WorldWideScience

Sample records for polio vaccines immunization

  1. Polio Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IBS) Home Family Health Infants and Toddlers Polio Vaccine Polio Vaccine Share Print What is polio? Poliomyelitis (polio) is ... each year. Fortunately, the use of the polio vaccine has made the disease very rare in most ...

  2. Fetal damage after accidental polio vaccination of an immune mother.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, A E; Robinson, E T; Harper, W F; Bell, E J; Boyd, J F

    1984-07-01

    Irreparable damage to the anterior horn cells of the cervical and thoracic cord was found in a 20-week-old fetus whose mother was immune to poliomyelitis before conceiving but who was inadvertently given oral polio vaccine at 18 weeks gestation. Polio neutralizing antibody titres in sera, taken before and after pregnancy, were identical and were at levels normally regarded as providing protection. Unsuccessful attempts were made to isolate poliovirus from extracts of fetal brain, lung, liver and placenta. Fluorescent antibody tests were performed on various levels of the central nervous system and on the left and right extensor forearm muscles. Specific positive fluorescence to poliovirus 2 and 3 antigens was detected at dorsal spinal cord level only. One positive result was seen with Coxsackie A9 antiserum and fresh guinea-pig complement in the inflammatory cells in the right extensor forearm muscles.This experience, as yet unexplained, underlines the importance of ensuring that women are not pregnant prior to oral polio vaccination.

  3. Introduction of Sequential Inactivated Polio Vaccine–Oral Polio Vaccine Schedule for Routine Infant Immunization in Brazil’s National Immunization Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Carla Magda Allan S.; de Fátima Pereira, Sirlene; Marreiros, Ana Carolina Cunha; Menezes, Nair; Flannery, Brendan

    2015-01-01

    In August 2012, the Brazilian Ministry of Health introduced inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) as part of sequential polio vaccination schedule for all infants beginning their primary vaccination series. The revised childhood immunization schedule included 2 doses of IPV at 2 and 4 months of age followed by 2 doses of oral polio vaccine (OPV) at 6 and 15 months of age. One annual national polio immunization day was maintained to provide OPV to all children aged 6 to 59 months. The decision to introduce IPV was based on preventing rare cases of vaccine-associated paralytic polio, financially sustaining IPV introduction, ensuring equitable access to IPV, and preparing for future OPV cessation following global eradication. Introducing IPV during a national multivaccination campaign led to rapid uptake, despite challenges with local vaccine supply due to high wastage rates. Continuous monitoring is required to achieve high coverage with the sequential polio vaccine schedule. PMID:25316829

  4. Budget impact of polio immunization strategy for India: introduction of one dose of inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine and reductions in supplemental polio immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M M; Sharma, S; Tripathi, B; Alvarez, F P

    2017-01-01

    To conduct a budget impact analysis (BIA) of introducing the immunization recommendations of India Expert Advisory Group (IEAG) for the years 2015-2017. The recommendations include introduction of one inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine (IPV) dose in the regular child immunization programme along with reductions in oral polio vaccine (OPV) doses in supplemental programmes. This is a national level analysis of budget impact of new polio immunization recommendations. Since the states of India vary widely in terms of size, vaccine coverage and supplemental vaccine needs, the study estimated the budget impact for each of the states of India separately to derive the national level budget impact. Based on the recommendations of IEAG, the BIA assumes that all children in India will get an IPV dose at 14 weeks of age in addition to the OPV and DPT (or Pentavalent-3) doses. Cost of introducing the IPV dose was estimated by considering vaccine price and vaccine delivery and administration costs. The cost savings associated with the reduction in number of doses of OPV in supplemental immunization were also estimated. The analysis used India-specific or international cost parameters to estimate the budget impact. Introduction of one IPV dose will increase the cost of vaccines in the regular immunization programme from $20 million to $47 million. Since IEAG recommends lower intensity of supplemental OPV vaccination, polio vaccine cost of supplemental programme is expected to decline from $72 million to $53 million. Cost of administering polio vaccines will also decline from $124 million to $105 million mainly due to the significantly lower intensity of supplemental polio vaccination. The net effect of adopting IEAG's recommendations on polio immunization turns out to be cost saving for India, reducing total polio immunization cost by $6 million. Additional savings could be achieved if India adopts the new policy regarding the handling of multi-dose vials after opening

  5. ERADIKASI POLIO DAN IPV (INACTIVATED POLIO VACCINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gendrowahyuhono Gendrowahyuhono

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the year 1988, World Health Organization (WHO claims that polio viruses should be eradicated after year 2000. However, until year 2010 the world have not been free from polio viruses circulation. So many effort had been achieved and it is estimated that the world will be free from polio virus after the year 2013. Control of poliomyelitis in Indonesia has been commenced since 1982 with routine immunization of polio program and the National Immunization Days (NID has been commenced since 1995,1996,2005 and 2006. When the world is free from polio virus, WHO suggests several alternative effort to maintain the world free from polio viruses : I stop the OPV (Oral Polio Vaccine and no polio immunization, 2 stop OPV and stock pile mOPV (monovalent OPV, 3 use OPV and IPV (Inactivated Polio Vaccine in a certain times, 4 use IPV only in a certain times. IPV has been used routinely in develop countries but has not been used in the developing countries. Several studies in development countries has been conducted, but had not been done in the developing countries. Indonesia collaboration with WHO has conducted the study of IPV in Yogyakarta Province since year 2002 until year 2010. The overall aim of the study is to compile the necessary data that will inform global and national decision-making regarding future polio immunization policies for the OPV cessation era. The data generated from the study will be particularly important to make decisions regarding optimal IPV use in developing tropical countries. It is unlikely that this data can be assembled through other means than through this study. The tentative result of the study shows that OPV immunization coverage in the year 2004 is 99% in four district and 93 % in the Yogyakarta city. Environment surveillance shows that there are 65.7% polio virus detected from 137 sewage samples pre IPV swich, and 4.8% polio virus detected from 83 sewage samples post IPV swich. Survey polio antibody serologis shows

  6. Oral Polio Vaccine Influences the Immune Response to BCG Vaccination. A Natural Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sartono, E.; Lisse, I.M.; Terveer, E.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Oral polio vaccine (OPV) is recommended to be given at birth together with BCG vaccine. While we were conducting two trials including low-birth-weight (LBW) and normal-birth-weight (NBW) infants in Guinea-Bissau, OPV was not available during some periods and therefore some infants did...

  7. Oral polio vaccine influences the immune response to BCG vaccination. A natural experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sartono, Erliyani; Lisse, Ida M; Terveer, Elisabeth M

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oral polio vaccine (OPV) is recommended to be given at birth together with BCG vaccine. While we were conducting two trials including low-birth-weight (LBW) and normal-birth-weight (NBW) infants in Guinea-Bissau, OPV was not available during some periods and therefore some infants did...

  8. Oral polio vaccine influences the immune response to BCG vaccination. A natural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartono, Erliyani; Lisse, Ida M; Terveer, Elisabeth M; van de Sande, Paula J M; Whittle, Hilton; Fisker, Ane B; Roth, Adam; Aaby, Peter; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Benn, Christine S

    2010-05-21

    Oral polio vaccine (OPV) is recommended to be given at birth together with BCG vaccine. While we were conducting two trials including low-birth-weight (LBW) and normal-birth-weight (NBW) infants in Guinea-Bissau, OPV was not available during some periods and therefore some infants did not receive OPV at birth, but only BCG. We investigated the effect of OPV given simultaneously with BCG at birth on the immune response to BCG vaccine. We compared the in vitro and the in vivo response to PPD in the infants who received OPV and BCG with that of infants who received BCG only. At age 6 weeks, the in vitro cytokine response to purified protein derivate (PPD) of M. Tuberculosis was reduced in LBW and NBW infants who had received OPV with BCG. In a pooled analysis receiving OPV with BCG at birth was associated with significantly lower IL-13 (p = 0.041) and IFN-gamma (p = 0.004) and a tendency for lower IL-10 (p = 0.054) in response to PPD. Furthermore, OPV was associated with reduced in vivo response to PPD at age 2 months, the prevalence ratio (PR) of having a PPD reaction being 0.75 (0.58-0.98), p = 0.033, and with a tendency for reduced likelihood of having a BCG scar (0.95 (0.91-1.00), p = 0.057)). Among children with a scar, OPV was associated with reduced scar size, the regression coefficient being -0.24 (-0.43-0.05), p = 0.012. This study is the first to address the consequences for the immune response to BCG of simultaneous administration with OPV. Worryingly, the results indicate that the common practice in low-income countries of administering OPV together with BCG at birth may down-regulate the response to BCG vaccine.

  9. Oral polio vaccine influences the immune response to BCG vaccination. A natural experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erliyani Sartono

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oral polio vaccine (OPV is recommended to be given at birth together with BCG vaccine. While we were conducting two trials including low-birth-weight (LBW and normal-birth-weight (NBW infants in Guinea-Bissau, OPV was not available during some periods and therefore some infants did not receive OPV at birth, but only BCG. We investigated the effect of OPV given simultaneously with BCG at birth on the immune response to BCG vaccine. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We compared the in vitro and the in vivo response to PPD in the infants who received OPV and BCG with that of infants who received BCG only. At age 6 weeks, the in vitro cytokine response to purified protein derivate (PPD of M. Tuberculosis was reduced in LBW and NBW infants who had received OPV with BCG. In a pooled analysis receiving OPV with BCG at birth was associated with significantly lower IL-13 (p = 0.041 and IFN-gamma (p = 0.004 and a tendency for lower IL-10 (p = 0.054 in response to PPD. Furthermore, OPV was associated with reduced in vivo response to PPD at age 2 months, the prevalence ratio (PR of having a PPD reaction being 0.75 (0.58-0.98, p = 0.033, and with a tendency for reduced likelihood of having a BCG scar (0.95 (0.91-1.00, p = 0.057. Among children with a scar, OPV was associated with reduced scar size, the regression coefficient being -0.24 (-0.43-0.05, p = 0.012. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to address the consequences for the immune response to BCG of simultaneous administration with OPV. Worryingly, the results indicate that the common practice in low-income countries of administering OPV together with BCG at birth may down-regulate the response to BCG vaccine.

  10. Long-term evaluation of mucosal and systemic immunity and protection conferred by different polio booster vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yuhong; Daniell, Henry

    2017-09-25

    Oral polio vaccine (OPV) and Inactivated Polio Vaccine (IPV) have distinct advantages and limitations. IPV does not provide mucosal immunity and introduction of IPV to mitigate consequences of circulating vaccine-derived polio virus from OPV has very limited effect on transmission and OPV campaigns are essential for interrupting wild polio virus transmission, even in developed countries with a high coverage of IPV and protected sewer systems. The problem is magnified in many countries with limited resources. Requirement of refrigeration for storage and transportation for both IPV and OPV is also a major challenge in developing countries. Therefore, we present here long-term studies on comparison of a plant-based booster vaccine, which is free of virus and cold chain with IPV boosters and provide data on mucosal and systemic immunity and protection conferred by neutralizing antibodies. Mice were primed subcutaneously with IPV and boosted orally with lyophilized plant cells containing 1μg or 25μg polio viral protein 1 (VP1), once a month for three months or a single booster one year after the first prime. Our results show that VP1-IgG1 titers in single or double dose IPV dropped to background levels after one year of immunization. This decrease correlated with >50% reduction in seropositivity in double dose and cells expressing VP1 can be stored without losing efficacy, eliminating cold chain. Virus-free, cold-chain free vaccine is ready for further clinical development. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment of cold-chain maintenance in vaccine carriers during Pulse Polio National Immunization Day in a rural block of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhare, Abhijit P; Bali, Surya; Pawar, Radhakishan B; Lokhande, Ganesh S

    2014-01-01

    India was certified polio free on 27 March 2014. Supplementary immunization activities, in the form of national immunization days, is one of the core strategies for eradication, where oral polio vaccine is administered to children aged under 5 years throughout the country. Oral polio vaccine is heat sensitive and requires maintenance of a stringent cold chain. Therefore, vaccine carriers with ice packs are used in the Pulse Polio Immunization (PPI) programme. This study assessed whether the cold chain is maintained during National Immunization Day in Beed district. A cross-sectional study was conducted at six randomly selected booths, one each from six primary health centres in Georai block of Beed district in Maharashtra. Electronic data loggers, configured to measure half-hourly temperatures, were kept in vaccine carriers throughout the day of PPI. The vaccine carrier temperature was below 8 °C at all six booths; minimum temperature recorded was -9.5 °C, while the maximum was 4.5 °C. The vaccine vial monitor did not reach discard point in any booth. A vaccine carrier with four ice packs very effectively maintains the cold chain required for oral polio vaccine.

  12. Experiences from polio supplementary immunization activities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The State achieved high polio vaccination coverage through the SIAs, but coverage through routine immunization was low. Adopting proper planning and supervision, financial and political support, community involvement, improved vaccine logistics, and other measures utilized during the SIAs could help to ...

  13. Oral Polio Vaccine Influences the Immune Response to BCG Vaccination. A Natural Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sartono, E.; Lisse, I.M.; Terveer, E.M.

    2010-01-01

    not receive OPV at birth, but only BCG. We investigated the effect of OPV given simultaneously with BCG at birth on the immune response to BCG vaccine. Methods and Findings: We compared the in vitro and the in vivo response to PPD in the infants who received OPV and BCG with that of infants who received BCG...... scar (0.95 (0.91-1.00), p = 0.057)). Among children with a scar, OPV was associated with reduced scar size, the regression coefficient being -0.24 (-0.43-0.05), p = 0.012. Conclusions: This study is the first to address the consequences for the immune response to BCG of simultaneous administration...... only. At age 6 weeks, the in vitro cytokine response to purified protein derivate (PPD) of M. Tuberculosis was reduced in LBW and NBW infants who had received OPV with BCG. In a pooled analysis receiving OPV with BCG at birth was associated with significantly lower IL-13 (p = 0.041) and IFN-gamma (p...

  14. The effect of mass vaccination campaigns against polio on the utilization of routine immunization services: A regression discontinuity design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helleringer, Stephane; Asuming, Patrick O; Abdelwahab, Jalaa

    2016-07-19

    In most low and middle-income countries (LMIC), vaccines are primarily distributed by routine immunization services (RI) at health facilities. Additional opportunities for vaccination are also provided through mass vaccination campaigns, conducted periodically as part of disease-specific initiatives. It is unclear whether these campaigns are detrimental to RI services, or wether they may stimulate the utilization of RI. Unobserved confounders and reverse causality have limited existing evaluations of the effects of mass vaccination campaigns on RI services. We explored the use of a regression discontinuity design (RDD) to measure these effects more precisely. This is a quasi-experimental method, which exploits random variations in birth dates to identify the causal effects of vaccination campaigns. We applied RDD to survey data on a nationwide vaccination campaign against Polio conducted in Bangladesh. We compared systematically the children born immediately before vs. after the vaccination campaign. These two groups had similar background characteristics, but differed by their exposure to the vaccination campaign. Contrary to previous studies, exposure to the campaign had positive effects on RI utilization. Children exposed to the campaign received between 0.296 and 0.469 additional doses of DPT vaccine by age 4months than unexposed children. RDD constitutes a promising tool to assess the effects of mass vaccination campaigns on RI services. It could be tested in additional settings, using larger and more precise datasets. It could also be extended to measure the effects of other disease-specific interventions on the functioning of health systems, in particular those that occur at a discrete point in time and/or include age-related eligibility criteria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Attitude and subjective wellbeing of non-compliant mothers to childhood oral polio vaccine supplemental immunization in Northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeh, Gregory C; Nomhwange, Terna Ignatius; Shamang, Anthony F; Zakari, Furera; Musa, Audu I; Dogo, Paul M; Gugong, Victor; Iliyasu, Neyu

    2018-02-08

    Attitude and subjective well-being are important factors in mothers accepting or rejecting Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) supplemental immunization. The purpose of the study was to determine the role of mothers' attitude and subjective wellbeing on non-compliance to OPV supplemental immunization in Northern Nigeria. The study utilized a cross-sectional design to assess attitude and subjective well-being of mothers using previously validated VACSATC (Vaccine Safety, Attitudes, Training and Communication-10 items) & SUBI (Subjective Well-being Inventory-40 items) measures. A total of 396 participants (equal number of non-compliant and compliant mothers) from 94 non-compliant settlements were interviewed, after informed consent. T-test was run to assess difference in mean scores between the non-compliant and compliant mothers on VACSATC and SUBI measures. The research showed a significant difference in mean scores between the non-compliant and compliant groups on VACSATC measure of mothers' attitude (M = 18.9 non-compliant, compared to 26.5 compliant; p subjective well-being, the study showed there was no significant difference in the mean scores of the SUBI measure (M = 77.4 non-compliant, compared to 78.0 compliant; p > 0.05). The research has shown that negative attitude is more commonly present in non-compliant mothers and may be a factor in vaccine refusal in Northern Nigeria.

  16. Use of Dedicated Mobile Teams and Polio Volunteer Community Mobilizers to Increase Access to Zero-Dose Oral Poliovirus Vaccine and Routine Childhood Immunizations in Settlements at High Risk for Polio Transmission in Northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongwae, Kennedy M; Bawa, Samuel B; Shuaib, Faisal; Braka, Fiona; Corkum, Melissa; Isa, Hammanyero K

    2017-07-01

    The Polio Eradication Initiative in Nigeria, which started >20 years ago, faced many challenges, including initial denial, resistance from communities, and prolonged regional safety concerns. These challenges led into the structuring of the response including the development of the National Emergency Action Plan, improved partner coordination and government engagement, and the establishment of a Polio Emergency Operations Centre. Although monthly supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) continued, the targeting of settlements at high risk for polio transmission with routine immunization (RI) and other selected primary healthcare (PHC) services using dedicated mobile teams and volunteer community mobilizers (VCMs) became a key strategy for interrupting polio transmission in the high-risk areas. These efforts could have contributed to the wild poliovirus-free 2-year period between 24 July 2014 and 11 August 2016, when 2 cases of the virus were reported from Borno State, Northern Nigeria. A narrative analysis of polio-related program and other official documents was conducted to identify the relevant human resources and their role in the Polio Eradication Initiative and in RI. The data used in the article was obtained from United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and World Health Organization project reports and a draft evaluation report of the dedicated mobile teams approach in Northern Nigeria. The data from 6 of the states that commenced the provision of polio, RI, and other selected PHC services using the dedicated mobile teams approach in 2014 showed an overall increase in the percentage of children aged 12-23 months in the settlements at high risk for polio transmission with a RI card seen, from 23% to 56%, and an overall increase in fully immunized children aged 12-23 months, from 19% to 55%. The number of newborns given the first dose of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) according to the RI schedule and the number of children given zero-dose OPV with the

  17. Anti-HBs levels in infants of hepatitis B carrier mothers after delayed active immunization with recombinant vaccine concomitant with DTP-polio vaccine: Is there need for a second dose of HBIg?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.M. Grosheide (Pia Maria); R. Del Canho (R.); M. Voogd (M.); R.A. Heijtink; S.W. Schalm (Solko)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe need for an additional dose of hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIg) was studied by comparing infants receiving 1 ml HBIg at birth followed by hepatitis B immunization, concomitant with DTP-polio vaccine, at 3, 4, 5 and 11 months (schedule E), with infants receiving the same schedule

  18. Polio vaccines: WHO position paper, March 2016-recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Health Organization

    2017-03-01

    This article presents the World Health Organization's (WHO) recommendations on the use of polio vaccine excerpted from the WHO position paper on polio vaccines - March 2016, published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record [1]. This position paper on polio vaccines replaces the 2014 WHO position paper [2]. The position paper summarizes the WHO position on the introduction of at least one dose of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) into routine immunization schedules as a strategy to mitigate the potential risk of re-emergence of type 2 polio following the withdrawal of Sabin type 2 strains from oral polio vaccine (OPV) [3]. Footnotes to this paper provide a number of core references including references to grading tables that assess the quality of the scientific evidence, and to the evidence-to-recommendation table. In accordance with its mandate to provide guidance to Member States on health policy matters, WHO issues a series of regularly updated position papers on vaccines and combinations of vaccines against diseases that have an international public health impact. These papers are concerned primarily with the use of vaccines in large-scale immunization programmes; they summarize essential background information on diseases and vaccines, and conclude with WHO's current position on the use of vaccines in the global context. This position paper reflects the global switch from trivalent to bivalent OPV which took place in April 2016. Recommendations on the use of polio vaccines have been discussed on multiple occasions by SAGE, most recently in October 2016; evidence presented at these meetings can be accessed at: http://www.who.int/immunization/sage/previous/en/index.html. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Next Generation Inactivated Polio Vaccine Manufacturing to Support Post Polio-Eradication Biosafety Goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomassen, Y.E.; Oever, van 't A.G.; Oijen, van M.G.C.T.; Wijffels, R.H.; Pol, van der L.A.; Bakker, W.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide efforts to eradicate polio caused a tipping point in polio vaccination strategies. A switch from the oral polio vaccine, which can cause circulating and virulent vaccine derived polioviruses, to inactivated polio vaccines (IPV) is scheduled. Moreover, a manufacturing process, using

  20. The Role of National Immunization Technical Advisory Groups (NITAGs) in the Introduction of Inactivated Polio Vaccine: Experience of the Indonesia and Uganda NITAGs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba-Nguz, Antoinette; Adjagba, Alex; Wisnu Hendrarto, Toto; Sewankambo, Nelson K; Nalwadda, Celia; Kisakye, Annette

    2017-07-01

    National Immunization Technical Advisory Groups (NITAGs) are established by national authorities to provide them with independent, bias-free, objective, and evidence-based advice on vaccines and immunization challenges. As of December 2015, 125 countries have reported having set up an NITAG. The Health Policy and Institutional Development Center at the Agence de Médecine Préventive, a World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborative Center for evidence-informed immunization, through its Supporting Independent Immunization and Vaccine Advisory Committees (SIVAC) Initiative project, provides assistance to low- and middle-income countries in the establishment and strengthening of their NITAGs. The Indonesian NITAG (ITAGI) was formed in December 2006 and Uganda's (UNITAG) was formed in November 2014. Both Uganda and Indonesia have introduced inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) as part of the Global Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan (the Endgame plan). The authors reflect on the process and the role played by NITAGs in the introduction of IPV in the routine immunization program and the lessons learned. This commentary is a reflection of the authors' experience on NITAG's role as observed in 2 particular local settings and applied to a global public health issue, the polio eradication Endgame plan. The reflection is backed up by the relevant (policy and technical) documents on polio eradication, along with minutes and reports from countries' ministries of health, immunization programs, WHO, and NITAGs. NITAGs are valuable tools for ministries of health to ensure sustainable, evidence-informed immunization policies that are trusted and accepted by their communities. Early engagement with NITAGs also ensures that the adoption of strategies addressing global public health threats at the country level reinforces the national immunization programs. On the other end, when NITAGs are proactive and forward-thinking, they can contribute to a smooth and effective

  1. Communications, Immunization, and Polio Vaccines: Lessons From a Global Perspective on Generating Political Will, Informing Decision-Making and Planning, and Engaging Local Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menning, Lisa; Garg, Gaurav; Pokharel, Deepa; Thrush, Elizabeth; Farrell, Margaret; Kodio, Frederic Kunjbe; Veira, Chantal Laroche; Wanyoike, Sarah; Malik, Suleman; Patel, Manish; Rosenbauer, Oliver

    2017-07-01

    The requirements under objective 2 of the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018-to introduce at least 1 dose of inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine (IPV); withdraw oral poliomyelitis vaccine (OPV), starting with the type 2 component; and strengthen routine immunization programs-set an ambitious series of targets for countries. Effective implementation of IPV introduction and the switch from trivalent OPV (containing types 1, 2, and 3 poliovirus) to bivalent OPV (containing types 1 and 3 poliovirus) called for intense global communications and coordination on an unprecedented scale from 2014 to 2016, involving global public health technical agencies and donors, vaccine manufacturers, World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund regional offices, and national governments. At the outset, the new program requirements were perceived as challenging to communicate, difficult to understand, unrealistic in terms of timelines, and potentially infeasible for logistical implementation. In this context, a number of core areas of work for communications were established: (1) generating awareness and political commitment via global communications and advocacy; (2) informing national decision-making, planning, and implementation; and (3) in-country program communications and capacity building, to ensure acceptance of IPV and continued uptake of OPV. Central to the communications function in driving progress for objective 2 was its ability to generate a meaningful policy dialogue about polio vaccines and routine immunization at multiple levels. This included efforts to facilitate stakeholder engagement and ownership, strengthen coordination at all levels, and ensure an iterative process of feedback and learning. This article provides an overview of the global efforts and challenges in successfully implementing the communications activities to support objective 2. Lessons from the achievements by countries and partners will likely be drawn upon when

  2. The global introduction of inactivated polio vaccine can circumvent the oral polio vaccine paradox

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinsbroek, E.; Ruitenberg, E.J.

    2010-01-01

    This literature review identifies the factors that influence the decision to introduce inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) in developing countries as opposed to the policy of vaccine cessation. Attenuated viruses in the oral polio vaccine (OPV) can replicate, revert to neurovirulence and become

  3. Polio immunization in Pakistan: ethical issues and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basharat, Sarah; Shaikh, Babar Tasneem

    2017-01-01

    Immunization should be considered a basic human right to health and well-being. It is everybody's business, and it is everybody's responsibility: the individual, the community, the health system and the state. This paper attempts to review some of the literature that highlights the ethical and religious concerns surrounding polio vaccination and what approaches may be used to counter the problems faced in Pakistan. This paper is developed through a literature review on public health and polio in Pakistan, consulting local, regional and globally published peer reviewed articles focussing on religion, culture, ethics and public health. Human behaviour, including the utilization and acceptability of healthcare services, is greatly influenced by religious beliefs and dogmas. Immunization, specifically for the purpose of polio eradication, has been a topic under focus and in the news in Pakistan. The government is doing its best through a variety of interventions to increase access, inform the public and increase vaccination rates. Nevertheless, the country still faces a huge challenge from certain stern pockets of uncompromising populations who resist and refuse vaccination. Beliefs, practices and cultural norms overshadow public health priorities and ethics. Understanding of the context, therefore, is critical to determine the social hindrances in polio eradication and strategize thereon. Having programmatic, system-wide, socio-cultural and of course ethical dimensions, the policy makers and the programme managers in Pakistan must attempt to address the multitude of challenges to polio vaccination, whereby the plan of action developed within the ethical norms could potentially lead to an ultimate success.

  4. polio supplementary immunization campaign evaluation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-08-20

    Aug 20, 2013 ... Introduction. Although there are no confirmed polio cases in South. Sudan since June 2009, vital indicators for polio eradication activities are not satisfactory [1.]. Hence, the recent huge polio outbreak in Somalia, Kenya and Ethiopia demanded a safety net SNIDs for four States, including Upper Nile.

  5. Polio Endgame: Lessons Learned From the Immunization Systems Management Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipursky, Simona; Vandelaer, Jos; Brooks, Alan; Dietz, Vance; Kachra, Tasleem; Farrell, Margaret; Ottosen, Ann; Sever, John L; Zaffran, Michel J

    2017-07-01

    The Immunization Systems Management Group (IMG) was established to coordinate and oversee objective 2 of the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018, namely, (1) introduction of ≥1 dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine in all 126 countries using oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) only as of 2012, (2) full withdrawal of OPV, starting with the withdrawal of its type 2 component, and (3) using polio assets to strengthen immunization systems in 10 priority countries. The IMG's inclusive, transparent, and partnership-focused approach proved an effective means of leveraging the comparative and complementary strengths of each IMG member agency. This article outlines 10 key factors behind the IMG's success, providing a potential set of guiding principles for the establishment and implementation of other interagency collaborations and initiatives beyond the polio sphere. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  6. Impact of an Intervention to Use a Measles, Rubella, and Polio Mass Vaccination Campaign to Strengthen Routine Immunization Services in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Aaron S; Bohara, Rajendra; Stewart, Steven; Subedi, Giri; Anand, Abhijeet; Burnett, Eleanor; Giri, Jagat; Shrestha, Jagat; Gurau, Suraj; Dixit, Sameer; Rajbhandari, Rajesh; Schluter, W William

    2017-07-01

    The potential to strengthen routine immunization (RI) services through supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) is an important benefit of global measles and rubella elimination and polio eradication strategies. However, little evidence exists on how best to use SIAs to strengthen RI. As part the 2012 Nepal measles-rubella and polio SIA, we developed an intervention package designed to improve RI processes and evaluated its effect on specific RI process measures. The intervention package was incorporated into existing SIA activities and materials to improve healthcare providers' RI knowledge and practices throughout Nepal. In 1 region (Central Region) we surveyed the same 100 randomly selected health facilities before and after the SIA and evaluated the following RI process measures: vaccine safety, RI planning, RI service delivery, vaccine supply chain, and RI data recording practices. Data collection included observations of vaccination sessions, interviews with the primary healthcare provider who administered vaccines at each facility, and administrative record reviews. Pair-matched analytical methods were used to determine whether statistically significant changes in the selected RI process measures occurred over time. After the SIA, significant positive changes were measured in healthcare provider knowledge of adverse events following immunization (11% increase), availability of RI microplans (+17%) and maps (+12%), and awareness of how long a reconstituted measles vial can be used before it must be discarded (+14%). For the SIA, 42% of providers created an SIA high-risk villages list, and >50% incorporated this information into RI outreach session site planning. Significant negative changes occurred in correct knowledge of measles vaccination contraindications (-11%), correct definition for a measles outbreak (-21%), and how to treat a child with a severe adverse event following immunization (-10%). Twenty percent of providers reported cancelling ≥1 RI

  7. National Immunization Campaigns with Oral Polio Vaccine Reduce All-Cause Mortality: A Natural Experiment within Seven Randomized Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Andersen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundA recent WHO review concluded that live BCG and measles vaccine (MV may have beneficial non-specific effects (NSEs reducing mortality from non-targeted diseases. NSEs of oral polio vaccine (OPV were not examined. If OPV vaccination campaigns reduce the mortality rate, it would suggest beneficial NSEs.SettingBetween 2002 and 2014, Guinea-Bissau had 15 general OPV campaigns and other campaigns with OPV plus vitamin A supplementation (VAS, VAS-only, MV, and H1N1 vaccine. In this period, we conducted seven randomized controlled trials (RCTs with mortality as main outcome.MethodsWithin these RCTs, we assessed whether the mortality rate was lower after-campaign than before-campaign. We used Cox models with age as underlying time and further adjusted for low birth-weight, season and time trend in mortality. We calculated the adjusted mortality rate ratio (MRR for after-campaign vs before-campaign.ResultsThe mortality rate was lower after OPV-only campaigns than before, the MRR being 0.81 (95% CI = 0.68–0.95. With each additional dose of campaign-OPV the mortality rate declined further (MRR = 0.87 (95% CI: 0.79–0.96 per dose (test for trend, p = 0.005. No other type of campaign had similar beneficial effects. Depending on initial age and with follow-up to 3 years of age, the number needed to treat with campaign-OPV-only to save one life was between 68 and 230 children.ConclusionBissau had no case of polio infection so the results suggest that campaign-OPV has beneficial NSEs. Discontinuation of OPV-campaigns in low-income countries may affect general child mortality levels negatively.

  8. Viral Aetiology of Acute Flaccid Paralysis Surveillance Cases, before and after Vaccine Policy Change from Oral Polio Vaccine to Inactivated Polio Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Saraswathy Subramaniam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1992, surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP cases was introduced in Malaysia along with the establishment of the National Poliovirus Laboratory at the Institute for Medical Research. In 2008, the Ministry of Health, Malaysia, approved a vaccine policy change from oral polio vaccine to inactivated polio vaccine (IPV. Eight states started using IPV in the Expanded Immunization Programme, followed by the remaining states in January 2010. The objective of this study was to determine the viral aetiology of AFP cases below 15 years of age, before and after vaccine policy change from oral polio vaccine to inactivated polio vaccine. One hundred and seventy-nine enteroviruses were isolated from the 3394 stool specimens investigated between 1992 and December 2012. Fifty-six out of 107 virus isolates were polioviruses and the remaining were non-polio enteroviruses. Since 2009 after the sequential introduction of IPV in the childhood immunization programme, no Sabin polioviruses were isolated from AFP cases. In 2012, the laboratory AFP surveillance was supplemented with environmental surveillance with sewage sampling. Thirteen Sabin polioviruses were also isolated from sewage in the same year, but no vaccine-derived poliovirus was detected during this period.

  9. Diplomacy and the polio immunization boycott in Northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Judith R; Feldbaum, Harley

    2009-01-01

    The boycott of polio vaccination in three Northern Nigerian states in 2003 created a global health crisis that was political in origin. This paper traces the diplomatic actions that were taken by the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, the United Nations, and the U.S. government, to restart polio vaccination and resolve the crisis. The polio vaccination boycott in Northern Nigeria provides a useful case study of the practice of global health diplomacy.

  10. Vaccines (immunizations) - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccinations; Immunizations; Immunize; Vaccine shots; Prevention - vaccine ... component) of the vaccine. VACCINE SCHEDULE The recommended vaccination (immunization) schedule is updated every 12 months by ...

  11. Applying the Concept of Peptide Uniqueness to Anti-Polio Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanduc, Darja; Fasano, Candida; Capone, Giovanni; Pesce Delfino, Antonella; Calabrò, Michele; Polimeno, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Although rare, adverse events may associate with anti-poliovirus vaccination thus possibly hampering global polio eradication worldwide. To design peptide-based anti-polio vaccines exempt from potential cross-reactivity risks and possibly able to reduce rare potential adverse events such as the postvaccine paralytic poliomyelitis due to the tendency of the poliovirus genome to mutate. Proteins from poliovirus type 1, strain Mahoney, were analyzed for amino acid sequence identity to the human proteome at the pentapeptide level, searching for sequences that (1) have zero percent of identity to human proteins, (2) are potentially endowed with an immunologic potential, and (3) are highly conserved among poliovirus strains. Sequence analyses produced a set of consensus epitopic peptides potentially able to generate specific anti-polio immune responses exempt from cross-reactivity with the human host. Peptide sequences unique to poliovirus proteins and conserved among polio strains might help formulate a specific and universal anti-polio vaccine able to react with multiple viral strains and exempt from the burden of possible cross-reactions with human proteins. As an additional advantage, using a peptide-based vaccine instead of current anti-polio DNA vaccines would eliminate the rare post-polio poliomyelitis cases and other disabling symptoms that may appear following vaccination.

  12. Applying the Concept of Peptide Uniqueness to Anti-Polio Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Kanduc

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although rare, adverse events may associate with anti-poliovirus vaccination thus possibly hampering global polio eradication worldwide. Objective. To design peptide-based anti-polio vaccines exempt from potential cross-reactivity risks and possibly able to reduce rare potential adverse events such as the postvaccine paralytic poliomyelitis due to the tendency of the poliovirus genome to mutate. Methods. Proteins from poliovirus type 1, strain Mahoney, were analyzed for amino acid sequence identity to the human proteome at the pentapeptide level, searching for sequences that (1 have zero percent of identity to human proteins, (2 are potentially endowed with an immunologic potential, and (3 are highly conserved among poliovirus strains. Results. Sequence analyses produced a set of consensus epitopic peptides potentially able to generate specific anti-polio immune responses exempt from cross-reactivity with the human host. Conclusion. Peptide sequences unique to poliovirus proteins and conserved among polio strains might help formulate a specific and universal anti-polio vaccine able to react with multiple viral strains and exempt from the burden of possible cross-reactions with human proteins. As an additional advantage, using a peptide-based vaccine instead of current anti-polio DNA vaccines would eliminate the rare post-polio poliomyelitis cases and other disabling symptoms that may appear following vaccination.

  13. The immunological effects of oral polio vaccine provided with BCG vaccine at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Karkov, Hanne Sophie; Lund, Najaaraq

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vaccines may have non-specific effects. An observational study from Guinea-Bissau suggested that oral polio vaccine at birth (OPV0) provided with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine was associated with down-regulation of the immune response to BCG vaccine 6 weeks later. Based...... BCG alone at birth, and subsequently randomised to have a blood sample taken at 2, 4 or 6 weeks post-randomisation. Excreted levels of cytokines (IL-2, IL-5, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ) were measured from whole blood in vitro stimulations with a panel of recall vaccine antigens (BCG, PPD, OPV), mitogen...

  14. [The history of polio in Sweden - from infantile paralysis to polio vaccine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Per

    2004-01-01

    Although other epidemics declined due to improved hygiene and sanitation, legislation, and vaccination, polio epidemics appeared in Sweden in 1881 and at the turn of the 20th century the disease became and annual feature in the Swedish epidemiological pattern. Due to the vaccination starting in 1957 epidemics ceased to exist in Sweden around 1965. This article deals with the history polio epidemics in Sweden, 1880-1965 and gives a brief description of: the demographical influence of polio, how did the medical authorities investigate and try to combat it, and the different comprehensions of how polio affected its victims.A study of polio incidence in Sweden at the national level during 1905-1962 reveals that the disease caused major epidemics in 1911-1913 and 1953. At the beginning of the 20th century polio primarily attacked children up to 10 years of age, and at the end of the period victims were represented in all age groups, but mainly in the ages 20-39. Due to its enigmatic appearance, polio was not considered as an epidemic infectious disease during the 19th century. Sweden's early epidemics enabled Swedish medical science to act and together with American research institutes it acquired a leading role in international medical research on the disease. In the 1955 Jonas Salk produced the first successful vaccine against polio but also Sweden developed its own vaccine, different in choice of methods and materials from the widely used Salk-vaccine.

  15. Immunization. Safety and Use of Polio Vaccines. Briefing Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Natural Resources, Agriculture Research and Environment, Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, House of Representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    This report presents information on the status of the safety and use of polio vaccines in the United States. Topics discussed include: (1) the role of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in processing an inactivated polio vaccine license application; (2) the steps the federal government has taken to improve the safety of the vaccine; (3) the…

  16. Oral Polio Vaccination and Hospital Admissions With Non-Polio Infections in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørup, Signe; Stensballe, Lone G; Krause, Tyra Grove

    2016-01-01

    with inactivated diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-polio-Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (DTaP-IPV-Hib) or live measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR) as their most recent vaccine. Methods.  A nationwide, register-based, retrospective cohort study of 137 403 Danish children born 1997-1999, who had received 3 doses...

  17. Exceptional Financial Support for Introduction of Inactivated Polio Vaccine in Middle-Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenhorn, Anne-Line; Cernuschi, Tania; Zaffran, Michel J

    2017-07-01

    In May 2012, the World Health Assembly declared the completion of poliovirus eradication a programmatic emergency for global public health and called for a comprehensive polio endgame strategy. The Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018 was developed in response to this call and demands that all countries using Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) only introduce at least 1 dose of Inactivated Polio Vaccine (IPV) into routine immunization schedules by the end of 2015. In November 2013, the Board of Gavi (the Vaccine Alliance) approved the provision of support for IPV introduction in the 72 Gavi-eligible countries. Following analytical work and stakeholder consultations, the IPV Immunization Systems Management Group (IMG) presented a proposal to provide exceptional financial support for IPV introduction to additional OPV-only using countries not eligible for Gavi support and that would otherwise not be able to mobilize the necessary financial resources within the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan timelines. In June 2014, the Polio Oversight Board (POB) agreed to make available a maximum envelope of US $45 million toward supporting countries not eligible for Gavi funding. This article describes the design of the funding mechanism that was developed, its implementation and the lessons learned through this process. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  18. Incompatibility of lyophilized inactivated polio vaccine with liquid pentavalent whole-cell-pertussis-containing vaccine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraan, H.; Have, Ten R.; Maas, van der L.; Kersten, G.F.A.; Amorij, J.P.

    2016-01-01

    A hexavalent vaccine containing diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, whole cell pertussis, Haemophilius influenza type B, hepatitis B and inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) may: (i) increase the efficiency of vaccination campaigns, (ii) reduce the number of injections thereby reducing needlestick

  19. Next generation inactivated polio vaccine manufacturing to support post polio-eradication biosafety goals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne E Thomassen

    Full Text Available Worldwide efforts to eradicate polio caused a tipping point in polio vaccination strategies. A switch from the oral polio vaccine, which can cause circulating and virulent vaccine derived polioviruses, to inactivated polio vaccines (IPV is scheduled. Moreover, a manufacturing process, using attenuated virus strains instead of wild-type polioviruses, is demanded to enhance worldwide production of IPV, especially in low- and middle income countries. Therefore, development of an IPV from attenuated (Sabin poliovirus strains (sIPV was pursued. Starting from the current IPV production process based on wild type Salk strains, adaptations, such as lower virus cultivation temperature, were implemented. sIPV was produced at industrial scale followed by formulation of both plain and aluminium adjuvanted sIPV. The final products met the quality criteria, were immunogenic in rats, showed no toxicity in rabbits and could be released for testing in the clinic. Concluding, sIPV was developed to manufacturing scale. The technology can be transferred worldwide to support post polio-eradication biosafety goals.

  20. Knowledge attitude practice study on pulse polio immunization in Mangalore, Dakshina Kannada district, Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Nitin; Subba, S H; Shashidhar, Kotian M

    2011-06-01

    Government of India launched PPI in 1995 to eradicate polio by the end of 2000. Despite this 733 cases were reported last year alone. There is a need to understand the reason behind high number of cases being reported even after so many years of programme implementation. This study was therefore conducted to assess knowledge of people about polio and PPI, their attitude and practice towards PPI. This cross sectional study was done in Mangalore city of Karnataka. Only houses having under five children were taken for the study. Data was collected by interviewing any adult member of the household using a pretested questionnaire. Out of 100 participants 99 were literates but only 11 knew the correct mode of transmission of polio. Twenty seven had misconception that polio is a curable disease. Only 40 participants knew that polio drops can be given to children even with mild illnesses. Few (2%) participants felt that PPI causes vaccine overdose and 8 participants thought PPI to be a substitute for routine immunization. This study identified few important misconceptions associated with polio and PPI. This needs to be addressed by large scale awareness campaigns in order to eradicate polio in the near future.

  1. Wild and vaccine-derived poliovirus circulation, and implications for polio eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopalco, P L

    2017-02-01

    Polio cases due to wild virus are reported by only three countries in the world. Poliovirus type 2 has been globally eradicated and the last detection of poliovirus type 3 dates to November 2012. Poliovirus type 1 remains the only circulating wild strain; between January and September 2016 it caused 26 cases (nine in Afghanistan, 14 in Pakistan, three in Nigeria). The use of oral polio vaccine (OPV) has been the key to success in the eradication effort. However, paradoxically, moving towards global polio eradication, the burden caused by vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) becomes increasingly important. In this paper circulation of both wild virus and VDPVs is reviewed and implications for the polio eradication endgame are discussed. Between April and May 2016 OPV2 cessation has been implemented globally, in a coordinated switch from trivalent OPV to bivalent OPV. In order to decrease the risk for cVDPV2 re-emergence inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) has been introduced in the routine vaccine schedule of all countries. The likelihood of re-emergence of cVDPVs should markedly decrease with time after OPV cessation, but silent circulation of polioviruses cannot be ruled out even a long time after cessation. For this reason, immunity levels against polioviruses should be kept as high as possible in the population by the use of IPV, and both clinical and environmental surveillance should be maintained at a high level.

  2. Polio and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Photo Collections Videos Polio Today → Polio + Prevention Polio + Prevention Polio and prevention Polio is a crippling and ... a child for life. Learn more about polio + prevention The Virus The Vaccines The Communities Related resources ...

  3. Estimating the risk of re-emergence after stopping polio vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira eSasaki

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Live vaccination against polio has effectively prevented outbreaks in most developed countries for more than 40 years, and there remain only a few countries where outbreaks of poliomyelitis by the wild strain still threaten the community. It is expected that worldwide eradication will be eventually achieved through careful surveillance and a well-managed immunization program. The present paper argues, however, that based on a simple stochastic model the risk of outbreak by a vaccine-derived strain after the cessation of vaccination is quite high, even if many years have passed since the last confirmed case. As vaccinated hosts are natural reservoirs for virulent poliovirus, the source of the risk is the vaccination itself, employed to prevent the outbreaks. The crisis after stopping vaccination will emerge when the following two conditions are met: the susceptible host density exceeds the threshold for epidemics and the vaccinated host density remains large enough to ensure the occurrence of virulent mutants in the population. Our estimates for transmission, recovery, and mutation rates, show that the probability of an outbreak of vaccine-derived virulent viruses easily exceeds 90%. Moreover, if a small fraction of hosts have a longer infectious period, as observed in individuals with innate immunodeficiency, the risk of an outbreak rises significantly. Under such conditions, successful global eradication of polio is restricted to a certain range of parameters even if inactive polio vaccine (IPV is extensively used after the termination of live vaccination.

  4. A Cross-Sectional Survey of Healthcare Workers on the Knowledge and Attitudes towards Polio Vaccination in Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Umair Khan

    Full Text Available Pakistan accounts for 85.2% of the total polio cases reported worldwide. Healthcare workers (HCWs are an integral part of immunization campaigns and source of education for the general public. This study aimed to assess the knowledge and attitudes towards polio vaccination among HCWs providing immunisation and education to general public in Quetta and Peshawar divisions of Pakistan.A cross-sectional survey of 490 HCWs was conducted in two major referral public teaching hospitals of Quetta and Peshawar divisions. During February to April, 2015, a random sample of 490 HCWs was invited to participate in this study. Knowledge and attitudes were assessed by using self-administered, anonymous and pretested questionnaire. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were used to express the results.A total of 468 participants responded to the questionnaire, giving a response rate of 95.5%. Overall, participants demonstrated good knowledge and positive attitudes towards polio vaccination. The mean knowledge score of HCWs about polio was 13.42 ± 2.39 (based on 18 knowledge questions while the mean attitude score was 28.75 ± 5.5 (based on 9 attitudes statements. Knowledge gaps were identified about the incubation period of poliovirus (19.5%, management issues (31.9%, use of polio vaccine in mild illnesses (34.7% and the consequences of the polio virus (36.9%. The majority of participants agreed that all children should be vaccinated for polio (95.1%, while reservations were noted about the need of a booster (38.9%, and sterility issues associated with polio vaccines (43.6%. Internet (n = 167, 37% and Posters (n = 158, 35% were the main sources used by HCWs to educate themselves about polio.Participants in this study had good knowledge and positive attitudes towards polio vaccination. Although the data are indicative of gaps in the knowledge of HCWs, the findings may not be generalized to other hospitals in Pakistan.

  5. Post-polio eradication: vaccination strategies and options for India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayakrishnan Thayyil

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In 1988, the World Health Organization (WHO resolved to eradicate poliomyelitis globally. Since then, the initiative has reported dramatic progress in decreasing the incidence of poliomyelitis and limiting the geographical extent of transmission. 2013 is recorded as the second consecutive year not reporting wild poliovirus (WPV from India. If the country can retain this position for one more year India will be declared as polio eradicated. What should be the future vaccination strategies? We searched and reviewed the full text of the available published literature on polio eradication via PubMed and examined Internet sources and websites of major international health agencies. The oral polio vaccine (OPV has been the main tool in the polio eradication program. Once WPV transmission is interrupted, the poliomyelitis will be caused only by OPV. India could expect 1 vaccine-associated paralytic polio per 4.2-4.6 million doses of OPV. Considering the threat of vaccine-derived viruses to polio eradication, WHO urged to develop a strategy to safely discontinue OPV after certification. The ultimate aim is to stop OPV safely and effectively, and eventually substitute with inactivated polio vaccine (IPV. The argument against the use of IPV is its cost. From India, field based data were available on the efficacy of IPV, which was better than OPV. IPV given intradermally resulted in seroconversion rates similar to full-dose intramuscular vaccine. The incremental cost of adopting IPV to replace OPV is relatively low, about US $1 per child per year, and most countries should be able to afford this additional cost.

