão Augusto Juviniano Quadros

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency and clinical manifestations of patients with post-poliomyelitis syndrome (PPS in a Brazilian division of neuromuscular disorders. METHODS: A total of 167 patients with prior history of paralytic poliomyelitis was investigated for PPS, based on international diagnostic criteria. Other variables analyzed were: gender, race, age at poliomyelitis infection, age at PPS onset, and PPS symptoms. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-nine patients presented PPS, corresponding to 77.2% of the studied population. 62.8% were women and 37.2% were men. Mean age of patients with PPS at onset of PPS symptoms was 39.9±9.69 years. Their main clinical manifestations were: new weakness in the previously affected limbs (69% and in the apparently not affected limbs (31%; joint pain (79.8%; fatigue (77.5%; muscle pain (76%; and cold intolerance (69.8%. CONCLUSIONS: Most patients of our sample presented PPS. In Brazil, PPS frequency and clinical features are quite similar to those of other countries.

  11. W. Ritchie Russell, A.B. Baker, and Fred Plum: Pioneers of ventilatory management in poliomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijdicks, Eelco F M

    2016-09-13

    Historically, neurologists were not involved in the day-to-day management of critically ill patients with bulbar poliomyelitis, but some were. The major contributions of 3 neurologists-W. Ritchie Russell, A.B. Baker, and Fred Plum-in the respiratory management of poliomyelitis have not been recognized. Russell's work was instrumental in identifying multiple types of poliomyelitis defined by their respiratory needs, and he advised treatment that varied from simple postural drainage to use of respirators. He participated in the development of the Radcliffe respiratory pump. Baker recognized the essential involvement of the vagal nerve in respiratory distress, but also observed that involvement of vital centers without cranial nerve involvement would lead to irregular and shallow respiration in some patients and in others with marked dysautonomic features. A similar finding of central involvement of respiration was noted by Plum, who also stressed the importance of hypercapnia. Plum emphasized measurements of vital capacity and techniques to minimize trauma with suctioning after tracheostomy. These 3 neurologists understood the importance of airway and ventilator management, which is currently one of the many pillars of neurocritical care. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  12. The 2010 outbreak of poliomyelitis in Tajikistan: epidemiology and lessons learnt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovenko, M L; Gmyl, A P; Ivanova, O E; Eremeeva, T P; Ivanov, A P; Prostova, M A; Baykova, O Y; Isaeva, O V; Lipskaya, G Y; Shakaryan, A K; Kew, O M; Deshpande, J M; Agol, V I

    2014-02-20

    A large outbreak of poliomyelitis, with 463 laboratory-confirmed and 47 polio-compatible cases, took place in 2010 in Tajikistan. Phylogenetic analysis of the viral VP1 gene suggested a single importation of wild poliovirus type 1 from India in late 2009, its further circulation in Tajikistan and expansion into neighbouring countries, namely Kazakhstan, Russia, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Whole-genome sequencing of 14 isolates revealed recombination events with enterovirus C with cross-overs within the P2 region. Viruses with one class of recombinant genomes co-circulated with the parental virus, and representatives of both caused paralytic poliomyelitis. Serological analysis of 327 sera from acute flaccid paralysis cases as well as from patients with other diagnoses and from healthy people demonstrated inadequate immunity against polio in the years preceding the outbreak. Evidence was obtained suggesting that vaccination against poliomyelitis, in rare cases, may not prevent the disease. Factors contributing to the peculiarities of this outbreak are discussed. The outbreak emphasises the necessity of continued vaccination against polio and the need, at least in risk areas, of quality control of this vaccination through well planned serological surveillance.

  13. Eradication of New World Screwworm from Jamaica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The New World Screwworm (NWS) is an insect pest affecting warm-blooded animals and also humans. It causes widespread economic losses in livestock production as well as pain and suffering to animals and to those people unfortunate enough to become infected. Although it is endemic in Jamaica, the screwworm can be eradicated from the island using the well proven and successful Sterile Insect Technique. In collaboration with the Jamaican authorities, the Department of Technical Co-operation of the IAEA is planning to sponsor a Model Project to eradicate screwworm from Jamaica. (IAEA)

  14. Global eradication of measles: Are we poised?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavendra D Kulkarni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Measles, a highly infectious viral disease is the next target for eradication following poliovirus. Decades of experience with highly effective vaccination has invigorated us to take on this virus. The task is not only Titanic but is laced with intricate issues. Recently, an outbreak of fever with rash occurred on a tertiary care teaching hospital campus and was confirmed serologically as measles outbreak by IgMELISA. Therefore, we searched the literature related to outbreaks, transmission of the measles virus, age groups involved, vaccination strategies, vaccination failure and epidemiological features of the disease and reviewed the possible reasons for such outbreaks and problems in the global eradication of the virus.

  15. Minimal change nephrotic syndrome in an 82 year old patient following a tetanus-diphteria-poliomyelitis-vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clajus Christian

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most common cause of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in children and younger adults is the minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS. In the elderly MCNS is relatively uncommon. Over the last decade some reports suggest a rare but possible association with the administration of various vaccines. Case presentation A 82-year old Caucasian female presented with pronounced nephrotic syndrome (proteinuria of 7.1 g/d, hypoproteinemia of 47 g/l. About six weeks prior to admission, she had received a combination vaccination for tetanus, diphtheria and poliomyelitis as a booster-vaccination from her general practitioner. The renal biopsy revealed typical minimal change lesions. She responded well to the initiated steroid treatment. As through physical examination as well as extensive laboratory and imaging studies did neither find any evidence for malignancies nor infections we suggest that the minimal change nephrotic syndrome in this patient might be related to the activation of the immune system triggered by the vaccination. Conclusion Our case as well as previous anecdotal reports suggests that vaccination and the resulting stimulations of the immune system might cause MCNS and other severe immune-reactions. Increased awareness in that regard might help to expand the database of those cases.

  16. Achieving polio eradication: a review of health communication evidence and lessons learned in India and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obregón, Rafael; Chitnis, Ketan; Morry, Chris; Feek, Warren; Bates, Jeffrey; Galway, Michael; Ogden, Ellyn

    2009-08-01

    Since 1988, the world has come very close to eradicating polio through the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, in which communication interventions have played a consistently central role. Mass media and information dissemination approaches used in immunization efforts worldwide have contributed to this success. However, reaching the hardest-to-reach, the poorest, the most marginalized and those without access to health services has been challenging. In the last push to eradicate polio, Polio Eradication Initiative communication strategies have become increasingly research-driven and innovative, particularly through the introduction of sustained interpersonal communication and social mobilization approaches to reach unreached populations. This review examines polio communication efforts in India and Pakistan between the years 2000 and 2007. It shows how epidemiological, social and behavioural data guide communication strategies that have contributed to increased levels of polio immunity, particularly among underserved and hard-to-reach populations. It illustrates how evidence-based and planned communication strategies - such as sustained media campaigns, intensive community and social mobilization, interpersonal communication and political and national advocacy combined - have contributed to reducing polio incidence in these countries. Findings show that communication strategies have contributed on several levels by: mobilizing social networks and leaders; creating political will; increasing knowledge; ensuring individual and community-level demand; overcoming gender barriers and resistance to vaccination; and reaching out to the poorest and marginalized populations. The review concludes with observations about the added value of communication strategies in polio eradication efforts and implications for global and local public health communication interventions.

  17. RESULTS OF ADMINISTRATION OF COMBINED VACCINE AGAINST DIPHTHERIA, PERTUSSIS, TETANUS, POLIOMYELITIS AND HAEMOPHILIC INFECTION TYPE B IN CHILDREN WITH CONCOMITANT DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Snegova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes data on methods and opportunities of frequently ailing children rehabilitation. Authors mark a leading role of vaccination against pneumotropic infections. Questions of successful interaction between doctor and frequently ailing child’s parents are highlighted. The observation of 94 children 3 months — 3 years old (patients had different types of initial immune insuffiiency, neurological pathology, recurrent obstructive bronchitis, or were included in group of frequently ailing children vaccinated with Pentaxim was performed. 94% of children showed asymptomatic postvaccinal period. Fever up to 39°C occurred in 2.3% of patients. Local reactions (diameter was not over 3–5 cm developed in 1.7% of children. There was no any case of postvaccinal complication. Evaluation of vaccine’s reactogenity proves its safety and reasonability in immunization against pertussis, diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis, Haemophilis influenzae type b in children of different health state including those with concomitant diseases.

  18. The effects of poliomyelitis on motor unit behavior during repetitive muscle actions: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Michael A; Herda, Trent J; Cooper, Michael A

    2014-09-06

    Acute paralytic poliomyelitis is caused by the poliovirus and usually results in muscle atrophy and weakness occurring in the lower limbs. Indwelling electromyography has been used frequently to investigate the denervation and innervation characteristics of the affected muscle. Recently developed technology allows the decomposition of the raw surface electromyography signals into the firing instances of single motor units. There is limited information regarding this electromyographic decomposition in clinical populations. In addition, regardless of electromyographic methods, no study has examined muscle activation parameters during repetitive muscle actions in polio patients. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the motor unit firing rates and electromyographic amplitude and center frequency of the vastus lateralis during 20 repetitive isometric muscle actions at 50% maximal voluntary contraction in healthy subjects and one patient that acquired acute paralytic poliomyelitis. One participant that acquired acute type III spinal poliomyelitis (Caucasian male, age = 29 yrs) at 3 months of age and three healthy participants (Caucasian females, age = 19.7 ± 2.1 yrs) participated in this study. The polio participant reported neuromuscular deficiencies as a result of disease in the hips, knees, buttocks, thighs, and lower legs. None of the healthy participants reported any current or ongoing neuromuscular diseases or musculoskeletal injuries. An acute bout of poliomyelitis altered motor unit behavior, such as, healthy participants displayed greater firing rates than the polio patient. The reduction in motor unit firing rates was likely a fatigue protecting mechanism since denervation via poliomyelitis results in a reduction of motorneurons. In addition, the concurrent changes in motor unit firing rates, electromyography amplitude and frequency for the polio participant would suggest that the entire motorneuron pool was utilized in each contraction unlike

  19. Eradicating asbestos one click at a time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ong, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Two technology firms have launched asbestos tracking software, making bold claims that their programs will help rid Australia of asbestos by 2030. The move follows closely on the heels of the establishment of the Australian Asbestos Safety Eradication Agency (ASEA) last July. Asbestos-related deaths from diseases including lung cancer, asbestosis and mesothelioma are expected to continue until at least 2060, due to a latency period of 20-50 years before symptoms appear after initial exposure. Health experts predict there will be up to 40,000 deaths by 2020. Industry players, governments and trade unions are rightly concerned and have been working towards tracking and disposing of asbestos safely. In fact, just three weeks after ASEA began operations, then-Workplace Relations Minister Bill Shorten announced an additional $6.4 million in funding to implement the agency's national strategic plan for asbestos awareness and management. Now, two firms say they can fulfil the government's goal of eradicating asbestos by 2030 through the use of technology, while saving millions of dollars in the process. After three years of development, Octfolio, owned by investment firm Tulla Group, launched its Asbestos Management Software last September. It maps and manages asbestos by creating a centrally operated database bringing together asbestos stakeholders such as site assessors, removal workers, building owners and government agencies. Information from each stakeholder is recorded in a microformat — codes used to identify specific kinds of data in webpages — which is then processed to give users a big picture view of what is happening at asbestos-contaminated sites and buildings, as well as ongoing removal, disposal and storage of the material. The software also automatically generates reports from auditors who have submitted their inspection reports of asbestos-affected sites, which Octfoliosays will reduce the costs of auditing exercises by up to 75

  20. Preparing Educational Leaders To Eradicate the 'Isms'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Paul M.

    Educational administration programs have an obligation to link theory with practical applications. However, the content of programs must also emphasize that aspiring administrators have a moral responsibility to eradicate the "isms"--classism, racism, sexism, homophobia, ageism, and ableism. This paper asserts that administrators must develop a…

  1. Engineering youth empowerment and poverty eradication through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The much orchestrated fight to achieve poverty eradication and the economic empowerment of the youth appears to be pandering to the comical as the reality of the frustrations and anger of the youth over their poverty stricken plight stares the nation in the face. This is obvious considering the restiveness and massive ...

  2. Disease eradication on large industrial farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozins, Carly; Day, Troy

    2016-10-01

    Many modern farms exhibit all-in-all-out dynamics in which entire cohorts of livestock are removed from a farm before a new cohort is introduced. This industrialization has enabled diseases to spread rapidly within farms. Here we look at one such example, Marek's disease. Marek's disease is an economically important disease of poultry. The disease is transmitted indirectly, enabling the spread of disease between cohorts of chickens who have never come into physical contact. We develop a model which allows us to track the transmission of disease within a barn and between subsequent cohorts of chickens occupying the barn. It is described by a system of impulsive differential equations. We determine the conditions that lead to disease eradication. For a given level of transmission we find that disease eradication is possible if the cohort length is short enough and/or the cohort size is small enough. Marek's disease can also be eradicated from a farm if the cleaning effort between cohorts is large enough. Importantly complete cleaning is not required for eradication and the threshold cleaning effort needed declines as both cohort duration and size decrease.

  3. Determinants of successful arthropod eradication programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick C. ​Tobin; John M. Kean; David Maxwell Suckling; Deborah G. McCullough; Daniel A. Herms; Lloyd D. Stringer

    2014-01-01

    Despite substantial increases in public awareness and biosecurity systems, introductions of non-native arthropods remain an unwelcomed consequence of escalating rates of international trade and travel. Detection of an established but unwanted nonnative organism can elicit a range of responses, including implementation of an eradication program. Previous studies have...

  4. Kudzu eradication trials with new herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    James H. Miller

    1988-01-01

    Two screening studies in Georgia tested new herbicides as potential eradicators of kudzu (Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi). One study was conducted on a Coastal Plain and the other on a Piedmont site. Tordon 101 was applied as the standard. Those herbicides which are currently labeled for forest land site preparation and which gave control comparable...

  5. Impact of age and co-morbidity on the functioning of patients with sequelae of poliomyelitis: a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolwijk-Swuste, Janneke M.; Beelen, Anita; Lankhorst, Gustaaf J.; Nollet, Frans

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of age and co-morbidity on the functional independence and perceived physical functioning of patients with sequelae of poliomyelitis. DESIGN: Cross sectional study. SUBJECTS: A convenience sample of 168 patients with sequelae of poliomyelitis, aged 45-85 years,

  6. Application of environmental DNA analysis to inform invasive fish eradication operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Phillip I.; Copp, Gordon H.; Créach, Véronique; Vilizzi, Lorenzo; Britton, J. R.

    2017-04-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) detection of non-native species has considerable potential to inform management decisions, including identifying the need for population control and/or eradication. An invasive species of European concern is the Asian cyprinid fish, topmouth gudgeon ( Pseudorasbora parva) . Here, eDNA analyses were applied at a commercial angling venue in southern England to inform operations aiming to eradicate P. parva, which had only ever been observed in one of the venue's seven unconnected angling ponds. Eradication of P. parva was initially attempted by repeated depletion of the population using fish traps (crayfish traps fitted with 5 mm mesh netting) and the introduction of native predators over a 4-year period. The very low number of P. parva captured following these eradication efforts suggested a possible population crash. Conventional PCR analysis of water samples using species-specific primers was applied to all seven ponds to confirm that P. parva was present in only one pond, that the eradication attempt had indeed failed and that the species' distribution in the pond appeared to be restricted to three bankside locations. The continued presence of P. parva at these locations was confirmed by subsequent trapping. Water samples from an adjacent, unconnected stream were also analysed using the eDNA methodology, but no DNA of P. parva was detected. The results suggest that further management action to eradicate P. parva be focused on the pond shown to contain the isolated P. parva population and thereby eliminate the risk of further dispersal. This study is the first to apply eDNA analysis to assess the efficacy of an eradication attempt and to provide evidence that the species was unlikely to be present in the other ponds, thus reducing the resources needed to control the species.

  7. Seven-day PPI-triple therapy with levofloxacin is very effective for Helicobacter pylori eradication.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrauwen, R.W.; Janssen, M.J.R.; Boer, W.A. de

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori infection causes lifelong gastritis and is associated with the development of peptic ulcer disease, MALT lymphoma and gastric cancer. Many patients benefit from H. pylori eradication therapy. PPI-triple therapy is recommended as initial therapy. Quadruple therapy,

  8. Abrupt transition to heightened poliomyelitis epidemicity in England and Wales, 1947-1957, associated with a pronounced increase in the geographical rate of disease propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallman-Raynor, M R; Cliff, A D

    2014-03-01

    The abrupt transition to heightened poliomyelitis epidemicity in England and Wales, 1947-1957, was associated with a profound change in the spatial dynamics of the disease. Drawing on the complete record of poliomyelitis notifications in England and Wales, we use a robust method of spatial epidemiological analysis (swash-backwash model) to evaluate the geographical rate of disease propagation in successive poliomyelitis seasons, 1940-1964. Comparisons with earlier and later time periods show that the period of heightened poliomyelitis epidemicity corresponded with a sudden and pronounced increase in the spatial rate of disease propagation. This change was observed for both urban and rural areas and points to an abrupt enhancement in the propensity for the geographical spread of polioviruses. Competing theories of the epidemic emergence of poliomyelitis in England and Wales should be assessed in the light of this evidence.

  9. Reflux esophagitis triggered after Helicobacter pylori eradication: a noteworthy demerit of eradication therapy among the Japanese?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsunori eIijima

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the February 2013 Revision of Insured Medical Treatment, bacterial eradication for all Helicobacter pylori-positive individuals in Japan was covered under the insurance scheme. However, reflux esophagitis is believed to occur in approximately 10% of Japanese patients who undergo eradication therapy. Hence, the risk of reflux esophagitis among such cases should be carefully considered, particularly in the treatment for H. pylori-positive patients who are otherwise healthy. The eradication of Helicobacter pylori in cases of H. pylori-positive gastritis markedly suppresses gastric inflammation, and inhibits gastric mucosal atrophy and its progression to intestinal metaplasia. In a long-term follow-up study (10-20 years, eradication treatment was found to reduce the risk of subsequent gastric cancer. However, the fact that eradication-induced reflux esophagitis could increase the long-term risk of Barrett’s esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma should also be considered in the Japanese population. Appropriate treatment with proton pump inhibitors should be taken into consideration for patients undergoing eradication therapy in clinical practice.

  10. Different Antibiotic No Culture Eradicating (DANCE) strategy: an easy way to manage H. pylori eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roccarina, Davide; Franceschi, Francesco; Zocco, Maria Assunta; Garcovich, Matteo; Gasbarrini, Giovanni; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2012-11-01

    Treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection is becoming a very relevant problem especially in industrialized Countries. Although different therapeutic regimens are currently available, treatment failure remains a growing problem in daily medical practice. Several factors could play a role in the eradication failure, but the most relevant are antibiotic resistance and patient's compliance. While Helicobacter pylori resistance to amoxicillin is rare, clarithromycin and metronidazole resistance varies significantly from close to zero up to 25%. However, metronidazole in vitro resistance exhibits a lower impact on eradication success because resistance in vitro does not reflect that in vivo. Specific guidelines have then been published, mostly based on antibiotic resistance among different geographic areas. Basically, first-line and second-line regimens have been well defined; concerning third-line treatment Maastricht III guidelines suggest to adopt a culture-based approach. Culture is, however, expensive, invasive and available only in few specialized centres. An alternative approach may be to use an empirical strategy, based on the avoidance of repeating similar eradicating schemes in the same patients during the course of different eradicating regimens. For this approach we propose the acronym DANCE (Different Antibiotic No Culture Eradicating) strategy. When correctly applied, this approach showed to reach successful eradication in up to 99.5% of Helicobacter pylori-positive patients. Copyright © 2012 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Poverty Relief or Poverty Eradication? | Kritzinger | Acta Theologica

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The author challenges the reader to make two mindshifts: from a focus on poverty relief to an emphasis on poverty eradication; and from viewing the poor as the objects of poverty alleviation to accepting them as the subjects of poverty eradication. The case is argued and a practical approach towards poverty eradication is ...

  12. Impact of Helicobacter pylori Eradication Therapy on Platelet Counts in Patients With Chronic Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Mohamadreza

    2015-11-03

    This study was a before and after clinical evaluation of Helicobacter pylori eradication on platelet counts in a group of 23 patients with chronic Idiopathic (Autoimmune) thrombocytopenic purpura (CITP). H. pylori infection was identified in patients by a (13)C-urea breath test and confirmed by an H. pylori stool antigen test. Eradication was conducted in patients testing positive. Infected (n = 10) and uninfected (n = 13) patient groups did not differ with respect to age, gender, history of previous splenectomy, treatment with anti-D, current treatment with corticosteroids, or initial platelet counts. H pylori eradication was successful in eight infected CITP patients, with two patients not responsive to treatment. Compared to the uninfected group, patients in the infected group who responded to eradication therapy had significantly increased platelet counts after six months (56.2 ± 22.2 vs. 233 ± 85.6 ×10(3) million cells/L; P pylori eradication promotes significant platelet count improvement in patients with CITP. Thus, all patients with CITP should be tested and treated for H. pylori infections.

  13. Eradication therapy for peptic ulcer disease in Helicobacter pylori-positive people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Alexander C; Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan; Delaney, Brendan; Forman, David; Moayyedi, Paul

    2016-04-19

    treatment (12 trials, 1476 participants, RR 0.31, 95% CI 0.22 to 0.45; 116/697 (adjusted proportion: 16.3%) in eradication therapy versus 356/679 (52.4%) in no treatment; very low quality evidence). None of the trials reported proportion of people with gastric ulcer not healed after initial therapy between H.pylori eradication therapy and no active treatment or the proportion of people with recurrent gastric ulcer or peptic ulcers during maintenance therapy between H.pylori eradication therapy and ulcer healing drug therapy. Adding a one to two-week course of H. pylori eradication therapy is an effective treatment for people with H. pylori-positive duodenal ulcer when compared to ulcer healing drugs alone and no treatment. H. pylori eradication therapy is also effective in preventing recurrence of duodenal and gastric ulcer compared to no treatment. There is currently no evidence that H. pylori eradication therapy is an effective treatment in people with gastric ulcer or that it is effective in preventing recurrence of duodenal ulcer compared to ulcer healing drug. However, confidence intervals were wide and significant benefits or harms of H. pylori eradication therapy in acute ulcer healing of gastric ulcers compared to no treatment, and in preventing recurrence of duodenal ulcers compared to ulcer healing drugs cannot be ruled out.

  14. National control and eradication program of bovine tuberculosis in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Max, Vanessa; Paredes, Luis; Rivera, Alejandro; Ternicier, Claudio

    2011-07-05

    There have been reports of the presence of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in Chile for more than 100 years. Several prevalence studies have revealed that there is a wide spectrum of disease across the country with certain geographic areas where the disease is endemic through to other geographic areas where infection is sporadic and at very low prevalence. In 2009, this information was used to divide Chile into different geographic zones based on prevalence rates. This will enable the correct actions to be undertaken to reduce the prevalence of TB. Thus the northern part of Chile which has a medium to high prevalence of TB will be categorized as a control zone. In contrast, the southern part of Chile which has a high proportion of the bovine population, has a low prevalence of TB and will be classified as an eradication zone (Paredes, 2008). Although there have been several past attempts to create a national control and eradication program in Chile, none has been successful. A national program is proposed, and outlined in this paper. Progress toward program initiation in 2009 has been difficult, mostly because of the global economic crisis, difficulties in the milk and meat industry, and social and political issues. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Rinderpest: the veterinary perspective on eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeder, Peter; Mariner, Jeffrey; Kock, Richard

    2013-08-05

    Rinderpest was a devastating disease of livestock responsible for continent-wide famine and poverty. Centuries of veterinary advances culminated in 2011 with the UN Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Organization for Animal Health declaring global eradication of rinderpest; only the second disease to be eradicated and the greatest veterinary achievement of our time. Conventional control measures, principally mass vaccination combined with zoosanitary procedures, led to substantial declines in the incidence of rinderpest. However, during the past decades, innovative strategies were deployed for the last mile to overcome diagnostic and surveillance challenges, unanticipated variations in virus pathogenicity, circulation of disease in wildlife populations and to service remote and nomadic communities in often-unstable states. This review provides an overview of these challenges, describes how they were overcome and identifies key factors for this success.

  16. Contagious equine metritis eradicated from Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzai, Toru; Kamada, Masanobu; Niwa, Hidekazu; Eguchi, Masashi; Nishi, Hideki

    2012-04-01

    Contagious equine metritis (CEM), a contagious venereal disease of horses, invaded Japan in 1980 and spread in the Thoroughbred population of the Hidaka-Iburi district of Hokkaido. To eradicate CEM, we ran a program aimed at detecting Taylorella equigenitalis, the causal agent, in carrier horses by using the PCR test, followed by culling or treatment. In 2001, the first year of the program, 12,356 Thoroughbred racing stallions and mares were tested and 11 carriers were found. Four, two, one, and one carrier mares were detected in 2002, 2003, 2004, and 2005, respectively, by application of the program at the same scale as in 2001. No PCR-positive horses were found from 2006 to 2010. These results strongly suggest that CEM was eradicated from Japan by 2010.

  17. Developing strategies for HIV-1 eradication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Christine M.; Blankson, Joel N.; Siliciano, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) suppresses HIV-1 replication, transforming the outlook for infected patients. However, reservoirs of replication-competent forms of the virus persist during HAART, and when treatment is stopped, high rates of HIV-1 replication return. Recent insights into HIV-1 latency, as well as a report that HIV-1 infection was eradicated in one individual, have renewed interest in finding a cure for HIV-1 infection. Strategies for HIV-1 eradication include gene therapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, stimulating host immunity to control HIV-1 replication, and targeting latent HIV-1 in resting memory CD4+ T cells. Future efforts should aim to provide better understanding of how to reconstitute the CD4+ T cell compartment with genetically engineered cells, exert immune control over HIV-1 replication, and identify and eliminate all viral reservoirs. PMID:22867874

  18. Education for the Eradication of Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    C.I. Oriahi; A.O. Aitufe

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the possible education for the eradication of poverty in Nigeria. It defines poverty as a state pf shortage or deficiency of meeting basic needs. Majors causes of poverty are overpopulation, illiteracy, unemployment, environmental degradation and government insensitive to the welfare of the people. Effects of poverty include homelessness, malnutrition and starvation, illness, crime, violence and antisocial behaviour like Internet Fraud (Yahoo business) and Advance Fee Frau...

  19. A Research Agenda for Malaria Eradication: Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Vaccines could be a crucial component of efforts to eradicate malaria. Current attempts to develop malaria vaccines are primarily focused on Plasmodium falciparum and are directed towards reducing morbidity and mortality. Continued support for these efforts is essential, but if malaria vaccines are to be used as part of a repertoire of tools for elimination or eradication of malaria, they will need to have an impact on malaria transmission. We introduce the concept of “vaccines that interrupt malaria transmission” (VIMT), which includes not only “classical” transmission-blocking vaccines that target the sexual and mosquito stages but also pre-erythrocytic and asexual stage vaccines that have an effect on transmission. VIMT may also include vaccines that target the vector to disrupt parasite development in the mosquito. Importantly, if eradication is to be achieved, malaria vaccine development efforts will need to target other malaria parasite species, especially Plasmodium vivax, where novel therapeutic vaccines against hypnozoites or preventive vaccines with effect against multiple stages could have enormous impact. A target product profile (TPP) for VIMT is proposed and a research agenda to address current knowledge gaps and develop tools necessary for design and development of VIMT is presented. PMID:21311586

  20. The Mexican Fruit Fly Eradication Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes F, Jesus; Santiago M, Guillermo; Hernandez M, Porfirio

    2000-01-01

    The goal of the Mexican Fruit Fly Eradication Programme is to control, suppress or eradicate from Mexico four species of fruit flies of economic and quarantine importance (Anastrepha ludens Loew, A. obliqua Macquart, A. serpentina Wied. and A. striata Schiner). These pests cause damage amounting to US$710 million per year. In addition to this cost, there are other expenses from pest control actions and the loss of international markets, because fruit importing countries have established stringent quarantine measures to restrict the entry of these pests. For purposes of the programme's implementation, Mexico was divided into three working zones, defined by agro-ecological characteristics, the number of fruit fly species present and the size of fruit growing regions. In addition, a cost:benefit analysis was carried out which indicated that the rate of return, in a 12-year time frame, might be as much as 33:1 in Northern Mexico, and 17:1 in the rest of the country, for an area over 100,000 hectares. Eradication technology involves: 1) surveys of pest populations by trapping and host fruit harvesting to monitor the presence and density of fruit flies, 2) reduction of pest populations applying cultural practices and using selective bait sprays, 3) mass release of sterile flies and augmentative release of parasitoids to eliminate populations and, 4) enforcement of quarantine measures to protect fruit fly free areas

  1. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection-related hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and acute encephalitis and poliomyelitis-like flaccid paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Kanae; Kano, Gen; Shibata, Mayumi; Sakamoto, Izumi; Matsui, Hirofumi; Imashuku, Shinsaku

    2011-05-01

    A 3-year-old male presented with Chlamydia pneumoniae infection-related hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). The patient developed an episode of HLH with severe skin eruption following C. pneumoniae pneumonia. Symptoms responded to steroid/cyclosporine A therapy, but the patient slowly lost consciousness and developed systemic flaccid paralysis. He was diagnosed with encephalitis/myelitis by brain and spinal MRI. Neurological symptoms and signs gradually resolved. We thought that the immune response to C. pneumoniae infection triggered the development of HLH, associated with unusual neurological complications. This report describes a novel case of C. pneumoniae-associated HLH and with poliomyelitis like flaccid paralysis. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. [Epidemiological and virological studies into the poliomyelitis in Valencia (1959-1969)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Báguena Cervellera, María José

    2009-01-01

    Studies into the polio virus began in Valencia in 1959 with the work undertaken by the microbiologist Vicente Sanchis-Bayarri Vaillant. After his education at the Rochester University and at the Pasteur Institute, Sanchis-Bayarri Vaillant established a laboratory of cell cultures at the Faculty of Medicine in Valencia, where he developed a new diagnostic technique for the poliomyelitis virus. In addition, epidemiological studies were carried out both prior to and post the 1963 vaccination campaign, which proved that Sabin's oral vaccine was both effective and safe for use.

  3. Total hip arthroplasty performed in patients with residual poliomyelitis: does it work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Byung-Ho; Lee, Young-Kyun; Yoo, Jeong Joon; Kim, Hee Joong; Koo, Kyung-Hoi

    2014-03-01

    Patients with residual poliomyelitis can have advanced degenerative arthritis of the hip in the paralytic limb or the nonparalytic contralateral limb. Although THA is a treatment option for some of these patients, there are few studies regarding THA in this patient population. We therefore reviewed a group of patients with residual poliomyelitis who underwent cementless THA on either their paralytic limb or nonparalytic limb to assess (1) Harris hip scores, (2) radiographic results, including implant loosening, (3) complications, including dislocation, and (4) limb length discrepancy after recovery from surgery. From January 2000 to December 2009, 10 patients with residual poliomyelitis (10 hips, four paralytic limbs and six nonparalytic contralateral limbs) underwent THA using cementless prostheses. Harris hip scores, complications, and leg length discrepancy were determined by chart review, and confirmed by questionnaire and examination; radiographs were reviewed by two observers for this study. Followup was available for all 10 patients at a minimum of 3 years (median, 7 years; range, 3.4-13 years). Surgery was done at the same side of the paralytic limb in four hips and contralateral to the paralytic limb in six. All patients had pain relief and improvement in function; the Harris hip score improved from mean of 68 preoperatively to 92 at last followup (p = 0.043). However, only three patients had complete pain relief. One hip dislocated, which was treated successfully with closed reduction and a hip spica cast for 2 months. There was no loosening or osteolysis in this series. Leg length discrepancy improved after the index operation, but only in the THAs performed in the paralytic limbs. Cementless THA may be suitable for painful hips in adult patients with residual poliomyelitis. Nonetheless, these patients should be informed of the possibility of mild residual pain and persistent leg length discrepancy, particularly patients whose THA is performed on the

  4. A Cluster of Paralytic Poliomyelitis Cases Due to Transmission of Slightly Diverged Sabin 2 Vaccine Poliovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotkova, Ekaterina A; Gmyl, Anatoly P; Yakovenko, Maria L; Ivanova, Olga E; Eremeeva, Tatyana P; Kozlovskaya, Liubov I; Shakaryan, Armen K; Lipskaya, Galina Y; Parshina, Irina L; Loginovskikh, Nataliya V; Morozova, Nadezhda S; Agol, Vadim I

    2016-07-01

    Four cases of acute flaccid paralysis caused by slightly evolved (Sabin-like) vaccine polioviruses of serotype 2 were registered in July to August 2010 in an orphanage of Biysk (Altai Region, Russia). The Biysk cluster of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) had several uncommon, if not unique, features. (i) Until this outbreak, Sabin-like viruses (in distinction to more markedly evolved vaccine-derived polioviruses [VDPVs]) were reported to cause only sporadic cases of VAPP. Consequently, VAPP cases were not considered to require outbreak-type responses. However, the Biysk outbreak completely blurred the borderline between Sabin-like viruses and VDPVs in epidemiological terms. (ii) The outbreak demonstrated a very high disease/infection ratio, apparently exceeding even that reported for wild polioviruses. The viral genome structures did not provide any substantial hints as to the underlying reason(s) for such pathogenicity. (iii) The replacement of intestinal poliovirus lineages by other Sabin-like lineages during short intervals after the disease onsets was observed in two patients. Again, the sequences of the respective genomes provided no clues to explain these events. (iv) The polioviruses isolated from the patients and their contacts demonstrated a striking heterogeneity as well as rapid and uneven evolution of the whole genomes and their parts, apparently due to extensive interpersonal contacts in a relatively small closed community, multiple bottlenecking, and recombination. Altogether, the results demonstrate several new aspects of pathogenicity, epidemiology, and evolution of vaccine-related polioviruses and underscore several serious gaps in understanding these problems. The oral poliovirus vaccine largely contributed to the nearly complete disappearance of poliovirus-caused poliomyelitis. Being generally safe, it can, in some cases, result in a paralytic disease. Two types of such outcomes are distinguished: those caused by slightly

  5. [Global eradication of poliomyelitis: intralaboratory contamination with wild poliovirus in the implementation of the program for safe laboratory containment of wild-type polioviruses in the Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, O E; Eremeeva, T P; Korotkova, E A; Iakovenko, M L; Kuribko, S G; Fedorova, V B; Babkina, G M; Petina, V S; Vorontsova, T V; Iasinskiĭ, A A

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes a case of contamination of sewage samples by a wild poliovirus type 1 strain (Mahoney) in one of the virological laboratories of the Russian Federation. It discusses the possible sources and the mechanism of contamination, as well as the problems in the implementation of the program for safe laboratory containments of wild-type polioviruses.

  6. SIT for codling moth eradication in British Columbia, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloem, Kenneth A.; Bloem, Stephanie

    2000-01-01

    The codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is considered the key pest of apples and pears in the fruit growing regions of south central British Columbia. This region includes about 18,000 acres of commercial production, as well as several urban centres with abundant backyard fruit trees and ornamental crab apples. Now, after 30 years of research and planning, an eradication programme using the sterile insect technique (SIT) has been implemented against CM. This article reviews the progress that the programme has made and how well reality has met expectations in key areas. Proverbs (1982) and Proverbs et al. (1982) reviewed the techniques for mass rearing, sterilising and releasing CM, DeBiasio (1988) developed the initial implementation plan and Dyck et al. (1993) reviewed the history and development of the programme up to 1992 when it became operational

  7. Efficacy of Helicobacter pylori eradication therapies: a single centre observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beales Ian LP

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many Helicobacter pylori eradication regimens have been described. There are little data reporting their efficacy or integration in routine clinical practice. The overall results of eradication therapy in a cohort of patients are described and an algorithm for management outlined. Methods 469 patients receiving eradication therapy in routine clinical practice were evaluated. The successes of individual regimes as first, second and third line therapy were determined. Results Overall success after one, two and three courses of therapy were 73% (95% confidence intervals 69–77%, 94% (91–96% and 98% (97–99% respectively. 10 different regimens, including many non-recommended ones were used as primary therapy. Ranitidine bismuth citrate-amoxicillin-clarithromycin triple therapy (94.8%, 90–99% was significantly more effective than any other combination as primary therapy, including all proton pump inhibitor based triple therapies. Quadruple therapy with bismuth chelate-proton pump inhibitor-tetracycline and a nitroimidazole (70%, 52–88% and ranitidine bismuth citrate-based triple therapy (73%, 56–90% where more effective second line combinations than proton pump inhibitor-triple therapies (37.5%, 12–58%. Third line therapy directed by the results of sensitivity testing improved eradication compared to further empirical antibiotics. The use of a proton pump inhibitor with clarithromycin and a nitroimidazole as initial therapy was associated with a significantly worse overall eradication rate than other combinations. Conclusions Helicobacter pylori eradication rates can be maximised by using ranitidine bismuth citrate-clarithromycin-amoxicillin containing triple therapy, followed by bismuth and nitroimidazle containing second-line therapy, with third line combinations directed by sensitivity testing. Proton pump inhibitor-clarithromycin-metronidazole combinations should be avoided.

  8. Winning the battle against the scourge of poliomyelitis in the African Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeti, Matshidiso

    2016-10-10

    Recently we have recorded some progress against the transmission of poliovirus in the African Region. This is attributable to a number of factors, including commitment of global partnerships against polio, improvement of existing strategies as well as a number of innovations in response to the disease in the Region. The WHO Regional Office in Africa documented these practices that led to the noticeable progress in the polio eradication initiative in the African Region, as lessons learnt and as part of polio legacy planning. The documentation exercise covered eight countries, namely Angola, Chad, Cote d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Nigeria, Tanzania and Togo. A number of practices were identified. Some of these practices cut across countries while others were peculiar to specific countries. We have thus developed some manuscripts to capture these practices for publication in scientific journal so as to place them in the public domain for use. It is hoped that these practices will be deployed to other public health programmes in the Region and beyond. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. [The role of epidemiologic surveillance of migrants in the system of poliomyelitis control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanenkova, N I; Bichurina, M A; Rozaeva, N R; Pogrebnaia, T N

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of results of virological study of material from children of migrants and evaluation of intensity of immunity against polioviruses in these children. 1668 feces samples from patients with acute flaccid paralysis and contact individuals and 479 feces samples from healthy children from families of migrants, as well as 1012 blood sera of children aged 3 - 4 and 14 - 15 years living in the same territory of Russia, and 169 blood sera of children of migrants were studied. Polioviruses and non-polio enteroviruses were isolated by standard procedures recommended by WHO in 3 cell cultures - RD, L20B and Hep-2. Virus identification was carried out by microneutralization test with rabbit antisera against poliomyelitisvirus, RIVM (Bilthoven, Netherlands). For intra-type differentiation EIA and PCRwere used. Antibody titers were determined in microneutralization reaction with reference poliovirus vaccines strains in Hep-2 cell culture. The frequency of detection of polioviruses in children of migrants was significantly higher than in patients with acute flaccid paralysis. In a larger percent of cases children of migrants did not have protective antibody titers against polioviruses of all the 3 serotypes. Migrants as a significant source of poliovirus detection may be an indicator group for detection of signs of unfavorable epidemic situation. Based on the results of epidemiologic surveillance of migrants the fact of import of wild poliovirus into North-West of Russia with the absence of poliomyelitis was proven, which confirms an important role of this form of monitoring in the system of poliomyelitis control.

  10. Long-term Outcome of Unconstrained Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty in Ipsilateral Residual Poliomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttaro, Martín A; Slullitel, Pablo A; García Mansilla, Agustín M; Carlucci, Sofía; Comba, Fernando M; Zanotti, Gerardo; Piccaluga, Francisco

    2017-03-01

    Incapacitating articular sequelae in the hip joint have been described for patients with late effects of poliomyelitis. In these patients, total hip arthroplasty (THA) has been associated with a substantial rate of dislocation. This study was conducted to evaluate the long-term clinical and radiologic outcomes of unconstrained THA in this specific group of patients. The study included 6 patients with ipsilateral polio who underwent primary THA between 1985 and 2006. Patients with polio who underwent THA on the nonparalytic limb were excluded. Mean follow-up was 119.5 months (minimum, 84 months). Clinical outcomes were evaluated with the modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS) and the visual analog scale (VAS) pain score. Radiographs were examined to identify the cause of complications and determine the need for revision surgery. All patients showed significantly better functional results when preoperative and postoperative mHHS (67.58 vs 87.33, respectively; P=.002) and VAS pain score (7.66 vs 2, respectively; P=.0003) were compared. Although 2 cases of instability were diagnosed, only 1 patient needed acetabular revision as a result of component malpositioning. None of the patients had component loosening, osteolysis, or infection. Unconstrained THA in the affected limb of patients with poliomyelitis showed favorable long-term clinical results, with improved function and pain relief. Nevertheless, instability may be a more frequent complication in this group of patients compared with the general population. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(2):e255-e261.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. The impact of age and comorbidity on the progression of disability in late-onset sequelae of poliomyelitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolwijk-Swüste, Janneke M.; Tersteeg, Irene; Beelen, Anita; Lankhorst, Gustaaf J.; Nollet, Frans; Stolwijk-Swüste, J. M.; Lankhorst, G. J.; Dekker, J.; van Dijk, G. M.; Post, B.; de Haan, R. J.; Speelman, H.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the functional course over 5 years in patients aged 45 to 85 years with late-onset sequelae of poliomyelitis (LOSP) and to explore the impact of age and comorbidity. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study with 5 measurements over 5 years. SETTING: University hospital. PARTICIPANTS:

  12. The course of functional status and muscle strength in patients with late-onset sequelae of poliomyelitis: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolwijk-Swüste, Janneke M.; Beelen, Anita; Lankhorst, Gustaaf J.; Nollet, Frans

    2005-01-01

    Stolwijk-SwUste JM, Beelen A, Lankhorst GJ, Nollet F, for the CARPA Study Group. The course of functional status and muscle strength in patients with late-onset sequelae of poliomyelitis: a systematic review. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2005;86:1693-701. Objectives: To review systematically studies of

  13. Anterior ankle impingement after tendo-Achilles lengthening for long-standing equinus deformity in residual poliomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Ki Hyuk; Chung, Chin Youb; Lee, Kyoung Min; Lee, Seung Yeol; Park, Moon Seok

    2013-09-01

    This study was performed to investigate anterior ankle impingement after tendo-Achilles lengthening for long-standing equinus deformity in patients with residual poliomyelitis and to investigate whether the severity of preoperative equinus deformity affected the occurrence of symptomatic anterior impingement. Twenty-seven consecutive patients (mean age, 43.8 ± 9.4 years) with residual poliomyelitis who underwent tendo-Achilles lengthening for equinus foot deformity were included. On lateral foot-ankle weight-bearing radiographs, the tibiocalcaneal angle, plantigrade angle, and McDermott grade were measured and the presence of anterior blocking spur was evaluated. Eleven patients (40.7%) had anterior ankle impingement on radiographic findings preoperatively and 24 patients (88.9%) at latest follow-up. There was a significant difference in McDermott grade between preoperative and latest follow-up (P poliomyelitis had anterior ankle impingement after tendo-Achilles lengthening for long-standing equinus deformity, and the presence of symptomatic anterior ankle impingement was significantly associated with the severity of the equinus deformity. Therefore, for residual poliomyelitis patients with severe long-standing equinus deformity, surgeons should consider the possibility of a subsequent anterior procedure for anterior impingement after tendo-Achilles lengthening. Level IV, retrospective case series.

  14. Regulation of translation initiation at the Poliovirus IRES

    OpenAIRE

    Hirnet, Juliane

    2010-01-01

    Poliovirus (PV) translation and replication can occur in neuronal cells where it causes degeneration and lysis of cells leading to paralytic poliomyelitis. Other cell types are much less affected by PV infection and do not support translation and replication of the virus as well. Apart from the poliospecific receptor, the reasons for the tissue preference of poliovirus may be found in its translation initiation via an internal ribosome entry site (IRES), which in addition ...

  15. Synergizing vaccinations with therapeutics for measles eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plemper, Richard K; Hammond, Anthea L

    2014-02-01

    The measles virus is a major human pathogen responsible for approximately 150,000 deaths annually. The disease is vaccine preventable and eradication of the virus is considered feasible, in principle. However, a herd immunity exceeding 95% is required to prevent sporadic viral outbreaks in a population. Declining disease prevalence, combined with public anxiety over the vaccination's safety, has led to increased vaccine refusal, especially in Europe. This has led to the resurgence of measles in some areas. This article discusses whether synergizing effective measles therapeutics with the measles vaccination could contribute to finally eradicating measles. The authors identify key elements in a desirable drug profile and review current disease management strategies and the state of experimental inhibitor candidates. The authors also evaluate the risk associated with viral escape from inhibition, and consider the potential of measles therapeutics in the management of persistent central nervous system (CNS) viral infection. Finally, the authors contemplate the possible impact of therapeutics in controlling the threat imposed by closely related zoonotic pathogens of the same genus as measles. Efficacious therapeutics used for post-exposure prophylaxis of high-risk social contacts of confirmed index cases may aid measles eradication by closing herd immunity gaps; this is due to vaccine refusal or failure in populations with overall good vaccination coverage. The envisioned primarily prophylactic application of measles therapeutics to a predominantly pediatric and/or adolescent population, dictates the drug profile. It also has to be safe and efficacious, orally available, shelf-stable at ambient temperature and amenable to cost-effective manufacturing.

  16. Success in Zanzibar: Eradication of tsetse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Msangi, A.R.; Kiwia, N.; Malele, I.I.; Mramba, F.; Saleh, K.M.; Mussa, W.A.; Juma, K.G.; Dyck, V.A.; Vreysen, M.J.B.; Parker, A.G.; Feldmann, U.; Zhu, Z.R.; Pan, H.

    2000-01-01

    There are about 22 species of tsetse flies found nowhere else in the world except in 36 countries of sub-Saharan Africa. Tsetse flies transmit a debilitating and often fatal disease, trypanosomosis, which causes tremendous losses of livestock, and severely limits agricultural production (it reduces output of milk and meat, causes mortality, infertility and abortion in livestock, deprives the rural population of draught power and manure to improve and increase crop production). Tsetse flies also transmit human trypanosomosis, commonly known as 'sleeping sickness'. It is estimated that over 55 million people living in rural sub-Saharan Africa are at risk from this fatal disease. Tanzania's Zanzibar Island is situated 35 km off the eastern coast and comprises two main islands, Unguja and Pemba. Previous surveys revealed that out of the seven tsetse species found on mainland Tanzania, only Glossina austeni Newstead infested Unguja Island. No tsetse fly was found on the island of Pemba. The fly is responsible for the cyclical transmission of trypanosomosis in livestock, the causative agents being mainly Trypanosoma congolense and, to a lesser extent, T. vivax. It is estimated that in Zanzibar, the disease causes annual losses of US$2 million. Since fly suppression by conventional techniques has often resulted in short-term success, Tanzania has always appreciated that the long-term solution to the trypanosomosis problem is the eradication of tsetse flies in the country. In 1994, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the United Republic of Tanzania embarked on a project with the objective of eradicating tsetse flies from Zanzibar Island by applying the sterile insect technique (SIT) (Dyck et al. 1995, in press). Previous tsetse eradication efforts in Tanzania using SIT, enabled the establishment of a modest capacity on tsetse mass rearing in Tanga (Williamson et al. 1983). The Zanzibar tsetse project was successfully completed in 1997. The estimated cost was

  17. Harmonization Of Inter-Institutional Authority In Eradicate Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Salim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the agenda of corruption eradication have been undertaken by various institutions such as the judiciary the police the Corruption Eradication Commission and other bodies related to the corruption eradication. The type of research used in this study is normative-jurisdiction and empirical-jurisdiction. To obtain the necessary data in this study the researcher conducted library research as a reference in some libraries are quite representative. Results shows that the effectiveness of corruption eradication that conducted by regulatory authorities in order to combat corruption has not been implemented maximally because each institution as a subsystem has not carried out an interdependent relationship both vertical and horizontal nature. If we expect the eradication of corruption can be implemented optimally it is recommended that the coordination between law enforcement agencies in the integrated criminal justice system is necessary to build their common vision interpretation and perception in the implementation of the duties for the institution authorized to eradicate corruption.

  18. Helping eradicate the medfly from Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaBrecque, G.

    1982-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit-fly (Medfly) is a serious pest in Agriculture. It causes damage primarily by its larvae, which feed on the host fruit or vegetable. Agricultural production of about 30 km 2 can be infested in 100 days by the progeny of 1000 females. In Mexico, the Medfly was first observed in 1977. It severely damages the agricultural economy and limits the trade balance and food supplies of the country. Realizing the gravity of the problem, the IAEA, in co-operation with the Governments of Mexico and the United States, implemented a joint pest management programme under the code-name of MOSCAMED. It utilized the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) on which the Agency has gained considerable experience from its previous involvements in many developing countries. The SIT is technically suitable and environmentally acceptable for Medfly eradication. A factory was built with all areas of SIT expertise. This factory could produce 2 thousand million Medfly eggs in 12 days. The Agency, including its Seibersdorf laboratory, was the primary back-up of the programme. As a result, the northward migration of the fly has been halted and the pest that had infested over 3 million hectares has been eradicated from Mexico as from early 1981

  19. Corruption Eradication In The Perspective Of Criminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Niasa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to find out the substance of corruption as an extraordinary crime and the efforts that can be taken in eradicate corruption. This research is in the field of criminal law. This study is a normative-empirical research a legal research that its study is statutory provisions in abstracto is linked with the field application in concreto. The results of research showed that 1 the substance of corruption is an evil act or reprehensible by law qualified or labeled as a form of corruption. Acts of corruption assessed as an extraordinary crime because of its systematic and wide-ranging impact and contrary to the interests of the country in general. 2 the arrangement of corruption involves two major aspects of prevention and prosecution aspects. Establishment of legislation was based by desire to bring state enforcement are clean and free from corruption as a policy basis. 3 Efforts to eradicate corruption can be divided into two i.e prevention and curative. Prevention undertaken by government and law enforcement agencies is still low so it needs to be further improved. Criminal sanctions imposed on the corruptor also tend to just apply the minimum criminal sanctions. Types of corruption are most prevalent in Southeast Sulawesi Indonesia is corruption related to acts of abuse of authority or position.

  20. A desk evaluation review of project URT/5/007 tsetse fly eradication. Project desk evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Project URT/5/007 was initiated in 1984 to assist the Government of the United Republic of Tanzania in developing membrane feeding technology for the mass breeding of tsetse flies, which is required for the application of the sterile insect technique to eradicate the tsetse fly from the island of Zanzibar. As the project progressed the objectives focused on the development of inter-related management practices with SIT to control and eventually eradicate the tsetse species infesting Zanzibar. As depicted by the project title, tsetse fly eradication on Zanzibar is the ultimate goal of on-going work of project URT/5/007; however, tsetse fly eradication is not the immediate objective of this project. The total budget of the project for the years 1984 through 1994 includes 53 man-months of expert services, $402,755 for equipment, and $1,959 for fellowship training. Additional funds for 57 man-months of fellowship training were provided from sources outside of the project. Resources provided by the United Republic of Tanzania for the project included staff, local facilities, and local running costs. A Desk Evaluation Review (DER) of Project URT/5/007 was requested by the Africa Section to provide an assessment of project achievements and to determine to what end the project may lead in the near future. Also the review could help determine how experiences gained during the developments of this project might be utilized in the management and implementation of similar projects in Tanzania or the region

  1. Pathogenic Events in a Nonhuman Primate Model of Oral Poliovirus Infection Leading to Paralytic Poliomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ling; Chen, Crystal Y; Huang, Dan; Wang, Richard; Zhang, Meihong; Qian, Lixia; Zhu, Yanfen; Zhang, Alvin Zhuoran; Yang, Enzhuo; Qaqish, Arwa; Chumakov, Konstantin; Kouiavskaia, Diana; Vignuzzi, Marco; Nathanson, Neal; Macadam, Andrew J; Andino, Raul; Kew, Olen; Xu, Junfa; Chen, Zheng W

    2017-07-15

    Despite a great deal of prior research, the early pathogenic events in natural oral poliovirus infection remain poorly defined. To establish a model for study, we infected 39 macaques by feeding them single high doses of the virulent Mahoney strain of wild type 1 poliovirus. Doses ranging from 10 7 to 10 9 50% tissue culture infective doses (TCID 50 ) consistently infected all the animals, and many monkeys receiving 10 8 or 10 9 TCID 50 developed paralysis. There was no apparent difference in the susceptibilities of the three macaque species (rhesus, cynomolgus, and bonnet) used. Virus excretion in stool and nasopharynges was consistently observed, with occasional viremia, and virus was isolated from tonsils, gut mucosa, and draining lymph nodes. Viral replication proteins were detected in both epithelial and lymphoid cell populations expressing CD155 in the tonsil and intestine, as well as in spinal cord neurons. Necrosis was observed in these three cell types, and viral replication in the tonsil/gut was associated with histopathologic destruction and inflammation. The sustained response of neutralizing antibody correlated temporally with resolution of viremia and termination of virus shedding in oropharynges and feces. For the first time, this model demonstrates that early in the infectious process, poliovirus replication occurs in both epithelial cells (explaining virus shedding in the gastrointestinal tract) and lymphoid/monocytic cells in tonsils and Peyer's patches (explaining viremia), extending previous studies of poliovirus pathogenesis in humans. Because the model recapitulates human poliovirus infection and poliomyelitis, it can be used to study polio pathogenesis and to assess the efficacy of candidate antiviral drugs and new vaccines. IMPORTANCE Early pathogenic events of poliovirus infection remain largely undefined, and there is a lack of animal models mimicking natural oral human infection leading to paralytic poliomyelitis. All 39 macaques fed with

  2. MRI findings in an infant with vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes Ferraz-Filho, Jose Roberto [Sao Jose do Rio Preto Medical School, Department of Radiology, Hospital de Base, Sao Paulo, State (Brazil); Sao Jose do Rio Preto Medical School, Department of Radiology, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, Sao Paulo State (Brazil); Santos Torres, Ulysses dos; Portela de Oliveira, Eduardo; Soares Souza, Antonio [Sao Jose do Rio Preto Medical School, Department of Radiology, Hospital de Base, Sao Paulo, State (Brazil)

    2010-12-15

    Although acute flaccid paralysis is a manifestation observed in several neurologic and muscular disorders, vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) is an exceedingly rare etiology. In the clinical setting of acute flaccid paralysis, MRI is useful in differentiating between VAPP and other conditions. Additionally, MRI can assess the extent of lesions. However, reports on MRI findings in VAPP are scarce in the pediatric radiology literature. We report a Brazilian infant who developed VAPP 40 days after receiving the first dose of oral polio vaccine (OPV). MR images of the cervical and thoracic spinal cord showed lesions involving the anterior horn cell, with increased signal intensity on T2-weighted sequences. We would like to emphasize the importance of considering VAPP as a differential diagnosis in patients with acute flaccid paralysis and an MRI showing involvement of medulla oblongata or spinal cord, particularly in countries where OPV is extensively administered. (orig.)

  3. MRI findings in an infant with vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes Ferraz-Filho, Jose Roberto; Santos Torres, Ulysses dos; Portela de Oliveira, Eduardo; Soares Souza, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Although acute flaccid paralysis is a manifestation observed in several neurologic and muscular disorders, vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) is an exceedingly rare etiology. In the clinical setting of acute flaccid paralysis, MRI is useful in differentiating between VAPP and other conditions. Additionally, MRI can assess the extent of lesions. However, reports on MRI findings in VAPP are scarce in the pediatric radiology literature. We report a Brazilian infant who developed VAPP 40 days after receiving the first dose of oral polio vaccine (OPV). MR images of the cervical and thoracic spinal cord showed lesions involving the anterior horn cell, with increased signal intensity on T2-weighted sequences. We would like to emphasize the importance of considering VAPP as a differential diagnosis in patients with acute flaccid paralysis and an MRI showing involvement of medulla oblongata or spinal cord, particularly in countries where OPV is extensively administered. (orig.)

  4. AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF COCA ERADICATION POLICY IN COLOMBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno-Sanchez, Rocio del Pilar; Kraybill, David S.; Thompson, Stanley R.

    2002-01-01

    We estimate an econometric model of coca production in Colombia. Our results indicate that coca eradication is an ineffective means of supply control as farmers compensate by cultivating the crop more extensively. The evidence further suggests that incentives to produce legal substitute crops may have greater supply-reducing potential than eradication.

  5. extent of involvement of participants in the poverty eradication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ERADICATION PROGRAMME IN CROSS RIVER STATE, NIGERIA '. C.L. ABOH AND MARIA BISONG ONABE. ABSTRACT. The paper focuses on the extent of involvement of participants in the National Poverty. Eradication Programme in Cross River State, Nigeria. Data for the study were collected from 75 randomly ...

  6. Helicobacter pylori eradication: A randomised comparative trial of 7 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compliance and side-effects were assessed 2 weeks after the start of therapy and H. pylori eradication was assessed by stool antigen tests 4 weeks after treatment. Results. Both the intention-to-treat (ITT; N=120) and per protocol (PP; N=97) analyses showed no significant differences between the eradication rates of EAC 7 ...

  7. A Review on Malaria Eradication: What hope for Nigeria? * AMADI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Factors Affecting Malaria Eradication n Nigeria : Several factors are known to militate against achieving malaria eradication in Nigeria. These factors are as follows: (1)Factors relating to the parasite: These include the species or strain of .... substandard drugs on sale in the market which will reduce the prevalence of malaria ...

  8. Exploring the practice and attitude of circumcisers in the eradication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) remains a form of violence against women despite efforts aimed at its eradication. Objectives: To explore the practice and attitude of circumcisers towards eradication of FGM/C. Methods: A descriptive (pilot) study involving local circumcisers in Kwara State, Nigeria ...

  9. The effective eradication and control strategies for tsetse and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I conducted an extensive literature review on the effective tsetse and trypanosomiasis eradication method strategies in Africa in 2010 as i embarked on my research that coincided with the formulation of the Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Eradication Strategy for Kenya spearheaded by Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis ...

  10. Enhancement of amoxicillin resistance after unsuccessful Helicobacter pylori eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa, Toshihiro; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Tsugawa, Hitoshi; Muraoka, Hiroe; Matsuzaki, Juntaro; Hirata, Kenro; Ikeda, Fumiaki; Takahashi, Masahiko; Hibi, Toshifumi

    2011-06-01

    A high rate of resistance (49.5 to 72.7%) to amoxicillin (AMX) was observed in Helicobacter pylori after two or three unsuccessful eradication attempts. Unsuccessful eradication regimens significantly increase resistance to not only clarithromycin (CLR) and metronidazole (MNZ) but also AMX.

  11. 76 FR 53165 - Certification Related to Aerial Eradication in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7565] Certification Related to Aerial Eradication in Colombia Pursuant to the authority vested in the Secretary of State, including under the International Narcotics... certify that: (1) The herbicide used for aerial eradication of illicit crops in Colombia is being used in...

  12. [The effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on chronic gastritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Masaaki; Murakami, Kazunari; Okimoto, Tadayoshi; Fujioka, Toshio

    2013-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a major pathogen of chronic atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and gastric cancer. Atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia are recognized as precancerous lesion of gastric cancer. Many studies reported that H. pylori eradication had the preventive effect of gastric cancer. Moreover many studies mentioned the improvement of gastric atrophy and/or intestinal metaplasia. Two meta-analysis indicated the improvement of atrophic gastritis but not of intestinal metaplasia. In our study, intestinal metaplasia improved at lesser curvature of the corpus six years after eradication. H. pylori eradication has benefit for gastric cancer prevention provably due to improvement of the precancerous lesion such as atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia. Especially, H. pylori eradication before the appearance of atrophy and intestinal metaplasia has been considered to be effective in inhibiting the development of gastric cancer. Therefore, improvement or elimination of chronic gastritis with H. pylori eradication might have possibility of gastric cancer inhibition.

  13. Post-marketing surveillance study to assess the safety and tolerability of an Inactivated Poliomyelitis Vaccine in Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Hitt; Dhere, Rajeev; Parekh, Sameer; Shewale, Sunil

    2017-11-02

    To evaluate the incidence of adverse events following administration of an Inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine (IPV) manufactured by Serum Institute of India Pvt. Ltd., Pune, India. A single 0.5 ml dose of the IPV was administered intramuscularly to children attending private clinics or out-patient department of hospitals for routine immunization across different cities in India. They were observed over a period of 30 d for local or systemic adverse events and rare case of anaphylaxis, if any. A total of 2210 children were enrolled of which 2120 children received the vaccine within primary immunization series and 90 children received booster dose. The common adverse events reported were pain, erythema, swelling and fever. No serious adverse event was reported during the study period. Poliomyelitis vaccine (Inactivated) manufactured by Serum Institute of India Pvt. Ltd., Pune can be safely administered to children following the Expanded Programme on Immunization or World Health Organization recommended immunization schedule.

  14. Reverse Less Invasive Stabilization System (LISS) Plating for Proximal Femur Fractures in Poliomyelitis Survivors: A Report of Two Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Chen; Jin, Dongxu; Zhang, Changqing

    2017-11-15

    BACKGROUND Poliomyelitis is a neuromuscular disease which causes muscle atrophy, skeletal deformities, and disabilities. Treatment of hip fractures on polio-affect limbs is unique and difficult, since routine fixation methods like nailing may not be suitable due to abnormal skeletal structures. CASE REPORT We report one femoral neck fracture and one subtrochanteric fracture in polio survivors successfully treated with reverse less invasive stabilization system (LISS) plating technique. Both fractures were on polio-affected limbs with significant skeletal deformities and low bone density. A contralateral femoral LISS plate was applied upside down to the proximal femur as an internal fixator after indirect or direct reduction. Both patients had uneventful bone union and good functional recovery. CONCLUSIONS Reverse LISS plating is a safe and effective technique to treat hip fractures with skeletal deformities caused by poliomyelitis.

  15. A randomized controlled trial of coenzyme Q10 for fatigue in the late-onset sequelae of poliomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, Margaret M; Cooke, Marie; Lewis-Peel, Helen J; Lea, Rodney A; Moyle, Wendy

    2015-12-01

    To determine if coenzyme Q(10) alleviates fatigue in the late-onset sequelae of poliomyelitis. Parallel-group, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Coenzyme Q(10) has been shown to boost muscle energy metabolism in post-polio subjects but it does not promote muscle strength, endurance or function in polio survivors with post-poliomyelitis syndrome. However, the collective increased energy metabolism might contribute to a reduction in post-polio fatigue. Polio survivors from the Australian post-polio networks in Queensland and New South Wales who attribute a moderate to high level of fatigue to their diagnosed late-onset sequelae of poliomyelitis. Those with fatigue-associated comorbidities of diabetes, anaemia, hypothyroidism and fibromyalgia were excluded. Participants were assigned (1:1), with stratification of those who use energy-saving mobility aids, to receive 100 mg coenzyme Q(10) or matching placebo daily for 60 days. Participants and investigators were blinded to group allocation. Fatigue was assessed by the Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue as the primary outcome and the Fatigue Severity Scale as secondary outcome. Of 103 participants, 54 were assigned to receive coenzyme Q(10) and 49 to receive the placebo. The difference in the mean score reductions between the two groups was not statistically significant for either fatigue measure. Oral supplementation with coenzyme Q(10) was safe and well-tolerated. A daily dose of 100 mg coenzyme Q(10) for 60 days does not alleviate the fatigue of the late-onset sequelae of poliomyelitis. The registration number for the clinical trial is ACTRN 12612000552886. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparative assessment of Oral Hygiene and Periodontal status among children who have Poliomyelitis at Udaipur city, Rajasthan, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Sharda, Archana; Asawa, Kailash; Tak, Aniruddh; Jalihal, Sagar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess and compare the oral hygiene and periodontal status among children with Poliomyelitis having upper limb disability, lower limb disability and both upper and lower disability at Udaipur city, Rajasthan, India. Study design: Total sample comprised of 344 Poliomyelitis children (upper limb disability: 33.4%; lower limb disability: 33.7%; both upper and lower limb disability: 32.9%) in the age group of 12-15 years. Clinical examination included recording Simplified Oral Hygiene Index and Community Periodontal Index. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), multiple logistic and stepwise linear regression were used for statistical analysis. Results: The mean OHI-S (2.52±1.05) score was found to be highest among children who had both upper and lower limb disability (poral hygiene and periodontal status was limb involved in the disability. Conclusion: The results of the study depicted an overall poor oral hygiene and periodontal status of the group. It was recognized that limbs involved in the disability had an impact on the oral hygiene and periodontal condition. The situation in this specialized population draws immediate attention for an integrated approach in improving the oral health and focus towards extensive research. Key words:Poliomyelitis, upper limb disability, lower limb disability, oral hygiene, periodontal status. PMID:22549671

  17. Immunity against poliomyelitis in the Netherlands, assessed in 2006 to 2007: the importance of completing a vaccination series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Maas, N A; Mollema, L; Berbers, G A; van Rooijen, D M; van der Avoort, H G; Conyn-Van Spaendonck, M A; de Melker, H E; van der Klis, F R

    2014-02-20

    Europe has been declared polio-free since 2002. Here we describe the seroprotection against poliomyelitis in the Dutch population using banked serum samples. Samples from 1,581 inhabitants of eight municipalities with low vaccination coverage (LVC) and an additional 6,386 samples from a nationwide (NS) group (clinical trial number: ISRCTN20164309; collected in 2006–07) were tested for neutralising antibodies (log² reciprocal titres (GMT); non-protection poliomyelitis serotypes. Demographic and epidemiological data were used for statistical regression analysis. Seroprevalence in the NS was 94.6% (type 1), 91.8% (type 2) and 84.0% (type 3). Infants (0–7 months-old) had ≥80% seroprevalence for all serotypes. The highest seroprevalence was found in children, with type 1 and type 2 in five year-olds and type 3 in nine to 10 year-olds. In the LVC group, orthodox protestants, many of whom refuse vaccination, showed seroprevalence rates of 64.9% (type 1), 61.0% (type 2) and 62.1% (type 3). In the NS group, non-Western immigrants and travellers to non-European continents had higher seroprevalences compared to Western immigrants and travellers within Europe, respectively. The Dutch National Immunisation Programme against poliomyelitis has provided good seroprotection, with high and long-lasting GMTs against all serotypes upon completion. The unvaccinated population remains at risk.

  18. Study of trypanosome and anaemia indicators during the eradication of tsetse flies from Unguja island, United Republic of Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwinger, R.H.; Holland, W.G.; Ndegwa, T.K.; Wint, W.; Kassim, S.S.; Hongjie, P.; Slingenbergh, J.H.W.

    2000-01-01

    A large number of cattle has been monitored regularly during a ten-year period on Unguja island, United Republic of Tanzania, as part of a number of consecutive programmes to initially control and eventually eradicate tsetse and trypanosomosis. Haematological and parasitological results were used among others to monitor and adjust the control and eradication programmes from 1988 to 1997. A Geographic Information System (GIS) was applied to the data set to assess changes of animal health parameters in time and space. Analysis of the data showed significant changes over the years in infection status and degree of anaemia. Moreover, differences in health status of cattle populations between adjacent geographic areas were detected. Regular monitoring using standardized protocols by a multidisciplinary team resulted eventually in the eradication of tsetse flies from the island. (author)

  19. Pylera for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Saleem, Aamir

    2012-02-01

    An ideal antibiotic regimen for Helicobacter pylori should achieve eradication rates of approximately 90%. Current 7-day triple therapy is successful in about two-thirds of patients. A novel treatment is required to achieve higher eradication with minimal induction of bacterial resistance. The aim of this article is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a single triple capsule (Pylera) containing bismuth, metronidazole and tetracycline, given with omeprazole for the eradication of H. pylori infection. Extensive literature searches were conducted using PubMed data from 1982 to 2007. This search included headings of H. pylori, bismuth and eradication therapy. The triple capsule Pylera, when given with omeprazole, achieved eradication rates ranging between 84 and 97%. Eradication rates were similar for clarithromycin- and metronidazole-resistant strains. Eradication rates with an omeprazole, bismuth, metronidazole and tetracycline regimen appeared comparable for metronidazole-resistant and -sensitive strains. This effect is not seen with the use of triple therapy in cases of clarithromycin resistance. Clinical trials did not report any serious side effects from bismuth-based regimens and compliance was similar to standard triple therapy. Bismuth-based triple therapy using Pylera is a simplified, effective and well-tolerated regimen achieving cure rates of above 90%.

  20. Non-technical constraints to eradication: the Italian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moda, Giuliana

    2006-02-25

    Although technical constraints to eradication of bovine tuberculosis are well-recognised, non-technical constraints can also delay progress towards eradication, leading to inefficiency and increased programme costs. This paper seeks to analyse the main non-technical constraints that can interfere with the successful implementation of tuberculosis eradication plans, based on experiences from an area of high tuberculosis prevalence in Regione Piemonte, Italy. The main social and economic constraints faced in the past 20 years are reviewed, including a social reluctance to recognise the importance of seeking eradication as the goal of disease control, effective communication of technical issues, the training and the organization of veterinary services, the relationship between the regional authority and farmers and their representatives, and data management and epidemiological reporting. The paper analyses and discusses the solutions that were applied in Regione Piemonte and the benefits that were obtained. Tuberculosis eradication plans are one of the most difficult tasks of the Veterinary Animal Health Services, and non-technical constraints must be considered when progress towards eradication is less than expected. Organizational and managerial resources can help to overcome social or economic obstacles, provided the veterinary profession is willing to address technical, but also non-technical, constraints to eradication.

  1. Six challenges in the eradication of infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Klepac

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Eradication and elimination are increasingly a part of the global health agenda. Once control measures have driven infection to low levels, the ecology of disease may change posing challenges for eradication efforts. These challenges vary from identifying pockets of susceptibles, improving monitoring during and after the endgame, to quantifying the economics of disease eradication versus sustained control, all of which are shaped and influenced by processes of loss of immunity, susceptible build-up, emergence of resistance, population heterogeneities and non-compliance with control measures. Here we discuss how modelling can be used to address these challenges.

  2. Ocorrência de poliomielite associada à vacina no Brasil, 1995 a 2001 The occurrence of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis in Brazil, 1995 to 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Souza Teixeira-Rocha

    2005-07-01

    utilized data from acute flaccid paralysis investigation and notification records from the Ministry of Health in Brazil. Cases were defined as individuals with a diagnosis of acute flaccid paralysis and a positive stool culture or sequelae compatible with poliomyelitis appearing up to 60 days after the beginning of motor impairment. Also included were individuals in any age range who had contact with vaccinated persons between the 4th and 40th day before the onset of the disease and who developed motor impairment between 4 and 85 days after this contact. Risk was calculated as the ratio between the number of cases and the respective number of doses given in a year, according to the National Immunization Program. RESULTS: Ten cases of VAPP were recorded in the period. The mean age of the cases was 4.7 months. Four cases were associated with the first dose, four with the second dose, and two cases were attributed to contact. In two cases type 1 virus was identified; in one case, type 2; and in three cases, type 3. More than one serotype was isolated in four cases. In all 10 cases the serotype was determined. The observed risk for VAPP during the period studied was 1:5.11 million when considering only the first dose and 1:10.67 million for all the doses. CONCLUSION: The main technical and ethical dilemma of the post-poliomyelitis elimination stage is the occurrence of paralytic cases that result from the vaccine policy itself, whose objective is the eradication of polio.

  3. Eradicating tsetse flies: Senegal nears first victory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, Aabha

    2015-01-01

    After a four-year eradication programme including nuclear techniques, the Niayes region of Senegal is now almost free of the tsetse fly, which used to decimate livestock. “I have not seen a single tsetse fly for a year now,” said cattle farmer Oumar Sow. “This is in contrast to earlier, when they increased in numbers, especially during the cold season. The flies were really a nuisance to our animals and we had to carefully select the time for milking. Now, there is no problem with that.” The tsetse fly is a bloodsucking insect that kills more than three million livestock in sub-Saharan Africa every year, costing the agriculture industry more than US $4 billion annually. The tsetse fly transmits parasites that cause a wasting disease called nagana in cattle. In some parts of Africa the fly also causes over 75 000 cases of human ‘sleeping sickness’, which affects the central nervous system, and causes disorientation, personality changes, slurred speech, seizures, difficulty walking and talking, and ultimately death.

  4. Support growing for eradicating female genital cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    Female genital cutting (FGC), a prevalent practice in most African countries not just seriously endangers a girl's lifetime health, but it is also considered a human rights violation. In June 1999, the Intra-Agency Working Group on FGC held a symposium with US Agency for International Development (USAID) staff to explore ways of incorporating into USAID program activities to eradicate the practice of FGC. One of the presentations at the symposium concerned "circumcision with words". This ceremony is an alternative rite of passage; it is conducted through a 5-day seclusion, culminating in a 1-day celebration including feasting and gift giving. The alternative rites include 1) self-esteem and coping with criticism; 2) responsibility for one¿s own decision; 3) dating and courtship; 4) coping with peer pressure; 5) personal hygiene; 6) marriage; 7) pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease and AIDS prevention; 8) contraception; 9) FGC, early marriage, and gender empowerment, including the rights of the girl child; 10) respect for community; and 11) respect for elders. Alternative rites of passage are gaining community acceptance and by Kenya Medical Association. None of the girls who participated in the ceremony were circumcised later.

  5. Economic evaluation of the eradication program for bovine viral diarrhea in the Swiss dairy sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomann, B; Tschopp, A; Magouras, I; Meylan, M; Schüpbach-Regula, G; Häsler, B

    2017-09-15

    Since 2008, the Swiss veterinary service has been running a mandatory eradication program for Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD) that is focused on detecting and eliminating persistently infected (PI) animals. Detection was initially based on antigen testing from ear tag samples of the entire cattle population, followed by antigen testing of all newborn calves until 2012. Since then, bulk milk serology (dairy herds) and blood sample serology (beef herds) have been used for the surveillance of disease-free herds. From 2008 to 2012, the proportion of newborn PI calves decreased from 1.4% to less than 0.02%. However, this success was associated with substantial expenditures. The aim of this study was to conduct an economic evaluation of the BVD eradication program in the Swiss dairy sector. The situation before the start of the program (herd-level prevalence: 20%) served as a baseline scenario. Production models for three dairy farm types were used to estimate gross margins as well as net production losses and expenditures caused by BVD. The total economic benefit was estimated as the difference in disease costs between the baseline scenario and the implemented eradication program and was compared to the total eradication costs in a benefit-cost analysis. Data on the impact of BVD virus (BVDV) infection on animal health, fertility and production parameters were obtained empirically in a retrospective epidemiological case-control study in Swiss dairy herds and complemented by literature. Economic and additional production parameters were based on benchmarking data and published agricultural statistics. The eradication costs comprised the cumulative expenses for sampling and diagnostics. The economic model consisted of a stochastic simulation in @Risk for Excel with 20,000 iterations and was conducted for a time period of 14 years (2008-2021). The estimated annual financial losses in BVDV infected herds were CHF 85-89 per dairy cow and CHF 1337-2535 for an average farm

  6. WJBF TV tower meteorological database for the ERAD Code-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, A.H.

    1996-07-01

    The Explosive Release Atmospheric Dispersion (ERAD) model (Boughton and DeLaurentis 1992) is a three-dimensional numerical model for simulating atmospheric transport and dispersion. The ERAD code is particularly adept at handling explosive releases into the atmosphere and is being used by the Materials and Accountability Department at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to provide risk estimates. The Environmental Technology Section (ETS) was asked to provide meteorological data to be used for applying ERAD to some site facilities. The ERAD model requires a vertical profile of meteorological measurements. The 1993 data from the WJBF-TV tower has been processed and provided for this purpose. This document describes the steps taken to prepare and format the database

  7. Is specific HIV eradication from the brain possible or needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brew, Bruce J; Gray, Lachlan; Lewin, Sharon; Churchill, Melissa

    2013-03-01

    There is increasing interest in the possibility of eradication of HIV, given the recent case reports. However, it is not clear to what extent brain involvement by HIV poses a challenge to systemic eradication strategies. This review will outline the mechanisms of HIV latency, the various eradication strategies presently under consideration followed by a discussion of the issue of the frequency and severity of brain involvement by HIV. In those patients with HIV brain disease the challenges will be delineated as well as potential approaches to circumvent or minimise them. Eradication of HIV from the brain using specific methodologies is likely only needed in some patients. However, both the identification of such patients and the details of the necessary methodologies require much more research.

  8. Control and eradication of endemic infectious diseases in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houe, Hans; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    "Control and eradication of endemic infectious diseases in cattle" provides the key elements that should be addressed in the establishment of bovine disease control and eradication programmes. The book aims to reach a broad group of readers, including: students; professionals in veterinary practice......, industry and governmental institutions; researchers; and others involved in control and eradication of endemic diseases in livestock. Key elements range from socioeconomic aspects such as motivation; veterinary science (including assessment of biosecurity and establishment of test...... examples: bovine virus diarrhoea virus, Salmonella Dublin and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. The three authors have been particularly involved in the research and development of control and eradication efforts in the Danish cattle industry for these three diseases. The basic idea is to enable...

  9. Redefining the Viral Reservoirs That Prevent HIV-1 Eradication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisele, Evelyn; Siliciano, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Summary This review proposes definitions for key terms in the field of HIV-1 latency and eradication. In the context of eradication, a reservoir is a cell type that allows persistence of replication-competent HIV-1 on a time scale of years in patients on optimal antiretroviral therapy. Reservoirs act as a barrier to eradication in the patient population in whom cure attempts will likely be made. Halting viral replication is essential to eradication, and definitions and criteria for assessing whether this goal has been achieved are proposed. The cell types that may serve as reservoirs for HIV-1 are discussed. Currently, only latently infected resting CD4+ T cells fit the proposed definition of a reservoir, and more evidence is necessary to demonstrate that other cell types including hematopoietic stem cells and macrophages fit this definition. Further research is urgently required on potential reservoirs in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue and the central nervous system. PMID:22999944

  10. After Beijing: emphasis on poverty eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    In March 1996, during its first meeting since the Fourth World Conference on Women, the UN Commission on the Status of Women (CSW), called for a gender perspective to be integrated into policies and programs dealing with poverty, child and dependent care, and the media. Three expert panels examined each of these areas through a format which encouraged dialogue and led to the adoption of 17 resolutions, decisions, and agreed conclusions as well as a recommendation that the UN adopt a multi-year work program for the CSW to allow it to review progress in elimination of the 12 main obstacles to women's advancement identified at Beijing. Among the resolutions adopted by the CSW were calls to 1) take a broad and integrated approach to poverty eradication, 2) enhance women's empowerment and autonomy, 3) promote equity and equality in the public domain, 4) promote women's employment, 5) give women social and economic protection when they are unable to work, 6) counteract negative images of women and sex-stereotyping in the media, 7) reduce the representation of violence against women in the media, 8) strengthen the role of women in global communications, 9) encourage the participation of men in child and dependent care, and 10) recognize women's double burden of work. The CSW also agreed to pursue further discussions about drafting an optional protocol to the 1979 Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women. Among its other actions, the CSW called for mechanisms to protect the rights of women migrant workers, to protect women and children during armed conflicts, to include gender-based human rights violations in UN activities, and to address the root factors which lead to social ills such as trafficking in women and girls. In addition, the CSW submitted a draft resolution demanding that Israel protect the rights of Palestinian women and their families.

  11. Leprosy - evolution of the path to eradication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Dogra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Leprosy is among the world′s oldest and most dreaded diseases and it has been synonymous with stigma and discrimination due to the hideous deformities it produced, mystery around its aetiology and transmission and lack of any effective remedy till recently. Leprosy control started with the use of chaulmoogra oil and for the last three decades, multi drug therapy (MDT has been our main tool against leprosy. In the last two decades, the reported global prevalence of active leprosy infection has dropped by almost 90 per cent by the combined efforts of the World Health Organization (WHO, local governments, health professionals, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs, however, a parallel drop in the incidence or new case detection rate (NCDR has not occurred. From 1994 through 2011, more than 100,000 new cases are being detected annually, of whom maximum case load is from India. There is need for research on tools for early diagnosis, short and effective treatment, and prevention of deformities and disabilities. Evaluating the role of immunotherapy and immunoprophylaxis will also lead us to better understanding of their mode of action. Further molecular analysis of Mycobacterium leprae genome may provide the requisite basis for all this. The current reality is that there is a need to sustain and provide quality leprosy services to all persons through general health services, including good referral system. All these provisions in the integrated health care approach will go a long way in further reducing the stigma. Efforts need to be made to reduce deformity through early detection, self care, physiotherapy and reconstructive surgery and developing sound surveillance systems. With all the remarkable achievements in the fight against leprosy, the stage is now set for the final assault. It is hoped that with the efforts of all the stake holders and strong political will, the disease will be eradicated in the near future.