  6. Cold-Chain Adaptability During Introduction of Inactivated Polio Vaccine in Bangladesh, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billah, Mallick M; Zaman, K; Estivariz, Concepcion F; Snider, Cynthia J; Anand, Abhijeet; Hampton, Lee M; Bari, Tajul I A; Russell, Kevin L; Chai, Shua J

    2017-07-01

    Introduction of inactivated polio vaccine creates challenges in maintaining the cold chain for vaccine storage and distribution. We evaluated the cold chain in 23 health facilities and 36 outreach vaccination sessions in 8 districts and cities of Bangladesh, using purposive sampling during August-October 2015. We interviewed immunization and cold-chain staff, assessed equipment, and recorded temperatures during vaccine storage and transportation. All health facilities had functioning refrigerators, and 96% had freezers. Temperature monitors were observed in all refrigerators and freezers but in only 14 of 66 vaccine transporters (21%). Recorders detected temperatures >8°C for >60 minutes in 5 of 23 refrigerators (22%), 3 of 6 cold boxes (50%) transporting vaccines from national to subnational depots, and 8 of 48 vaccine carriers (17%) used in outreach vaccination sites. Temperatures cold boxes (21%) transporting vaccine from subnational depots to health facilities and 14 of 48 vaccine carriers (29%). Bangladesh has substantial cold-chain storage and transportation capacity after inactivated polio vaccine introduction, but temperature fluctuations during vaccine transport could cause vaccine potency loss that could go undetected. Bangladesh and other countries should strive to ensure consistent and sufficient cold-chain storage and monitor the cold chain during vaccine transportation at all levels. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  7. Mass media effect on vaccines uptake during silent polio outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagy, Iftach; Novack, Victor; Gdalevich, Michael; Greenberg, Dan

    2018-03-14

    During 2013, isolation of a wild type 1 poliovirus from routine sewage sample in Israel, led to a national OPV campaign. During this period, there was a constant cover of the outbreak by the mass media. To investigate the association of media exposure and OPV and non-OPV vaccines uptake during the 2013 silent polio outbreak in Israel. We received data on daily immunization rates during the outbreak period from the Ministry of Health (MoH). We conducted a multivariable time trend analysis to assess the association between daily media exposure and vaccines uptake. Analysis was stratified by ethnicity and socio-economic status (SES). During the MoH supplemental immunization activity, 138,799 OPV vaccines were given. There was a significant association between media exposure and OPV uptake, most prominent in a lag of 3-5 days from the exposure among Jews (R.R 1.79C.I 95% 1.32-2.41) and high SES subgroups (R.R 1.71C.I 95% 1.27-2.30). These subgroups also showed increased non-OPV uptake in a lag of 3-5 days from the media exposure, in all vaccines except for MMR. Lower SES and non-Jewish subgroups did not demonstrate the same association. Our findings expand the understanding of public behaviour during outbreaks. The public response shows high variability within specific subgroups. These findings highlight the importance of tailored communication strategies for each subgroup. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of polio eradication activities on routine immunization: lessons from the 2013 outbreak response in Somali region of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafesse, Belete; Tekle, Ephrem; Wondwossen, Liya; Bogale, Mengistu; Fiona, Braka; Nsubuga, Peter; Tomas, Karengera; Kassahun, Aron; Kathleen, Gallagher; Teka, Aschalew

    2017-01-01

    Ethiopia experienced several WPV importations with a total of 10 WPV1 cases confirmed during the 2013 outbreak alone before it is closed in 2015. We evaluated supplemental immunization activities (SIAs), including lessons learned for their effect on the routine immunization program during the 2013 polio outbreak in Somali regional state. We used descriptive study to review documents and analyse routine health information system reports from the polio outbreak affected Somali regional state. All data and technical reports of the 15 rounds of polio SIAs from June 2013 through June 2015 and routine immunization coverages for DPT-Hib-HepB 3 and measles were observed. More than 93% of the SIAs were having administrative coverage above 95%. The trend of routine immunization for the two antigens, over the five years (2011 through 2015) did not show a consistent pattern against the number of SIAs. Documentations showed qualitative positive impacts of the SIAs strengthening the routine immunization during all courses of the campaigns. The quantitative impact of polio SIAs on routine immunization remained not so impressive in this study. Clear planning, data consistencies and completeness issues need to be cleared for the impact assessment in quantitative terms, in polio legacy planning as well as for the introduction of injectable polio vaccine through the routine immunization.

  9. How Drone Strikes and a Fake Vaccination Program Have Inhibited Polio Eradication in Pakistan: An Analysis of National Level Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Jonathan

    2017-10-01

    This article investigates whether the United States' counterinsurgency operations have inhibited polio eradication efforts in northwestern Pakistan, the world's last major reservoir of polio. Anecdotal evidence suggests that militants disrupt polio vaccination programs because of suspicions that campaigns are a cover for gathering intelligence on Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) drone targets. This paper analyzes national-level quantitative data to test this argument. Between 2004 and 2012, the number of polio cases in Pakistan closely mirrored the number of drone strikes. But from 2013 onward, polio cases increased while drone strikes fell. This can be explained by the CIA's use of a fake immunization campaign in a failed attempt to obtain the DNA of Osama bin Laden's relatives prior to his assassination in 2011. This seemingly vindicated militants' suspicions that vaccination programs were a cover for espionage. Militants consequently intensified their disruption of immunization campaigns, resulting in an increase in polio cases in Pakistan, as well as in Afghanistan, Syria, and Iraq. For politicians and military planners, drones are attractive because they are said to harm fewer civilians than conventional methods of warfare. However, this paper demonstrates that drone strikes had negative effects on the well-being of civilians in Pakistan and further afield because they undermined global efforts to eradicate polio.

  10. The Cutter incident and the development of a Swedish polio vaccine, 1952-1957

    OpenAIRE

    Axelsson, Per

    2012-01-01

    The creation of two different vaccines to eradicate polio stands out as one of modern science most important accomplishments. The current article examines Swedish polio vaccine research, the vaccination campaign and especially how the Cutter incident came to affect Swedish Science, scientists and society in the 1950s. Sweden is one of the few countries that came to produce its own inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) in the 1950s, a type of vaccine they never abandoned. This article highlights the...

  11. [Viral contamination of polio vaccines in context of antivaccination mythology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mats, A N; Kuz'mina, M N; Cheprasova, E V

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of publications about real and suggested contamination of polio vaccines produced in 1950s and 1960s with simian viruses--SV40 and SIV--is performed. Factual data are discussed and antivaccination fictions about calamitous consequences of really occurred contamination with SV40 and concocted contamination with SIV are refuted.

  12. Understanding vaccine hesitancy in polio eradication in northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Sebastian; Khan, Mahmud; Muhammad, Ado; Akpala, Okey; van Strien, Marit; Morry, Chris; Feek, Warren; Ogden, Ellyn

    2017-11-07

    Vaccine hesitancy constitutes a major threat to the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI), and to further expansion of routine immunisation. Understanding hesitancy, leading in some cases to refusal, is vital to the success of GPEI. Re-emergence of circulating wild poliovirus in northern Nigeria in mid-2016, after 24months polio-free, gives urgency to this. But it is equally important to protect and sustain the global gains available through routine immunisation in a time of rising scepticism and potential rejection of specific vaccines or immunisation more generally. This study is based on a purposive sampling survey of 1653 households in high- and low-performing rural, semiurban and urban areas of three high-risk states of northern Nigeria in 2013-14 (Sokoto, Kano and Bauchi). The survey sought to understand factors at household and community level associated with propensity to refuse polio vaccine. Wealth, female education and knowledge of vaccines were associated with lower propensity to refuse oral polio vaccine (OPV) among rural households. But higher risk of refusal among wealthier, more literate urban household rendered these findings ambiguous. Ethnic and religious identity did not appear to be associated with risk of OPV refusal. Risk of vaccine refusal was highly clustered among households within a small sub-group of sampled settlements. Contrary to expectations, households in these settlements reported higher levels of expectation of government as service provider, but at the same time lesser confidence in the efficacy of their relations with government. Results suggest that strategies to address the micro-political dimension of vaccination - expanding community-level engagement, strengthening the role of local government in public health, and enhancing public participation of women - should be effective in reducing non-compliance, asan important set of strategies complementary to conventional didactic/educational approaches and working through

  13. Polio immunization policy in Mexico: economic assessment of current practice and future alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascareñas, A; Salinas, J; Tasset-Tisseau, A; Mascareñas, C; Khan, M M

    2005-06-01

    The World Health Organization recommends that all children aged less than 5 years should be vaccinated against polio through intensive immunization programmes as well as routine immunization. A national immunization week (NIW) was held in February 2002 in the Monterrey district of Mexico. A prospective micro-costing study was conducted to measure the total cost to the state of the NIW, the cost profile, and the ratio of cost per immunization contact to cost per dose of oral polio vaccine (OPV), and to compare OPV and inactive polio vaccine (IPV) in economic terms. Two scenarios were used as the basis for calculation. The cost of volunteers was excluded from the "lower-cost scenario" and included in the "upper-cost scenario". The total cost of the NIW was USD 100,454 for the lower-cost scenario and USD 156,614 for the upper-cost scenario. The major part of the costs was personnel costs (67.30 and 77.53% of the total costs in the lower- and upper-cost scenario, respectively). The ratio of cost per immunization contact to cost per dose of OPV was 6.45 for the lower-cost scenario and 10.05 for the upper-cost scenario. Changing from the current OPV-based intensive and routine schedule to a sequential IPV-OPV routine schedule would save USD 14.52 per vaccinated child, and changing to a full IPV routine schedule would save USD 9.41 per vaccinated child.

  14. Improving polio vaccination during supplementary campaigns at areas of mass transit in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahl Sunil

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In India, children who are traveling during mass immunization campaigns for polio represent a substantial component of the total target population. These children are not easily accessible to health workers and may thus not receive vaccine. Vaccination activities at mass transit sites (such as major intersections, bus depots and train stations, can increase the proportion of children vaccinated but the effectiveness of these activities, and factors associated with their success, have not been rigorously evaluated. Methods We assessed data from polio vaccination activities in Jyotiba Phule Nagar district, Uttar Pradesh, India, conducted in June 2006. We used trends in the vaccination results from the June activities to plan the timing, locations, and human resource requirements for transit vaccination activities in two out of the seven blocks in the district for the July 2006 supplementary immunization activity (SIA. In July, similar data was collected and for the first time vaccination teams also recorded the proportion of children encountered each day who were vaccinated (a new monitoring system. Results In June, out of the 360,937 total children vaccinated, 34,643 (9.6% received vaccinations at mass transit sites. In the July SIA, after implementation of a number of changes based on the June monitoring data, 36,475 children were vaccinated at transit sites (a 5.3% increase. Transit site vaccinations in July increased in the two intervention blocks from 18,194 to 21,588 (18.7% and decreased from 16,449 to 14,887 (9.5% in the five other blocks. The new monitoring system showed the proportion of unvaccinated children at street intersection transit sites in the July campaign decreased from 24% (1,784/7,405 at the start of the campaign to 3% (143/5,057 by the end of the SIA, consistent with findings from the more labor-intensive post-vaccination coverage surveys routinely performed by the program. Conclusions Analysis of

  15. [Study on the immunization status and its influencing factors among workers from the polio network laboratories in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Y S; Wang, J Q; Xu, C; Liu, Y N; He, X H; Wei, Q

    2017-06-10

    Objective: To Investigate the immune status and influencing factors of provincial polio network laboratory (PNL) workers in China so as to provide evidence for the development of related strategies to protect personnel working at the PNLs. Methods: All the practitioners from the PNLs at the provincial centers for disease control, were selected as objects for this study, from October to December, 2016, under a questionnaire survey. Information on status of immunity and influencing factors was collected, with SAS software, trend chi-square used for statistics analysis. Results: A total of 77 workers were involved in this survey, with 60 (78 % ) of them completed the polio-based immune program but the rest 17 (22 % ) remained records unclear. 66 people (about 86 % ) remembered clearly that they had received vaccination when engaging in the polio-lab work, but the rest 11 (14 % ) with only partial vaccination records. We also noticed that the Influencing factors realted to vaccination status were: age ( χ (2)=2.48, P employment ( P <0.000 1), education ( χ (2)=0.74, P =0.46) and gender ( χ (2)=0.46, P =0.50). Conclusion: Immune status of the Chinese provincial PNL practitioners appeared fairly good as 86 % of all the workers had received polio-related vaccination, with 41 % of them completed a 3-time inoculation program, when started working in this field.

  16. Polio and Post-Polio Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who've had polio develop post-polio syndrome (PPS) years later. Symptoms include tiredness, new muscle weakness, ... There is no way to prevent or cure PPS. The polio vaccine has wiped out polio in ...

  17. Evaluation and comparison of Hela, Hep2C and Vero cell lines sensitivity to polio vaccinal virus using micro and macro vaccine potency tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleimani, S.,

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Poliomyelitis, an acute viral infectious disease caused by poliovirus, still remains a public health problem in developing countries. Despite the global effort to eradicate polio, continuing the polio immunization with a potent and safe vaccine is essential. For accurate vaccine evaluation, three types of cell lines including Hela, Hep2C and Vero were evaluated and compared using two methods of polio vaccine potency tests (micro & macro. For cells comparison, five different batches from polio vaccines were tested and to develop the test, five variables including viruses, cells, serum, media and Co2 were studied. For validation, the titer of which has been well established as a working reference preparation (WRP was applied to control the accuracy and reproducibility of the testing system. Multiple comparisons were performed by analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by Tokey HDS and LSD. No significant differences were found between the potency of vaccine batches and between macro and micro methods. Reduction in cells sensitivity and potency of vaccines was found with increasing passage number. Significant differences were found between the sensitivity of the cell lines. The highest potency of polio vaccines was obtained using Hela cells (GMT in macro and micro test = 10 6.35; Hep2C cells were afterwards (GMT in macro= 10 6.01 and in micro test= 10 5.94; Vero cells were lowest (GMT in macro= 10 5.78 and in micro test= 10 5.72. So, the sensitivity and accuracy of the potency test for evaluation of the polio vaccine in immunization program in Iran will be assured using the Hela cell line with low passage number in macro and micro methods.

  18. Immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a lot worse. Some are even life-threatening. Immunization shots, or vaccinations, are essential. They protect against things like measles, ... B, polio, tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (whooping cough). Immunizations are important for adults as well as children. ...

  19. Preventing Vaccine-Derived Poliovirus Emergence during the Polio Endgame.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Pons-Salort

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Reversion and spread of vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV to cause outbreaks of poliomyelitis is a rare outcome resulting from immunisation with the live-attenuated oral poliovirus vaccines (OPVs. Global withdrawal of all three OPV serotypes is therefore a key objective of the polio endgame strategic plan, starting with serotype 2 (OPV2 in April 2016. Supplementary immunisation activities (SIAs with trivalent OPV (tOPV in advance of this date could mitigate the risks of OPV2 withdrawal by increasing serotype-2 immunity, but may also create new serotype-2 VDPV (VDPV2. Here, we examine the risk factors for VDPV2 emergence and implications for the strategy of tOPV SIAs prior to OPV2 withdrawal. We first developed mathematical models of VDPV2 emergence and spread. We found that in settings with low routine immunisation coverage, the implementation of a single SIA increases the risk of VDPV2 emergence. If routine coverage is 20%, at least 3 SIAs are needed to bring that risk close to zero, and if SIA coverage is low or there are persistently "missed" groups, the risk remains high despite the implementation of multiple SIAs. We then analysed data from Nigeria on the 29 VDPV2 emergences that occurred during 2004-2014. Districts reporting the first case of poliomyelitis associated with a VDPV2 emergence were compared to districts with no VDPV2 emergence in the same 6-month period using conditional logistic regression. In agreement with the model results, the odds of VDPV2 emergence decreased with higher routine immunisation coverage (odds ratio 0.67 for a 10% absolute increase in coverage [95% confidence interval 0.55-0.82]. We also found that the probability of a VDPV2 emergence resulting in poliomyelitis in >1 child was significantly higher in districts with low serotype-2 population immunity. Our results support a strategy of focused tOPV SIAs before OPV2 withdrawal in areas at risk of VDPV2 emergence and in sufficient number to raise population

  20. Studies on the potency of oral polio vaccine using RD cell line and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... The potency of vaccines was tested using the Karber's Formula. Key words: Oral polio vaccine, rhabdomyosarcoma, thermostability, potency. INTRODUCTION. Poliomyelitis, often called polio or infantile paralysis, is an acute viral infectious disease spread from person to person, primarily via the faecal-oral ...

  1. Experiences from polio supplementary immunization activities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reported experiences and lessons from supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) conducted in the State that will be useful to other settings experiencing low uptake of routine immunization. Materials and Methods: The SIAs were conducted simultaneously in the 21 local government areas (LGAs) in Anambra ...

  2. Monitoring Results in Routine Immunization: Development of Routine Immunization Dashboard in Selected African Countries in the Context of the Polio Eradication Endgame Strategic Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poy, Alain; van den Ent, Maya M V X; Sosler, Stephen; Hinman, Alan R; Brown, Sidney; Sodha, Samir; Ehlman, Daniel C; Wallace, Aaron S; Mihigo, Richard

    2017-07-01

    To monitor immunization-system strengthening in the Polio Eradication Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018 (PEESP), the Global Polio Eradication Initiative identified 1 indicator: 10% annual improvement in third dose of diphtheria- tetanus-pertussis-containing vaccine (DTP3) coverage in polio high-risk districts of 10 polio focus countries. A multiagency team, including staff from the African Region, developed a comprehensive list of outcome and process indicators measuring various aspects of the performance of an immunization system. The development and implementation of the dashboard to assess immunization system performance allowed national program managers to monitor the key immunization indicators and stratify by high-risk and non-high-risk districts. Although only a single outcome indicator goal (at least 10% annual increase in DTP3 coverage achieved in 80% of high-risk districts) initially existed in the endgame strategy, we successfully added additional outcome indicators (eg, decreasing the number of DTP3-unvaccinated children) as well as program process indicators focusing on cold chain, stock availability, and vaccination sessions to better describe progress on the pathway to raising immunization coverage. When measuring progress toward improving immunization systems, it is helpful to use a comprehensive approach that allows for measuring multiple dimensions of the system. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  3. Preformulation study of highly purified inactivated polio vaccine, serotype 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Wei; Zeng, Yuhong; Orgel, Scott; Francon, Alain; Kim, Jae Hyun; Randolph, Theodore W; Carpenter, John F; Middaugh, C Russell

    2014-01-01

    To improve the effectiveness of the polio vaccination campaign, improvements in the thermal stability of the vaccine are being investigated. Here, inactivated polio vaccine, serotype 3 (IPV3) was characterized via a number of biophysical techniques. The size was characterized by transmission electronic microscopy and light scattering. The capsid protein conformation was evaluated by intrinsic fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD), and the D-antigen content by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The pH thermal stability of IPV3 (pH 3.0-8.0; 10°C-87.5°C) was evaluated by fluorescence, CD, and static light scattering. The transition temperatures reflect the responses, respectively, of tertiary structure, secondary structure, and size to applied thermal stress. The data were summarized as empirical phase diagrams, and the most stable conditions were found to be pH 7.0 with temperature lower than 40°C. CD detected a higher transition temperature for capsid protein than that for RNA. The effects of certain excipients on IPV3 thermal stability and antigen content were evaluated. The results of their effects, based on intrinsic fluorescence and ELISA, were in good agreement, suggesting the feasibility of applying intrinsic fluorescence as a high-throughput tool for formulation development. The study improves the understanding of IPV3 thermal stability, and provides a starting point for future formulation development of IPV3 and other serotypes. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  4. Estimation after classification using lot quality assurance sampling: corrections for curtailed sampling with application to evaluating polio vaccination campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olives, Casey; Valadez, Joseph J; Pagano, Marcello

    2014-03-01

    To assess the bias incurred when curtailment of Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) is ignored, to present unbiased estimators, to consider the impact of cluster sampling by simulation and to apply our method to published polio immunization data from Nigeria. We present estimators of coverage when using two kinds of curtailed LQAS strategies: semicurtailed and curtailed. We study the proposed estimators with independent and clustered data using three field-tested LQAS designs for assessing polio vaccination coverage, with samples of size 60 and decision rules of 9, 21 and 33, and compare them to biased maximum likelihood estimators. Lastly, we present estimates of polio vaccination coverage from previously published data in 20 local government authorities (LGAs) from five Nigerian states. Simulations illustrate substantial bias if one ignores the curtailed sampling design. Proposed estimators show no bias. Clustering does not affect the bias of these estimators. Across simulations, standard errors show signs of inflation as clustering increases. Neither sampling strategy nor LQAS design influences estimates of polio vaccination coverage in 20 Nigerian LGAs. When coverage is low, semicurtailed LQAS strategies considerably reduces the sample size required to make a decision. Curtailed LQAS designs further reduce the sample size when coverage is high. Results presented dispel the misconception that curtailed LQAS data are unsuitable for estimation. These findings augment the utility of LQAS as a tool for monitoring vaccination efforts by demonstrating that unbiased estimation using curtailed designs is not only possible but these designs also reduce the sample size. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Modelling Risk to US Military Populations from Stopping Blanket Mandatory Polio Vaccination (Open Access Publisher’s Version)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-14

    Research Article Modelling Risk to US Military Populations from Stopping Blanket Mandatory Polio Vaccination Colleen Burgess,1,2 Andrew Burgess,2 and...routinely vaccinated with inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV), supplemented based upon deployment circumstances. Given residual protection from...childhood vaccination , risk-based vaccination may sufficiently protect troops from polio transmission. Methods.This analysis employed a mathematical system

  6. Isolation of sabin-like polioviruses from wastewater in a country using inactivated polio vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurbriggen, Sebastian; Tobler, Kurt; Abril, Carlos; Diedrich, Sabine; Ackermann, Mathias; Pallansch, Mark A; Metzler, Alfred

    2008-09-01

    From 2001 to 2004, Switzerland switched from routine vaccination with oral polio vaccine (OPV) to inactivated polio vaccine (IPV), using both vaccines in the intervening period. Since IPV is less effective at inducing mucosal immunity than OPV, this change might allow imported poliovirus to circulate undetected more easily in an increasingly IPV-immunized population. Environmental monitoring is a recognized tool for identifying polioviruses in a community. To look for evidence of poliovirus circulation following cessation of OPV use, two sewage treatment plants located in the Zurich area were sampled from 2004 to 2006. Following virus isolation using either RD or L20B cells, enteroviruses and polioviruses were identified by reverse transcription-PCR. A total of 20 out of 174 wastewater samples were positive for 62 Sabin-like isolates. One isolate from each poliovirus-positive sample was analyzed in more detail. Sequencing the complete viral protein 1 (VP1) capsid coding region, as well as intratypic differentiation (ITD), identified 3 Sabin type 1, 13 Sabin type 2, and 4 Sabin type 3 strains. One serotype 1 strain showed a discordant result in the ITD. Three-quarters of the strains showed mutations within the 5' untranslated region and VP1, known to be associated with reversion to virulence. Moreover, three strains showed heterotypic recombination (S2/S1 and S3/S2/S3). The low number of synonymous mutations and the partial temperature sensitivity are not consistent with extended circulation of these Sabin virus strains. Nevertheless, the continuous introduction of polioviruses into the community emphasizes the necessity for uninterrupted child vaccination to maintain high herd immunity.

  7. Engineering Enhanced Vaccine Cell Lines To Eradicate Vaccine-Preventable Diseases: the Polio End Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sanden, Sabine M G; Wu, Weilin; Dybdahl-Sissoko, Naomi; Weldon, William C; Brooks, Paula; O'Donnell, Jason; Jones, Les P; Brown, Cedric; Tompkins, S Mark; Oberste, M Steven; Karpilow, Jon; Tripp, Ralph A

    2016-02-15

    Vaccine manufacturing costs prevent a significant portion of the world's population from accessing protection from vaccine-preventable diseases. To enhance vaccine production at reduced costs, a genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) screen was performed to identify gene knockdown events that enhanced poliovirus replication. Primary screen hits were validated in a Vero vaccine manufacturing cell line using attenuated and wild-type poliovirus strains. Multiple single and dual gene silencing events increased poliovirus titers >20-fold and >50-fold, respectively. Host gene knockdown events did not affect virus antigenicity, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas9-mediated knockout of the top candidates dramatically improved viral vaccine strain production. Interestingly, silencing of several genes that enhanced poliovirus replication also enhanced replication of enterovirus 71, a clinically relevant virus to which vaccines are being targeted. The discovery that host gene modulation can markedly increase virus vaccine production dramatically alters mammalian cell-based vaccine manufacturing possibilities and should facilitate polio eradication using the inactivated poliovirus vaccine. Using a genome-wide RNAi screen, a collection of host virus resistance genes was identified that, upon silencing, increased poliovirus and enterovirus 71 production by from 10-fold to >50-fold in a Vero vaccine manufacturing cell line. This report provides novel insights into enterovirus-host interactions and describes an approach to developing the next generation of vaccine manufacturing through engineered vaccine cell lines. The results show that specific gene silencing and knockout events can enhance viral titers of both attenuated (Sabin strain) and wild-type polioviruses, a finding that should greatly facilitate global implementation of inactivated polio vaccine as well as further reduce costs for live-attenuated oral polio vaccines. This work

  8. The effect of prophylaxis with chloroquine and proguanil on delayed-type hypersensitivity and antibody production following vaccination with diphtheria, tetanus, polio, and pneumococcal vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyhrs, A; Pedersen, B K; Bygbjerg, I

    1991-01-01

    with seven delayed-type common antigens (Multitest) and 2) humoral immunity by measurement of specific antibody response to vaccination. Sixty healthy young individuals were randomized into four groups and given 1) no treatment (controls), 2) chloroquine diphosphate (500 mg/week), 3) chloroquine diphosphate...... dosages, does not induce any detectable suppression of delayed-type hypersensitivity or vaccination responses to diphtheria, tetanus, polio, or pneumococcal polysaccharide antigens....... (1,000 mg/week), or 4) proguanil hydrochloride (200 mg/day) for six weeks. Skin testing was performed on days 0 and 28. Vaccinations with diphtheria, tetanus, polio, and pneumococcal polysaccharide antigen vaccines were performed on day 28, and the presence of specific antibodies was determined...

  9. Vaccine coverage and determinants of incomplete vaccination in children aged 12-23 months in Dschang, West Region, Cameroon: a cross-sectional survey during a polio outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Gianluca; Miglietta, Alessandro; Pezzotti, Patrizio; Biguioh, Rodrigue Mabvouna; Bouting Mayaka, Georges; Sobze, Martin Sanou; Stefanelli, Paola; Vullo, Vincenzo; Rezza, Giovanni

    2015-07-10

    Inadequate immunization coverage with increased risk of vaccine preventable diseases outbreaks remains a problem in Africa. Moreover, different factors contribute to incomplete vaccination status. This study was performed in Dschang (West Region, Cameroon), during the polio outbreak occurred in October 2013, in order to estimate the immunization coverage among children aged 12-23 months, to identify determinants for incomplete vaccination status and to assess the risk of poliovirus spread in the study population. A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in November-December 2013, using the WHO two-stage sampling design. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information from consenting parents of children aged 12-23 months. Vaccination coverage was assessed by vaccination card and parents' recall. Chi-square test and multilevel logistic regression model were used to identify the determinants of incomplete immunization status. Statistical significance was set at p children were enrolled. Complete immunization coverage was 85.9% and 84.5%, according to card plus parents' recall and card only, respectively. All children had received at least one routine vaccination, the OPV-3 (Oral Polio Vaccine) coverage was >90%, and 73.4% children completed the recommended vaccinations before 1-year of age. In the final multilevel logistic regression model, factors significantly associated with incomplete immunization status were: retention of immunization card (AOR: 7.89; 95% CI: 1.08-57.37), lower mothers' utilization of antenatal care (ANC) services (AOR:1.25; 95% CI: 1.07-63.75), being the ≥ 3(rd) born child in the family (AOR: 425.4; 95% CI: 9.6-18,808), younger mothers' age (AOR: 49.55; 95% CI: 1.59-1544), parents' negative attitude towards immunization (AOR: 20.2; 95% CI: 1.46-278.9), and poorer parents' exposure to information on vaccination (AOR: 28.07; 95 % CI: 2.26-348.1). Longer distance from the vaccination centers was marginally

  10. The March of Dimes and Polio: Lessons in Vaccine Advocacy for Health Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Dawn

    2012-01-01

    The polio vaccine became available in 1955, due almost entirely to the efforts of the March of Dimes. In 1921, Franklin Roosevelt gave a public face to polio and mounted a campaign to prevent it, establishing the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis in 1938. During the Depression, U.S. citizens were asked to contribute one dime. Entertainer…

  11. Vaccines and Immunization Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Michael D; Meador, Anna E

    2016-03-01

    Vaccines are among most cost-effective public health strategies. Despite effective vaccines for many bacterial and viral illnesses, tens of thousands of adults and hundreds of children die each year in the United States from vaccine-preventable diseases. Underutilization of vaccines requires rethinking the approach to incorporating vaccines into practice. Arguably, immunizations could be a part all health care encounters. Shared responsibility is paramount if deaths are to be reduced. This article reviews the available vaccines in the US market, as well as practice recommendations of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Between East and West: polio vaccination across the Iron Curtain in Cold War Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargha, Dora

    2014-01-01

    In 1950s Hungary, with an economy and infrastructure still devastated from World War II and facing further hardships, thousands of children became permanently disabled and many died in the severe polio epidemic that shook the globe. The relatively new communist regime invested significantly in solving the public health crisis, initially importing a vaccine from the West and later turning to the East for a new solution. Through the history of polio vaccination in Hungary, this article shows how Cold War politics shaped vaccine evaluation and implementation in the 1950s. On the one hand, the threat of polio created a safe place for hitherto unprecedented, open cooperation among governments and scientific communities on the two sides of the Iron Curtain. On the other hand, Cold War rhetoric influenced scientific evaluation of vaccines, choices of disease prevention, and ultimately the eradication of polio.

  13. Studies on the potency of oral polio vaccine using RD cell line and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... Oral polio vaccine (OPV) proved to be superior in administration eliminating the need of sterile syringes and making the vaccine more suitable for mass vaccination campaigns. Poliovirus is heat sensitive in nature, and thus OPV is stored at low temperature (frozen). The growth medium containing.

  14. Assessing Inactivated Polio Vaccine Introduction and Utilization in Kano State, Nigeria, April-November 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadebe, Lynda U; MacNeil, Adam; Elmousaad, Hashim; Davis, Lora; Idris, Jibrin M; Haladu, Suleiman A; Adeoye, Olorunsogo B; Nguku, Patrick; Aliu-Mamudu, Uneratu; Hassan, Elizabeth; Vertefeuille, John; Bloland, Peter

    2017-07-01

    Kano State, Nigeria, introduced inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) into its routine immunization (RI) schedule in March 2015 and was the pilot site for an RI data module for the National Health Management Information System (NHMIS). We determined factors impacting IPV introduction and the value of the RI module on monitoring new vaccine introduction. Two assessment approaches were used: (1) analysis of IPV vaccinations reported in NHMIS, and (2) survey of 20 local government areas (LGAs) and 60 associated health facilities (HF). By April 2015, 66% of LGAs had at least 20% of HFs administering IPV, by June all LGAs had HFs administering IPV and by July, 91% of the HFs in Kano reported administering IPV. Among surveyed staff, most rated training and implementation as successful. Among HFs, 97% had updated RI reporting tools, although only 50% had updated microplans. Challenges among HFs included: IPV shortages (20%), hesitancy to administer 2 injectable vaccines (28%), lack of knowledge on multi-dose vial policy (30%) and age of IPV administration (8%). The introduction of IPV was largely successful in Kano and the RI module was effective in monitoring progress, although certain gaps were noted, which should be used to inform plans for future vaccine introductions. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  15. Inactivated polio vaccination using a microneedle patch is immunogenic in the rhesus macaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edens, Chris; Dybdahl-Sissoko, Naomi C; Weldon, William C; Oberste, M Steven; Prausnitz, Mark R

    2015-09-08

    The phased replacement of oral polio vaccine (OPV) with inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) is expected to significantly complicate mass vaccination campaigns, which are an important component of the global polio eradication endgame strategy. To simplify mass vaccination with IPV, we developed microneedle patches that are easy to administer, have a small package size, generate no sharps waste and are inexpensive to manufacture. When administered to rhesus macaques, neutralizing antibody titers were equivalent among monkeys vaccinated using microneedle patches and conventional intramuscular injection for IPV types 1 and 2. Serologic response to IPV type 3 vaccination was weaker after microneedle patch vaccination compared to intramuscular injection; however, we suspect the administered type 3 dose was lower due to a flawed pre-production IPV type 3 analytical method. IPV vaccination using microneedle patches was well tolerated by the monkeys. We conclude that IPV vaccination using a microneedle patch is immunogenic in rhesus macaques and may offer a simpler method of IPV vaccination of people to facilitate polio eradication. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact of national immunization days on polio-related knowledge and practice of urban women in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaiyum, M A; Tuñon, C; Hel Baqui, A; Quayyum, Z; Khatun, J

    1997-12-01

    Bangladesh began to hold National Immunization Days (NIDs) from 1995 as part of the country's goal to eradicate poliomyelitis by the turn of the century. The NIDs brought together government agencies, the media, voluntary organisations and individual volunteers in social mobilization and service delivery activities. This paper assesses the impact of the first two polio NIDs in terms of the immunization coverage and change in knowledge about the disease among women living in Dhaka city, the capital of the country. Data were collected through pre- and post-NID cross-sectional surveys in a sample of one area of Dhaka city which included slum and non-slum households. Knowledge data were collected from 525 women with at least one child aged less than five years. The oral polio vaccine (OPV) coverage during NIDs was obtained from 720 children. Knowledge of polio as a vaccine preventable disease increased after NIDs among both slum and non-slum women. The knowledge gap between the two groups was significantly reduced. Field workers, who regularly visit women at their homes to promote health and family planning services, were the main source of information for the slum women while television was cited as the most important source of information by non-slum women. The study revealed that 88% of children under five years received at least one dose of oral polio vaccine (OPV) during NIDs, and 67% received two stipulated doses with no significant differences between slum (65%) and non-slum (69%) groups. In addition, 68% of the children contacted during the NIDs were given vitamin A supplementation. The study suggests that strategies like NID can be effectively used to tap into community resources and to generate political commitments for health programmes.

  17. Retrospective cost-effectiveness analyses for polio vaccination in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kimberly M; Tebbens, Radboud J Duintjer

    2006-12-01

    The history of polio vaccination in the United States spans 50 years and includes different phases of the disease, multiple vaccines, and a sustained significant commitment of resources. We estimated cost-effectiveness ratios and assessed the net benefits of polio vaccination applicable at various points in time from the societal perspective and we discounted these back to appropriate points in time. We reconstructed vaccine price data from available sources and used these to retrospectively estimate the total costs of the U.S. historical polio vaccination strategies (all costs reported in year 2002 dollars). We estimate that the United States invested approximately US dollars 35 billion (1955 net present value, discount rate of 3%) in polio vaccines between 1955 and 2005 and will invest approximately US dollars 1.4 billion (1955 net present value, or US dollars 6.3 billion in 2006 net present value) between 2006 and 2015 assuming a policy of continued use of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) for routine vaccination. The historical and future investments translate into over 1.7 billion vaccinations that prevent approximately 1.1 million cases of paralytic polio and over 160,000 deaths (1955 net present values of approximately 480,000 cases and 73,000 deaths). Due to treatment cost savings, the investment implies net benefits of approximately US dollars 180 billion (1955 net present value), even without incorporating the intangible costs of suffering and death and of averted fear. Retrospectively, the U.S. investment in polio vaccination represents a highly valuable, cost-saving public health program. Observed changes in the cost-effectiveness ratio estimates over time suggest the need for living economic models for interventions that appropriately change with time. This article also demonstrates that estimates of cost-effectiveness ratios at any single time point may fail to adequately consider the context of the investment made to date and the importance of

  18. [Oral polio vaccine in infants does not interfere in detection of enterovirus in blood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Marcela; Sandoval, Carmen; Valenzuela, Patricia; Montecinos, Luisa; Martínez, Constanza; Godoy, Paula; Abarca, Katia

    2013-12-01

    There is not known if a viraemia post-oral polio vaccine (OPV) is detectable by modern molecular techniques. Such viraemia could affect the performance of the real time-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for non polio enterovirus (EV) detection, technique of growing clinical use for the study of febrile infants. To determine viraemia post-first dose of OPV in healthy infants, by molecular techniques. 50 infants less than three months without previous VPO were randomized in 5 groups: a control group with pre-vaccination blood sample (BS), group 1 BS at day 2, group 2 BS at day 4, group 3, BS at day 6 and group 4, BS at day 8 post-vaccination. Conventional and specific PCR for poliovirus and real time PCR for non polio EV were performed in BS and in OPV samples. No genetic material of poliovirus was detected in any infant, while in 9 of them (18%) non polio EV was identified. Real time PCR for EV did not amplify poliovirus from OPV samples. Results suggest that no post VPO viraemia detectable by molecular methods exists. Considering that real time PCR for EV does not allow to identify polio virus, no false positives of the test are expected as a result of a recent VPO vaccination. We documented presence of non polio EV in blood of healthy asymptomatic infants.

  19. Does oral polio vaccine at birth affect the size of the thymus?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Helle Brander; Lund, Najaaraq; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that vaccines have an effect on general mortality which goes beyond specific disease protection. Oral polio vaccine (OPV) is widely used in low-income countries, but in observational studies in Guinea-Bissau we observed that not receiving OPV at birth...

  20. Immunity to polio, measles and rubella in women of child-bearing age and estimated congenital rubella syndrome incidence, Cambodia, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, B; Chheng, K; Wannemuehler, K; Vynnycky, E; Buth, S; Soeung, S C; Reef, S; Weldon, W; Quick, L; Gregory, C J

    2015-07-01

    Significant gaps in immunity to polio, measles, and rubella may exist in adults in Cambodia and threaten vaccine-preventable disease (VPD) elimination and control goals, despite high childhood vaccination coverage. We conducted a nationwide serological survey during November-December 2012 of 2154 women aged 15-39 years to assess immunity to polio, measles, and rubella and to estimate congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) incidence. Measles and rubella antibodies were detected by IgG ELISA and polio antibodies by microneutralization testing. Age-structured catalytic models were fitted to rubella serological data to predict CRS cases. Overall, 29.8% of women lacked immunity to at least one poliovirus (PV); seroprevalence to PV1, PV2 and PV3 was 85.9%, 93.4% and 83.3%, respectively. Rubella and measles antibody seroprevalence was 73.3% and 95.9%, respectively. In the 15-19 years age group, 48.2% [95% confidence interval (CI) 42.4-54.1] were susceptible to either PV1 or PV3, and 40.3% (95% CI 33.0-47.5) to rubella virus. Based on rubella antibody seroprevalence, we estimate that >600 infants are born with CRS in Cambodia annually. Significant numbers of Cambodian women are still susceptible to polio and rubella, especially those aged 15-19 years, emphasizing the need to include adults in VPD surveillance and a potential role for vaccination strategies targeted at adults.

  1. An evaluation of community perspectives and contributing factors to missed children during an oral polio vaccination campaign--Katsina State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Charles A; Ashenafi, Samra; Ogbuanu, Ikechukwu U; Ohuabunwo, Chima; Sule, Adamu; Corkum, Melissa; Mackay, Susan; Storms, Aaron D; Achari, Panchanan; Biya, Oladayo; Nguku, Patrick; Newberry, David; Bwaka, Ado; Mahoney, Frank

    2014-11-01

    Unvaccinated children contribute to accumulation of susceptible persons and the continued transmission of wild poliovirus in Nigeria. In September 2012, the Expert Review Committee (ERC) on Polio Eradication and Routine Immunization in Nigeria recommended that social research be conducted to better understand why children are missed during supplementary immunization activities (SIAs), also known as "immunization plus days (IPDs)" in Nigeria. Immediately following the SIA in October 2012, polio eradication partners and the government of Nigeria conducted a study to assess why children are missed. We used semistructured questionnaires and focus group discussions in 1 rural and 1 urban local government area (LGA) of Katsina State. Participants reported that 61% of the children were not vaccinated because of poor vaccination team performance: either the teams did not visit the homes (25%) or the children were reported absent and not revisited (36%). This lack of access to vaccine was more frequently reported by respondents from scattered/nomadic communities (85%). In 1 out of 4 respondents (25%), refusal was the main reason their child was not vaccinated. The majority of respondents reported they would have consented to their children being vaccinated if the vaccine had been offered. Poor vaccination team performance is a major contributor to missed children during IPD campaigns. Addressing such operational deficiencies will help close the polio immunity gap and eradicate polio from Nigeria. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. The risk of type 2 oral polio vaccine use in post-cessation outbreak response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Kevin A; Chabot-Couture, Guillaume; Famulare, Michael; Lyons, Hil M; Mercer, Laina D

    2017-10-04

    Wild type 2 poliovirus was last observed in 1999. The Sabin-strain oral polio vaccine type 2 (OPV2) was critical to eradication, but it is known to revert to a neurovirulent phenotype, causing vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis. OPV2 is also transmissible and can establish circulating lineages, called circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs), which can also cause paralytic outbreaks. Thus, in April 2016, OPV2 was removed from immunization activities worldwide. Interrupting transmission of cVDPV2 lineages that survive cessation will require OPV2 in outbreak response, which risks seeding new cVDPVs. This potential cascade of outbreak responses seeding VDPVs, necessitating further outbreak responses, presents a critical risk to the OPV2 cessation effort. The EMOD individual-based disease transmission model was used to investigate OPV2 use in outbreak response post-cessation in West African populations. A hypothetical outbreak response in northwest Nigeria is modeled, and a cVDPV2 lineage is considered established if the Sabin strain escapes the response region and continues circulating 9 months post-response. The probability of this event was investigated in a variety of possible scenarios. Under a broad range of scenarios, the probability that widespread OPV2 use in outbreak response (~2 million doses) establishes new cVDPV2 lineages in this model may exceed 50% as soon as 18 months or as late as 4 years post-cessation. The risk of a cycle in which outbreak responses seed new cVDPV2 lineages suggests that OPV2 use should be managed carefully as time from cessation increases. It is unclear whether this risk can be mitigated in the long term, as mucosal immunity against type 2 poliovirus declines globally. Therefore, current programmatic strategies should aim to minimize the possibility that continued OPV2 use will be necessary in future years: conducting rapid and aggressive outbreak responses where cVDPV2 lineages are discovered, maintaining high

  3. Phase II and III Clinical Studies of Diphtheria-Tetanus-Acellular Pertussis Vaccine Containing Inactivated Polio Vaccine Derived from Sabin Strains (DTaP-sIPV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Kenji; Miyazaki, Chiaki; Kino, Yoichiro; Ozaki, Takao; Hirose, Mizuo; Ueda, Kohji

    2013-07-15

    Phase II and III clinical studies were conducted to evaluate immunogenicity and safety of a novel DTaP-IPV vaccine consisting of Sabin inactivated poliovirus vaccine (sIPV) and diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP). A Phase II study was conducted in 104 healthy infants using Formulation H of the DTaP-sIPV vaccine containing high-dose sIPV (3, 100, and 100 D-antigen units for types 1, 2, and 3, respectively), and Formulations M and L, containing half and one-fourth of the sIPV in Formulation H, respectively. Each formulation was administered 3 times for primary immunization and once for booster immunization. A Phase III study was conducted in 342 healthy infants who received either Formulation M + oral polio vaccine (OPV) placebo or DTaP + OPV. The OPV or OPV placebo was orally administered twice between primary and booster immunizations. Formulation M was selected as the optimum dose. In the Phase III study, the seropositive rate was 100% for all Sabin strains after primary immunization, and the neutralizing antibody titer after booster immunization was higher than in the control group (DTaP + OPV). All adverse reactions were clinically acceptable. DTaP-sIPV was shown to be a safe and immunogenic vaccine. JapicCTI-121902 for Phase II study, JapicCTI-101075 for Phase III study (http://www.clinicaltrials.jp/user/cte_main.jsp).

  4. Hexavalent IPV-based combination vaccines for public-sector markets of low-resource countries

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood, Kutub; Pelkowski, Sonia; Atherly, Deborah; Sitrin, Robert; Donnelly, John J

    2013-01-01

    In anticipation of the successful eradication of wild polio virus, alternative vaccination strategies for public-sector markets of low-resource countries are extremely important, but are still under development. Following polio eradication, inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) would be the only polio vaccine available, and would be needed for early childhood immunization for several years, as maintenance of herd immunity will be important for sustaining polio eradication. Low-cost combination vacc...

  5. [Evaluation of the lifetime of nail markings during polio vaccinations in Chad].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quoc Cuong, Huong; Schlumberger, Martin; Garba Tchang, Salomon; Ould Cheikh, Dah; Savès, Marianne; Mallah, Barah; Demtilo Attilo, Jacques; Ngangro Mosurel, Ndeikoundam; Gamatié, Youssouf

    2010-01-01

    SID (Supplemental Immunization Days) is a special strategy intended to accelerate eradication of poliomyelitis in countries where it is still endemic (India, Afghanistan, and Pakistan in Asia, and Nigeria in Africa). This strategy is also applied in Nigeria's neighbours (Cameroon, Chad, Niger and Benin). Since the poliomyelitis virus was imported from Nigeria in 2001, Chad has reported cases of poliomyelitis every year. After 30 SIDs in Chad and the inaccurate or false attribution of side-effects to polio vaccines, some groups persistently refuse polio vaccination. To ascertain the true coverage of SID, the Ministry of Health and several partners (WHO, UNICEF and Rotary) conduct external coverage evaluations, to identify the under-vaccinated areas where population may be refusing immunization. The nails of the children receiving vaccinations are marked with indelible ink and those markings are the best indicator of the area's actual SID coverage. When coverage investigators arrive and propose vaccination to all children not immunized during SID, mothers who wish to refuse vaccination may claim that the children's markings disappeared after a few days, due to bathing. WHO experts have found that markings applied to their own nails with the WHO-recommended markers persist a few weeks, but others suggested that the markings may disappear much faster among children living in a traditional tropical environment. Until now, the lifetime of these markings has not been tested among children in Africa. To determine the lifetime of the fingernail markings after SID and factors that influence this lifetime in children young than 5 years old in Chad. This prospective cohort study of 200 children (aged 0 to 59 months) took place from March to May 2009 in Milezi, a health zone north of Ndjamena, the capital of Chad, in central Africa. These children received nail markings on their left little finger with an indelible marker pen provided by WHO. The finger was monitored for 35

  6. Studies on the potency of oral polio vaccine using RD cell line and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on the potency of oral polio vaccine using RD cell line and evaluation of growth using different serum concentration and volume of media. ... The culture flasks containing different volumes of growth medium with 10% serum concentration such as 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 ml were added to a series of culture flasks. All the ...