  12. Bone erosion and subacromial bursitis caused by diphtheria-tetanus-poliomyelitis vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, J H; Geoffroy, M; Eschard, J P; Ohl, X

    2015-11-17

    Revaxis(®) is a vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus and poliomyelitis (dT-IPV). This vaccine should not be administered by the intradermal or intravenous route. Poor injection techniques and related consequences are rare. We report a case of bursitis associated with reactive glenohumeral effusion complicated by bone erosion occurring after injection of the dT-IPV vaccine. A 26 year old patient was admitted for painful left shoulder causing functional impairment. Control magnetic resonance imaging showed bone oedema on the upper outer part of the humeral head, with a slight cortical irregularity, indicating that the vaccine was injected in contact with the bone at this location, causing erosion. Outcome was favourable after intra-articular corticosteroids. Reports of articular or periarticular injury after vaccination are extremely rare, in view of the substantial number of vaccines administered every year. The potential complications of vaccination are well known to general practitioners but under-reported in the literature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Circadian variation of fatigue in both patients with paralytic poliomyelitis and post-polio syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Celiana Figueiredo; Pradella-Hallinan, Márcia; Quadros, Abrahão Augusto Juviniano; Marin, Luis Fabiano; Oliveira, Acary Souza Bulle

    2013-07-01

    It was to evaluate the degree of fatigue in patients with paralytic poliomyelitis (PP) and with post-polio syndrome (PPS), and correlate it with parameters of sleep and the circadian cycle. Thirty patients, 17 female (56.7%), participated in the study: they answered the Revised Piper Fatigue Scale and performed a nocturnal polysomnographic study. Eleven had PP (mean age±standard deviation of 47.9±6.4 years), and 19 had PPS (mean age±standard deviation of 46.4±5.6 years). Our study showed that fatigue was worse in the afternoon in the PP Group and had a progressive increase throughout the day in the PPS Group. We also observed compromised quality of sleep in both groups, but no statically significant difference was found in the sleep parameters measured by polysomnography. Fatigue has a well-defined circadian variation, especially in PPS Group. Poor sleep quality is associated with fatigue and, therefore, sleep disturbances should be evaluated and treated in this group of PPS.

  14. Circadian variation of fatigue in both patients with paralytic poliomyelitis and post-polio syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celiana Figueiredo Viana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective It was to evaluate the degree of fatigue in patients with paralytic poliomyelitis (PP and with post-polio syndrome (PPS, and correlate it with parameters of sleep and the circadian cycle. Methods Thirty patients, 17 female (56.7%, participated in the study: they answered the Revised Piper Fatigue Scale and performed a nocturnal polysomnographic study. Eleven had PP (mean age±standard deviation of 47.9±6.4 years, and 19 had PPS (mean age±standard deviation of 46.4±5.6 years. Results Our study showed that fatigue was worse in the afternoon in the PP Group and had a progressive increase throughout the day in the PPS Group. We also observed compromised quality of sleep in both groups, but no statically significant difference was found in the sleep parameters measured by polysomnography. Conclusion Fatigue has a well-defined circadian variation, especially in PPS Group. Poor sleep quality is associated with fatigue and, therefore, sleep disturbances should be evaluated and treated in this group of PPS.

  15. Functional and environmental factors affecting work status in individuals with longstanding poliomyelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeilig, Gabi; Weingarden, Harold; Shemesh, Yeheskel; Herman, Amir; Heim, Michael; Zeweker, Manual; Dudkiewicz, Israel

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Remunerative employment is a major concern of individuals with chronic disabilities, among them, those with longstanding poliomyelitis (LSP). Although LSP is not rare there are almost no data related to work participation. Purpose The aims of the current study were to determine the effects of a number of social and functional variables as barriers or facilitators to work participation in persons with LSP. Patients and methods Charts of 123 LSP patients of working age that were seen in the post-polio outpatient clinic, between the years 2000 and 2005 were reviewed for the study. Data on age, gender, family status, level of function in activities of daily living, basic, and extended (B-ADL and E-ADL), and mobility were then analyzed for correlation to the vocational status. Results Seventy-two people (58.5%) were employed at the time of the survey. Gender and marital status were not found to significantly differ as regard to employment. Using assistive devices for mobility or being dependent for basic ADL were associated with lower levels of employment. Driving was positively associated with the employment status of the LSP individuals. Conclusion Persons with LSP encounter important barriers to work participation, particularly on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) components of activity and environment. PMID:22330187

  16. Epidemiological and virological studies into the poliomyelitis in Valencia (1959-1969

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Báguena Cervellera, María José

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies into the polio virus began in Valencia in 1959 with the work undertaken by the microbiologist Vicente Sanchis-Bayarri Vaillant. After his education at the Rochester University and at the Pasteur Institute, Sanchis-Bayarri Vaillant established a laboratory of cell cultures at the Faculty of Medicine in Valencia, where he developed a new diagnostic technique for the poliomyelitis virus. In addition, epidemiological studies were carried out both prior to and post the 1963 vaccination campaign, which proved that Sabin’s oral vaccine was both effective and safe for use.

    Los estudios sobre el virus de la polio comenzaron en Valencia en 1959 de la mano del microbiólogo Vicente Sanchis-Bayarri Vaillant. Tras su formación en virología en la Universidad de Rochester y en el Instituto Pasteur, puso en marcha un laboratorio de cultivos celulares en la Facultad de Medicina de Valencia, en donde desarrolló una técnica diagnóstica nueva para el virus de la polio. Por otra parte, se llevaron a cabo estudios epidemiológicos antes y después de la campaña de vacunación de 1963, que demostraron la eficacia de la vacuna oral de Sabin y su inocuidad.

  17. Vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis: a review of the epidemiology and estimation of the global burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Lauren R; Estívariz, Concepción F; Sutter, Roland W

    2014-11-01

    Vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) is a rare adverse event associated with oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). This review summarizes the epidemiology and provides a global burden estimate. A literature review was conducted to abstract the epidemiology and calculate the risk of VAPP. A bootstrap method was applied to calculate global VAPP burden estimates. Trends in VAPP epidemiology varied by country income level. In the low-income country, the majority of cases occurred in individuals who had received >3 doses of OPV (63%), whereas in middle and high-income countries, most cases occurred in recipients after their first OPV dose or unvaccinated contacts (81%). Using all risk estimates, VAPP risk was 4.7 cases per million births (range, 2.4-9.7), leading to a global annual burden estimate of 498 cases (range, 255-1018). If the analysis is limited to estimates from countries that currently use OPV, the VAPP risk is 3.8 cases per million births (range, 2.9-4.7) and a burden of 399 cases (range, 306-490). Because many high-income countries have replaced OPV with inactivated poliovirus vaccine, the VAPP burden is concentrated in lower-income countries. The planned universal introduction of inactivated poliovirus vaccine is likely to substantially decrease the global VAPP burden by 80%-90%. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. International Health Regulations in practice: Focus on yellow fever and poliomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, H; Patel, D

    2016-10-02

    ASBTRACT The spread of infectious disease represents a global threat and therefore remains a priority on the international public health agenda. The International Health Regulations (IHR) (2005) came into effect in June 2007 and provide a legal framework to which the 196 member states of the World Health Assembly agree to abide. 1 These regulations include implementation of protective, control and response measures at points of entry to a country (i.e. land borders, sea and airports), and of notification measures, all of which aim to prevent or limit the spread of disease while minimising disruption to international trade. The World Health Organization can apply and enforce IHR (2005) to any disease considered to pose a significant threat to international public health. This short paper focuses on 2 diseases; yellow fever and poliomyelitis, both of which have the potential to spread internationally. It will discuss the measures applied under IHR (2005) to minimize the threat, and explore the implications for both travelers and travel health advisors.

  19. Malaria eradication: the economic, financial and institutional challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanson Kara

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Malaria eradication raises many economic, financial and institutional challenges. This paper reviews these challenges, drawing on evidence from previous efforts to eradicate malaria, with a special focus on resource-poor settings; summarizes more recent evidence on the challenges, drawing on the literature on the difficulties of scaling-up malaria control and strengthening health systems more broadly; and explores the implications of these bodies of evidence for the current call for elimination and intensified control. Economic analyses dating from the eradication era, and more recent analyses, suggest that, in general, the benefits of malaria control outweigh the costs, though few studies have looked at the relative returns to eradication versus long-term control. Estimates of financial costs are scanty and difficult to compare. In the 1960s, the consolidation phase appeared to cost less than $1 per capita and, in 1988, was estimated to be $2.31 per capita (both in 2006 prices. More recent estimates for high coverage of control measures suggest a per capita cost of several dollars. Institutional challenges faced by malaria eradication included limits to the rule of law (a major problem where malaria was concentrated in border areas with movement of people associated with illegal activities, the existence and performance of local implementing structures, and political sustainability at national and global levels. Recent analyses of the constraints to scaling-up malaria control, together with the historical evidence, are used to discuss the economic, financial and institutional challenges that face the renewed call for eradication and intensified control. The paper concludes by identifying a research agenda covering: ∘ issues of the allocative efficiency of malaria eradication, especially using macro-economic modelling to estimate the benefits and costs of malaria eradication and intensified control, and studies of the links between

  20. Malaria eradication: the economic, financial and institutional challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Anne; Lubell, Yoel; Hanson, Kara

    2008-01-01

    Malaria eradication raises many economic, financial and institutional challenges. This paper reviews these challenges, drawing on evidence from previous efforts to eradicate malaria, with a special focus on resource-poor settings; summarizes more recent evidence on the challenges, drawing on the literature on the difficulties of scaling-up malaria control and strengthening health systems more broadly; and explores the implications of these bodies of evidence for the current call for elimination and intensified control. Economic analyses dating from the eradication era, and more recent analyses, suggest that, in general, the benefits of malaria control outweigh the costs, though few studies have looked at the relative returns to eradication versus long-term control. Estimates of financial costs are scanty and difficult to compare. In the 1960s, the consolidation phase appeared to cost less than $1 per capita and, in 1988, was estimated to be $2.31 per capita (both in 2006 prices). More recent estimates for high coverage of control measures suggest a per capita cost of several dollars. Institutional challenges faced by malaria eradication included limits to the rule of law (a major problem where malaria was concentrated in border areas with movement of people associated with illegal activities), the existence and performance of local implementing structures, and political sustainability at national and global levels. Recent analyses of the constraints to scaling-up malaria control, together with the historical evidence, are used to discuss the economic, financial and institutional challenges that face the renewed call for eradication and intensified control. The paper concludes by identifying a research agenda covering: ∘ issues of the allocative efficiency of malaria eradication, especially using macro-economic modelling to estimate the benefits and costs of malaria eradication and intensified control, and studies of the links between malaria control and economic

  1. Poliomyelitis in MuLV-infected ICR-SCID mice after injection of basement membrane matrix contaminated with lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson Scholz, Jodi A; Garg, Rohit; Compton, Susan R; Allore, Heather G; Zeiss, Caroline J; Uchio, Edward M

    2011-10-01

    The arterivirus lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV) causes life-long viremia in mice. Although LDV infection generally does not cause disease, infected mice that are homozygous for the Fv1(n) allele are prone to develop poliomyelitis when immunosuppressed, a condition known as age-dependent poliomyelitis. The development of age-dependent poliomyelitis requires coinfection with endogenous murine leukemia virus. Even though LDV is a common contaminant of transplantable tumors, clinical signs of poliomyelitis after inadvertent exposure to LDV have not been described in recent literature. In addition, LDV-induced poliomyelitis has not been reported in SCID or ICR mice. Here we describe the occurrence of poliomyelitis in ICR-SCID mice resulting from injection of LDV-contaminated basement membrane matrix. After exposure to LDV, a subset of mice presented with clinical signs including paresis, which was associated with atrophy of the hindlimb musculature, and tachypnea; in addition, some mice died suddenly with or without premonitory signs. Mice presenting within the first 6 mo after infection had regions of spongiosis, neuronal necrosis and astrocytosis of the ventral spinal cord, and less commonly, brainstem. Axonal degeneration of ventral roots prevailed in more chronically infected mice. LDV was identified by RT-PCR in 12 of 15 mice with typical neuropathology; positive antiLDV immunolabeling was identified in all PCR-positive animals (n = 7) tested. Three of 8 mice with neuropathology but no clinical signs were LDV negative by RT-PCR. RT-PCR yielded murine leukemia virus in spinal cords of all mice tested, regardless of clinical presentation or neuropathology.

  2. Severe gastritis decreases success rate of Helicobacter pylori eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Ismail Hakki; Sapmaz, Ferdane; Güliter, Sefa; Atasoy, Pınar

    2016-05-01

    In several studies, different risk factors other than antibiotic resistance have been documented with Helicobacter pylori eradication failure. We aimed in this study to investigate the relationship of gastric density of H. pylori, the occurrence/degree of gastric atrophy, and intestinal metaplasia (IM) with success rate of H. pylori eradication. Two hundred consecutive treatment naive patients who received bismuth containing standart quadruple treatment due to H. pylori infection documented by histopathological examination of two antral or two corpal biopsies entered this retrospective study. The updated Sydney system was used to grade the activity of gastritis, density of H. pylori colonization, atrophy, and IM. Stages III and IV of operative link for gastritis assessment (OLGA) or the operative link on gastric intestinal metaplasia assessment (OLGIM) stages was considered as severe gastritis. H. pylori eradication was determined via stool H. pylori antigen test performed 4 weeks after the end of therapy. The presence of gastric atrophy and IM was significantly higher in patients with eradication failure (p = 0.001 and 0.01, respectively). Severe gastritis (OLGA III-IV and OLGIM III-IV) rates were higher in eradication failure group. A multiple linear regression analysis showed that OLGA and OLGIM stages were to be independent risk factors for eradication failure (p = 0.03 and 0.01, respectively). Our results suggested that histopathologically severe gastritis may cause H. pylori eradication failure. In addition, we found that H. pylori density was not a risk factor for treatment failure in patients who receive quadruple treatment.

  3. [The medical, social and institutional challenges resulting from poliomyelitis: comprehensive rehabilitation in Argentina in the mid-twentieth century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Poliomyelitis on an epidemic scale gave rise to several challenges, one of which was the rehabilitation from the after-effects on many of the people who suffered from the disease. Paralysis and the ways it transformed the concept of physical rehabilitation (where the objective was only to restore the mobility of the affected muscles) and comprehensive rehabilitation that included social, educational and professional aspects in Argentina in the mid-twentieth century are the themes addressed in this article. It uses the methodology of institutional history that interacts in an ongoing manner with the history of health and disease.

  4. A forgotten chapter of Mexican technology and science: Luis Gutiérrez Villegas and poliomyelitis in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez-Arellano, Antonio

    Two different types of vaccines were developed against poliomyelitis: The Salk vaccine using inactivated virus and the Sabin one, that was used later, after investigations assured its safety. The first one was made in Mexico with its own resources since 1957 thanks to the efforts of young researchers and technicians coordinated by Luis Gutiérrez-Villegas, M.D., who was a Clinical Pathologist, University Professor and President of the Mexican National Academy of Mexico. Copyright: © 2017 SecretarÍa de Salud.

  5. Intratypic differentiation of polioviruses isolated from suspected cases of poliomyelitis in Brazil during the period of 1990 to 1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. B. de Filippis

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed 3129 fecal samples derived from 1626 patients with sudden onset acute flaccid paralysis clinically compatible with poliomyelitis. The samples were collected in the period ranging from January 1990 to September 1993 in all regions of Brazil. Among the 1626 cases studied, 196 had isolation of poliovirus. Nevertheless, it was observed that some factors influenced the isolation rate and the intratypic characterization of these polioviruses. No cases of acute flaccid paralysis has been found to be etiologically related with wild polioviruses.

  6. ERAD-dependent control of the Wnt secretory factor Evi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaeser, Kathrin; Urban, Manuela; Fenech, Emma; Voloshanenko, Oksana; Kranz, Dominique; Lari, Federica; Christianson, John C; Boutros, Michael

    2018-02-15

    Active regulation of protein abundance is an essential strategy to modulate cellular signaling pathways. Within the Wnt signaling cascade, regulated degradation of β-catenin by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) affects the outcome of canonical Wnt signaling. Here, we found that abundance of the Wnt cargo receptor Evi (Wls/GPR177), which is required for Wnt protein secretion, is also regulated by the UPS through endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD). In the absence of Wnt ligands, Evi is ubiquitinated and targeted for ERAD in a VCP-dependent manner. Ubiquitination of Evi involves the E2-conjugating enzyme UBE2J2 and the E3-ligase CGRRF1. Furthermore, we show that a triaging complex of Porcn and VCP determines whether Evi enters the secretory or the ERAD pathway. In this way, ERAD-dependent control of Evi availability impacts the scale of Wnt protein secretion by adjusting the amount of Evi to meet the requirement of Wnt protein export. As Wnt and Evi protein levels are often dysregulated in cancer, targeting regulatory ERAD components might be a useful approach for therapeutic interventions. © 2018 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  7. Understanding vaccine hesitancy in polio eradication in northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Sebastian; Khan, Mahmud; Muhammad, Ado; Akpala, Okey; van Strien, Marit; Morry, Chris; Feek, Warren; Ogden, Ellyn

    2017-11-07

    Vaccine hesitancy constitutes a major threat to the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI), and to further expansion of routine immunisation. Understanding hesitancy, leading in some cases to refusal, is vital to the success of GPEI. Re-emergence of circulating wild poliovirus in northern Nigeria in mid-2016, after 24months polio-free, gives urgency to this. But it is equally important to protect and sustain the global gains available through routine immunisation in a time of rising scepticism and potential rejection of specific vaccines or immunisation more generally. This study is based on a purposive sampling survey of 1653 households in high- and low-performing rural, semiurban and urban areas of three high-risk states of northern Nigeria in 2013-14 (Sokoto, Kano and Bauchi). The survey sought to understand factors at household and community level associated with propensity to refuse polio vaccine. Wealth, female education and knowledge of vaccines were associated with lower propensity to refuse oral polio vaccine (OPV) among rural households. But higher risk of refusal among wealthier, more literate urban household rendered these findings ambiguous. Ethnic and religious identity did not appear to be associated with risk of OPV refusal. Risk of vaccine refusal was highly clustered among households within a small sub-group of sampled settlements. Contrary to expectations, households in these settlements reported higher levels of expectation of government as service provider, but at the same time lesser confidence in the efficacy of their relations with government. Results suggest that strategies to address the micro-political dimension of vaccination - expanding community-level engagement, strengthening the role of local government in public health, and enhancing public participation of women - should be effective in reducing non-compliance, asan important set of strategies complementary to conventional didactic/educational approaches and working through

  8. Eradication rates of helicobacter pylori infection with second-line treatment: non-ulcer dyspepsia compared to peptic ulcer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Su Jin; Lee, Dong Ho; Kim, Nayoung; Jung, Sook Hyang; Kim, Jin Wook; Hwang, Jin Hyeok; Park, Young Soo; Lee, Kwang Hyuk; Jung, Hyun Chae; Song, In Sung

    2007-06-01

    Initial proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-based triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is less effective in patients with nonulcer dyspepsia (NUD) than those with peptic ulcer disease (PUD). To date, there have been no studies on the difference in eradication rates in NUD compared to PUD with regard to second-line therapy. Therefore, we retrospectively analyzed the difference in eradication rates of a second-line quadruple therapy for NUD and PUD patients. Between June 2003 and December 2005, patients who failed to respond to initial PPI-based triple therapy, received 7 days of quadruple therapy (PPI b.i.d., bismuth 300mg q.i.d., metronidazole 500mg t.i.d., tetracycline 500mg q.i.d.) as a second-line treatment regimen. Four weeks after the completion of the course of medication, a 13C-urea breath test was performed for detection of H. pylori. A total of 87 patients received second-line quadruple therapy. Of these, 43 patients had NUD and 44 patients had PUD (19 gastric ulcers, 23 duodenal ulcers, 2 both ulcers). The eradication rates were 76.7% (33/43) in the NUD group and 90.9% (40/44) in the PUD group by per-protocol analysis. Therefore, the eradication rates in the NUD group were significantly lower than those in the PUD group (p = 0.034). A 7-day bismuth-based second-line quadruple therapy for H. pylori infection was less effective in patients with NUD than those with PUD. Therefore, a more potent second-line treatment regimen or extension of treatment duration of quadruple therapy should be considered for the eradication of H. pylori in patients with NUD.

  9. The relationship between body composition and femoral neck osteoporosis or osteopenia in adults with previous poliomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kwang-Hwa; Tseng, Sung-Hui; Lin, Yu-Ching; Lai, Chien-Hung; Hsiao, Wen-Tien; Chen, Shih-Ching

    2015-04-01

    Articles in the literature describing the association between body composition and osteoporosis in subjects with poliomyelitis are scarce. To assess the relationship between body composition and femoral neck osteoporosis or osteopenia in adults with previous polio. After excluding postmenopausal women, 44 polio (mean age ± standard deviation, 46.1 ± 3.3 years) and 44 able-bodied control volunteers (47.0 ± 4.0 years) participated in the study. Each participant's femoral neck bone mineral density (FNBMD) and whole body composition were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. With local reference BMD values of normal young adults installed in the instrument, we obtained T-score values that depended on each FNBMD value. A T-score value of ≤-1.0 indicated decreased T-score, including osteoporosis (T-score ≤ -2.5) and osteopenia (-1.0 to -2.5). This study conducted logistic regression analyses to find factors associated with osteoporosis and osteopenia. Based on the FNBMD T-score values, 60.0% of middle-aged men with polio had osteoporosis. In adjusted logistic regression analyses, total lean tissue mass (Adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 0.74 [0.56-0.99], P < 0.05) and male gender (947.16 [6.02-148,926.16], P < 0.01) were important factors associated with decreased T-score in polio group. Osteoporosis or osteopenia is a common medical problem for middle-aged men with polio. Reduced total lean tissue mass seems to be one of the important factors associated with osteoporosis or osteopenia among subjects with polio. Further research for a clinical tool to assess lean tissue mass for subjects with polio is needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevention of Gastric Cancer: Eradication of Helicobacter Pylori and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Tsukamoto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Although its prevalence is declining, gastric cancer remains a significant public health issue. The bacterium Helicobacter pylori is known to colonize the human stomach and induce chronic atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and gastric cancer. Results using a Mongolian gerbil model revealed that H. pylori infection increased the incidence of carcinogen-induced adenocarcinoma, whereas curative treatment of H. pylori significantly lowered cancer incidence. Furthermore, some epidemiological studies have shown that eradication of H. pylori reduces the development of metachronous cancer in humans. However, other reports have warned that human cases of atrophic metaplastic gastritis are already at risk for gastric cancer development, even after eradication of these bacteria. In this article, we discuss the effectiveness of H. pylori eradication and the morphological changes that occur in gastric dysplasia/cancer lesions. We further assess the control of gastric cancer using various chemopreventive agents.

  11. Peak {sup 14}CO{sub 2} excretion, symptoms and eradication of H.Pylori (HP) in patients with duodenal ulcer (DU)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batholomeusz, F.D.L.; Bellon, M. [Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, SA (Australia). Department of Nuclear Medicine

    1997-12-01

    Full text: Many factors including drug efficacy, compliance and antibiotic resistance may influence HP eradication rates. The {sup 14}C urea breath test is a sensitive method of confirming HP colonisation and eradication. The aim was to study the relationships between the peak {sup 14}CO{sub 2} counts on the breath test prior to treatment, smoking and HP eradication, and to assess if persistent or recurrent symptoms implied failure of eradication. 117 patients with DU and HP colonisation proved on biopsy or rapid urease test who underwent {sup 14}C urea breath tests at least one month after eradication treatment was ceased were studied (69 male, 48 female, mean age 41, range 26-87 y). Questionnaire assessment of treatment regimen, smoking history and dyspeptic symptoms was made at the time of the breath test. A sub-group of 43 patients who had pre- and post-treatment breath tests was studied to assess if high peak {sup 14}CO{sub 2} counts on the pre-treatment breath test related to treatment success. The mean peak initial {sup 14}CO{sub 2} excretion in those who were treated successfully was 4187 (+ 472) counts/min and for failures 4817 (+739) counts/min (p 0.24). Dyspeptic symptoms were present in 36% of patients treated successfully and 37% where treatment failed. The eradication rate for the 56 smokers was 75 per cent, and the 61 non-smokers 83%. (p>0.2) High {sup 14}CO{sub 2} excretion on the initial {sup 14}C urea breath test and smoking are not associated with a significantly lower rate of HP eradication and the presence of dyspepsia is not a good indicator of persistent infection

  12. Eradication of sweet potato weevil using Co-60 gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Taizo

    2007-01-01

    Sweet potato weevil which is a harmful insect injuring sweet potatoes was found out at Yoron Island in 1915 for the first time in Kagoshima prefecture, Japan. Here the eradication of sweet potato weevils using cobalt 60 irradiation achieved at Kikai Island is described. The mass-reared male weevils in potatoes are in pasture after sterilized by gamma irradiation. If the sexually sterile male copulates with a wild female, the egg does not incubate. By the repeated sterilization during several generations, the eradication of sweet potato weevils was accomplished. (M.H.)

  13. [Genetic changes in strains of poliovirus type 2 isolated from patients with vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Díaz, R Y; Más-Lago, P; Valdés-Ramírez, O; Sarmiento-Pérez, L

    Poliomyelitis is currently a rare disease in developed countries, where only vaccinal strains seem to be in circulation, which replace wild poliovirus. Nevertheless, it is still a serious disease for children in underdeveloped countries of Asia and Africa. We analysed nine strains of poliovirus type 2 isolated from the faecal matter of patients with vaccine associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP), from the beginning of anti polio vaccination campaigns in our country. These strains were submitted to sequencing of a fragment of 114 base pairs from the 5 NTR (non traductional region), where one of the main determinants of attenuation/reversion to the neurovirulence of poliovirus lies in the position of nucleotide 481. In this position it was observed how guanine had been replaced by adenine in all the strains that were sequenced, so that it coincided with the homologous sequence of the wild strain, as well as with that of strains obtained from healthy children immunised with the live vaccine. This presupposes that other changes must occur or that other factors must be involved for VAPP to occur or not, and we therefore suggest the sequencing of other regions of the genome in search of other possible differential changes in nucleotides.

  14. Immunity status against poliomyelitis in childbearing women in a province of northern Italy. A cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronesi, L; Affanni, P; Verrotti di Pianella, C; Colucci, M E; Tanzi, M L

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional seroprevalence study was carried out in 2007 to estimate the immunological status associated with poliomyelitis among fertile women , according to demographic changes. We consecutively enrolled 493 healthy mothers at the time of delivery in order to assess immunity against poliomyelitis by a neutralisation inhibition test. Despite the lack of seronegative subjects, our investigation showed low GMTs, which confirmed a reduction in the "booster effect". The GMTs against poliovirus 1, poliovirus 2 and poliovirus 3 were 25.20, 14.79 and 8.80, respectively. The data that emerged from our survey showed that GMTs have decreased significantly since 1983 and reached low-to-medium values over the past 25 years. The serum prevalence studies, together with the vaccination coverage estimates, are useful and are strongly recommended in order to highlight and identify the possible scenarios in which susceptible subject groups may be present simultaneously as well the possibility of the reintroduction of wild virus in an area that was previously free of polio.

  15. Comparative assessment of oral hygiene and periodontal status among children who have Poliomyelitis at Udaipur city, Rajasthan, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Mridula; Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Sharda, Archana; Asawa, Kailash; Tak, Aniruddh; Jalihal, Sagar

    2012-11-01

    To assess and compare the oral hygiene and periodontal status among children with Poliomyelitis having upper limb disability, lower limb disability and both upper and lower disability at Udaipur city, Rajasthan, India. Total sample comprised of 344 Poliomyelitis children (upper limb disability: 33.4%; lower limb disability: 33.7%; both upper and lower limb disability: 32.9%) in the age group of 12-15 years. Clinical examination included recording Simplified Oral Hygiene Index and Community Periodontal Index. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), multiple logistic and stepwise linear regression were used for statistical analysis. The mean OHI-S (2.52 ± 1.05) score was found to be highest among children who had both upper and lower limb disability (phealthy sextants were found among those with only lower limb disability (4.53 ± 2.05) and among those with both upper and lower limb disability (0.77 ± 1.39), respectively (poral hygiene and periodontal status was limb involved in the disability. The results of the study depicted an overall poor oral hygiene and periodontal status of the group. It was recognized that limbs involved in the disability had an impact on the oral hygiene and periodontal condition. The situation in this specialized population draws immediate attention for an integrated approach in improving the oral health and focus towards extensive research.

  16. The Brucellosis Eradication Program in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    2 Distribution of Brucellosis Bovine Infected Herds in Texas . . 75 Figure 3 Comparison of Infected Herds-Initial Testing vs FY 󈨖 . . .. 76 Figure...The temporary injunction was issued 28 January 1976, and was amended twice to enforce the new Texas Bovine Brucellosis Regulations dated 29 February...Projected Changes In Number• of Affected Nerds and Cows, and Weaner Calf and Milk Losses Associated With The 1962 TANC Bovine Brucellosis Program By Region

  17. Onderzoek naar de immuunstatus ten opzichte van bof, mazelen, rubella, poliomyelitis, difterie en tetanus bij immigranten in 's-Hertogenbosch van maart 1990 tot maart 1992

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zwan CW; Kik D; Berbers GAM; Plantinga AD; Ruemke HC; Conyn-van Spaendonck MAE; CIE; LVO; GGD Stadsgewest Den Bosch

    1995-01-01

    Inleiding: De immuunstatus van de algemene Nederlandse bevolking is wat betreft bof, mazelen, rubella, difterie, tetanus en poliomyelitis redelijk in kaart gebracht. Veel minder is bekend over de immuunstatus bij bepaalde subgroepen van de bevolking. Een onderzoek uitgevoerd in Amsterdam in 1987

  18. Sf36 physical functioning scale and 2-minute walk test advocated as core qualifiers to evaluate physical functioning in patients with late-onset sequelae of poliomyelitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolwijk-Swuste, J.M.; Beelen, J.A.J.M.; Lankhorst, G.J.; Nollet, F.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To select a questionnaire and walking capacity test based on comparison of clinimetric properties and mutual association to be used as "core" qualifiers for physical functioning in patients with late-onset sequelae of poliomyelitis. Design: Repeated-measures at 3-week intervals. Subjects:

  19. The physiological cost index of walking with a powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis in subjects with poliomyelitis: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arazpour, Mokhtar; Ahmadi Bani, Monireh; Samadian, Mohammad; Mousavi, Mohammad E; Hutchins, Stephen W; Bahramizadeh, Mahmood; Curran, Sarah; Mardani, Mohammad A

    2016-08-01

    A powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis was developed to provide restriction of knee flexion during stance phase and active flexion and extension of the knee during swing phase of gait. The purpose of this study was to determine its effect on the physiological cost index, walking speed and the distance walked in people with poliomyelitis compared to when walking with a knee-ankle-foot orthosis with drop lock knee joints. Quasi experimental study. Seven subjects with poliomyelitis volunteered for the study and undertook gait analysis with both types of knee-ankle-foot orthosis. Walking with the powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis significantly reduced walking speed (p = 0.015) and the distance walked (p = 0.004), and also, it did not improve physiological cost index values (p = 0.009) compared to walking with the locked knee-ankle-foot orthosis. Using a powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis did not significantly improve any of the primary outcome measures during walking for poliomyelitis subjects. This powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis design did not improve the physiological cost index of walking for people with poliomyelitis when compared to walking with a knee-ankle-foot orthosis with drop lock knee joints. This may have been due to the short training period used or the bulky design and additional weight of the powered orthosis. Further research is therefore warranted. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2015.

  20. SF36 physical functioning scale and 2-minute walk test advocated as core qualifiers to evaluate physical functioning in patients with late-onset sequelae of poliomyelitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolwijk-Swüste, Janneke M.; Beelen, Anita; Lankhorst, Gustaaf J.; Nollet, Frans; Stolwijk-Swüste, J. M.; Lankhorst, G. J.; Dekker, J.; van Dijk, G. M.; van den Ende, C. H. M.; Post, B.; de Haan, R. J.; Speelman, H.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To select a questionnaire and walking capacity test based on comparison of clinimetric properties and mutual association to be used as "core" qualifiers for physical functioning in patients with late-onset sequelae of poliomyelitis. DESIGN: Repeated-measures at 3-week intervals. SUBJECTS:

  1. Probiotics as an adjuvant treatment in Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xin Yan; Liu, Fei

    2017-04-01

    Over 80% of individuals infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) are asymptomatic. Increased resistance to antibiotics and decreased compliance to the therapeutic regimens have led to the failure of eradication therapy. Probiotics, with direct and indirect inhibitory effects on H. pylori in both animal models and clinical trials, have recently been used as a supplementary treatment in H. pylori eradication therapy. Probiotics have been considered useful because of the improvements in H. pylori eradication rates and therapy-related side effects although treatment outcomes using probiotics are controversial due to the heterogeneity of species, strains, doses and therapeutic duration of probiotics. Thus, despite the positive role of probiotics, several factors need to be further considered during their applications. Moreover, adverse events of probiotic use need to be noted. Further investigations into the safety of adjuvant probiotics to H. pylori eradication therapy are required. © 2017 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. The role of LP gas in eradicating energy poverty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Michael; Behuria, Sarthak

    2010-09-15

    LP Gas is an ideal solution for dealing with energy poverty. Clean burning, low carbon, extremely efficient, requiring minimal infrastructure or R and D investment and with plentiful long term global supply, LP Gas can be quickly introduced to play an important role in eradicating energy poverty and steering both industrialised and developing countries onto more sustainable energy development paths.

  3. Towards Eradicating the Victimization of Women in Infertile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study revealed that males and females are equally responsible for primary and secondary infertility in marriages, and sometimes with a higher percentage in male culpability. It proffers pragmatic remedies towards the eradication of victimization of women in infertile marriages. The study used Social Learning theory of ...

  4. Polio eradication efforts in regions of geopolitical strife: the Boko ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polio eradication efforts in regions of geopolitical strife: the Boko Haram threat to efforts in sub-Saharan Africa. ... Targets of Boko Haram aggression in these zones include violence against polio workers, disruption of polio immunization campaigns, with consequent reduced access to health care and immunization.

  5. Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy: A review of current trends ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Helicobacter pylori has been implicated in the formation of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, mucosa‑associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and gastric cancer. Eradication of H. Pylori has been recommended as treatment and prevention for these complications. This review is based on a search of Medline, the ...

  6. The efficacy of sequential therapy in eradication of Helicobacter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication rates of standard triple, sequential and quadruple therapies including claritromycin regimes in this study. Materials and Methods: A total of 160 patients with dyspeptic symptoms were enrolled to the study. The patients were randomized to four groups of treatment protocols.

  7. The Efficacy of Sequential Therapy in Eradication of Helicobacter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-05-22

    May 22, 2017 ... pylori (H. pylori) eradication rates of standard triple, sequential and quadruple therapies including claritromycin regimes in this study. Materials and Methods: A total of 160 patients with dyspeptic symptoms were enrolled to the study. The patients were randomized to four groups of treatment protocols.

  8. Epizootiological aspects of the eradication of Aujeszky's disease in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Laurids Siig

    1992-01-01

    Experiences of the Danish eradication program on the Aujeszky's disease have been briefly summarized. The infection is cleaned up by stamping out of the infected herds. Since 1983, all the herds have serologically been tested and since 1984, all the isolated virus strains have been analysed...

  9. A history of bovine tuberculosis eradication policy in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, P A

    2015-11-01

    Despite many years of state-sponsored efforts to eradicate the disease from cattle through testing and slaughter, bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is still regarded as the most important and complex of animal health challenges facing the British livestock agricultural industry. This paper provides a historical analysis of the ongoing bTB statutory eradication programme in one part of the UK - Northern Ireland (NI) - which began in 1949 as a voluntary scheme, but between 1959 and 1960 became compulsory for all cattle herd-owners. Tracing bTB back through time sets the eradication efforts of the present day within a deeper context, and provides signposts for what developed in subsequent decades. The findings are based primarily on empirical research using historical published reports of the Ministry of Agriculture and state documents held in the public archives in NI, and they emphasize the need to consider the economic, social and political contexts of disease eradication efforts and their influences on both the past and the present.

  10. National immunisation days for polio eradication in Uganda: Did ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: NIDs for polio eradication commenced in Uganda in 1996. Two rounds, one month apart are implemented yearly. During the second round of 1998 NlDs, cards were introduced nationally and vitamin supplementation was introduced in 24 of the 45 districts. We compared NIDs coverage before and after NIDs cards ...

  11. Eradication of disease - The case study of polio | Schoub | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eradication of disease - The case study of polio. BD Schoub. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  12. The impact of intervention strategies on the eradication of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lack of compliance to some of the interventions like not insisting on drinking filtered water always and not achieving 100% case containment seem to be the major problems hindering the complete eradication of the disease from the state. The federal, state and local government health authorities, and international agencies ...

  13. Eradication of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia in Danish aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, N. J.; Skall, Helle Frank; Jensen, B. B.

    2013-01-01

    regulations and ban on introduction of live salmonids into the country VHSV seemed to have crossed the boarders into Denmark in a couple of cases. It is the first time that VHS has been eradicated from an endemically infected country. Among the causes of the success are a close collaboration between industry...

  14. Epizootiological aspects of the eradication of Aujeszky's disease in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Laurids Siig

    1992-01-01

    Experiences of the Danish eradication program on the Aujeszky's disease have been briefly summarized. The infection is cleaned up by stamping out of the infected herds. Since 1983, all the herds have serologically been tested and since 1984, all the isolated virus strains have been analysed by re...

  15. When are eradication campaigns successful? A test of common assumptions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pluess, T.; Cannon, R.; Jarošík, Vojtěch; Pergl, Jan; Pyšek, Petr; Bacher, S.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 7 (2012), s. 1365-1378 ISSN 1387-3547 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0563; GA AV ČR IAA600050811; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : eradication * invasions * management Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.509, year: 2012

  16. The New World Screwworm eradication programme in North Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vloedt, A.M.V. van der; Butt, B.

    1990-01-01

    The screwworm is thought to have reached North Africa with a shipment of contaminated livestock imported from Central or South America. The parasite's presence in Libya poses a great threat to livestock, wildlife, and the environment in Africa, the Middle East, and the Mediterranean Basin. The parasite's present restricted distribution in Africa - confined to an area of approximately 20,000 square kilometers, 30 kilometers south of Tripoli and 60 kilometers east of the border with Tunisia - offers the possibility for eradication, if an international emergency action programme can be fully instituted. The programme is a collaborative effort of the Government of Libya and international agencies including FAO, IAEA, International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). If eradication is achieved before much additional spread occurs, savings will be very great indeed. The sterile insect technique, in conjunction with surveillance, preventive, and curative treatment of animal wounds, is the only available technique for eradicating the New World Screwworm. The sterile insect technique requires the releases of huge numbers of factory-reared, sexually sterile insects. Sexual sterility is induced by exposing the late pupal stage to gamma rays. When these sterile insects mate with native females, the eggs laid on open wounds fail to hatch and no progeny are produced. By sustained releases and maintaining a ratio of 10 or more sterile insects to each native insect over several generations, eradication is achieved in a relatively short period of time

  17. Eradicating Poverty and Promoting Dignity in Botswana through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of liberation in eradicating poverty, for the reason that the basic tenets of this strategy provide perhaps the most pragmatic model in the fight against many social ills. It observes that Contextual theology of liberation is deeply-rooted in the Catholic belief system, and acknowledges the conventional definition of this concept, ...

  18. Aspect of Commuting Behavior and Its Implication for Eradicating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was observed that attendance and punctuality by both instructors and adult learners have not been taken seriously. This factor, it is thought, would hamper the progress in eradicating illiteracy in Nigeria. This paper looked at the effects of lateness to productivity especially adult learning. It concluded by providing for how to ...