  7. The effect of prophylaxis with chloroquine and proguanil on delayed-type hypersensitivity and antibody production following vaccination with diphtheria, tetanus, polio, and pneumococcal vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyhrs, A; Pedersen, B K; Bygbjerg, I; Henrichsen, J; Heron, I; Petersen, I; Skinhoj, P

    1991-11-01

    In vitro studies have shown that anti-malarial drugs suppress immunity. In this study, the effects of chloroquine and proguanil (Paludrine) on the cellular and humoral immune system were measured by two in vivo methods: 1) cell-mediated immunity (delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity) i.e., skin tests with seven delayed-type common antigens (Multitest) and 2) humoral immunity by measurement of specific antibody response to vaccination. Sixty healthy young individuals were randomized into four groups and given 1) no treatment (controls), 2) chloroquine diphosphate (500 mg/week), 3) chloroquine diphosphate (1,000 mg/week), or 4) proguanil hydrochloride (200 mg/day) for six weeks. Skin testing was performed on days 0 and 28. Vaccinations with diphtheria, tetanus, polio, and pneumococcal polysaccharide antigen vaccines were performed on day 28, and the presence of specific antibodies was determined on days 0, 28, and 42. The skin tests induced a significant increase in skin reactive areas from day 0 to day 28 in all groups. Furthermore, the skin test induced an increase in the level of specific IgG for diphtheria and tetanus, but had no effect on antibodies to antigens not included in the skin test. The results showed that there were no significant differences among the four groups regarding skin test areas and increases in antibody titers following vaccination. Therefore, it is concluded that in healthy persons, six weeks intake of chloroquine, even in double doses, or proguanil in chemoprophylactic dosages, does not induce any detectable suppression of delayed-type hypersensitivity or vaccination responses to diphtheria, tetanus, polio, or pneumococcal polysaccharide antigens.

  8. Does the concurrent administration of an inactivated hepatitis A vaccine influence the immune response to other travelers vaccines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, H L; Kruppenbacher, J P; Bienzle, U; De Clercq, N A; Hofmann, F; Clemens, R L

    2000-01-01

    Travelers seeking protection from hepatitis A also often need protection against other infections, prevalent at their destinations. A total of 396 volunteers received not only a hepatitis A vaccine but also either a vaccine against polio, hepatitis B, diphtheria, tetanus, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, typhoid fever or rabies according to their individual needs. We investigated the potential influence of the hepatitis A vaccination on the immune response to the other travelers vaccines that were administered concurrently. With seroprotection rates of 100% for yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis and rabies immunization and tetanus boosters our data demonstrate that the concurrent administration of hepatitis A vaccine does not compromise the immune response of these vaccines. Also for oral typhoid, hepatitis B and diphtheria vaccination we did not detect a negative influence of concurrent hepatitis A vaccine administration as compared with respective vaccinations when given alone. Prior to vaccination, more than one third of our subjects lacked protective antibody levels against diphtheria and only 44% of initially seronegative travelers seroconverted to an anti-diphtheria titer > or = 0.01 mIU/mL, supporting a need for an additional dose. Furthermore, only two thirds of the vaccinees tested prior to vaccination were protected against polio type 3, and the seroconversion rate following the administration of oral polio vaccine, was lower for viral type 3 (80%), as has been previously demonstrated in settings without concurrent other vaccinations. No negative effect of concurrent travelers vaccinations on the immune response of a hepatitis A vaccine has been detected in a previous report, and, likewise our data suggest no impairment of the antibody response of these travelers vaccines by the concurrent administration of the hepatitis A vaccine.

  9. Administering Multiple Injectable Vaccines During a Single Visit-Summary of Findings From the Accelerated Introduction of Inactivated Polio Vaccine Globally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Samantha B; Patel, Manish; Hampton, Lee M; Burnett, Eleanor; Ehlman, Daniel C; Garon, Julie; Cloessner, Emily; Chmielewski, Elizabeth; Hyde, Terri B; Mantel, Carsten; Wallace, Aaron S

    2017-07-01

    In 2013, the World Health Organization's (WHO's) Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) recommended that all 126 countries using only oral polio vaccine (OPV) introduce at least 1 dose of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) into their routine immunization schedules by the end of 2015. In many countries, the addition of IPV would necessitate delivery of multiple injectable vaccines (hereafter, "multiple injections") during a single visit, with infants receiving IPV alongside pentavalent vaccine (which covers diphtheria, tetanus, and whole-cell pertussis; hepatitis B; and Haemophilus influenzae type b) and pneumococcal vaccine. Unanticipated concerns emerged from countries over acceptability of multiple injections, sites of administration, and safety. We contextualized the issues surrounding multiple injections by documenting concerns associated with administration of ≥3 injections, existing evidence in the published literature, and findings of a systematic review on administration practices and techniques. Concerns associated with multiple-injection visits were documented from meetings and personal communications with immunization program managers. Published literature on the acceptability of multiple injections by providers and caregivers was summarized, and a systematic review of the literature on administration practices was completed on the following topics: spacing between injection sites (ie, vaccine spacing), site of injection, route of injection, and procedural preparedness. WHO and United Nations Children's Fund data from 2013-2015 were used to assess multiple-injection visits included in national immunization schedules. Healthcare provider and caregiver attitudes and practices indicated concerns about infant pain, potential adverse effects, and uncertainty about vaccine effectiveness with multiple-injection visits. Published literature reinforced the record of safety and acceptance of the recommended schedule of IPV by the SAGE, but the evidence was

  10. Sex-differential effect on infant mortality of oral polio vaccine administered with BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau. A natural experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Fisker, Ane Baerent; Rodrigues, Amabelia

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The policy to provide oral polio vaccine (OPV) at birth was introduced in low-income countries to increase coverage. The effect of OPV at birth on overall child mortality was never studied. During a trial of vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at birth in Guinea-Bissau, OPV was not availa......-differential effect on mortality. Poliovirus is almost eradicated and OPV at birth contributes little to herd immunity. A randomised study of the effect of OPV at birth on overall mortality in both sexes is warranted.......BACKGROUND: The policy to provide oral polio vaccine (OPV) at birth was introduced in low-income countries to increase coverage. The effect of OPV at birth on overall child mortality was never studied. During a trial of vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at birth in Guinea-Bissau, OPV...

  11. Immunity against measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, diphtheria, tetanus, polio, hepatitis A and hepatitis B among adult asylum seekers in the Netherlands, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidl, Gudrun S; Tostmann, Alma; Curvers, Moud; Ruijs, Wilhelmina L M; Smits, Gaby; Schepp, Rutger; Duizer, Erwin; Boland, Greet; de Melker, Hester; van der Klis, Fiona R M; Hautvast, Jeannine L A; Veldhuijzen, Irene K

    2018-03-14

    Asylum seekers are a vulnerable population for contracting infectious diseases. Outbreaks occur among children and adults. In the Netherlands, asylum seeker children are offered vaccination according to the National Immunization Program. Little is known about protection against vaccine-preventable diseases (VPD) in adult asylum seekers. In this 2016 study, we assessed the immunity of adult asylum seekers against nine VPD to identify groups that might benefit from additional vaccinations. We invited asylum seekers from Syria, Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan, Eritrea and Ethiopia to participate in a serosurvey. Participants provided informed consent and a blood sample, and completed a questionnaire. We measured prevalence of protective antibodies to measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, diphtheria, tetanus, polio type 1-3 and hepatitis A and B, stratified them by country of origin and age groups. The median age of the 622 participants was 28 years (interquartile range: 23-35), 81% were male and 48% originated from Syria. Overall, seroprotection was 88% for measles (range between countries: 83-93%), 91% for mumps (81-95%), 94% for rubella (84-98%), 96% for varicella (92-98%), 82% for diphtheria (65-88%), 98% for tetanus (86-100%), 91% (88-94%) for polio type 1, 95% (90-98%) for polio type 2, 82% (76-86%) for polio type 3, 84% (54-100%) for hepatitis A and 27% for hepatitis B (anti-HBs; 8-42%). Our results indicate insufficient protection against certain VPD in some subgroups. For all countries except Eritrea, measles seroprotection was below the 95% threshold required for elimination. Measles seroprevalence was lowest among adults younger than 25 years. In comparison, seroprevalence in the Dutch general population was 96% in 2006/07. The results of this study can help prioritizing vaccination of susceptible subgroups of adult asylum seekers, in general and in outbreak situations. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Polio Eradication Initiative contribution in strengthening immunization and integrated disease surveillance data management in WHO African region, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poy, Alain; Minkoulou, Etienne; Shaba, Keith; Yahaya, Ali; Gaturuku, Peter; Dadja, Landoh; Okeibunor, Joseph; Mihigo, Richard; Mkanda, Pascal

    2016-10-10

    The PEI Programme in the WHO African region invested in recruitment of qualified staff in data management, developing data management system and standards operating systems since the revamp of the Polio Eradication Initiative in 1997 to cater for data management support needs in the Region. This support went beyond polio and was expanded to routine immunization and integrated surveillance of priority diseases. But the impact of the polio data management support to other programmes such as routine immunization and disease surveillance has not yet been fully documented. This is what this article seeks to demonstrate. We reviewed how Polio data management area of work evolved progressively along with the expansion of the data management team capacity and the evolution of the data management systems from initiation of the AFP case-based to routine immunization, other case based disease surveillance and Supplementary immunization activities. IDSR has improved the data availability with support from IST Polio funded data managers who were collecting them from countries. The data management system developed by the polio team was used by countries to record information related to not only polio SIAs but also for other interventions. From the time when routine immunization data started to be part of polio data management team responsibility, the number of reports received went from around 4000 the first year (2005) to >30,000 the second year and to >47,000 in 2014. Polio data management has helped to improve the overall VPD, IDSR and routine data management as well as emergency response in the Region. As we approach the polio end game, the African Region would benefit in using the already set infrastructure for other public health initiative in the Region. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Antibody titers against vaccine and contemporary wild poliovirus type 1 in children immunized with IPV+OPV and young adults immunized with OPV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukashev, Alexander N; Yarmolskaya, Maria S; Shumilina, Elena Yu; Sychev, Daniil A; Kozlovskaya, Liubov I

    2016-02-02

    In 2010, a type 1 poliovirus outbreak in Congo with 445 lethal cases was caused by a virus that was neutralized by sera of German adults vaccinated with inactivated polio vaccine with a reduced efficiency. This seroprevalence study was done in two cohorts immunized with other vaccination schedules. Russian children aged 3-6 years immunized with a combination of inactivated and live polio vaccines were reasonably well protected against any wild type poliovirus 1, including the Congolese isolate. Adults aged 20-29 years immunized only with live vaccine were apparently protected against the vaccine strain (92% seropositive), but only 50% had detectable antibodies against the Congo-2010 isolate. Both waning immunity and serological divergence of the Congolese virus could contribute to this result. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Immune persistence after pertussis vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiyun; He, Qiushui

    2017-04-03

    Pertussis is one of the most prevalent vaccine-preventable diseases worldwide. The true infection rate is significantly higher than the reported incidence rate. An increased prevalence of pertussis in older populations has been found, mainly caused by waning immunity after vaccination. Vaccine-induced immunity differs due to variation in vaccine content, schedule and coverage. Protection following acellular pertussis vaccines has been suggested to wane faster than whole cell pertussis vaccines. However, long-term immune persistence of whole cell pertussis vaccines may be confounded by a progressive acquisition of natural immunity. The World Health Organization has recommended that a switch from whole cell to acellular pertussis vaccines for primary immunization in infants should only be considered if additional periodic boosters or maternal immunization can be ensured and sustained in the national immunization schedules. In this review, we present data on immune persistence after different pertussis vaccinations and compare the findings from countries with different vaccination strategies. Future aspects in serological studies are briefly discussed.

  15. Optimal vaccine stockpile design for an eradicated disease: application to polio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebbens, Radboud J Duintjer; Pallansch, Mark A; Alexander, James P; Thompson, Kimberly M

    2010-06-11

    Eradication of a disease promises significant health and financial benefits. Preserving those benefits, hopefully in perpetuity, requires preparing for the possibility that the causal agent could re-emerge (unintentionally or intentionally). In the case of a vaccine-preventable disease, creation and planning for the use of a vaccine stockpile becomes a primary concern. Doing so requires consideration of the dynamics at different levels, including the stockpile supply chain and transmission of the causal agent. This paper develops a mathematical framework for determining the optimal management of a vaccine stockpile over time. We apply the framework to the polio vaccine stockpile for the post-eradication era and present examples of solutions to one possible framing of the optimization problem. We use the framework to discuss issues relevant to the development and use of the polio vaccine stockpile, including capacity constraints, production and filling delays, risks associated with the stockpile, dynamics and uncertainty of vaccine needs, issues of funding, location, and serotype dependent behavior, and the implications of likely changes over time that might occur. This framework serves as a helpful context for discussions and analyses related to the process of designing and maintaining a stockpile for an eradicated disease. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Childhood mortality after oral polio immunisation campaign in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Hedegaard, Kathryn; Sodemann, Morten

    2005-01-01

    Though previous studies have suggested a non-specific beneficial effect of oral polio vaccine (OPV), there has been no evaluation of the mortality impact of national polio immunization days. On the other hand, studies examining the effect of OPV and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccines, wh...

  17. Would it be legally justified to impose vaccination in Israel? Examining the issue in light of the 2013 detection of polio in Israeli sewage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamin-Friedman, Shelly

    2017-10-30

    The detection of wild poliovirus in Israeli sewage in May 2013 led the health authorities to decide that children who had been vaccinated with IPV would also be vaccinated with OPV. The decision sought to protect vulnerable Israeli individuals who were either not vaccinated with IPV or who suffered from an immune deficiency, to preserve Israel's status as a polio-free country, to prevent the virus' "exportation" into vulnerable polio-free countries, and to participate in the global efforts toward the eradication of polio. After a massive public persuasion campaign, 79% of the children born after 2004 were vaccinated as well as 69% of the children residing in central Israel. A 2014 State Comptroller Report stated that the Ministry of Health should draw conclusions from the low compliance rates in certain Israeli regions. The article seeks to examine the legal legitimacy of mandatory vaccination in the service of eradicating a contagious disease (as opposed to preventing a pandemic outbreak), which was one of the objectives in the 2013 Polio case. It more specifically relates to current Israeli law as well as to a hypothetical new public health law which would authorize health officials to oblige vaccination and enforce this through the use of criminal sanctions. Qualitative content analysis through the interpretation of court judgements, laws, legislative protocols, health ministry guidelines and documented discussions of the Advisory Committee on Infectious Diseases and Immunization. A mandatory vaccination backed by criminal sanctions in the service of the eradication of contagious diseases would probably be perceived as infringing on the constitutional right to autonomy to a greater extent than necessary according to Israeli law and case law precedents. There may be some added value inherent in a new public health law which would authorize health officials to oblige vaccination where nonrestrictive measures have been ineffective. However, the law should also

  18. Immune Serum From Sabin Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine Immunization Neutralizes Multiple Individual Wild and Vaccine-Derived Polioviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mingbo; Li, Changgui; Xu, Wenbo; Liao, Guoyang; Li, Rongcheng; Zhou, Jian; Li, Yanping; Cai, Wei; Yan, Dongmei; Che, Yanchun; Ying, Zhifang; Wang, Jianfeng; Yang, Huijuan; Ma, Yan; Ma, Lei; Ji, Guang; Shi, Li; Jiang, Shude; Li, Qihan

    2017-05-15

    A Sabin strain-based inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine (Sabin-IPV) is the rational option for completely eradicating poliovirus transmission. The neutralizing capacity of Sabin-IPV immune serum to different strains of poliovirus is a key indicator of the clinical protective efficacy of this vaccine. Sera collected from 500 infants enrolled in a randomized, blinded, positive control, phase 2 clinical trial were randomly divided into 5 groups: Groups A, B, and C received high, medium, and low doses, respectively, of Sabin-IPV, while groups D and E received trivalent oral polio vaccine and Salk strain-based IPV, respectively, all on the same schedule. Immune sera were collected after the third dose of primary immunization, and tested in cross-neutralization assays against 19 poliovirus strains of all 3 types. All immune sera from all 5 groups interacted with the 19 poliovirus strains with various titers and in a dose-dependent manner. One type 2 immunodeficiency-associated vaccine-derived poliovirus strain was not recognized by these immune sera. Sabin-IPV vaccine can induce protective antibodies against currently circulating and reference wild poliovirus strains and most vaccine-derived poliovirus strains, with rare exceptions. NCT01056705. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. VACCINES AND IMMUNIZATION: WORLD SITUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.H. Brundtland

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The last issue of the report «vaccines and immunization: world situation» stresses considerable success in immunization at the global level since the mid 90 s — completely total eradication of poliomyelitis across the world, as well as the drastic reduction of the new measles and tetanus cases among mothers and newborns in some poor countries. The report also briefly describes the progress in the development and implementation of the new life saving vaccines, which may save millions of lives annually. The authors have explained some of the reasons, why the global community should invest in immunization, as well as the perspectives for the use of vaccines and immunization in future.Key words: vaccine, immunization, children.

  20. Strengthening routine immunization systems to improve global vaccination coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodha, S V; Dietz, V

    2015-03-01

    Global coverage with the third dose of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine among children under 1 year of age stagnated at ∼ 83-84% during 2008-13. Annual World Health Organization and UNICEF-derived national vaccination coverage estimates. Incomplete vaccination is associated with poor socioeconomic status, lower education, non-use of maternal-child health services, living in conflict-affected areas, missed immunization opportunities and cancelled vaccination sessions. Vaccination platforms must expand to include older ages including the second year of life. Immunization programmes, including eradication and elimination initiatives such as those for polio and measles, must integrate within the broader health system. The Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP) 2011-20 is a framework for strengthening immunization systems, emphasizing country ownership, shared responsibility, equity, integration, sustainability and innovation. Immunization programmes should identify, monitor and evaluate gaps and interventions within the GVAP framework. Published by Oxford University Press 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  1. Local resistance to the global eradication of polio: newspaper coverage of the 2003-2004 vaccination stoppage in northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olufowote, James Olumide

    2011-12-01

    Successful global health initiatives are executed on the recognition that globalization involves simultaneous pulls between global unification and fragmentation. This article responds to the need for more understanding of the role of fragmentation in global health initiatives through analyses of 52 northern Nigerian newspaper reports of the 2003-2004 northern Nigerian stoppage of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative. By 2009 the stoppage had resulted in an epidemic in Nigeria and polio importations in 20 previously polio-free countries. Findings pointed to beliefs in contemporary forms of Western control and abuse through global organizations (nongovernmental organizations and for-profits), understandings of the "philanthropy" of the West and global organizations as self-serving and malevolent, and doubts about the polio vaccine product.

  2. Synthetic vaccines: Immunity without harm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Abhinav P.; Murthy, Niren

    2011-03-01

    Multilamellar lipid vesicles with crosslinked walls carrying protein antigens in the vesicle core and immunostimulatory drugs in the vesicle walls generate immune responses comparable to the strongest live vector vaccines.

  3. Immune Response After Measles Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhardwaj A.K

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Measles immunization of 192 under 5 years of age children was undertaken and the overall seroconversion was 76.0%. Seroconversion rate in the age group of 9-12 months was 70.9% and it was 100% after one year. Immune response in malnourished children was more as compared to normal children. There were negligible side reactions after measles vaccination, and this vaccine passed normal potency tests under field conditions.

  4. Expansion of syndromic vaccine preventable disease surveillance to include bacterial meningitis and Japanese encephalitis: evaluation of adapting polio and measles laboratory networks in Bangladesh, China and India, 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallaro, Kathleen F; Sandhu, Hardeep S; Hyde, Terri B; Johnson, Barbara W; Fischer, Marc; Mayer, Leonard W; Clark, Thomas A; Pallansch, Mark A; Yin, Zundong; Zuo, Shuyan; Hadler, Stephen C; Diorditsa, Serguey; Hasan, A S M Mainul; Bose, Anindya S; Dietz, Vance

    2015-02-25

    Surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis with laboratory confirmation has been a key strategy in the global polio eradication initiative, and the laboratory platform established for polio testing has been expanded in many countries to include surveillance for cases of febrile rash illness to identify measles and rubella cases. Vaccine-preventable disease surveillance is essential to detect outbreaks, define disease burden, guide vaccination strategies and assess immunization impact. Vaccines now exist to prevent Japanese encephalitis (JE) and some etiologies of bacterial meningitis. We evaluated the feasibility of expanding polio-measles surveillance and laboratory networks to detect bacterial meningitis and JE, using surveillance for acute meningitis-encephalitis syndrome in Bangladesh and China and acute encephalitis syndrome in India. We developed nine syndromic surveillance performance indicators based on international surveillance guidelines and calculated scores using supervisory visit reports, annual reports, and case-based surveillance data. Scores, variable by country and targeted disease, were highest for the presence of national guidelines, sustainability, training, availability of JE laboratory resources, and effectiveness of using polio-measles networks for JE surveillance. Scores for effectiveness of building on polio-measles networks for bacterial meningitis surveillance and specimen referral were the lowest, because of differences in specimens and techniques. Polio-measles surveillance and laboratory networks provided useful infrastructure for establishing syndromic surveillance and building capacity for JE diagnosis, but were less applicable for bacterial meningitis. Laboratory-supported surveillance for vaccine-preventable bacterial diseases will require substantial technical and financial support to enhance local diagnostic capacity. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. The virus and the vaccine: the true story of a cancer-causing monkey virus, contaminated polio vaccine, and the millions of Americans exposed

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bookchin, Debbie; Schumacher, Jim

    2004-01-01

    .... But the story of the vaccine has a dark side, one that has never been fully told before... Between 1954 and 1963, close to 98 million Americans received polio vaccinations contaminated with a carcinogenic monkey virus, now known as SV40...

  6. [Immune response to influenza vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, I; Corral, J; Arranz, A; Foruria, A; Landa, V; Lejarza, J R; Marijuán, L; Martínez, J M

    1989-01-01

    The present study investigated the level of immunity of the population against three strains of the influenza virus (A Chile/1/83 -A Philippines/2/82 and B URSS/100/83) before and three months after vaccination, and the immune response to whole virus vaccine as compared with fragmented virus vaccine. A high percentage of the population had titers greater than or equal to 1/10 before vaccination for the Chile (54%) and Philippines (65.7%) strains, while titers against the URSS strain were lower (25.4%). There was a definitive increase in antibody titer in the vaccinated population, although it was lower than expected. The overall response to both vaccines, with protecting titers greater than or equal to 1/40 after vaccination was 65.2% for the Chile strain, 74.6% for the Philippines strain, and 15% for the URSS strain. No differences in the overall immune response were found between the groups vaccinated with whole and fragmented virus.

  7. Participação em dias nacionais de vacinação contra poliomielite: resultados de inquérito de cobertura vacinal em crianças nas 27 capitais brasileiras Participation in national polio immunization days: results of a vaccine coverage survey among children in 27 Brazilian cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lúcia Rocha Mello

    2010-06-01

    Immunization Days (NIDs are held twice a year to maintain the elimination of poliomyelitis and to provide routine immunization for children younger than five years of age. Few studies have examined factors associated with participation in National Immunization Days among Brazilian children, or the contribution of immunization days to the coverage of recommended vaccines. METHODS: We conducted a household cluster survey in 26 state capitals and the Federal District among children aged 19 to 35 months. Vaccination histories, including dates of vaccination, participation in the most recent NID or reasons for non-participation were obtained. Survey estimates were compared with official estimates based on doses administered. RESULTS: Among the 17,749 children surveyed, 16,213 (91% participated in the most recent NID. Children who received vaccination in the private sector had the lowest participation (84% in NIDs. In 13 capitals, official coverage estimates were higher than those from the survey. The main reasons given for non-participation the most recent NID included parent's decision not to participate, doctor's advice, child's illness, and factors associated with the organization of the NID. Overall, 15% of the children surveyed had received at least one immunization in addition to oral polio vaccine in the most recent NID, including yellow fever, hepatitis B, measles-mumps-rubella (MMR and combined diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines. CONCLUSIONS: In Brazilian capitals, National Immunization Days continue to enjoy high levels of acceptance by the population and offer opportunities to complete recommended immunization schedules. Reasons for non-participation suggest the need for different communication strategies to reach parents who do not bring their children for vaccination on NIDs.

  8. Reaching the unreached with polio vaccine and other child survival interventions through partnership with military in Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekadu, Lemma; Okeibunor, Joseph; Nsubuga, Peter; Kipela, Jean Marie; Mkanda, Pascal; Mihigo, Richard

    2016-10-10

    Growing conflict and insecurity played a major role in precipitating polio outbreaks in the Horn of Africa and the Middle East. In Angola, the early post-conflict situation was characterized by the presence of many inaccessible zones and districts due to insecurity and poor infrastructure. Partnership with the Angolan Army health service (AAHS) was one of the innovative strategies that the Polio Eradication Initiative (PEI) introduced into the country to support the polio vaccination campaigns in insecure and hard to reach zones. Before embarking on creating a partnership with Angolan military it was essential to make high-level advocacy with top military decision makers to engage the leadership in the process for better and sustainable support to the strategy. The principal supports provided by the AAHS were the administration of oral polio vaccine, vitamin A, deworming agents, social mobilization, monitoring campaign quality, and surveillance. Distribution of logistics using military vehicles and helicopters to hard to reach and insecure zones was also part of the support. Using this partnership it was possible to reach a significant number of children in insecure and hard to reach areas with polio vaccine and other child survival interventions. The military partnership also contributed in increasing the demand and addressing rejection for the polio vaccine. Military is a potentially productive force that can be used for any development activities in any country. The Angolan experience has demonstrated that it is possible to form a partnership with the military for basic health intervention activities with little training and investment. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Effectiveness of oral polio vaccination against paralytic poliomyelitis: a matched case-control study in Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahamud, Abdirahman; Kamadjeu, Raoul; Webeck, Jenna; Mbaeyi, Chukwuma; Baranyikwa, Marie Therese; Birungi, Julianne; Nurbile, Yassin; Ehrhardt, Derek; Shukla, Hemant; Chatterjee, Anirban; Mulugeta, Abraham

    2014-11-01

    After the last case of type 1 wild poliovirus (WPV1) was reported in 2007, Somalia experienced another outbreak of WPV1 (189 cases) in 2013. We conducted a retrospective, matched case-control study to evaluate the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of oral polio vaccine (OPV). We retrieved information from the Somalia Surveillance Database. A case was defined as any case of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) with virological confirmation of WPV1. We selected two groups of controls for each case: non-polio AFP cases ("NPAFP controls") matched to WPV1 cases by age, date of onset of paralysis and region; and asymptomatic "neighborhood controls," matched by age. Using conditional logistic regression, we estimated the VE of OPV as (1-odds ratio)×100. We matched 99 WPV cases with 99 NPAFP controls and 134 WPV1 cases with 268 neighborhood controls. Using NPAFP controls, the overall VE was 70% (95% confidence interval [CI], 37-86), 59% (2-83) among 1-3 dose recipients, 77% (95% CI, 46-91) among ≥4 dose recipients. In neighborhood controls, the overall VE was 95% (95% CI, 84-98), 92% (72-98) among 1-3 dose recipients, and 97% (89-99) among ≥4 dose recipients. When the analysis was limited to cases and controls ≤24 months old, the overall VE in NPAFP and neighborhood controls was 95% (95% CI, 65-99) and 97% (95% CI, 76-100), respectively. Among individuals who were fully vaccinated with OPV, vaccination was effective at preventing WPV1 in Somalia. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  10. The Introduction of Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis and Oral Polio Vaccine Among Young Infants in an Urban African Community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Søren Wengel; Andersen, Andreas; Rodrigues, Amabelia

    2017-01-01

    Background We examined the introduction of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) and oral polio vaccine (OPV) in an urban community in Guinea-Bissau in the early 1980s. Methods The child population had been followed with 3-monthly nutritional weighing sessions since 1978. From June 1981 DTP and OPV ...

  11. Frequency of apnea, bradycardia, and desaturations following first diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-inactivated polio-Haemophilus influenzae type B immunization in hospitalized preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jackie; Robinson, Joan L; Spady, Donald W

    2006-06-19

    Adverse cardiorespiratory events including apnea, bradycardia, and desaturations have been described following administration of the first diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-inactivated polio-Haemophilus influenzae type B (DTP-IPV-Hib) immunization to preterm infants. The effect of the recent substitution of acellular pertussis vaccine for whole cell pertussis vaccine on the frequency of these events requires further study. Infants with gestational age of apnea, bradycardia, and/or desaturations (ABD) and the treatment required for these episodes in the 72 hours prior to and 72 hours post-immunization (for the immunized cohort) or at the same post-natal age (for controls) was recorded. Thirty-four infants who received DTP-IPV-Hib with whole cell pertussis vaccine, 90 infants who received DTP-IPV-Hib with acellular pertussis vaccine, and 124 control infants were entered in the study. Fifty-six immunized infants (45.1%) and 36 control infants (29.0%) had a resurgence of or increased ABD in the 72 hours post-immunization in the immunized infants and at the same post-natal age in the controls with an adjusted odds ratio for immunized infants of 2.41 (95% CI 1.29,4.51) as compared to control infants. The incidence of an increase in adverse cardiorespiratory events post-immunization was the same in infants receiving whole cell or acellular pertussis vaccine (44.1% versus 45.6%). Eighteen immunized infants (14.5%) and 51 control infants (41.1%) had a reduction in ABD in the 72 hours post- immunization or at the equivalent postnatal age in controls for an odds ratio of 0.175 (95%CI 0.08, 0.39). The need for therapy of ABD in the immunized infants was not statistically different from the control infants. Lower weight at the time of immunization was a risk factor for a resurgence of or increased ABD post-immunization. Birth weight, gestational age, postnatal age or sex were not risk factors. There is an increase in adverse cardiorespiratory events following the first dose of DTP

  12. Immunogenicity of a low-dose diphtheria, tetanus and acellular pertussis combination vaccine with either inactivated or oral polio vaccine compared to standard-dose diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis when used as a pre-school booster in UK children: A 5-year follow-up of a randomised controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, T; Voysey, M; Yu, L M; McCarthy, N; Baudin, M; Richard, P; Fiquet, A; Kitchin, N; Pollard, A J

    2015-08-26

    This serological follow up study assessed the kinetics of antibody response in children who previously participated in a single centre, open-label, randomised controlled trial of low-dose compared to standard-dose diphtheria booster preschool vaccinations in the United Kingdom (UK). Children had previously been randomised to receive one of three combination vaccines: either a combined adsorbed tetanus, low-dose diphtheria, 5-component acellular pertussis and inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) (Tdap-IPV, Repevax(®); Sanofi Pasteur MSD); a combined adsorbed tetanus, low-dose diphtheria and 5-component acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap, Covaxis(®); Sanofi Pasteur MSD) given concomitantly with oral polio vaccine (OPV); or a combined adsorbed standard-dose diphtheria, tetanus, 2-component acellular pertussis and IPV (DTap-IPV, Tetravac(®); Sanofi Pasteur MSD). Blood samples for the follow-up study were taken at 1, 3 and 5 years after participation in the original trial (median, 5.07 years of age at year 1), and antibody persistence to each vaccine antigen measured against defined serological thresholds of protection. All participants had evidence of immunity to diphtheria with antitoxin concentrations greater than 0.01IU/mL five years after booster vaccination and 75%, 67% and 79% of children who received Tdap-IPV, Tdap+OPV and DTap-IPV, respectively, had protective antitoxin levels greater than 0.1IU/mL. Long lasting protective immune responses to tetanus and polio antigens were also observed in all groups, though polio responses were lower in the sera of those who received OPV. Low-dose diphtheria vaccines provided comparable protection to the standard-dose vaccine and are suitable for use for pre-school booster vaccination. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Polio (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who came in contact with a recently immunized child might become immune, too. The problem with OPV was that, in very rare cases, paralytic polio could develop either in immunized children or in those who came in contact with them. Since 1979 (when wild polio was eliminated in the United States), the ...

  14. Weakened Immune System and Adult Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Basics Adult Vaccination Resources for Healthcare Professionals Weakened Immune System and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... people with health conditions such as a weakened immune system. If you have cancer or other immunocompromising conditions, ...

  15. Vaccines and immunization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof Ezechukwu

    Clinical trial: Randomized. Blind. Double-dummy design. Placebo-controlled. Vector. Insert. : A process of artificial induction of immunity in an effort to protect against infectious disease. : Induces in the recipient a degree of immunity similar to that achieved from the natural infection, and is able to prevent clinical disease.

  16. Social media as a platform for health-related public debates and discussions: the Polio vaccine on Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Daniela; Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet; Landsman, Keren

    2016-01-01

    Social media can act as an important platform for debating, discussing, and disseminating information about vaccines. Our objectives were to map and describe the roles played by web-based mainstream media and social media as platforms for vaccination-related public debates and discussions during the Polio crisis in Israel in 2013: where and how did the public debate and discuss the issue, and how can these debates and discussions be characterized? Polio-related coverage was collected from May 28 to October 31, 2013, from seven online Hebrew media platforms and the Facebook groups discussing the Polio vaccination were mapped and described. In addition, 2,289 items from the Facebook group "Parents talk about Polio vaccination" were analyzed for socio-demographic and thematic characteristics. The traditional media mainly echoed formal voices from the Ministry of Health. The comments on the Facebook vaccination opposition groups could be divided into four groups: comments with individualistic perceptions, comments that expressed concerns about the safety of the OPV, comments that expressed distrust in the Ministry of Health, and comments denying Polio as a disease. In the Facebook group "Parents talk about the Polio vaccination", an active group with various participants, 321 commentators submitted 2289 comments, with 64 % of the comments written by women. Most (92 %) people involved were parents. The comments were both personal (referring to specific situations) and general in nature (referring to symptoms or wide implications). A few (13 %) of the commentators were physicians ( n  = 44), who were responsible for 909 (40 %) of the items in the sample. Half the doctors and 6 % of the non-doctors wrote over 10 items each. This Facebook group formed a unique platform where unmediated debates and discussions between the public and medical experts took place. The comments on the social media, as well as the socio-demographic profiles of the commentators, suggest

  17. Polio vaccines, SV40 and human tumours, an update on false positive and false negative results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmishad, A G; Bocchetta, M; Pass, H I; Carbone, M

    2006-01-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) has been detected in different human tumours in numerous laboratories. The detection of SV40 in human tumours has been linked to the administration of SV40-contaminated polio vaccines from 1954 until 1963. Many of these reports linked SV40 to human mesothelioma. Some studies have failed to detect SV40 in human tumours and this has caused a controversy. Here we review the current literature. Moreover, we present evidence showing how differences in the sensitivities of methodologies can lead to a very different interpretation of the same study. The same 20 mesothelioma specimens all tested negative, 2/20 tested positive or 7/20 tested positive for SV40 Tag by simply changing the detection method on the same immuno-precipitation/western blot membranes. These results provide a simple explanation for some of the apparent discordant results reported in the literature.

  18. Evaluating cessation of the type 2 oral polio vaccine by modeling pre- and post-cessation detection rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroiss, Steve J; Famulare, Michael; Lyons, Hil; McCarthy, Kevin A; Mercer, Laina D; Chabot-Couture, Guillaume

    2017-10-09

    The globally synchronized removal of the attenuated Sabin type 2 strain from the oral polio vaccine (OPV) in April 2016 marked a major change in polio vaccination policy. This change will provide a significant reduction in the burden of vaccine-associated paralytic polio (VAPP), but may increase the risk of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) outbreaks during the transition period. This risk can be monitored by tracking the disappearance of Sabin-like type 2 (SL2) using data from the polio surveillance system. We studied SL2 prevalence in 17 countries in Africa and Asia, from 2010 to 2016 using acute flaccid paralysis surveillance data. We modeled the peak and decay of SL2 prevalence following mass vaccination events using a beta-binomial model for the detection rate, and a Ricker function for the temporal dependence. We found type 2 circulated the longest of all serotypes after a vaccination campaign, but that SL2 prevalence returned to baseline levels in approximately 50days. Post-cessation model predictions identified 19 anomalous SL2 detections outside of model predictions in Afghanistan, India, Nigeria, Pakistan, and western Africa. Our models established benchmarks for the duration of SL2 detection after OPV2 cessation. As predicted, SL2 detection rates have plummeted, except in Nigeria where OPV2 use continued for some time in response to recent cVDPV2 detections. However, the anomalous SL2 detections suggest specific areas that merit enhanced monitoring for signs of cVDPV2 outbreaks. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Routine immunization - do people know about it? A study among caretakers of children attending pulse polio immunization in east Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Rahul

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: Do caretakers of children under five years have sufficient knowledge regarding routine immunization (RI? Objective: To assess the knowledge about RI among caretakers of young children. Settings: Pulse polio immunization centres in East Delhi. Study design: Cross-sectional study. Participants: Six hundred and eighty-two caretakers accompanying children under 5 years to pulse polio booths in November 2006. Study tool: Pre-tested semi-open-ended questionnaire. Statistical analysis: Proportions, Chi-square test. Results: The proportions of respondents who had awareness about different aspects of RI, such as weekday of RI (37.0%, age group for RI (49.1%, number of visits required in the first year of life (27.0%, were all low. When asked to name the four diseases covered under the RI program in Delhi, only 268 (39.3% could name at least three. The education level of respondents was strongly associated with their knowledge about RI. Conclusion: The need of the hour is to make RI a ′felt need′ of the community. Making caretakers more aware about RI is a vital step in achieving this goal.

  20. Questions regarding the safety and duration of immunity following live yellow fever vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanna, Ian J; Slifka, Mark K

    2016-12-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) and other health agencies have concluded that yellow fever booster vaccination is unnecessary since a single dose of vaccine confers lifelong immunity. Areas covered: We reviewed the clinical studies cited by health authorities in their investigation of both the safety profile and duration of immunity for the YFV-17D vaccine and examined the position that booster vaccination is no longer needed. We found that antiviral immunity may be lost in 1-in-3 to 1-in-5 individuals within 5 to 10 years after a single vaccination and that children may be at greater risk for primary vaccine failure. The safety profile of YFV-17D was compared to other licensed vaccines including oral polio vaccine (OPV) and the rotavirus vaccine, RotaShield, which have subsequently been withdrawn from the US and world market, respectively. Expert commentary: Based on these results and recent epidemiological data on vaccine failures (particularly evident at >10 years after vaccination), we believe that current recommendations to no longer administer YFV-17D booster vaccination be carefully re-evaluated, and that further development of safer vaccine approaches should be considered.

  1. Assessing the impact of the Lebanese National Polio Immunization Campaign using a population-based computational model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Alawieh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After the re-introduction of poliovirus to Syria in 2013, Lebanon was considered at high transmission risk due to its proximity to Syria and the high number of Syrian refugees. However, after a large-scale national immunization initiative, Lebanon was able to prevent a potential outbreak of polio among nationals and refugees. In this work, we used a computational individual-simulation model to assess the risk of poliovirus threat to Lebanon prior and after the immunization campaign and to quantitatively assess the healthcare impact of the campaign and the required standards that need to be maintained nationally to prevent a future outbreak. Methods Acute poliomyelitis surveillance in Lebanon was along with the design and coverage rate of the recent national polio immunization campaign were reviewed from the records of the Lebanese Ministry of Public Health. Lebanese population demographics including Syrian and Palestinian refugees were reviewed to design individual-based models that predicts the consequences of polio spread to Lebanon and evaluate the outcome of immunization campaigns. The model takes into account geographic, demographic and health-related features. Results Our simulations confirmed the high risk of polio outbreaks in Lebanon within 10 days of case introduction prior to the immunization campaign, and showed that the current immunization campaign significantly reduced the speed of the infection in the event poliomyelitis cases enter the country. A minimum of 90% national immunization coverage was found to be required to prevent exponential propagation of potential transmission. Conclusions Both surveillance and immunization efforts should be maintained at high standards in Lebanon and other countries in the area to detect and limit any potential outbreak. The use of computational population simulation models can provide a quantitative approach to assess the impact of immunization campaigns and the burden of

  2. Assessing the impact of the Lebanese National Polio Immunization Campaign using a population-based computational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alawieh, Ali; Sabra, Zahraa; Langley, E Farris; Bizri, Abdul Rahman; Hamadeh, Randa; Zaraket, Fadi A

    2017-11-25

    After the re-introduction of poliovirus to Syria in 2013, Lebanon was considered at high transmission risk due to its proximity to Syria and the high number of Syrian refugees. However, after a large-scale national immunization initiative, Lebanon was able to prevent a potential outbreak of polio among nationals and refugees. In this work, we used a computational individual-simulation model to assess the risk of poliovirus threat to Lebanon prior and after the immunization campaign and to quantitatively assess the healthcare impact of the campaign and the required standards that need to be maintained nationally to prevent a future outbreak. Acute poliomyelitis surveillance in Lebanon was along with the design and coverage rate of the recent national polio immunization campaign were reviewed from the records of the Lebanese Ministry of Public Health. Lebanese population demographics including Syrian and Palestinian refugees were reviewed to design individual-based models that predicts the consequences of polio spread to Lebanon and evaluate the outcome of immunization campaigns. The model takes into account geographic, demographic and health-related features. Our simulations confirmed the high risk of polio outbreaks in Lebanon within 10 days of case introduction prior to the immunization campaign, and showed that the current immunization campaign significantly reduced the speed of the infection in the event poliomyelitis cases enter the country. A minimum of 90% national immunization coverage was found to be required to prevent exponential propagation of potential transmission. Both surveillance and immunization efforts should be maintained at high standards in Lebanon and other countries in the area to detect and limit any potential outbreak. The use of computational population simulation models can provide a quantitative approach to assess the impact of immunization campaigns and the burden of infectious diseases even in the context of population migration.

  3. Community transmission of type 2 poliovirus after cessation of trivalent oral polio vaccine in Bangladesh: an open-label cluster-randomised trial and modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniuchi, Mami; Famulare, Michael; Zaman, Khalequ; Uddin, Md Jashim; Upfill-Brown, Alexander M; Ahmed, Tahmina; Saha, Parimalendu; Haque, Rashidul; Bandyopadhyay, Ananda S; Modlin, John F; Platts-Mills, James A; Houpt, Eric R; Yunus, Mohammed; Petri, William A

    2017-10-01

    Trivalent oral polio vaccine (tOPV) was replaced worldwide from April, 2016, by bivalent types 1 and 3 oral polio vaccine (bOPV) and one dose of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) where available. The risk of transmission of type 2 poliovirus or Sabin 2 virus on re-introduction or resurgence of type 2 poliovirus after this switch is not understood completely. We aimed to assess the risk of Sabin 2 transmission after a polio vaccination campaign with a monovalent type 2 oral polio vaccine (mOPV2). We did an open-label cluster-randomised trial in villages in the Matlab region of Bangladesh. We randomly allocated villages (clusters) to either: tOPV at age 6 weeks, 10 weeks, and 14 weeks; or bOPV at age 6 weeks, 10 weeks, and 14 weeks and either one dose of IPV at age 14 weeks or two doses of IPV at age 14 weeks and 18 weeks. After completion of enrolment, we implemented an mOPV2 vaccination campaign that targeted 40% of children younger than 5 years, regardless of enrolment status. The primary outcome was Sabin 2 incidence in the 10 weeks after the campaign in per-protocol infants who did not receive mOPV2, as assessed by faecal shedding of Sabin 2 by reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). The effect of previous immunity on incidence was also investigated with a dynamical model of poliovirus transmission to observe prevalence and incidence of Sabin 2 virus. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02477046. Between April 30, 2015, and Jan 14, 2016, individuals from 67 villages were enrolled to the study. 22 villages (300 infants) were randomly assigned tOPV, 23 villages (310 infants) were allocated bOPV and one dose of IPV, and 22 villages (329 infants) were assigned bOPV and two doses of IPV. Faecal shedding of Sabin 2 in infants who did not receive the mOPV2 challenge did not differ between children immunised with bOPV and one or two doses of IPV and those who received tOPV (15 of 252 [6%] vs six of 122 [4%]; odds ratio [OR] 1·29, 95% CI 0

  4. New Strains Intended for the Production of Inactivated Polio Vaccine at Low-Containment After Eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlson, Sarah; Burlison, John; Giles, Elaine; Fox, Helen; Macadam, Andrew J; Minor, Philip D

    2015-12-01

    Poliomyelitis has nearly been eradicated through the efforts of the World Health Organization's Global Eradication Initiative raising questions on containment of the virus after it has been eliminated in the wild. Most manufacture of inactivated polio vaccines currently requires the growth of large amounts of highly virulent poliovirus, and release from a production facility after eradication could be disastrous; WHO have therefore recommended the use of the attenuated Sabin strains for production as a safer option although it is recognised that they can revert to a transmissible paralytic form. We have exploited the understanding of the molecular virology of the Sabin vaccine strains to design viruses that are extremely genetically stable and hyperattenuated. The viruses are based on the type 3 Sabin vaccine strain and have been genetically modified in domain V of the 5' non-coding region by changing base pairs to produce a cassette into which capsid regions of other serotypes have been introduced. The viruses give satisfactory yields of antigenically and immunogenically correct viruses in culture, are without measurable neurovirulence and fail to infect non-human primates under conditions where the Sabin strains will do so.

  5. Listening to the rumours: what the northern Nigeria polio vaccine boycott can tell us ten years on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghinai, Isaac; Willott, Chris; Dadari, Ibrahim; Larson, Heidi J

    2013-01-01

    In 2003 five northern Nigerian states boycotted the oral polio vaccine due to fears that it was unsafe. Though the international responses have been scrutinised in the literature, this paper argues that lessons still need to be learnt from the boycott: that the origins and continuation of the boycott were due to specific local factors. We focus mainly on Kano state, which initiated the boycotts and continued to reject immunisations for the longest period, to provide a focused analysis of the internal dynamics and complex multifaceted causes of the boycott. We argue that the delay in resolving the year-long boycott was largely due to the spread of rumours at local levels, which were intensified by the outspoken involvement of high-profile individuals whose views were misunderstood or underestimated. We use sociological concepts to analyse why these men gained influence amongst northern Nigerian communities. This study has implications on contemporary policy: refusals still challenge the Global Polio Eradication Initiative; and polio remains endemic to Nigeria (Nigeria accounted for over half of global cases in 2012). This paper sheds light on how this problem may be tackled with the ultimate aim of vaccinating more children and eradicating polio.

  6. Resistance of polio to its eradication in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sher Zunaira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study is based on EPI (Expanded Program on Immunization immunization surveys and surveillance of polio, its challenges in immunization and the way forward to overcome these challenges. Methods Several Government documents, survey reports and unpublished program documents were studied and online search was made to find information on EPI Pakistan. SPSS 16 and Microsoft Excel 2007 were used for the statistical analysis. Results Immunization against polio is higher in urban areas as compared to rural areas. Marked variation in vaccination has been observed in different provinces of Pakistan in the last decade. Secondly 10-20% of the children who have received their first dose of trivalent polio vaccine were deprived of their 2nd and 3rd dose because of poor performance of EPI and Lack of information about immunization. Conclusion In spite of numerous successes, such as the addition of new vaccines and raising immunization to over 100% in some areas, EPI is still struggling to reach its polio eradication goals. Inadequate service delivery, lack of information about immunization and limited number of vaccinators were found to be the key reason for poor performance of immunization and for large number of cases reported each year due to the deficiency of second and third booster dose.

  7. Australia's polio risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nicolee; Paterson, Beverley J; Durrheim, David N

    2014-06-30

    Australia, like all polio-free countries and regions, remains at risk of a wild poliovirus importation until polio is eradicated globally. The most probable route of importation will be through a traveller arriving in Australia either by air or sea from a polio-endemic or re-infected country. While the overall risk of an imported wild poliovirus infection leading to transmission within Australia is assessed as being low, some areas of the country have been identified as at increased risk. Local areas with relatively high arrivals from polio endemic countries, areas of low vaccination coverage and the potential for transmission to occur when these 2 factors are combined, were identified by this review as Australia's main polio risk. The risk of an importation event leading to locally acquired cases is mitigated by generally high polio vaccination coverage in Australia. This high coverage extends to residents of the Torres Strait Islands who are in close proximity to Papua New Guinea, a country identified as at high risk of poliovirus transmission should an importation occur. In 2012, all states and territories had vaccination coverage of greater than 90% at 1 year of age and all exceeded 93% at 2 years of age. Population immunity to wild poliovirus type 1, which remains the major cause of paralysis globally, has been estimated at 82%. This is sufficient to prevent outbreaks of this type in Australia. Of the 211 eligible non-polio acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases classified between 2008 and 2011, 91% (193) were vaccinated against polio at least once. High quality surveillance for AFP, which is supplemented by sentinel enterovirus and environmental surveillance activities, gives confidence that an imported case would be detected and appropriate public health action would ensue. This work is copyright. You may download, display, print and reproduce the whole or part of this work in unaltered form for your own personal use or, if you are part of an organisation, for

  8. Vacina contra poliomielite: um novo paradigma Polio vaccines: a new paradigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Ferro Bricks

    2007-06-01

    , from January 2000 to December 2006. DATA SYNTHESIS: Acknowledgement of vaccine-associated paralysis and oral vaccine-derived circulating viruses’ paralysis shall certainly require discontinuation of oral vaccination for poliomyelitis use in a short time. After eradication of the wild viruses, oral vaccination for poliomyelitis should be discontinued, preferably in a synchronized manner in all the countries. After termination of vaccination programs, people will become susceptible again to poliomyelitis virus and disease outbreaks caused by wild viruses may occur (accidental escape from laboratories or bioterrorism. In countries already using inactivated poliovirus vaccine, it is unlikely that vaccination will be interrupted. Countries that currently use exclusively oral poliovirus vaccine will have to rely on epidemiological surveillance and on oral vaccine inventories to control potential polio outbreaks. If the oral poliovirus vaccine is reintroduced in those populations, there will be again a risk for vaccine-associated paralysis and oral vaccine-derived circulating viruses’ that may spread rapidly to other regions and to nearby countries. CONCLUSIONS: Inactivated poliovirus vaccine introduction in the routine Brazilian vaccination calendar should be programmed as well as acquisition of technology for inactivated poliovirus vaccine production since the latter is currently insufficient to cover global demand.

  9. The Public Health Legacy of Polio Eradication in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Allen S; Haydarov, Rustam; O'Malley, Helena; Galway, Michael; Dao, Halima; Ngongo, Ngashi; Baranyikwa, Marie Therese; Naqvi, Savita; Abid, Nima S; Pandak, Carol; Edwards, Amy

    2017-07-01

    The legacy of polio in Africa goes far beyond the tragedies of millions of children with permanent paralysis. It has a positive side, which includes the many well-trained polio staff who have vaccinated children, conducted surveillance, tested stool specimens in the laboratories, engaged with communities, and taken care of polio patients. This legacy also includes support for routine immunization services and vaccine introductions and campaigns for other diseases. As polio funding declines, it is time to take stock of the resources made available with polio funding in Africa and begin to find ways to keep some of the talented staff, infrastructure, and systems in place to work on new public health challenges. The partnerships that helped support polio eradication will need to consider funding to maintain and to strengthen routine immunization services and other maternal, neonatal, and child health programs in Africa that have benefitted from the polio eradication infrastructure. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  10. Immunizations Part II: Shingles Vaccine

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-09-24

    This podcast discusses older adults and shingles, as well as the importance of getting the shingles vaccine. It is primarily targeted to public health and aging services professionals.  Created: 9/24/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP) and National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 9/24/2008.

  11. Engineering Enhanced Vaccine Cell Lines To Eradicate Vaccine-Preventable Diseases: the Polio End Game

    OpenAIRE

    van der Sanden, Sabine M. G.; Wu, Weilin; Dybdahl-Sissoko, Naomi; Weldon, William C.; Brooks, Paula; O'Donnell, Jason; Jones, Les P.; Brown, Cedric; Tompkins, S. Mark; Oberste, M. Steven; Karpilow, Jon; Tripp, Ralph A.

    2016-01-01

    Vaccine manufacturing costs prevent a significant portion of the world's population from accessing protection from vaccine-preventable diseases. To enhance vaccine production at reduced costs, a genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) screen was performed to identify gene knockdown events that enhanced poliovirus replication. Primary screen hits were validated in a Vero vaccine manufacturing cell line using attenuated and wild-type poliovirus strains. Multiple single and dual gene silencing event...

  12. Engineering Enhanced Vaccine Cell Lines To Eradicate Vaccine-Preventable Diseases: the Polio End Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sanden, Sabine M. G.; Wu, Weilin; Dybdahl-Sissoko, Naomi; Weldon, William C.; Brooks, Paula; O'Donnell, Jason; Jones, Les P.; Brown, Cedric; Tompkins, S. Mark; Oberste, M. Steven; Karpilow, Jon; Tripp, Ralph A.

    2016-01-01

    Vaccine manufacturing costs prevent a significant portion of the world's population from accessing protection from vaccine-preventable diseases. To enhance vaccine production at reduced costs, a genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) screen was performed to identify gene knockdown events that enhanced

  13. The effect of prophylaxis with chloroquine and proguanil on delayed-type hypersensitivity and antibody production following vaccination with diphtheria, tetanus, polio, and pneumococcal vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyhrs, A; Pedersen, B K; Bygbjerg, I

    1991-01-01

    (1,000 mg/week), or 4) proguanil hydrochloride (200 mg/day) for six weeks. Skin testing was performed on days 0 and 28. Vaccinations with diphtheria, tetanus, polio, and pneumococcal polysaccharide antigen vaccines were performed on day 28, and the presence of specific antibodies was determined...... on days 0, 28, and 42. The skin tests induced a significant increase in skin reactive areas from day 0 to day 28 in all groups. Furthermore, the skin test induced an increase in the level of specific IgG for diphtheria and tetanus, but had no effect on antibodies to antigens not included in the skin test...... dosages, does not induce any detectable suppression of delayed-type hypersensitivity or vaccination responses to diphtheria, tetanus, polio, or pneumococcal polysaccharide antigens....

  14. Community Immunity: How Vaccines Protect Us All

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... October 2011 Print this issue Community Immunity How Vaccines Protect Us All Send us your comments Parents ... NIH and others proves that the benefits of vaccines in preventing illness and death greatly outweigh the ...

  15. Is EU/EEA population protected against polio?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsten, D.R.E.; Carrilo-Santisteve, P.; Miglietta, A.; Ruitenberg, E.J.; Lopalco, P.L.

    2015-01-01

    The WHO European Region has been declared polio-free since 2002. By 2010, inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) was the only polio vaccine in use in the EU/EEA for the primary vaccination of children. A systematic review of the literature on polio seroprevalence studies, complemented by the analysis of

  16. Parental beliefs and decision making about child and adolescent immunization: from polio to sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Lynne A; Mays, Rose M; Zimet, Gregory D

    2005-12-01

    Over the past 150 years, innovations in immunization practices have dramatically improved the health of children, and parents are increasingly asked to consider and accept new childhood vaccines. We present a conceptual model to frame a review of research on the role of parental attitudes and beliefs in decision making about child and adolescent immunization and describe the historical context of vaccine-related decision-making research. This review focuses on theory-based Social-environmental and parent-specific personal factors as potential influences on vaccine decision making. Relevant Social-environmental issues discussed include media coverage of vaccines, perceived social norms, and the persuasive influence of peer groups. Health care provider recommendations are presented as an exemplar of factors related to the family's interface with the health care system. Personal factors addressed include parental health beliefs, attitudes, and knowledge related to vaccine preventable diseases and immunization, as well as cognitive heuristics that are employed in the decision-making process (e.g., omission bias, protected values, framing of information). Last, promising directions for research and suggestions for clinical practice are presented.

  17. Immunizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of cancer. And scientists are constantly working on new vaccines against deadly diseases like HIV . Which Vaccinations Do ... have not had the disease polio flu (influenza) New vaccines come on the market all the time and ...

  18. polio eradication in nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cumulative total of 302 as at Jan 2004), ... have further resulted in the previous cancellation of polio-vaccination campaigns in several key Northern. Nigeria states. The outcome ... eradicate the sufferings, paralysis and death associated with the ...

  19. [Polio vaccination and stool screening in German reception centers for asylum seekers, November 2013-January 2014 : What was implemented?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitlmann, Nadine; George, Maja; Falkenhorst, Gerhard

    2016-05-01

    Following the polio outbreak in Syria and the rising number of Syrian asylum seekers in Germany in 2013, the Robert Koch Institute recommended - within the context of existing vaccination recommendations for asylum seekers - on 01/11/2013 to prioritize polio vaccination of Syrian asylum seekers and stool screening in a target group of Syrian asylum seekers aged less than three years. The article evaluates the implementation of this recommendation in German asylum seeker reception centres (RC) to gain further knowledge on the vaccination practices in RCs and to identify opportunities for improving future recommendations. The electronic questionnaire was sent by email to all German RCs, asking for general information on the RC, existing vaccination efforts, the main obstacles for implementation of the recommendations, the number of incoming and vaccinated asylum seekers, and asylum seekers screened for poliovirus in the period from 01/11/2013 to 31/01/2014. The RCs rated the feasibility of the recommendation and the provided multilingual information material. All of the 20 identified RCs responded. During the study period, 33.874 asylum seekers arrived in the RCs. Of those with available information about possession of a vaccination record, on average 1.6 % did have one. All RCs offered timely vaccination to Syrian asylum seekers younger than three years. In this target group, eight RC achieved vaccination coverages of ≥ 80 %. Stool screening coverage was ≥ 80 % in five of 19 RCs. Eleven RCs rated the recommendation as very well/well implementable. Staff shortages and language barriers were mentioned as the main implementation obstacles. Similar future recommendations for asylum seekers in RCs should be accompanied by informational material in additional languages. Staff shortages hampering implementation could be overcome through collaborations with non-governmental organizations.

  20. Frequency of apnea, bradycardia, and desaturations following first diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-inactivated polio-Haemophilus influenzae type B immunization in hospitalized preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spady Donald W

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse cardiorespiratory events including apnea, bradycardia, and desaturations have been described following administration of the first diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-inactivated polio-Haemophilus influenzae type B (DTP-IPV-Hib immunization to preterm infants. The effect of the recent substitution of acellular pertussis vaccine for whole cell pertussis vaccine on the frequency of these events requires further study. Methods Infants with gestational age of ≤ 32 weeks who received their first DTP-IPV-Hib immunization prior to discharge from two Edmonton Neonatal Intensive Care Units January 1, 1996 to November 30, 2000 were eligible for the study. Each immunized infant was matched by gestational age to one control infant. The number of episodes of apnea, bradycardia, and/or desaturations (ABD and the treatment required for these episodes in the 72 hours prior to and 72 hours post-immunization (for the immunized cohort or at the same post-natal age (for controls was recorded. Results Thirty-four infants who received DTP-IPV-Hib with whole cell pertussis vaccine, 90 infants who received DTP-IPV-Hib with acellular pertussis vaccine, and 124 control infants were entered in the study. Fifty-six immunized infants (45.1% and 36 control infants (29.0% had a resurgence of or increased ABD in the 72 hours post-immunization in the immunized infants and at the same post-natal age in the controls with an adjusted odds ratio for immunized infants of 2.41 (95% CI 1.29,4.51 as compared to control infants. The incidence of an increase in adverse cardiorespiratory events post-immunization was the same in infants receiving whole cell or acellular pertussis vaccine (44.1% versus 45.6%. Eighteen immunized infants (14.5% and 51 control infants (41.1% had a reduction in ABD in the 72 hours post- immunization or at the equivalent postnatal age in controls for an odds ratio of 0.175 (95%CI 0.08, 0.39. The need for therapy of ABD in the immunized

  1. Sculpting humoral immunity through dengue vaccination to enhance protective immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne eCrill

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Dengue viruses (DENV are the most important mosquito transmitted viral pathogens infecting humans. DENV infection produces a spectrum of disease, most commonly causing a self-limiting flu-like illness known as dengue fever; yet with increased frequency, manifesting as life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF. Waning cross-protective immunity from any of the four dengue serotypes may enhance subsequent infection with another heterologous serotype to increase the probability of DHF. Decades of effort to develop dengue vaccines are reaching the finishing line with multiple candidates in clinical trials. Nevertheless, concerns remain that imbalanced immunity, due to the prolonged prime-boost schedules currently used in clinical trials, could leave some vaccinees temporarily unprotected or with increased susceptibility to enhanced disease. Here we develop a DENV serotype 1 (DENV-1 DNA vaccine with the immunodominant cross-reactive B cell epitopes associated with immune enhancement removed. We compare wild-type (WT with this cross-reactivity reduced (CRR vaccine and demonstrate that both vaccines are equally protective against lethal homologous DENV-1 challenge. Under conditions mimicking natural exposure prior to acquiring protective immunity, WT vaccinated mice enhanced a normally sub-lethal heterologous DENV-2 infection resulting in DHF-like disease and 95% mortality in AG129 mice. However, CRR vaccinated mice exhibited redirected serotype-specific and protective immunity, and significantly reduced morbidity and mortality not differing from naïve mice. Thus, we demonstrate in an in vivo DENV disease model, that non-protective vaccine-induced immunity can prime vaccinees for enhanced DHF-like disease and that CRR DNA immunization significantly reduces this potential vaccine safety concern. The sculpting of immune memory by the modified vaccine and resulting redirection of humoral immunity provide insight into DENV vaccine induced immune

  2. Emergence of Vaccine-Derived Polioviruses during Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak, Guinea, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Garcia, Maria Dolores; Majumdar, Manasi; Kebe, Ousmane; Fall, Aichatou D; Kone, Moussa; Kande, Mouctar; Dabo, Moustapha; Sylla, Mohamed Salif; Sompare, Djenou; Howard, Wayne; Faye, Ousmane; Martin, Javier; Ndiaye, Kader

    2018-01-01

    During the 2014-2015 outbreak of Ebola virus disease in Guinea, 13 type 2 circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) were isolated from 6 polio patients and 7 healthy contacts. To clarify the genetic properties of cVDPVs and their emergence, we combined epidemiologic and virologic data for polio cases in Guinea. Deviation of public health resources to the Ebola outbreak disrupted polio vaccination programs and surveillance activities, which fueled the spread of neurovirulent VDPVs in an area of low vaccination coverage and immunity. Genetic properties of cVDPVs were consistent with their capacity to cause paralytic disease in humans and capacity for sustained person-to-person transmission. Circulation ceased when coverage of oral polio vaccine increased. A polio outbreak in the context of the Ebola virus disease outbreak highlights the need to consider risks for polio emergence and spread during complex emergencies and urges awareness of the challenges in polio surveillance, vaccination, and diagnosis.

  3. Polio eradication efforts in regions of geopolitical strife: the Boko Haram threat to efforts in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigna, Jean Joel R

    2016-06-01

    The World Health Organization aims to eradicate wild poliovirus worldwide by the end of 2018. Cameroon and Nigeria, neighboring countries, have been affected by the terrorist and militant activities of the Islamist sect Boko Haram. Impacted regions are mainly the far North of Cameroon and Northern Nigeria. Targets of Boko Haram aggression in these zones include violence against polio workers, disruption of polio immunization campaigns, with consequent reduced access to health care and immunization. In addition to this significant problem, Northern Nigeria has historically seen rejection of polio virus vaccine initiatives. It remains to know how health systems can continue operations against polio in areas where Boko Haram operates. If appropriate measures are not urgently taken, it will be not possible to meet the 2018 goal of polio virus eradication. The response should include specialized immunization activities in conflict zones, will engagement of leaders. Countries should also explore immunization activities by soldiers and military personnel.

  4. Combination Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Skibinski, David AG; Baudner, Barbara C; Singh, Manmohan; O’Hagan, Derek T

    2011-01-01

    The combination of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccines into a single product has been central to the protection of the pediatric population over the past 50 years. The addition of inactivated polio, Haemophilus influenzae, and hepatitis B vaccines into the combination has facilitated the introduction of these vaccines into recommended immunization schedules by reducing the number of injections required and has therefore increased immunization compliance. However, the development of th...

  5. Flu Vaccine Guidance for Patients with Immune Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guidance for Patients with Immune Deficiency Share | Flu Vaccine Guidance for Patients with Immune Deficiency This article ... should patients with immune deficiency be given the vaccine? Immune deficient patients have a decreased resistance to ...

  6. Did the call for boycott by the Catholic bishops affect the polio vaccination coverage in Kenya in 2015? A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njeru, Ian; Ajack, Yusuf; Muitherero, Charles; Onyango, Dickens; Musyoka, Johnny; Onuekusi, Iheoma; Kioko, Jackson; Muraguri, Nicholas; Davis, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Polio eradication is now feasible after removal of Nigeria from the list of endemic countries and global reduction of cases of wild polio virus in 2015 by more than 80%. However, all countries must remain focused to achieve eradication. In August 2015, the Catholic bishops in Kenya called for boycott of a polio vaccination campaign citing safety concerns with the polio vaccine. We conducted a survey to establish if the coverage was affected by the boycott. A cross sectional survey was conducted in all the 32 counties that participated in the campaign. A total of 90,157 children and 37,732 parents/guardians were sampled to determine the vaccination coverage and reasons for missed vaccination. The national vaccination coverage was 93% compared to 94% in the November 2014 campaign. The proportion of parents/guardians that belonged to Catholic Church was 31% compared to 7% of the children who were missed. Reasons for missed vaccination included house not being visited (44%), children not being at home at time of visit (38%), refusal by parents (12%), children being as leep (1%), and various other reasons (5%). Compared to the November 2014 campaign, the proportion of children who were not vaccinated due to parent's refusal significantly increased from 6% to 12% in August 2015. The call for boycott did not affect the campaign significantly. However, if the call for boycott is repeated in future it could have some significant negative implication to polio eradication. It is therefore important to ensure that any vaccine safety issues are addressed accordingly.

  7. Immune Interference After Sequential Alphavirus Vaccine Vaccinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    containing 50gmL−1 each of neomycin and streptomycin and supplemented with 0.5% human serum albumin , U.S.P. The lyophilized vaccine is the filtered...vaccine was prepared from specific pathogen-free eggs infected with the attenuated CM4884 strain of WEE virus. The supernatant was harvested and filtered...supernatant harvested from primary chicken embryo cell cultures. The vaccine was prepared from spe- cific pathogen-free eggs infected with the

  8. Campaign to kick polio out of Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letore, D

    1998-12-01

    This article discusses the goal of eradicating poliomyelitis (polio) in Africa by the year 2000. Polio is a crippling disease that paralyzes hundreds of thousands of children yearly. Polio was endemic in Africa during the 1970s. Today, polio is confined to sub-Saharan Africa and, specifically, to the Congo, Ethiopia, Nigeria, Somalia, and the Sudan. Considerable progress is evident. Full eradication is necessary because of the ease with which the virus is transmitted. The World Health Organization (WHO) set the goal of eradication by the year 2000 at a 1988 assembly meeting. The Plan of Action for a Global Polio Eradication Initiative was approved in 1989. The WHO Regional Committee for Africa adopted the resolution and urged again in 1995 for vigorous implementation. The Organization of African Unity endorsed the initiative in 1996. South African President Mandela led a region-wide mobilization campaign to increase public awareness of the initiative. Since 1997, leading players from the African Football Confederation have participated in awareness campaigns by spreading the message through a variety of channels. The initiative includes routine immunization complemented by the National Immunization Days (NIDs), training at the local level, surveillance, and door-to-door campaigns. The initiative must assure functioning systems of cold storage of vaccines and must continue to educate communities about the importance of routine immunization. There must be a strong laboratory network for isolating the 3 types of the virus. NIDs will be scheduled for 1999 in countries with civil conflict. The polio model is useful for other disease eradication campaigns.

  9. [Back to the Future. Vaccine trials against Ebola in the history of resistance to immunization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, A M

    2016-10-01

    Vaccine trials against Ebola virus have been conceived and organized, in August 2014, after the epidemic started in three countries of West Africa. If the preparedness had been missing, the planners tried to anticipate the resistance to vaccination, in Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia. This article offers a retrospective view on the resistances to vaccination throughout its history, from smallpox inoculation to anti-polio vaccine. Resistances have been linked to the political contexts and the rejection of an oppressive power, either local or foreign, as well as mistakes and scientific uncertainties. The analysis of the historical factors of resistance leads to reverse the question: what convinces people to accept a vaccine trial, despite the obscurities of the immunization processes inside the body? The article hypothesizes that Guineans and West Africans face a dilemma similar to their counterparts in the past, whether or not to rally to an experimental immunization, the results of which are still pending. They may appropriate the Western beliefs about the efficacy of vaccines to their own ways of circumventing misfortune. Further field studies will be required to assess the role of the vaccinal trials and the response to the epidemic in the "convalescence" of these societies, being aware that the trials will not allow a complete assessment of the vaccines, because of the end of the epidemic.

  10. Impact of enterovirus and other enteric pathogens on oral polio and rotavirus vaccine performance in Bangladeshi infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniuchi, Mami; Platts-Mills, James A; Begum, Sharmin; Uddin, Md Jashim; Sobuz, Shihab U; Liu, Jie; Kirkpatrick, Beth D; Colgate, E Ross; Carmolli, Marya P; Dickson, Dorothy M; Nayak, Uma; Haque, Rashidul; Petri, William A; Houpt, Eric R

    2016-06-08

    Oral polio vaccine (OPV) and rotavirus vaccine (RV) exhibit poorer performance in low-income settings compared to high-income settings. Prior studies have suggested an inhibitory effect of concurrent non-polio enterovirus (NPEV) infection, but the impact of other enteric infections has not been comprehensively evaluated. In urban Bangladesh, we tested stools for a broad range of enteric viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungi by quantitative PCR from infants at weeks 6 and 10 of life, coincident with the first OPV and RV administration respectively, and examined the association between enteropathogen quantity and subsequent OPV serum neutralizing titers, serum rotavirus IgA, and rotavirus diarrhea. Campylobacter and enterovirus (EV) quantity at the time of administration of the first dose of OPV was associated with lower OPV1-2 serum neutralizing titers, while enterovirus quantity was also associated with diminished rotavirus IgA (-0.08 change in log titer per tenfold increase in quantity; P=0.037), failure to seroconvert (OR 0.78, 95% CI: 0.64-0.96; P=0.022), and breakthrough rotavirus diarrhea (OR 1.34, 95% CI: 1.05-1.71; P=0.020) after adjusting for potential confounders. These associations were not observed for Sabin strain poliovirus quantity. In this broad survey of enteropathogens and oral vaccine performance we find a particular association between EV carriage, particularly NPEV, and OPV immunogenicity and RV protection. Strategies to reduce EV infections may improve oral vaccine responses. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01375647. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Ensuring childhood vaccination among slums dwellers under the National Immunization Program in India - Challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sanjeev; Sahu, Damodar; Agrawal, Ashish; Vashi, Meeta Dhaval

    2018-04-04

    Almost, one third of the world's urban population resides in slums and the number would double by 2030. Slums denotes collection of people from various communities having a meagre income and living in unhygienic conditions thus making themselves most vulnerable for outbreaks of communicable diseases. India contributes substantially to the global disease burden and under-five mortality rates i.e. 20% attributable to vaccine preventable diseases. Immunization plays a crucial role in combating high childhood mortality rates attributable to vaccine preventable diseases across the globe. This systematic review, provides insights on immunization status in slums, identifies various factors influencing it thus, exploring opportunities that may be available to improve vaccination coverage under the National Immunization Program. Taking into account the above aspects, a review of literature was undertaken in various databases that included studies published between 2006 and 2017. In India, ~33% of the urban population lives in slums with suboptimal vaccination coverage ranging from 14% to upto 90%. Few of the important causes for low coverage included socioeconomic factors such as poor community participation, lack of awareness, frequent migration, and loss of daily income. Hence, mere presence of vaccines in the National Immunization Program doesn't do the job, there is a definite unmet need to emphasize upon the importance of immunization among slums dwellers and take necessary steps. For instance, delivering immunization services at the doorstep (e.g. pulse polio program), community-based education, text messaging as reminders and incentivized immunization services are some of the opportunities that can be explored and implemented to improve immunization status in the slums. Thus, in addition to inclusion of more and more vaccines in the National Immunization Program, there is a definite need to focus on people living in high risk areas in order to improve coverage and

  12. Vaccination and herd immunity: what more do we know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Harunor; Khandaker, Gulam; Booy, Robert

    2012-06-01

    This review summarizes herd immunity, focusing on conceptual developments with application to vaccination programs. The conventional idea of herd immunity is based on the relationship between the transmission dynamics of infectious agents and population immunity. However, there have been some recent conceptual developments in vaccine 'herd immunity' or 'herd protection' that address the complexities of imperfect immunity, heterogeneous populations, nonrandom vaccine uptake and 'freeloaders'. Some vaccines may provide better protection than others; for instance, meningococcal conjugate vaccines are superior to polysaccharide vaccines, as is true of pneumococcal and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines. Achieving a very high uptake rate should be the target for certain vaccines, for example, measles vaccine, in order to prevent the disease effectively. Emerging issues, for example, waning of immunity after pertussis vaccination, are fresh challenges. Herd immunity is a complex issue inherent to a vaccine and the population receiving the vaccine. We have more to learn and apply.

  13. Herd immunity: recent uses in vaccine assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Guilherme

    2008-12-01

    Human communities defend themselves against specific infectious agents in a way that extends beyond the simple sum of the immune status of its individuals. By analogy with individual immunity to specific agents, the community level of immunity may vary from complete susceptibility to full protection. Herd immunity has been used to name this community property, which is the result of evolution through natural selection, leading to relationships between two species, typical of prey-predator systems. Varying uses of the term herd immunity led to the use of other expressions, such as herd protection, herd effect and community immunity. Knowledge derived from observational studies and models on herd immunity has supported decisions on the choice of vaccines and vaccination strategies for the benefit of populations. This knowledge is most likely to be extended in the future, with far-reaching effects.

  14. Population Immunity against Serotype-2 Poliomyelitis Leading up to the Global Withdrawal of the Oral Poliovirus Vaccine: Spatio-temporal Modelling of Surveillance Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Reilly, Kathleen M.; Etsano, Andrew; Vaz, Rui Gama; Jafari, Hamid; Grassly, Nicholas C.; Blake, Isobel M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Global withdrawal of serotype-2 oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV2) took place in April 2016. This marked a milestone in global polio eradication and was a public health intervention of unprecedented scale, affecting 155 countries. Achieving high levels of serotype-2 population immunity before OPV2 withdrawal was critical to avoid subsequent outbreaks of serotype-2 vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPV2s). Methods and Findings In August 2015, we estimated vaccine-induced population immunity against serotype-2 poliomyelitis for 1 January 2004–30 June 2015 and produced forecasts for April 2016 by district in Nigeria and Pakistan. Population immunity was estimated from the vaccination histories of children non-polio acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) reported through polio surveillance, information on immunisation activities with different oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) formulations, and serotype-specific estimates of the efficacy of these OPVs against poliomyelitis. District immunity estimates were spatio-temporally smoothed using a Bayesian hierarchical framework. Coverage estimates for immunisation activities were also obtained, allowing for heterogeneity within and among districts. Forward projections of immunity, based on these estimates and planned immunisation activities, were produced through to April 2016 using a cohort model. Estimated population immunity was negatively correlated with the probability of VDPV2 poliomyelitis being reported in a district. In Nigeria and Pakistan, declines in immunity during 2008–2009 and 2012–2013, respectively, were associated with outbreaks of VDPV2. Immunity has since improved in both countries as a result of increased use of trivalent OPV, and projections generally indicated sustained or improved immunity in April 2016, such that the majority of districts (99% [95% uncertainty interval 97%–100%] in Nigeria and 84% [95% uncertainty interval 77%–91%] in Pakistan) had >70% population immunity among children immunity

  15. The Immune Response of Maternally Immune Chicks to Vaccination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Immune Response of Maternally Immune Chicks to Vaccination with Newcastle Disease Virus. ... G A El-Tayeb, M Y El-Ttegani, I E Hajer, M A Mohammed ... This study was conducted to determine the persistence of maternally derived antibodies (MDA) to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in newly hatched chicks and the ...

  16. Immunization coverage and timeliness of vaccination in Italian children with chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfi, E; Carloni, E; Marino, M G; Ciofi degli Atti, M L; Gesualdo, F; Romano, M; Giannattasio, A; Guarino, A; Carloni, R; Borgia, P; Volpe, E; Perrelli, F; Pizzuti, R; Tozzi, A E

    2012-07-20

    Since children with chronic diseases represent a primary target for immunization strategies, it is important that their immunization coverage and timeliness of vaccines is optimal. We performed a study to measure immunization coverage and timeliness of vaccines in children with type 1 diabetes, HIV infection, Down syndrome, cystic fibrosis, and neurological diseases. A total of 275 children aged 6 months-18 years were included in the study. Coverage for diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP), polio (Pol), and hepatitis B (HBV) vaccines approximated 85% at 24 months, while measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) coverage was 62%. Immunization coverage for seasonal influenza was 59%. The analysis of timeliness revealed that there was heterogeneity among children with different chronic diseases. A proportional hazard model showed that children with HIV infection had the longest time to complete three doses of DTP, Pol, and HBV, and those with neurological diseases received the first dose of MMR later than the other categories. Causes of missing or delayed vaccination mostly included a concurrent acute disease. Children with chronic diseases should be strictly monitored for routine and recommended vaccinations, and health care providers and families should be properly informed to avoid false contraindications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Achieving polio eradication: a review of health communication evidence and lessons learned in India and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obregón, Rafael; Chitnis, Ketan; Morry, Chris; Feek, Warren; Bates, Jeffrey; Galway, Michael; Ogden, Ellyn

    2009-08-01

    Since 1988, the world has come very close to eradicating polio through the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, in which communication interventions have played a consistently central role. Mass media and information dissemination approaches used in immunization efforts worldwide have contributed to this success. However, reaching the hardest-to-reach, the poorest, the most marginalized and those without access to health services has been challenging. In the last push to eradicate polio, Polio Eradication Initiative communication strategies have become increasingly research-driven and innovative, particularly through the introduction of sustained interpersonal communication and social mobilization approaches to reach unreached populations. This review examines polio communication efforts in India and Pakistan between the years 2000 and 2007. It shows how epidemiological, social and behavioural data guide communication strategies that have contributed to increased levels of polio immunity, particularly among underserved and hard-to-reach populations. It illustrates how evidence-based and planned communication strategies - such as sustained media campaigns, intensive community and social mobilization, interpersonal communication and political and national advocacy combined - have contributed to reducing polio incidence in these countries. Findings show that communication strategies have contributed on several levels by: mobilizing social networks and leaders; creating political will; increasing knowledge; ensuring individual and community-level demand; overcoming gender barriers and resistance to vaccination; and reaching out to the poorest and marginalized populations. The review concludes with observations about the added value of communication strategies in polio eradication efforts and implications for global and local public health communication interventions.

  18. Vaccines and immunization strategies for dengue prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Liu, Jianying; Cheng, Gong

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is currently the most significant arboviral disease afflicting tropical and sub-tropical countries worldwide. Dengue vaccines, such as the multivalent attenuated, chimeric, DNA and inactivated vaccines, have been developed to prevent dengue infection in humans, and they function predominantly by stimulating immune responses against the dengue virus (DENV) envelope (E) and nonstructural-1 proteins (NS1). Of these vaccines, a live attenuated chimeric tetravalent DENV vaccine developed by Sanofi Pasteur has been licensed in several countries. However, this vaccine renders only partial protection against the DENV2 infection and is associated with an unexplained increased incidence of hospitalization for severe dengue disease among children younger than nine years old. In addition to the virus-based vaccines, several mosquito-based dengue immunization strategies have been developed to interrupt the vector competence and effectively reduce the number of infected mosquito vectors, thus controlling the transmission of DENV in nature. Here we summarize the recent progress in the development of dengue vaccines and novel immunization strategies and propose some prospective vaccine strategies for disease prevention in the future. PMID:27436365

  19. Vaccines and immunization strategies for dengue prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Liu, Jianying; Cheng, Gong

    2016-07-20

    Dengue is currently the most significant arboviral disease afflicting tropical and sub-tropical countries worldwide. Dengue vaccines, such as the multivalent attenuated, chimeric, DNA and inactivated vaccines, have been developed to prevent dengue infection in humans, and they function predominantly by stimulating immune responses against the dengue virus (DENV) envelope (E) and nonstructural-1 proteins (NS1). Of these vaccines, a live attenuated chimeric tetravalent DENV vaccine developed by Sanofi Pasteur has been licensed in several countries. However, this vaccine renders only partial protection against the DENV2 infection and is associated with an unexplained increased incidence of hospitalization for severe dengue disease among children younger than nine years old. In addition to the virus-based vaccines, several mosquito-based dengue immunization strategies have been developed to interrupt the vector competence and effectively reduce the number of infected mosquito vectors, thus controlling the transmission of DENV in nature. Here we summarize the recent progress in the development of dengue vaccines and novel immunization strategies and propose some prospective vaccine strategies for disease prevention in the future.

  20. Model Penyebaran Penyakit Polio Dengan Pengaruh Vaksinasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RR Laila Ma’rifatun

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Polio (Poliomielitis is an infectious disease caused by the polio virus. This disease attacks the entire body (including the muscles and nerves and can lead to muscle weakness that is permanent, paralysis or death. This paper will discuss on the influence of vaccination against polio disease spread in the human population that settled in the form of mathematical modeling.

  1. Uso universal da vacina inativada contra poliomielite Universal use of inactivated polio vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Helena Falleiros Carvalho

    2006-07-01

    terms of worldwide eradication and the World Health Organization.s (WHO proposals in this transition period between global eradication and the post-eradication period. SOURCES OF DATA: Data for the period from 1955 to 2005 were searched in MEDLINE, LILACS, The Web, Doctor's Guide, WHO website and Pan American Health Organization (PAHO website and text book. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: In 1988, the WHO established the goal of eradicating the disease and interrupting transmission of the wild virus globally. Since then, there has been a dramatic decline of the disease, although in 2005 there were still some countries considered endemic and others where polio returned on account of imported viruses. The vaccines used worldwide are the classical tOPV and IPV, and in this eradication process, the use of mOPV vaccines has been encouraged in places where only one type of poliovirus circulates. In addition to spreading the virus in the community, the OPV vaccines may, however, cause paralyses by reversal of the neurovirulence process. CONCLUSIONS: For a world free of poliomyelitis disease, it would be necessary to interrupt circulation of the virus, which will only be possible if the OPV virus were to be discontinued, in accordance with the WHO proposals for this transition period and the post-eradication period.

  2. Inflammation, immunity, and vaccines for Helicobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aebischer, Toni; Meyer, Thomas F; Andersen, Leif P

    2010-01-01

    and host immune system. The hope is that by deciphering the deterministic rules--if any--of this interplay, we will eventually be able to predict, treat, and ultimately prevent disease. Over the past year, research on the immunology of this infection started to probe the role of small noncoding RNAs...... of CD4 T helper cell subsets to the immune reaction. Th17 cells, which are also induced during natural infection, were shown to be particularly important for vaccination. Cost-efficiency of vaccination was re-assessed and confirmed. Thus, induction and shaping of the effector roles of such protective Th......, a novel class of immune response regulators. Furthermore, we learned new details on how infection is detected by innate pattern recognition receptors. Induction of effective cell-mediated immunity will be key for the development of a vaccine, and new work published analyzed the relevance and contribution...

  3. Vaccination coverage and out-of-sequence vaccinations in rural Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornshøj, Linda; Benn, Christine Stabell; Fernandes, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The WHO aims for 90% coverage of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI), which in Guinea-Bissau included BCG vaccine at birth, three doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP) and oral polio vaccine (OPV) at 6, 10 and 14 weeks and measles vaccine (MV) at 9 months when...

  4. Timing and delay in children vaccination; evaluation of expanded program of immunization in outskirt of Iranian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejali, Mehri; Mohammadbeigi, Abolfazl; Mokhtari, Mohsen; Zahraei, Seyed Mohsen; Eshrati, Babak

    2015-01-01

    Most studies evaluated the vaccine coverage, but the time of vaccination is important as coverage. This study was conducted to evaluate the Expanded Program of Immunization (EPI) in outskirt of Iranian cities regarding to incidence of delay vaccination among children less than 4 years. This cross sectional descriptive study was conducted among children 24-47 months old, living in the suburbs of five metropolises of Iran. Totally, 3610 eligible children selected with proportioned cluster sampling method and data of vaccination card extracted after interview with child parents. Delayed incidence rate reported and predictive factors assessed by Chi square test and Multivariate logistic regression. Overall, 56.6% to 93.2% vaccines were administered out of time. Delayed vaccination incidence with more than one-week delay varies from 5.5% to 74.9% for polio at birth and MMR2 at 18 month, respectively. Mother's educational level and birth order were the most important predictors of delayed vaccination. Incidence of delayed vaccination was enlarged by increasing birth order and decreased in lower educated mothers. Incidence rate of delayed vaccination is more than expectation. Regarding to high coverage vaccines in Iran, heath officers and health policy makers should attempt for on-time vaccination beside of high immunization coverage especially in slum areas with more concentrated immigrants due to low literature and crowded families.

  5. Effect of Multiple Simultaneous Vaccines on Polio Seroresponse and Associated Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    including histories of devas- tating outbreaks of influenza, group A streptococcus , adenovirus, and meningococcal disease. Whether administered...with a higher proportion of polio seroconversions than the ɛ group (95% vs. 58%, respectively, p < 0.01). Analysis of the ɛ subgroup...between the roups was very similar. In particular, the baseline of ≥1:1448 was ound in 8% in the ɛ group and 7% in the >4 group . A logistic

  6. Why have the majority of recent polio cases occurred in countries affected by Islamist militancy? A historical comparative analysis of the political determinants of polio in Nigeria, Somalia, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to understand why the last few areas where polio remains are affected by armed conflicts involving militant organizations that use Islam to legitimize their activities. The first section critically analyses the argument that Muslims' animosity towards polio vaccination programmes is a consequence of their irrational, backward, anti-Western theology. This argument is depoliticizing, ahistorical and orientalist. Moreover, it does not explain why Islamist militant groups' attitudes to polio vaccination campaigns vary between countries. The second section analyses official documents, newspaper articles, interviews and historical and ethnographic accounts to understand the relationship between Islamist militant groups and polio in five countries - Nigeria, Somalia, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Syria - that account for 95% of the world's polio cases since 2012. I demonstrate that specific political grievances related to the postcolonial state and/or foreign military intervention help to explain variations in militant groups' attitudes to polio vaccination programmes. The paper concludes by considering the policy implications of the analysis. Improved access for polio vaccinators is not predicated on military victory against the militants but securing support of de facto political leaders. This can be achieved by developing a better understanding of the specific sociopolitical contexts in which immunization programmes operate.

  7. Immunodeficiency-related vaccine-derived poliovirus (iVDPV) cases: A systematic review and implications for polio eradication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jean; Bolivar-Wagers, Sara; Srinivas, Nivedita; Holubar, Marisa; Maldonado, Yvonne

    2017-01-01

    Background Vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs), strains of poliovirus mutated from the oral polio vaccine, pose a challenge to global polio eradication. Immunodeficiency-related vaccine-derived polioviruses (iVDPVs) are a type of VDPV which may serve as sources of poliovirus reintroduction after the eradication of wild-type poliovirus. This review is a comprehensive update of confirmed iVDPV cases published in the scientific literature from 1962 to 2012, and describes clinically relevant trends in reported iVDPV cases worldwide. Methods We conducted a systematic review of published iVDPV case reports from January 1960 to November 2012 from four databases. We included cases in which the patient had a primary immunodeficiency, and the vaccine virus isolated from the patient either met the sequencing definition of VDPV (>1% divergence for serotypes 1 and 3 and >0.6% for serotype 2) and/or was previously reported as an iVDPV by the World Health Organization. Results We identified 68 iVDPV cases in 49 manuscripts reported from 25 countries and the Palestinian territories. 62% of case patients were male, 78% presented clinically with acute flaccid paralysis, and 65% were iVDPV2. 57% of cases occurred in patients with predominantly antibody immunodeficiencies, and the overall all-cause mortality rate was greater than 60%. The median age at case detection was 1.4 years [IQR: 0.8, 4.5] and the median duration of shedding was 1.3 years [IQR: 0.7, 2.2]. We identified a poliovirus genome VP1 region mutation rate of 0.72% per year and a higher median percent divergence for iVDPV1 cases. More cases were reported from high income countries, which also had a larger age variation and different distribution of immunodeficiencies compared to upper and lower middle-income countries. Conclusion Our study describes the incidence and characteristics of global iVDPV cases reported in the literature in the past five decades. It also highlights the regional and economic disparities of

  8. Nanoparticles for nasal delivery of vaccines : monitoring adaptive immune responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijzer, C.

    2013-01-01

    The continuous emergence of new pathogens and growing drug resistance of microorganisms asks for innovative vaccination strategies. An alternative to conventional multiple injection vaccines is the nasal route of vaccine delivery. The immune response induced following nasal antigen delivery depends

  9. Lot quality assurance sampling to monitor supplemental immunization activity quality: an essential tool for improving performance in polio endemic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alexandra E; Okayasu, Hiromasa; Nzioki, Michael M; Wadood, Mufti Z; Chabot-Couture, Guillaume; Quddus, Arshad; Walker, George; Sutter, Roland W

    2014-11-01

    Monitoring the quality of supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) is a key tool for polio eradication. Regular monitoring data, however, are often unreliable, showing high coverage levels in virtually all areas, including those with ongoing virus circulation. To address this challenge, lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) was introduced in 2009 as an additional tool to monitor SIA quality. Now used in 8 countries, LQAS provides a number of programmatic benefits: identifying areas of weak coverage quality with statistical reliability, differentiating areas of varying coverage with greater precision, and allowing for trend analysis of campaign quality. LQAS also accommodates changes to survey format, interpretation thresholds, evaluations of sample size, and data collection through mobile phones to improve timeliness of reporting and allow for visualization of campaign quality. LQAS becomes increasingly important to address remaining gaps in SIA quality and help focus resources on high-risk areas to prevent the continued transmission of wild poliovirus. © Crown copyright 2014.

  10. Rotary's PolioPlus Program: Lessons Learned, Transition Planning, and Legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, John L; McGovern, Michael; Scott, Robert; Pandak, Carol; Edwards, Amy; Goodstone, David

    2017-07-01

    Hundreds of thousands of Rotary volunteers have provided support for polio eradication activities and continue to this day by making financial contributions to the Rotary PolioPlus program, participating in national immunization days, assisting with surveillance, working on local, national, and international advocacy programs for polio eradication, assisting at immunization posts and clinics, and mobilizing their communities for immunization activities (including poliovirus and other vaccines) and other health benefits. Rotary has contributed more than $1.61 billion for the global eradication of polio and has committed to provide an additional $35 million each year until 2018 (all dollar amounts represent US dollars). Its unwavering commitment to eradicate polio has been vital to the success of the program. Rotary is providing additional support for routine immunization and healthcare. When polio is finally gone, we will have the knowledge from the lessons learned with PolioPlus, such as the value of direct involvement by local Rotarians, the program for emergency funding, innovative tactics, and additional approaches for tackling other global issues, even those beyond public health. Rotary has already transitioned its grants program to include 6 areas of focus: disease prevention and treatment, water and sanitation, maternal and child health, basic education and literacy, economic and community development, and peace and conflict prevention/resolution. Funding for these grants in 2015-2016 was $71 million. The legacy of the polio program will be the complete eradication of poliovirus and the elimination of polio for all time. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  11. Vaccination, herd behavior, and herd immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Matan J; Brezis, Mayer; Block, Colin; Diederich, Adele; Chinitz, David

    2013-11-01

    During the 2009 outbreak of novel influenza AH1N1, insufficient data were available to adequately inform decision makers about benefits and risks of vaccination and disease. We hypothesized that individuals would opt to mimic their peers, having no better decision anchor. We used Game Theory, decision analysis, and transmission models to simulate the impact of subjective risks and preference estimates on vaccination behavior. We asked 95 students to provide estimates of risk and health state valuations with regard to AH1N1 infection, complications, and expectations of vaccine benefits and risks. These estimates were included in a sequential chain of models: a dynamic epidemic model, a decision tree, and a population-level model. Additionally, participants' intentions to vaccinate or not at varying vaccination rates were documented. The model showed that at low vaccination rates, vaccination dominated. When vaccination rates increased above 78%, nonvaccination was the dominant strategy. We found that vaccination intentions did not correspond to the shift in strategy dominance and segregated to 3 types of intentions: regardless of what others do 29/95 (31%) intended to vaccinate while 27/95 (28%) did not; among 39 of 95 (41%) intention was positively associated with putative vaccination rates. Some people conform to the majority's choice, either shifting epidemic dynamics toward herd immunity or, conversely, limiting societal goals. Policy leaders should use models carefully, noting their limitations and theoretical assumptions. Behavior drivers were not explicitly explored in this study, and the discrepant results beg further investigation. Models including real subjective perceptions with empiric or subjective probabilities can provide insight into deviations from expected rational behavior and suggest interventions in order to provide better population outcomes.