  19. Visualization of temporal aspects of tsetse fly eradication in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pattern of how they are applied in time was provided in the animation representation. Further information on areas where different techniques were applied on different years is interactively visualized. Visualization of infestation changes in time was also provided by animation representation. Visualization of eradication ...

  20. Eradication of campus cultism: a giant stride toward restoration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In view of this, this paper focuses on campus cult and proposed that its eradication will lead to a restoration of confidence in education in Nigeria. The paper started by looking at the meaning of cultism, the history of campus cult, psychological assumptions for joining cult gang, depicting characteristics of cult groups, the ...

  1. An Assessment of Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Adem ANYEBE

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Poverty situation in Nigeria has become so serious that in 2013 there were as many as 112 million or 70.0% of the country’s population was living below poverty line. It has realized that poverty anywhere is a threat to peace, security and prosperity everywhere hence the conscious efforts by successive administrations in Nigeria to eradicate all forms of extreme poverty and hunger in a country. In spite of these efforts to eradicate absolute poverty in the country, poverty incidence has been on the rise. This study, therefore, attempted to assess NAPEP as a programme to eradicate extreme poverty in the country. Personal interviews and documents were employed in data collection. The data were analyzed using tables, simple percentages and spearman rank correlation. The study showed among others, that NAPEP as a programme targeted at eradicating extreme poverty has not been effective leading to a mixed bag of limited success and continuing challenges. It was therefore, recommended that the programme should be re-examined and possibly re-designed for effective performance instead of scrapping it.

  2. Guinea worm eradication program in Borno state: The need for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study is to update the status of Guinea worm and Eradication Program in Borno State and to demonstrate the effectiveness of adopting appropriate intervention strategies. The assessment of the prevalence of Dracunculus medinensis was carried out by active case search. Three hundred and ten ...

  3. Short report: evaluation of Helicobacter pylori eradication with bismuth sucralfate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijers, M. H.; Noach, L. A.; Tytgat, G. N.

    1994-01-01

    In a pilot study we have evaluated the clinical efficacy of bismuth sucralfate to eradicate H. pylori. Ten consecutive patients with chronic dyspepsia and H. pylori associated gastritis were treated with bismuth sucralfate (220 mg bismuth per tablet, 4 tablets per day for 4 weeks). If a 14C urea

  4. Coercion and polio eradication efforts in Moradabad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentmeester, Christy A; Dasgupta, Rajib; Feemster, Kristen A; Packard, Randall M

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the problem of vaccine coercion as reported in Moradabad, India. We offer commentary and critical analysis on ethical complexities at the intersection of global public health and regional political strife and relate them to broader vaccine goals. We draw upon a historical example from malaria vaccine efforts, focusing specifically on ethical and health justice issues expressed through the use of coercion in vaccine administration. We suggest how coercion is indicative of failed leadership in public health and consider community-based collaborations as models for cultivating local investment and trust in vaccination campaigns and for success in global public health initiatives.

  5. Evaluation of gait symmetry in poliomyelitis subjects: Comparison of a conventional knee-ankle-foot orthosis and a new powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arazpour, Mokhtar; Ahmadi, Fardin; Bahramizadeh, Mahmood; Samadian, Mohammad; Mousavi, Mohammad Ebrahim; Bani, Monireh Ahmadi; Hutchins, Stephen W

    2016-12-01

    Compared to able-bodied subjects, subjects with post-polio syndrome and poliomyelitis demonstrate a preference for weight-bearing on the non-paretic limb, causing gait asymmetry. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the gait symmetry of the poliomyelitis subjects when ambulating with either a drop-locked knee-ankle-foot orthosis or a newly developed powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis. Quasi experimental study. Seven subjects with poliomyelitis who routinely wore conventional knee-ankle-foot orthoses participated in this study and received training to enable them to ambulate with the powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis on level ground, prior to gait analysis. There were no significant differences in the gait symmetry index of step length (p = 0.085), stance time (p = 0.082), double-limb support time (p = 0.929), or speed of walking (p = 0.325) between the two test conditions. However, using the new powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis improved the symmetry index in step width (p = 0.037), swing time (p = 0.014), stance phase percentage (p = 0.008), and knee flexion during swing phase (p ⩽ 0.001) compared to wearing the drop-locked knee-ankle-foot orthosis. The use of a powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis for ambulation by poliomyelitis subjects affects gait symmetry in the base of support, swing time, stance phase percentage, and knee flexion during swing phase. A new powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis can improve gait symmetry for poliomyelitis subjects by influencing step width, swing time, stance time percentage, and knee flexion during swing phase when compared to ambulating with a drop-locked knee-ankle-foot orthosis. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2015.

  6. Pink bollworm (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) on the Southern Plains of Texas and in New Mexico: Distribution; and eradication of a remnant population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders), is one of the most economically important insect pests of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., in the world. Losses in the U.S. before widespread use of Bt cotton were estimated at $32 million per year. Eradication programs were initiated in the El Pas...

  7. Reproductive Ecology of the Giant African Snail in South Florida: Implications for Eradication Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Giant African snail (Achatina fulica (Bowdich, 1822)), an important invasive snail, was recently found in South Florida, USA. An extensive eradication effort was initiated consisting of pesticide applications, debris removal and hand collections. We studied the reproduction capacity and population dynamics of snails collected from 22 populations for two years to help evaluate the likely success of the eradication program. A total of 23,890 snails, ranging from 25–131 mm, were measured, dissected and the number of eggs in each snail counted. Gravid snails ranged from 48–128 mm. Only 5% of snails had eggs, which were found year round. As the snails increased in size, they were more likely to include reproducing individuals. However, the percentage of gravid snails peaked when snails were approximately 90 mm. Although more prevalent, small (snails. We evaluated the effect of control measures on six populations having >1000 adult snails and used data from the two largest populations to investigate how environmental factors (temperature, humidity, and rainfall) interacted with population dynamics and control measures. More snails were collected in weeks with high humidity and more gravid snails were collected when the temperature was higher. The addition of metaldehyde pesticides had the greatest impact on population dynamics by reducing snail numbers. In populations with fewer snails, their numbers were already declining before the use of metaldehyde, although the new treatment accelerated the process. As a consequence of the eradication program, egg-producing snails were no longer collected from most populations by the end of the study. The aggressive and persistent control efforts apparently lead to reduced populations of egg producing snails, eventually resulting in local extinctions of this important pest. PMID:27861504

  8. Eradication Rate of Helicobacter pylori on the US-Mexico Border Using the Urea Breath Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Roy P; Romero, Roberta; Sarosiek, Jerzy; Dodoo, Christopher; Dwivedi, Alok K; Zuckerman, Marc J

    2018-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is prevalent worldwide, especially in Latin America. Triple and quadruple antibiotic therapies have been relatively effective; however, resistance has emerged in recent years. The treatment success rate of these regimens on the border of the United States and Mexico is unknown. Our study attempted to determine eradication rates of two major regimens based on urea breath test (UBT) results in patients previously diagnosed as having H. pylori in a single center in El Paso, Texas, a city on the geographic border with Mexico. This was a retrospective cohort study of adult patients with H. pylori who underwent UBT after being treated with triple therapy (amoxicillin/clarithromycin/proton pump inhibitor for 14 days), quadruple therapy (tetracycline/metronidazole/bismuth/proton pump inhibitor, usually for 10 days), or both for H. pylori from 2010 to 2015 in a county hospital. Patients were excluded if they did not complete therapy or if their treatment regimen was unknown. The Student t test and the χ 2 test were used to analyze the data. The cumulative incidence and 95% confidence interval (CI) for treatment success were estimated. A total of 104 patients completed the treatment for H. pylori and had UBT. Mean age was 53 years, 76% were women, 85% were Hispanic, and mean body mass index was 30.5 kg/m 2 . Of the 104 patients diagnosed as having H. pylori , 88 received triple therapy (84.6%) and 16 received quadruple therapy: 12 (11.5%) standard quadruple therapy, 4 (3.9%) triple therapy plus metronidazole. There were no differences between groups regarding age, sex, body mass index, or ethnicity. Overall, 90 (86.5%, 95% CI 78-92) patients had negative UBT after initial treatment. Based on posttreatment UBT, the triple therapy group had a similar eradication rate compared with the quadruple therapy group (78/88, 88.6% vs 12/16, 75.0%, P = 0.22). Of the 14 patients with positive posttreatment UBT, 12 (85.7%) received retreatment (2 were lost to follow

  9. 75 FR 55626 - Certification Related to Aerial Eradication in Colombia Under the International Narcotics Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ... determine and certify that: (1) The herbicide used for aerial eradication of illicit crops in Colombia is... Certification Related to Aerial Eradication in Colombia Under the International Narcotics Control and Law... harm to health or licit crops caused by such aerial eradication are thoroughly evaluated and fair...

  10. The Rakiura Titi Islands Restoration Project: community action to eradicate Rattus rattus and Rattus exulans for ecological restoration and cultural wellbeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, P.J; Coote,; Trow,; Hutchins,; Nevins, HannahRose M.; Adams, Josh; Newman, J.; Moller, H.; Veitch, C.R.; Clout, Mike N.; Towns, D. R.

    2011-01-01

    In 2003, a non-profit group, Ka Mate Nga Kiore, was set up to oversee the restoration of four Maori-owned islands off the south coast of Stewart Island, New Zealand. The first step in the restoration was to eradicate ship rats (Rattus rattus) from three islands and Pacific rats (R. exulans) from another. The eradication was funded by the Command Oil Spill Trustee Council which managed the mitigation money from an oil spill off the Californian coast in 1998. The funding was coordinated via Oikonos Ecosystem Knowledge, a non-profit USA group primarily involved in seabird research and restoration. The project was primarily to benefit sooty shearwater (Puffinus griseus) and to sustain a culturally important customary harvest of their chicks by Rakiura Maori. However, like all island eradications, a wide range of other species also benefited from the removal of rats. The New Zealand Department of Conservation provided technical advice and assistance for the planning and implementation of the eradication programme. This paper describes how, with appropriate funding, community and technical support, rodent eradications can be achieved on private islands. In this case, a range of institutions and individuals joined to achieve a common goal that highlighted a significant international conservation action. We urge that more international and local-community-led restoration projects be initiated in the future.

  11. Polio eradication efforts in regions of geopolitical strife: the Boko Haram threat to efforts in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigna, Jean Joel R

    2016-06-01

    The World Health Organization aims to eradicate wild poliovirus worldwide by the end of 2018. Cameroon and Nigeria, neighboring countries, have been affected by the terrorist and militant activities of the Islamist sect Boko Haram. Impacted regions are mainly the far North of Cameroon and Northern Nigeria. Targets of Boko Haram aggression in these zones include violence against polio workers, disruption of polio immunization campaigns, with consequent reduced access to health care and immunization. In addition to this significant problem, Northern Nigeria has historically seen rejection of polio virus vaccine initiatives. It remains to know how health systems can continue operations against polio in areas where Boko Haram operates. If appropriate measures are not urgently taken, it will be not possible to meet the 2018 goal of polio virus eradication. The response should include specialized immunization activities in conflict zones, will engagement of leaders. Countries should also explore immunization activities by soldiers and military personnel.

  12. The New World screw-worm as a pest in the Caribbean and plans for its eradication from Jamaica and the other infested Caribbean islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, George H.; Wendell Snow, J.; Vargas Teran, Moises

    2000-01-01

    The screw-worm, Cochliomyia hominivorax Coquerel (NWS), was eradicated from the Caribbean island of Curacao in 1964 (Baumhover et al. 1955). This programme was considered as a test of the SIT principle. In 1959, the pest was eradicated from Florida with the concept fully established as a sound and novel entomological principle (Baumhover 1966). In 1962, a similar programme was initiated in the southeastern United States with a barrier established along the Mexican-US Border (Bushland 1975). In 1975, the pest was eradicated from the island of Puerto Rico, the US and the British Virgin Islands (Williams et al. 1977). In 1981, the pest was totally eradicated from the United States and in 1986 from all of Mexico. It has since been eradicated from Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador and Nicaragua. The eventual goal of the programme is to eradicate the pest from Costa Rica and Panama down to the Derail Gap where a sterile fly barrier will be maintained. In the Caribbean, an estimated 86% of the land mass is considered infested by the New World screw-worm. Jamaica, Hispaniola, Cuba, Trinidad and Tobago are the countries known to be infested. Despite this fact, no comprehensive plans have ever been made for its eradication from these countries which together have a total livestock population of well over 16 million (Table 1). However, based on the great success of the programme elsewhere and recent interest shown by various international organisations and governments in countries which are infested, the situation is changing rapidly. Currently, the country which is most prepared for an eradication programme is Jamaica where government officials have long shown an interest in eradicating the pest. For example, in 1959, a group of Jamaican livestock owners visited officials associated with the Florida eradication programme. Since this date, serious consideration has been given and several attempts made by Jamaica to implement an eradication programme but without success

  13. Hydrokinesitherapy program using the Halliwick method on strength endurance and flexibility in a person with poliomyelitis sequelae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa Martínez, Paulina Yesica; Hall Lopez, Javier Arturo; Mateos Valenzuela, Adriana Griselda

    2014-09-12

    This case study attempts to determine the effect of a hydrokinesitherapy program by means of the Halliwick method on physical fitness in a female aged 35 years with poliomyelitis sequelae. The intervention followed sixteen weeks of hydrokinesitherapy during 70 minutes, five times a week, where we carried out exercises from the Halliwick method. There was an assessment both before and after the application. Strength endurance and flexibility were determined according to a senior fitness test protocol. The results showed positive improvements when carrying out the exercises from the Halliwick method and the percentage change (Δ%) of strength endurance increase 361.5% in the right arm and 300% in the left arm. Flexibility increased 2 cm in the right shoulder and 10 cm in the left shoulder. In conclusion the subject was able to improve the performance of Halliwick exercises while showing an increase in strength endurance and flexibility. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  14. Eradication of HIV and Cure of AIDS, Now and How?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jielin; Crumpacker, Clyde

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the importance of eradication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and cure of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). However, a pivotal point that the patient immunity controls HIV reactivation after highly active anti-retroviral therapy [HAART or combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART)] remains less well addressed. In spite of the fact that both innate and adaptive immunities are indispensable and numerous cells participate in the anti-HIV immunity, memory CD4 T-cells are indisputably the key cells organizing all immune actions against HIV while being the targets of HIV. Here we present a view and multidisciplinary approaches to HIV/AIDS eradication and cure. We aim at memory CD4 T-cells, utilizing the stem cell properties of these cells to reprogram an anti-HIV memory repertoire to eliminate the viral reservoir, toward achieving an AIDS-free world. PMID:24151495

  15. Eradication of HIV and Cure of AIDS, Now and How?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Lin eZhang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have highlighted the importance of eradication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and cure of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. However, a pivotal point that the patient immunity controls HIV reactivation after highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART, or combination anti-retroviral therapy, cART remains less well addressed. In spite of the fact that both innate and adaptive immunities are indispensable and numerous cells participate in the anti-HIV immunity, memory CD4 T-cells are indisputably the key cells organizing all immune actions against HIV while being the targets of HIV. Here we present a view and multidisciplinary approaches to HIV/AIDS eradication and cure. We aim at memory CD4 T-cells, utilizing the stem cell properties of these cells to reprogram an anti-HIV memory repertoire to eliminate the viral reservoir, toward achieving an AIDS-free world.

  16. Logistics of Guinea worm disease eradication in South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alexander H; Becknell, Steven; Withers, P Craig; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Hopkins, Donald R; Stobbelaar, David; Makoy, Samuel Yibi

    2014-03-01

    From 2006 to 2012, the South Sudan Guinea Worm Eradication Program reduced new Guinea worm disease (dracunculiasis) cases by over 90%, despite substantial programmatic challenges. Program logistics have played a key role in program achievements to date. The program uses disease surveillance and program performance data and integrated technical-logistical staffing to maintain flexible and effective logistical support for active community-based surveillance and intervention delivery in thousands of remote communities. Lessons learned from logistical design and management can resonate across similar complex surveillance and public health intervention delivery programs, such as mass drug administration for the control of neglected tropical diseases and other disease eradication programs. Logistical challenges in various public health scenarios and the pivotal contribution of logistics to Guinea worm case reductions in South Sudan underscore the need for additional inquiry into the role of logistics in public health programming in low-income countries.

  17. Macroeconomics, (Adult) Education, and Poverty Eradication in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhamo, Senia; Nhamo, Godwell

    2006-05-01

    The Millennium Summit held in New York in September 2000 outlined the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The first of these involves the eradication of extreme poverty and hunger, setting two targets: halving by 2015 the percentage of the world's populace in 1990 with income less than US-1 a day (i.e., cutting this percentage from 27.9 to 14%); and halving the share of people who suffer from hunger. As for education, the MDGs seek to ensure that all children can complete primary schooling by 2015. Drawing on examples from selected southern African countries, the present study examines the need to strengthen economic support for (adult) education as an instrument of poverty eradication. It argues that human capital is one of the fundamental determinants of economic growth, and that this economic resource is essentially determined in both qualitative and quantitative regards by education.

  18. Protective, curative and eradicative activities of fungicides against grapevine rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francislene Angelotti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The protective, eradicative and curative activities of the fungicides azoxystrobin, tebuconazole, pyraclostrobin+metiram, and ciproconazole against grapevine rust, were determined in greenhouse. To evaluate the protective activity, leaves of potted ´Niagara´ (Vitis labrusca vines were artificially inoculated with an urediniospore suspension of Phakopsora euvitis four, eight or forteen days after fungicidal spray; and to evaluate the curative and eradicative activities, leaves were sprayed with fungicides two, four or eight days after inoculation. Disease severity was assessed 14 days after each inoculation. All tested fungicides present excellent preventive activity against grapevine rust; however, tebuconazole and ciproconazole provide better curative activity than azoxystrobin and pyraclostrobin+metiram. It was observed also that all tested fungicides significantly reduced the germination of urediniospore produced on sprayed leaves.

  19. Logistics of Guinea Worm Disease Eradication in South Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alexander H.; Becknell, Steven; Withers, P. Craig; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Hopkins, Donald R.; Stobbelaar, David; Makoy, Samuel Yibi

    2014-01-01

    From 2006 to 2012, the South Sudan Guinea Worm Eradication Program reduced new Guinea worm disease (dracunculiasis) cases by over 90%, despite substantial programmatic challenges. Program logistics have played a key role in program achievements to date. The program uses disease surveillance and program performance data and integrated technical–logistical staffing to maintain flexible and effective logistical support for active community-based surveillance and intervention delivery in thousands of remote communities. Lessons learned from logistical design and management can resonate across similar complex surveillance and public health intervention delivery programs, such as mass drug administration for the control of neglected tropical diseases and other disease eradication programs. Logistical challenges in various public health scenarios and the pivotal contribution of logistics to Guinea worm case reductions in South Sudan underscore the need for additional inquiry into the role of logistics in public health programming in low-income countries. PMID:24445199

  20. The influence of a powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis on walking in poliomyelitis subjects: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arazpour, Mokhtar; Moradi, Alireza; Samadian, Mohammad; Bahramizadeh, Mahmood; Joghtaei, Mahmoud; Ahmadi Bani, Monireh; Hutchins, Stephen W; Mardani, Mohammad A

    2016-06-01

    Traditionally, the anatomical knee joint is locked in extension when walking with a conventional knee-ankle-foot orthosis. A powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis was developed to provide restriction of knee flexion during stance phase and active flexion and extension of the knee during swing phase of gait. The purpose of this study was to determine differences of the powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis compared to a locked knee-ankle-foot orthosis in kinematic data and temporospatial parameters during ambulation. Quasi-experimental design. Subjects with poliomyelitis (n = 7) volunteered for this study and undertook gait analysis with both the powered and the conventional knee-ankle-foot orthoses. Three trials per orthosis were collected while each subject walked along a 6-m walkway using a calibrated six-camera three-dimensional video-based motion analysis system. Walking with the powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis resulted in a significant reduction in both walking speed and step length (both 18%), but a significant increase in stance phase percentage compared to walking with the conventional knee-ankle-foot orthosis. Cadence was not significantly different between the two test conditions (p = 0.751). There was significantly higher knee flexion during swing phase and increased hip hiking when using the powered orthosis. The new powered orthosis permitted improved knee joint kinematic for knee-ankle-foot orthosis users while providing knee support in stance and active knee motion in swing in the gait cycle. Therefore, the new powered orthosis provided more natural knee flexion during swing for orthosis users compared to the locked knee-ankle-foot orthosis. This orthosis has the potential to improve knee joint kinematics and gait pattern in poliomyelitis subjects during walking activities. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2015.

  1. Quagga and Zebra Mussel Eradication and Control Tactics

    OpenAIRE

    Culver, Carolynn; Lahr, Heather; Johnson, Leigh; Cassell, Jodi

    2013-01-01

    Aquatic invasive species (AIS)continue to threaten coastal and marine habitats in California. The goal of this project is to conduct research and develop outreach materials that help agencies, groups and individuals prevent, eradication and control AIS. Current objectives include: 1) investigate recruitment dynamics of quagga mussels in southern California to provide baseline informaiton on infestations in various locations, inform monitoring efforts and to identify factors influencing the su...

  2. Eradicating tsetse from the Southern Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Farming activities in Ethiopia, as in much of sub-Saharan Africa, are restricted by the presence of tsetse flies (Glossina spp.). These carry the livestock and human disease, trypanosomosis, which severely affects agricultural production and human well-being. In collaboration with the Ethiopian authorities, the International Atomic Energy Agency is sponsoring a Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) programme to eradicate tsetse from the Southern Rift Valley of Ethiopia. (IAEA)

  3. Reinforcement Tool of Whistleblowing to Eradicate Fraud in Public Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basri Siti Aisyah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Whistleblowing is an internal control system that be a way to reduce or eradicate fraud. This paper focuses on investigating the reasons for whistleblowing is not a preferred method to eradicate fraud. This paper starts with defining the term “whistleblowing”. In its simplest form, whistleblowing involves the act of reporting improper conduct within an organisation to internal or external parties. This paper explains the issues and effects concerning whistleblowing. One of the issues is the violation of public trust. Lastly, this paper will describe the reasons for resistance of people to blow the whistle. Among the reasons is the fear of reprisal. This is a concept paper and it aims to conduct interview session with the Head for every local authority in Melaka. The findings of this paper can be used by the Government to create a new model related to whistleblowing to eradicate fraud in public sector. The Government could use this paper as the support to enhance the achievement of National Key Result Areas (NKRAs Against Corruption.

  4. Impact of screwworm eradication programmes using the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas-Teran, M.; Hofmann, H.C.; Tweddle, N.E.

    2005-01-01

    The use of the sterile insect technique (SIT) in New World screwworm Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) eradication programmes has been successfully demonstrated. As a result of a 45-year area-wide campaign, suppression and eradication have been achieved in the USA, Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama north of the Canal, some Caribbean Islands, and the outbreak in Libya, North Africa. The humans, livestock, and wildlife in these countries are now free of this dangerous pest. It has been estimated that the annual producer benefits are: USA - USD 796 million, Mexico - USD 292 million, and Central America - USD 77.9 million. In Libya, the estimated benefit/cost ratio was 5:1 in the infested zone, and 10:1 in the whole country. If the New World screwworm were eradicated in South America, it has been estimated that each year USD 3592 million could be saved. Small field trials have confirmed that the SIT would be effective for the area-wide control of the Old World screwworm Chrysomya bezziana (Villeneuve). (author)

  5. Helicobacter pylori eradication: sequential therapy and Lactobacillus reuteri supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efrati, Cesare; Nicolini, Giorgia; Cannaviello, Claudio; O'Sed, Nicole Piazza; Valabrega, Stefano

    2012-11-21

    To evaluate the role of sequential therapy and Lactobacillus reuteri (L. reuteri) supplementation, in the eradication treatment of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). H. pylori infection was diagnosed in 90 adult dyspeptic patients. Patients were excluded if previously treated for H. pylori infection or if they were taking a proton pump inhibitor (PPI), H2-receptor antagonist or antibiotics. Patients were assigned to receive one of the following therapies: (1) 7-d triple therapy (PPI plus clarithromycin and amoxicillin or metronidazole) plus L. reuteri supplementation during antibiotic treatment; (2) 7-d triple therapy plus L. reuteri supplementation after antibiotic treatment; (3) sequential regimen (5-d PPI plus amoxicillin therapy followed by a 5-d PPI, clarithromycin and tinidazole) plus L. reuteri supplementation during antibiotic treatment; and (4) sequential regimen plus L. reuteri supplementation after antibiotic treatment. Successful eradication therapy was defined as a negative urea breath test at least 4 wk following treatment. Ninety adult dyspeptic patients were enrolled, and 83 (30 male, 53 female; mean age 57 ± 13 years) completed the study. Nineteen patients were administered a 7-d triple treatment: 11 with L. reuteri supplementation during and 8 after therapy. Sixty-four patients were administered a sequential regimen: 32 with L. reuteri supplementation during and 32 after therapy. The eradication rate was significantly higher in the sequential group compared with the 7-d triple regimen (88% vs 63%, P = 0.01). No difference was found between two types of PPI. No difference in eradication rates was observed between patients submitted to L. reuteri supplementation during or after antibiotic treatment. Compliance with therapy was excellent in all patients. No difference in adverse effects was observed between the different antibiotic treatments and between patients submitted to L. reuteri supplementation during and after antibiotic treatment. There was

  6. Long-term socio-economic consequences and health care costs of poliomyelitis: a historical cohort study involving 3606 polio patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Nete Munk; Kay, Lise; Wanscher, Benedikte; Ibsen, Rikke; Kjellberg, Jakob; Jennum, Poul

    2016-06-01

    Worldwide 10-20 million individuals are living with disabilities after acute poliomyelitis. However, very little is known about the socio-economic consequences and health care costs of poliomyelitis. We carried out a historical register-based study including 3606 individuals hospitalised for poliomyelitis in Copenhagen, Denmark 1940-1954, and 13,795 age and gender-matched Danes. Participants were followed from 1980 until 2012, and family, socio-economic conditions and health care costs were evaluated in different age groups using chi-squared tests, boot-strapped t tests or hazard ratios (HR) calculated in Cox-regression models. The analyses were performed separately for paralytic and non-paralytic polio survivors and their controls, respectively. Compared with controls a higher percentage of paralytic polio survivors remained childless, whereas no difference was observed for non-paralytic polio survivors. The educational level among paralytic as well as non-paralytic polio survivors was higher than that among their controls, employment rate at the ages of 40, 50 and 60 years was slightly lower, whereas total income in the age intervals of 31-40, 41-50 and 51-60 years were similar to controls. Paralytic and non-paralytic polio survivors had a 2.5 [HR = 2.52 (95 % confidence interval (CI); 2.29-2.77)] and 1.4 [HR = 1.35 (95 % CI; 1.23-1.49)]-fold higher risk, respectively, of receiving disability pension compared with controls. Personal health care costs were considerably higher in all age groups in both groups of polio survivors. Individuals with a history of poliomyelitis are well educated, have a slightly lower employment rate, an income similar to controls, but a considerably higher cost in the health care system.

  7. Vaccine-associated paralytic Poliomyelitis: a case report of domiciliary transmission Poliomielite associada à vacina: descrição de caso por transmissão domiciliar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Paz

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Poliomyelitis associated with live strain vaccine is defined as the paralytic form of the acute anterior poliomyelitis related to the vaccine strain. Since these strains behave similarly to the wild-type virus, we can differentiate, epidemiologically, two types of vaccine-associated poliomyelitis: cases in which the patient was vaccinated and cases in which the patient had had contact with vaccinated individuals. We herein present the case of an unvaccinated child, with a clinical picture of an acute anterior poliomyelitis associated with the live strain vaccine, whose brother received the Sabin vaccine 20 days before the onset of the symptoms. Vaccine strain of the type 3 poliovirus was isolated in fecal culture and a presented mutation in nucleotide 472 (C®U in the 5' non-coding region, which is strongly related to the higher strain virulence.A poliomielite associada à vacina oral é definida como a forma paralítica da poliomielite anterior aguda decorrente da cepa vacinal. Uma vez que o comportamento da cepa vacinal é semelhante ao do vírus selvagem, epidemiologicamente podemos distinguir dois tipos de poliomielite associada à vacina, os casos em que o paciente foi vacinado e os casos em que o paciente teve contato com pessoas que receberam a vacina. Apresentamos o caso de um lactente não vacinado, que apresentou quadro de poliomielite anterior aguda associada à vacina oral, cujo irmão havia recebido a vacina Sabin 20 dias antes do início do quadro clínico. Na cultura de fezes do paciente foi isolado o poliovírus tipo 3, cepa vacinal, que apresentava mutação do nucleotídeo 472 (C®U na região 5' não codificadora, a qual está significativamente relacionada com a maior virulência da cepa.

  8. Evaluation of a novel commercial quaternary ammonium compound for eradication of Mycobacteria, HCV and HBV in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkholy, Yasmine Samy; Hegab, Asmaa Sayed; Ismail, Dalia Kadry; Hassan, Reem Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopes are a common source of outbreaks of healthcare-associated infections. It is therefore important to identify high-level disinfectants capable of eliminating or killing all vegetative bacteria, mycobacteria, and viruses. Aldehydebased disinfectants are most commonly used in clinical practice but resistance has recently been detected and side effects associated with these disinfectants are well documented. In this study, we evaluated Virusolve+® EDS, a novel quaternary ammonium compound formulation supplied by Amity international, against Mycobacterium bovis (ATCC-27289), hepatitis C virus (HCV)-positive serum and hepatitis B surface antigen-positive serum. We also compared its efficacy against Cidex® (glutaraldehyde 2%), an aldehyde-based disinfectant. M. bovis showed no growth after 10 weeks with either Virusolve+® or Cidex®. Virusolve+® achieved a 10(4)- fold reduction in the initial 10(6) HCV load under clean conditions (without red blood cells) for 20 min, whereas Cidex® achieved this reduction under clean and dirty conditions (without and with red blood cells, respectively) after both 10 and 20 min. Both Virusolve+® and Cidex® were able to eradicate hepatitis B virus (HBV) infectivity under clean conditions after 10 and 20 min, whereas under dirty conditions they were only able to eradicate virus infectivity after 20 min. Virusolve+® EDS when compared with Cidex® showed equal mycobactericidal activity completely eradicating M. bovis. However, both showed comparable virucidal activity against HBV, which was more effective under clean conditions, emphasizing the importance of the cleaning step in endoscope reprocessing. Cidex® was more effective at eradicating HCV under dirty conditions after a short contact time.

  9. Eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with duodenal ulcer and non-ulcer dyspepsia and analysis of one-year reinfection rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Della Libera E.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (HP infection is endemic worldwide. The proposed treatment is expensive and there are few reports regarding reinfection rates in Brazil. The aim of this study was to compare the eradication rates obtained with two therapeutic options and to evaluate reinfection one year after treatment. This was a prospective randomized trial with 55 patients. Thirty-nine patients had active duodenal ulcer (DU and 16 non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD, and all tested positive for HP. Diagnosis was based on at least two positive tests: ultrarapid urease test, histology and/or culture. Patients were randomized to two groups: group OMC treated with 40 mg omeprazole (once a day, 500 mg metronidazole and 250 mg clarithromycin (twice daily for 7 days, or group NA treated with 300 mg nizatidine (once a day and 1000 mg amoxicillin (twice daily for 14 days. Those patients in whom HP was eradicated were followed up for one year to evaluate reinfection. Twenty-five patients were randomized for OMC and 30 for NA. HP eradication occurred in 20/25 patients (80% treated with OMC and 13/30 (43% treated with NA (P = 0.01. After reallocation because of initial treatment failure, the overall eradication rate was 44/51 patients (86%. After an average follow-up of one year, we evaluated 34 patients (23 with DU and 11 with NUD. Reinfection occurred in 3/34 patients (7.6%. We conclude that OMC is effective for HP eradication, and that NA should not be used. Reinfection occurs in 7.6% of the patients in the first year after eradication.

  10. The effect of eradication of Helicobacter pylori on gastric cancer prevention in healthy asymptomatic populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Suh Eun; Choi, Kee Don; Choe, Jaewon; Kim, Seon Ok; Na, Hee Kyong; Choi, Ji Young; Ahn, Ji Yong; Jung, Kee Wook; Lee, JeongHoon; Kim, Do Hoon; Chang, Hye-Sook; Song, Ho June; Lee, Gin Hyug; Jung, Hwoon-Yong

    2018-01-18

    Although many epidemiologic studies have evaluated the effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on gastric cancer, the effect is still uncertain in general populations. We evaluated whether H. pylori eradication would affect the incidence of gastric cancer in healthy asymptomatic populations. We performed a retrospective cohort study in 38 984 asymptomatic individuals, who underwent health screening examinations more than twice between 2005 and 2016. We investigated the incidence of gastric cancer among 3 groups: those without H. pylori infection (Hp-negative group), those with H. pylori eradication (eradication group), and those without H. pylori eradication (non-eradication group). The cumulative incidence of gastric cancer was 54.5 cases per 100 000 person-years during a median of 6.4 years. In a multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazard model, the cumulative incidence of gastric cancer in the non-eradication group was significantly higher than those in the Hp-negative (hazard ratio [HR] 4.12, P history of gastric cancer, and gastric atrophy. The standardized incidence ratios of the age groups above 40 and below 70 in the eradication group were all significantly decreased. Helicobacter pylori eradication reduced the cumulative incidence of gastric cancer in healthy asymptomatic population, and the effect of H. pylori eradication on the prevention of gastric cancer was observed in all ages. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. [Quadruple regimens using domestically manufactured drugs in gastritis and duodenal ulcer patients for Helicobacter pylori eradication: a perspective, multicenter, randomized controlled trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wen; Hu, Fulian; Cheng, Hong; Wang, Huahong; Yang, Yunsheng; Liang, Hao; Zhang, Shutian; Meng, Fandong; Cui, Meihua; Wei, Hong; Sheng, Jianqiu; An, Hejuan J; Jiang, Bo; Chen, Ye; Li, Yanqing; Zuo, Xiuli; Gong, Jun; Zhao, Ping; Dong, Lei; Wang, Bangmao; Jiang, Kai; Zhang, Guiying; Li, Jiansheng; Zhao, Ye; Gao, Hengjun; Yang, Li

    2016-01-26

    To observe the effects and safety of quadruple regimens including domestically manufactured rabeprazole used as first line/initial therapy for Helicobacter pylori(H.pylori) eradication in gastritis and duodenal ulcer patients, and to investigate the effects of extended use of bismuth after the quadruple therapy on eradication of H. pylori. From January to August 2013, 430 patients with chronic gastritis or duodenal ulcer who were confirmed as H. pylori positive in gastroscopy for upper gastrointestinal symptoms were enrolled from 12 centers in China for initial treatment using quadruple regimens for H. pylori eradication. The study was a prospective, multicenter, randomized double-blinded double-dummy parallel-controlled clinical trial. The 310 chronic gastritis patients were divided into 2 groups: group A1 was given quadruple regime (rabeprazole+ amoxicillin+ clarithromycin+ bismuth potassium citrate) for 10 days followed by bismuth-placebo for 21 days; group A2 was given the quadruple regimen for 10 days and then bismuth potassium citrate for 21 days. The duodenal ulcer patients were given the quadruple for 10 days, then rabeprazole for 14 days. All the patients took (13)C urea breath test to detect H. pylori 28 days after medicine withdrawal. Altogether 428 cases were enrolled and 404 completed the trial. The total eradication rate in the chronic gastritis patients was 85.1% (262/308, intention-to-treat (ITT)analysis), which was 81.7% (125/153, ITT) in the A1 group and 88.4% (137/155, ITT) in the A2 group; the eradication rate in the duodenal ulcer patients was 85.8% (103/120, ITT). No severe adverse effects were reported. The symptoms (pain, burning sensation, reflux, belching, nausea, and vomiting) improvement status was similar among A1 and A2 groups. The quadruple regimen using rabeprazole manufactured in China and administered for 10 days as first line/initial therapy in chronic gastritis and duodenal ulcer patients could achieve good H. pylori eradication

  12. Foot and Mouth Disease Eradication in Former Czechoslovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kouba

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In former Czechoslovakia after the Second World War foot and mouth disease (FMD was widely spread causing enormous losses to animal production. First reliable data were from 1952 when the FMD was reported in 5,912 villages with 316,997 diseased and 23,112 dead animals. Following a very demanding anti-FMD programme, panzootic occurrence was gradually reduced to sporadic cases and finally to the eradication in 1975. During 1952-1975 there were reported 8,898 new FMD outbreaks (villages. Anti-FMD protection measures, eradication strategy and methods are described. The eradication was achieved mainly thanks to strict measures for avoiding FMD introduction from abroad, animal population health protection including FMD vaccination of threatened populations (annual ratios vaccinations/cattle population oscillated between 0.0293 in 1955 and 1.8168 in 1973 with an average of 0.6445 and timely FMD discovery followed by a rapid response applying very strict intrafocal, perifocal and territorial measures. There were used different complex methods, including stamping-out, adjusted flexibly in time and place to epizootiological situation and influencing factors such as livestock concentration in large units. Important role was played by the strong and centralized public veterinary service with adequate infrastructure, necessary facilities such as FMD diagnostic laboratory, vaccine production and rendering plants, material and financial support. During 1957-1960, a particular epizootiological research was conducted in 70 districts, 245 villages and 459 farms affected by FMD; the results were expressed in morbidity, mortality, sanitary slaughter, disease course, outbreak duration, promptness of disease detection and response, virus types and ways of transmission.