  12. Immunity to poliovirus after infection and vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herremans, Martina Maria Petronella Theresia

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was defined as the study of the contribution of IPV vaccination to the induction of a) protection against poliovirus infection and b) mucosal immunity.We have described the development of new immunological tools for the rapid detection of poliovirus-specific antibodies and

  13. Malaria vaccines and human immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Carole A; Zavala, Fidel

    2016-08-01

    Despite reductions in malaria episodes and deaths over the past decade, there is still significant need for more effective tools to combat this serious global disease. The positive results with the Phase III trial of RTS,S directed to the circumsporozoite protein of Plasmodium falciparum have established that a vaccine against malaria can provide partial protection to children in endemic areas, but its limited efficacy and relatively short window of protection mandate that new generations of more efficacious vaccines must be sought. Evidence shows that anti-parasite immune responses can control infection against other stages as well, but translating these experimental findings into vaccines for blood stages has been disappointing and clinical efforts to test a transmission blocking vaccine are just beginning. Difficulties include the biological complexity of the organism with a large array of stage-specific genes many of which in the erythrocytic stages are antigenically diverse. In addition, it appears necessary to elicit high and long-lasting antibody titers, address the redundant pathways of merozoite invasion, and still seek surrogate markers of protective immunity. Most vaccine studies have focused on a single or a few antigens with an apparent functional role, but this is likely to be too restrictive, and broad, multi-antigen, multi-stage vaccines need further investigation. Finally, novel tools and biological insights involving parasite sexual stages and the mosquito vector will provide new avenues for reducing or blocking malaria transmission. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Eficácia da vacina Sabin em crianças subnutridas da Amazônia The efficacy of oral polio vaccine in malnourished Amazonian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus E. Stewien

    1985-02-01

    Full Text Available A eficácia da vacina Sabin foi determinada em 106 crianças normais e subnutridas da Amazônia, após a administração de uma e duas doses de vacina oral (trivalente. Após a aplicação de uma dose de vacina, verificou-se que apenas 9% das crianças com subnutrição pregressa (crônica e 43% das crianças normais formaram anticorpos neutralizantes (protetores contra dois ou três tipos de poliovírus (p = 0,04. Após duas doses de vacina, os níveis de imunidade dos dois grupos de crianças estudadas acusaram, respectivamente, 32% e 75% (p = 0,001. Estes resultados mostram que a resposta imunitária à vacina Sabin foi sensivelmente inferior no grupo das crianças subnutridas, do que no das crianças normais. Em decorrência disto, será necessário administrar um número maior de doses de vacina oral àquelas crianças, a fim de que níveis satisfatórios de imunidade contra a poliomielite sejam atingidos em toda a população infantil.Various hypotheses have been proposed to explain the diminished efficacy of the oral polio vaccine in underdeveloped tropical regions. In this study, the influence of mild to moderate chronic malnutrition on the development of antibodies to the 3 types of polioviruses was investigated in Brazilian Amazonian children. Vaccines were administered to 106 normal and stunted children, between 5 to 14 months of age, who were not suffering from acute malnutrition (wasting, in poor peri-urban slum areas of Manaus (AM and São Luis (MA during the National Poliomyelitis Vaccination Campaigns of 1981 and 1982. Two weeks after vaccination, blood was collected by digital puncture and the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies for the 3 types of polioviruses was determined in serum at a dilution of 1:8. In children who had received one dose of the vaccine, 43% of normal children had antibodies to 2 or 3 types of polioviruses, against only 9% of stunted children (p = .04. In children who had received 2 doses of vaccine, 75

  15. Immune correlates for dengue vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikiatkhachorn, Anon; Yoon, In-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Dengue virus is the leading cause of vector-borne viral disease with four serotypes in circulation. Vaccine development has been complicated by the potential for both protection and disease enhancement during heterologous infection. Secondary infection triggers cross-reactive immune memory responses that have varying functional and epitope specificities that determine protection or risk. Strongly neutralizing antibodies to quaternary epitopes may be especially important for virus neutralization. Cell-mediated immunity dominated by Th1 functions may also play an important role. Determining an immune correlate of protection or risk would be highly beneficial for vaccine development but is hampered by mechanistic uncertainties and assay limitations. Clinical efficacy trials and human infection models along with a systems approach may provide future opportunities to elucidate such correlates.

  16. Immune responses after live attenuated influenza vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohn, Kristin G.-I.; Smith, Ingrid; Sjursen, Haakon; Cox, Rebecca Jane

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Since 2003 (US) and 2012 (Europe) the live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) has been used as an alternative to the traditional inactivated influenza vaccines (IIV). The immune responses elicted by LAIV mimic natural infection and have been found to provide broader clinical protection in children compared to the IIVs. However, our knowledge of the detailed immunological mechanisims induced by LAIV remain to be fully elucidated, and despite 14 years on the global market, there exists no correlate of protection. Recently, matters are further complicated by differing efficacy data from the US and Europe which are not understood. Better understanding of the immune responses after LAIV may aid in achieving the ultimate goal of a future “universal influenza vaccine”. In this review we aim to cover the current understanding of the immune responses induced after LAIV. PMID:28933664

  17. Immune Correlates for Dengue Vaccine Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Dengue virus is the leading cause of vector-borne viral disease with four serotypes in circulation. Vaccine development has been complicated by the potential for both protection and disease enhancement during heterologous infection. Secondary infection triggers cross-reactive immune memory responses which have varying functional and epitope specificities that determine protection or risk. Strongly neutralizing antibodies to quaternary epitopes may be especially important for virus neutralization. Cell-mediated immunity dominated by Th1 functions may also play an important role. Determining an immune correlate of protection or risk would be highly beneficial for vaccine development but is hampered by mechanistic uncertainties and assay limitations. Clinical efficacy trials and human infection models along with a systems approach may provide future opportunities to elucidate such correlates. PMID:26560015

  18. Immunogenicity and safety of combined adsorbed low-dose diphtheria, tetanus and inactivated poliovirus vaccine (REVAXIS®) versus combined diphtheria, tetanus and inactivated poliovirus vaccine (DT Polio®) given as a booster dose at 6 years of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajdos, Vincent; Soubeyrand, Benoit; Vidor, Emmanuel; Richard, Patrick; Boyer, Julie; Sadorge, Christine

    2011-01-01

    This randomized, comparative, phase-IIIb study conducted in France aimed to demonstrate whether seroprotection against diphtheria, tetanus and poliomyelitis 1 month after a single dose of REVAXIS (low-dose diphtheria) is non-inferior to seroprotection 1 month after a single dose of DT Polio (standard-dose diphtheria), both vaccines being given as a second booster to healthy children at 6 years of age. Children were randomly assigned to receive a single intramuscular dose of REVAXIS or DT Polio. Primary endpoints were the 1-month post-booster seroprotection rates for diphtheria, tetanus and poliovirus type-1, -2 and -3 antigens. Secondary endpoints were immunogenicity and safety observations. Of 788 children screened, 760 were randomized: REVAXIS group, 384 children; DT Polio group, 376 children. No relevant difference in demographic characteristics at baseline was observed between REVAXIS and DT Polio groups. Noninferiority of REVAXIS compared with DT Polio for seroprotection was demonstrated against diphtheria (respectively 98.6% and 99.3%), tetanus (respectively 99.6% and 100%) and poliovirus antigens (100% for each types in both groups). No allergic reactions to REVAXIS were reported. A benefit/risk ratio in favor of REVAXIS was suggested by the trend towards a better tolerability of REVAXIS compared with DT Polio regarding the rate of severe solicited injection-site reactions. The results support the use of REVAXIS as a booster at 6 years of age in infants who previously received a three-dose primary series within the first 6 months of life and a first booster including diphtheria, tetanus and poliovirus vaccine(s) given before 2 years of age. PMID:21441781

  19. WHO Polio Eradication Program: Problems and Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Kharit

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2013 WHO re-evaluated its main goals of the polio eradication program. A modernization program was accepted with regard to the National vaccination calendars worldwide which includes a step-by-step refusal from the living polio vaccine (OPV and a total transition to the inactivated polio vaccine (IPV starting in 2019. Because of the total eradication of the polio type 2 virus, as an intermediate step the 3-valence OPV was substituted with the 2-valence OPV, which does not contain the type 2 polio virus, in April 2016. The aim of the article is to present the history of polio prevention and to state the reasons for the adoption of 3rd edition of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative. The new approaches were defined for eradication of wild polio virus type 1 and vaccine related strains. A new strategy for global switch to inactivated polio vaccine by 2019 was suggested.

  20. IPV v2.0 : upgrading the established inactivated polio vaccine production process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomassen, Y.E.

    2014-01-01

    The first vaccine against poliovirus (PV), the causative agent of poliomyelitis, was developed in the 1950s by Jonas Salk. The vaccine (IPV) consists of an injected dose of purified and inactivated wild-type PVs (all three serotypes). Soon after this discovery, at the Rijks Instituut voor de

  1. IPV v2.0 : upgrading the established inactivated polio vaccine production process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomassen, Y.E.

    2014-01-01

    The first vaccine against poliovirus (PV), the causative agent of poliomyelitis, was developed in the 1950s by Jonas Salk. The vaccine (IPV) consists of an injected dose of purified and inactivated wild-type PVs (all three serotypes). Soon after this discovery, at the Rijks Instituut voor de

  2. Does oral polio vaccine have non-specific effects on all-cause mortality?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Andersen, Andreas; Martins, Cesário L

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: BCG and measles vaccine (MV) may have beneficial non-specific effects (NSEs). If an unplanned intervention with a vaccine (a natural experiment) modifies the estimated effect in a randomised controlled trial (RCT), this suggests NSEs. We used this approach to test NSEs of triple oral...

  3. Sex-differential effect on infant mortality of oral polio vaccine administered with BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau. A natural experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Stabell Benn

    Full Text Available The policy to provide oral polio vaccine (OPV at birth was introduced in low-income countries to increase coverage. The effect of OPV at birth on overall child mortality was never studied. During a trial of vitamin A supplementation (VAS at birth in Guinea-Bissau, OPV was not available during several periods. We took advantage of this "natural experiment" to test the effect on mortality of receiving OPV at birth.Between 2002 and 2004, the VAS trial randomised normal-birth-weight infants to 50,000 IU VAS or placebo administered with BCG. Provision of OPV at birth was not part of the trial, but we noted whether the infants received OPV or not. OPV was missing during several periods in 2004. We used Cox proportional hazards models to compute mortality rate ratios (MRR of children who had received or not received OPV at birth.A total of 962 (22.1% of the 4345 enrolled children did not receive OPV at birth; 179 children died within the first year of life. Missing OPV at birth was associated with a tendency for decreased mortality (adjusted MRR = 0.69 (95% CI = 0.46-1.03, the effect being similar among recipients of VAS and placebo. There was a highly significant interaction between OPV at birth and sex (p = 0.006. Not receiving OPV at birth was associated with a weak tendency for increased mortality in girls (1.14 (0.70-1.89 but significantly decreased mortality in boys (0.35 (0.18-0.71.In our study OPV at birth had a sex-differential effect on mortality. Poliovirus is almost eradicated and OPV at birth contributes little to herd immunity. A randomised study of the effect of OPV at birth on overall mortality in both sexes is warranted.

  4. Immunity against measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, diphtheria, tetanus, polio, hepatitis A and hepatitis B among adult asylum seekers in the Netherlands, 2016.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freidl, Gudrun S; Tostmann, Alma; Curvers, Moud; Ruijs, Wilhelmina L M; Smits, Gaby; Schepp, Rutger; Duizer, Erwin; Boland, Greet; de Melker, Hester; van der Klis, Fiona R M; Hautvast, Jeannine L A; Veldhuijzen, Irene K

    2018-01-01

    Asylum seekers are a vulnerable population for contracting infectious diseases. Outbreaks occur among children and adults. In the Netherlands, asylum seeker children are offered vaccination according to the National Immunization Program. Little is known about protection against vaccine-preventable

  5. Indirect effects by meningococcal vaccines: herd protection versus herd immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröker, Michael

    2011-08-01

    The term "herd immunity" for the indirect effect of meningococcal conjugate vaccines is inaccurate. A more appropriate term is "herd protection," because this term correctly describes the public effects imparted by vaccination campaigns against the meningococcus.

  6. Vaccine-associated Paralytic Poliomyelitis in Immunodeficient Children, Iran, 1995–2008

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-07-06

    This podcast describes paralytic poliomyelitis infections acquired by immune-deficient Iranian children following their exposure to live-virus polio vaccine. Olen Kew, Associate Director for Global Laboratory Science at CDC, discusses implications of the use of live-virus vaccines in global polio eradication efforts.  Created: 7/6/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases.   Date Released: 7/6/2010.

  7. Medicaid and Childhood Immunizations: A National Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Joseph Tiang-Yau; Rosenbaum, Sara

    In recent years, falling immunization rates in the United States have resulted in an increased number of cases of preventable diseases. For example, the United States ranks behind 16 other nations in proportion of infants immunized against polio. Reasons for the decline of immunizations include skyrocketing vaccine costs, rising poverty rates,…

  8. Polio eradication efforts in regions of geopolitical strife: the Boko ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polio eradication efforts in regions of geopolitical strife: the Boko Haram threat to efforts in sub-Saharan Africa. ... Targets of Boko Haram aggression in these zones include violence against polio workers, disruption of polio immunization campaigns, with consequent reduced access to health care and immunization.

  9. Response to a Large Polio Outbreak in a Setting of Conflict - Middle East, 2013-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaeyi, Chukwuma; Ryan, Michael J; Smith, Philip; Mahamud, Abdirahman; Farag, Noha; Haithami, Salah; Sharaf, Magdi; Jorba, Jaume C; Ehrhardt, Derek

    2017-03-03

    As the world advances toward the eradication of polio, outbreaks of wild poliovirus (WPV) in polio-free regions pose a substantial risk to the timeline for global eradication. Countries and regions experiencing active conflict, chronic insecurity, and large-scale displacement of persons are particularly vulnerable to outbreaks because of the disruption of health care and immunization services (1). A polio outbreak occurred in the Middle East, beginning in Syria in 2013 with subsequent spread to Iraq (2). The outbreak occurred 2 years after the onset of the Syrian civil war, resulted in 38 cases, and was the first time WPV was detected in Syria in approximately a decade (3,4). The national governments of eight countries designated the outbreak a public health emergency and collaborated with partners in the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) to develop a multiphase outbreak response plan focused on improving the quality of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance* and administering polio vaccines to >27 million children during multiple rounds of supplementary immunization activities (SIAs). † Successful implementation of the response plan led to containment and interruption of the outbreak within 6 months of its identification. The concerted approach adopted in response to this outbreak could serve as a model for responding to polio outbreaks in settings of conflict and political instability.

  10. Immunization Coverage in WHO Regions: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Vakili

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available   In 1974, the World Health Organization (WHO established the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI to ensure that all children have access to routinely recommended vaccines. Since then, global coverage with the four core vaccines (Bacille calmette guérin vaccine [for protection against tuberculosis], Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine [DTP], Polio vaccine, and Measles vaccine has increased from

  11. Immunization Safety Review: Thimerosal - Containing Vaccines and Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stratton, Kathleen; Gable, Alicia; McCormick, Marie C

    2001-01-01

    In this report, the Immunization Safety Review committee examines the hypothesis of whether or not the use of vaccines containing the preservative thimerosal can cause neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs...

  12. The Effect of Oral Polio Vaccine at Birth on Infant Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Najaaraq; Andersen, Andreas; Hansen, Anna Sofie K

    2015-01-01

    of 7012 healthy normal-birth-weight neonates were randomized to BCG only (intervention group) or OPV0 with BCG (usual practice). All children were to receive OPV with pentavalent vaccine (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and hepatitis B) at 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age. Seven...

  13. Assessing providers' vaccination behaviors during routine immunization in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Megan A; Gargano, Lisa M; Thacker, Naveen; Choudhury, Panna; Weiss, Paul S; Arora, Manisha; Orenstein, Walter A; Omer, Saad B; Hughes, James M

    2015-08-01

    Progress has been made toward improving routine immunization coverage in India, but universal coverage has not been achieved. Little is known about how providers' vaccination behaviors affect coverage rates. The purpose of this study was to identify provider behaviors that served as barriers to vaccination that could lead to missed opportunities to vaccinate. We conducted a study of health-care providers' vaccination behaviors during clinic visits for children immunization (p = 0.022) during vaccination visits. Training of all vaccination practitioners should focus on behaviors such as the necessity of verifying vaccination status regardless of visit type, stressing the importance of counseling parents on immunization and emphasizing what is a valid contraindication to vaccination. © The Author [2015]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Correlation between vaccine coverage against polio and circulation and genetic evolution of the poliovirus strains isolated in Romania in the framework of the global polio eradication strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Băicuş, Anda; Persu, Ana; Popescu, Maria; Penciu, Alina; Stavri, Simona; Soare, Alina; Grecu, Nicolae; Szmal, Camelia; Oprişan, Gabriela

    2009-01-01

    Until 2008 in Romania poliomyelitis has been controlled by predominantly using trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (TOPV). The alternative vaccination schedule (formalin inactivated poliovirus vaccine IPV/OPV) has been implemented starting September 2008 and at the begining of 2009 was decided only vaccination with IPV. Between 1995-2006 the risk of the vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) decreased with an average of less than 2 VAPP cases/year and no VAPP case between 2007 - September 2009. Begining with 2007 the number of the poliovirus strains isolated was less. All 9 poliovirus strains (PV) isolated between 2007-2009 and investigated by RT-PCR-RFLP in VP1-2A and VP3-VP1 coding regions showed Sabin-like profiles, and only one strain poliovirus type 3 showed Sabin 2-like profile by RFLP in 3D coding ARN polymerase region. The study about the seroprevalence of antibodies against poliovirus types in serum samples from the acute flaccid paralysis (AFP), facial paralysis (FP) cases showed that the seroprevalence of antibodies against types 1 and 2 Sabin strains was higher (>90%) than for type 3 Sabin strains (average 85%). It was confirmed the necessity of maintaining a proper vaccine coverage in population, after the switch in the vaccination strategy in Romania until all threats of poliovirus are eliminated globally.

  15. Comparative assessment of immunization coverage of migrant children between national immunization program vaccines and non-national immunization program vaccines in East China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu; Luo, Shuying; Tang, Xuewen; Lou, Linqiao; Chen, Yaping; Guo, Jing

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the disparities in immunization coverage between National Immunization Program (NIP) vaccines and non-NIP vaccines in Yiwu and to identify potential determinants. A face-to-face interview-based questionnaire survey among 423 migrant children born from 1 June 2010 to 31 May 2013 was conducted. Immunization coverage was estimated according to the vaccines scheduled at different age, the birth cohorts, and socio- demographic characteristics. Single-level logistic regression analysis was applied to identify the determinants of coverage of non-NIP vaccines. We found that NIP vaccines recorded higher immunization coverage compared with non-NIP vaccines (87.9100%– vs 0%-74.8%). Among the non-NIP vaccines, varicella vaccine (VarV) recorded the highest coverage of 85.4%, which was introduced in 1998; while 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine(PCV7) recorded the lowest coverage of 0% for primary series, which was introduced recently. Lower coverage rate of non-NIP vaccines was significantly associated with more siblings in household, shorter duration of living in the surveyed areas, lower family income, mother with a job, mother with poor awareness of vaccination, and mother with lower education level. We found the immunization coverage rate of non-NIP vaccines was significant lower than that of NIP vaccines. Expansion of NIP to include non-NIP vaccines can provide better protection against the vaccine preventable diseases through increased immunization coverage. PMID:25760670

  16. Comparative assessment of immunization coverage of migrant children between national immunization program vaccines and non-national immunization program vaccines in East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu; Luo, Shuying; Tang, Xuewen; Lou, Linqiao; Chen, Yaping; Guo, Jing

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the disparities in immunization coverage between National Immunization Program (NIP) vaccines and non-NIP vaccines in Yiwu and to identify potential determinants. A face-to-face interview-based questionnaire survey among 423 migrant children born from 1 June 2010 to 31 May 2013 was conducted. Immunization coverage was estimated according to the vaccines scheduled at different age, the birth cohorts, and socio- demographic characteristics. Single-level logistic regression analysis was applied to identify the determinants of coverage of non-NIP vaccines. We found that NIP vaccines recorded higher immunization coverage compared with non-NIP vaccines (87.9100%- vs 0%-74.8%). Among the non-NIP vaccines, varicella vaccine (VarV) recorded the highest coverage of 85.4%, which was introduced in 1998; while 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine(PCV7) recorded the lowest coverage of 0% for primary series, which was introduced recently. Lower coverage rate of non-NIP vaccines was significantly associated with more siblings in household, shorter duration of living in the surveyed areas, lower family income, mother with a job, mother with poor awareness of vaccination, and mother with lower education level. We found the immunization coverage rate of non-NIP vaccines was significant lower than that of NIP vaccines. Expansion of NIP to include non-NIP vaccines can provide better protection against the vaccine preventable diseases through increased immunization coverage.

  17. Immunization coverage and predictive factors for complete and age-appropriate vaccination among preschoolers in Athens, Greece: a cross- sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In Greece, several new childhood vaccines were introduced recently but were reimbursed gradually and at different time points. The aim of this study was to assess immunization coverage and identify factors influencing complete and age-appropriate vaccination among children attending public nurseries in the municipal district of Athens. Methods A cross-sectional study, using stratified sampling was performed. Immunization history was obtained from vaccination booklets. Demographic and socioeconomic data were obtained from school registries and telephone interviews. Vaccination rates were estimated by sample weighted proportions while associations between complete and age-appropriate immunization and potential determinants by logistic regression analysis. Results A total of 731 children (mean age: 46, median: 48, range: 10–65 months) were included. Overall immunization coverage with traditional vaccines (DTP, polio, Hib, HBV, 1st dose MMR) was satisfactory, exceeding 90%, but the administration of booster doses was delayed (range: 33.7- 97.4%, at 60 months of age). Complete vaccination rates were lower for new vaccines (Men C, PCV7, varicella, hepatitis A), ranging between 61-92%. In addition, a significant delay in timely administration of Men C, PCV7, as well as HBV was noted (22.9%, 16.0% and 27.7% at 12 months of age, respectively). Child’s age was strongly associated with incomplete vaccination with all vaccines (p< 0.001), while as immigrant status was a predictor of incomplete (p=0.034) and delayed vaccination (p<0.001) with traditional vaccines. Increasing household size and higher maternal education were negatively associated with the receipt of all and newly licensed vaccines, respectively (p=0.035). Conclusions Our findings highlight the need to monitor uptake of new vaccines and improve age- appropriate administration of booster doses as well as early vaccination against hepatitis B. Immigrant status, increased household size and high

  18. Immunization coverage and predictive factors for complete and age-appropriate vaccination among preschoolers in Athens, Greece: a cross--sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlopoulou, Ioanna D; Michail, Koralia A; Samoli, Evangelia; Tsiftis, George; Tsoumakas, Konstantinos

    2013-10-02

    In Greece, several new childhood vaccines were introduced recently but were reimbursed gradually and at different time points. The aim of this study was to assess immunization coverage and identify factors influencing complete and age-appropriate vaccination among children attending public nurseries in the municipal district of Athens. A cross-sectional study, using stratified sampling was performed. Immunization history was obtained from vaccination booklets. Demographic and socioeconomic data were obtained from school registries and telephone interviews. Vaccination rates were estimated by sample weighted proportions while associations between complete and age-appropriate immunization and potential determinants by logistic regression analysis. A total of 731 children (mean age: 46, median: 48, range: 10-65 months) were included. Overall immunization coverage with traditional vaccines (DTP, polio, Hib, HBV, 1st dose MMR) was satisfactory, exceeding 90%, but the administration of booster doses was delayed (range: 33.7- 97.4%, at 60 months of age). Complete vaccination rates were lower for new vaccines (Men C, PCV7, varicella, hepatitis A), ranging between 61-92%. In addition, a significant delay in timely administration of Men C, PCV7, as well as HBV was noted (22.9%, 16.0% and 27.7% at 12 months of age, respectively). Child's age was strongly associated with incomplete vaccination with all vaccines (p< 0.001), while as immigrant status was a predictor of incomplete (p=0.034) and delayed vaccination (p<0.001) with traditional vaccines. Increasing household size and higher maternal education were negatively associated with the receipt of all and newly licensed vaccines, respectively (p=0.035). Our findings highlight the need to monitor uptake of new vaccines and improve age- appropriate administration of booster doses as well as early vaccination against hepatitis B. Immigrant status, increased household size and high maternal education may warrant targeted

  19. Functional demonstration of adaptive immunity in zebrafish using DNA vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Niels; Lorenzen, Ellen; Einer-Jensen, Katja

    studies have documented existence of a classical innate immune response, there is mainly indirect evidence of functional adaptive immunity. To address this aspect, groups of zebrafish were vaccinated with DNA-vaccines against the rhabdoviruses VHSV, IHNV and SVCV. Seven weeks later, the fish were...... challenged with SVCV by immersion. Despite some variability between replicate aquaria, there was a protective effect of the homologous vaccine and no effect of the heterologous vaccines. The results therefore confirm the existence of not only a well developed but also a fully functional adaptive immune...

  20. Neurovirulent vaccine-derived polioviruses in sewage from highly immune populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Lester M; Manor, Yossi; Sofer, Danit; Handsher, Rachel; Swartz, Tiberio; Delpeyroux, Francis; Mendelson, Ella

    2006-12-20

    Vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) have caused poliomyelitis outbreaks in communities with sub-optimal vaccination. Israeli environmental surveillance of sewage from populations with high (>95%) documented vaccine coverage of confirmed efficacy identified two separate evolutionary clusters of VDPVs: Group 1 (1998-2005, one system, population 1.6x10(6)) and Group 2 (2006, 2 systems, populations 0.7x10(6) and 5x10(4)). Molecular analyses support evolution of nine Group 1 VDPVs along five different lineages, starting from a common ancestral type 2 vaccine-derived Sabin-2/Sabin-1 recombinant strain, and independent evolution of three Group 2 VDPVs along one lineage starting from a different recombinant strain. The primary evidence for two independent origins was based on comparison of unique recombination fingerprints, the number and distribution of identical substitutions, and evolutionary rates. Geometric mean titers of neutralizing antibodies against Group 1 VDPVs were significantly lower than against vaccine strains in all age-group cohorts tested. All individuals had neutralizing titers >1:8 against these VDPVs except 7% of the 20-50 year cohort. Group 1 VDPVs were highly neurovirulent in a transgenic mouse model. Intermediate levels of protective immunity against Group 2 VDPVs correlated with fewer (5.0+1.0) amino acid substitutions in neutralizing antigenic sites than in Group 1 VDPV's (12.1+/-1.5). VDPVs that revert from live oral attenuated vaccines and reacquire characteristics of wild-type polioviruses not only threaten populations with poor immune coverage, but are also a potential source for re-introduction of poliomyelitis into highly immune populations through older individuals with waning immunity. The presence of two independently evolved groups of VDPVs in Israel and the growing number of reports of environmental VDPV elsewhere make it imperative to determine the global frequency of environmental VDPV. Our study underscores the importance of the

  1. Neurovirulent vaccine-derived polioviruses in sewage from highly immune populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lester M Shulman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs have caused poliomyelitis outbreaks in communities with sub-optimal vaccination. Israeli environmental surveillance of sewage from populations with high (>95% documented vaccine coverage of confirmed efficacy identified two separate evolutionary clusters of VDPVs: Group 1 (1998-2005, one system, population 1.6x10(6 and Group 2 (2006, 2 systems, populations 0.7x10(6 and 5x10(4. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Molecular analyses support evolution of nine Group 1 VDPVs along five different lineages, starting from a common ancestral type 2 vaccine-derived Sabin-2/Sabin-1 recombinant strain, and independent evolution of three Group 2 VDPVs along one lineage starting from a different recombinant strain. The primary evidence for two independent origins was based on comparison of unique recombination fingerprints, the number and distribution of identical substitutions, and evolutionary rates. Geometric mean titers of neutralizing antibodies against Group 1 VDPVs were significantly lower than against vaccine strains in all age-group cohorts tested. All individuals had neutralizing titers >1:8 against these VDPVs except 7% of the 20-50 year cohort. Group 1 VDPVs were highly neurovirulent in a transgenic mouse model. Intermediate levels of protective immunity against Group 2 VDPVs correlated with fewer (5.0+1.0 amino acid substitutions in neutralizing antigenic sites than in Group 1 VDPV's (12.1+/-1.5. SIGNIFICANCE: VDPVs that revert from live oral attenuated vaccines and reacquire characteristics of wild-type polioviruses not only threaten populations with poor immune coverage, but are also a potential source for re-introduction of poliomyelitis into highly immune populations through older individuals with waning immunity. The presence of two independently evolved groups of VDPVs in Israel and the growing number of reports of environmental VDPV elsewhere make it imperative to determine the global frequency of

  2. Combination vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David AG Skibinski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccines into a single product has been central to the protection of the pediatric population over the past 50 years. The addition of inactivated polio, Haemophilus influenzae, and hepatitis B vaccines into the combination has facilitated the introduction of these vaccines into recommended immunization schedules by reducing the number of injections required and has therefore increased immunization compliance. However, the development of these combinations encountered numerous challenges, including the reduced response to Haemophilus influenzae vaccine when given in combination; the need to consolidate the differences in the immunization schedule (hepatitis B; and the need to improve the safety profile of the diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis combination. Here, we review these challenges and also discuss future prospects for combination vaccines.

  3. Influenza virus vaccine live intranasal--MedImmune vaccines: CAIV-T, influenza vaccine live intranasal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    MedImmune Vaccines (formerly Aviron) has developed a cold-adapted live influenza virus vaccine [FluMist] that can be administered by nasal spray. FluMist is the first live virus influenza vaccine and also the first nasally administered vaccine to be marketed in the US. The vaccine will be formulated to contain live attenuated (att) influenza virus reassortants of the strains recommended by the US Public Health Service for each 'flu season. The vaccine is termed cold-adapted (ca) because the virus has been adapted to replicate efficiently at 25 degrees C in the nasal passages, which are below normal body temperature. The strains used in the seasonal vaccine will also be made temperature sensitive (ts) so that their replication is restricted at 37 degrees C (Type B strains) and 39 degrees C (Type A strains). The combined effect of the antigenic properties and the att, ca and ts phenotypes of the influenza strains contained in the vaccine enables the viruses to replicate in the nasopharynx to produce protective immunity. The original formulation of FluMist requires freezer storage throughout distribution. Because many international markets do not have distribution channels well suited to the sale of frozen vaccines, Wyeth and MedImmune are collaborating to develop a second generation, refrigerator-stable, liquid trivalent cold-adapted influenza vaccine (CAIV-T), which is in phase III trials. Initially, the frozen formulation will only be available in the US. For the 2003-2004 season, FluMist will contain A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1), A/Panama/2007/99 (H3N2) (A/Moscow/10/99-like) and B/Hong Kong/330/2001. Aviron was acquired by MedImmune on 15 January 2002. Aviron is now a wholly-owned subsidiary of MedImmune and is called MedImmune Vaccines. Aviron acquired FluMist in March 1995 through a Co-operative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with the US NIAID, and a licensing agreement with the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA. In June 2000, the CRADA was

  4. Molecular Signatures of Immunity and Immunogenicity in Infection and Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haks, Mariëlle C; Bottazzi, Barbara; Cecchinato, Valentina; De Gregorio, Corinne; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Kaufmann, Stefan H E; Lanzavecchia, Antonio; Lewis, David J M; Maertzdorf, Jeroen; Mantovani, Alberto; Sallusto, Federica; Sironi, Marina; Uguccioni, Mariagrazia; Ottenhoff, Tom H M

    2017-01-01

    Vaccinology aims to understand what factors drive vaccine-induced immunity and protection. For many vaccines, however, the mechanisms underlying immunity and protection remain incompletely characterized at best, and except for neutralizing antibodies induced by viral vaccines, few correlates of protection exist. Recent omics and systems biology big data platforms have yielded valuable insights in these areas, particularly for viral vaccines, but in the case of more complex vaccines against bacterial infectious diseases, understanding is fragmented and limited. To fill this gap, the EC supported ADITEC project (http://www.aditecproject.eu/; http://stm.sciencemag.org/content/4/128/128cm4.full) featured a work package on "Molecular signatures of immunity and immunogenicity," aimed to identify key molecular mechanisms of innate and adaptive immunity during effector and memory stages of immune responses following vaccination. Specifically, technologies were developed to assess the human immune response to vaccination and infection at the level of the transcriptomic and proteomic response, T-cell and B-cell memory formation, cellular trafficking, and key molecular pathways of innate immunity, with emphasis on underlying mechanisms of protective immunity. This work intersected with other efforts in the ADITEC project. This review summarizes the main achievements of the work package.

  5. Historical aspects of immunization and vaccine safety communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfert, Stephanie M

    2015-01-01

    It has been a long journey starting from the beginnings of variolation [3] leading up to the greatest success in the history of immunization: the eradication of smallpox [39]. Today, vaccines are an acknowledged important medical advance [40]. Nevertheless, immunization has been the subject of public controversy on several occasions [15, 24, 31]. This article shall provide a short overview of some aspects of the early stages of immunization in Western countries, including some examples of vaccine safety controversies in the past.

  6. Neonatal vitamin A supplementation associated with a cluster of deaths and poor early growth in a randomised trial among low-birth-weight boys of vitamin A versus oral polio vaccine at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Najaaraq; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Andersen, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of oral polio vaccine administered already at birth (OPV0) on child survival was not examined before being recommended in 1985. Observational data suggested that OPV0 was harmful for boys, and trials have shown that neonatal vitamin A supplementation (NVAS) at birth may...

  7. Vaccination of swine with an inactivated porcine parvovirus vaccine in the presence of passive immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, P S; Mengeling, W L

    1986-02-15

    A study was conducted to determine whether low hemagglutination inhibiting (HI) titers (1:5) for porcine parvovirus (PPV) block the development of immune response to a PPV vaccine. Pigs with low (1:5), medium (1:10 or 1:20), or high (1:40 or 1:80) titers were obtained by IV injections with various amounts of PPV immune serum. Pigs were inoculated with 1 or 2 doses of vaccine and were monitored for serum HI antibodies to PPV. Pigs with low titers responded to vaccine just as well as did the seronegative pigs. The HI titers of pigs with medium titers did not increase after first vaccination. After the second vaccination, however, their titers increased and were similar to those of pigs with low titers. High titers blocked the response to vaccination. The pigs that received 2 doses of vaccine had higher titers than did those of pigs that received 1 dose of vaccine. The results indicated that low titers, which would be expected in gilts at the time of vaccination, do not interfere with immunization by the inactivated PPV vaccine, and that 2 doses of vaccine may provide better and longer lasting immune response to inactivated PPV vaccine and probably longer lasting immunity against PPV-induced reproductive failure.

  8. Temperature effects on vaccine induced immunity to viruses in fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Niels; Lorenzen, Ellen; Rasmussen, Jesper Skou

    a problem in terms of inducing a protective immune response by vaccination in aquaculture, since it is often desirable to vaccinate fish during autumn, winter, or spring. In experimental vaccination trials with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) using a DNA-vaccine encoding the viral glycoprotein of viral...... haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), non-specific as well as specific immune mechanisms seemed to be delayed at low temperature. At five weeks post vaccination fish kept at 5C had no detectable response of neutralising antibodies while two thirds of the fish kept at 15C had sero-converted. While protective...... immunity was still established at both temperatures, specificity analysis suggested that protection at the lower temperature was mainly due to non-specific innate antiviral mechanisms, which appeared to last longer at low temperature. This was presumably related to a prolonged persistence of the vaccine...

  9. Incomplete childhood immunization with new and old vaccines and associated factors: BRISA birth cohort, São Luís, Maranhão State, Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Francelena de Sousa; Barbosa, Yonna Costa; Batalha, Mônica Araújo; Ribeiro, Marizélia Rodrigues Costa; Simões, Vanda Maria Ferreira; Branco, Maria Dos Remédios Freitas Carvalho; Thomaz, Érika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca; Queiroz, Rejane Christine de Sousa; Araújo, Waleska Regina Machado; Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura da

    2018-03-12

    This study estimated the percentages of incomplete immunization with new vaccines and old vaccines and associated factors in children 13 to 35 months of age belonging to a birth cohort in São Luís, the capital of Maranhão State, Brazil. The sample was probabilistic, with 3,076 children born in 2010. Information on vaccination was obtained from the Child's Health Card. The new vaccines, namely those introduced in 2010, were meningococcal C and 10-valent pneumococcal, and the old vaccines, or those already on the childhood immunization schedule, were BCG, hepatitis B, human rotavirus, polio, tetravalent (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae b), yellow fever, and triple viral (measles, mumps, rubella). The study used hierarchical modeling and Poisson regression with robust variance. Prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated. Incomplete immunization was higher with new vaccines (51.1%) than with old vaccines (33.2%). Children 25 to 35 months of age (PR = 1.27; 95%CI: 1.14-1.41) and those in economic classes D/E (PR = 1.20; 95%CI: 1.06-1.35) were only significantly associated with new vaccines; low maternal schooling (PR = 1.58; 95%CI: 1.21-2.06), unavailability of outpatient and/or hospital care for the child (PR = 1.20; 95%CI: 1.04-1.38), and unavailability of the vaccine in health services (PR: 1.28; 95%CI: 1.12-1.46) were only associated with old vaccines. Immunization strategies should consider the vulnerability of older preschool-age children and those belonging to classes D and E, especially when new vaccines are introduced, as well as children of mothers with low schooling. Strategies should also address problems with the availability of health services and vaccines.

  10. 2. Review of the Oral Polio

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    of children below five years in Toluca, Mexico . This strategy serves as the foundation of today's global polio eradication initiative. The call for global eradication of ... year 2000 against six diseases: diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough, tuberculosis, measles, and polio. During 1997, 82% children were fully immunized - a.

  11. Immunity to viruses: learning from successful human vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulendran, Bali; Oh, Jason Z; Nakaya, Helder I; Ravindran, Rajesh; Kazmin, Dmitri A

    2013-09-01

    For more than a century, immunologists and vaccinologists have existed in parallel universes. Immunologists have for long reveled in using 'model antigens', such as chicken egg ovalbumin or nitrophenyl haptens, to study immune responses in model organisms such as mice. Such studies have yielded many seminal insights about the mechanisms of immune regulation, but their relevance to humans has been questioned. In another universe, vaccinologists have relied on human clinical trials to assess vaccine efficacy, but have done little to take advantage of such trials for studying the nature of immune responses to vaccination. The human model provides a nexus between these two universes, and recent studies have begun to use this model to study the molecular profile of innate and adaptive responses to vaccination. Such 'systems vaccinology' studies are beginning to provide mechanistic insights about innate and adaptive immunity in humans. Here, we present an overview of such studies, with particular examples from studies with the yellow fever and the seasonal influenza vaccines. Vaccination with the yellow fever vaccine causes a systemic acute viral infection and thus provides an attractive model to study innate and adaptive responses to a primary viral challenge. Vaccination with the live attenuated influenza vaccine causes a localized acute viral infection in mucosal tissues and induces a recall response, since most vaccinees have had prior exposure to influenza, and thus provides a unique opportunity to study innate and antigen-specific memory responses in mucosal tissues and in the blood. Vaccination with the inactivated influenza vaccine offers a model to study immune responses to an inactivated immunogen. Studies with these and other vaccines are beginning to reunite the estranged fields of immunology and vaccinology, yielding unexpected insights about mechanisms of viral immunity. Vaccines that have been proven to be of immense benefit in saving lives offer us a new

  12. A phase III, open-label, randomised multicentre study to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of a booster dose of two different reduced antigen diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-polio vaccines, when co-administered with measles-mumps-rubella vaccine in 3 and 4-year-old healthy children in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlow, Robin; Kuriyakose, Sherine; Mesaros, Narcisa; Han, Htay Htay; Tomlinson, Richard; Faust, Saul N; Snape, Matthew D; Pollard, Andrew J; Finn, Adam

    2018-04-19

    To evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of a reduced antigen diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus (dTap-IPV B ) vaccine (Boostrix-IPV, GSK) as a pre-school booster in 3-4 year old children as compared to dTap-IPV R (Repevax, Sanofi Pasteur), when co-administered with mumps-measles-rubella vaccine (MMRV). This phase III, open label, randomised study was conducted in the UK between April 2011 and April 2012. Children due their pre-school dTap-IPV booster vaccination were randomised 2:1 to receive one of two different dTap-IPV vaccines (dTap-IPV B or dTap-IPV R ) with blood sample for immunogenicity assessment just prior and one month after vaccination. Immune responses to diphtheria, tetanus and polio antigens were compared between the study vaccines (inferential comparison). In the absence of an accepted pertussis correlate of protection, the immunogenicity of dTap-IPV B vaccine against pertussis was compared with historical pertussis efficacy data (inferential comparison). Safety and reactogenicity of both study vaccines were evaluated. 387 children were randomised and 385 vaccinated: 255 in the dTap-IPV B group and 130 in the dTap-IPV R group. Prior to vaccination, ≥76.8% of children had anti-diphtheria and ≥65.5% had anti-tetanus titres above the protection threshold; for pertussis, the pre-vaccination seropositivity rate ranged between 18.1 and 70.6%. Both vaccines were immunogenic with 99.2-100% of children achieving titres above the pre-specified seroprotection/seropositivity thresholds. One serious adverse event not considered as causally related to the study vaccination by the study investigator was reported in the dTap-IPV B group. Non-inferiority of dTap-IPV B to dTap-IPV R was demonstrated. Both vaccines had a clinically acceptable safety and reactogenicity profile when co-administered with MMRV to children 3-4 years old. NCT01245049 (ClinicalTrials.gov). Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All

  13. Perbandingan Manfaat Vaksin Oral Polio 1 (Monovalen) dengan Vaksin Oral Polio Trivalen Terhadap Transmisi Virus Polio 1 dalam Upaya Mengatasi Kejadian Luar Biasa Polio 1 di Indonesia Tahun 2005: ditinjau melalui respons imun dan keamanannya

    OpenAIRE

    Kusnandi Rusmil

    2016-01-01

    Latar belakang. Indonesia menggunakan trivalent oral polio vaccine (tOPV) sejak tahun 1977 dan sejak tahun 1995 tidak pernah ditemukan lagi kasus poliomelitis. Pada Maret 2005 terjadi kejadian luar biasa (KLB) polio yang meluas ke seluruh pulau Jawa dan Sumatera. Berdasarkan pengalaman negara yang berhasil mengatasi KLB, penggunaan monovalent oral polio vaccine (mOPV) sesuai penyebab KLB memberikan hasil lebih cepat dibandingkan tOPV. Tujuan. Melihat manfaat pemberian mOPV1 dibandingkan de...

  14. Prolonging herd immunity to cholera via vaccination: Accounting for human mobility and waning vaccine effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peak, Corey M; Reilly, Amanda L; Azman, Andrew S; Buckee, Caroline O

    2018-02-01

    Oral cholera vaccination is an approach to preventing outbreaks in at-risk settings and controlling cholera in endemic settings. However, vaccine-derived herd immunity may be short-lived due to interactions between human mobility and imperfect or waning vaccine efficacy. As the supply and utilization of oral cholera vaccines grows, critical questions related to herd immunity are emerging, including: who should be targeted; when should revaccination be performed; and why have cholera outbreaks occurred in recently vaccinated populations? We use mathematical models to simulate routine and mass oral cholera vaccination in populations with varying degrees of migration, transmission intensity, and vaccine coverage. We show that migration and waning vaccine efficacy strongly influence the duration of herd immunity while birth and death rates have relatively minimal impacts. As compared to either periodic mass vaccination or routine vaccination alone, a community could be protected longer by a blended "Mass and Maintain" strategy. We show that vaccination may be best targeted at populations with intermediate degrees of mobility as compared to communities with very high or very low population turnover. Using a case study of an internally displaced person camp in South Sudan which underwent high-coverage mass vaccination in 2014 and 2015, we show that waning vaccine direct effects and high population turnover rendered the camp over 80% susceptible at the time of the cholera outbreak beginning in October 2016. Oral cholera vaccines can be powerful tools for quickly protecting a population for a period of time that depends critically on vaccine coverage, vaccine efficacy over time, and the rate of population turnover through human mobility. Due to waning herd immunity, epidemics in vaccinated communities are possible but become less likely through complementary interventions or data-driven revaccination strategies.

  15. Immune response in cattle vaccinated against rabies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Alexandre Nunes de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the best type of rabies vaccine to use as a booster, 78 serological samples from singly vaccinated cattle were analyzed by counterimmunoelectrophoresis technique. The animals were divided into several groups, received the first vaccine dose with modified live virus vaccine (ERA strain and were revaccinated with inactivated virus or modified live virus vaccines. Boosters were given at 2, 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks following first vaccination. Results showed high titres in the cases of booster with inactivated vaccine. In all cases, however, detectable antibody titres declined quickly.

  16. Conscious consideration of herd immunity in influenza vaccination decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Andrew M; Vardavas, Raffaele; Marcum, Christopher S; Gidengil, Courtney A

    2013-07-01

    Influenza vaccination decisions may be influenced by perceived risk reduction related to herd immunity. This paper examines how free-riding (i.e., foregoing vaccination because of reduced risk perceptions related to herd immunity) or protective benefits to the community affect vaccination decisions. A survey of a nationally representative panel of U.S. adults (N=442 respondents; data collected and analyzed during 2012) asked about how respondents made vaccination decisions, including whether and how vaccination among the members of respondents' social networks influenced their own vaccination decisions. Most individuals (61%) reported that vaccination in the social network would not influence their decision. Among those perceiving being influenced by vaccination in their social network, most stated that an increase in network vaccination coverage would make them more likely to get vaccinated, rather than less. Overall, only 6% (28 of 442) gave a response consistent with the reduced-risk logic of herd immunity, which was more common among those stating that they would be less likely to get vaccinated (emphasizing free-riding) than among those more likely to get vaccinated (emphasizing social protection; 33% vs 11%, two-sided, p=0.0005). The reduced-risk logic of herd immunity, and more specifically free-riding, is consciously considered by relatively few individuals. Far more common are social influences bolstering personal vaccination, such as peer pressure and social learning (6% vs 11%, two-sided, p=0.015). Interventionists may be more successful by capitalizing on existing social-influence considerations than by trying to combat the conscious lure of free-riding. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

  17. A Recombinant Measles Vaccine with Enhanced Resistance to Passive Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julik, Emily; Reyes-Del Valle, Jorge

    2017-09-21

    Current measles vaccines suffer from poor effectiveness in young infants due primarily to the inhibitory effect of residual maternal immunity on vaccine responses. The development of a measles vaccine that resists such passive immunity would strongly contribute to the stalled effort toward measles eradication. In this concise communication, we show that a measles virus (MV) with enhanced hemagglutinin (H) expression and incorporation, termed MVvac2-H2, retained its enhanced immunogenicity, previously established in older mice, when administered to very young, genetically modified, MV-susceptible mice in the presence of passive anti-measles immunity. This immunity level mimics the sub-neutralizing immunity prevalent in infants too young to be vaccinated. Additionally, toward a more physiological small animal model of maternal anti-measles immunity interference, we document vertical transfer of passive anti-MV immunity in genetically-modified, MV susceptible mice and show in this physiological model a better MVvac2-H2 immunogenic profile than that of the parental vaccine strain. In sum, these data support the notion that enhancing MV hemagglutinin incorporation can circumvent in vivo neutralization. This strategy merits additional exploration as an alternative pediatric measles vaccine.