  13. Will Synergizing Vaccination with Therapeutics Boost Measles Virus Eradication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plemper, Richard K; Hammond, Anthea L

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Measles virus is a major human pathogen responsible for approximately 150,000 measles deaths annually. The disease is vaccine preventable and eradication of the virus is considered feasible in principle. However, a herd immunity exceeding 95% is required to prevent sporadic viral outbreaks in a population. Declining disease prevalence combined with public anxieties about vaccination safety has increased vaccine refusal especially in the European region, which has resulted in measles resurgence in some areas. Areas covered Here, we discuss whether synergizing effective measles therapeutics with vaccination could contribute to solving an endgame conundrum of measles elimination by accelerating the eradication effort. Based on an anticipated use for protection of high-risk contacts of confirmed measles cases through post-exposure prophylaxis, we identify key elements of the desirable drug profile, review current disease management strategies and the state of experimental inhibitor candidates, evaluate the risk associated with viral escape from inhibition, and consider the potential of measles therapeutics for the management of persistent viral infection of the CNS. Assuming a post-measles world with waning measles immunity, we contemplate the possible impact of therapeutics on controlling the threat imposed by closely related zoonotic pathogens of the same genus as measles virus. Expert opinion Efficacious therapeutics given for post-exposure prophylaxis of high-risk social contacts of confirmed index cases may aid measles eradication by closing herd immunity gaps due to vaccine refusal or failure in populations with overall good vaccination coverage. The envisioned primarily prophylactic application of measles therapeutics to a predominantly pediatric and/or adolescent patient population dictates the drug profile; the article must be safe and efficacious, orally available, shelf-stable at ambient temperature, and amenable to cost-effective manufacture

  14. Sterile insect technique for tsetse control and eradication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The current publication contains the contributions made by scientists who participated in the fourth Co-ordinated Research Programme. A range of topics, covering both field and laboratory activities, was addressed: Eradication of Glossina palpalis palpalis (Robineau-Desvoidy) (Diptera: Glossinidae) from agropastoral land in Central Nigeria by means of the sterile insect technique; Research and development in the IAEA Laboratory at Seibersdorf in support of BICOT for the eradication of Glossina palpalis palpalis; Tsetse fly eradication in Burkina Faso and evaluation of traps and targets; Ecology of Glossina species inhabiting peridomestic agroecosystems in relation to options for tsetse fly control; Population dynamics of Glossina fuscipes fuscipes on Buvuma Island, Lake Victoria, Uganda; Population estimation from mark-recapture data: Equations for a pooled mark system and for pooled data, with applications to a study on island populations of tsetse flies in Zimbabwe; Surveillance of tsetse fly and cattle populations for trypanosomes in the BICOT area during the sterile insect technique control programme; Freeze dried blood and development of an artificial diet for blood feeding anthropods; Effects of the nutritional quality of locally obtained blood diets on the performance of Glossina palpalis palpalis fed in vitro; Mycetomes and symbionts of tsetse flies maintained on a membrane feeding system and the agents interfering with natural reproduction; Virus particles infection in laboratory reared Glossina pallidipes Austen (Diptera: Glossinidae); Influence of different nutritional sources on haemolymph composition and vitellogenesis in haematophagous arthropods; Effect of rearing diet on the injection rate in flies released for the control of tsetse populations by sterile males; Use of juvenile hormone mimics in the sterilization of tsetse flies; Studies of Glossina pallidipes and G. morsitans subspecies related to the genetic control of tsetse flies

  15. Assessment of Helicobacter pylori eradication by virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Manuel; Romero, Concepción; de Castro, Antonio; Vargas, Julio; Medina, Eduardo; Millán, Raquel; Brenes, Manuel

    2012-08-01

     A recent study conducted by Medina et al. disclosed that virgin olive oil has a bactericidal effect in vitro against Helicobacter pylori because of its contents of certain phenolic compounds with dialdehydic structures. We carried out two clinical trials to evaluate the effect of virgin olive oil on H. pylori-infected individuals.  Two different pilot studies were performed with 60 H. pylori-infected adults. In the first study, thirty subjects who tested positive for H. pylori received 30 g of washed virgin olive oil for 14 days, and after 1 month, the patients took 30 g of unwashed virgin olive oil for another 14 days. In a second study, a group of 30 subjects received 30 g of a different virgin olive oil for 14 days. Helicobacter pylori-infection status was checked by the urea breath test.  Helicobacter pylori was eradicated in 8 of 30 individuals when microorganism status was checked after 4-6 weeks from the first clinical intervention although 12 of 30 individuals did not show H. pylori infection at 24-72 hour of the last oil dose. Eradication rates were 27 and 40% by intention to treat and per protocol, respectively. Moreover, only 3 of 30 individuals were H. pylori negative after 4-6 weeks from the second clinical intervention but 5 of 30 were negative at 24-72 hour of the last oil dose. Eradication rates were 10 and 11% by intention to treat and per protocol, respectively. It must also be noted that 13 subjects withdrew from the studies because of taste and nausea drawbacks.  The administration of virgin olive oil showed moderate effectiveness in eradicating H. pylori. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings, especially with longer periods, different administration conditions, and several types of olive oils. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Eradicating the tsetse fly on Zanzibar Island: A model project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Tsetse flies infest vast areas of Africa and transmit a parasitic disease which devastates livestock herds and spreads debilitating 'sleeping sickness' amongst people. Past efforts to control the disease - Trypanosomosis - and the carrier insects have met with only limited success. But now an environmentally friendly technology called the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) may provide a lasting solution to this scourge. Working with the Tanzanian Government and Zanzibar authorities, the Department of Technical Co-operation has sponsored a 'Model Project', with technical support from the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, to eradicate the tsetse fly completely from Zanzibar Island by applying SIT. (IAEA)

  17. Sustainable implementation of microhydro to eradicate poverty in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonker Klunne, Wim

    2010-09-15

    Local, micro scale, village level hydropower plants can play an important role towards eradication of poverty in rural areas. However, despite a good understanding of the technology involved and the enormous potential that exists in Africa, relative small numbers of micro hydro projects are currently in operation in Africa. This paper does look into the current situation on the continent with respect to installed systems and projects that are being implemented. It compares different implementation models and will conclude on ingredients for implementation models that will support the sustainable operation of micro hydroplants once built.

  18. Complications and Outcomes of Complex Spine Reconstructions in Poliomyelitis-Associated Spinal Deformities: A Single Institution Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godzik, Jakub; Lenke, Lawrence G.; Holekamp, Terrence; Sides, Brenda; Kelly, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective case-series Objective Share our institutional experience with spinal reconstruction for deformity correction in patients with a history of poliomyelitis. Background Data Polio and post-polio syndrome are not uncommonly related to a paralytic spinal deformity. Limited modern data exists regarding outcomes and complications following spinal reconstruction in this population. Methods A clinical database was reviewed for patients undergoing spinal reconstruction for polio-associated spinal deformity at our institution from 1985 to 2012. Relevant demographic, medical, surgical and postoperative information were collected from medical records and analyzed. Preoperative and last follow-up SRS-22 scores were recorded. Results A total of 22 patients with polio who underwent surgical deformity correction were identified. Mean age was 49 years (Range, 12–74), and 15 patients (68%) were female. Preoperative motor deficit was present in 14/22 (64%). All patients underwent instrumented spinal fusion (Mean 13 vertebral levels, Range, 3–18). Ten (10/22, 45%) patients developed major complications, and four patients (4/22, 18%) developed new postoperative neurological deficits. Neurological monitoring yielded a 13% false negative rate. At 2-year follow-up (20/22), patients maintained an average coronal correction of 25 degrees (33%, p = 0.001) and sagittal correction of 25 degrees (34%, p = 0.003). Minimum 2-year follow-up data were available for 11/22 (50%) of patients. At an average of 72 months of follow-up (Range, 28 – 134 months), the mean SRS22 pain subscore improved from a mean of 2.75 to 3.6 (p = 0.012); self-image from 2.8 to 3.7 (p = 0.041); function from 3.1 to 3.8 (p = 0.036); satisfaction from 2.1 to 3.9 (p = 0.08); mental health from 3.7 to 4.5 (p = 0.115). Conclusion Spine reconstruction for poliomyelitis-associated deformity was associated with high complication rates (54%) and sometimes unreliable neurologic monitoring data. Despite

  19. Surgical Procedures Needed to Eradicate Infection in Knee Septic Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Omkar H; Patel, Karan A; Andersen, Clark R; Carmichael, Kelly D

    2016-01-01

    Septic arthritis of the knee is encountered on a regular basis by orthopedists and nonorthopedists. No established therapeutic algorithm exists for septic arthritis of the knee, and there is much variability in management. This study assessed the number of surgical procedures, arthroscopic or open, required to eradicate infection. The study was a retrospective analysis of 79 patients who were treated for septic knee arthritis from 1995 to 2011. Patients who were included in the study had native septic knee arthritis that had resolved with treatment consisting of irrigation and debridement, either open or arthroscopic. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the relation between the interval between onset of symptoms and index surgery and the use of arthroscopy and the need for multiple procedures. Fifty-two patients met the inclusion criteria, and 53% were male, with average follow-up of 7.2 years (range, 1-16.2 years). Arthroscopic irrigation and debridement was performed in 70% of cases. On average, successful treatment required 1.3 procedures (SD, 0.6; range, 1-4 procedures). A significant relation (P=.012) was found between time from presentation to surgery and the need for multiple procedures. With arthroscopic irrigation and debridement, most patients with septic knee arthritis require only 1 surgical procedure to eradicate infection. The need for multiple procedures increases with time from onset of symptoms to surgery. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. The Public Health Legacy of Polio Eradication in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Allen S; Haydarov, Rustam; O'Malley, Helena; Galway, Michael; Dao, Halima; Ngongo, Ngashi; Baranyikwa, Marie Therese; Naqvi, Savita; Abid, Nima S; Pandak, Carol; Edwards, Amy

    2017-07-01

    The legacy of polio in Africa goes far beyond the tragedies of millions of children with permanent paralysis. It has a positive side, which includes the many well-trained polio staff who have vaccinated children, conducted surveillance, tested stool specimens in the laboratories, engaged with communities, and taken care of polio patients. This legacy also includes support for routine immunization services and vaccine introductions and campaigns for other diseases. As polio funding declines, it is time to take stock of the resources made available with polio funding in Africa and begin to find ways to keep some of the talented staff, infrastructure, and systems in place to work on new public health challenges. The partnerships that helped support polio eradication will need to consider funding to maintain and to strengthen routine immunization services and other maternal, neonatal, and child health programs in Africa that have benefitted from the polio eradication infrastructure. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  1. The palm weevil Rhynchophorus vulneratus is eradicated from Laguna Beach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. Hoddle

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In October 2010, Rhynchophorus vulneratus, originally identified as the red palm weevil, R. ferrugineus, was discovered infesting Canary Island date palms in Laguna Beach, California. The red palm weevil has caused extensive mortality of palms in the Mediterranean, the Middle East and North Africa, and its discovery in California caused concern for the state's ornamental palm and date industries and the many palms in Southern California landscapes. A rapid, coordinated effort led to the deployment of traps baited with the weevil's aggregation pheromone, coordinated pesticide applications to privately owned palms and destruction of palms at advanced stages of infestation. Research confirmed the chemical components of the aggregation pheromone, assessed the efficacy of trapping strategies and resolved the taxonomic identity, native range and putative region of origin for the population detected in Laguna Beach. The last confirmed detection of a live R. vulneratus was Jan. 20, 2012. USDA-APHIS declared this weevil eradicated from California on Jan. 20, 2015. The estimated cost of the eradication was $1,003,646.

  2. [Non-bismuth quadruple therapy versus standard triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication: a randomized controlled study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shujun; Wang, Weihong; Chu, Yunxiang; Teng, Guigen; Hu, Fulian

    2014-03-04

    To compare the efficacies of non-bismuth quadruple therapy for 7 days versus standard triple therapy for 7 or 10 days in initial treatment of Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) . A randomized, open-labeled, controlled trial comparing non-bismuth quadruple therapy with standard triple therapy was performed at Peking University First Hospital from August 2010 to July 2012. A total of 246 patients with a diagnosis of H.pylori infection by (13)C-urea breath test and receiving no eradication therapy were randomly divided into non-bismuth quadruple therapy and standard triple therapy for 7 or 10 days. There were 110 males and 136 females with an age range of 18-75 years. Among them, 81 patients received non-bismuth quadruple therapy (esomeprazole 20 mg, amoxicillin 1 000 mg, clarithromycin 500 mg and tinidazole 500 mg given twice daily for 7 days); 82 standard triple therapy (esomeprazole 20 mg, amoxicillin 1 000 mg and clarithromycin 500 mg given twice daily) for 7 days and 83 standard triple therapy for 10 days. The efficacies were examined at Week 4 post-therapy by (13)C-urea breath test. The incidence of adverse drug reactions was recorded. Among them, 242 patients completed the follow-up. The eradication rates for non-bismuth quadruple therapy and standard triple therapy for 7 or 10 days were 91.4% (74/81), 79.3% (65/82) and 79.5% (66/83) as determined by intention-to-treat analysis (ITT). The eradication rates were 92.5% (74/80), 81.3% (65/80) and 80.5% (66/82) respectively as determined by per-protocol analysis (PP).Non-bismuth quadruple therapy was superior to standard triple therapy for 7 days (ITT analysis P = 0.029, PP analysis P = 0.035) and 10 days (ITT analysis P = 0.032, PP analysis P = 0.026). The differences for the eradication rates between standard triple therapy for 7 days and for 10 days were insignificant (ITT analysis P = 0.968, PP analysis P = 0.902): Adverse reaction rates for non-bismuth quadruple therapy (8.8%, 7/80) and standard triple therapy for

  3. Remission of histiocytic ulcerative colitis in Boxer dogs correlates with eradication of invasive intramucosal Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, C S; James, F E; Craven, M; Davies, D R; O'Hara, A J; Nicholls, P K; Dogan, B; MacDonough, S P; Simpson, K W

    2009-01-01

    Historically, histiocytic ulcerative (HUC) (or granulomatous) colitis of Boxer dogs was considered an idiopathic immune-mediated disease with a poor prognosis. Recent reports of dramatic responses to enrofloxacin and the discovery of invasive Escherichia coli within the colonic mucosa of affected Boxer dogs support an infectious etiology. Invasive E. coli is associated with colonic inflammation in Boxer dogs with HUC, and eradication of intramucosal E. coli correlates with clinical and histologic remission. Seven Boxer dogs with HUC. Prospective case series. Colonic biopsies were obtained at initial evaluation in 7 dogs, and in 5 dogs after treatment with enrofloxacin. Biopsies were evaluated by standardized histopathology, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with probes to eubacteria and E. coli. Intramucosal E. coli was present in colonic biopsies of 7/7 Boxers with HUC. Clinical response was noted in all dogs within 2 weeks of enrofloxacin (7 + or - 3.06 mg/kg q24 h, for 9.5 + or - 3.98 weeks) and was sustained in 6 dogs (median disease-free interval to date of 47 months, range 17-62). FISH was negative for E. coli in 4/5 dogs after enrofloxacin. E. coli resistant to enrofloxacin were present in the FISH-positive dog that relapsed. The correlation between clinical remission and the eradication of mucosally invasive E. coli during treatment with enrofloxacin supports the causal involvement of E. coli in the development of HUC in susceptible Boxer dogs. A poor response to enrofloxacin treatment might be due to colonization with enrofloxacin-resistant E. coli.

  4. Aerial application of pheromones for mating disruption of an invasive moth as a potential eradication tool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eckehard G Brockerhoff

    Full Text Available Biological invasions can cause major ecological and economic impacts. During the early stages of invasions, eradication is desirable but tactics are lacking that are both effective and have minimal non-target effects. Mating disruption, which may meet these criteria, was initially chosen to respond to the incursion of light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (LBAM; Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, in California. The large size and limited accessibility of the infested area favored aerial application. Moth sex pheromone formulations for potential use in California or elsewhere were tested in a pine forest in New Zealand where LBAM is abundant. Formulations were applied by helicopter at a target rate of 40 g pheromone per ha. Trap catch before and after application was used to assess the efficacy and longevity of formulations, in comparison with plots treated with ground-applied pheromone dispensers and untreated control plots. Traps placed at different heights showed LBAM was abundant in the upper canopy of tall trees, which complicates control attempts. A wax formulation and polyethylene dispensers were most effective and provided trap shut-down near ground level for 10 weeks. Only the wax formulation was effective in the upper canopy. As the pheromone blend contained a behavioral antagonist for LBAM, 'false trail following' could be ruled out as a mechanism explaining trap shutdown. Therefore, 'sensory impairment' and 'masking of females' are the main modes of operation. Mating disruption enhances Allee effects which contribute to negative growth of small populations and, therefore, it is highly suitable for area-wide control and eradication of biological invaders.

  5. Poliomyelitis sequels in France and the clinical and social needs of survivors: a retrospective study of 200 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelnik, A P; Andriantsifanetra, C; Bradai, N; Sportouch, P; Beaudreuil, J; Dizien, O

    2013-10-01

    Polio survivors in France are estimated at 50,000. This study aimed at describing their needs from their clinical and vocational conditions. A retrospective study of our physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM) consultation activity. One hundred and fifteen women/85 men, with a mean age of 51years±14.3 (17 to 82). Paralysis involved only one lower limb in 108 patients, the two lower limbs in 56 patients and only one upper limb in 4. At the time of the first consultation 137 patients had experienced functional worsening. The complaints were pain (105 subjects), fatigue (59) and new paresis (58). Only 25% had retired. Post-polio syndrome criteria were present in 46 subjects (23%). Patients who had contracted poliomyelitis in France (56%) differed from the other subjects with regard to age (58.4 versus 41.5), professional status and frequency of PPS (30.9% versus 12.6%). These polio survivors were not particularly aged and they had often experienced functional worsening. The evolution of their disease shall represent a public health issue over the decades to come. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Post-poliomyelitis syndrome: case report Síndrome pós-polio: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Orsini Neves

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The post-polio syndrome (PPS is an entity characterized for an episode of muscular weakness and/or abnormal muscular fatigue in individuals that had presented acute polio years before. We report the case of PPS in a patient, 40 years, that thirty-five years after had had paralytic poliomyelitis, developed new symptoms of fatigue, muscular atrophy, dyspnea, difficulties in deambulation and muscular and joint pain. The electromyographic findings revealed injuried neurons of the anterior horn of the marrow and reinnervation after muscular tests.A síndrome pós-polio (SPP é entidade caracterizada por um episódio de fraqueza muscular e/ou fadiga muscular anormal em indivíduos que apresentaram poliomielite aguda anos antes. Relatamos o caso de SPP em um paciente, 40 anos, que trinta e cinco anos após haver tido poliomielite paralítica, desenvolveu novos sintomas de fadiga, atrofia muscular, dispnéia, dificuldades na deambulação e dores articulares e musculares. Os achados eletromiográficos revelaram acometimento dos neurônios da ponta anterior da medula e reinervação após a realização de testes musculares.

  7. RE-VACCINATION OF CHILDREN OVER 1,5 YEARS OLD AGAINST DIPHTHERIA, PERTUSSIS, TETANUS, POLIOMYELITIS AND HEMOPHILIC INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Kharit

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the observation of 200 children under the age 18–42 months (64 healthy children and 136 patients with allergic symptoms, residual lesions of CNS, frequently ailing children, and having reactions of previous vaccination in medical history who were re-vaccinated with vaccine Pentaxim. It was shown that 77% of children had asymptomatic post-vaccinal period. Only 1,5% of patients showed severe reactions with fever > 38,6_С. Local reactions (not over 3–5 cm developed in 25,5% of children with allergy, lesions of CNS and frequently ailing children, their rate was significantly higher than in healthy children (7,8%. No one had post-vaccinal complications. An estimation of reactogenicity of vaccine proved its safety and suitability of administration as first re-vaccination against pertussis, diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis and one-time vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae type b in children after 1 year old in different state of health.Key words: children, vaccinations, Pentaxim, post-vaccinal period, safety.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2009;8(6:20-25

  8. Local resistance to the global eradication of polio: newspaper coverage of the 2003-2004 vaccination stoppage in northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olufowote, James Olumide

    2011-12-01

    Successful global health initiatives are executed on the recognition that globalization involves simultaneous pulls between global unification and fragmentation. This article responds to the need for more understanding of the role of fragmentation in global health initiatives through analyses of 52 northern Nigerian newspaper reports of the 2003-2004 northern Nigerian stoppage of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative. By 2009 the stoppage had resulted in an epidemic in Nigeria and polio importations in 20 previously polio-free countries. Findings pointed to beliefs in contemporary forms of Western control and abuse through global organizations (nongovernmental organizations and for-profits), understandings of the "philanthropy" of the West and global organizations as self-serving and malevolent, and doubts about the polio vaccine product.

  9. Efficacy of tailored Helicobacter pylori eradication treatment based on clarithromycin susceptibility and maintenance of acid secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Mitsushige; Uotani, Takahiro; Sahara, Shu; Ichikawa, Hitomi; Yamade, Mihoko; Sugimoto, Ken; Furuta, Takahisa

    2014-08-01

    Insufficient acid inhibition during Helicobacter pylori eradication treatment and bacterial resistance to antibiotics often causes eradication failure. Four times daily dosing (q.i.d.) of a proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) achieves potent acid inhibition, suggesting its potential usefulness as a regimen for eradicating H. pylori infection. Therefore, a tailored eradication regimen based on antibiotic susceptibility and maintenance of acid inhibition should have a high success rate. We investigated the efficacy of such treatment based on clarithromycin (CAM) susceptibility. Using 153 H. pylori-positive Japanese patients, we investigated the efficacy of tailored eradication strategy: (1) Patients infected with CAM-sensitive H. pylori were treated with a PPI (rabeprazole 10 mg q.i.d.), amoxicillin 500 mg q.i.d., and CAM 200 mg b.i.d. (n = 89), and (2) patients infected with CAM-resistant were given the same doses of rabeprazole and amoxicillin and metronidazole 250 mg b.i.d. (n = 64) for 1 week. In the tailored regimen group, the overall eradication rate was 96.7% (95% CI: 92.5-98.9%, 148/153) in the intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis and 97.4% (93.4-99.3%, 148/152) in the PP analysis. The eradication rates for the CAM- and metronidazole-based treatments were similar (95.5% and 98.4%, respectively, p = .400). The tailored treatment achieved a high eradication rate in CYP2C19 rapid metabolizers who were a resistance genotype for PPI treatment (94.3% (86.0-98.4%, 66/70)). A tailored H. pylori eradication regimen based on CAM susceptibility and maintaining acid secretion (rabeprazole 10 mg q.i.d.) is useful because it can achieve an eradication rate exceeding 95%, irrespective of eradication history, thus overcoming differences among CYP2C19 genotypes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Managing and eradicating wildlife tuberculosis in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, B; Livingstone, P

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Tuberculosis (TB) due to Mycobacterium bovis infection was first identified in brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) in New Zealand in the late 1960s. Since the early 1970s, possums in New Zealand have been controlled as part of an ongoing strategy to manage the disease in livestock. The TB management authority (TBfree New Zealand) currently implements three strategic choices for disease-related possum control: firstly TB eradication in areas selected for eradication of the disease from livestock and wildlife, secondly Free Area Protection in areas in which possums are maintained at low densities, normally along a Vector Risk Area (VRA) boundary, and thirdly Infected Herd Suppression, which includes the remaining parts of VRA where possums are targeted to minimise the infection risk to livestock. Management is primarily through a range of lethal control options. The frequency and intensity of control is driven by a requirement to reduce populations to very low levels (usually to a trap-catch index below 2%), then to hold them at or below this level for 5–10 years to ensure disease eradication.Lethal possum control is implemented using aerial- and ground-based applications, under various regulatory and operational constraints. Extensive research has been undertaken aimed at improving the efficacy and efficiency of control. Aerial applications use sodium fluoroacetate (1080) bait for controlling possums over extensive and rugged areas of forest that are difficult to access by foot. Ground-based control uses a range of toxins (primarily, a potassium cyanide-based product) and traps. In the last 5 years there has been a shift from simple possum population control to the collection of spatial data on possum presence/absence and relative density, using simple possum detection devices using global positioning system-supported data collection tools, with recovery of possum carcasses for diagnostic necropsy. Such data provide information subsequently used in

  11. The World Health Organization and global smallpox eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, S

    2008-10-01

    This article examines the multifaceted structures and complex operations of the World Health Organization and its regional offices; it also reassesses the form and the workings of the global smallpox eradication programme with which these bodies were closely linked in the 1960s and 1970s. Using the case study of South Asia, it seeks to highlight the importance of writing nuanced histories of international health campaigns through an assessment of differences between official rhetoric and practice. The article argues that the detailed examination of the implementation of policy in a variety of localities, within and across national borders, allows us to recognise the importance of the agency of field managers and workers. This analytical approach also helps us acknowledge that communities were able to influence the shape and the timing of completion of public health campaigns in myriad ways. This, in turn, can provide useful pointers for the design and management of health programmes in the contemporary world.

  12. Eradication of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia in Danish aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Skall, Helle Frank; Jensen, Britt Bang

    Aquaculture Association, Silkeborg, Denmark 4Danish Veterinary and Food Administration, Glostrup, Denmark 5Danish Veterinary and Food Administration, Vejle, Denmark Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) virus was first isolated in Denmark in 1962, when more than half of the approximately 800 Danish fish farms......Eradication of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia in Danish aquaculture Olesen N.J.1, Skall H.F.1, Jensen B.B.2, Henriksen N.H.3, Mellergård S.4, H. Korsholm H.5 1National Veterinary Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Aarhus, Denmark 2Norwegian Veterinary Institute, Oslo, Norway 3Danish...... all affected areas that the country managed to free itself totally from VHS. Molecular tracing of the origin of VHSV isolates revealed that despite strict trade regulations and ban on introduction of live salmonids into the country VHSV seemed to have crossed the boarders into Denmark in a couple...

  13. Importance of post-treatment follow-up to secure sufficient eradication therapy for Helicobacter pylori

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roug, Stine; Madsen, Lone Galmstrup

    2012-01-01

    To optimize the care for Helicobacter pylori-associated diseases, we wanted to evaluate the completeness of follow-up after H. pylori eradication therapy in a single Danish endoscopy unit. Furthermore, the eradication rates and possible clinical characteristics associated with failure...

  14. Eradication of Helicobacter pylori Is Associated with the Progression of Dementia: A Population-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-Pei Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effect of eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori on the progression of dementia in Alzheimer’s disease (AD patients with peptic ulcer. Methods. Participants with the diagnosis of AD and peptic ulcer were recruited between 2001 and 2008. We examined the association between eradication of H. pylori and the progression of AD using the multiple regression models. Medication shift from Donepezil, Rivastgmine, and Galantamine to Mematine is defined as progression of dementia according to the insurance of National Health Insurance (NHI under expert review. Results. Among the 30142 AD patients with peptic ulcers, the ratio of medication shift in AD patients with peptic ulcers is 79.95%. There were significant lower incidence comorbidities (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cerebrovascular disease, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure and hyperlipidemia in patients with H. pylori eradication as compared with no H. pylori eradication. Eradication of H. pylori was associated with a decreased risk of AD progression (odds ratio [OR] 0.35 [0.23–0.52] as compared with no H. pylori eradication, which was not modified by comorbidities. Conclusions. Eradication of H. pylori was associated with a decreased progression of dementia as compared to no eradication of H. pylori in AD patients with peptic ulcers.

  15. 78 FR 64002 - South Farallon Islands Invasive House Mouse Eradication Project; Farallon National Wildlife...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service South Farallon Islands Invasive House Mouse Eradication Project; Farallon... Environmental Impact Statement (revised DEIS) for the South Farallon Islands Invasive House Mouse Eradication... invasive house mice from the South Farallon Islands, part of the Farallon National Wildlife Refuge off the...

  16. Eradication of Phytophthora ramorum from Oregon forests: status after 6 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan Kanaskie; Ellen Goheen; Nancy Osterbauer; Mike McWilliams; Everett Hansen; Wendy Sutton

    2008-01-01

    Sudden oak death (SOD), caused by Phytophthora ramorum, was first discovered in Oregon forests in July 2001. Since then an interagency team has been working with landowners to eradicate the pathogen by cutting and burning all infected and nearby host plants. During the first two years of the eradication effort, all host vegetation within 15 to 30 m...

  17. The Tuberculin Test and its Role in the Strategic Management and Eradication of Tuberculosis in Cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Good, M.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis explores the necessity for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) eradication; considers the use the tuberculin test as a tool in bTB eradication and explores the need to select the optimal test methodology, to evaluate outcomes of existing procedures and to progressively modify aspects of a bTB

  18. Peste des Petits Ruminants, the next eradicated animal disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albina, Emmanuel; Kwiatek, Olivier; Minet, Cécile; Lancelot, Renaud; Servan de Almeida, Renata; Libeau, Geneviève

    2013-07-26

    Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) is a widespread viral disease caused by a Morbillivirus (Paramyxoviridae). There is a single serotype of PPR virus, but four distinct genetic lineages. Morbidity and mortality are high when occurring in naive sheep and goats populations. Cattle and African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) are asymptomatically infected. Other wild ruminants and camels may express clinical signs and mortality. PPR has recently spread in southern and northern Africa, and in central and far-east Asia. More than one billion sheep and goats worldwide are at risk. PPR is also present in Europe through western Turkey. Because of its clinical incidence and the restrictions on animal movements, PPR is a disease of major economic importance. A live attenuated vaccine was developed in the 1980s, and has been widely used in sheep and goats. Current researches aim (i) to make it more thermotolerant for use in countries with limited cold chain, and (ii) to add a DIVA mark to shorten and reduce the cost of final eradication. Rinderpest virus-another Morbillivirus-was the first animal virus to be eradicated from Earth. PPRV has been proposed as the next candidate. Considering its wide distribution and its multiple target host species which have an intense mobility, it will be a long process that cannot exclusively rely on mass vaccination. PPR specific epidemiological features and socio-economic considerations will also have to be taken into account, and sustained international, coordinated, and funded strategy based on a regional approach of PPR control will be the guarantee toward success. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Optimizing Confiscation of Assets in Accelerating the Eradication of Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elwi Danil

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, corruption is still the most and biggest problem facing by Indonesian, due to its impacts on the nation. It caused huge loss to the state finance and even to the democratic life in this country. Various efforts have been resorted to fight corruption, but the results are unfruitful. Until recently, Indonesia is still the third most corrupt country in Asia according to the survey of Transparency International Indonesia (TII in 2015, with the Corruption Perceptions Index of 36 points. The fight in eradicating corruption cannot be separated from the effort to deter the criminals through severe punishment. However, ICW’s most recent data shows otherwise. During the first half of 2014, there were 261 accused of corruption, with 242 of them were convicted guilty by the Corruption Courts. Among them, 193 were sentenced lenient (between 1-4 years imprisonment, 44 moderate (4-10 years, and only 4 with over 10 years imprisonment. The average length of sentence is therefore 2,9 years. The lenient sentence can also be found in criminal restitution. Only in 87 of the total cases state compensation is imposed, amounting 87.04 billion rupiahs in total. The amount is only 0.022% of the total financial loss of 3.863 trillion rupiahs. The weak penalty triggered then the idea of impoverishing corruptors as a strategic step to accelerate the eradication of corruption while restoring the loss to the state. In contrast to the criminal restitution, which is restricted only to the state loss caused by the perpetrators, criminal confiscation of assets has no limit in amount.

  20. Environmental surveillance of poliovirus and non-polio enterovirus in urban sewage in Dakar, Senegal (2007-2013)

    OpenAIRE

    Ndiaye, Abdou Kader; Diop, Pape Amadou Mbathio; Diop, Ousmane Madiagne

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Global poliomyelitis eradication initiative relies on (i) laboratory based surveillance of acute flaccid surveillance (AFP) to monitor the circulation of wild poliovirus in a population, and (ii) vaccination to prevent its diffusion. However, as poliovirus can survive in the environment namely in sewage, environmental surveillance (ES) is of growing importance as the eradication target is close. This study aimed to assess polioviruses and non polio enteroviruses circulation in se...

  1. Early Development of Refl ux Esophagitis after Successful Helicobacter Pylori Eradication in Superfi cial Gastritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H H Jeon

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between gastroesophageal refl ux disease (GERD and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori eradication is still debated. Recently, we had a patient of GERD who had developed it shortly after H. pylori eradication therapy. A 72-year-old man was diagnosed by endoscopy as suffering from severe superfi cial gastritis in the stomach body. A rapid urease test showed H. pylori infection. He was then started on proton pump inhibitor (PPI based therapy for two weeks eradicating H.pylori. After completion of H. pylori eradication, he complained of a heart-burn sensation. Follow-up endoscopy showed refl ux esophagitis, of grade B according to the Los Angeles classifi cation. Since the patient had developed GERD after completion of the triple therapy, their suggests that H. pylori eradication must have triggered the development of de novo GERD after a short period of time. Keywords: GERD, Helicobacter pylori, PPI.

  2. A fatal neuromuscular disease in an adult patient after poliomyelitis in early childhood: consideration of the pathology of post-polio syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaka, Takayuki; Kuroha, Yasuko; Tada, Mari; Hasegawa, Arika; Tani, Takashi; Matsubara, Nae; Koike, Ryoko; Toyoshima, Yasuko; Takahashi, Hitoshi

    2013-02-01

    Post-polio syndrome (PPS) characterized by new neuromuscular problems can appear many years after acute poliomyelitis in polio survivors. We report a 77-year-old man with antecedent poliomyelitis who newly developed neuromuscular disease with a clinical course of 27 years, the final 10 years of which were characterized by apparent progression, thus raising doubt as to the clinical diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) following PPS. Pathologically, plaque-like, old poliomyelitis lesions were found almost exclusively in the lumbosacral cord, showing complete neuronal loss and glial scars in the anterior horns. Although less severe, neuronal loss and gliosis were also evident outside the old lesions, including the intermediate zone. Moreover, symmetrical degeneration of the corticospinal tracts, as evidenced by CD68 immunostaining, was a feature of the white matter of the lower spinal cord. In the motor cortex, loss of Betz cells was also confirmed. Synaptophysin immunostaining of the lumbosacral cord also revealed decreased expression outside the old lesions, excluding the posterior horn. Interestingly, decreased expression of synaptophysin was also evident in the cervical anterior horns, where no old lesions were observed. No Bunina bodies, TDP-43 inclusions, or Golgi fragmentation were found. Neurogenic atrophy was evident in the iliopsoas and scalenus muscles, and inclusion body myositis-like changes were also observed in these muscles and the tongue. Was it possible to have diagnosed this patient as having ALS? We consider that the features in this case may have represented the pathology of long-standing and/or fatal PPS itself, and not ALS. © 2012 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

  3. The effect of footwear adapted with a multi-curved rocker sole in conjunction with knee-ankle-foot orthoses on walking in poliomyelitis subjects: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojaver, Ali; Arazpour, Mokhtar; Aminian, Gholamreza; Ahmadi Bani, Monireh; Bahramizadeh, Mahmood; Sharifi, Guive; Sherafatvaziri, Arash

    2017-10-01

    Knee-ankle-foot orthoses (KAFOs) are used by people with poliomyelitis to ambulate. Whist advances in orthotic knee joint designs for use in KAFOs such the provision of stance control capability have proven efficacy, little attention has been paid to shoe adaptations which may also improve gait. The aim of this study was to evaluate the alteration to the kinematics and temporal-spatial parameters of gait caused by the use of heel-to-toe rocker-soled footwear when ambulating with KAFOs. Nine adults with a history of poliomyelitis who routinely wore KAFOs participated in the study. A heel-to-toe rocker sole was added to footwear and worn on the affected side. A three-dimensional motion capture system was used to quantify the resulting alteration to specific gait parameters. Maximum hip joint extension was significantly increased (p = 0.011), and hip abduction and adduction were both significantly reduced (p = 0.011 and p = 0.007, respectively) when walking with the rocker sole. A significant increase in stride length (p = 0.035) was demonstrated but there were no significant increases in either walking speed or cadence. A heel-to-toe rocker sole adaptation may be useful for walking in patients with poliomyelitis who use KAFOs. Implications for Rehabilitation The poor functionality and difficulty in walking when using an orthotic device such as a KAFO which keeps the knee locked during ambulation, plus the significant energy required to walk, are complications of orthoses using. Little evidence exists regarding the biomechanical effect of walking with a KAFO incorporating fixed knee joints, in conjunction with rocker-soled footwear. The main aim of walking with a heel-to-toe rocker sole is to facilitate forward progression of the tibia when used with an AFO or KAFO or to provide easier walking for patients who have undergone an ankle arthrodesis. In this study, a rocker sole profile adaptation produced no significant alteration to hip joint flexion

  4. In vitro activity of alpha-mangostin in killing and eradicating Staphylococcus epidermidis RP62A biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaranjani, Murugesan; Prakash, Manivannan; Gowrishankar, Shanmugaraj; Rathna, Janarthanam; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha; Ravi, Arumugam Veera

    2017-04-01

    Alpha-mangostin (α-MG) has been reported to be an effective antibacterial agent against planktonic cells of many Gram-positive bacteria. However, the antibiofilm potency of α-MG remains unexplored till date. In this study, the antibiofilm and mature biofilm eradication ability of α-MG against Staphylococcus epidermidis RP62A (ATCC 35984) biofilms were evaluated. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of α-MG against S. epidermidis RP62A were found to be 1.25 and 5 μg/mL, respectively. α-MG exhibited a phenomenal concentration dependent rapid bactericidal activity (>4-log reduction within 5 min). In a multi-passage resistance analysis using S. epidermidis, no development of resistance to α-MG as well as antibiotics was observed in its habituation. α-MG at its 1/2 MIC effectively inhibited the initial biofilm formation of S. epidermidis, which was further confirmed through scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis that portrayed a lucid reduction in the aggregation and the spread of biofilm. The crystal violet staining and viable cell quantification results confirmed the eradication of preformed immature and mature biofilms of S. epidermidis by α-MG in a concentration dependent manner. Besides, the biofilm eradication ability was also confirmed through SEM and live/dead BacLight staining using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Thus, the present study exemplifies that α-MG could plausibly assist to eliminate biofilm infections associated with multidrug-resistance staphylococci.

  5. Immunogenicity and safety of one dose of diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis and poliomyelitis vaccine (Repevax®) followed by two doses of diphtheria, tetanus and poliomyelitis vaccine (Revaxis®) in adults aged ≥ 40 years not receiving a diphtheria- and tetanus-containing vaccination in the last 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominicus, Rolf; Galtier, Florence; Richard, Patrick; Baudin, Martine

    2014-06-30

    The immunogenicity and safety of one dose of Tdap-IPV (tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis and inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine) and two doses of Td-IPV (tetanus, diphtheria and inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine) were assessed in adults who had not received a diphtheria- and tetanus-containing vaccine in the last 20 years. This open-label, multicentre study was conducted in adults aged ≥ 40 years with no diphtheria- and tetanus-containing vaccine in the last 20 years. Participants received one dose of Tdap-IPV followed by two doses of Td-IPV (0, 1, 6 month schedule). Primary immunogenicity objectives: to demonstrate acceptable seroprotection rates (percentage of participants with antibody titre above threshold) post-dose 3 for diphtheria (≥ 0.1IU/mL by seroneutralization assay [SNA]); tetanus (≥ 0.1IU/mL by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA]); and poliomyelitis (≥ 8 1/dil by SNA); and to evaluate the percentage of participants with an antibody concentration ≥ 5EU/mL (by ELISA) for pertussis antigens post-dose 1. Seroprotection rates were acceptable if the lower limit of the 95% confidence interval (CI) was >95%. Percentage of participants with basic clinical immunity against diphtheria (≥ 0.01IU/mL) was also assessed. Safety (adverse events [AEs] and serious AEs) was assessed after each dose. Overall, 336 participants were included (mean age: 60.2 years). Post-dose 3 seroprotection rates were: diphtheria, 94.6% (CI 91.5-96.8); tetanus and poliomyelitis, 100% (CI: 98.8-100). Percentage of participants with an antibody titre ≥ 5EU/mL against pertussis antigens was ≥ 95.8% for all five pertussis components. Basic clinical immunity against diphtheria was achieved in 100% (CI: 98.8-100) of participants. AEs were reported more frequently following vaccination with Tdap-IPV (post-dose 1: 65.3%) than with Td-IPV (post-dose 2: 48.3%; post-dose 3: 50.3%). This study highlights the benefits of using Tdap-IPV followed by two doses of Td-IPV in an

  6. Experiences of attitudes in Sierra Leone from the perspective of people with poliomyelitis and amputations using orthotics and prosthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andregård, Emmelie; Magnusson, Lina

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe experiences of attitudes in the society of Sierra Leone from the perspective of individuals with poliomyelitis and people with amputations using orthotic or prosthetic devices. Individual interviews were conducted using open-ended questions. Twelve participants with amputations or polio were included. Content analysis was applied to the data. The following six themes emerged during data analysis: Experience of negative attitudes; Neglected and respected by family; Traditional beliefs; The importance of assistive devices; People with disability struggle with poverty; and The need for governmental and international support. In Sierra Leone, people with disabilities face severe discrimination. They need to be included, recognized, and supported to a greater extent by the society, the community, and the family, as well as by the government and international organizations. Traditional beliefs have a negative impact on people with physical disabilities and are an important cause of discrimination in Sierra Leone. Prosthetic and orthotic devices are vital for people with physical disability and offer increased dignity. Prosthetic and orthotic services need to be accessible and affordable. Poverty affects access to education, employment, and health care for Sierra Leoneans with physical disabilities, forcing them to resort to begging to cover basic living needs. Implications for Rehabilitation In Sierra Leone, traditional beliefs related to disability and public attitudes need to change in order to protect the human rights of people with disabilities. Increased public awareness of disability and implementation of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) at different levels in society is needed. To increase access to prosthetic and orthotic services in Sierra Leone, these services need to be affordable and related costs, such as transport, need to be covered by support. Increased access to

  7. Immunity status of adults and children against poliomyelitis virus type 1 strains CHAT and Sabin (LSc-2ab) in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, Maren; Terletskaia-Ladwig, Elena; Rabenau, Holger F; Doerr, Hans W; Diedrich, Sabine; Enders, Gisela; Enders, Martin

    2010-12-09

    In October 2007, the working group CEN/TC 216 of the European Committee for standardisation suggested that the Sabin oral poliovirus vaccine type 1 strain (LSc-2ab) presently used for virucidal tests should be replaced by another attenuated vaccine poliovirus type 1 strain, CHAT. Both strains were historically used as oral vaccines, but the Sabin type 1 strain was acknowledged to be more attenuated. In Germany, vaccination against poliomyelitis was introduced in 1962 using the oral polio vaccine (OPV) containing Sabin strain LSc-2ab. The vaccination schedule was changed from OPV to an inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) containing wild polio virus type 1 strain Mahoney in 1998. In the present study, we assessed potential differences in neutralising antibody titres to Sabin and CHAT in persons with a history of either OPV, IPV, or OPV with IPV booster. Neutralisation poliovirus antibodies against CHAT and Sabin 1 were measured in sera of 41 adults vaccinated with OPV. Additionally, sera from 28 children less than 10 years of age and immunised with IPV only were analysed. The neutralisation assay against poliovirus was performed according to WHO guidelines. The neutralisation activity against CHAT in adults with OPV vaccination history was significantly lower than against Sabin poliovirus type 1 strains (Wilcoxon signed-rank test P strains equally. The lack of neutralising antibodies against the CHAT strain in persons vaccinated with OPV might be associated with an increased risk of reinfection with the CHAT polio virus type 1, and this implies a putative risk of transmission of the virus to polio-free communities. We strongly suggest that laboratory workers who were immunised with OPV receive a booster vaccination with IPV before handling CHAT in the laboratory.