  18. Infection and treatment immunizations for successful parasite vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutapi, Francisca; Billingsley, Peter F; Secor, W Evan

    2013-03-01

    Since the advent of techniques for the expression of recombinant peptide antigens, the availability of human vaccines for parasitic diseases has been 'imminent'. Yet vaccines based on recombinant proteins are still largely aspirations, not realities. It is now apparent that vaccine development needs additional knowledge about host protective immune response(s), antigen characteristics, and the delivery required to induce those responses. The most successful immune protection against parasites has been generated by infection and treatment, the induction of protective immunity by truncating the course of an infection with drug treatment. Here, we consider the characteristics of an effective, protective anti-parasite vaccine and propose a conceptual framework to aid parasite vaccine development using malaria and schistosomiasis as examples. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Skin immunization by microneedle patch overcomes statin-induced suppression of immune responses to influenza vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilieva, Elena V; Wang, Shelly; Li, Song; Prausnitz, Mark R; Compans, Richard W

    2017-12-19

    Recent studies indicated that in elderly individuals, statin therapy is associated with a reduced response to influenza vaccination. The present study was designed to determine effects on the immune response to influenza vaccination induced by statin administration in a mouse model, and investigate potential approaches to improve the outcome of vaccination on the background of statin therapy. We fed middle aged BALB/c mice a high fat "western" diet (WD) alone or supplemented with atorvastatin (AT) for 14 weeks, and control mice were fed with the regular rodent diet. Mice were immunized with a single dose of subunit A/Brisbane/59/07 (H1N1) vaccine, either systemically or with dissolving microneedle patches (MNPs). We observed that a greater age-dependent decline in the hemagglutinin inhibition titers occurred in systemically-immunized mice than in MNP- immunized mice. AT dampened the antibody response in the animals vaccinated by either route of vaccine delivery. However, the MNP-vaccinated AT-treated animals had ~20 times higher total antibody levels to the influenza vaccine than the systemically vaccinated group one month postvaccination. We propose that microneedle vaccination against influenza provides an approach to ameliorate the immunosuppressive effect of statin therapy observed with systemic immunization.

  20. Pregnancy discovered after smallpox vaccination: Is vaccinia immune globulin appropriate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, Peter G; Ryan, Margaret A K; Grabenstein, John D

    2004-12-01

    Smallpox vaccination just before conception or during pregnancy can result, in rare instances, in fetal vaccinia from viral infection of the fetus. Approximately 50 cases have been documented, despite literally billions of people having been vaccinated. This live viral vaccine has a wider array of rare but serious medical side effects (eg, eczema vaccinatum, progressive vaccinia, encephalitis, myopericarditis) compared with other vaccines that are given currently to the public. In response to recent world events, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the United States Department of Defense established a preoutbreak smallpox vaccination program. Because no actual outbreak has yet occurred, some investigators have proposed prophylactic treatment with vaccinia immune globulin for pregnancies that are exposed to smallpox vaccine to prevent fetal vaccinia. We review the existing medical literature to access the risks of fetal vaccinia in these pregnancies and the controversy regarding the prophylactic use of vaccinia immune globulin.

  1. Novel Immune-Modulating Cellular Vaccine for Prostate Cancer Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0423 TITLE: Novel Immune-Modulating Cellular Vaccine for Prostate Cancer Immunotherapy PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Smita...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0423 Novel Immune-Modulating Cellular Vaccine for Prostate Cancer Immunotherapy 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT We have developed a novel strategy that combines tumor immunotherapy targeting PAP and targeted

  2. Applying Convergent Immunity to Innovative Vaccines Targeting Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeaman, Michael R.; Filler, Scott G.; Schmidt, Clint S.; Ibrahim, Ashraf S.; Edwards, John E.; Hennessey, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Recent perspectives forecast a new paradigm for future “third generation” vaccines based on commonalities found in diverse pathogens or convergent immune defenses to such pathogens. For Staphylococcus aureus, recurring infections and a limited success of vaccines containing S. aureus antigens imply that native antigens induce immune responses insufficient for optimal efficacy. These perspectives exemplify the need to apply novel vaccine strategies to high-priority pathogens. One such approach can be termed convergent immunity, where antigens from non-target organisms that contain epitope homologs found in the target organism are applied in vaccines. This approach aims to evoke atypical immune defenses via synergistic processes that (1) afford protective efficacy; (2) target an epitope from one organism that contributes to protective immunity against another; (3) cross-protect against multiple pathogens occupying a common anatomic or immunological niche; and/or (4) overcome immune subversion or avoidance strategies of target pathogens. Thus, convergent immunity has a potential to promote protective efficacy not usually elicited by native antigens from a target pathogen. Variations of this concept have been mainstays in the history of viral and bacterial vaccine development. A more far-reaching example is the pre-clinical evidence that specific fungal antigens can induce cross-kingdom protection against bacterial pathogens. This trans-kingdom protection has been demonstrated in pre-clinical studies of the recombinant Candida albicans agglutinin-like sequence 3 protein (rAls3) where it was shown that a vaccine containing rAls3 provides homologous protection against C. albicans, heterologous protection against several other Candida species, and convergent protection against several strains of S. aureus. Convergent immunity reflects an intriguing new approach to designing and developing vaccine antigens and is considered here in the context of vaccines to target S

  3. Applying Convergent Immunity to Innovative Vaccines Targeting Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R Yeaman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent perspectives forecast a new paradigm for future 3rd generation vaccines based on commonalities found in diverse pathogens or convergent immune defenses to such pathogens. For Staphylococcus aureus, recurring infections and a limited success of vaccines containing S. aureus antigens imply that native antigens induce immune responses insufficient for optimal efficacy. These perspectives exemplify the need to apply novel vaccine strategies to high priority pathogens. One such approach can be termed convergent immunity, where antigens from non-target organisms that contain epitope homologues found in the target organism are applied in vaccines. This approach aims to evoke atypical immune defenses via synergistic processes that 1 afford protective efficacy; 2 target an epitope from one organism that contributes to protective immunity against another; 3 cross-protect against multiple pathogens occupying a common anatomic or immunologic niche; and/or 4 overcome immune subversion or avoidance strategies of target pathogens. Thus, convergent immunity has a potential to promote protective efficacy not usually elicited by native antigens from a target pathogen. Variations of this concept have been mainstays in the history of viral and bacterial vaccine development. A more far-reaching example is the pre–clinical evidence that specific fungal antigens can induce cross-kingdom protection against bacterial pathogens. This trans-kingdom protection has been demonstrated in preclinical studies of the recombinant Candida albicans agglutinin-like sequence 3 protein (rAls3 where it was shown that a vaccine containing rAls3 provides homologous protection against C. albicans, heterologous protection against several other Candida species, and convergent protection against several strains of S. aureus. Convergent immunity reflects an intriguing new approach to designing and developing vaccine antigens and is considered here in the context of vaccines to target

  4. Applying Convergent Immunity to Innovative Vaccines Targeting Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeaman, Michael R; Filler, Scott G; Schmidt, Clint S; Ibrahim, Ashraf S; Edwards, John E; Hennessey, John P

    2014-01-01

    Recent perspectives forecast a new paradigm for future "third generation" vaccines based on commonalities found in diverse pathogens or convergent immune defenses to such pathogens. For Staphylococcus aureus, recurring infections and a limited success of vaccines containing S. aureus antigens imply that native antigens induce immune responses insufficient for optimal efficacy. These perspectives exemplify the need to apply novel vaccine strategies to high-priority pathogens. One such approach can be termed convergent immunity, where antigens from non-target organisms that contain epitope homologs found in the target organism are applied in vaccines. This approach aims to evoke atypical immune defenses via synergistic processes that (1) afford protective efficacy; (2) target an epitope from one organism that contributes to protective immunity against another; (3) cross-protect against multiple pathogens occupying a common anatomic or immunological niche; and/or (4) overcome immune subversion or avoidance strategies of target pathogens. Thus, convergent immunity has a potential to promote protective efficacy not usually elicited by native antigens from a target pathogen. Variations of this concept have been mainstays in the history of viral and bacterial vaccine development. A more far-reaching example is the pre-clinical evidence that specific fungal antigens can induce cross-kingdom protection against bacterial pathogens. This trans-kingdom protection has been demonstrated in pre-clinical studies of the recombinant Candida albicans agglutinin-like sequence 3 protein (rAls3) where it was shown that a vaccine containing rAls3 provides homologous protection against C. albicans, heterologous protection against several other Candida species, and convergent protection against several strains of S. aureus. Convergent immunity reflects an intriguing new approach to designing and developing vaccine antigens and is considered here in the context of vaccines to target S

  5. Vaccination coverage and immunization timeliness among children aged 12-23 months in Senegal: a Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbengue, Mouhamed Abdou Salam; Mboup, Aminata; Ly, Indou Deme; Faye, Adama; Camara, Fatou Bintou Niang; Thiam, Moussa; Ndiaye, Birahim Pierre; Dieye, Tandakha Ndiaye; Mboup, Souleymane

    2017-01-01

    Expanded programme on immunizations in resource-limited settings currently measure vaccination coverage defined as the proportion of children aged 12-23 months that have completed their vaccination. However, this indicator does not address the important question of when the scheduled vaccines were administered. We assessed the determinants of timely immunization to help the national EPI program manage vaccine-preventable diseases and impact positively on child survival in Senegal. Vaccination data were obtained from the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) carried out across the 14 regions in the country. Children were aged between 12-23 months. The assessment of vaccination coverage was done with the health card and/or by the mother's recall of the vaccination act. For each vaccine, an assessment of delay in age-appropriate vaccination was done following WHO recommendations. Additionally, Kaplan-Meier survival function was used to estimate the proportion vaccinated by age and cox-proportional hazards models were used to examine risk factors for delays. A total of 2444 living children between 12-23 months of age were included in the analysis. The country vaccination was below the WHO recommended coverage level and, there was a gap in timeliness of children immunization. While BCG vaccine uptake was over 95%, coverage decreased with increasing number of Pentavalent vaccine doses (Penta 1: 95.6%, Penta 2: 93.5%: Penta 3: 89.2%). Median delay for BCG was 1.7 weeks. For polio at birth, the median delay was 5 days; all other vaccine doses had median delays of 2-4 weeks. For Penta 1 and Penta 3, 23.5% and 15.7% were given late respectively. A quarter of measles vaccines were not administered or were scheduled after the recommended age. Vaccinations that were not administered within the recommended age ranges were associated with mothers' poor education level, multiple siblings, low socio-economic status and living in rural areas. A significant delay in receipt of infant

  6. Vaccination coverage and immunization timeliness among children aged 12-23 months in Senegal: a Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analysis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbengue, Mouhamed Abdou Salam; Mboup, Aminata; Ly, Indou Deme; Faye, Adama; Camara, Fatou Bintou Niang; Thiam, Moussa; Ndiaye, Birahim Pierre; Dieye, Tandakha Ndiaye; Mboup, Souleymane

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Expanded programme on immunizations in resource-limited settings currently measure vaccination coverage defined as the proportion of children aged 12-23 months that have completed their vaccination. However, this indicator does not address the important question of when the scheduled vaccines were administered. We assessed the determinants of timely immunization to help the national EPI program manage vaccine-preventable diseases and impact positively on child survival in Senegal. Methods Vaccination data were obtained from the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) carried out across the 14 regions in the country. Children were aged between 12-23 months. The assessment of vaccination coverage was done with the health card and/or by the mother’s recall of the vaccination act. For each vaccine, an assessment of delay in age-appropriate vaccination was done following WHO recommendations. Additionally, Kaplan-Meier survival function was used to estimate the proportion vaccinated by age and cox-proportional hazards models were used to examine risk factors for delays. Results A total of 2444 living children between 12–23 months of age were included in the analysis. The country vaccination was below the WHO recommended coverage level and, there was a gap in timeliness of children immunization. While BCG vaccine uptake was over 95%, coverage decreased with increasing number of Pentavalent vaccine doses (Penta 1: 95.6%, Penta 2: 93.5%: Penta 3: 89.2%). Median delay for BCG was 1.7 weeks. For polio at birth, the median delay was 5 days; all other vaccine doses had median delays of 2-4 weeks. For Penta 1 and Penta 3, 23.5% and 15.7% were given late respectively. A quarter of measles vaccines were not administered or were scheduled after the recommended age. Vaccinations that were not administered within the recommended age ranges were associated with mothers’ poor education level, multiple siblings, low socio-economic status and living in rural areas

  7. Your Child's Immunizations: Diphtheria, Tetanus & Pertussis Vaccine (DTaP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Your Child's Immunizations: Diphtheria, Tetanus & Pertussis Vaccine (DTaP) KidsHealth / For Parents / Your ... Diphtheria, Tetanus & Pertussis Vaccine (DTaP) Print What Are Diphtheria, Tetanus, and Pertussis? The diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis ( ...

  8. Pertussis vaccinations in Dutch children: memory immune responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrikx, L.H.

    2011-01-01

    Despite high pertussis vaccination coverage, pertussis is reemerging in the Netherlands since 1996. In attempt to improve protection against whooping cough, two major changes in the national immunization program have been made; the introduction of a preschool booster vaccination in children 4 years

  9. Transdermal influenza immunization with vaccine-coated microneedle arrays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios G Koutsonanos

    Full Text Available Influenza is a contagious disease caused by a pathogenic virus, with outbreaks all over the world and thousands of hospitalizations and deaths every year. Due to virus antigenic drift and short-lived immune responses, annual vaccination is required. However, vaccine coverage is incomplete, and improvement in immunization is needed. The objective of this study is to investigate a novel method for transdermal delivery using metal microneedle arrays (MN coated with inactivated influenza virus to determine whether this route is a simpler and safer approach than the conventional immunization, capable to induce robust immune responses and confer protection against lethal virus challenge.Inactivated A/Aichi/2/68 (H3N2 influenza virus was coated on metal microneedle arrays and applied to mice as a vaccine in the caudal dorsal skin area. Substantial antibody titers with hemagglutination inhibition activity were detected in sera collected two and four weeks after a single vaccine dose. Challenge studies in mice with 5 x LD(50 of mouse adapted Aichi virus demonstrated complete protection. Microneedle vaccination induced a broad spectrum of immune responses including CD4+ and CD8+ responses in the spleen and draining lymph node, a high frequency of antigen-secreting cells in the lung and induction of virus-specific memory B-cells. In addition, the use of MN showed a dose-sparing effect and a strong Th2 bias when compared to an intramuscular (IM reference immunization.The present results show that delivery of inactivated influenza virus through the skin using metal microneedle arrays induced strong humoral and cellular immune responses capable of conferring protection against virus challenge as efficiently as intramuscular immunization, which is the standard vaccination route. In view of the convenience of delivery and the potential for self-administration, vaccine-coated metal microneedles may provide a novel and highly effective immunization method.

  10. Immune Modulation by Chemotherapy or Immunotherapy to Enhance Cancer Vaccines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weir, Genevieve M.; Liwski, Robert S.; Mansour, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Chemotherapy has been a mainstay in cancer treatment for many years. Despite some success, the cure rate with chemotherapy remains unsatisfactory in some types of cancers, and severe side effects from these treatments are a concern. Recently, understanding of the dynamic interplay between the tumor and immune system has led to the development of novel immunotherapies, including cancer vaccines. Cancer vaccines have many advantageous features, but their use has been hampered by poor immunogenicity. Many developments have increased their potency in pre-clinical models, but cancer vaccines continue to have a poor clinical track record. In part, this could be due to an inability to effectively overcome tumor-induced immune suppression. It had been generally assumed that immune-stimulatory cancer vaccines could not be used in combination with immunosuppressive chemotherapies, but recent evidence has challenged this dogma. Chemotherapies could be used to condition the immune system and tumor to create an environment where cancer vaccines have a better chance of success. Other types of immunotherapies could also be used to modulate the immune system. This review will discuss how immune modulation by chemotherapy or immunotherapy could be used to bolster the effects of cancer vaccines and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these treatments

  11. Immune Modulation by Chemotherapy or Immunotherapy to Enhance Cancer Vaccines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weir, Genevieve M. [Suite 411, 1344 Summer St., Immunovaccine Inc., Halifax, NS, B3H 0A8 (Canada); Room 11-L1, Sir Charles Tupper Building, Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Dalhousie University, 5850 College St, Halifax, NS, B3H 1X5 (Canada); Liwski, Robert S. [Room 11-L1, Sir Charles Tupper Building, Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Dalhousie University, 5850 College St, Halifax, NS, B3H 1X5 (Canada); Room 206E, Dr. D. J. Mackenzie Building, Department of Pathology, Dalhousie University, 5788 University Avenue, Halifax, NS, B3H 2Y9 (Canada); Mansour, Marc [Suite 411, 1344 Summer St., Immunovaccine Inc., Halifax, NS, B3H 0A8 (Canada)

    2011-08-05

    Chemotherapy has been a mainstay in cancer treatment for many years. Despite some success, the cure rate with chemotherapy remains unsatisfactory in some types of cancers, and severe side effects from these treatments are a concern. Recently, understanding of the dynamic interplay between the tumor and immune system has led to the development of novel immunotherapies, including cancer vaccines. Cancer vaccines have many advantageous features, but their use has been hampered by poor immunogenicity. Many developments have increased their potency in pre-clinical models, but cancer vaccines continue to have a poor clinical track record. In part, this could be due to an inability to effectively overcome tumor-induced immune suppression. It had been generally assumed that immune-stimulatory cancer vaccines could not be used in combination with immunosuppressive chemotherapies, but recent evidence has challenged this dogma. Chemotherapies could be used to condition the immune system and tumor to create an environment where cancer vaccines have a better chance of success. Other types of immunotherapies could also be used to modulate the immune system. This review will discuss how immune modulation by chemotherapy or immunotherapy could be used to bolster the effects of cancer vaccines and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these treatments.

  12. Persistence of the immune response induced by BCG vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blitz Rose

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although BCG vaccination is recommended in most countries of the world, little is known of the persistence of BCG-induced immune responses. As novel TB vaccines may be given to boost the immunity induced by neonatal BCG vaccination, evidence concerning the persistence of the BCG vaccine-induced response would help inform decisions about when such boosting would be most effective. Methods A randomised control study of UK adolescents was carried out to investigate persistence of BCG immune responses. Adolescents were tested for interferon-gamma (IFN-γ response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis purified protein derivative (M.tb PPD in a whole blood assay before, 3 months, 12 months (n = 148 and 3 years (n = 19 after receiving teenage BCG vaccination or 14 years after receiving infant BCG vaccination (n = 16. Results A gradual reduction in magnitude of response was evident from 3 months to 1 year and from 1 year to 3 years following teenage vaccination, but responses 3 years after vaccination were still on average 6 times higher than before vaccination among vaccinees. Some individuals (11/86; 13% failed to make a detectable antigen-specific response three months after vaccination, or lost the response after 1 (11/86; 13% or 3 (3/19; 16% years. IFN-γ response to Ag85 was measured in a subgroup of adolescents and appeared to be better maintained with no decline from 3 to 12 months. A smaller group of adolescents were tested 14 years after receiving infant BCG vaccination and 13/16 (81% made a detectable IFN-γ response to M.tb PPD 14 years after infant vaccination as compared to 6/16 (38% matched unvaccinated controls (p = 0.012; teenagers vaccinated in infancy were 19 times more likely to make an IFN-γ response of > 500 pg/ml than unvaccinated teenagers. Conclusion BCG vaccination in infancy and adolescence induces immunological memory to mycobacterial antigens that is still present and measurable for at least 14 years in the

  13. Vaccination uptake by vaccine-hesitant parents attending a specialist immunization clinic in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Thomas A; McMinn, Alissa; Crawford, Nigel; Leask, Julie; Danchin, Margie

    2015-01-01

    Vaccine hesitancy (VH) is an issue of global concern. The quality of communication between healthcare providers and parents can influence parental immunization acceptance. We aimed to describe immunization uptake following specialist immunization clinic (SIC) consultation for Australian children of VH parents as a cohort, and according to pre-clinic parental position on immunization. At a single tertiary pediatric SIC (RCH, Melbourne) a retrospective descriptive study classified VH families according to 3 proposed parental positions on immunization at initial clinic attendance. Immunization status at follow up was ascertained via the Australian Children's Immunization Register and National HPV Program Register and compared between groups. Of the VH cohort, 13/38 (34%) families were classified as hesitant, 21 (55%) as late/selective vaccinators and 4 (11%) as vaccine refusers. Mean follow up post-SIC attendance was 14.5 months. For the overall VH cohort, the majority chose selective immunization (42%) following SIC consultation. When analyzed by pre-clinic parental position on immunization, there was a trend for hesitant families to proceed with full immunization, selective families to continue selective immunization and refusing families to remain unimmunised (p vaccines were hepatitis B (66%) and Haemophilus influenzae type B (55%), followed by the meningococcal C conjugate vaccine (53%) and measles, mumps and rubella vaccine (53%). Immunization outcome appears to correlate with pre-clinic parental position on immunization for the majority of families attending a SIC in Australia, with selective immunization the most common outcome. Tailored communication approaches based on parental position on immunization may optimise clinic resources and engagement of families, but require prospective research evaluation. PMID:26366978

  14. World witnesses a tumultuous year while India reports an eventful decade in the long story of polio eradication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Chaturvedi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With recent outbreaks in Syria and Horn of Africa, silent circulation of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1 in Israel, West Bank, and Gaza, and fresh spate of violence against vaccinators and their security personnel in Pakistan, the world is facing a turbulent final ascent to the summit of polio eradication. On the positive side, we may also be witnessing the end of wild poliovirus type 3 (WPV3 and defused programmatic crisis caused by funding gaps, while India registers third consecutive polio-free year. Having a cogent endgame plan 2013-2018, informed by some cardinal lessons learned from an eventful decade in India, is also a very significant development. Now, there is a parallel pursuit against WPV and vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV. Endgame would also involve integration of at least one dose of affordable inactivated polio vaccine (IPV to up-scaled routine immunization (RI, switch from trivalent oral polio vaccine (tOPV to bivalent oral polio vaccine (bOPV in 144 countries before 2018, stockpiling of mOPV, and simultaneous global cessation of bOPV before 2020. Role of antivirals in post-eradication era is still unclear. Some specific threats emerging at this stage are as follows: Global buildup of new birth cohorts in non-endemic countries with weak RI and downscaled supplementary immunization activities (SIAs, tremendous pressure on peripheral health workers, and fatigued systems. Cultural resistance to transnational programs is taking a violent shape in some areas. Differential interpretations of ′right to say no′, on both sides of the divide, are damaging a global cause. Amidst all these concerns, let us not forget to underline the sacrifice made by frontline vaccinators working in some of the most challenging circumstances.

  15. World Witnesses a Tumultuous Year while India Reports an Eventful Decade in the Long Story of Polio Eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Sanjay

    2014-04-01

    With recent outbreaks in Syria and Horn of Africa, silent circulation of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) in Israel, West Bank, and Gaza, and fresh spate of violence against vaccinators and their security personnel in Pakistan, the world is facing a turbulent final ascent to the summit of polio eradication. On the positive side, we may also be witnessing the end of wild poliovirus type 3 (WPV3) and defused programmatic crisis caused by funding gaps, while India registers third consecutive polio-free year. Having a cogent endgame plan 2013-2018, informed by some cardinal lessons learned from an eventful decade in India, is also a very significant development. Now, there is a parallel pursuit against WPV and vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV). Endgame would also involve integration of at least one dose of affordable inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) to up-scaled routine immunization (RI), switch from trivalent oral polio vaccine (tOPV) to bivalent oral polio vaccine (bOPV) in 144 countries before 2018, stockpiling of mOPV, and simultaneous global cessation of bOPV before 2020. Role of antivirals in post-eradication era is still unclear. Some specific threats emerging at this stage are as follows: Global buildup of new birth cohorts in non-endemic countries with weak RI and downscaled supplementary immunization activities (SIAs), tremendous pressure on peripheral health workers, and fatigued systems. Cultural resistance to transnational programs is taking a violent shape in some areas. Differential interpretations of 'right to say no', on both sides of the divide, are damaging a global cause. Amidst all these concerns, let us not forget to underline the sacrifice made by frontline vaccinators working in some of the most challenging circumstances.

  16. [Poliomyelitis and the post-polio syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dénes, Z; Varga, M

    2001-07-15

    In developed countries as well as in Hungary polio virus related disease disappeared completely due to the extensive administering of vaccine. As a result, young and middle-aged doctors have no experience of encountering acute polio virus infection but instead they meet its resultant impairments and disabilities. Persons who had suffered the onset of poliomyelitis 3 or 4 decades earlier, may to develop a new set of symptoms and functional declines. The criteria for post-polio syndrome were identified and its impairments and disabilities were described. It is only within the last decade that the adaptive changes in muscular tissue, insufficiently compensed denervation, together with the effects of physiotherapy, have become better known. The aim of this paper is to review the present situation concerning the struggle for keeping the polio virus in check, to give a short summary of the post-polio syndrome and to draw attention to the importance of rehabilitation.

  17. Vaccination uptake by vaccine-hesitant parents attending a specialist immunization clinic in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Thomas A; McMinn, Alissa; Crawford, Nigel; Leask, Julie; Danchin, Margie

    2015-01-01

    Vaccine hesitancy (VH) is an issue of global concern. The quality of communication between healthcare providers and parents can influence parental immunization acceptance. We aimed to describe immunization uptake following specialist immunization clinic (SIC) consultation for Australian children of VH parents as a cohort, and according to pre-clinic parental position on immunization. At a single tertiary pediatric SIC (RCH, Melbourne) a retrospective descriptive study classified VH families according to 3 proposed parental positions on immunization at initial clinic attendance. Immunization status at follow up was ascertained via the Australian Children's Immunization Register and National HPV Program Register and compared between groups. Of the VH cohort, 13/38 (34%) families were classified as hesitant, 21 (55%) as late/selective vaccinators and 4 (11%) as vaccine refusers. Mean follow up post-SIC attendance was 14.5 months. For the overall VH cohort, the majority chose selective immunization (42%) following SIC consultation. When analyzed by pre-clinic parental position on immunization, there was a trend for hesitant families to proceed with full immunization, selective families to continue selective immunization and refusing families to remain unimmunised (p Immunization outcome appears to correlate with pre-clinic parental position on immunization for the majority of families attending a SIC in Australia, with selective immunization the most common outcome. Tailored communication approaches based on parental position on immunization may optimise clinic resources and engagement of families, but require prospective research evaluation.

  18. IMMUNE SUPPRESSION OF CHALLENGED VACCINATES AS A RIGOROUS ASSESSMENT OF STERILE PROTECTION BY LENTIVIRAL VACCINES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craigo, Jodi K.; Durkin, Shannon; Sturgeon, Timothy J.; Tagmyer, Tara; Cook, Sheila J.; Issel, Charles J.; Montelaro, Ronald C.

    2007-01-01

    We previously reported that an experimental live-attenuated equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) vaccine, containing a mutated S2 accessory gene, provided protection from disease and detectable infection after virulent virus (EIAVPV) challenge [1,2]. To determine if attenuated EIAV vaccines actually prevent persistent infection by challenge virus, we employed a 14-day dexamethasone treatment of vaccinated horses post-challenge to suppress host immunity and amplify replication levels of any infecting EIAV. At two months post-challenge the horses were all protected from virulent-virus challenge, evidenced by a lack of EIA signs and detectable challenge plasma viral RNA. Upon immune suppression, 6/12 horses displayed clinical EIA. Post-immune suppression characterizations demonstrated that the attenuated vaccine evidently prevented detectable challenge virus infection in 50% of horses. These data highlight the utility of post-challenge immune suppression for evaluating persistent viral vaccine protective efficacy. PMID:17023099

  19. Meningococcal vaccines and herd immunity: lessons learned from serogroup C conjugate vaccination programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Caroline L; Maiden, Martin C J

    2009-07-01

    Effective vaccines provide direct protection to immunized individuals, but may also provide benefits to unvaccinated individuals by reducing transmission and thereby lowering the risk of infection. Such herd immunity effects have been demonstrated following the introduction of meningococcal serogroup C conjugate (MCC) vaccines, with reductions in disease attack rates in unimmunized individuals and significantly lower serogroup C carriage attributable to the vaccine introduction. In the UK, targeting teenagers for immunization was crucial in maximizing indirect effects, as most meningococcal transmission occurs in this age group. Questions remain regarding the duration of herd protection and the most appropriate long-term immunization strategies. The magnitude of the herd effects following MCC vaccination was largely unanticipated, and has important consequences for the design and evaluation of new meningococcal vaccines.

  20. Engineering synthetic vaccines using cues from natural immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Darrell J.; Swartz, Melody A.; Szeto, Gregory L.

    2013-11-01

    Vaccines aim to protect against or treat diseases through manipulation of the immune response, promoting either immunity or tolerance. In the former case, vaccines generate antibodies and T cells poised to protect against future pathogen encounter or attack diseased cells such as tumours; in the latter case, which is far less developed, vaccines block pathogenic autoreactive T cells and autoantibodies that target self tissue. Enormous challenges remain, however, as a consequence of our incomplete understanding of human immunity. A rapidly growing field of research is the design of vaccines based on synthetic materials to target organs, tissues, cells or intracellular compartments; to co-deliver immunomodulatory signals that control the quality of the immune response; or to act directly as immune regulators. There exists great potential for well-defined materials to further our understanding of immunity. Here we describe recent advances in the design of synthetic materials to direct immune responses, highlighting successes and challenges in prophylactic, therapeutic and tolerance-inducing vaccines.

  1. Self-boosting vaccines and their implications for herd immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arinaminpathy, Nimalan; Lavine, Jennie S; Grenfell, Bryan T

    2012-12-04

    Advances in vaccine technology over the past two centuries have facilitated far-reaching impact in the control of many infections, and today's emerging vaccines could likewise open new opportunities in the control of several diseases. Here we consider the potential, population-level effects of a particular class of emerging vaccines that use specific viral vectors to establish long-term, intermittent antigen presentation within a vaccinated host: in essence, "self-boosting" vaccines. In particular, we use mathematical models to explore the potential role of such vaccines in situations where current immunization raises only relatively short-lived protection. Vaccination programs in such cases are generally limited in their ability to raise lasting herd immunity. Moreover, in certain cases mass vaccination can have the counterproductive effect of allowing an increase in severe disease, through reducing opportunities for immunity to be boosted through natural exposure to infection. Such dynamics have been proposed, for example, in relation to pertussis and varicella-zoster virus. In this context we show how self-boosting vaccines could open qualitatively new opportunities, for example by broadening the effective duration of herd immunity that can be achieved with currently used immunogens. At intermediate rates of self-boosting, these vaccines also alleviate the potential counterproductive effects of mass vaccination, through compensating for losses in natural boosting. Importantly, however, we also show how sufficiently high boosting rates may introduce a new regime of unintended consequences, wherein the unvaccinated bear an increased disease burden. Finally, we discuss important caveats and data needs arising from this work.

  2. Transitioning Lessons Learned and Assets of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative to Global and Regional Measles and Rubella Elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretsinger, Katrina; Strebel, Peter; Kezaala, Robert; Goodson, James L

    2017-07-01

    The Global Polio Eradication Initiative has built an extensive infrastructure with capabilities and resources that should be transitioned to measles and rubella elimination efforts. Measles continues to be a major cause of child mortality globally, and rubella continues to be the leading infectious cause of birth defects. Measles and rubella eradication is feasible and cost saving. The obvious similarities in strategies between polio elimination and measles and rubella elimination include the use of an extensive surveillance and laboratory network, outbreak preparedness and response, extensive communications and social mobilization networks, and the need for periodic supplementary immunization activities. Polio staff and resources are already connected with those of measles and rubella, and transitioning existing capabilities to measles and rubella elimination efforts allows for optimized use of resources and the best opportunity to incorporate important lessons learned from polio eradication, and polio resources are concentrated in the countries with the highest burden of measles and rubella. Measles and rubella elimination strategies rely heavily on achieving and maintaining high vaccination coverage through the routine immunization activity infrastructure, thus creating synergies with immunization systems approaches, in what is termed a "diagonal approach." © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  3. Hepatitis B Virus Vaccine immune response in Egyptian children 15 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egypt J Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2015;13(2):45-48. 45. Hepatitis B Virus Vaccine immune response in Egyptian children 15-17 years after primary immunization; should we provide a booster dose? INTRODUCTION. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a global public health problem. With approximately 350 million hepatitis B ...

  4. Probiotics, antibiotics and the immune responses to vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praharaj, Ira; John, Sushil M; Bandyopadhyay, Rini; Kang, Gagandeep

    2015-06-19

    Orally delivered vaccines have been shown to perform poorly in developing countries. There are marked differences in the structure and the luminal environment of the gut in developing countries resulting in changes in immune and barrier function. Recent studies using newly developed technology and analytic methods have made it increasingly clear that the intestinal microbiota activate a multitude of pathways that control innate and adaptive immunity in the gut. Several hypotheses have been proposed for the underperformance of oral vaccines in developing countries, and modulation of the intestinal microbiota is now being tested in human clinical trials. Supplementation with specific strains of probiotics has been shown to have modulatory effects on intestinal and systemic immune responses in animal models and forms the basis for human studies with vaccines. However, most studies published so far that have evaluated the immune response to vaccines in children and adults have been small and results have varied by age, antigen, type of antibody response and probiotic strain. Use of anthelminthic drugs in children has been shown to possibly increase immunogenicity following oral cholera vaccination, lending further support to the rationale for modulation of the immune response to oral vaccination through the intestinal microbiome. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Eliminating schistosomes through vaccination: What are the best immune weapons?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Toscano Fonseca

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The successful development of vaccines depend on the knowledge of the immunological mechanisms associated with the elimination of the pathogen. In the case of schistosomes, its complex life cycle and the mechanisms developed to evade host immune system, turns the development of a vaccine against the disease into a very difficult task. Identifying the immunological effector mechanisms involved in parasite attrition and the major targets for its response is a key step to formulate an effective vaccine. Recent studies have described some promising antigens to compose a subunit vaccine and have pointed to some immune factors that play a role in parasite elimination. Here we review the immune components and effector mechanisms associated with the protective immunity induced by those vaccine candidates and the lessons we have learned from the studies of the acquired resistance to infection in humans. We will also discuss the immune factors that correlate with protection and therefore could help to evaluate those vaccine formulations in clinical trials.

  6. Probiotics, antibiotics and the immune responses to vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praharaj, Ira; John, Sushil M.; Bandyopadhyay, Rini; Kang, Gagandeep

    2015-01-01

    Orally delivered vaccines have been shown to perform poorly in developing countries. There are marked differences in the structure and the luminal environment of the gut in developing countries resulting in changes in immune and barrier function. Recent studies using newly developed technology and analytic methods have made it increasingly clear that the intestinal microbiota activate a multitude of pathways that control innate and adaptive immunity in the gut. Several hypotheses have been proposed for the underperformance of oral vaccines in developing countries, and modulation of the intestinal microbiota is now being tested in human clinical trials. Supplementation with specific strains of probiotics has been shown to have modulatory effects on intestinal and systemic immune responses in animal models and forms the basis for human studies with vaccines. However, most studies published so far that have evaluated the immune response to vaccines in children and adults have been small and results have varied by age, antigen, type of antibody response and probiotic strain. Use of anthelminthic drugs in children has been shown to possibly increase immunogenicity following oral cholera vaccination, lending further support to the rationale for modulation of the immune response to oral vaccination through the intestinal microbiome. PMID:25964456

  7. Secondary immune response of rainbow trout following repeated immersion vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaafar, R. M.; Al-Jubury, A.; Chettri, J. K.

    2017-01-01

    Teleosts are able to raise a protective immune response, comprising both innate and adaptive elements, against various pathogens. This is the basis for a widespread use of vaccines, administered as injection or immersion, in the aquaculture industry. It has been described that repeated injection...... vaccination of fish raises a secondary immune response, consisting of rapid, accelerated and increased antibody reaction. This study reports how rainbow trout responds to repeated immersion vaccination against yersiniosis (ERM) caused by the bacterial pathogen Yersinia ruckeri. It was found that rainbow trout...... does not raise a classical secondary response following repeated immersion vaccination. Serum antibody titres were merely slightly increased even after three immunizations, using 30-s immersion into a bacterin consisting of formalin-inactivated Y. ruckeri (serotype O1, biotypes 1 and 2), performed over...

  8. Secondary immune response of rainbow trout following repeated immersion vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaafar, R. M.; Al-Jubury, Azmi; Chettri, Jiwan Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Teleosts are able to raise a protective immune response, comprising both innate and adaptive elements, against various pathogens. This is the basis for a widespread use of vaccines, administered as injection or immersion, in the aquaculture industry. It has been described that repeated injection...... vaccination of fish raises a secondary immune response, consisting of rapid, accelerated and increased antibody reaction. This study reports how rainbow trout responds to repeated immersion vaccination against yersiniosis (ERM) caused by the bacterial pathogen Yersinia ruckeri. It was found that rainbow trout...... does not raise a classical secondary response following repeated immersion vaccination. Serum antibody titres were merely slightly increased even after three immunizations, using 30-s immersion into a bacterin consisting of formalin-inactivated Y. ruckeri (serotype O1, biotypes 1 and 2), performed over...

  9. Meeting report: Global vaccine and immunization research forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Andrew Q; Touchette, Nancy; Fenton Hall, B; Hwang, Angela; Hombach, Joachim

    2018-02-08

    Building on the success of the first Global Vaccine and Immunization Research Forum (GVIRF), the World Health Organization, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, part of the National Institutes of Health in the United States of America, and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation convened the second GVIRF in March 2016. Leading scientists, vaccine developers, and public health officials from around the world discussed scientific advances and innovative technologies to design and deliver vaccines as well as novel tools and approaches to increase the uptake of vaccines throughout the world. This report summarizes the discussions and conclusions from the forum participants. Copyright © 2018.

  10. Antibody and immune memory persistence post infant hepatitis B vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudu SA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Shuaibu A Hudu,1,2 Yasmin A Malik,3 Mohd Taib Niazlin,1 Nabil S Harmal,1,4 Ariza Adnan,5 Ahmed S Alshrari,1 Zamberi Sekawi1 1Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Department of Pathology and Medical Microbiology, College of Health Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto, Sokoto State, Nigeria; 3Department of Clinical Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Selangor, Malaysia; 4Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sana'a University, Sana'a, Yemen; 5Cluster of Laboratory Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine Universiti Teknologi MARA, Sungai Buloh, Selangor, Malaysia Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the level of hepatitis B immunity among undergraduate students 23 years after commencement of the nationwide hepatitis B childhood immunization program in Malaysia. Methods: A total of 402 serum samples obtained from volunteer undergraduate students were screened for the presence of hepatitis B surface antibodies using qualitative ELISA. Results: Results showed that 62.7% of volunteers had protective anti-hepatitis B surface antigens (≥10 IU/L, of whom 67.9% received three doses of the vaccine. The estimated post-vaccination immunity was found to be at least 20 years, indicating persistent immunity against hepatitis B and a significant association (P < 0.05 with duration of vaccination. Anamnestic response 1 month post-hepatitis B booster was 94.0% and highly significant (P < 0.01. Isolated anti-hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc prevalence was found to be 5.0%, all having had a positive anamnestic response. Conclusion: Immunity after primary vaccination with hepatitis B recombinant vaccine persists for at least 20 years post-vaccination, with significant association with the number of vaccinations. Furthermore, the presence of anamnestic response to

  11. Novel vaccine against Venezuelan equine encephalitis combines advantages of DNA immunization and a live attenuated vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretyakova, Irina; Lukashevich, Igor S; Glass, Pamela; Wang, Eryu; Weaver, Scott; Pushko, Peter

    2013-02-04

    DNA vaccines combine remarkable genetic and chemical stability with proven safety and efficacy in animal models, while remaining less immunogenic in humans. In contrast, live-attenuated vaccines have the advantage of inducing rapid, robust, long-term immunity after a single-dose vaccination. Here we describe novel iDNA vaccine technology that is based on an infectious DNA platform and combines advantages of DNA and live attenuated vaccines. We applied this technology for vaccination against infection with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), an alphavirus from the Togaviridae family. The iDNA vaccine is based on transcription of the full-length genomic RNA of the TC-83 live-attenuated virus from plasmid DNA in vivo. The in vivo-generated viral RNA initiates limited replication of the vaccine virus, which in turn leads to efficient immunization. This technology allows the plasmid DNA to launch a live-attenuated vaccine in vitro or in vivo. Less than 10 ng of pTC83 iDNA encoding the full-length genomic RNA of the TC-83 vaccine strain initiated replication of the vaccine virus in vitro. In order to evaluate this approach in vivo, BALB/c mice were vaccinated with a single dose of pTC83 iDNA. After vaccination, all mice seroconverted with no adverse reactions. Four weeks after immunization, animals were challenged with the lethal epidemic strain of VEEV. All iDNA-vaccinated mice were protected from fatal disease, while all unvaccinated controls succumbed to infection and died. To our knowledge, this is the first example of launching a clinical live-attenuated vaccine from recombinant plasmid DNA in vivo. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Population Immunity against Serotype-2 Poliomyelitis Leading up to the Global Withdrawal of the Oral Poliovirus Vaccine: Spatio-temporal Modelling of Surveillance Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons-Salort, Margarita; Molodecky, Natalie A; O'Reilly, Kathleen M; Wadood, Mufti Zubair; Safdar, Rana M; Etsano, Andrew; Vaz, Rui Gama; Jafari, Hamid; Grassly, Nicholas C; Blake, Isobel M

    2016-10-01

    Global withdrawal of serotype-2 oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV2) took place in April 2016. This marked a milestone in global polio eradication and was a public health intervention of unprecedented scale, affecting 155 countries. Achieving high levels of serotype-2 population immunity before OPV2 withdrawal was critical to avoid subsequent outbreaks of serotype-2 vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPV2s). In August 2015, we estimated vaccine-induced population immunity against serotype-2 poliomyelitis for 1 January 2004-30 June 2015 and produced forecasts for April 2016 by district in Nigeria and Pakistan. Population immunity was estimated from the vaccination histories of children poliomyelitis. District immunity estimates were spatio-temporally smoothed using a Bayesian hierarchical framework. Coverage estimates for immunisation activities were also obtained, allowing for heterogeneity within and among districts. Forward projections of immunity, based on these estimates and planned immunisation activities, were produced through to April 2016 using a cohort model. Estimated population immunity was negatively correlated with the probability of VDPV2 poliomyelitis being reported in a district. In Nigeria and Pakistan, declines in immunity during 2008-2009 and 2012-2013, respectively, were associated with outbreaks of VDPV2. Immunity has since improved in both countries as a result of increased use of trivalent OPV, and projections generally indicated sustained or improved immunity in April 2016, such that the majority of districts (99% [95% uncertainty interval 97%-100%] in Nigeria and 84% [95% uncertainty interval 77%-91%] in Pakistan) had >70% population immunity among children poliomyelitis was forecasted to improve in April 2016 compared to the first half of 2015 in Nigeria and Pakistan. These analyses informed the endorsement of OPV2 withdrawal in April 2016 by the WHO Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization.

  13. Engineering Vaccines to Reprogram Immunity against Head and Neck Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Y S; Sansanaphongpricha, K; Prince, M E P; Sun, D; Wolf, G T; Lei, Y L

    2018-03-01

    The recent Food and Drug Administration's approval of monoclonal antibodies targeting immune checkpoint receptors (ICRs) for recurrent or metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) offers exciting promise to improve patient outcome and reduce morbidities. A favorable response to ICR blockade relies on an extensive collection of preexisting tumor-specific T cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME). ICR blockade reinvigorates exhausted CD8 + T cells and enhances immune killing. However, resistance to ICR blockade is observed in about 85% of patients with HNSCC, therefore highlighting the importance of characterizing the mechanisms underlying HNSCC immune escape and exploring combinatorial strategies to sensitize hypoimmunogenic cold HNSCC to ICR inhibition. Cancer vaccines are designed to bypass the cold TME and directly deliver cancer antigens to antigen-presenting cells (APCs); these vaccines epitomize a priming strategy to synergize with ICR inhibitors. Cancer cells are ineffective antigen presenters, and poor APC infiltration as well as the M2-like polarization in the TME further dampens antigen uptake and processing, both of which render ineffective innate and adaptive immune detection. Cancer vaccines directly activate APC and expand the tumor-specific T-cell repertoire. In addition, cancer vaccines often contain an adjuvant, which further improves APC function, promotes epitope spreading, and augments host intrinsic antitumor immunity. Thus, the vaccine-induced immune priming generates a pool of effectors whose function can be enhanced by ICR inhibitors. In this review, we summarize the major HNSCC immune evasion strategies, the ongoing effort toward improving HNSCC vaccines, and the current challenges limiting the efficacy of cancer vaccines.

  14. Quantitative PCR evaluation of cellular immune responses in Kenyan children vaccinated with a candidate malaria vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jedidah Mwacharo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The T-cell mediated immune response plays a central role in the control of malaria after natural infection or vaccination. There is increasing evidence that T-cell responses are heterogeneous and that both the quality of the immune response and the balance between pro-inflammatory and regulatory T-cells determines the outcome of an infection. As Malaria parasites have been shown to induce immunosuppressive responses to the parasite and non-related antigens this study examined T-cell mediated pro-inflammatory and regulatory immune responses induced by malaria vaccination in children in an endemic area to determine if these responses were associated with vaccine immunogenicity. METHODS: Using real-time RT- PCR we profiled the expression of a panel of key markers of immunogenecity at different time points after vaccination with two viral vector vaccines expressing the malaria TRAP antigen (FP9-TRAP and MVA-TRAP or following rabies vaccination as a control. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The vaccine induced modest levels of IFN-gamma mRNA one week after vaccination. There was also an increase in FoxP3 mRNA expression in both TRAP stimulated and media stimulated cells in the FFM ME-TRAP vaccine group; however, this may have been driven by natural exposure to parasite rather than by vaccination. CONCLUSION: Quantitative PCR is a useful method for evaluating vaccine induced cell mediated immune responses in frozen PBMC from children in a malaria endemic country. Future studies should seek to use vaccine vectors that increase the magnitude and quality of the IFN-gamma immune response in naturally exposed populations and should monitor the induction of a regulatory T cell response.

  15. Influenza vaccine induces intracellular immune memory of human NK cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Yaling; Fu, Binqing; Sun, Rui; Li, Wenting; Hu, Wanfu; Tian, Zhigang; Wei, Haiming

    2015-01-01

    Influenza vaccines elicit antigen-specific antibodies and immune memory to protect humans from infection with drift variants. However, what supports or limits vaccine efficacy and duration is unclear. Here, we vaccinated healthy volunteers with annual vaccine formulations and investigated the dynamics of T cell, natural killer (NK) cell and antibody responses upon restimulation with heterologous or homologous influenza virus strains. Influenza vaccines induced potential memory NK cells with increased antigen-specific recall IFN-γ responses during the first 6 months. In the absence of significant changes in other NK cell markers (CD45RO, NKp44, CXCR6, CD57, NKG2C, CCR7, CD62L and CD27), influenza vaccines induced memory NK cells with the distinct feature of intracellular NKp46 expression. Indeed, surface NKp46 was internalized, and the dynamic increase in NKp46(intracellular)+CD56dim NK cells positively correlated with increased IFN-γ production to influenza virus restimulation after vaccination. In addition, anti-NKp46 antibodies blocked IFN-γ responses. These findings provide insights into a novel mechanism underlying vaccine-induced immunity and NK-related diseases, which may help to design persisting and universal vaccines in the future.