  8. Eradicating the Screwworm. An FAO Emergency Programme for North Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    The arrival of New World Screwworm fly in Libya in 1988 represented a grave threat not only to Libya, but also to the African continent as a whole. The Screwworm had already proved itself one of the most devastating livestock pests in the Americas, where it had cost farmers thousands of millions of dollars in lost production and governments hundreds of millions in control and eradication measures. Its introduction to North Africa posed a serious health threat to domestic animals, wild animals, and even humans. The fly lays eggs in wounds as small as a tick bite or in orifices such as ears or the nose. The eggs hatch into larvae that eat into the living flesh of the host, enlarging the wound. More Screwworm flies - and other parasites - infest the wound and frequently, if left untreated, the victim dies. Fully grown cattle can be killed within ten days. In 1960, the cost of the Screwworm infestation in the United States of America was estimated at $100 million a year. Clearing Mexico and the southern United States of the pest took more than 20 years and cost nearly $700 million. The fly's mobility makes containment extremely difficult. Adult flies have travelled up to 200 km and, where conditions are favourable, the size and range of the population can expand rapidly. Carried by infested animals, the primary cause of the infestation spreading, Screwworm can travel across continents. The Screwworm presence in Libya, therefore, was a concern of international significance: unless quickly eradicated, it would inevitably spread. Studies carried out by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation of Australia (CSIRO) showed the Screwworm could easily migrate around the North- and West African coasts and down the Nile valley. Computer models predicted the establishment of permanent infestations throughout Africa and Southern Europe. From this base it would then reach into the Middle East and Asia. Such an infestation would be virtually impossible to

  9. Contribution to the Eradication of Rinderpest in Somalia: the Experience of Terra Nuova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    A mild form of rinderpest was described and diagnosed in Tsavo East National Park in Kenya in 1994, and subsequently in Nairobi National Park (in 1994 to 1996). Initially the Tsavo rinderpest outbreak was thought to have originated from southern Sudan, but molecular evidence clearly showed that the Tsavo virus was genetically very different from the isolates from Nairobi National Park and fell into the African type 2 lineage. The exact location of this focus was uncertain, but it was suspected that the virus could have remained undetected for several years in the Northeast Province of Kenya and the neighbouring Trans Juba Region of southern Somalia. When the Siad Barre regime collapsed in 1991, all public institutions, services and assets were seriously disrupted or looted. This was followed by massive displacement of people inside and outside Somalia, widespread insecurity, serious famine, and the collapse of most formal economic activities. To alleviate the consequences of the humanitarian crisis and the collapse of the Somali state, the international community launched a significant response, with peacekeeping operations, direct assistance to displaced populations, restoration of local administrations, rehabilitation of public infrastructures, and support to economic activities. Given its socio-economic importance and prominence, the livestock industry was one of the sectors targeted for relief and rehabilitation interventions, through mass vaccination campaigns against infectious diseases, curative treatments, rehabilitation of watering facilities, and training of veterinary professionals and para-veterinarians. During this period, rinderpest was one of the target diseases, especially in light of global efforts to eradicate the disease from the African continent, and particularly from Somalia, which was one of the last suspected foci of infection. Terra Nuova, one of 12 international non-governmental organizations (NGOs) initially involved in the livestock

  10. Diabetes, insulin use and Helicobacter pylori eradication: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tseng Chin-Hsiao

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetic patients may have a higher risk of gastric cancer. However, whether they have a higher incidence of Helicobacter pylori (HP eradication is not known. Furthermore, whether insulin use in patients with type 2 diabetes may be associated with a higher incidence of HP eradication has not been investigated. Methods This is a retrospective cohort study. The reimbursement databases from 1996 to 2005 of 1 million insurants of the National Health Insurance in Taiwan were retrieved. After excluding those aged Results In 2005, there were 10,051 incident cases receiving HP eradication. HP eradication was significantly increased with age, male sex, diabetes status, insulin use, use of calcium channel blocker, panendoscopic examination, hypertension, dyslipidemia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, stroke, nephropathy, ischemic heart disease and peripheral arterial disease. Significant differences were also seen for occupation and living region. Medications including statin, fibrate, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker and oral anti-diabetic agents were not associated with HP eradication. The adjusted odds ratios for diabetes, insulin use and use of calcium channel blocker was 1.133 (1.074, 1.195, 1.414 (1.228, 1.629 and 1.147 (1.074, 1.225, respectively. Conclusions Type 2 diabetes and insulin use in the diabetic patients are significantly associated with a higher incidence of HP eradication. Additionally, use of calcium channel blocker also shows a significant association with HP eradication.

  11. Prioritizing islands for the eradication of invasive vertebrates in the United Kingdom overseas territories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Jeffrey; Oppel, Steffen; Cuthbert, Richard J; Holmes, Nick; Bird, Jeremy P; Butchart, Stuart H M; Spatz, Dena R; Tershy, Bernie

    2015-02-01

    Invasive alien species are one of the primary threats to native biodiversity on islands worldwide. Consequently, eradicating invasive species from islands has become a mainstream conservation practice. Deciding which islands have the highest priority for eradication is of strategic importance to allocate limited resources to achieve maximum conservation benefit. Previous island prioritizations focused either on a narrow set of native species or on a small geographic area. We devised a prioritization approach that incorporates all threatened native terrestrial vertebrates and all invasive terrestrial vertebrates occurring on 11 U.K. overseas territories, which comprise over 2000 islands ranging from the sub-Antarctic to the tropics. Our approach includes eradication feasibility and distinguishes between the potential and realistic conservation value of an eradication, which reflects the benefit that would accrue following eradication of either all invasive species or only those species for which eradication techniques currently exist. We identified the top 25 priority islands for invasive species eradication that together would benefit extant populations of 155 native species including 45 globally threatened species. The 5 most valuable islands included the 2 World Heritage islands Gough (South Atlantic) and Henderson (South Pacific) that feature unique seabird colonies, and Anegada, Little Cayman, and Guana Island in the Caribbean that feature a unique reptile fauna. This prioritization can be rapidly repeated if new information or techniques become available, and the approach could be replicated elsewhere in the world. © 2014 Crown copyright. Conservation Biology © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  12. Stable isotope analysis as an early monitoring tool for community-scale effects of rat eradication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, Katherine M.; Hathaway, Stacie A.; Wegmann, Alex; Miller-ter Kuile, Ana; Fisher, Robert N.; Young, Hillary S.

    2017-01-01

    Invasive rats have colonized most of the islands of the world, resulting in strong negative impacts on native biodiversity and on ecosystem functions. As prolific omnivores, invasive rats can cause local extirpation of a wide range of native species, with cascading consequences that can reshape communities and ecosystems. Eradication of rats on islands is now becoming a widespread approach to restore ecosystems, and many native island species show strong numerical responses to rat eradication. However, the effect of rat eradication on other consumers can extend beyond direct numerical effects, to changes in behavior, dietary composition, and other ecological parameters. These behavioral and trophic effects may have strong cascading impacts on the ecology of restored ecosystems, but they have rarely been examined. In this study, we explore how rat eradication has affected the trophic ecology of native land crab communities. Using stable isotope analysis of rats and crabs, we demonstrate that the diet or trophic position of most crabs changed subsequent to rat eradication. Combined with the numerical recovery of two carnivorous land crab species (Geograpsus spp.), this led to a dramatic widening of the crab trophic niche following rat eradication. Given the established importance of land crabs in structuring island communities, particularly plants, this suggests an unappreciated mechanism by which rat eradication may alter island ecology. This study also demonstrates the potential for stable isotope analysis as a complementary monitoring tool to traditional techniques, with the potential to provide more nuanced assessments of the community- and ecosystem-wide effects of restoration.

  13. One-week triple therapy for eradication of helicobacter pylori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, N.H.; Shah, M.S.; Khan, I.; Hameed, K.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The optimum therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection is yet to be defined in Pakistan despite a high prevalence of helicobacter associated diseases in this community. The most popular and effective regimen was therefore chosen among the currently recommended combinations used worldwide to document its efficacy in our symptomatic Helicobacter positive dyspeptic patients. Design: It was a prospective, non-randomized study. Place and duration of Study: The study lasted from January 1998 till June 1999 at the Postgraduate Institute, Government Lady Reading Hospital and Fauji Foundation Hospital, Peshawar. Subjects and Methods: Consecutive dyspeptic patients with peptic ulcer disease as well as non ulcer dyspepsia with a positive H. pylori status on histology from the specimens obtained from the antral region of the stomach, who consented to take part in the study were enrolled. They were given omeprazole 20 mg bd, clarithromycin 500 mg bd. And amoxycillin 1 gm bd for one week. One group comprised patients with confirmed peptic ulcer disease while the second group comprised patients with macroscopic/microscopic antral gastritis. Patients with peptic ulcer disease were given additional course of omerprazol for another 4 weeks to ensure healing of their ulcers. All patients were re scoped after stopping all drugs and their H. pylori status re-assessed on histology. Results: A total of 84 patients consented to enter the study. Fifty-nine were males and twenty-five were females. Fifty-eight patients completed the study while others were lost followup. There were no dropouts due to side effects of the drugs. Sixteen patients had peptic ulcer disease while 68 had macroscopic/microscopic active antral gastric only. The Helicobacter pylori eradication has been successful in only 12 patients giving a cure rate of 20.60% as determined per protocol analysis. The eradication rates were disappointingly low in both groups. Conclusion: The results are extremely

  14. Use of 'eradication' in HIV cure-related research: a public health debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Karine; Luter, Stuart; Lesnar, Breanne; Newton, Luke; Galea, Jerome; Brown, Brandon; Gianella, Sara

    2018-02-13

    The landscape of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) research has changed drastically over the past three decades. With the remarkable success of antiretroviral treatment (ART) in decreasing AIDS-related mortality, some researchers have shifted their HIV research focus from treatment to cure research. The HIV cure research community often uses the term eradication to describe the science, and talks about eradicating the virus from the body. In public discourse, the term eradication could be conflated with disease eradication at the population level. In this paper, we call for a reframing of HIV cure research as control, as it is a more accurate descriptor and achievable goal in the foreseeable future. The properties of HIV are discordant with eradicability standards at both the individual level (as a clinical concept), and at the population level (as a public health concept). At the individual level, true eradication would necessitate absolute elimination of all latent HIV reservoirs from the body. Current HIV cure-related research strategies have proven unsuccessful at accurately quantifying, let alone eliminating these reservoirs. At the population level, eradication implies the permanent global reduction of HIV to zero new cases and to zero risk for future cases. Given the absence of an efficacious HIV vaccine and the impracticality and unethicality of eliminating animal reservoirs, global eradication of HIV is highly implausible. From a public health perspective, HIV eradication remains an elusive goal. The term 'eradication' is a misleading description of current HIV cure-related research. Instead, we call for the use of more realistic expressions such as 'sustained virologic HIV suppression (or control)' or 'management of HIV persistence' to describe HIV cure-related research. Using these terms reorients what HIV cure science can potentially achieve in the near future and avoids creating unrealistic expectations, particularly among the millions of people

  15. Effect of Helicobacter pylori Eradication and ABO Genotype on Gastric Cancer Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sooyeon; Kim, Nayoung; Kwon, Jin-Won; Shin, Cheol Min; Choi, Yoon Jin; Lee, Dong Ho; Jung, Hyun Chae

    2016-12-01

    Evidence is lacking regarding how Helicobacter pylori infection status, eradication history, and ABO blood type affect the development of gastric cancer (GC) given the multifactorial and distinctive etiology according to cancer location (noncardia vs cardia) and histologic type (intestinal vs diffuse-type). We evaluated the effect of H. pylori infection status incorporated with H. pylori eradication history and ABO genotype on GC development according to cancer location and histologic type. A case-control study of 997 patients with noncardia GC (NCGC) and 1147 control subjects was performed using risk analyses with 14 factors including H. pylori infection with eradication history and ABO genotype. As final analyses, multivariable logistic regression models were fitted. Additionally, H. pylori infection status with eradication history was tested for its association with age, atrophic gastritis (AG), and intestinal metaplasia (IM). The ABO genotype with the B allele was associated with a significantly lower risk of NCGC of both histologic types. The reduction in risk for NCGC by adding the B allele was more prominent in diffuse-type than that in the intestinal-type. H. pylori infection with eradication history was associated with a significantly lower risk of NCGC of both histologic types, compared with those without eradication history (odds ratio (OR), 0.22; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.14-0.34) approaching that of uninfected subjects. Past infection status without an eradication history was associated with older age, AG, and IM. H. pylori eradication and the B allele decreased the risks of the intestinal and diffuse-types of NCGC. H. pylori eradication revealed a strong association against developing NCGC. Therefore, it should be considered as a primary measure in NCGC prevention. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Pulsed Radiofrequency of Dorsal Root Ganglia for the Treatment of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome in an Adolescent with Poliomyelitis Sequel: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apiliogullari, Seza; Aydin, Bahattin Kerem; Onal, Ozkan; Kirac, Yunus; Celik, Jale Bengi

    2015-07-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a painful and disabling syndrome in which the patient presents with neuropathic pain, edema, or vasomotor or pseudomotor abnormalities that are often refractory to treatment. Polio paralysis is caused by the damage or destruction of motor neurons in the spine, which lead to corresponding muscle paralysis. This report is a case report on the application of a pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) current to dorsal root ganglia (DRG) for the treatment of CRPS type 1 in an adolescent patient. Single case report. Selcuk University Hospital. A 16-year-old girl who suffered from CRPS type 1 secondary to surgeries for the sequelae of poliomyelitis. PRF current application to the lumbar 4 and lumbar 5 DRG. Pain reduction. The patient had complete resolution of her symptoms, which was maintained at a 6-month follow-up. This case illustrates that PRF applied to lumbar 4 and lumbar 5 DRG may play a significant role in CRPS type 1 management after the surgical treatment of poliomyelitis sequelae in adolescent patients. Further randomized, controlled studies are needed to support this argument. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Foot-and-mouth disease: technical and political challenges to eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark T; Bennett, Anthony M; Grubman, Marvin J; Bundy, Bradley C

    2014-06-30

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly-contagious livestock disease with global socioeconomic ramifications. The disease negatively impacts both individual farmers through reduced herd viability and nations through trade restrictions of animals and animal derivatives. Vaccines for FMD prevention have existed for over 70 years, yet the disease remains enzootic in a large percentage of the globe. FMD persistence is due in part to technical limitations of historic and current vaccine technologies. There also exist many socioeconomic and political barriers to global FMD eradication. Here we highlight the barriers to eradication and discuss potential avenues toward FMD eradication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Potential of the CNS as a Reservoir for HIV-1 Infection: Implications for HIV Eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fois, Alessandro F; Brew, Bruce J

    2015-06-01

    The ability of HIV-1 to establish latent infection is a key obstacle to its eradication despite the existence of effective antiretroviral drugs. The brain has been postulated as a reservoir for latent infection, but its role in HIV persistence remains unclear. In this review, we discuss the evidence surrounding the role of the central nervous system (CNS) as a viral reservoir and the potential challenges this might present in eradicating HIV. The strategies for eradication of HIV and their application to latent CNS infection are explored. Finally, we outline new developments in drug delivery and new therapeutic modalities designed to target HIV infection in the CNS.

  19. Did the Taliban's opium eradication campaign cause a decline in HIV infections in Russia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Daniel; Jones, Maggie

    2013-04-01

    We offer a new hypothesis for why HIV infections fell rapidly after 2001 in Russia: the Taliban's opium eradication campaign in Afghanistan reduced the supply of heroin, causing use to fall and, thus, transmission of HIV to fall. We present evidence of the impact of the eradication campaign on the heroin market and show that the fall in HIV infections happened simultaneously in Russia and surrounding countries soon after the eradication campaign. We also show that the decline in HIV infections only occurred in injecting drug users, while other risk groups were unaffected. Limitations to our analysis are discussed.

  20. Analysis of 15 years of the National Program for the Control and Eradication of Animal Brucellosis and Tuberculosis, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Soares Ferreira Neto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2001, Brazil launched the National Program for Control and Eradication of Animal Brucellosis and Tuberculosis (PNCEBT. After 15 years, After 15 years, it can be checked that there was mistakes and successes in driving the program, but it is undeniable that in this period, a series of structuring actions was initiated. In addition, a large volume of high-quality epidemiological data were produced, which will allow the country to move forward more rationally and safely in combating these two diseases. Today, Brazil have a sufficient contingent of veterinarians to develop the accreditation of farms and vaccination against brucellosis in all States; all batches of vaccines against brucellosis produced by private laboratories are controlled by an official laboratory; the brucellosis vaccination program is well established in most States and it has produced a decrease in prevalence in Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Rondônia and Minas Gerais; there are two ongoing eradication experiences: of brucellosis in Santa Catarina and of tuberculosis in Mato Grosso; nowadays there is a culture to combat brucellosis and tuberculosis in the Brazilian Official Veterinary Services. The epidemiological situation of bovine brucellosis and tuberculosis is well known in the major part of the country. However, progress has been limited by the difficulty in engaging the beef and dairy productive chains as true partners in the process.

  1. Cure of Helicobacter pylori-associated ulcer disease through eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malfertheiner, P; Leodolter, A; Peitz, U

    2000-02-01

    The eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection has led to a dramatic benefit for patients with gastroduodenal ulcer disease, as the majority of these patients receive a lifelong cure. Relapses after successful H. pylori cure may be caused by either recrudescence or reinfection, both rare events nowadays, or be attributed to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or aspirin intake. In certain geographical areas, H. pylori-negative relapses are proposed as a new, pathophysiological and not yet elucidated entity. The cure of H. pylori infection in uncomplicated duodenal ulcer diseases consists of 7 days of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) based triple therapy, containing two antibiotics from clarithromycin, amoxicillin and metronidazole. In gastric ulcer, it is recommended that the PPI is continued for a further 3 weeks as these ulcers have a prolonged healing time. Rescue therapies after failure need to take into consideration the resistance pattern of the micro-organism and are offered in the form of quadruple therapy or a high-dose PPI with amoxicillin.

  2. Book review: Mosquito eradication: The story of killing Campto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    In 1826, the paradise that was the Hawaiian Islands was changed forever when the first mosquito species was accidentally introduced to the island of Maui. Though it has not lived up to its potential as a vector of human disease in the islands, Culex quinquefasciatus and the avian pathogens it transmits laid waste to perhaps the world's most remarkable insular avifauna. Today the lowland native forests, once deafening with birdsong, are largely devoid of native birds and Cx. quinquefasciatus has become an inextricable part of our natural areas. In the Hawaiian Islands, the conservation community struggles to keep invasive species out and to control a number of species that have become naturalized. Despite the millions of dollars spent, these efforts never seem enough to slow the erosion of our native biota. The restoration and long-term preservation of Hawaiian forest birds depend on the nearly complete control of mosquito-borne avian disease, an obstacle that to many land managers appears insurmountable. To rally hope in Hawai`i, the conservation community needs to see a success. As a Pacific island, Hawai`i shares similar conservation problems with New Zealand and has often looked to that nation for innovation and inspiration. Mosquito Eradication: The Story of Killing Campto may be our latest inspiration.

  3. HIV eradication: combinatorial approaches to activate latent viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Crignis, Elisa; Mahmoudi, Tokameh

    2014-11-21

    The concept of eradication of the Human Immune Deficiency Virus (HIV) from infected patients has gained much attention in the last few years. While combination Anti-Retroviral Therapy (c-ART) has been extremely effective in suppressing viral replication, it is not curative. This is due to the presence of a reservoir of latent HIV infected cells, which persist in the presence of c-ART. Recently, pharmaceutical approaches have focused on the development of molecules able to induce HIV-1 replication from latently infected cells in order to render them susceptible to viral cytopathic effects and host immune responses. Alternative pathways and transcription complexes function to regulate the activity of the HIV promoter and might serve as molecular targets for compounds to activate latent HIV. A combined therapy coupling various depressors and activators will likely be the most effective in promoting HIV replication while avoiding pleiotropic effects at the cellular level. Moreover, in light of differences among HIV subtypes and variability in integration sites, the combination of multiple agents targeting multiple pathways will increase likelihood of therapeutic effectiveness and prevent mutational escape. This review provides an overview of the mechanisms that can be targeted to induce HIV activation focusing on potential combinatorial approaches.

  4. Resistance of polio to its eradication in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sher Zunaira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study is based on EPI (Expanded Program on Immunization immunization surveys and surveillance of polio, its challenges in immunization and the way forward to overcome these challenges. Methods Several Government documents, survey reports and unpublished program documents were studied and online search was made to find information on EPI Pakistan. SPSS 16 and Microsoft Excel 2007 were used for the statistical analysis. Results Immunization against polio is higher in urban areas as compared to rural areas. Marked variation in vaccination has been observed in different provinces of Pakistan in the last decade. Secondly 10-20% of the children who have received their first dose of trivalent polio vaccine were deprived of their 2nd and 3rd dose because of poor performance of EPI and Lack of information about immunization. Conclusion In spite of numerous successes, such as the addition of new vaccines and raising immunization to over 100% in some areas, EPI is still struggling to reach its polio eradication goals. Inadequate service delivery, lack of information about immunization and limited number of vaccinators were found to be the key reason for poor performance of immunization and for large number of cases reported each year due to the deficiency of second and third booster dose.

  5. Salmonella Typhi genomics: envisaging the future of typhoid eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Kien-Pong; Thong, Kwai Lin

    2017-08-01

    Next-generation whole-genome sequencing has revolutionised the study of infectious diseases in recent years. The availability of genome sequences and its understanding have transformed the field of molecular microbiology, epidemiology, infection treatments and vaccine developments. We review the key findings of the publicly accessible genomes of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi since the first complete genome to the most recent release of thousands of Salmonella Typhi genomes, which remarkably shape the genomic research of S. Typhi and other pathogens. Important new insights acquired from the genome sequencing of S. Typhi, pertaining to genomic variations, evolution, population structure, antibiotic resistance, virulence, pathogenesis, disease surveillance/investigation and disease control are discussed. As the numbers of sequenced genomes are increasing at an unprecedented rate, fine variations in the gene pool of S. Typhi are captured in high resolution, allowing deeper understanding of the pathogen's evolutionary trends and its pathogenesis, paving the way to bringing us closer to eradication of typhoid through effective vaccine/treatment development. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. How Far we are towards Eradication of HBV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voiculescu, Mihai

    2015-12-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major health problem with an important biological and a significant socio-economic impact all over the world. There is a high pressure to come up with a new and more efficient strategy against HBV infection, especially after the recent success of HCV treatment. Preventing HBV infection through vaccine is currently the most efficient way to decrease HBV-related cirrhosis and liver cancer incidence, as well as the best way to suppress the HBV reservoir. The vaccine is safe and efficient in 80-95% of cases. One of its most important roles is to reduce materno-fetal transmission, by giving the first dose of vaccine in the first 24 hours after birth. Transmission of HBV infection early in life is still frequent, especially in countries with high endemicity. Successful HBV clearance by the host is immune-mediated, with a complex combined innate and adaptive cellular and humoral immune response. Different factors, such as the quantity and the sequence of HBV epitope during processing by dendritic cells and presenting by different HLA molecules or the polymorphism of T cell receptors (TOL) are part of a complex network which influences the final response. A new potential therapeutic strategy is to restore T-cell antiviral function and to improve innate and adaptive immune response by immunotherapeutic manipulation. It appears that HBV eradication is far from being completed in the next decades, and a new strategy against HBV infection must be considered.

  7. Eradication of Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Infections Using Synthetic Antimicrobial Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapotoczna, Marta; Forde, Éanna; Hogan, Siobhan; Humphreys, Hilary; O'Gara, James P; Fitzgerald-Hughes, Deirdre; Devocelle, Marc; O'Neill, Eoghan

    2017-03-15

    Here, we demonstrate that antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are an effective antibiofilm treatment when applied as catheter lock solutions (CLSs) against S. aureus biofilm infections. The activity of synthetic AMPs (Bac8c, HB43, P18, Omiganan, WMR, Ranalexin, and Polyphemusin) was measured against early and mature biofilms produced by methicillin-resistant S. aureus and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates from patients with device-related infections grown under in vivo-relevant biofilm conditions. The cytotoxic and hemolytic activities of the AMPs against human cells and their immunomodulatory potential in human blood were also characterized. The D-Bac8c2,5Leu variant emerged as the most effective AMP during in vitro studies and was also highly effective in eradicating S. aureus biofilm infection when used in a CLS rat central venous catheter infection model. These data support the potential use of D-Bac8c2,5Leu, alone or in combination with other AMPs, in the treatment of S. aureus intravenous catheter infections. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Measles in Pakistan: Time to make steps towards eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Inayat Ur; Bukhsh, Allah; Khan, Tahir Mehmood

    World Health Organization (WHO) measles surveillance data report a reduction in cases of measles globally from 67,524 cases in 2015 to 16,846 in 2016, and a reduction in deaths from 546,800 to 114,900 during period of 2000-14. Pakistan is among the five nations where almost a million children did not receive their first dose of measles vaccination, and outbreaks of the disease resulted in 4386 cases in 2011, 14,687 cases in 2012 with 310 deaths. In 2013, about 25,401 cases of measles were reported and 321 affected children died. The measles vaccination coverage is very low in Pakistan for both 1st dose and booster dose. To prevent outbreaks of measles in Pakistan a national vaccination program should be launched side by side with a polio eradication program in each district and township and a campaign should be launched to educate parents on measles vaccination for childrens to reduce the measles case fatality rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Selective labelling and eradication of antibiotic-tolerant bacterial populations in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Song Lin; Yam, Joey Kuok Hoong; Hao, Piliang; Adav, Sunil S.; Salido, May Margarette; Liu, Yang; Givskov, Michael; Sze, Siu Kwan; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Yang, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Drug resistance and tolerance greatly diminish the therapeutic potential of antibiotics against pathogens. Antibiotic tolerance by bacterial biofilms often leads to persistent infections, but its mechanisms are unclear. Here we use a proteomics approach, pulsed stable isotope labelling with amino acids (pulsed-SILAC), to quantify newly expressed proteins in colistin-tolerant subpopulations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms (colistin is a ‘last-resort' antibiotic against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens). Migration is essential for the formation of colistin-tolerant biofilm subpopulations, with colistin-tolerant cells using type IV pili to migrate onto the top of the colistin-killed biofilm. The colistin-tolerant cells employ quorum sensing (QS) to initiate the formation of new colistin-tolerant subpopulations, highlighting multicellular behaviour in antibiotic tolerance development. The macrolide erythromycin, which has been previously shown to inhibit the motility and QS of P. aeruginosa, boosts biofilm eradication by colistin. Our work provides insights on the mechanisms underlying the formation of antibiotic-tolerant populations in bacterial biofilms and indicates research avenues for designing more efficient treatments against biofilm-associated infections. PMID:26892159

  10. Total superficial vein reflux eradication in the treatment of venous ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchanabat, Burapa; Stapanavatr, Waigoon; Kanchanasuttiruk, Pong

    2015-05-01

    Total superficial vein reflux eradication in the treatment of venous ulcer. Our initial experience with groin-knee vein stripping resulted in recurrent or unhealed venous ulcers prompting us to remove the entire reflux segment with emphasis on the calf superficial vein adjacent to, or underneath the ulcer. This study aims to assess the healing and recurrent rates after treatment with this technique combined with compression therapy. Pertinent data of the patients with healed or active venous ulcers (C5-6) between October 2006 and October 2013 was prospectively collected and retrospectively reviewed. Forty-three operations were performed on 39 C5-6 legs (four reoperations for recurrent ulcer of the same legs) among 35 patients who had completed follow-up. The median follow-up time was 22 months. Of the 39 operations for active venous ulcers (C6), wound healing was achieved in 35 instances (90 %) with a median healing time of 21 days. The 30-day healing rate was 64 % and the 14-day healing rate was 38 %. Only four legs had ulcers which healed beyond 60 days. The post-operative VCSS and VDS were significantly improved compared with the pre-operative value (11.6, 3.7, p ulceration was found in four legs. The 2- and 6-year recurrence rates were three percent and 22 percent, respectively. Venous ulcer could be satisfactory treated by the total removal of the peri-ulcer reflux.

  11. A strategy to eradicate well-developed Krebs-2 ascites in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Ekaterina A; Dolgova, Evgenia V; Proskurina, Anastasia S; Minkevich, Alexandra M; Efremov, Yaroslav R; Taranov, Oleg S; Omigov, Vladimir V; Nikolin, Valeriy P; Popova, Nelly A; Bayborodin, Sergey I; Ostanin, Alexander A; Chernykh, Elena R; Kolchanov, Nikolay A; Shurdov, Mikhail A; Bogachev, Sergey S

    2016-03-08

    We describe the strategy, which allows curing experimental mice engrafted with Krebs-2 ascites. The strategy is based on the facts that i) Krebs-2 tumor-initiating stem cells (TISCs) are naturally capable of internalizing fragments of extracellular double-stranded DNA (dsDNA); ii) upon delivery into TISCs, these dsDNA fragments interfere with the on-going DNA repair process so that TISCs either die or lose their tumorigenic potential. The following 3-step regimen of therapeutic procedures leading to eradication of Krebs-2 ascites is considered. Firstly, three timed injections of cyclophosphamide (CP) exactly matching the interstrand cross-link (ICL) repair phases that lead to synchronization of ascites cells in late S/G2/M. Secondly, additional treatment of ascites 18 hours post each CP injection (at NER/HR transition timepoint) with a composite dsDNA-based preparation interfering with the NER and HR repair pathways, so that tumorigenic properties of ascites cells are compromised. Thirdly, final treatment of mice with a combination of CP and dsDNA injections as ascites cells undergo apoptotic destruction, and the surviving TAMRA+ TISCs arrested in late S/G2/M phases massively enter into G1/S, when they regain sensitivity to CP+dsDNA treatment. Thus, this regimen assures that no viable cells, particularly Krebs-2 TISCs, remain.

  12. A large randomised controlled intervention trial to prevent gastric cancer by eradication of Helicobacter pylori in Linqu County, China: baseline results and factors affecting the eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Kai-feng; Zhang, Lian; Gerhard, Markus; Ma, Jun-ling; Liu, Wei-dong; Ulm, Kurt; Wang, Jian-xi; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Yang; Bajbouj, Monther; Zhang, Lan-fu; Li, Ming; Vieth, Michael; Liu, Rui-yong; Quante, Michael; Wang, Le-hua; Suchanek, Stepan; Zhou, Tong; Guan, Wei-xiang; Schmid, Roland; Classen, Meinhard; You, Wei-cheng

    2016-01-01

    To clarify the full range of benefits and adverse consequences of Helicobacter pylori eradication as a strategy for gastric cancer prevention, the community-based intervention trial was launched in Linqu County, China. A total of 184,786 residents aged 25-54 years were enrolled in this trial and received (13)C-urea breath test. H. pylori positive participants were assigned into two groups, either receiving a 10-day quadruple anti-H. pylori treatment or lookalike placebos together with a single dosage of omeprazole and bismuth. The prevalence of H. pylori in trial participants was 57.6%. A total of 94,101 subjects completed the treatment. The overall H. pylori eradication rate was 72.9% in the active group. Gender, body mass index, history of stomach disease, baseline delta over baseline-value of (13)C-urea breath test, missed medication doses, smoking and drinking were independent predictors of eradication failure. The missed doses and high baseline delta over baseline-value were important contributors in men and women (all Ptrendhistory of stomach disease were significant predictors in women. The treatment failure rate increased up to 48.8% (OR 2.87, 95% CI 2.24 to 3.68) in men and 39.4% (OR 2.67, 95% CI 1.61 to 4.42) in women with multiple factors combined. This large community-based intervention trial to eradicate H. pylori is feasible and acceptable. The findings of this trial lead to a distinct evaluation of factors influencing eradication that should be generally considered for future eradication therapies. ChiCTR-TRC-10000979 in accordance with WHO ICTRP requirements. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. Use of probiotics as an adjuvant to sequential H. pylori eradication therapy: impact on eradication rates, treatment resistance, treatment-related side effects, and patient compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çekin, Ayhan Hilmi; Şahintürk, Yasin; Akbay Harmandar, Ferda; Uyar, Seyit; Yolcular, Başak Oğuz; Çekin, Yeşim

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of probiotics administered as an adjuvant to sequential Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication therapy on treatment outcome and patient compliance. In total, 159 patients with H. pylori infection receiving sequential H. pylori eradication therapy were included in this randomized placebo-controlled study. Starting from day 0 of sequential eradication therapy (ERA), patients in the ERA+probiotic group [n=53, mean (SD) age: 47.7 (14.0) years, 54.7% were females] also received a probiotic supplement with Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis B94 (1 capsule/day), patients in the ERA+placebo group [n=52, mean (SD) age: 46.4 (13.4) years, 51.9% were males] received placebo treatment (1 capsule/day), and patients in the ERA-only group [n=54, mean (SD) age: 46.3 (11.9) years, 55.6% were females] received no additional treatments. Eradication rates, patient compliance, and side effects of eradication therapy were recorded in each treatment group. Significantly higher eradication rates were noted in the ERA+probiotic group (86.8% vs. 70.8%, p=0.025) than in the combined ERA (ERA-only and ERA-placebo) group. Non-compliance with anti-H. pylori treatment was noted in 24 (15.1%) of 159 patients. Lower rates of first week treatment non-compliance due to diarrhea (1.88% vs. 12.26%, p=0.036) were noted in the ERA+probiotic group than in the combined ERA (ERA-only and ERA-placebo) group. Treatment resistance (p: 0.389) was similar between the groups, indicating pure antibiotic resistance without any compliance problems. The number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) was 6.2 (CI 95%, 3.5 to 28.9) for probiotic use. In conclusion, adjuvant administration of probiotic (B. animalis subsp. lactis) in 2-week sequential H. pylori eradication therapy is associated with a higher H. pylori eradication rate, lower first week diarrhea-related treatment discontinuation rates, less common self-reported side effects, and higher treatment

  14. Is the treatment of Enterobius vermicularis co-infection necessary to eradicate Dientamoeba fragilis infection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Boga

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: Co-infection with E. vermicularis may act as a factor favoring D. fragilis infection by preventing eradication measures. This suggests that both parasites should be treated simultaneously.

  15. Economic impact of eradicating the New World screw-worm (Cochliomyia hominivorax) from Jamaica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo, Trang T.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to assess the economic feasibility of eradicating the New World screw-worm (NWS), Cochliomyia hominivorax Coquerel, from Jamaica. The endemic presence of the NWS in Jamaica has caused the livestock sector to incur recurrent economic costs and losses. Eradication of the pest utilising the environmentally-benign sterile insect technique (SIT) has proved technologically feasible on other islands and other parts of the world. Based on these successful experiences, the proposed project to eradicate the NWS from Jamaica is expected to be similarly effective in eliminating the pest from Jamaica in a relatively short period of time. The elimination of the pest from the Caribbean would lessen the significant risk of re-infestation of eradicated areas and pest-free countries in the region

  16. Political, social and technical risks in the last stages of disease eradication campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitty, Christopher J M

    2015-09-01

    Eradication of a disease is one of the greatest gifts any generation can give to subsequent ones, but most attempts have failed. The biggest challenges occur in the final stages of eradication and elimination campaigns. These include falling public support as a disease becomes less common; the emergence of groups who do not support eradication; spiralling costs; and the evolution of drug, vaccine or insecticide resistance. Mass campaigns become less effective as the disease fragments and modelling becomes less reliable. Optimism bias is the biggest risk to any eradication campaign and the long endgame must be planned for from the beginning. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Biofilm eradication and prevention: a pharmaceutical approach to medical device infections

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shunmugaperumal, Tamilvanan

    2010-01-01

    "Biofilm Eradication and Preventions presents the basics of biofilm formation on medical devices, diseases related to this formation, and approaches pharmaceutical researchers need to take to limit this problem...

  18. First-line Helicobacter pylori eradication among patients with chronic liver diseases in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-En Tsai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori eradication in patients with chronic liver diseases (CLDs and liver cirrhosis is seldom reported. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of 7-day standard triple therapy in patients with CLD including cirrhosis and to investigate the clinical factors influencing the success of eradication. A total of 592 H. pylori-infected patients, who received 7-day standard first-line triple therapy between January 1, 2014, and December 31, 2014, were recruited. Patients were divided into two groups: CLD group (N = 136 and non-CLD group (N = 456. The eradication rates attained by the CLD and non-CLD groups were 86.0% and 84.2%, respectively, in the per-protocol analysis (p = 0.606. The eradication rates of liver cirrhosis and noncirrhosis CLD were 88.5% and 84.3%, respectively (p = 0.783. The adverse events were similar between the two groups (8.8% vs. 9.2%, p = 0.891. Compliance between the two groups was good (99.3% vs. 99.6%, p = 0.670. The univariate analysis showed male sex to be the significant clinical factor in the non-CLD group (p = 0.001 and alcohol consumption to be the significant clinical factor influencing H. pylori eradication rate in patients with CLD (p = 0.022. Alcohol consumption was the only significant factor influencing H. pylori eradication in multivariate analysis (odds ratio = 3.786, p = 0.031. The results of this study suggest that H. pylori eradication rates in patients with CLD may be comparable with non-CLD patients. Alcohol consumption was the significant factor influencing H. pylori eradication in patients with CLD.

  19. Streptococcus pneumoniae Eradicates Preformed Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms through a Mechanism Requiring Physical Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Faidad; Wu, Xueqing; Matzkin, Gideon L.; Khan, Mohsin A.; Sakai, Fuminori; Vidal, Jorge E.

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (Sau) strains are a main cause of disease, including nosocomial infections which have been linked to the production of biofilms and the propagation of antibiotic resistance strains such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). A previous study found that Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) strains kill planktonic cultures of Sau strains. In this work, we have further evaluated in detail the eradication of Sau biofilms and investigated ultrastructural interactions of the biofilmicidal effect. Spn strain D39, which produces the competence stimulating peptide 1 (CSP1), reduced Sau biofilms within 8 h of inoculation, while TIGR4, producing CSP2, eradicated Sau biofilms and planktonic cells within 4 h. Differences were not attributed to pherotypes as other Spn strains producing different pheromones eradicated Sau within 4 h. Experiments using Transwell devices, which physically separated both species growing in the same well, demonstrated that direct contact between Spn and Sau was required to efficiently eradicate Sau biofilms and biofilm-released planktonic cells. Physical contact-mediated killing of Sau was not related to production of hydrogen peroxide as an isogenic TIGR4ΔspxB mutant eradicated Sau bacteria within 4 h. Confocal micrographs confirmed eradication of Sau biofilms by TIGR4 and allowed us to visualize ultrastructural point of contacts between Sau and Spn. A time-course study further demonstrated spatial colocalization of Spn chains and Sau tetrads as early as 30 min post-inoculation (Pearson's coefficient >0.72). Finally, precolonized biofilms produced by Sau strain Newman, or MRSA strain USA300, were eradicated by mid-log phase cultures of washed TIGR4 bacteria within 2 h post-inoculation. In conclusion, Spn strains rapidly eradicate pre-colonized Sau aureus biofilms, including those formed by MRSA strains, by a mechanism(s) requiring bacterium-bacterium contact, but independent from the production of hydrogen peroxide

  20. Malaria eradication and elimination: views on how to translate a vision into reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Marcel; Greenwood, Brian; Whitty, Christopher J M; Ansah, Evelyn K; Price, Ric N; Dondorp, Arjen M; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Baird, J Kevin; Beeson, James G; Fowkes, Freya J I; Hemingway, Janet; Marsh, Kevin; Osier, Faith

    2015-07-25

    Although global efforts in the past decade have halved the number of deaths due to malaria, there are still an estimated 219 million cases of malaria a year, causing more than half a million deaths. In this forum article, we asked experts working in malaria research and control to discuss the ways in which malaria might eventually be eradicated. Their collective views highlight the challenges and opportunities, and explain how multi-factorial and integrated processes could eventually make malaria eradication a reality.