  16. Herd immunity to Newcastle disease virus in poultry by vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boven, Michiel; Bouma, Annemarie; Fabri, Teun H F; Katsma, Elly; Hartog, Leo; Koch, Guus

    2008-02-01

    Newcastle disease is an economically important disease of poultry for which vaccination is applied as a preventive measure in many countries. Nevertheless, outbreaks have been reported in vaccinated populations. This suggests that either the vaccination coverage level is too low or that vaccination does not provide perfect immunity, allowing the virus to spread in partially vaccinated populations. Here we study the requirements of an epidemiologically effective vaccination program against Newcastle disease in poultry, based on data from experimental transmission studies. The transmission studies indicate that vaccinated birds with low or undetectable antibody titres may be protected against disease and mortality but that infection and transmission may still occur. In fact, our quantitative analyses show that Newcastle disease virus is highly transmissible in poultry with low antibody titres. As a consequence, herd immunity can only be achieved if a high proportion of birds (>85%) have a high antibody titre (log(2) haemagglutination inhibition titre > or =3) after vaccination. We discuss the implications for the control of Newcastle disease in poultry by vaccination.

  17. Alternative inactivated poliovirus vaccines adjuvanted with Quillaja brasiliensis or Quil-a saponins are equally effective in inducing specific immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda de Costa

    Full Text Available Inactivated polio vaccines (IPV have an important role at the final stages of poliomyelitis eradication programs, reducing the risks associated with the use of attenuated polio vaccine (OPV. An affordable option to enhance vaccine immunogenicity and reduce costs of IPV may be the use of an effective and renewable adjuvant. In the present study, the adjuvant activity of aqueous extract (AE and saponin fraction QB-90 from Quillaja brasiliensis using poliovirus antigen as model were analyzed and compared to a preparation adjuvanted with Quil-A, a well-known saponin-based commercial adjuvant. Experimental vaccines were prepared with viral antigen plus saline (control, Quil-A (50 µg, AE (400 µg or QB-90 (50 µg. Sera from inoculated mice were collected at days 0, 28, 42 and 56 post-inoculation of the first dose of vaccine. Serum levels of specific IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a were significantly enhanced by AE, QB-90 and Quil-A compared to control group on day 56. The magnitude of enhancement was statistically equivalent for QB-90 and Quil-A. The cellular response was evaluated through DTH and analysis of IFN-γ and IL-2 mRNA levels using in vitro reestimulated splenocytes. Results indicated that AE and QB-90 were capable of stimulating the generation of Th1 cells against the administered antigen to the same extent as Quil-A. Mucosal immune response was enhanced by the vaccine adjuvanted with QB-90 as demonstrated by increases of specific IgA titers in bile, feces and vaginal washings, yielding comparable or higher titers than Quil-A. The results obtained indicate that saponins from Q. brasiliensis are potent adjuvants of specific cellular and humoral immune responses and represent a viable option to Quil-A.

  18. Inequity in access to childhood immunization in Enugu urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal components analysis in STATA software was used to characterize socioeconomic inequity. Results: Immunization coverage was as follows: Diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus third dose(DPT3), 3, 65.3%; oral polio vaccine 3, 78.0%; hepatitis B3, 65.2%; and measles, 55.8%. The full immunization rates for children 1–5 ...

  19. [Polio, late effects and post-polio].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Lise

    2014-10-20

    Approximately 7,000 Danes are still living with sequelae after surviving an acute polio infection. Late effects of polio include deformities, arthrosis and overloaded muscles. In the long run polio patients are at risk of having a further decrease of muscle function and a wide variety of other symptoms, a condition called post-polio syndrome (PPS). Treatment of PPS is in general symptomatic. Recently it has been shown that treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin may have an effect on pain, tiredness and walking distance. Patients with prior polio have an increase in morbidity and mortality, and may be more sensitive to a variety of medicine.

  20. Vaccine epidemiology: Its role in promoting sound immunization programs in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Yoshio; Ozasa, Kotaro; Nakano, Takashi

    2017-08-24

    In Japan, the Vaccine Epidemiology Research Group created by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare has played an important role in demonstrating the solid scientific basis for vaccine efficacy and safety since 2002. Members of the group, including epidemiologists, clinicians and microbiologists, have been conducting collaborative studies on vaccines for influenza, pertussis, rotavirus gastroenteritis, polio and pneumonia. So far, the group has achieved several works and contributed to the national vaccination program, including research on the immunogenicity of low doses of influenza vaccine among young children, the immunogenicity and effectiveness of the 2009 influenza pandemic vaccine among various risk groups, the interchangeability of live/inactivated polio vaccines, the health impact of influenza on pregnant women, and the monitoring of influenza vaccine effectiveness using case-control studies with a test-negative design. As part of the 18th Annual Meeting of the Japanese Society of Vaccinology, these accomplishments were featured in the Vaccine Epidemiology Symposium. This report summarizes the recent epidemiological studies on vaccine in Japan as a prologue to the next six papers collected from the symposium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Systematic review of mucosal immunity induced by oral and inactivated poliovirus vaccines against virus shedding following oral poliovirus challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R Hird

    Full Text Available Inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV may be used in mass vaccination campaigns during the final stages of polio eradication. It is also likely to be adopted by many countries following the coordinated global cessation of vaccination with oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV after eradication. The success of IPV in the control of poliomyelitis outbreaks will depend on the degree of nasopharyngeal and intestinal mucosal immunity induced against poliovirus infection. We performed a systematic review of studies published through May 2011 that recorded the prevalence of poliovirus shedding in stool samples or nasopharyngeal secretions collected 5-30 days after a "challenge" dose of OPV. Studies were combined in a meta-analysis of the odds of shedding among children vaccinated according to IPV, OPV, and combination schedules. We identified 31 studies of shedding in stool and four in nasopharyngeal samples that met the inclusion criteria. Individuals vaccinated with OPV were protected against infection and shedding of poliovirus in stool samples collected after challenge compared with unvaccinated individuals (summary odds ratio [OR] for shedding 0.13 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.08-0.24. In contrast, IPV provided no protection against shedding compared with unvaccinated individuals (summary OR 0.81 [95% CI 0.59-1.11] or when given in addition to OPV, compared with individuals given OPV alone (summary OR 1.14 [95% CI 0.82-1.58]. There were insufficient studies of nasopharyngeal shedding to draw a conclusion. IPV does not induce sufficient intestinal mucosal immunity to reduce the prevalence of fecal poliovirus shedding after challenge, although there was some evidence that it can reduce the quantity of virus shed. The impact of IPV on poliovirus transmission in countries where fecal-oral spread is common is unknown but is likely to be limited compared with OPV.

  2. Immune markers and correlates of protection for vaccine induced immune responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thakur, Aneesh; Pedersen, Lasse Eggers; Jungersen, Gregers

    2012-01-01

    , through recombinant major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I tetramers loaded with relevant peptides, has opened a new vista to include CTL responses in the evaluation of protective immune responses. Here, we review different immune markers and new candidates for correlates of a protective vaccine......Vaccines have been a major innovation in the history of mankind and still have the potential to address the challenges posed by chronic intracellular infections including tuberculosis, HIV and malaria which are leading causes of high morbidity and mortality across the world. Markers...... of an appropriate humoral response currently remain the best validated correlates of protective immunity after vaccination. Despite advancements in the field of immunology over the past few decades currently there are, however, no sufficiently validated immune correlates of vaccine induced protection against...

  3. Immune overload: Parental attitudes toward combination and single antigen vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulsey, Ella; Bland, Tami

    2015-05-21

    Parental concerns have led to a recent decline in immunization coverage, resulting in outbreaks of diseases that were once under control in the US. As the CDC vaccination schedule continues to increase in complexity, the number of required injections per office visit increases as well. Some parents perceive that there is trauma associated with the administration of multiple injections, and research shows that having multiple vaccines due in a single visit is associated with delays and lower immunization rates. Combination vaccines make vaccination more efficient by incorporating the antigens of several different diseases into a single injection, but many parents worry that they may overload the child's developing immune system and leave him or her susceptible to secondary infections. This literature review synthesizes current evidence regarding the parental fear of vaccine-induced immune system overload and the fear of vaccine-associated trauma, in an attempt to understand the scope and nature of these fears. Despite the wealth of knowledge about each of these fears individually, it is still unknown which is of greater concern and how this affects parental decision-making. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of buffer on the immune response to trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine in Bangladesh: a community based randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandir, Subhash; Ahamed, Kabir U; Baqui, Abdullah H; Sutter, Roland W; Okayasu, Hiromasa; Pallansch, Mark A; Oberste, Mark S; Moulton, Lawrence H; Halsey, Neal A

    2014-11-01

    Polio eradication efforts have been hampered by low responses to trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (tOPV) in some developing countries. Since stomach acidity may neutralize vaccine viruses, we assessed whether administration of a buffer solution could improve the immunogenicity of tOPV. Healthy infants 4-6 weeks old in Sylhet, Bangladesh, were randomized to receive tOPV with or without a sodium bicarbonate and sodium citrate buffer at age 6, 10, and 14 weeks. Levels of serum neutralizing antibodies for poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3 were measured before and after vaccination, at 6 and 18 weeks of age, respectively. Serologic response rates following 3 doses of tOPV for buffer recipients and control infants were 95% and 88% (P=.065), respectively, for type 1 poliovirus; 95% and 97% (P=.543), respectively, for type 2 poliovirus; and 90% and 89% (P=.79), respectively, for type 3 poliovirus. Administration of a buffer solution prior to vaccination was not associated with statistically significant increases in the immune response to tOPV; however, a marginal 7% increase (P=.065) in serologic response to poliovirus type 1 was observed. NCT01579825. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Global Vaccine and Immunization Research Forum: Opportunities and challenges in vaccine discovery, development, and delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Andrew Q; Touchette, Nancy; Hall, B Fenton; Hwang, Angela; Hombach, Joachim

    2016-03-18

    The World Health Organization, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, part of the National Institutes of Health, and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation convened the first Global Vaccine and Immunization Research Forum (GVIRF) in March 2014. This first GVIRF aimed to track recent progress of the Global Vaccine Action Plan research and development agenda, identify opportunities and challenges, promote partnerships in vaccine research, and facilitate the inclusion of all stakeholders in vaccine research and development. Leading scientists, vaccine developers, and public health officials from around the world discussed scientific and technical challenges in vaccine development, research to improve the impact of immunization, and regulatory issues. This report summarizes the discussions and conclusions from the forum participants. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Modulation of primary immune response by different vaccine adjuvants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Ciabattini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Adjuvants contribute to enhancing and shaping the vaccine immune response through different modes of action. Since the primary immune response can influence the overall quality of the response generated, here we investigate early biomarkers of adjuvanticity after primary immunization with four different adjuvants combined with the chimeric tuberculosis vaccine antigen H56. C57BL/6 mice were immunized by the subcutaneous route with different vaccine formulations, and the modulation of primary CD4+ T cell and B cell responses was assessed within draining lymph nodes, blood and spleen, 7 and 12 days after priming. Vaccine formulations containing the liposome system CAF01 or a squalene-based oil-in-water emulsion (o/w Squalene, but not aluminum hydroxide (Alum or CpG ODN 1826, elicited a significant primary antigen-specific CD4+ T cell response compared to antigen alone, 7 days after immunization. The effector function of activated CD4+ T cells was skewed towards a Th1/Th17 response by CAF01, while a Th1/Th2 response was elicited by o/w Squalene. Differentiation of B cells in short-lived plasma cells, and subsequent early H56-specific IgG secretion, was observed in mice immunized with o/w Squalene or CpG adjuvants. Tested adjuvants promoted the germinal centre reaction with different magnitude. These results show that the immunological activity of different adjuvants can be characterized by profiling early immunization biomarkers after primary immunization. These data and this approach could give an important contribution to the rational development of heterologous prime-boost vaccine immunization protocols.

  7. Cross-stage immunity for malaria vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahrendorf, Wiebke; Scholzen, Anja; Sauerwein, Robert W; Langhorne, Jean

    2015-12-22

    A vaccine against malaria is urgently needed for control and eventual eradication. Different approaches are pursued to induce either sterile immunity directed against pre-erythrocytic parasites or to mimic naturally acquired immunity by controlling blood-stage parasite densities and disease severity. Pre-erythrocytic and blood-stage malaria vaccines are often seen as opposing tactics, but it is likely that they have to be combined into a multi-stage malaria vaccine to be optimally safe and effective. Since many antigenic targets are shared between liver- and blood-stage parasites, malaria vaccines have the potential to elicit cross-stage protection with immune mechanisms against both stages complementing and enhancing each other. Here we discuss evidence from pre-erythrocytic and blood-stage subunit and whole parasite vaccination approaches that show that protection against malaria is not necessarily stage-specific. Parasites arresting at late liver-stages especially, can induce powerful blood-stage immunity, and similarly exposure to blood-stage parasites can afford pre-erythrocytic immunity. The incorporation of a blood-stage component into a multi-stage malaria vaccine would hence not only combat breakthrough infections in the blood should the pre-erythrocytic component fail to induce sterile protection, but would also actively enhance the pre-erythrocytic potency of this vaccine. We therefore advocate that future studies should concentrate on the identification of cross-stage protective malaria antigens, which can empower multi-stage malaria vaccine development. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Vaccination Timeliness in Children Under India's Universal Immunization Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastwa, Nijika; Gillespie, Brenda W; Lepkowski, James M; Boulton, Matthew L

    2016-09-01

    India has the highest number of deaths among children younger than 5 years of age globally; the majority are from vaccine preventable diseases. Untimely vaccination unnecessarily prolongs susceptibility to disease and contributes to the burden of childhood morbidity and mortality, yet there is scarce literature on vaccination delays. The aim of this study is to characterize the timeliness of childhood vaccinations administered under India's routine immunization program using a novel application of an existing statistical methodology. This study utilized the district level household and facility survey data, 2008 from India using vaccination data from children with and without immunization cards. Turnbull estimator of the cumulative distribution function was used to estimate the probability of vaccination at each age. Timeliness of Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG), all 3 doses of diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus vaccine (DPT) and measles-containing vaccine (MCV) were considered for this analysis. Vaccination data on 268,553 children who were 0-60 months of age were analyzed; timely administration of BCG, DPT3 and MCV occurred in 31%, 19% and 34% of children, respectively. The estimated vaccination probability plateaued for DPT and BCG around the age of 24 months, whereas MCV uptake increased another 5% after 24 months of age. The 5-year coverage of BCG, DPT3 and MCV in Indian children was 87%, 63% and 76%, respectively. Lack of timely administration of key childhood vaccines, especially DPT3 and MCV, remains a major challenge in India and likely contributes to the significant burden of vaccine preventable disease-related morbidity and mortality in children.

  9. Vector transmission of leishmania abrogates vaccine-induced protective immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan C Peters

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous experimental vaccines have been developed to protect against the cutaneous and visceral forms of leishmaniasis caused by infection with the obligate intracellular protozoan Leishmania, but a human vaccine still does not exist. Remarkably, the efficacy of anti-Leishmania vaccines has never been fully evaluated under experimental conditions following natural vector transmission by infected sand fly bite. The only immunization strategy known to protect humans against natural exposure is "leishmanization," in which viable L. major parasites are intentionally inoculated into a selected site in the skin. We employed mice with healed L. major infections to mimic leishmanization, and found tissue-seeking, cytokine-producing CD4+ T cells specific for Leishmania at the site of challenge by infected sand fly bite within 24 hours, and these mice were highly resistant to sand fly transmitted infection. In contrast, mice vaccinated with a killed vaccine comprised of autoclaved L. major antigen (ALM+CpG oligodeoxynucleotides that protected against needle inoculation of parasites, showed delayed expression of protective immunity and failed to protect against infected sand fly challenge. Two-photon intra-vital microscopy and flow cytometric analysis revealed that sand fly, but not needle challenge, resulted in the maintenance of a localized neutrophilic response at the inoculation site, and removal of neutrophils following vector transmission led to increased parasite-specific immune responses and promoted the efficacy of the killed vaccine. These observations identify the critical immunological factors influencing vaccine efficacy following natural transmission of Leishmania.

  10. Harnessing Local Immunity for an Effective Universal Swine Influenza Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchilian, Elma; Holzer, Barbara

    2017-05-05

    Influenza A virus infections are a global health threat to humans and are endemic in pigs, contributing to decreased weight gain and suboptimal reproductive performance. Pigs are also a source of new viruses of mixed swine, avian, and human origin, potentially capable of initiating human pandemics. Current inactivated vaccines induce neutralising antibody against the immunising strain but rapid escape occurs through antigenic drift of the surface glycoproteins. However, it is known that prior infection provides a degree of cross-protective immunity mediated by cellular immune mechanisms directed at the more conserved internal viral proteins. Here we review new data that emphasises the importance of local immunity in cross-protection and the role of the recently defined tissue-resident memory T cells, as well as locally-produced, and sometimes cross-reactive, antibody. Optimal induction of local immunity may require aerosol delivery of live vaccines, but it remains unclear how long protective local immunity persists. Nevertheless, a universal vaccine might be extremely useful for disease prevention in the face of a pandemic. As a natural host for influenza A viruses, pigs are both a target for a universal vaccine and an excellent model for developing human influenza vaccines.

  11. Introduction of Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine and Impact on Vaccine-Associated Paralytic Poliomyelitis - Beijing, China, 2014-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dan; Ma, Rui; Zhou, Tao; Yang, Fan; Wu, Jin; Sun, Hao; Liu, Fang; Lu, Li; Li, Xiaomei; Zuo, Shuyan; Yao, Wei; Yin, Jian

    2017-12-15

    When included in a sequential polio vaccination schedule, inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) reduces the risk for vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP), a rare adverse event associated with receipt of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). During January 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended introduction of at least 1 IPV dose into routine immunization schedules in OPV-using countries (1). The Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018 recommended completion of IPV introduction in 2015 and globally synchronized withdrawal of OPV type 2 in 2016 (2). Introduction of 1 dose of IPV into Beijing's Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) on December 5, 2014 represented China's first province-wide IPV introduction. Coverage with the first dose of polio vaccine was maintained from 96.2% to 96.9%, similar to coverage with the first dose of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccine (DTP) (96.5%-97.2%); the polio vaccine dropout rate (the percentage of children who received the first dose of polio vaccine but failed to complete the series) was 1.0% in 2015 and 0.4% in 2016. The use of 3 doses of private-sector IPV per child decreased from 18.1% in 2014, to 17.4% in 2015, and to 14.8% in 2016. No cases of VAPP were identified during 2014-2016. Successful introduction of IPV into the public sector EPI program was attributed to comprehensive planning, preparation, implementation, robust surveillance for adverse events after immunization (AEFI), and monitoring of vaccination coverage. This evaluation provided information that helped contribute to the expansion of IPV use in China and in other OPV-using countries.

  12. Maternal immunity enhances Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccination induced cell-mediated immune responses in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandrick, Meggan; Theis, Kara; Molitor, Thomas W

    2014-06-05

    Passively acquired maternal derived immunity (MDI) is a double-edged sword. Maternal derived antibody-mediated immunity (AMI) and cell-mediated immunity (CMI) are critical immediate defenses for the neonate; however, MDI may interfere with the induction of active immunity in the neonate, i.e. passive interference. The effect of antigen-specific MDI on vaccine-induced AMI and CMI responses to Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae) was assessed in neonatal piglets. To determine whether CMI and AMI responses could be induced in piglets with MDI, piglets with high and low levels of maternal M. hyopneumoniae-specific immunity were vaccinated against M. hyopneumoniae at 7 d of age. Piglet M. hyopneumoniae-specific antibody, lymphoproliferation, and delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses were measured 7 d and 14 d post vaccination. Piglets with M. hyopneumoniae-specific MDI failed to show vaccine-induced AMI responses; there was no rise in M. hyopneumoniae antibody levels following vaccination of piglets in the presence of M. hyopneumoniae-specific MDI. However, piglets with M. hyopneumoniae-specific MDI had primary (antigen-specific lymphoproliferation) and secondary (DTH) M. hyopneumoniae-specific CMI responses following vaccination. In this study neonatal M. hyopneumoniae-specific CMI was not subject to passive interference by MDI. Further, it appears that both maternal derived and endogenous CMI contribute to M. hyopneumoniae-specific CMI responses in piglets vaccinated in the face of MDI.

  13. Malaria vaccines: immunity, models and monoclonal antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Lars; Barfod, Lea

    2008-01-01

    Although experts in the field have agreed on the malaria vaccine technology roadmap that should be followed (http://www.malariavaccineroadmap.net/), the path towards an effective malaria vaccine remains littered with intellectual and practical pot-holes. The animal models that are currently...

  14. Immune modulation by vaccination in chronic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zonneveld - Huijssoon, E.

    2012-01-01

    Vaccination in autoimmunity can have beneficial, but also detrimental effects. In this thesis, we tried to identify factors that contribute to a favourable or an unfavourable outcome of vaccination in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) and experimental arthritis. In the first part, we focused on

  15. Meningococcal vaccines and herd immunity: lessons learned from serogroup C conjugate vaccination programmes

    OpenAIRE

    Trotter, Caroline L; Maiden, Martin C J

    2009-01-01

    Effective vaccines provide direct protection to immunised individuals, but may also provide benefits to unvaccinated individuals by reducing transmission and hence lowering the risk of infection. Such herd immunity effects have been demonstrated following the introduction of meningococcal serogroup C conjugate (MCC) vaccines, with reductions in disease attack rates in unimmunised individuals and significantly lower serogroup C carriage attributable to the vaccine introduction. In the UK targe...

  16. Measles, immune suppression and vaccination: direct and indirect nonspecific vaccine benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, Michael J

    2017-06-01

    The measles virus is among the most transmissible viruses known to infect humans. Prior to measles vaccination programs, measles infected over 95% of all children and was responsible for over 4 million deaths each year. Measles vaccination programs have been among the greatest public health achievements reducing, eliminating endemic measles in the whole of the Americas and across much of the globe. Where measles vaccines are introduced, unexpectedly large reductions in all-cause childhood mortality have been observed. These gains appear to derive in part from direct heterologous benefits of measles vaccines that enhance innate and adaptive immune responses. Additionally, by preventing measles infections, vaccination prevents measles-associated short- and long-term immunomodulating effects. Before vaccination, these invisible hallmarks of measles infections increased vulnerability to non-measles infections in nearly all children for weeks, months, or years following acute infections. By depleting measles incidence, vaccination has had important indirect benefits to reduce non-measles mortality. Delineating the relative importance of these two modes of survival benefits following measles vaccine introduction is of critical public health importance. While both support continued unwavering global commitments to measles vaccination programs until measles eradication is complete, direct heterologous benefits of measles vaccination further support continued commitment to measles vaccination programs indefinitely. We discuss what is known about direct and indirect nonspecific measles vaccine benefits, and their implications for continued measles vaccination programs. © 2017 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Vaccination policies among health professional schools: evidence of immunity and allowance of vaccination exemptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Samantha B; Libby, Tanya E; Lindley, Megan C; Ahmed, Faruque; Stevenson, John; Strikas, Raymond A

    2015-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To characterize health professional schools by their vaccination policies for acceptable forms of evidence of immunity and exemptions permitted. METHODS Data were collected between September 2011 and April 2012 using an Internet-based survey e-mailed to selected types of accredited health professional programs. Schools were identified through accrediting associations for each type of health professional program. Analysis was limited to schools requiring ≥1 vaccine recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP): measles, mumps, rubella, hepatitis B, varicella, pertussis, and influenza. Weighted bivariate frequencies were generated using SAS 9.3. RESULTS Of 2,775 schools surveyed, 75% (n=2,077) responded; of responding schools, 93% (1947) required ≥1 ACIP-recommended vaccination. The proportion of schools accepting ≥1 non-ACIP-recommended form of evidence of immunity varied by vaccine: 42% for pertussis, 37% for influenza, 30% for rubella, 22% for hepatitis B, 18% for varicella, and 9% for measles and mumps. Among schools with ≥1 vaccination requirement, medical exemptions were permitted for ≥1 vaccine by 75% of schools; 54% permitted religious exemptions; 35% permitted personal belief exemptions; 58% permitted any nonmedical exemption. CONCLUSIONS Many schools accept non-ACIP-recommended forms of evidence of immunity which could lead some students to believe they are protected from vaccine preventable diseases when they may be susceptible. Additional efforts are needed to better educate school officials about current ACIP recommendations for acceptable forms of evidence of immunity so school policies can be revised as needed.

  18. Introducing a pneumococcal vaccine to an existing influenza immunization program : vaccination rates and predictors of noncompliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opstelten, W; Hak, E; Verheij, T J; van Essen, G A

    2001-01-01

    PURPOSE: Influenza vaccination has been recommended for all elderly people in The Netherlands since 1996, with greater than 80% compliance. It is unknown, however, if the addition of another vaccine to this immunization program will affect compliance. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: General practitioners

  19. Sublingual Delivery of Vaccines for the Induction of Mucosal Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Byoung-Shik; Choi, Youngjoo; Cheon, In Su

    2013-01-01

    The mucosal surfaces are constantly exposed to incoming pathogens which can cause infections that result in severe morbidity and/or mortality. Studies have reported that mucosal immunity is important for providing protection against these pathogens and that mucosal vaccination is effective in preventing local infections. For many years, the sublingual mucosa has been targeted to deliver immunotherapy to treat allergic hypersensitivities. However, the potential of vaccine delivery via sublingual mucosal has received little attention until recently. Recent studies exploring such potential have documented the safety and effectiveness of sublingual immunization, demonstrating the ability of sublingual immunization to induce both systemic and mucosal immune responses against a variety of antigens, including soluble proteins, inter particulate antigens, and live-attenuated viruses. This review will summarize the recent findings that address the promising potential of sublingual immunization in proving protection against various mucosal pathogens. PMID:23885221

  20. Childhood immunization rates in rural Intibucá, Honduras: an analysis of a local database tool and community health center records for assessing and improving vaccine coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuan; Zarychta, Alan; Ranz, Joseph B; Carroll, Mary; Singleton, Lori M; Wilson, Paria M; Schlaudecker, Elizabeth P

    2012-12-07

    Vaccines are highly effective at preventing infectious diseases in children, and prevention is especially important in resource-limited countries where treatment is difficult to access. In Honduras, the World Health Organization (WHO) reports very high immunization rates in children. To determine whether or not these estimates accurately depict the immunization coverage in non-urban regions of the country, we compared the WHO data to immunization rates obtained from a local database tool and community health center records in rural Intibucá, Honduras. We used data from two sources to comprehensively evaluate immunization rates in the area: 1) census data from a local database and 2) immunization data collected at health centers. We compared these rates using logistic regression, and we compared them to publicly available WHO-reported estimates using confidence interval inclusion. We found that mean immunization rates for each vaccine were high (range 84.4 to 98.8 percent), but rates recorded at the health centers were significantly higher than those reported from the census data (p ≤ 0.001). Combining the results from both databases, the mean rates of four out of five vaccines were less than WHO-reported rates (p 0.05), except for diphtheria/tetanus/pertussis vaccine (p=0.02) and oral polio vaccine (p Honduras were high across data sources, though most of the rates recorded in rural Honduras were less than WHO-reported rates. Despite geographical difficulties and barriers to access, the local database and Honduran community health workers have developed a thorough system for ensuring that children receive their immunizations on time. The successful integration of community health workers and a database within the Honduran decentralized health system may serve as a model for other immunization programs in resource-limited countries where health care is less accessible.

  1. Cellular and humoral immunity after vaccination or natural mumps infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Kihei; Hagihara, Kimiko; Oishi, Tomohiro; Miyata, Ippei; Akaike, Hiroto; Ogita, Satoko; Ohno, Naoki; Ouchi, Kazunobu

    2017-08-01

    This study measured cell-mediated immunity (CMI) and serum antibody to clarify the basis of breakthrough after vaccination and reinfection after mumps. From a pool of 54 college students, 17 seronegative subjects and 14 subjects with intermediate level of antibodies against mumps were vaccinated with a monovalent mumps vaccine, and CMI was assessed using interferon-γ release assay. CMI positivity according to pre-existing antibody level, defined as titer infection, four (57.1%) of whom were CMI positive or intermediate. Ten (71%) of 14 subjects with intermediate antibody level had a history of vaccination or natural infection, eight (80%) of whom were CMI positive or intermediate. After vaccination the interferon (IFN)-γ and antibody titers increased significantly, but seven (41.2%) of the 17 seronegative subjects and 13 (92.9%) of the 14 intermediate-level subjects tested positive for both antibody and CMI. In a comparison of the natural infection group (confirmed as IgG seropositive and/or CMI positive without vaccination) versus the vaccination group, IgG antibody titer (mean ± SD) was 14.4 ± 8.0 versus 3.6 ± 2.4 index units (P  0.05), respectively. Vaccination or even natural mumps infection did not always induce both cellular and humoral immunity. © 2017 Japan Pediatric Society.

  2. Hepatitis B Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engerix-B® ... as a combination product containing Haemophilus influenzae type b, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis, Hepatitis B, Polio Vaccine)

  3. Crippling Violence: Conflict and Incident Polio in Afghanistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Norris

    Full Text Available Designing effective public health campaigns in areas of armed conflict requires a nuanced understanding of how violence impacts the epidemiology of the disease in question.We examine the geographical relationship between violence (represented by the location of detonated Improvised Explosive Devices and polio incidence by generating maps of IEDs and polio incidence during 2010, and by comparing the mean number of IED detonations in polio high-risk districts with non polio high-risk districts during 2004-2009.We demonstrate a geographic relationship between IED violence and incident polio. Districts that have high-risk for polio have highly statistically significantly greater mean numbers of IEDs than non polio high-risk districts (p-values 0.0010-0.0404.The geographic relationship between armed conflict and polio incidence provides valuable insights as to how to plan a vaccination campaign in violent contexts, and allows us to anticipate incident polio in the regions of armed conflict. Such information permits vaccination planners to engage interested armed combatants to co-develop strategies to mitigate the effects of violence on polio.

  4. Positive impact of rescheduling Bacillus Calmette-Gu?rin vaccination on vaccinations at birth

    OpenAIRE

    Oberoi, Simmi; Amarjit, Singh; Avneet, Randhawa; Neha, Chaudhary; Patnaik, Siriesha

    2017-01-01

    Context: Inimitable among the trio of recommended immunizations administered to newborns at delivery centers of institutions is hepatitis B. While it is necessary for hepatitis B to be given within 24 hours of birth, the same cannot be said for Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and zero-dose oral polio vaccine (OPV). Objective: To assess the impact of rescheduling of BCG vaccination from the current twice weekly to daily to cover newborn vaccinations at the Government Medical College, Patial...

  5. An outbreak of type π vaccine-derived poliovirus in Sichuan province, China: emergence and circulation in an under-immunized population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Bo; Fang, Gang; Yu, Wen-Zhou; Du, Fei; Fan, Chun-Xiang; Liu, Qing-Lian; Hao, Li-Xin; Liu, Yu; Zheng, Jing-Shan; Qin, Zhi-Ying; Xia, Wei; Zhang, Shi-Yue; Yin, Zun-Dong; Jing, Qiong; Zhang, Yan-Xia; Huang, Rong-Na; Yang, Ru-Pei; Tong, Wen-Bin; Qi, Qi; Guan, Xu-Jing; Jing, Yu-Lin; Ma, Qian-Li; Wang, Jin; Ma, Xiao-Zhen; Chen, Na; Zheng, Hong-Ru; Li, Yin-Qiao; Ma, Chao; Su, Qi-Ru; Reilly, Kathleen H; Luo, Hui-Ming; Wu, Xian-Ping; Wen, Ning; Yang, Wei-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    During August 2011-February 2012, an outbreak of type Π circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPVs) occurred in Sichuan Province, China. A field investigation of the outbreak was conducted to characterize outbreak isolates and to guide emergency response. Sequence analysis of poliovirus capsid protein VP1 was performed to determine the viral propagation, and a coverage survey was carried out for risk assessment. One clinical compatible polio case and three VDPV cases were determined in Ngawa County, Ngawa Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan Province. Case patients were unimmunized children, 0.8-1 years old. Genetic sequencing showed that the isolates diverged from the VP1 region of the type Π Sabin strain by 5-12 nucleotides (nt) and shared the same 5 nt VP1 substitutions, which indicate single lineage of cVDPVs. Of the 7 acute flaccid paralysis cases (all>6 months) reported in Ngawa Prefecture in 2011, 4 (57.1%) cases (including 2 polio cases) did not receive oral attenuated poliovirus vaccine. Supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) were conducted in February-May, 2012, and the strain has not been isolated since. High coverage of routine immunization should be maintained among children until WPV transmission is globally eradicated. Risk assessments should be conducted regularly to pinpoint high risk areas or subpopulations, with SIAs developed if necessary.

  6. Improving MMR vaccination rates: herd immunity is a realistic goal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockman, Philippa; Dawson, Luise; Mathur, Rohini; Hull, Sally

    2011-10-04

    As measles is a highly infectious disease, the United Kingdom recommendation is for at least 95% of children to receive a first vaccination with the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine before age 2 years and a booster before age 5 years to achieve herd immunity and prevent outbreaks. Reported vaccination rates for England have improved since a low level in 2003-4. Coverage for London is consistently lower than for England, however, and concerns have been expressed that there could be an epidemic of measles in the capital. Observational time series study. London Borough of Tower Hamlets. Key measurements for improvement Uptake rates for childhood vaccinations. The key target was to reach 95% coverage for the first MMR vaccine before age 2 years. Financial support for the development of geographically based networks of general practices. Commissioning of care packages, incentivising delivery of high quality integrated care with network level vaccination targets of 95%. Innovative use of information technology to enable robust call and recall processes, active follow-up of defaulters, and increased knowledge about the demography of the children most difficult to reach. The development of networks of practices facilitated collaborative working among primary care clinicians and other stakeholders; peer review of achievements; and an element of healthy competition. Uptake improved for all childhood vaccinations, and to herd immunity levels for most. Uptake of the first MMR vaccine before age 2 years rose from 80% in September 2009 to 94% in March 2011. Achieving herd immunity for childhood vaccinations is an achievable target in an ethnically mixed, socially deprived inner city borough. The ability to identify characteristics of the difficult to reach groups, including significant differences in uptake across different ethnicities, will allow targeted interventions that may further improve overall coverage.

  7. Onderzoek naar de mogelijkheden om in vitro antistof produktie door immune cellen te gebruiken voor de controle van difterie en tetanus bevattende vaccins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loggen HG; Akkermans AM; van de Donk HJM; Kreeftenberg JG; Hendriksen CFM; de Jong WH

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the possible use of an in vitro culture system for the production of antibodies, as testsystem for the control of diphtheria and tetanus containing vaccines like DPTP (Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus and Polio) and DTP (Diphtheria, Tetanus and Polio). Both in a human and rabbit

  8. The genetic regulation of infant immune responses to vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie eNewport

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A number of factors are recognised to influence immune responses to vaccinations including age, gender, the dose and quality of the antigen used, the number of doses given, the route of administration and the nutritional status of the recipient. Additionally, several immunogenetic studies have identified associations between polymorphisms in genes encoding immune response proteins, both innate and adaptive, and variation in responses to vaccines. Variants in the genes encoding Toll-like receptors, HLA molecules, cytokines, cytokine receptors have associated with heterogeneity of responses to a wide range of vaccines including measles, hepatitis B, influenza A, BCG, Haemophilus influenzae type b and certain Neisseria meningitidis serotypes, amongst others. However, the vast majority of these studies have been conducted in older children and adults and there are very few data available from studies conducted in infants. This paper reviews the evidence to date that host genes influencing vaccines responses in these older population and identifies a large gap in our understanding of the genetic regulation of responses in early life. . Given the high mortality from infection in early life and the challenges of developing vaccines that generate effective immune responses in the context of the developing immune system further research on infant populations is required.

  9. Human Immune Responses to Experimental Vaccinia Vaccines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ennis, Francis

    1996-01-01

    .... During the two years of this contract we have: (1) obtained, separated and cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 92 vaccinees in a clinical study to compare the standard and an experimental small pox vaccine, (2...

  10. Inflammation, immunity, and vaccines for Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velin, Dominique; Straubinger, Kathrin; Gerhard, Markus

    2016-09-01

    The tight control of the innate and adaptive immune responses in the stomach mucosa during chronic Helicobacter pylori infection is of prime importance for the bacteria to persist and for the host to prevent inflammation-driven diseases. This review summarizes recent data on the roles of innate and adaptive immune responses during H. pylori/host interactions. In addition, the latest preclinical developments of H. pylori vaccines are discussed with a special focus on the clinical trial reported by Zeng et al., who provided evidence that oral vaccination significantly reduces the acquisition of natural H. pylori infection in children. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. [Poliomyelitis--why we must continue to vaccinate!].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windorfer, A; Beyrer, K

    2005-02-24

    The eradication of polio--that is the worldwide elimination of the wild poliovirus--is now within reach. The current success of this international project is due largely to the rigorous immunization of the general population. Both live oral polio vaccine (OPV) and inactivated vaccine (IPV) administered by injection are applied, the pros and cons of each having to be weighed up. Since 1998, only the dead IPV vaccine has been recommended in Germany. It is essential that the acceptance of the need for immunization should not decline, and that the inoculation rate in countries in which polio has apparently been eliminated, should not fall below the critical threshold of about 85-80%. If in the future this figure is not reached, the population would be put at risk by the re-introduction of the polio virus into the country. Even when global elimination has been achieved, vaccination must be continued for several years. The recommended immunization schedule covers three vaccinations for basic immunization plus a booster vaccination in adolescence.

  12. Construction, immune protection and innate immune response of shuffled polyvalent ompAs vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Nan; Cheng, Zhi-Xue; Ling, Xiao-Peng; Chu, Xiao; Peng, Xuan-Xian; Li, Hui

    2018-03-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that molecular breeding via DNA shuffling directs the evolution of polyvalent vaccines with desired traits, which leads to generation of polyvalent ompA vaccines using Vibrio alginolyticus VA0764 primers. Here, we replaced VA0764 primers with Edwardsiella tarda ompA primers to generate new polyvalent ompA vaccines by DNA shuffling of the same five ompA genes from four species of bacteria E. tarda, V. parahaemolyticus, V. alginolyticus and Escherichia coli. We identified four polyvalent vaccine candidates from a eukaryotic expressing library EompAs-FE containing 82 ompAs using active immune protection against V. alginolyticus and E. tarda. Furthermore, we explored mechanisms of polyvalent vaccine candidates by investigation of the innate immune response to these ompAs, and found that expression of IL-1β, IL-8, IL-15, COX-2, IFN-γ, TLR-1, TLR-3 and C3b genes was elevated as a characteristic feature of these polyvalent vaccine candidates. These results indicate that use of different primers to construct a DNA library selects new evolution of polyvalent vaccines with desired traits, and polyvalent ompA vaccines elicit high innate immune response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Successful pseudorabies vaccination in maternally immune piglets using recombinant vaccinia virus vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmeier, S I; Lager, K M; Mengeling, W L

    1997-01-01

    Three gilts were vaccinated with a NYVAC vaccinia recombinant expressing glycoprotein gD of pseudorabies virus (PRV) (NYVAC/gD). After farrowing, the piglets were allowed to nurse normally to obtain colostral immunity and then were divided into four groups, receiving NYVAC/gD, a NYVAC recombinant expressing glycoprotein gB of PRV (NYVAC/gB), an inactivated PRV vaccine (iPRV), or no vaccine. The piglets were vaccinated twice, three weeks apart beginning at approximately two weeks of age and later challenged with virulent PRV oronasally. Piglets that received NYVAC/gB or iPRV were the best protected based on lack of mortality, lower temperature responses, decreased weight loss and decreased viral shedding after challenge. These results indicate effective strategies for stimulating active immune response while still under the protection of maternal immunity.

  14. Enhanced immune responses by skin vaccination with influenza subunit vaccine in young hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsonanos, Dimitrios G; Esser, E Stein; McMaster, Sean R; Kalluri, Priya; Lee, Jeong-Woo; Prausnitz, Mark R; Skountzou, Ioanna; Denning, Timothy L; Kohlmeier, Jacob E; Compans, Richard W

    2015-09-08

    Skin has gained substantial attention as a vaccine target organ due to its immunological properties, which include a high density of professional antigen presenting cells (APCs). Previous studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of this vaccination route not only in animal models but also in adults. Young children represent a population group that is at high risk from influenza infection. As a result, this group could benefit significantly from influenza vaccine delivery approaches through the skin and the improved immune response it can induce. In this study, we compared the immune responses in young BALB/c mice upon skin delivery of influenza vaccine with vaccination by the conventional intramuscular route. Young mice that received 5 μg of H1N1 A/Ca/07/09 influenza subunit vaccine using MN demonstrated an improved serum antibody response (IgG1 and IgG2a) when compared to the young IM group, accompanied by higher numbers of influenza-specific antibody secreting cells (ASCs) in the bone marrow. In addition, we observed increased activation of follicular helper T cells and formation of germinal centers in the regional lymph nodes in the MN immunized group, rapid clearance of the virus from their lungs as well as complete survival, compared with partial protection observed in the IM-vaccinated group. Our results support the hypothesis that influenza vaccine delivery through the skin would be beneficial for protecting the high-risk young population from influenza infection. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. An assessment report on an immunization clinic located in a tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For the adult immunizations, yellow fever recorded the highest coverage rate, while the lowest rate was recorded for tetanus toxoid dose 5 (TT5). The vaccines that were most often in short supply included Diphtheria-pertusis-tetanus, Hepatitis B, yellow fever, oral polio, and cerebrospinal meningitis vaccines. Although ...

  16. Rotavirus vaccination and herd immunity: an evidence-based review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seybolt LM

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Lorna M Seybolt, Rodolfo E BéguéDepartment of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA, USAAbstract: Until recently, rotavirus was the most common cause of diarrhea in infants and young children with over 100 million cases and 400,000 deaths every year worldwide. Yet, its epidemiology is changing rapidly with the introduction of two rotavirus vaccines in the mid 2000s. Both vaccines were shown to be highly efficacious in prelicensure studies to reduce severe rotavirus disease; the efficacy being more pronounced in high- and middle-income countries than in low-income countries. Herd immunity – the indirect protection of unimmunized individuals as a result of others being immunized – was not expected to be a benefit of rotavirus vaccination programs since the vaccines were thought to reduce severe disease but not to decrease virus transmission significantly. Postlicensure studies, however, have suggested that this assumption may need reassessment. Studies in a variety of settings have shown evidence of greater than expected declines in rotavirus disease. While these studies were not designed specifically to detect herd immunity – and few failed to detect this phenomenon – the consistency of the evidence is compelling. These studies are reviewed and described here. While further work is needed, clarifying the presence of herd immunity is not just an academic exercise but an important issue for rotavirus control, especially in lower income countries where the incidence of the disease is highest and the direct protection of the vaccines is lower.Keywords: rotavirus, vaccine, herd immunity, efficacy

  17. Estimating the herd immunity effect of rotavirus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Suzanne L; Malpica-Llanos, Tanya; Friberg, Ingrid K; Fischer-Walker, Christa; Ashraf, Sania; Walker, Neff

    2015-07-31

    Diarrhea is one of the leading causes of death in children under 5, and an estimated 39% of these deaths are attributable to rotavirus. Currently two live, oral rotavirus vaccines have been introduced on the market; however, the herd immunity effect associated with rotavirus vaccine has not yet been quantified. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to estimate the herd immunity effects associated with rotavirus vaccines. We performed a systematic literature review of articles published between 2008 and 2014 that measured the impact of rotavirus vaccine on severe gastroenteritis (GE) morbidity or mortality. We assessed the quality of published studies using a standard protocol and conducted meta-analyses to estimate the herd immunity effect in children less than one year of age across all years presented in the studies. We conducted these analyses separately for studies reporting a rotavirus-specific GE outcome and those reporting an all-cause GE outcome. In studies reporting a rotavirus-specific GE outcome, four of five of which were conducted in the United States, the median herd effect across all study years was 22% [19-25%]. In studies reporting an all-cause GE outcome, all of which were conducted in Latin America, the median herd effect was 24.9% [11-30%]. There is evidence that rotavirus vaccination confers a herd immunity effect in children under one year of age in the United States and Latin American countries. Given the high variability in vaccine efficacy across regions, more studies are needed to better examine herd immunity effects in high mortality regions. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. An immune stimulating complex (iscom) subunit rabies vaccine protects dogs and mice against street rabies challenge.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Fekadu; J.H. Schaddock; J. Ekströ m; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); D.W. Sanderlin; B. Sundquist; B. Morein (Bror)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractDogs and mice were immunized with either a rabies glycoprotein subunit vaccine incorporated into an immune stimulating complex (ISCOM) or a commercial human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) prepared from a Pitman Moore (PM) rabies vaccine strain. Pre-exposure vaccination of mice with two

  19. [Pneumococcal vaccination: conjugated vaccine induces herd immunity and reduces antibiotic resistance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletz, M W; Maus, U; Hohlfeld, J M; Lode, H; Welte, T

    2008-02-01

    Pneumococcal infections (pneumonia, otitis media, sinusitis, meningitis) are common and usually involve toddlers and the elderly. Currently, two pneumococcal vaccines are in clinical use. The older vaccine consists of pure capsular polysaccharides from 23 pneumococcal serotypes and induces only a limited B-cell response because polysaccharides are poor antigens that stimulate mainly B-cells. In 2000, a vaccination program with a novel 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was launched in the U.S. The conjugation of capsular polysaccharides with a highly immunogenic diphtheria toxoid protein induces both a T cell and B cell response that results in specific humoral and mucosal immunity. Since children are the main reservoir of pneumococci, the 7-valent conjugate vaccine seems to eradicate the respective pneumococcal serotypes within the population, as demonstrated by recent US data. Pronounced herd immunity resulted in a decrease in invasive pneumococcal diseases in vaccinees and non-vaccinees as well as in a reduction of antibiotic resistance rates. However, recent data suggest a replacement of vaccine-serotypes by non-vaccine serotypes, which conquer the ecological niche created by the vaccine. In order to encounter this problem a 13-valent conjugated vaccine is currently under development.

  20. Sailing in Uncharted Waters: Carefully Navigating the Polio Endgame.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Miller

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In a Perspective linked to the research article by Isobel Blake and colleagues, Elizabeth Miller and T. Jacob John discuss the path towards global polio eradication and the challenges, strategies, and necessary precautions around oral polio vaccine cessation.

  1. Polio Eradication Initiative (PEl) Emergency Plan: A Panacea for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TNHJOURNALPH

    and surmount the intractable problem of sub- optimal vaccine coverage which has remained a critical bottleneck in the successful eradication of the polio virus in Nigeria. It becomes pertinent therefore, to appraise this latest effort to avoid a recurrence of failure in subsequent polio eradication programs. METHODS. A review ...