  1. Streptococcus pneumoniae eradicates preformed Staphylococcus aureus biofilms through a mechanism requiring physical contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faidad Khan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus (Sau strains are a main cause of disease, including nosocomial infections which have been linked to the production of biofilms and the propagation of antibiotic resistance strains such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. A previous study found that Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn strains kill planktonic cultures of Sau strains. In this work, we have further evaluated in detail the eradication of Sau biofilms and investigated ultrastructural interactions of the biofilmicidal effect. Spn strain D39, which produces the competence stimulating peptide 1 (CSP1, reduced Sau biofilms within 8 h of inoculation, while TIGR4, producing CSP2, eradicated Sau biofilms and planktonic cells within 4 h. Differences were not attributed to pherotypes as other Spn strains producing different pheromones eradicated Sau within 4 h. Experiments using Transwell devices, which physically separated both species growing in the same well, demonstrated that direct contact between Spn and Sau was required to efficiently eradicate Sau biofilms and biofilm-released planktonic cells. Physical contact-mediated killing of Sau was not related to production of hydrogen peroxide as an isogenic TIGR4spxB mutant eradicated Sau bacteria within 4 h. Confocal micrographs confirmed eradication of Sau biofilms by TIGR4 and allowed us to visualize ultrastructural point of contacts between Sau and Spn. A time-course study further demonstrated spatial colocalization of Spn chains and Sau tetrads as early as 30 min post-inoculation (Pearson’s coefficient >0.72. Finally, precolonized biofilms produced by Sau strain Newman, or MRSA strain USA300, were eradicated by mid-log phase cultures of washed TIGR4 bacteria within 2 h post-inoculation. In conclusion, Spn strains rapidly eradicate pre-colonized Sau aureus biofilms, including those formed by MRSA strains, by a mechanism(s requiring bacterium-bacterium contact, but independent from the production of

  2. Second-line bismuth-containing quadruple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication and impact of diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Eun; Park, Moo In; Park, Seun Ja; Moon, Won; Kim, Jae Hyun; Jung, Kyoungwon; Kim, Hae Koo; Lee, Young Dal

    2017-02-14

    To investigate Helicobacter pylori ( H . pylori ) eradication rates using second-line bismuth-containing quadruple therapy and to identify predictors of eradication failure. This study included 636 patients who failed first-line triple therapy and received 7 d of bismuth-containing quadruple therapy between January 2005 and December 2015. We retrospectively demonstrated H . pylori eradication rates with respect to the year of therapy as well as demographic and clinical factors. H . pylori eradication was confirmed by a 13 C-urea breath test or a rapid urease test at least 4 wk after the completion of bismuth-based quadruple therapy: proton pump inhibitor, metronidazole, bismuth, and tetracycline. The overall eradication rates by intention-to-treat analysis and per-protocol analysis were 73.9% (95%CI: 70.1%-77.4%) and 94.5% (95%CI: 92.4%-96.5%), respectively. Annual eradication rates from 2005 to 2015 were 100.0%, 92.9%, 100.0%, 100.0%, 100.0%, 97.4%, 100.0%, 93.8%, 84.4%, 98.9%, and 92.5%, respectively, by per-protocol analysis. A multivariate analysis showed that diabetes mellitus (OR = 3.99, 95%CI: 1.56-10.20, P = 0.004) was associated with H . pylori eradication therapy failure. The second-line bismuth-containing quadruple therapy for H . pylori infection is still effective in Korea, and diabetes mellitus is suggested to be a risk factor for eradication failure.

  3. The impact of bismuth addition to sequential treatment on Helicobacter pylori eradication: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basyigit, Sebahat; Kefeli, Ayse; Sapmaz, Ferdane; Yeniova, Abdullah Ozgür; Asilturk, Zeliha; Hokkaomeroglu, Murat; Uzman, Metin; Nazligul, Yasar

    2015-10-25

    The success of the current anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) treatment protocols is reported to decrease by years, and research is needed to strengthen the H. pylori eradication treatment. Sequential treatment (ST), one of the treatment modalities for H. pylori eradication, includes amoxicillin 1 gr b.i.d and proton pump inhibitor b.i.d for first 5 days and then includes clarithromycin 500 mg b.i.d, metronidazole 500 mg b.i.d and a proton pump inhibitor b.i.d for remaining 5 days. In this study, we investigated efficacy and tolerability of bismuth addition in to ST. We included patients that underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in which H. pylori infection was diagnosed by histological examination of antral and corporal gastric mucosa biopsy. Participants were randomly administered ST or bismuth containing ST (BST) protocols for the first-line H. pylori eradication therapy. Participants have been tested by urea breath test for eradication success 6 weeks after the completion of treatment. One hundred and fifty patients (93 female, 57 male) were enrolled. There were no significant differences in eradication rates for both intention to treat population (70.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 66.3-74.1% vs. 71.8%, 95% CI: 61.8-81.7%, for ST and BST, respectively, p>0.05) and per protocol population (74.6%, 95% CI: 63.2-85.8% vs. 73.7%, 95% CI: 63.9-83.5% for ST and BST, respectively, p>0.05). Despite the undeniable effect of bismuth, there may be several possible reasons of unsatisfactory eradication success. Drug administration time, coadministration of other drugs, possible H. pylori resistance to bismuth may affect the eradication success. The addition of bismuth subcitrate to ST regimen does not provide significant increase in eradication rates.

  4. Leprosy--evolution of the path to eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogra, Sunil; Narang, Tarun; Kumar, Bhushan

    2013-01-01

    Leprosy is among the world's oldest and most dreaded diseases and it has been synonymous with stigma and discrimination due to the hideous deformities it produced, mystery around its aetiology and transmission and lack of any effective remedy till recently. Leprosy control started with the use of chaulmoogra oil and for the last three decades, multi drug therapy (MDT) has been our main tool against leprosy. In the last two decades, the reported global prevalence of active leprosy infection has dropped by almost 90 per cent by the combined efforts of the World Health Organization (WHO), local governments, health professionals, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), however, a parallel drop in the incidence or new case detection rate (NCDR) has not occurred. From 1994 through 2011, more than 100,000 new cases are being detected annually, of whom maximum case load is from India. There is need for research on tools for early diagnosis, short and effective treatment, and prevention of deformities and disabilities. Evaluating the role of immunotherapy and immunoprophylaxis will also lead us to better understanding of their mode of action. Further molecular analysis of Mycobacterium leprae genome may provide the requisite basis for all this. The current reality is that there is a need to sustain and provide quality leprosy services to all persons through general health services, including good referral system. All these provisions in the integrated health care approach will go a long way in further reducing the stigma. Efforts need to be made to reduce deformity through early detection, self care, physiotherapy and reconstructive surgery and developing sound surveillance systems. With all the remarkable achievements in the fight against leprosy, the stage is now set for the final assault. It is hoped that with the efforts of all the stake holders and strong political will, the disease will be eradicated in the near future.

  5. The French national programme of bovine hypodermosis eradication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amouroux, Isabelle

    2000-01-01

    The National Federation of Sanitary Defence Organisations (FNGDS) is a professional organisation which brings together more than 95% cattle breeders within its departmental structures (GDS). Working closely with breeders within their local structures, the GDS maintains a high level of efficiency in communicating and informing farmers about sanitary programmes as well as rally them to participate in these programmes. FNGDS has built a solid cooperation with the veterinary administration and private veterinarians in the fight against the most serious animal diseases. In the 1980s, new sanitary guidelines regarding export emphasised the necessity of fighting against the warble fly. As parasitic hypodermosis causes a major decrease in zootechnic performances, as well as is an important immuno depression, the GDS from different regions began the fight against it. Taking into account the fly biology, it was deemed necessary to establish a concerted fight in order to avoid recontamination in their regions as well as improve sanitary conditions. In 1989, FNGDS proposed and implemented a national scheme for the eradication of hypodermis in collaboration with other professional and industrial organisations, scientists, veterinarians and the Ministry of Agriculture. In 1994, a law against the warble fly was enacted. This law required every region to fight against the fly beginning 1 July 1998. Before this deadline, all regions were encouraged to begin regional plans on a voluntary basis, which, nevertheless, had to be approved by a national committee. Under the national scheme which was based on parasitic biology, each region had to build its own programme. It had to be in charge of the details of operation, e.g., regarding topography and the presence of Hypoderma lineatum. Cooperation between animal health partners was greatly encouraged

  6. Helicobacter Pylori eradication therapy: getting research into practice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonnell, R

    2003-01-01

    Helicobacter Pylori (H. Pylori) is the primary cause of duodenal ulcer (DU). Guidelines recommend that all patients with DU be considered for Helicobacter Pylori Eradication Therapy (HPET). However, the proportion of patients with DU on long term anti-ulcer medication receiving HPET is small. This study examined the effectiveness of the continuing medical education (CME) network of the Irish College of General Practitioners (ICGP) in promoting best practice in DU treatment among GPs in an eastern region of Ireland. Ninty eight GPs recruited from the CME network of the ICGP were randomised in two cohorts. Cohort 1 received an (early) intervention; GPs were asked to identify their patients with DU receiving long term anti-ulcer medication and prescribe HPET according to defined criteria. Cohort 2 received the intervention later. Prescribing of HPET was monitored using routine prescribing data. Twenty per cent (286\\/1,422) of patients in cohort 1 and 19.2% (127\\/661) in cohort 2 had a DU. After exclusions, 53% (152\\/286) in cohort 1 and 30.7% (39\\/127) in cohort 2, were eligible for HPET. A significantly higher proportion of patients in cohort 1 received HPET compared with cohort 2 during the early intervention period (13.8% vs 0.0%, p<0.05). Reasons for not prescribing HPET included concurrent illness in patients, failure to comply with treatment. Best practice guidelines on HPET treatment of DU can be successfully applied using CME networks. This model could be repeated in another therapeutic area where established research is not yet current practice.

  7. BIOCIDE TREATMENT OF PONDS IN SCOTLAND TO ERADICATE SIGNAL CRAYFISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEAY S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This trial aimed to eradicate illegally introduced signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus in the North Esk catchment, Scotland. Sites treated were (1 an isolated gravel-pit (c. 9,000 m3, with crayfish present for 6 years; (2 three dammed ponds, (c. 5,000 m3 and (3 a leaking, offline pond (c. 6,000 m3, with crayfish for two years. Preliminary toxicity tests with substrate present indicated doses. Treatment at sites (1 and (2 (in October 2004, water temperature 13°C comprised deoxygenation with sodium sulphite to stimulate emergence, then application of natural pyrethrum (Pyblast. Exposed margins were sprayed with Pyblast to prevent escapes. Crayfish mortality was high, but one survivor was seen after 5 days. Pyblast was applied from a tank with Na2SO3 residue, which subsequent investigation indicated reduced Pyblast below the target 0.1 mg l-1. Site (1 was re-treated (end October, target 0.15 mg l-1 Pyblast, no Na2SO3, 9°C. Mortality was confirmed using caged crayfish. Prior to treatment at site (2, throughflow was stopped and fish removed. Biomonitoring was carried out with freshwater shrimps Gammarus in the adjacent watercourse. Treatment of site (3 (December, target 0.2 mg l-1, 4°C necessitated continuous back-pumping of leakage for a 2-week recovery period to avoid contamination of the river downstream. Caged crayfish took up to 5 days for 100% mortality. No crayfish were found in a summer survey after the treatments with Pyblast alone, but were caught in the ponds with Na2SO3 pre-treatment. Monitoring is required for 2-5 years.

  8. Lugol's solution eradicates Staphylococcus aureus biofilm in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grønseth, Torstein; Vestby, Lene K; Nesse, Live L; Thoen, Even; Habimana, Olivier; von Unge, Magnus; Silvola, Juha T

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy of Lugol's solution, acetic acid, and boric acid against Staphylococcus aureus biofilm. The efficacy of Lugol's solution 1%, 0.1%, and 0.05%, acetic acid 5% or boric acid 4.7% for treatment of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm in vitro was tested using 30 clinical strains. Susceptibility in the planktonic state was assessed by disk diffusion test. Antiseptic effect on bacteria in biofilm was evaluated by using a Biofilm-oriented antiseptic test (BOAT) based on metabolic activity, a biofilm bactericidal test based on culturing of surviving bacteria and confocal laser scanning microscopy combined with LIVE/DEAD staining. In the planktonic state, all tested S. aureus strains were susceptible to Lugol's solution and acetic acid, while 27 out of 30 tested strains were susceptible to boric acid. In biofilm the metabolic activity was significantly reduced following exposure to Lugol's solution and 5% acetic acid, while boric acid exposure led to no significant changes in metabolic activities. In biofilm, biocidal activity was observed for Lugol's solution 1% (30/30), 0.1% (30/30), and 0.05% (26/30). Acetic acid and boric acid showed no bactericidal activity in this test. Confocal laser scanning microscopy, assessed in 4/30 strains, revealed significantly fewer viable biofilm bacteria with Lugol's solution (1% p Lugol's solution 1.0% and 0.1% effectively eradicated S. aureus in biofilm and could be an alternative to conventional topical antibiotics where S. aureus biofilm is suspected such as external otitis, pharyngitis and wounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Ecosystem implications of conserving endemic versus eradicating introduced large herbivores in the Galapagos Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastille-Rousseau, Guillaume; Gibbs, James P.; Campbell, Karl; Yackulic, Charles B.; Blake, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Restoration of damaged ecosystems through invasive species removal and native species conservation is an increasingly common practice in biodiversity conservation. Estimating the degree of ecosystem response attributable specifically to eradication of exotic herbivores versus restoration of native herbivores is often difficult and is complicated by concurrent temporal changes in other factors, especially climate. We investigated the interactive impacts of native mega-herbivores (giant tortoises) and the eradication of large alien herbivores (goats) on vegetation productivity across the Galapagos Archipelago. We examined archipelago-wide patterns of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as a proxy for vegetation productivity between 2001 and 2015 and evaluated how goat and historical and current tortoise occurrence influenced productivity. We used a breakpoint analysis to detect change in trends in productivity from five targeted areas following goat eradication. We found a positive association between tortoise occurrence and vegetation productivity and a negative association with goat occurrence. We also documented an increase in plant productivity following goat removal with recovery higher in moister regions than in arid region, potentially indicating an alternate stable state has been created in the latter. Climate variation also contributed to the detected improvement in productivity following goat eradication, sometimes obscuring the effect of eradication but more usually magnifying it by up to 300%. Our work offers perspectives regarding the effectiveness and outcomes of eradicating introduced herbivores and re-introducing native herbivores, and the merits of staging them simultaneously in order to restore critical ecosystem processes such as vegetation productivity.

  10. Possible control and eradication of peste des petits ruminants from India: technical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kumar Singh

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The peste des petits ruminants (PPR is an acute and highly contagious, notifiable viral disease of sheep and goats that causes substantial morbidity and mortality. There are three cell culture-based live attenuated PPR vaccines available (one from an African isolate and two from Indian isolates. The PPR vaccine produced by the Indian Veterinary Research Institute has been extensively evaluated in the field and found safe and potent in sheep and goats in India. Diagnostic tests, such as the sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (s?ELISA, competitive ELISA, single and duplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCRs and RT-PCR-ELISA at the Indian Veterinary Research Institute have also been validated on a large scale. Furthermore, the expertise that remained after the successful eradication of rinderpest in the National Project on Rinderpest Eradication can be utilised effectively for the eradication of PPR without much additional budgetary expense. Thus, the availability of an effective vaccine, accurate diagnostic tests for PPR and an experienced infrastructure prompt us to propose a national project for a peste des petits ruminants eradication programme on the lines of National Project on Rinderpest Eradication. This would greatly enhance the prospects of PPR eradication not only on a national level but also from the Asian continent, alleviate poverty and, in turn, contribute to the national economy.

  11. Helicobacter pylori Eradication for Prevention of Metachronous Recurrence after Endoscopic Resection of Early Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Chang Seok; Baik, Gwang Ho; Shin, In Soo; Kim, Jin Bong; Suk, Ki Tae; Yoon, Jai Hoon; Kim, Yeon Soo; Kim, Dong Joon

    2015-06-01

    Controversies persist regarding the effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on the development of metachronous gastric cancer after endoscopic resection of early gastric cancer (EGC). The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of Helicobacter pylori eradication after endoscopic resection of EGC for the prevention of metachronous gastric cancer. A systematic literature review and meta-analysis were conducted using the core databases PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library. The rates of development of metachronous gastric cancer between the Helicobacter pylori eradication group vs. the non-eradication group were extracted and analyzed using risk ratios (RRs). A random effect model was applied. The methodological quality of the enrolled studies was assessed by the Risk of Bias table and by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Publication bias was evaluated through the funnel plot with trim and fill method, Egger's test, and by the rank correlation test. Ten studies (2 randomized and 8 non-randomized/5,914 patients with EGC or dysplasia) were identified and analyzed. Overall, the Helicobacter pylori eradication group showed a RR of 0.467 (95% CI: 0.362-0.602, P cancer after endoscopic resection of EGC. Subgroup analyses showed consistent results. Publication bias was not detected. Helicobacter pylori eradication after endoscopic resection of EGC reduces the occurrence of metachronous gastric cancer.

  12. [Croatian guidelines for gastric cancer prevention by eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katicić, Miroslava; Banić, Marko; Urek, Marija Crncević; Gasparov, Slavko; Krznarić, Zeljko; Prskalo, Marija; Stimac, Davor; Skrtić, Anita; Vucelić, Boris

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the fourth most common type of cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. Although gastric cancer has a multifactorial etiology, infection with Helicobacter pylori is highly associated with gastric carcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis is also influenced by some environmental factors and host genetic diversity, which engenders differential host inflammatory responses that can influence clinical outcome. Chronic gastritis induced by H. pylori is the strongest known risk factor for adenocarcinoma of the distal stomach, but the effects of bacterial eradication on carcinogenesis have remained unclear up to now. Although eradication of H. pylori infection appears to reduce the risk of gastric cancer, several recent controlled interventional trials by H. pylori eradication to prevent gastric cancer have yielded disappointing results. To clarify this problem in a high-risk population, the investigators conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, population-based studies. The results of previous studies highlight the importance of longer and careful follow-up after eradication therapy. It seems that eradication treatment is effective in preventing gastric cancer if it is given before preneoplastic conditions/lesions, gastric atrophy, metaplasia, and dysplasia, have had time to develop. Furthermore, the significant efficacy of treatment observed in younger patients suggests the need to eradicate H. pylori as early as possible. This consensus aimed to propose guidelines for the diagnosis, management and control of individuals with chronic gastritis, atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, or dysplasia.

  13. Changes in Cardiac Varices and Their Clinical Significance after Eradication of Esophageal Varices by Band Ligation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Woon Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. Cardiac varices (CVs in patients with type 1 gastroesophageal varices (GOV1s usually disappear with treatment for esophageal varices (EVs by endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EIS. However, whether this applies to patients treated with endoscopic band ligation (EBL for EVs remains unclear. We evaluated the effect of EVs eradication by EBL on CVs. Methods. We included cirrhotic patients whose EVs had been eradicated using EBL and excluded those who had been treated using EIS, those who had received endoscopic therapy for CVs, and those who were combined with hepatocellular carcinoma. Results. A total of 123 patients were enrolled. The age was 59.7 ± 11.7 years, and 96 patients (78.0% were men. Thirty-eight patients (30.9% had EVs only, while 85 (69.1% had GOV1s. After EVs eradication, the CVs disappeared in 55 patients (64.7%. EVs recurred in 40 patients, with recurrence rates at 1, 2, and 3 years of 16.0%, 29.6%, and 35.6%, respectively, the recurrence being more frequent in patients who had undergone EBL for secondary prophylaxis and in those with persisting CVs after EVs eradication (P=0.003. Conclusions. CVs frequently disappeared when EVs were eradicated using EBL in patients with GOV1s. Persistence of CVs after EVs eradication by EBL was associated with EVs recurrence.

  14. The relationship between the failure to eradicate Helicobacter pylori and previous antibiotics use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sun Gyo; Park, Rae Woong; Shin, Sung Jae; Yoon, Dukyong; Kang, Joon Koo; Hwang, Jae Chul; Kim, Soon Sun; Kim, Jin Hong; Lee, Kee Myung

    2016-04-01

    The previous use of antibiotics is known to correlate positively with antibiotic resistance; whether this is also the case in the eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection is unclear. To investigate the relationship between the previous use of antibiotics and the failure of eradication therapy in H. pylori infection. The relationship between the clinical parameters and the failure of H. pylori eradication was analyzed in patients administered standard triple therapy and then assessed for the eradication of H. pylori based on a C13-urea breath test. In a multivariate analysis, failure rates increased significantly in patients with a history of clarithromycin (odds ratio [OR], 4.445) or other macrolides (OR, 2.407) use, who were female (OR, 1.339), or who were older than 60 years of age (OR, 1.326). The eradication failure rate in patients with a history of macrolides use for >2 weeks was significantly higher than if the duration of use was history of macrolides is a useful predictor of the likelihood of standard triple therapy failure in H. pylori eradication. The alternatives such as a bismuth-based quadruple or a levofloxacin-containing therapy should be considered in patients treated with macrolides for >2 weeks. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Comparison of vonoprazan and proton pump inhibitors for eradication of Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Shinozaki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Alternative eradication therapies for Helicobacter pylori infection are needed because of an increasing failure rate over the past decade. The aim of this study was to determine if vonoprazan, a new potassium-competitive acid blocker, showed superiority to existing proton pump inhibitors for primary eradication of H. pylori in routine clinical practice. Data for 573 patients who underwent primary H. pylori eradication therapy were retrospectively reviewed. Regimens included clarithromycin 200 mg, amoxicillin 750 mg, and an acid-suppressing drug [lansoprazole 30 mg (LAC, rabeprazole 10 mg (RAC, esomeprazole 20 mg (EAC, or vonoprazan 20 mg (VAC] twice daily for 1 week. Eradication was successful in 73% (419/573 of patients using intention-to-treat (ITT analysis and 76% (419/549 of patients in per-protocol (PP analysis. The VAC group had a significantly superior eradication rate compared with the LAC and RAC groups in ITT (VAC 83%, LAC 66% and RAC 67%, p  80% eradication rate regardless of the degree of atrophy.

  16. Screw-worm eradication in the Americas - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyss, John H.

    2000-01-01

    Screw-worms (Cochliomyia hominivorax, Coquerel) are found only in the Americas, and are known, therefore, as the New World Screw-worm (NWS). The larval stages of the fly feed on the living flesh of their host. A screw-worm infestation can kill an adult animal in 7-10 days if not treated. All warm-blooded animals are affected including man. Although screw-worms had long been recognised as a severe pest of animals in the southwestern United States, they had never been detected east of the Mississippi River before 1933. In July 1933, screw-worms were transported on infested cattle to Georgia and became established east of the Mississippi River. Screw-worms spread quickly in the southeastern United States and were able to overwinter in southern Florida. Being new to the region, they were quickly recognised as a severe pest with a tremendous economic impact on livestock production. The livestock owners in the southeastern United States immediately noticed an increase in the number of animal deaths and increased costs of insecticides, veterinary medicines, veterinary services, inspection and handling. At the same time, they observed a decrease in animal weights and in milk production. Due to these observations, the livestock industry in the southeastern United States requested help in controlling screw-worms. Because of these requests, the research community became interested in control and eradication measures for this pest. Early work by Crushing and Patton in 1933 recognised that C. hominivorax was an obligatory animal parasite and different from the secondary blowfly, Cochliomyia macellaria. In 1934, the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service (ARS) opened a research station in Valdosa, Georgia, and E.W. Laake and E.F. Knipling were assigned to work there. In September 1935, R.C. Bushland was hired by ARS to do research related to screw-worms at an ARS Research Laboratory in Dallas, Texas. Melvin and Bushland in 1936 developed artificial

  17. Population Genetics as a Tool to Select Tsetse Control Strategies: Suppression or Eradication of Glossina palpalis gambiensis in the Niayes of Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solano, Philippe; Kaba, Dramane; Ravel, Sophie; Sall, Baba; Mathu Ndung'u, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    The Government of Senegal has initiated the ''Projet de lutte contre les glossines dans les Niayes'' to remove the trypanosomosis problem from this area in a sustainable way. Due to past failures to sustainably eradicate Glossina palpalis gambiensis from the Niayes area, controversies remain as to the best strategy implement, i.e. ''eradication'' versus ''supression''.To inform this debate, we used population genetics to measure genetic differentiation between G. palpalis gambiensis from the Niayes and those from the southern tsetse belt (Missira).Three different markers (microsatellite DNA, mitochondrial CO1 DNA, and geometric morphometrics of the wings) were used on 153 individuals and revealed that the G. p. gambiensis populations of the Niayes were genetically isolated from the nearest proximate known population of Missira. The genetic differentiation measured between these two areas (h=0.12 using microsatellites) was equivalent to a between-taxa differentiation. We also demonstrated that within the Niayes, the population from Dakar Hann was isolated from the others and had probably experienced a bottleneck.The information presented in this paper leads to the recommendation that an eradication strategy for the Niayes populations is advisable. This kind of study may be repeated in other habitats and for other tsetse species to help decision on appropriate tsetse control strategies and find other possible discontinuities in tsetse distribution.

  18. Current progress toward eradicating Helicobacter pylori in East Asian countries: differences in the 2013 revised guidelines between China, Japan, and South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun-Young

    2014-02-14

    New 2013 guidelines on Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection have been published in China, Japan, and South Korea. Like the previous ones, these new guidelines differ between the three countries with regard to the indications for H. pylori eradication, diagnostic methods, and treatment regimens. The most profound change among all of the guidelines is that the Japanese national health insurance system now covers the expenses for all infected subjects up to second-line treatment. This makes the Japanese indications for eradication much wider than those in China and South Korea. With regard to the diagnosis, a serum H. pylori antibody test is not recommended in China, whereas it is considered to be the most reliable method in Japan. A decrease relative to the initial antibody titer of more than 50% after 6-12 mo is considered to be the most accurate method for determining successful eradication in Japan. In contrast, only the urea breath test is recommended after eradication in China, while either noninvasive or invasive methods (except the bacterial culture) are recommended in South Korea. Due to the increased rate of antibiotics resistance, first-line treatment is omitted in China and South Korea in cases of clarithromycin resistance. Notably, the Japanese regimen consists of a lower dose of antibiotics for a shorter duration (7 d) than in the other countries. There is neither 14 d nor bismuth-based regimen in the first-line and second-line treatment in Japan. Such differences among countries might be due to differences in the approvals granted by the governments and national health insurance system in each country. Further studies are required to achieve the best results in the diagnosis and treatment of H. pylori infection based on cost-effectiveness in East Asian countries.

  19. Quantitative Investigation of Efficiency of Ultraviolet and Visible Light in Eradication of Candida albicans In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maver-Bišćanin, Mirela; Mravak-Stipetić, Marinka; Bukovski, Suzana; Bišćanin, Alen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to quantitatively investigate the efficiency of the ultraviolet (UV) and visible light in eradication of Candida albicans in vitro; in particular, to determine, for selected wavelengths, the specific eradication coefficients and thresholds in terms of energy density levels required to effect 3.0log10 and 4.0log10 reduction. Background data: Oral candidosis is the most common infection of the oral cavity and is caused by Candida species. The widespread use of topical and systemic antifungal agents as conventional treatment for oral candidosis has resulted in the development of resistance in C. albicans. Therefore, it has become necessary to develop alternative therapies for the treatment of oral candidosis. Methods: C. albicans ATCC® 90028™ was irradiated with 254 nm, 365 nm, 406 nm, 420 nm, and broadband Xe spectrum. For each wavelength, a fit of experimental data (survival fraction vs. applied energy density) with an exponential decay function enabled estimation of the specific eradication coefficients and thresholds. Results: Based on estimated specific efficiencies (Δ) and eradication thresholds (ET) of the investigated wavelengths, the ranking in eradication efficiency of C. albicans (most to least effective) is: 254 nm (Δ=6.1 mJ/cm−2, ET99.99=56 mJ/cm−2), broadband Xe spectrum (Δ=27.7 mJ/cm−2, ET99.99=255 mJ/cm−2), 365 nm (Δ=4.3 J/cm−2, ET99.99=39 J/cm−2), 420 nm (Δ=0.65 J/cm−2, ET99.99=6 J/cm−2), and 406 nm (Δ=11.4 J/cm−2, ET99.99=104 J/cm−2). Conclusions: The results provide insight into the wavelength-dependent dynamics of eradication of C. albicans. For each investigated wavelength, the eradication coefficient and corresponding eradication threshold were estimated. The observed different eradication efficiencies are consequence of different spectrally dependent inactivation mechanisms. The established methodology enables unambiguous quantitative

  20. Does Helicobacter pylori Eradication Reduce the Risk of Open Angle Glaucoma in Patients With Peptic Ulcer Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsin-Yi; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chen, Wen-Chi; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-09-01

    To investigate whether Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) eradication would influence the risk of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) in patients with peptic ulcer disease. From the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000, 6061 patients with peptic ulcer and receiving H pylori eradication therapy were recruited. The study cohort was subdivided into early (within 1 year) and late (after 1 year) eradication cohorts. The 24,244 control cohort subjects were those who without peptic ulcer and without receiving H pylori eradication therapy and were frequency-matched with the H pylori eradication cohort by age, sex, and the year of receiving H pylori eradication therapy. The higher incidence of POAG was observed in late H pylori eradication cohort and in early H pylori eradication cohort than in control cohort (1.57, 1.32, and 0.95, per 1000 person-year, respectively). However, overall risk of glaucoma was not significantly higher in the late eradication than in the early eradication (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.85, 95% confidence interval = 0.48-1.53). The POAG incidence was greater in the late H pylori eradication cohort when follow-up duration ≤ 5 years (1.59, per 1000 person-years). However, when follow-up duration >5 years, the incidence of POAG was greater in the early H pylori eradication cohort (1.68, per 1000 person-years). These relationships were not associated with a significantly increased or decreased risk of POAG in multivariable analyses. Either early or late H pylori eradication does not significantly reduce the risk of glaucoma in patients with peptic ulcer disease compared with normal control.

  1. Influence of vitamin C and E supplementation on the eradication rates of triple and quadruple eradication regimens for Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Hakan; Uygun İlikhan, Sevil; Öztürk, Kadir; Üstündağ, Yücel; Kurt, Ömer; Bilici, Muammer; Köktürk, Furuzan; Uygun, Ahmet

    2015-11-01

    In our study, we aimed to assess the effect of vitamin E and C supplementation to triple and quadruple Helicobacter pylori eradication regimens. Four hundred patients with H. pylori infection were classified into four groups. Patients in group A (n=100) received amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and lansoprazole for 2 weeks. In group B, patients (n=100) received vitamins C and E for a month, in addition to amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and lansoprazole for 2 weeks. Patients in group C (n=100) received amoxicillin, clarithromycin, lansoprazole, and bismuth subcitrate for 2 weeks, whereas those in group D (n=100) received vitamins C and E for a month, in addition to amoxicillin, clarithromycin, lansoprazole, and bismuth subcitrate for 2 weeks. H. pylori eradication was assessed with the C14 urea breath test 2 months after the end of the therapy. The eradication rate was assessed using per-protocol (PP) and intention-to-treat (ITT) analyses. Three hundred forty-eight patients finished the study. The eradication of H. pylori was achieved in 63 of 84 patients (75%) by PP and 63 of 100 (63%) by ITT analysis in group A, 60 of 84 (71.4%) by PP and 60 of 100 (60%) by ITT analysis in group B, 72 of 89 (80.9 %) by PP and 72 of 100 (72%) by ITT analysis in group C, and 76 of 91 (83.5%) by PP and 76 of 100 (76%) by ITT analysis in group D. There was no remarkable change between groups A and B (p>0.05). Similar results were also found between groups D and C (p>0.05). This study revealed that supplementing vitamins C and E to either the triple or quadruple therapies did not provide an additional advantage for achieving significantly higher eradication rates for H. pylori.

  2. Effects of Helminth Eradication on the Immune System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziva Weisman

    2017-07-01

    missed and did not receive the antihelminth treatment. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that helminth infection is associated with profound immune changes that are normalized within a short time after helminth eradication. They also strengthen the hypothesis that effective antihelminth interventions, in areas endemic for intestinal helminths, may have an impact on AIDS and tuberculosis epidemics.

  3. Chagas disease: control, elimination and eradication. Is it possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Rodrigues Coura

    2013-12-01

    wild triatomines in that area. Finally, a characteristic that is greatly in evidence currently is the migration of people with Chagas disease from endemic areas of Latin America to non-endemic countries. This has created a new dilemma for these countries: the risk of transmission through blood transfusion and the onus of controlling donors and treating migrants with the disease. As an enzooty of wild animals and vectors, and as an anthropozoonosis, Chagas disease cannot be eradicated, but it must be controlled by transmission elimination to man.

  4. Efficacy of Helicobacter pylori eradication therapies in Korea: A systematic review and network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yoon Suk; Park, Chan Hyuk; Park, Jung Ho; Nam, Eunwoo; Lee, Hang Lak

    2017-08-01

    The efficacy of Helicobacter pylori eradication regimens may depend on the country where the studies were performed because of the difference in antibiotic resistance. We aimed to analyze the efficacy of H. pylori eradication regimens in Korea where clarithromycin resistance rate is high. We searched for all relevant randomized controlled trials published until November 2016 that investigated the efficacy of H. pylori eradication therapies in Korea. A network meta-analysis was performed to calculate the direct and indirect estimates of efficacy among the eradication regimens. Forty-three studies were identified through a systematic review, of which 34 studies, published since 2005, were included in the meta-analysis. Among 21 included regimens, quinolone-containing sequential therapy for 14 days (ST-Q-14) showed the highest eradication rate (91.4% [95% confidence interval [CI], 86.9%-94.4%] in the intention-to-treat [ITT] analysis). The eradication rate of the conventional triple therapy for 7 days, standard sequential therapy for 10 days, hybrid therapy for 10-14 days, and concomitant therapy for 10-14 days was 71.1% (95% CI, 68.3%-73.7%), 76.2% (95% CI, 72.8%-79.3%), 79.4% (95% CI, 75.5%-82.8%), and 78.3% (95% CI, 75.3%-80.9%), respectively, in the ITT analysis. In the network meta-analysis, ST-Q-14 showed a better comparative efficacy than the conventional triple therapy, standard sequential therapy, hybrid therapy, and concomitant therapy. In addition, tolerability of ST-Q-14 was comparable to those regimens. In Korea, ST-Q-14 showed the highest efficacy in terms of eradication and a comparable tolerability, compared to the results reported for the conventional triple therapy, standard sequential therapy, hybrid therapy, and concomitant therapy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The internalization of Helicobacter pylori plays a role in the failure of H. pylori eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, You-Hua; Lv, Zhi-Fa; Zhong, Yao; Liu, Dong-Sheng; Chen, Shu-Ping; Xie, Yong

    2017-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) internalization involves invasion of cells by the bacterium. Several studies have shown that H. pylori can invade human gastric epithelial cells, immune cells, and Candida yeast in vivo and in vitro. Whether bacterial invasion plays a role in eradication failure is unclear. To investigate the relationship between H. pylori invasion of GES-1 cells and H. pylori eradication failure. Forty-two clinical strains isolated from H. pylori-positive patients with different outcomes after treatment with furazolidone-based therapy were examined (17 failures and 25 successes). The H. pylori strains were shown to be susceptible to amoxicillin and furazolidone, and the patients also exhibited good compliance. Genotyping was performed for cagA and vacA (s and m). The antibiotic susceptibility of the strains to amoxicillin, furazolidone, clarithromycin, metronidazole, and levofloxacin was determined by E-tests. The levels of H. pylori invasion of GES-1 cells were detected by gentamicin colony-forming unit assays. The internalization level in the eradication success group was 5.40±5.78 × 10 -3  cfu/cell, and the median was 6.194 × 10 -3  cfu/cell; the internalization level in the eradication failure group was 8.98±5.40 × 10 -3  cfu/cell, and the median was 10.28 × 10 -3  cfu/cell. The eradication failure group showed a greater invasion level than the eradication success group (P.05). The results showed that H. pylori invasion of the gastric epithelia might play a role in eradication failure. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. [Eradication of Helicobacter pylori in peptic ulcer and chronic gastritis. A randomized clinical trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Hernández, H; Sánchez Anguiano, L F; Quiñones, E

    1998-01-01

    The Helicobacter pylori (Hp) is found in patients with gastritis and peptic ulcer approximately in up to 80 percent. The eradication rates of 80 to 90 percent are achievable with some regimens. Evaluate two regimens for H pylori eradication in gastritis and peptic ulcer. Patients more than 20 years old with gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcer disease and H pylori positive entered the study. We investigated prior history of peptic ulcer and hemorrhage, NSAID's use, smoking, alcoholism and epigastric pain. Endoscopy was performed before and at the end of the 8-12 weeks treatment, biopsies were taken from the antrum for Hp histological detection. Patients were randomly assigned to receive bismuth-metronidazole-tetracycline-ranitidine or bismuth-metronidazole-amoxicillin-ranitidine during two weeks. chi square and multivariate analysis. One hundred and eighteen patients were included in this study, 52% male and 48% female with mean age of 47 +/- 16 years. History of peptic ulcer and bleeding was present in 79% and 62% respectively. NSAID's, and tobacco use among all patients was 49%, and 30%. Epigastric pain, melena and hematemesis was present in 90%, 47% and 24% respectively. H pylori eradication treatment was successful in 70% in both regimens (pNS). Was no related to age, tobacco and alcohol for Hp eradication (pNS), and NSAID's use was inversely related to Hp eradication (p peptic ulcer was seen in 23%. Eradication treatment was successful in 70% (p NS). Peptic ulcer refractory in 23% of patients and NSAID's use was inversely related to Hp eradication (p 0.05).

  7. Poliomyelitis in transgenic mice expressing CD155 under the control of the Tage4 promoter after oral and parenteral poliovirus inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shaukat; Toyoda, Hidemi; Linehan, Melissa; Iwasaki, Akiko; Nomoto, Akio; Bernhardt, Günter; Cello, Jeronimo; Wimmer, Eckard

    2014-08-01

    An important step in poliovirus (PV) infection by the oral route in humans is replication of the virus in lymphatic tissues of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, thought to be mainly in the Peyer's patches of the small intestine. No immunocompetent transgenic (tg) mice that express human PV receptor (CD155) under the control of different promoters can be infected orally. The mouse orthologue of human CD155 is Tage4, a protein expressed at the surface of enterocytes and in the Peyer's patches. We describe here the generation of a tg mouse model in which the Tage4 promoter was used to drive expression of the human PV receptor-coding region (Tage4-CD155tg mice). In this model, CD155 expression was observed by immunostaining in different regions in the Peyer's patches but not in their germinal centres. Although a similar pattern of staining was observed between 3- and 6-week-old Tage4-CD155tg mice, poliomyelitis was only seen in the younger mice after PV infection by the oral route. When compared with TgPVR21 mice that expressed CD155 driven by its human promoter, 3-week-old Tage4-CD155tg mice were more susceptible to gut infection and paralysis following feeding with PV. Also, Tage4-CD155tg mice exhibited higher susceptibility to poliomyelitis after parenteral inoculation of PV. Remarkably, the LD50 after intracerebral inoculation of PV was similar in both CD155 tg mouse strains. The CD155 tg mouse model reported here, although moderately susceptible to oral infection, may be suitable to study mechanisms of PV replication in the gastrointestinal tract and to dissect important aspects of PV neuroinvasiveness. © 2014 The Authors.

  8. National surveillance of Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy in Denmark. Results from registration of 34,582 prescriptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, K.V.; Thomsen, V O; Nissen, A.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We wanted to characterize the use of Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy in Denmark (5,227,862 inhabitants). METHODS: All H. pylori eradication treatments from a nationwide database including all redeemed drug prescriptions in the period January 1994 to June 1996 were identified. So...... cent of the patients had only one treatment course. In 16% of the eradication therapies, nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs had been prescribed within the previous 3 months, and 45% had an anti-ulcer drug prescribed 1-12 months after the H. pylori eradication therapy. Consumption of antibiotics used...... were all outpatients receiving a drug prescription for H. pylori eradication. RESULTS: We recorded 34,582 prescriptions for H. pylori eradication therapy given to 28,784 patients. The incidence of new consumers was 220 per 10(5) inhabitants per year, with a maximum at 70-79 years of age. Eighty-six per...

  9. National surveillance of Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy in Denmark. Results from registration of 34,582 prescriptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, K.V.; Thomsen, V O; Nissen, A.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We wanted to characterize the use of Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy in Denmark (5,227,862 inhabitants). METHODS: All H. pylori eradication treatments from a nationwide database including all redeemed drug prescriptions in the period January 1994 to June 1996 were identified. So...... were all outpatients receiving a drug prescription for H. pylori eradication. RESULTS: We recorded 34,582 prescriptions for H. pylori eradication therapy given to 28,784 patients. The incidence of new consumers was 220 per 10(5) inhabitants per year, with a maximum at 70-79 years of age. Eighty-six per...... cent of the patients had only one treatment course. In 16% of the eradication therapies, nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs had been prescribed within the previous 3 months, and 45% had an anti-ulcer drug prescribed 1-12 months after the H. pylori eradication therapy. Consumption of antibiotics used...

  10. Eradication of Aujeszky's disease from a large-scale pig farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komáromi, M; Szabó, I

    2005-01-01

    Eradication of Aujeszky's disease from a large-scale pig farm by the 'test-and-cull' eradication procedure based on the use of gene-deleted vaccines and serological monitoring using gE ELISA is described. Aujeszky's disease free status was successfully achieved on a farrow-to-finish type farm characterised by three difficulties interfering with the success of eradication: (i) weaned (30-day-old) piglets remained in the farrowing house until 65 days of age; (ii) the farm did not use nursery rearing; (iii) fatteners were kept together with the breeding gilts. Thus, the immunisation programme had to be adjusted to the management technology used on the farm, and by regular serological monitoring it had to be periodically modified to make it suitable for attaining the goals. This meant that breeding animal candidates of a wide age range and kept in the same air space had to be provided with a continuously high-level immunity by regular vaccination sufficient even for rectifying potential human errors. The immunisation programme was designed by taking into consideration the disappearance of maternal immunity, and a strict vaccination programme was applied during the rearing of breeding gilts kept together with the fattening pigs. Frequent immunisation applied during the rearing of the own breeding animal replacements proved to be of decisive importance for the eradication of Aujeszky's disease from the entire herd. In addition to the accurate implementation of the vaccination programme, regular serological monitoring also made a major contribution to the success of eradication.

  11. The glycan-dependent ERAD machinery degrades topologically diverse misfolded proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yun-Ji; Vavra, Ulrike; Veit, Christiane; Strasser, Richard

    2018-04-01

    Many soluble and integral membrane proteins fold in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) with the help of chaperones and folding factors. Despite these efforts, protein folding is intrinsically error prone and amino acid changes, alterations in post-translational modifications or cellular stress can cause protein misfolding. Folding-defective non-native proteins are cleared from the ER and typically undergo ER-associated degradation (ERAD). Here, we investigated whether different misfolded glycoproteins require the same set of ERAD factors and are directed to HRD1 complex-mediated degradation in plants. We generated a series of glycoprotein ERAD substrates harboring a misfolded domain from Arabidopsis STRUBBELIG or the BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITVE 1 receptor fused to different membrane anchoring regions. We show that single pass and multispanning ERAD substrates are subjected to glycan-dependent degradation by the HRD1 complex. However, the presence of a powerful ER exit signal in the multispanning ERAD substrates causes competition with ER quality control and targeting of misfolded glycoproteins to the vacuole. Our results demonstrate that the same machinery is used for degradation of topologically different misfolded glycoproteins in the ER of plants. © 2018 The Authors. The Plant Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Experimental Biology.

  12. Lessons learned during the successful eradication of bovine tuberculosis from Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, S. J.; Radunz, B.; Glanville, R. J.

    2015-01-01

    There are very few international examples of the successful eradication of bovine tuberculosis (TB, caused by infection with Mycobacterium bovis) from a national cattle population. This paper presents a brief overview of the successful TB eradication programme in Australia from 1970, with primary emphasis on lessons of international relevance that were learned from the Australian experience. The national brucellosis and tuberculosis eradication campaign ran for 27 years from 1970 to 1997 and has been followed by ongoing abattoir surveillance. Rapid progress towards eradication was made in southern Australia, but proved much more challenging in extensive pastoral areas of northern Australia. Declaration of TB freedom was made on December 31, 1997. A range of factors were critical to this success, including a compelling rationale for eradication, an agreed final outcome, industry commitment and financial support, a business model for programme planning, implementation and review, consistent and transparent technical standards underpinned by a strict regulatory regime and applied research, the critical role of abattoir surveillance, effective elimination of residual infection and objective measures of programme progress. Although direct translation of some of these experiences may not be possible, many of the lessons learned from the Australian experience may be relevant to other countries. PMID:26338937

  13. First-Line Helicobacter pylori Eradication with Vonoprazan, Clarithromycin, and Metronidazole in Patients Allergic to Penicillin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soichiro Sue

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the efficacy of 7-day first-line Helicobacter pylori eradication with vonoprazan (VPZ, clarithromycin (CAM, and metronidazole (MNZ in patients with penicillin allergy. Methods. Patients with penicillin allergy, diagnosed with Helicobacter pylori infection and did not have history of Helicobacter pylori eradication, were eligible for the study. Twenty patients were prospectively treated with 20 mg VPZ twice daily, 200 or 400 mg CAM twice daily, and 250 mg MNZ twice daily for 7 days. We also collected the data from 30 patients retrospectively treated with proton pump inhibitor (PPI, CAM, and MNZ. Safety was evaluated in patients completing an adverse effect questionnaire. Results. Both the intention-to-treat and per-protocol effectiveness of VPZ-based eradication were 100% (95% CI: 86.1–100%; n=20. The eradication rates of PPI-based regimen were 83.3% (95% CI: 65.3–94.4% in the ITT and 82.7% (95% CI: 64.2–94.2% in the PP analyses. Abdominal fullness was more frequent in VCM compared to PCM. However, all patients with VCM regimen had taken 100% of their course of medication. Conclusion. Triple therapy with VPZ, CAM, and MNZ is well tolerated and effective for eradicating Helicobacter pylori in patients allergic to penicillin. This study was registered in the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry as UMIN000016335.

  14. Triple therapy with clarithromycin, amoxicillin and omeprazole for Helicobacter pylori eradication in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAWAKAMI Elisabete

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Background - Helicobacter pylori infection presents high prevalence in developing countries, but there are few pediatric assays evaluating antimicrobial treatment. Objective - The aim of this study was to investigate Helicobacter pylori eradication rate using a short regimen (7 and 10 days of triple therapy with clarithromycin, amoxicillin and omeprazole. Patients and methods - Twenty-five Hp positive patients who presented severe epigastralgia, were submitted to antimicrobial treatment with amoxicillin (50 mg/kg/day - maximum dose 1g bid, clarithromycin (30 mg/kg/day - maximum dose 500 mg bid and omeprazole (0.6 mg/kg/day - maximum dose 20 mg bid during 7 or 10 days. After 2 months, clinical symptoms were evaluated and gastric biopsies were taken to test Hp eradication. Results - Overall eradication rate was achieved in 16/25 patients (64% - IC(95% = 45-83%, in 11/15 (73% - IC(95% = 51-95% patients who used 10 days therapy course and in 5/10 (50% - IC(95% = 19-81% who used 7 days therapy course. Eradication drugs were well accepted and adverse effects were reported in two patients (8%. Conclusions - This triple therapy regimen had moderate efficacy (64%. The data suggests that 10 days therapy course achieves better eradication rate (73% than 7 days course (50% to treat Hp infection in our population.

  15. The treatment and eradication of sheep lice and ked with cyhalothrin--a new synthetic pyrethroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundle, J C; Forsyth, B A

    1984-12-01

    A new synthetic pyrethroid, cyhalothrin, has been evaluated as both a sheep dip and a jetting fluid for the control of body lice (Damalinia ovis), face lice (Linognathus ovillus), foot lice (Linognathus pedalis) and the sheep ked (Melophagus ovinus). A dip wash concentration of 1.25 ppm cyhalothrin eradicated D. ovis from sheep. A jetting fluid at a concentration of 20 ppm also eradicated D. ovis. In the field cyhalothrin was evaluated at 20 ppm as a dip wash and at 50 ppm as a jetting fluid. These field trials confirmed the ability of cyhalothrin to eradicate D. ovis from short and long-woolled sheep. The sucking lice, L. ovillus and L. pedalis, were also found to be very susceptible to cyhalothrin at a dip wash concentration of 20 ppm, but it was necessary to treat the predilection sites infested by these parasites twice within a 3-week period to achieve their eradication. Sheep ked (M. ovinus) were eradicated from an infected flock of sheep after plunge dipping in cyhalothrin at 20 ppm.

  16. Different bismuth-based therapies for eradicating Helicobacter pylori: Randomized clinical trial of efficacy and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokcan, Hale; Oztas, Erkin; Onal, Ibrahim Koral

    2016-02-01

    Bismuth salts are used for treating dyspepsia, and they exert antibacterial effects on Helicobacter pylori. This study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of three bismuth-containing combination regimens for H. pylori eradication in a Turkish population. In this single-center study, 149 patients, who were diagnosed with H. pylori infection with urea breath test and histopathological examination, were randomized to receive the following therapies for 14 days: (1) bismuth-containing clarithromycin-based triple therapy (CBS-LAC), (2) bismuth-containing levofloxacin-based triple therapy (CBS-LAL), and (3) bismuth-containing quadruple therapy (BCQT). Eradication rates were evaluated six weeks after the treatment by performing intention to treat (ITT) and per protocol (PP) analyses. In addition, data on side effect profiles and patient compliance were collected. PP and ITT analyses showed that eradication rates were 86% and 81.1%, respectively, with BCQT; 68.3% and 66.7%, respectively, with CBS-LAL therapy; and 65.3% and 59.3%, respectively, with CBS-LAC therapy. Eradication rates obtained using PP and ITT analyses were statistically significant for all the regimens. Addition of bismuth to standard triple and levofloxacin-based regimen did not show an acceptable increase in eradication rates. Therefore, BCQT may be preferred for the first-line treatment of H. pylori infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Interaction Between Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Hepatitis C Eradication With Direct-acting Antiviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konjeti, Venkata Rajesh; John, Binu V

    2018-03-22

    The approval of direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy has revolutionized hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment. However, the publication of a study from Barcelona in 2016 raised concern for an increased risk of recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after potentially curative therapy in patients receiving DAAs. This article reviews the current literature on the interaction between HCC and hepatitis C eradication with DAAs. Following publication of the initial observation in 2016, a number of studies have looked at the impact of active HCC on the success of antiviral therapy, as well as that of treatment with DAAs on both the occurrence and recurrence of HCC. The presence of active HCC decreases sustained virologic response (SVR) rates with DAAs. However, SVR rates improve in patients who have achieved complete radiological response or are treated post transplantation. With respect to occurrence of HCC after DAAs, many small single-center studies without a control group have documented high incidence. The rates are also higher when compared to those of historical controls treated with interferon, but these patients are not comparable because DAA-treated population is more likely to have advanced fibrosis or decompensation. In large studies that have included a control group (patients treated concurrently who did not achieve SVR), a decrease in the occurrence of HCC has been demonstrated. With regard to recurrence of HCC, while smaller single-center studies have shown an increase, larger studies with control group have not replicated those findings. However, methodological limitations in the published studies limit our ability to make a firm conclusion on both the occurrence and recurrence of HCC after DAA therapy. The presence of active HCC decreases treatment success rates with DAAs. Therefore, it is recommended that treatment of HCV in patients with HCC be deferred till there is complete radiological response. Though there are major limitations with the

  18. Changes in aberrant DNA methylation after Helicobacter pylori eradication: a long-term follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Cheol Min; Kim, Nayoung; Lee, Hye Seung; Park, Ji Hyun; Ahn, Soyeon; Kang, Gyeong Hoon; Kim, Jung Mogg; Kim, Joo Sung; Lee, Dong Ho; Jung, Hyun Chae

    2013-11-01

    Changes of DNA methylation in gastric mucosae after eradication of Helicobacter pylori have not been clarified yet. From this background, we investigated time course of DNA methylation following H. pylori eradication in 221 successfully H. pylori eradicated subjects with endoscopic follow-up at least for 6 months, including 114 controls, 53 subjects with gastric dysplasia and 54 patients with early gastric cancer. All dysplasia and gastric cancer patients underwent endoscopic resection at the time of enrollment. The methylation levels in LOX, APC and MOS genes from noncancerous gastric mucosae using quantitative methylation-specific PCR, as well as the histologic findings of gastric mucosae, were compared before and after eradication. Average follow-up duration was 26.0 months (range: 6 to 76 months). H. pylori eradication decreased methylation levels in LOX (p-value for slope pylori eradication was significant among controls without intestinal metaplasia (IM) (p-value for slope pylori eradication, methylation level in MOS persistently increased in patients with dysplasia or gastric cancer (p pylori eradication decreases aberrant DNA methylation with gene-specific manner. Methylation level in MOS is associated with IM and may be used as a surrogate marker for gastric cancer risk, regardless of H. pylori eradication history. © 2013 UICC.

  19. Travelers' Health: Poliomyelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... acip-recs/vacc-specific/polio.html ) and the World Health Organization position paper on poliovirus vaccines ( www.who.int/ ... wer9112/en ). COUNTRY REQUIREMENTS In May 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the international spread of polio to ...

  20. Efficacy of PPI, levofloxacin and amoxicillin in the eradication of Helicobacter pylori compared to conventional triple therapy at a Venezuelan hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dib, Jacobo; Alvarez, Bethseidy; Mendez, Liskie; Cruz, Maria E

    2013-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori is the main cause of gastritis, gastroduodenal ulcers and gastric cancer. In the past two decades, the recommended treatment for its eradication as a first-line regimen is the standard triple therapy consisting of a proton pump inhibitor (PPI), amoxicillin and clarithromycin or metronidazole. However, the effectiveness of this traditional regime, which initially was 90%, progressively declined in many parts of the world and is currently 57-73%. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the eradication rate with triple therapy with levofloxacin is superior as first-line therapy to that with treatment using clarithromycin in the population that attended as outpatients at the Hospital of Lídice. We designed a prospective study, with two groups of patients presenting dyspeptic symptoms, from October 2010 to October 2011, who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and whose biopsies were positive for infection with H. pylori. At the end, 81 patients were included in the order of biopsy result arrival to fill the quota of each group. The first group with 42 patients underwent triple therapy with clarithromycin and the second group with 39 patients underwent therapy with levofloxacin, amoxicillin and a PPI. The patients' age ranged between 23 and 76years, the average being 49.5. The predominant sex was female, at 72.84%. Both treatments lasted for 10days and the patients were clinically re-evaluated 15days after their conclusion and programmed for a second endoscopy to verify H. pylori eradication. Among the 42 patients in the control group, there were 14 eradication failures with 33.33% resistance to clarithromycin. Among the 39 patients in the experimental group, two eradication failures with 5.13% resistance to levofloxacin were observed. The χ(2) value was 6.96. Treatment with levofloxacin was more effective than conventional triple therapy. Triple therapy with levofloxacin can be implemented in populations where resistance to

  1. A cost-benefit analysis and the potential trade effects of the bovine viral diarrhoea eradication programme in Styria, Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschik, T; Obritzhauser, W; Wagner, P; Richter, V; Mayerhofer, M; Egger-Danner, C; Käsbohrer, A; Pinior, B

    2018-01-01

    This study evaluated the voluntary and compulsory implementation of a bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) eradication programme in the Austrian Federal State of Styria, Austria, from an economic point of view using ex-post assessment of costs and benefits (disease losses avoided). An economic net benefit (benefit:cost ratio, BCR=1.18) of the programme was demonstrated during the voluntary programme phase (January 1998-July 2004). The break-even point was reached in 2003. If investments in the compulsory programme (August 2004-December 2016) were taken into account, a net economic loss (BCR=0.16) was demonstrated. In contrast to on-going annual testing of all cattle herds, annual testing in accordance with a revised sampling scheme could reduce total surveillance costs by more than 77%. A Bayesian structural time series model was applied to analyse a hypothesised positive impact of the compulsory BVDV programme on the Styrian cattle export market. The average number of exported cows and bulls increased significantly by 42% (P=0.03) and 47% (P=0.01), respectively, and the producer price increased by 14% (P=0.00) and 5% (P=0.16), respectively, during the compulsory programme period compared with the period prior to intervention. This equates to an average revenue increase of €29,754 for cows and €137,563 for bulls per month. These results justify the implementation of eradication programmes, which initially may not appear to be economically viable, particularly if trade effects are not included in the calculations. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Foot-and-mouth disease control and eradication in the Bicol Surveillance Buffer Zone of the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, P A; Freeman, P G; Abila, R; Benigno, C; Verin, B; Nim, V; Cameron, A

    2011-10-01

    Following the onset of an epidemic of foot and mouth disease (FMD) commencing in 1994 and affecting mainly pigs in the Philippines, a National Plan for the Control and Eradication of the disease was initiated. A disease surveillance buffer zone in the southern Luzon region of Bicol was established to protect the Visayas and Mindanao from infection and enable eventual elimination of the disease in Luzon. With achievement of Office International Epizooties (OIE)-certified FMD freedom with vaccination in the Philippines now imminent, the four components of the disease control strategy are reviewed, including quarantine and animal movement controls, strategic vaccination, surveillance and disease investigation, and enhanced public awareness with school on the air radio programmes. Although numbers of outbreaks declined following widespread vaccination, evaluation of serological responses in vaccinates suggested low levels of immune protection. The cessation of outbreaks was considered more likely a result of animal movement controls, improved surveillance and emergency response capability, and reduction in FMD-risk behaviours by livestock owners, particularly through efforts to enhance public awareness of biosecurity measures by the training of traders, livestock industry personnel and both commercial and smallholder farmers. A two-stage random sampling serosurveillance strategy enabled identification of residual infection that was not detected through opportunistic sampling and negative incident reporting. Intensive investigations of FMD outbreaks, particularly in Albay province in 1999, enabled improved understanding of the risk factors involved in disease transmission and implementation of appropriate interventions. The findings from this review are offered to assist development of FMD control and eradication programmes in other countries in south-east Asia that are now being encouraged to support the OIE goal of FMD freedom with vaccination by 2020. © 2011

  3. A new frontier of Okinawa's agriculture: An economic evaluation of the melon fly eradication project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakazu, H.

    2006-01-01

    During the post-reversion period (1972-2002), Okinawa's GDP has grown on average by 6.40% annually. In the growth process, agricultural activities have been rapidly replaced by construction and services activities such as public works and tourism. Okinawa's agriculture has been diversifying from traditional sugarcane and pineapple cultivation to flowers, tropical fruits and various healthy foods such as bitter melon or ''goya'' and turmeric. This paper attempts to post-evaluate the area-wide melon fly eradication project in Okinawa which was successfully completed in 1993. The melon flies affected more than 40 important vegetables and fruits in Okinawa. The sterile insect technique (SIT), an environmentally friendly method, was adopted to eradicate the flies. Based on conventional cost-benefit analysis, the project produced net accumulated benefits after 6 years of the eradication. The study shows that the project is viable even on commercial basis

  4. Impact of helicobacter pylori eradication on dyspeptic symptoms in the community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, S.Z.; English, J.; Abbas, A.B.; Vivian, G.; Shaw, S.; McGovern, D.; Dalton, H.R.

    2003-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Eradication of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) will cure most Hp positive duodenal ulcers (DU). However, after such treatment, patients often continue to get dyspeptic symptoms. The effects of Hp eradication in patients with proven DU on gastro-oesophageal reflux dis (GORD) symptoms are controversial. Results: Eighty one percent patients had improvement in ulcer-type symptoms. 21% developed new GORD symptoms. 68% discontinued long-term acid-suppression treatment. 79% requiring continued acid suppression therapy had new or continued GORD symptoms. Conclusion: Patients in the community with Hp positive DU disease after eradication, 81% patients got symptomatic improvement, two third discontinued their acid suppressing therapy but 21% developed new GORD symptoms. Among those who required continued acid suppression, 79% had GORD symptoms. (author)

  5. Fun with maths: exploring implications of mathematical models for malaria eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhoff, Philip A; Bever, Caitlin A; Gerardin, Jaline; Wenger, Edward A

    2014-12-11

    Mathematical analyses and modelling have an important role informing malaria eradication strategies. Simple mathematical approaches can answer many questions, but it is important to investigate their assumptions and to test whether simple assumptions affect the results. In this note, four examples demonstrate both the effects of model structures and assumptions and also the benefits of using a diversity of model approaches. These examples include the time to eradication, the impact of vaccine efficacy and coverage, drug programs and the effects of duration of infections and delays to treatment, and the influence of seasonality and migration coupling on disease fadeout. An excessively simple structure can miss key results, but simple mathematical approaches can still achieve key results for eradication strategy and define areas for investigation by more complex models.

  6. First-Line Helicobacter pylori Eradication in Patients with Chronic Kidney Diseases in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ming Liang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection have a higher incidence of gastroduodenal diseases and therefore are recommended to receive eradication therapies. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of a 7-day standard triple therapy in patients with CKD (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 and to investigate the clinical factors influencing the success of eradication. Methods. A total of 758 patients with H. pylori infection receiving a 7-day standard first-line triple therapy between January 1, 2013, and December 31, 2014, were recruited. Patients were divided into two groups: CKD group (N=130 and non-CKD group (N=628. Results. The eradication rates attained by the CKD and non-CKD groups were 85.4% and 85.7%, respectively, in the per-protocol analysis (p=0.933. The eradication rate in CKD stage 3 was 84.5% (82/97, in stage 4 was 88.2% (15/17, and in those who received hemodialysis was 87.5% (14/16. There were no significant differences in the various stages of CKD (p=0.982. The adverse events were similar between the two groups (3.1% versus 4.6%, p=0.433. Compliance between the two groups was good (100.0% versus 99.8%, p=0.649. There was no significant clinical factor influencing the H. pylori eradication rate in the non-CKD and CKD groups. Conclusions. This study suggests that the H. pylori eradication rate and adverse rate in patients with CKD are comparable to those of non-CKD patients.

  7. The Economic Impact of Eradicating Peste des Petits Ruminants: A Benefit-Cost Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryony A Jones

    Full Text Available Peste des petits ruminants (PPR is an important cause of mortality and production loss among sheep and goats in the developing world. Despite control efforts in a number of countries, it has continued to spread across Africa and Asia, placing an increasing burden on the livelihoods of livestock keepers and on veterinary resources in affected countries. Given the similarities between PPR and rinderpest, and the lessons learned from the successful global eradication of rinderpest, the eradication of PPR seems appealing, both eliminating an important disease and improving the livelihoods of the poor in developing countries. We conducted a benefit-cost analysis to examine the economic returns from a proposed programme for the global eradication of PPR. Based on our knowledge and experience, we developed the eradication strategy and estimated its costs. The benefits of the programme were determined from (i the averted mortality costs, based on an analysis of the literature, (ii the downstream impact of reduced mortality using a social accounting matrix, and (iii the avoided control costs based on current levels of vaccination. The results of the benefit-cost analysis suggest strong economic returns from PPR eradication. Based on a 15-year programme with total discounted costs of US$2.26 billion, we estimate discounted benefits of US$76.5 billion, yielding a net benefit of US$74.2 billion. This suggests a benefit cost ratio of 33.8, and an internal rate of return (IRR of 199%. As PPR mortality rates are highly variable in different populations, we conducted a sensitivity analysis based on lower and higher mortality scenarios. All the scenarios examined indicate that investment in PPR eradication would be highly beneficial economically. Furthermore, removing one of the major constraints to small ruminant production would be of considerable benefit to many of the most vulnerable communities in Africa and Asia.

  8. Comparative study of esomeprazole and lansoprazole in triple therapy for eradication of Helicobacter pylori in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Tsutomu; Tsujii, Masahiko; Tanimura, Hirohisa; Tsutsui, Shusaku; Tsuji, Shingo; Takeda, Akira; Inoue, Atsuo; Fukui, Hiroyuki; Yoshio, Toshiyuki; Kishida, Osamu; Ogawa, Hiroyuki; Oshita, Masahide; Kobayashi, Ichizo; Zushi, Shinichiro; Ichiba, Makoto; Uenoyama, Naoto; Yasunaga, Yuichi; Ishihara, Ryu; Yura, Mamoru; Komori, Masato; Egawa, Satoshi; Iijima, Hideki; Takehara, Tetsuo

    2014-04-21

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of esomeprazole-based triple therapy compared with lansoprazole therapy as first-line eradication therapy for patients with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in usual post-marketing use in Japan, where the clarithromycin (CAM) resistance rate is 30%. For this multicenter, randomized, open-label, non-inferiority trial, we recruited patients (≥ 20 years of age) with H. pylori infection from 20 hospitals in Japan. We randomly allocated patients to esomeprazole therapy (esomeprazole 20 mg, CAM 400 mg, amoxicillin (AC) 750 mg for the first 7 d, with all drugs given twice daily) or lansoprazole therapy (lansoprazole 30 mg, CAM 400 mg, AC 750 mg for the first 7 d, with all drugs given twice daily) using a minimization method with age, sex, and institution as adjustment factors. Our primary outcome was the eradication rate by intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) analyses. H. pylori eradication was confirmed by a urea breath test from 4 to 8 wk after cessation of therapy. ITT analysis revealed the eradication rates of 69.4% (95%CI: 61.2%-76.6%) for esomeprazole therapy and 73.9% (95%CI: 65.9%-80.6%) for lansoprazole therapy (P = 0.4982). PP analysis showed eradication rate of 76.9% (95%CI: 68.6%-83.5%) for esomeprazole therapy and 79.8% (95%CI: 71.9%-86.0%) for lansoprazole therapy (P = 0.6423). There were no differences in adverse effects between the two therapies. Esomeprazole showed non-inferiority and safety in a 7 day-triple therapy for eradication of H. pylori compared with lansoprazole.

  9. [Is the omeprazole and amoxicillin combination useful in the treatment eradicating Helicobacter pylori in Spain?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisbert, J P; Mur, M; Sainz, S; Ceña, G; Martín, C; Sainz, R; Boixeda, D; Monés, J

    1996-02-01

    To evaluate the efficiency of omeprazole (20 mg/12 h) plus amoxycillin (1 gr/12 h) in eradicating Helicobacter pylori in duodenal ulcer patients studied in four hospitals in our country. One-hundred and four patients (mean age: 49 +/- 16 years, 67% males) attended at four general hospitals in Spain, who had a duodenal ulcer demonstrated by endoscopy. These patients were infected with H. pylori demonstrated by urease test and histologic methods, and in 32 by a breath test and 18 by culture. Omeprazole 20 mg b.i.d. plus amoxycillin 1 gr b.i.d. was administered for 2 weeks. Endoscopy was repeated 1 month after completing therapy, and the aforementioned diagnostic methods were performed again. Eradication was achieved in 29% of cases (n = 30). In multiple logistic regression analysis, duration of ulcer disease was the only variable which correlated with success in H. pylori eradication (chi(2) = 7.2; p = 0.02). Additional variables (age, sex, smoking, pre-treatment with omeprazole, AINEs or H2 antagonist, ulcer size, and antral histologic gastritis) were not correlated with H. pylori eradication. Ulcer healing was demonstrated in 80% of patients (n = 83), and the healing rate was higher when eradication was achieved (97%) than in H. pylori-positive patients (73%) (p < 0.01). Compliance was good in all cases. No adverse effects were observed. [corrected] Disappointing results were obtained with omeprazole (20 mg b.i.d.) plus amoxycillin (1 gr b.i.d.) on H. pylori eradication. This combination cannot be recommended in our country at the doses employed in this study.

  10. Driven to extinction? The ethics of eradicating mosquitoes with gene-drive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Jonathan

    2016-09-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases represent a significant global disease burden, and recent outbreaks of such diseases have led to calls to reduce mosquito populations. Furthermore, advances in 'gene-drive' technology have raised the prospect of eradicating certain species of mosquito via genetic modification. This technology has attracted a great deal of media attention, and the idea of using gene-drive technology to eradicate mosquitoes has been met with criticism in the public domain. In this paper, I shall dispel two moral objections that have been raised in the public domain against the use of gene-drive technologies to eradicate mosquitoes. The first objection invokes the concept of the 'sanctity of life' in order to claim that we should not drive an animal to extinction. In response, I follow Peter Singer in raising doubts about general appeals to the sanctity of life, and argue that neither individual mosquitoes nor mosquitoes species considered holistically are appropriately described as bearing a significant degree of moral status. The second objection claims that seeking to eradicate mosquitoes amounts to displaying unacceptable degrees of hubris. Although I argue that this objection also fails, I conclude by claiming that it raises the important point that we need to acquire more empirical data about, inter alia, the likely effects of mosquito eradication on the ecosystem, and the likelihood of gene-drive technology successfully eradicating the intended mosquito species, in order to adequately inform our moral analysis of gene-drive technologies in this context. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. Bringing Everyone to the Table to Eradicate School Discipline Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Allison; Mediratta, Kavitha

    2015-01-01

    The Atlantic Philanthropies funded the work of the Positive and Safe Schools Advancing Greater Equity (PASSAGE) initiative, which is a unique approach to ending discipline disparities focused on partnerships between districts and community organizations. Open Society Foundations is considering funding similar work. For this interview, "Voices…

  12. Is There Any Difference in the Eradication Rate of Helicobacter pylori Infection According to the Endoscopic Stage of Peptic Ulcer Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seung In; Kim, Sung Jun; Kim, Hyoung Su; Shin, Woon Geon; Kim, Kyung Ho; Jang, Myoung Kuk; Lee, Jin Heon; Kim, Hak Yang

    2015-12-01

    The eradication rate of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection might be affected by the degree of inflammation of gastric mucosa represented by the endoscopic stage of peptic ulcer disease (PUD). The aims of this study were to evaluate the eradication rates of H. pylori infection according to the endoscopic stage of PUD and to document whether early eradication in the active stage could yield a higher eradication rate in patients with peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB). A total of 1,177 patients with PUD (380 gastric ulcer, 710 duodenal ulcer, and 87 combined ulcer) who received proton-pump inhibitor (PPI)-based triple therapy were included, and the eradication rates were compared by ulcer stage. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to identify factors influencing eradication rate. In PUB, the eradication rates between the early eradication group (≤7 days) and the late eradication group (>7 days) were compared. The eradication rates according to endoscopic stage were significantly different in gastric ulcer (active vs healing vs scarring; 84.8% vs 82.7% vs 70.6%, p = .014, respectively), but there were no significant differences in duodenal ulcer (active vs healing vs scarring; 87.6% vs 80.9%% vs 80.9% p = .169, respectively). In multivariate analyses, active ulcer as well as age younger than 50 was a significantly independent predictor of successful eradication (Odds ratio; 2.799, 95% CI; 1.659-4.723, p = .0001). The eradication rate of the early eradication group was significantly higher than the late eradication group in PUB (89.2% vs 71.9%, 95% CI; 1.265-8.269, p = .011). There was a significant difference in the eradication rate according to the endoscopic stage of gastric ulcer. Active ulcer was an independent predictor of successful eradication. Furthermore, early H. pylori eradication should be considered in patients with PUB to yield a higher eradication rate. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) brucellosis eradication program in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragan, Valerie E

    2002-12-20

    Efforts to eradicate brucellosis caused by Brucella abortus in the United States began in 1934 as part of an economic recovery program to reduce the cattle population because of the Great Depression and concurrent severe drought conditions. A number of states saw this as an opportunity to reduce the level of brucellosis, which was the most significant livestock disease problem in the US at the time. In 1934 and 1935, the reactor rate in adult cattle tested was 11.5%. In 1954, the magnitude of the brucellosis problem in the United States in terms of economics to the cattle industry and human health prompted Congress to appropriate funds for a comprehensive national effort to eradicate brucellosis. The brucellosis eradication program was designed as a cooperative effort between the federal government, the states, and livestock producers. As the science and technology of brucellosis has developed over the years through research and experience, the eradication program has been modified many times. As of 31 December 2000, there were no affected cattle herds in the United States. This was the first time in the history of the brucellosis program that the United States had no known brucellosis affected herds. However, brucellosis has a variable, sometimes quite lengthy incubation period, so it is expected that additional affected herds will be disclosed. It is likely that additional affected herds will be disclosed before brucellosis is finally eradicated from cattle. Animal health officials remain prepared to aggressively pursue any newly disclosed affected herds to eliminate the disease as quickly as possible. The State-Federal Brucellosis Eradication Program has made tremendous progress since its inception. In an eradication program, it is critically important to recognize that, despite all the tools that are available to eliminate the disease, an effective surveillance system is the critical first step that must be in place in order to be successful. It is imperative

  14. Contain or eradicate? Optimizing the management goal for Australian acacia invasions in the face of uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.L.; Runge, M.C.; Webber, B.L.; Wilson, J.R.U.

    2011-01-01

    Aim To identify whether eradication or containment is expected to be the most cost-effective management goal for an isolated invasive population when knowledge about the current extent is uncertain. Location Global and South Africa. Methods We developed a decision analysis framework to analyse the best management goal for an invasive species population (eradication, containment or take no action) when knowledge about the current extent is uncertain. We used value of information analysis to identify when investment in learning about the extent will improve this decision-making and tested the sensitivity of the conclusions to different parameters (e.g. spread rate, maximum extent, and management efficacy and cost). The model was applied to Acacia paradoxa DC, an Australian shrub with an estimated invasive extent of 310ha on Table Mountain, South Africa. Results Under the parameters used, attempting eradication is cost-effective for infestations of up to 777ha. However, if the invasion extent is poorly known, then attempting eradication is only cost-effective for infestations estimated as 296ha or smaller. The value of learning is greatest (maximum of 8% saving) when infestation extent is poorly known and if it is close to the maximum extent for which attempting eradication is optimal. The optimal management action is most sensitive to the probability that the action succeeds (which depends on the extent), with the discount rate and cost of management also important, but spread rate less so. Over a 20-year time-horizon, attempting to eradicate A. paradoxa from South Africa is predicted to cost on average ZAR 8 million if the extent is known, and if our current estimate is poor, ZAR 33.6 million as opposed to ZAR 32.8 million for attempting containment. Main conclusions Our framework evaluates the cost-effectiveness of attempting eradication or containment of an invasive population that takes uncertainty in population extent into account. We show that incorporating

  15. Confirmation of eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection by 14C-urea breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathak, C.M.; Bhasin, D.K.; Sharma, B.C.; Roy, P.; Vaiphei, K.

    1998-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a potent urease producer, a characteristic that has been exploited in the development of the 14 C-urea breath test (UBT). 14 C-UBT is being used as a highly reliable test for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection. There is paucity of reports on the utility of this test to confirm the H. pylori eradication after its treatment. The study was conducted to determine the utility of 14 C-UBT in confirming the eradication of H. pylori

  16. Can probiotics improve efficiency and safety profile of triple Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy? A prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grgov, Saša; Tasić, Tomislav; Radovanović-Dinić, Biljana; Benedeto-Stojanov, Daniela

    2016-11-01

    Some studies suggest the benefit of applying different probiotic strains in combination with antibiotics in the eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of co-administration of multiple probiotic strains with triple H. pylori eradication therapy. This prospective study included 167 patients with dyspeptic symptoms and chronic gastritis who were diagnosed with H. pylori infection and randomized into two groups. The group I of 77 patients underwent triple eradication therapy, for 7 days, with lansoprazole, 2 × 30 mg half an hour before the meal, amoxicillin 2 × 1.000 mg per 12 hours and clarithromycin 2 × 500 mg per 12 hours. After the 7th day of the therapy, lansoprazole continued at a dose of 30 mg for half an hour before breakfast for 4 weeks. The group II of 90 patients received the same treatment as the patients of the group I, with the addition of the probiotic cultures in the form of a capsule comprising Lactobacillus Rosell-52, Lactobacillus Rosell-11, Bifidobacterium Rosell-1755 and Saccharomyces boulardii, since the beginning of eradication for 4 weeks. Eradication of H. pylori infection control was performed 8 weeks after the therapy by rapid urease test and histopathologic evaluation of endoscopic biopsies or by stool antigen test for H. pylori. Eradication of H. pylori infection was achieved in 93.3% of the patients who received probiotics with eradication therapy and in 81.8% of patients who were only on eradication therapy without probiotics. The difference in eradication success was statistically significant, (p probiotic (28.6%) than in the group that received probiotic (17.7%), but the difference was not statistically significant. Multiple probiotic strains addition to triple eradication therapy of H. pylori achieves a significantly better eradication success, with fewer side effects of antibiotics.

  17. Stagnation of histopathological improvement is a predictor of hepatocellular carcinoma development after hepatitis C virus eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoyama, Hiroyuki; Tamori, Akihiro; Kubo, Shoji; Uchida-Kobayashi, Sawako; Takemura, Shigekazu; Tanaka, Shogo; Ohfuji, Satoko; Teranishi, Yuga; Kozuka, Ritsuzo; Kawamura, Etsushi; Hagihara, Atsushi; Morikawa, Hiroyasu; Enomoto, Masaru; Murakami, Yoshiki; Kawada, Norifumi

    2018-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) develops in some patients who achieve sustained virological response (SVR) against hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection via anti-HCV therapy. To examine the pathogenesis of HCC development after HCV eradication, histopathological changes and clinical markers were evaluated in SVR patients. Of 654 SVR patients treated with interferon (IFN)-based therapies, 34 patients who had undergone liver biopsy before initiating IFN therapy and after SVR achievement were enrolled: 11 patients with HCC and 23 patients without HCC (male/female, 9/2 and 8/15, respectively: age, 58 ± 5 and 54 ± 11 years, respectively). We compared the clinical and histopathological factors between the two groups. Immunohistochemistry for Cytoglobin (CYGB) and α smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) was also performed. At baseline, prior to initiating the IFN-based therapy, there were significant differences between the SVR-non-HCC and SVR-HCC groups in the male gender, HBc antibody positivity, prothrombin activity, and histological inflammatory grade. Histopathological evaluation, using the new Inuyama classification system, revealed an improvement in the inflammatory grade, from 2.1 ± 0.6 to 1.0 ± 0.6 (p < 0.0001), whereas the fibrosis stage remained unchanged, from 2.3 ± 0.9 to 2.0 ± 1.2 (p = 0.2749), during the 97 ± 72-month observation period in the SVR-HCC group. Both the grade and stage scores were significantly improved in the SVR-non-HCC group. The area of collagen deposition, evaluated using Sirius red staining, showed a marked decrease, from 18.6 ± 7.6% to 7.7 ± 4.6%, in the SVR-non-HCC group, with no change in the SVR-HCC group. CYGB- and α-SMA-positive hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), indicative of the HSC activated phenotype, remained in the fibrotic tissue of livers among patients in the SVR-HCC group. Stagnation of fibrosis regression is associated with a high risk for HCC after SVR. HSC activation may inhibit improvement in fibrosis after SVR and

  18. Manufacturing Initiative

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) Project supports multiple activities within the Administration's National Manufacturing Initiative. A key component of...

  19. 77 FR 31039 - Andean Trade Preference Act: Impact on the U.S. Economy and on Andean Drug Crop Eradication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 332-352] Andean Trade Preference Act: Impact on the U.S. Economy and on Andean Drug Crop Eradication AGENCY: United States International Trade.... 332-352, Andean Trade Preference Act: Impact on the U.S. Economy and on Andean Drug Crop Eradication...

  20. The safety and efficacy of ranitidine bismuth citrate in combination with antibiotics for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wyeth, J. W.; Pounder, R. E.; Duggan, A. E.; O'Morain, C. A.; Schaufelberger, H. D.; de Koster, E. H.; Rauws, E. A.; Bardhan, K. D.; Gilvarry, J.; Buckley, M. J.; Gummett, P. A.; Logan, R. P.

    1996-01-01

    Ranitidine bismuth citrate is a novel salt of ranitidine and a bismuth citrate complex. It has intrinsic antisecretory and anti-Helicobacter pylori activity, but monotherapy rarely eradicates H. pylori infection in man. A pilot study to investigate rates of H. pylori eradication achieved by