  2. Immune response profiles of calves following vaccination with live BCG and inactivated Mycobacterium bovis vaccine candidates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E M D L van der Heijden

    Full Text Available Conventional control and eradication strategies for bovine tuberculosis (BTB face tremendous difficulties in developing countries; countries with wildlife reservoirs, a complex wildlife-livestock-human interface or a lack of veterinary and veterinary public health surveillance. Vaccination of cattle and other species might in some cases provide the only suitable control strategy for BTB, while in others it may supplement existing test-and-slaughter schemes. However, the use of live BCG has several limitations and the global rise of HIV/AIDS infections has furthermore warranted the exploration of inactivated vaccine preparations. The aim of this study was to compare the immune response profiles in response to parenteral vaccination with live BCG and two inactivated vaccine candidates in cattle. Twenty-four mixed breed calves (Bos taurus aged 4-6 months, were allocated to one of four groups and vaccinated sub-cutaneously with live M. bovis BCG (Danish 1331, formalin-inactivated M. bovis BCG, heat-killed M. bovis or PBS/Montanide™ (control. Interferon-γ responsiveness and antibody production were measured prior to vaccination and at weekly intervals thereafter for twelve weeks. At nine weeks post-priming, animals were skin tested using tuberculins and MTBC specific protein cocktails and subsequently challenged through intranodular injection of live M. bovis BCG. The animals in the heat-killed M. bovis group demonstrated strong and sustained cell-mediated and humoral immune responses, significantly higher than the control group in response to vaccination, which may indicate a protective immune profile. Animals in this group showed reactivity to the skin test reagents, confirming good vaccine take. Lastly, although not statistically significant, recovery of BCG after challenge was lowest in the heat-killed M. bovis group. In conclusion, the parenteral heat-killed M. bovis vaccine proved to be clearly immunogenic in cattle in the present study

  3. [Immune response to hepatitis B vaccine in elite athletes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosić, Ilija; Malićević, Sead; Medić, Snezana

    2008-01-01

    Hepatitis B viral infection can create serious health problems, such as acute and chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis of liver and hepatocellular carcinoma. Athletes have bigger risk of hepatitis B infection due to frequent injuries with bleeding, their style of living (promiscuity), close contact with teammates, etc. The aim of this study was to investigate the immune response to hepatitis B vaccine among elite athletes, compared to corresponding control group of male subjects front general non-athlete population, and to test out reaction in relation to age. There were 21 elite football players and 30 control non-athlete males. After written consent, they all received three doses of hepatitis B vaccine (Euvax B, Sanofi Pasteur) during 6 months. Eight weeks later, their immune response (as anti-HBs antibody titre in serum) was assessed and statistical significance of the findings was tested. The level of immune response was also evaluated in different age clusters within test groups. None of the footballers was without response to the vaccine. One of the subjects from the control group did not develop it. The group of athletes was with better mean values of antibody titre (1626621 mIU/ml vs. 1568455 mIU/ml), but without statistical significance (t = 0.375: p > 0.05), and with a greater deal of subjects who developed very good immune response (titre over 2000 mIU/ml). Younger football players had better immune reaction than older (age 18-24, 1795560 mIU/ml, vs. age 25-29 years, 1597470 mIU/ml vs. age 30 and more, 1360904 mIU/ml), but without statistical importance (H = 1.593; p > 0.05). Our study has shown that elite athletes respond very well to hepatitis B vaccination and have good immune response. Vaccination against hepatitis B of elite athletes is very important, because viral infection can seriously affect their health and stop their careers.

  4. Humoral Immunity to Primary Smallpox Vaccination: Impact of Childhood versus Adult Immunization on Vaccinia Vector Vaccine Development in Military Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie M Slike

    Full Text Available Modified Vaccinia virus has been shown to be a safe and immunogenic vector platform for delivery of HIV vaccines. Use of this vector is of particular importance to the military, with the implementation of a large scale smallpox vaccination campaign in 2002 in active duty and key civilian personnel in response to potential bioterrorist activities. Humoral immunity to smallpox vaccination was previously shown to be long lasting (up to 75 years and protective. However, using vaccinia-vectored vaccine delivery for other diseases on a background of anti-vector antibodies (i.e. pre-existing immunity may limit their use as a vaccine platform, especially in the military. In this pilot study, we examined the durability of vaccinia antibody responses in adult primary vaccinees in a healthy military population using a standard ELISA assay and a novel dendritic cell neutralization assay. We found binding and neutralizing antibody (NAb responses to vaccinia waned after 5-10 years in a group of 475 active duty military, born after 1972, who were vaccinated as adults with Dryvax®. These responses decreased from a geometric mean titer (GMT of 250 to baseline (30 years with a GMT of 210 (range 112-3234. This data suggests limited durability of antibody responses in adult vaccinees compared to those vaccinated in childhood and further that adult vaccinia recipients may benefit similarly from receipt of a vaccinia based vaccine as those who are vaccinia naïve. Our findings may have implications for the smallpox vaccination schedule and support the ongoing development of this promising viral vector in a military vaccination program.

  5. Violence, insecurity, and the risk of polio: A systematic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kia Guarino

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of polio vaccines in the 1950's and 60's, eradication of poliovirus from the world has been technically feasible. Progress towards this goal, however, has been uneven and influenced by social and political factors that challenge the implementation of robust immunization programs. While violence and insecurity are often cited as barriers to eradication, current global risk models are largely based on virologic and immunologic indicators measured at national levels. In this manuscript, we quantify the relevance of indicators of violence and insecurity on the risk of polio spread.Using logistic regression models and public data sources, we evaluate the relationship between measures of violence and instability and the location of poliomyelitis cases between 2006 and 2015 at the country-level, both individually and after controlling for more proximal determinants of disease, such as nearby circulating poliovirus and vaccination rates. We found that increases in a country's Fragile States Index (FSI and Global Peace Index (GPI, aggregate indicators of violence and instability, were associated with the occurrence of poliovirus cases in the subsequent year (p< 0.01, even after controlling for established risk factors. These effects of violence and insecurity must be mediated through immunity and exposure to poliovirus, coarse measures of which are included in our model. This also implies that in our study, and in risk models in general, the interpretation depends on the quality and granularity of available data.National virologic and immunologic indicators understate the risk of poliovirus spread in areas with violence and insecurity, and the inclusion of such factors improves precision. In addition, the link between violence and incidence of disease highlights the broader challenge of implementing health interventions in conflict areas. We discuss practical implications of this work in understanding and measuring the risks to

  6. Vaccine-associated contact paralytic poliomyelitis with atypical neurological presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlazoroff, A; Bleicher, Z; Klein, C; Vure, E; Lahat, E; Gross, B; Handsher, R

    1987-09-01

    Paralytic poliomyelitis presenting with quadriparesis, transient encephalitis and bulbar symptoms in 2 patients in close contact with recently vaccinated children with trivalent live oral polio vaccine is described. Symmetrical lower motor neuron involvement of deltoid muscles with electromyographic confirmation was found. Upper motor neuron signs, with symmetrical hyperactive deep tendon reflexes developed in the lower extremities. Poliovirus Type-2 vaccine-like strain was cultured from one patient and both patients showed significant antibody titers rises to poliovirus. Attention is drawn to the possible clinical differences between vaccine associated poliomelitis and the usual features found in wild strain poliomyelitis. It is suggested that in selected cases, non-immunized contacts be given inactivated polio-vaccine when the vaccinees are immunized with the live oral-vaccine.

  7. Immune Response And Anamnestic Immune Response In Children After A 3-Dose Primary Hepatitis B Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Muhammad Faheem; Sultan, Muhammad Ashraf; Saleemi, Ahmad Imran

    2016-01-01

    Diseases caused by Hepatitis B virus (HBV) have a worldwide distribution. Pakistan adopted the recommendations of World Health Organization (WHO) for routine universal infant vaccination against hepatitis B in 2002, currently being administered at 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age in a combination vaccine. This study was conducted to determine the immune response & anamnestic immune response in children, 9 months-10 years of age, after a 3dose primary Hepatitis B vaccination. This cross sectional study was conducted in the Department of Paediatrics, King Edward Medical University/Mayo Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan, from January to June, 2014. A total of 200 children of either sex between the ages of 9 months to 10 years, documented to have received 3 doses of hepatitis B vaccines according to Expanded Program of Immunization (6,10,14 weeks) schedule in infancy, were recruited by consecutive sampling. The level of serum antiHBsAb by ELIZA was measured. Children with antiHBs titers ≥10 mIU/mL were considered to be immune. Those with anti HBsAb levels immune response was measured. Data was analysed using SPSS 17 to determine the relation between time interval since last vaccination and antibody titer. Chi square test was applied. Of the 200 children, protective antibody response was found in 58%. Median serological response was 18.60 (range 2.82 - 65.15). Antibody levels were found to have a statistically significant ( pvalue 0.019) negative correlation with the time since last administration of vaccine. A booster dose of Hepatitis B vacci ne was administered to all nonresponders, with each registering a statistically significant (pvalue 0.00) anamnestic response. The vaccination schedule with short dosage interval was unable to provide protection to 42% of the study population. Introduction of birth dose of Hepatitis B vaccine to the existing schedule is recommended.

  8. Post-Polio Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... had paralytic polio. Accurate statistics do not exist today, as a percentage of polio survivors have died ... up Meeting Now That You Are Funded Small Business Grants Overview Areas of Interest Budget Information Grant ...

  9. 17D yellow fever vaccine elicits comparable long-term immune responses in healthy individuals and immune-compromised patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieten, R. W.; Goorhuis, A.; Jonker, E. F. F.; de Bree, G. J.; de Visser, A. W.; van Genderen, P. J. J.; Remmerswaal, E. B. M.; ten Berge, I. J. M.; Visser, L. G.; Grobusch, M. P.; van Leeuwen, E. M. M.

    2016-01-01

    The 17D live attenuated yellow fever (YF) vaccine is contra-indicated in immune-compromised individuals and may elicit a suboptimal immunologic response. The aim of this study is to assess whether long-term immune responses against the YF vaccine are impaired in immune-compromised patients. Fifteen

  10. Hepatitis B Virus Vaccine immune response in Egyptian children 15 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Serum anti-HB surface antibody was measured in 225 healthy adolescents. Their ages ranged from 16-18 year with a definite history of receiving the primary immunization for HBV at infancy. A booster dose of the HB vaccine was given to 56 of the candidates in whom serum level of anti-HB surface antibody was ...

  11. Immune modulation by helminth parasites of ruminants: implications for vaccine development and host immune competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeilly, Tom N; Nisbet, Alasdair J

    2014-01-01

    Parasitic helminths reside in immunologically-exposed extracellular locations within their hosts, yet they are capable of surviving for extended periods. To enable this survival, these parasites have developed complex and multifaceted mechanisms to subvert or suppress host immunity. This review summarises current knowledge of immune modulation by helminth parasites of ruminants and the parasite-derived molecules involved in driving this modulation. Such immunomodulatory molecules have considerable promise as vaccine targets, as neutralisation of their function is predicted to enhance anti-parasite immunity and, as such, current knowledge in this area is presented herein. Furthermore, we summarise current evidence that, as well as affecting parasite-specific immunity, immune modulation by these parasites may also affect the ability of ruminant hosts to control concurrent diseases or mount effective responses to vaccination. T.N. McNeilly and A.J. Nisbet, published by EDP Sciences, 2014

  12. Immune complex-based vaccine for pig protection against parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roić, B; Cajavec, S; Ergotić, N; Lipej, Z; Madić, J; Lojkić, M; Pokrić, B

    2006-02-01

    The insoluble immune complexes (ICs) were prepared under the conditions of double immunodiffusion in gel, using the suspension of the ultrasound treated PK-15 cell-line infected with porcine parvovirus (PPV) containing both viral particles and viral proteins, as well as pig or rabbit anti-PPV polyclonal immune sera. The immunodiffusion performed in an agarose gel allows only viral subunits with a molecular mass equal to or less than 1000 kDa, rather than the viral particles, to diffuse through the gel and reach the point where the immunoprecipitate is to be formed. The immunoprecipitation under the conditions of the diffusion ensures the optimal, i.e. equimolar ratio of both immunoprecipitating components, antibody/antigen in the IC. The sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the Western blot analyses showed the ICs were composed of two proteins, a protein in which molecular mass corresponded to the VP2 of the PPV and a protein with a molecular mass of the IgG. This suggests that the ICs are mainly composed of the VP2 antigen and IgG class antibodies. The potency of the IC-vaccines prepared in the form of a water-in-oil-in-water emulsion was compared with that of a commercially available, inactivated oil vaccine. The vaccination of gilts, 6 weeks before mating, with the IC containing allogeneic pig antibodies, resulted in the development of high and long-lasting anti-PPV antibody titres, similar to those generated by the licenced vaccine (P > 0.01). The content of the virus material administered by the IC was twice lower than that in the licenced vaccine. Neither systemic nor local reactions were observed in the gilts during the period of the trial with the IC vaccine. The number of viable piglets per litter varied between 9 and 12 and no signs of the PPV infection were detected. Rabbits were used as one of the alternative laboratory animal models accepted for the testing of the vaccine against the PPV. The rabbit humoral immune response

  13. Non-Polio Enterovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Photos Related Links Water-related Hygiene Viral Conjunctivitis Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Viral Meningitis What is Polio? About Non-Polio ... illness... Related Links Water-related Hygiene Viral Conjunctivitis Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Viral Meningitis What is Polio? File Formats Help: ...

  14. Inflammation, Immunity, and Vaccines for Helicobacter pylori Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walduck, Anna; Andersen, Leif P; Raghavan, Sukanya

    2015-09-01

    During the last year, a variety of studies have been published that increases our understanding of the basic mechanisms of immunity and inflammation in Helicobacter pylori infection and progression to gastric cancer. Innate immune regulation and epithelial cell response were covered by several studies that contribute with new insights in the host response to H. pylori infection. Also, the adaptive immune response to H. pylori and particularly the role of IL-22 have been addressed in some studies. These advances may improve vaccine development where new strategies have been published. Two major studies analyzed H. pylori genomes of 39 worldwide strains and looked at the protein profiles. In addition, multi-epitope vaccines for therapeutic use have been investigated. Studies on different adjuvants and delivery systems have also given us new insights. This review presents articles from the last year that reveal detailed insight into immunity and regulation of inflammation, the contribution of immune cells to the development of gastric cancer, and understanding mechanisms of vaccine-induced protection. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The mucosal immune system: From dentistry to vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyono, Hiroshi; Azegami, Tatsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    The oral cavity is the beginning of the aero-digestive tract, which is covered by mucosal epithelium continuously under the threat of invasion of pathogens, it is thus protected by the mucosal immune system. In the early phase of our scientific efforts for the demonstration of mucosal immune system, dental science was one of major driving forces due to their foreseeability to use oral immunity for the control of oral diseases. The mucosal immune system is divided functionally into, but interconnected inductive and effector sites. Intestinal Peyer's patches (PPs) are an inductive site containing antigen-sampling M cells and immunocompetent cells required to initiate antigen-specific immune responses. At effector sites, PP-originated antigen-specific IgA B cells become plasma cells to produce polymeric IgA and form secretory IgA by binding to poly-Ig receptor expressed on epithelial cells for protective immunity. The development of new-generation mucosal vaccines, including the rice-based oral vaccine MucoRice, on the basis of the coordinated mucosal immune system is a promising strategy for the control of mucosal infectious diseases.

  16. Inflammation, Immunity, and Vaccines for Helicobacter pylori Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walduck, Anna; Andersen, Leif P; Raghavan, Sukanya

    2015-01-01

    During the last year, a variety of studies have been published that increases our understanding of the basic mechanisms of immunity and inflammation in Helicobacter pylori infection and progression to gastric cancer. Innate immune regulation and epithelial cell response were covered by several...... studies that contribute with new insights in the host response to H. pylori infection. Also, the adaptive immune response to H. pylori and particularly the role of IL-22 have been addressed in some studies. These advances may improve vaccine development where new strategies have been published. Two major...... studies analyzed H. pylori genomes of 39 worldwide strains and looked at the protein profiles. In addition, multi-epitope vaccines for therapeutic use have been investigated. Studies on different adjuvants and delivery systems have also given us new insights. This review presents articles from the last...

  17. Invitro immune responses in children following BCG vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayalakshmi V

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is still no consensus on the efficacy of BCG vaccine in the prevention of tuberculosis. This study therefore addressed the question of the magnitude of immunity afforded by BCG, by studying the effector mechanisms of protection in children. The main objectives were to assess the degree of immunity conferred by BCG vaccine in children and to identify the most immunogenic antigen(s of BCG by conducting in-vitro studies. Materials and methods: Children in the age-group of 1 to 10 years, were categorized: (A normal, and vaccinated with BCG during the first year, n=45, (B normal, without scar and with no evident history of vaccination, n=31: and (C children admitted in the hospital with a confirmed diagnosis of tuberculosis, n=31. Fractions of BCG were obtained by lysis, sonication, separation by gel chromatography, HPLC and confirmed by SDS-PAGE. In lymphoproliferative assays PBMC were cultured and stimulated with either Concanavalin-A or Tuberculin or the fractions of BCG. Stimulation indices (SI in lymphoproliferation, CD4/CD8 cells, levels of Interferon-γ (IFN- γ in the culture supernatants were measured by ELISA. Results: The vaccinated children displayed significantly high (P< 0.05 mean values of SI in LTT, CD4/CD8 cell ratio against the unfractionated, 67kDa fraction and BCG-CF Ags. While 100% of the vaccinated children had positive lymphoproliferation indices to BCG-CF, only 8.3% of the unvaccinated children were positive. Conclusion: Some of the components of BCG induced a strong Thl cell response in children. These immunogenic antigens were present in the whole cell lysate. The use of BCG vaccine for tuberculosis is worthwhile till a new vaccine is developed.

  18. Experience of vaccination with inactivated poliomyelitis vaccines in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudnadóttir, M

    1981-01-01

    Iceland, as a few other European countries, has used inactivated vaccine against poliomyelitis from the beginning in 1956. No cases of paralytic polio occurred since 1960. For 17 years neither isolations of poliovirus nor suspected cases of the clinical disease have been recorded. Studies on neutralizing antibodies in sera of vaccinees were not too encouraging after 4 injections. A 5th vaccination of IPV was therefore given to those children who lacked antibodies to any type of poliovirus. One month after the 5th injection 70% had antibodies against all 3 types of poliovirus and only 2% lacked antibodies against both types 1 and 3. In countries where no virus to boost immunity exists any longer during the life of an individual it may be necessary to secure booster effects at regular intervals after primary vaccination and later in life. This will be included in the vaccination schedule against polio in Iceland.

  19. Unveiling Unexpected Immune Activities Induced by Your Pneumococcal Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia L. Hurwitz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In modern-day vaccine design, a good pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide vaccine is measured by its ability to induce opsonic antibodies. These antibodies label bacteria for phagocytosis by neutrophils and thereby overcome the capsule’s barrier function. Doyle and Pirofski have raised a serious challenge to the current paradigm by describing anti-capsular antibodies that are highly protective but nonopsonic [C.R. Doyle and L. Pirofski, mBio 7(1:e02260-15, 2016, doi:10.1128/mBio.02260-15]. In fact, some functions are not related to neutrophils or phagocytosis at all. An increased awareness of these activities is critical not only for accurate comparisons of vaccine candidates but also for improvements in vaccination outcomes in settings of neutropenia. When vaccine developers select a single gatekeeper assay (e.g., an opsonophagocytic assay for bacteria or a neutralization assay for viruses, promising vaccine candidates may be missed. Doyle and Pirofski stress that multiple functions, not just one, should be investigated to enhance discovery of antibody mechanisms and to best assess vaccine-induced correlates of immune protection.

  20. Addressing parents' concerns: do multiple vaccines overwhelm or weaken the infant's immune system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offit, Paul A; Quarles, Jessica; Gerber, Michael A; Hackett, Charles J; Marcuse, Edgar K; Kollman, Tobias R; Gellin, Bruce G; Landry, Sarah

    2002-01-01

    Recent surveys found that an increasing number of parents are concerned that infants receive too many vaccines. Implicit in this concern is that the infant's immune system is inadequately developed to handle vaccines safely or that multiple vaccines may overwhelm the immune system. In this review, we will examine the following: 1) the ontogeny of the active immune response and the ability of neonates and young infants to respond to vaccines; 2) the theoretic capacity of an infant's immune system; 3) data that demonstrate that mild or moderate illness does not interfere with an infant's ability to generate protective immune responses to vaccines; 4) how infants respond to vaccines given in combination compared with the same vaccines given separately; 5) data showing that vaccinated children are not more likely to develop infections with other pathogens than unvaccinated children; and 6) the fact that infants actually encounter fewer antigens in vaccines today than they did 40 or 100 years ago.

  1. Childhood mortality after oral polio immunisation campaign in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Hedegaard, Kathryn; Sodemann, Morten

    2005-01-01

    for the 6103 children less than 5 years of age in the Bandim Health Project's study area in Guinea-Bissau. Survival was ascertained through regular surveillance from March 1998 until the beginning of the war on June 7, 1998, the end of 1998, or the end of 1999, respectively. The child register was linked...... was not significant for all children under 5 years of age (mortality ratio (MR)=0.46 (0.18-1.15)). However, oral polio vaccination was associated with a beneficial effect for children under 6 months of age at the time of the campaign, the mortality ratio being 0.09 (95% CI 0.01-0.85) in the 3 months before the war.......28-0.69)) and no effect of oral polio vaccine was measurable in this age group. The effect of polio vaccine among children less than 6 months of age could be due to selection bias but might also represent a non-specific beneficial immune stimulation and there is nothing to suggest that OPV might have a negative effect...

  2. Meningococcal vaccines and herd immunity: lessons learned from serogroup C conjugate vaccination programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Caroline L; Maiden, Martin C J

    2014-01-01

    Summary Effective vaccines provide direct protection to immunised individuals, but may also provide benefits to unvaccinated individuals by reducing transmission and hence lowering the risk of infection. Such herd immunity effects have been demonstrated following the introduction of meningococcal serogroup C conjugate (MCC) vaccines, with reductions in disease attack rates in unimmunised individuals and significantly lower serogroup C carriage attributable to the vaccine introduction. In the UK targeting teenagers for immunisation was crucial in maximising indirect effects, as most meningococcal transmission occurs in this age group. Questions remain regarding the duration of herd protection and the most appropriate long-term immunisation strategies. The magnitude of the herd effects following MCC vaccination was largely unanticipated, and has important consequences for the design and evaluation of new meningococcal vaccines. PMID:19538112

  3. Pertussis Maternal Immunization: Narrowing the Knowledge Gaps on the Duration of Transferred Protective Immunity and on Vaccination Frequency

    OpenAIRE

    Gaillard, María Emilia; Bottero, Daniela; Zurita, María Eugenia; Carriquiriborde, Francisco; Martin Aispuro, Pablo; Bartel, Erika; Sabater-Martínez, David; Bravo, María Sol; Castuma, Celina; Hozbor, Daniela Flavia

    2017-01-01

    Maternal safety through pertussis vaccination and subsequent maternal–fetal-antibody transfer are well documented, but information on infant protection from pertussis by such antibodies and by subsequent vaccinations is scarce. Since mice are used extensively for maternal-vaccination studies, we adopted that model to narrow those gaps in our understanding of maternal pertussis immunization. Accordingly, we vaccinated female mice with commercial acellular pertussis (aP) vaccine and measured of...

  4. Decreased immune response to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine after 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdardottir, Sigurveig Th; Center, Kimberly J; Davidsdottir, Katrin; Arason, Vilhjalmur A; Hjalmarsson, Bjorn; Elisdottir, Ragnheidur; Ingolfsdottir, Gunnhildur; Northington, Robert; Scott, Daniel A; Jonsdottir, Ingileif

    2014-01-09

    Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) is used in children at high risk of IPD. PPV is generally not considered to induce immunologic memory, whereas pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) elicit protective antibody responses in infants and induce immunologic memory. Little is known about the characteristics of immune responses to PCV in children who previously received PCV and PPV in series. To characterize immune responses to 13-valent pneumococcal CRM197 conjugate vaccine (PCV13; serotypes 1, 3, 4, 5, 6A, 6B, 7F, 9V, 14, 18C, 19A, 19F, and 23F) in children vaccinated in infancy with 9-valent pneumococcal-meningococcal C-CRM197 conjugate combination vaccine (PCV9-MnCC), followed by a toddler dose of PCV9-MnCC or 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23). Children (n=89) who received PCV9-MnCC in infancy and PPV23 or PCV9-MnCC at age 12 months in a previous (2002-2003) study were vaccinated at age 7.5 years with PCV13; groups PPV23/PCV13 (n=50) and PCV9/PCV13 (n=39). Immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibodies, avidity, and opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) were measured before and at 1 and 4 weeks postvaccination. One week postvaccination, IgG levels increased significantly for all serotypes in both groups, and >97% of vaccinees achieved IgG ≥0.35μg/ml 4 weeks after PCV13 vaccination. The PCV9/PCV13 group had higher IgG responses compared with the PPV23/PCV13 group. The upper limits of the 95% confidence intervals of the PPV23/PCV13:PCV9/PCV13 IgG geometric mean concentration ratios were vaccination of toddlers may compromise subsequent responses to pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. The clinical relevance of this finding is unclear. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Vaccination against bluetongue: safety and immune response in the field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, L; Fricker, R; Hug, M; Hotz, R; Muntwyler, J; Iten, C; Griot, C

    2009-03-01

    Bluetongue, caused by the bluetongue virus serotype 8 has rapidly spread through Europe since 2006. The first cases in Switzerland were detected in October 2007. The European Union and Switzerland launched a vaccination campaign in June 2008. This study aims to demonstrate the safety and the immune response of the three vaccines used in Switzerland under practical conditions in the field. The trial was carried out in cattle, sheep and goats. Based on the results of this study recommendations for the 2009 campaign are presented.

  6. Three-year duration of immunity in cats vaccinated with a canarypox-vectored recombinant rabies virus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jas, D; Coupier, C; Toulemonde, C Edlund; Guigal, P-M; Poulet, H

    2012-11-19

    Despite the availability of efficacious vaccines for animals and humans, rabies is still a major zoonosis. Prevention of rabies in dogs and cats is key for reducing the risk of transmission of this deadly disease to humans. Most veterinary vaccines are adjuvanted inactivated vaccines and have been shown to provide one to four-year duration of immunity. In response to debates about the safety of adjuvanted vaccines in cats, a non-adjuvanted feline rabies vaccine with one-year duration of immunity claim was specifically developed using the canarypoxvirus vector technology. The objective of this study was to validate a vaccination program based on primary vaccination, revaccination one year later and boosters every three years. Seronegative cats were vaccinated at 12 weeks of age and received a booster vaccination one year later. This vaccination regimen induced a strong and sustained antibody response, and all vaccinated animals were protected against virulent rabies challenge carried out 3 years after vaccination. These results validated 3-year duration of immunity after a complete basic vaccination program consisting in primary vaccination from 12 weeks of age followed by revaccination one year later with a non-adjuvanted canarypox-vectored vaccine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Immune response and anamnestic immune response in children after a 3-dose primary hepatitis b vaccination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afzal, M.F.; Sultan, M.A.; Saleemi, A.I.

    2017-01-01

    Diseases caused by Hepatitis B virus (HBV) have a worldwide distribution. Pakistan adopted the recommendations of World Health Organization (WHO) for routine universal infant vaccination against hepatitis B in 2002, currently being administered at 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age in a combination vaccine. This study was conducted to determine the immune response and anamnestic immune response in children, 9 months-10 years of age, after a 3-dose primary Hepatitis B vaccination. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in the Department of Paediatrics, King Edward Medical University/Mayo Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan, from January to June, 2014. A total of 200 children of either sex between the ages of 9 months to 10 years, docu mented to have received 3 doses of hepatitis B vaccines according to Expanded Program of Immunization (6,10,14 weeks) schedule in infancy, were recruited by consecutive sampling. The level of serum anti-HBsAb by ELIZA was measured. Children with anti-HBs titers =10 mIU/mL were considered to be immune. Those with anti-HBsAb levels <10 mIU/mL were offered a booster dose of infant recombinant hepatitis B vaccine. The second serum sample was obtained 21-28 days following the administration of the booster dose and the anamnestic immune response was measured. Data was analysed using SPSS 17 to determine the relation between time interval since last vaccination and antibody titer. Chi square test was applied. Results: Of the 200 children, protective antibody response was found in 58 percent. Median serological response was 18.60 (range 2.82-65.15). Antibody levels were found to have a statistically significant (p-value 0.019) negative correlation with the time since last administration of vaccine. A booster dose of Hepatitis B vaccine was administered to all non-responders, with each registering a statistically significant (p-value 0.00) anamnestic response. Conclusion: The vaccination schedule with short dosage interval was unable to provide

  8. Frequencies of peripheral immune cells in older adults following seasonal influenza vaccination with an adjuvanted vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldeck, David; Theeten, Heidi; Hassouneh, Fakhri; Oettinger, Lilly; Wistuba-Hamprecht, Kilian; Cools, Nathalie; Tsitsilonis, Ourania E; Pawelec, Graham

    2017-08-03

    As age increases, immune responses and consequently protection following vaccination to seasonal influenza is commonly believed to decrease. Possible drivers of this immune dysfunction include immunosenescence, repeated exposure to the same seasonal influenza antigens, and prior infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV). Here, to determine immune parameters distinguishing vaccine humoral responders (R) from non-responders (NR) following vaccination, we surveyed broad peripheral blood "cellular immune correlates" of older adults vaccinated with Fluad® (an adjuvanted subunit influenza vaccine containing strains H1N1, H3N2 and B). Phenotyping included αβ-T-cells, γδ-T-cells, B-cells and myeloid cells. The frequencies of most of these lymphocyte phenotypes were found to be similar in R and NR, although perhaps counterintuitively, one of the few differences seen between the two groups was higher frequencies of regulatory T-cells in R. These differences were more prominent for responses to the vaccine strains H1N1 and H3N2 than to the B strain, and in CMV-seropositive than CMV-seronegative elderly. Further, frequencies of early-differentiated CD4+ T-cells tended to be higher and frequencies of memory CD4+ T-cells tended to be lower in R than NR. There were also differences in B-cells, with higher frequencies in R compared to NR. To the best of our knowledge, these results are the first to report such differences in elderly people responding or failing to respond to adjuvanted seasonal influenza vaccination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Quantitating cellular immune responses to cancer vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, H Kim

    2003-06-01

    While the future of immunotherapy in the treatment of cancer is promising, it is difficult to compare the various approaches because monitoring assays have not been standardized in approach or technique. Common assays for measuring the immune response need to be established so that these assays can one day serve as surrogate markers for clinical response. Assays that accurately detect and quantitate T-cell-mediated, antigen-specific immune responses are particularly desired. However, to date, increases in the number of cytotoxic T cells through immunization have not been correlated with clinical tumor regression. Ideally, then, a T-cell assay not only needs to be sensitive, specific, reliable, reproducible, simple, and quick to perform, it must also demonstrate close correlation with clinical outcome. Assays currently used to measure T-cell response are delayed-type hypersensitivity testing, flow cytometry using peptide major histocompatibility complex tetramers, lymphoproliferation assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay, enzyme-linked immunospot assay, cytokine flow cytometry, direct cytotoxicity assay, measurement of cytokine mRNA by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, and limiting dilution analysis. The purpose of this review is to describe the attributes of each test and compare their advantages and disadvantages.

  10. Vaccines: Shaping global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliusi, Sonia; Ting, Ching-Chia; Lobos, Fernando

    2017-03-14

    The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network (DCVMN) gathered leaders in immunization programs, vaccine manufacturing, representatives of the Argentinean Health Authorities and Pan American Health Organization, among other global health stakeholders, for its 17th Annual General Meeting in Buenos Aires, to reflect on how vaccines are shaping global health. Polio eradication and elimination of measles and rubella from the Americas is a result of successful collaboration, made possible by timely supply of affordable vaccines. After decades of intense competition for high-value markets, collaboration with developing countries has become critical, and involvement of multiple manufacturers as well as public- and private-sector investments are essential, for developing new vaccines against emerging infectious diseases. The recent Zika virus outbreak and the accelerated Ebola vaccine development exemplify the need for international partnerships to combat infectious diseases. A new player, Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) has made its entrance in the global health community, aiming to stimulate research preparedness against emerging infections. Face-to-face panel discussions facilitated the dialogue around challenges, such as risks of viability to vaccine development and regulatory convergence, to improve access to sustainable vaccine supply. It was discussed that joint efforts to optimizing regulatory pathways in developing countries, reducing registration time by up to 50%, are required. Outbreaks of emerging infections and the global Polio eradication and containment challenges are reminders of the importance of vaccines' access, and of the importance of new public-private partnerships. Copyright © 2017.

  11. Evaluation of mucosal and systemic immune responses elicited by GPI-0100- adjuvanted influenza vaccine delivered by different immunization strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Liu

    Full Text Available Vaccines for protection against respiratory infections should optimally induce a mucosal immune response in the respiratory tract in addition to a systemic immune response. However, current parenteral immunization modalities generally fail to induce mucosal immunity, while mucosal vaccine delivery often results in poor systemic immunity. In order to find an immunization strategy which satisfies the need for induction of both mucosal and systemic immunity, we compared local and systemic immune responses elicited by two mucosal immunizations, given either by the intranasal (IN or the intrapulmonary (IPL route, with responses elicited by a mucosal prime followed by a systemic boost immunization. The study was conducted in BALB/c mice and the vaccine formulation was an influenza subunit vaccine supplemented with GPI-0100, a saponin-derived adjuvant. While optimal mucosal antibody titers were obtained after two intrapulmonary vaccinations, optimal systemic antibody responses were achieved by intranasal prime followed by intramuscular boost. The latter strategy also resulted in the best T cell response, yet, it was ineffective in inducing nose or lung IgA. Successful induction of secretory IgA, IgG and T cell responses was only achieved with prime-boost strategies involving intrapulmonary immunization and was optimal when both immunizations were given via the intrapulmonary route. Our results underline that immunization via the lungs is particularly effective for priming as well as boosting of local and systemic immune responses.

  12. Analysis of cell-mediated immune responses in support of dengue vaccine development efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Alan L; Currier, Jeffrey R; Friberg, Heather L; Mathew, Anuja

    2015-12-10

    Dengue vaccine development has made significant strides, but a better understanding of how vaccine-induced immune responses correlate with vaccine efficacy can greatly accelerate development, testing, and deployment as well as ameliorate potential risks and safety concerns. Advances in basic immunology knowledge and techniques have already improved our understanding of cell-mediated immunity of natural dengue virus infection and vaccination. We conclude that the evidence base is adequate to argue for inclusion of assessments of cell-mediated immunity as part of clinical trials of dengue vaccines, although further research to identify useful correlates of protective immunity is needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. CHRONOVAC VOYAGEUR: A study of the immune response to yellow fever vaccine among infants previously immunized against measles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goujon, Catherine; Gougeon, Marie-Lise; Tondeur, Laura; Poirier, Béatrice; Seffer, Valérie; Desprès, Philippe; Consigny, Paul-Henri; Vray, Muriel

    2017-10-27

    For administration of multiple live attenuated vaccines, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends either simultaneous immunization or period of at least 28days between vaccines, due to a possible reduction in the immune response to either vaccine. The main objective of this study was to compare the immune response to measles (alone or combined with mumps and rubella) and yellow fever vaccines among infants aged 6-24months living in a yellow fever non-endemic country who had receivedmeasles and yellow fever vaccines before travelling to a yellow fever endemic area. A retrospective, multicenter case-control study was carried out in 7 travel clinics in the Paris area from February 1st 2011 to march 31, 2015. Cases were defined as infants immunized with the yellow fever vaccine and with the measles vaccine, either alone or in combination with mumps and rubella vaccine, with a period of 1-27days between each immunization. For each case, two controls were matched based on sex and age: a first control group (control 1) was defined as infants having received the measles vaccine and the yellow fever vaccine simultaneously; a second control group (control 2) was defined as infants who had a period of more than 27days between receiving the measles vaccine and yellow fever vaccine. The primary endpoint of the study was the percentage of infants with protective immunity against yellow fever, measured by the titer of neutralizing antibodies in a venous blood sample. One hundred and thirty-one infants were included in the study (62 cases, 50 infants in control 1 and 19 infants in control 2). Of these, 127 (96%) were shown to have a protective titer of yellow fever antibodies. All 4 infants without a protective titer of yellow fever antibodies were part of control group 1. The measles vaccine, alone or combined with mumps and rubella vaccines, appears to have no influence on humoral immune response to the yellow fever vaccine when administered between 1 and 27

  14. Vaccines expressing the innate immune modulator EAT-2 elicit potent effector memory T lymphocyte responses despite pre-existing vaccine immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldhamen, Yasser Ali; Seregin, Sergey S; Schuldt, Nathaniel J; Rastall, David P W; Liu, Chyong-Jy J; Godbehere, Sarah; Amalfitano, Andrea

    2012-08-01

    The mixed results from recent vaccine clinical trials targeting HIV-1 justify the need to enhance the potency of HIV-1 vaccine platforms in general. Use of first-generation recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 (rAd5) platforms failed to protect vaccinees from HIV-1 infection. One hypothesis is that the rAd5-based vaccine failed due to the presence of pre-existing Ad5 immunity in many vaccines. We recently confirmed that EAT-2-expressing rAd5 vectors uniquely activate the innate immune system and improve cellular immune responses against rAd5-expressed Ags, inclusive of HIV/Gag. In this study, we report that use of the rAd5-EAT-2 vaccine can also induce potent cellular immune responses to HIV-1 Ags despite the presence of Ad5-specific immunity. Compared to controls expressing a mutant SH2 domain form of EAT-2, Ad5 immune mice vaccinated with an rAd5-wild-type EAT-2 HIV/Gag-specific vaccine formulation significantly facilitated the induction of several arms of the innate immune system. These responses positively correlated with an improved ability of the vaccine to induce stronger effector memory T cell-biased, cellular immune responses to a coexpressed Ag despite pre-existing anti-Ad5 immunity. Moreover, inclusion of EAT-2 in the vaccine mixture improves the generation of polyfunctional cytolytic CD8(+) T cell responses as characterized by enhanced production of IFN-γ, TNF-α, cytotoxic degranulation, and increased in vivo cytolytic activity. These data suggest a new approach whereby inclusion of EAT-2 expression in stringent human vaccination applications can provide a more effective vaccine against HIV-1 specifically in Ad5 immune subjects.

  15. Impact of community-based immunization services.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sing K

    1986-07-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge, attitude and practice of mothers toward childhood immunization was surveyed in 2 neighborhoods in greater Bombay, India. The areas were a slum of 75,000 called Malavani, and a nearby area called Kharodi. Measles and triple (DPT or DPV vaccines were available at local health centers, 1.5 km away at the most; oral polio vaccines were given by field workers to the Malavani community to children in their homes, but only in the center for those in Kharodi. BCG tuberculosis vaccinations were available to all, but from a center 5 km away. Malavani mothers had significantly better knowledge of triple and measles vaccines, but knowledge about BCG was similar in the 2 groups. Slightly more women from Kharodi expressed negative attitudes toward immunization. Coverage of children, established from clinic records, was significantly better in the Malavani area: 91% vs. 58% for polio; 71% vs 61% for BCG (n.s.; 85% vs. 55% for triple vaccine; and 21% vs 1% for measles. Evidently, visitation by field teams with polio vaccinations affected mothers′ knowledge and practice for other immunizations available only at the center.

  16. Evaluation of specific humoral immune response in pigs vaccinated with cell culture adapted classical swine fever vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Mrinal K; Sarma, D K; Das, B C; Deka, P; Kalita, D; Dutta, J B; Mahato, G; Sarma, S; Roychoudhury, P

    2016-03-01

    To determine an efficient vaccination schedule on the basis of the humoral immune response of cell culture adapted live classical swine fever virus (CSFV) vaccinated pigs and maternally derived antibody (MDA) in piglets of vaccinated sows. A cell culture adapted live CSFV vaccine was subjected to different vaccination schedule in the present study. Serum samples were collected before vaccination (day 0) and 7, 14, 28, 42, 56, 180, 194, 208, 270, 284 and 298 days after vaccination and were analyzed by liquid phase blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Moreover, MDA titre was detected in the serum of piglets at 21 and 42 days of age after farrowing of the vaccinated sows. On 28 days after vaccination, serum samples of 83.33% vaccinated pigs showed the desirable level of antibody titer (log10 1.50 at 1:32 dilution), whereas 100% animals showed log10 1.50 at 1:32 dilution after 42 days of vaccination. Animals received a booster dose at 28 and 180 days post vaccination showed stable high-level antibody titre till the end of the study period. Further, piglets born from pigs vaccinated 1 month after conception showed the desirable level of MDA up to 42 days of age. CSF causes major losses in pig industry. Lapinised vaccines against CSFV are used routinely in endemic countries. In the present study, a cell culture adapted live attenuated vaccine has been evaluated. Based on the level of humoral immune response of vaccinated pigs and MDA titer in piglets born from immunized sows, it may be concluded that the more effective vaccination schedule for prevention of CSF is primary vaccination at 2 months of age followed by booster vaccination at 28 and 180 days post primary vaccination and at 1 month of gestation.

  17. Delayed vaccine virus replication in chickens vaccinated subcutaneously with an immune complex infectious bursal disease vaccine: Quantification of vaccine virus by real-time polymerase chain reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Iván, Judit; Velhner, Maja; Ursu, Krisztina; Germán, Péter; Mató, Tamás; Drén, Csaba Nick; Mészáros, János

    2005-01-01

    The distribution of the immune complex vaccine virus for infectious bursal disease (IBD) in tissue was examined and the viral loads of the organs were quantitatively compared. One-day-old specific pathogen free (SPF) and maternally immune broiler chickens were injected subcutaneously with the vaccine. Lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues were collected at various time intervals during the experiment to test for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV)-RNA by using reverse transcriptase-polymerase ...

  18. Evaluating Childhood Vaccination Coverage of NIP Vaccines: Coverage Survey versus Zhejiang Provincial Immunization Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu; Chen, Yaping

    2017-07-11

    Vaccination coverage in Zhejiang province, east China, is evaluated through repeated coverage surveys. The Zhejiang provincial immunization information system (ZJIIS) was established in 2004 with links to all immunization clinics. ZJIIS has become an alternative to quickly assess the vaccination coverage. To assess the current completeness and accuracy on the vaccination coverage derived from ZJIIS, we compared the estimates from ZJIIS with the estimates from the most recent provincial coverage survey in 2014, which combined interview data with verified data from ZJIIS. Of the enrolled 2772 children in the 2014 provincial survey, the proportions of children with vaccination cards and registered in ZJIIS were 94.0% and 87.4%, respectively. Coverage estimates from ZJIIS were systematically higher than the corresponding estimates obtained through the survey, with a mean difference of 4.5%. Of the vaccination doses registered in ZJIIS, 16.7% differed from the date recorded in the corresponding vaccination cards. Under-registration in ZJIIS significantly influenced the coverage estimates derived from ZJIIS. Therefore, periodic coverage surveys currently provide more complete and reliable results than the estimates based on ZJIIS alone. However, further improvement of completeness and accuracy of ZJIIS will likely allow more reliable and timely estimates in future.

  19. Inequity in Access to Childhood Immunization in Enugu Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-03-21

    %; oral polio vaccine 3, 78.0%; hepatitis B3, 65.2%; and measles, 55.8%. The full immunization rates for children 1–5 years and <1 year were 49.8% and 65.2%, respectively. The very poor, poor, and least poor socioeconomic ...

  20. Polymorphism in liver-stage malaria vaccine candidate proteins: immune evasion and implications for vaccine design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Katie L; Wilson, Kirsty L; Plebanski, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The pre-erythrocytic stage of infection by malaria parasites represents a key target for vaccines that aim to eradicate malaria. Two important broad immune evasion strategies that can interfere with vaccine efficacy include the induction of dendritic cell (DC) dysfunction and regulatory T cells (Tregs) by blood-stage malaria parasites, leading to inefficient priming of T cells targeting liver-stage infections. The parasite also uses 'surgical strike' strategies, whereby polymorphism in pre-erythrocytic antigens can interfere with host immunity. Specifically, we review how even single amino acid changes in T cell epitopes can lead to loss of binding to major histocompatibility complex (MHC), lack of cross-reactivity, or antagonism and immune interference, where simultaneous or sequential stimulation with related variants of the same T cell epitope can cause T cell anergy or the conversion of effector to immunosuppressive T cell phenotypes.

  1. Pertussis Maternal Immunization: Narrowing the Knowledge Gaps on the Duration of Transferred Protective Immunity and on Vaccination Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Emilia Gaillard

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Maternal safety through pertussis vaccination and subsequent maternal–fetal-antibody transfer are well documented, but information on infant protection from pertussis by such antibodies and by subsequent vaccinations is scarce. Since mice are used extensively for maternal-vaccination studies, we adopted that model to narrow those gaps in our understanding of maternal pertussis immunization. Accordingly, we vaccinated female mice with commercial acellular pertussis (aP vaccine and measured offspring protection against Bordetella pertussis challenge and specific-antibody levels with or without revaccination. Maternal immunization protected the offspring against pertussis, with that immune protection transferred to the offspring lasting for several weeks, as evidenced by a reduction (4–5 logs, p < 0.001 in the colony-forming-units recovered from the lungs of 16-week-old offspring. Moreover, maternal-vaccination-acquired immunity from the first pregnancy still conferred protection to offspring up to the fourth pregnancy. Under the conditions of our experimental protocol, protection to offspring from the aP-induced immunity is transferred both transplacentally and through breastfeeding. Adoptive-transfer experiments demonstrated that transferred antibodies were more responsible for the protection detected in offspring than transferred whole spleen cells. In contrast to reported findings, the protection transferred was not lost after the vaccination of infant mice with the same or other vaccine preparations, and conversely, the immunity transferred from mothers did not interfere with the protection conferred by infant vaccination with the same or different vaccines. These results indicated that aP-vaccine immunization of pregnant female mice conferred protective immunity that is transferred both transplacentally and via offspring breastfeeding without compromising the protection boostered by subsequent infant vaccination. These results

  2. Pertussis Maternal Immunization: Narrowing the Knowledge Gaps on the Duration of Transferred Protective Immunity and on Vaccination Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, María Emilia; Bottero, Daniela; Zurita, María Eugenia; Carriquiriborde, Francisco; Martin Aispuro, Pablo; Bartel, Erika; Sabater-Martínez, David; Bravo, María Sol; Castuma, Celina; Hozbor, Daniela Flavia

    2017-01-01

    Maternal safety through pertussis vaccination and subsequent maternal–fetal-antibody transfer are well documented, but information on infant protection from pertussis by such antibodies and by subsequent vaccinations is scarce. Since mice are used extensively for maternal-vaccination studies, we adopted that model to narrow those gaps in our understanding of maternal pertussis immunization. Accordingly, we vaccinated female mice with commercial acellular pertussis (aP) vaccine and measured offspring protection against Bordetella pertussis challenge and specific-antibody levels with or without revaccination. Maternal immunization protected the offspring against pertussis, with that immune protection transferred to the offspring lasting for several weeks, as evidenced by a reduction (4–5 logs, p maternal-vaccination-acquired immunity from the first pregnancy still conferred protection to offspring up to the fourth pregnancy. Under the conditions of our experimental protocol, protection to offspring from the aP-induced immunity is transferred both transplacentally and through breastfeeding. Adoptive-transfer experiments demonstrated that transferred antibodies were more responsible for the protection detected in offspring than transferred whole spleen cells. In contrast to reported findings, the protection transferred was not lost after the vaccination of infant mice with the same or other vaccine preparations, and conversely, the immunity transferred from mothers did not interfere with the protection conferred by infant vaccination with the same or different vaccines. These results indicated that aP-vaccine immunization of pregnant female mice conferred protective immunity that is transferred both transplacentally and via offspring breastfeeding without compromising the protection boostered by subsequent infant vaccination. These results—though admittedly not necessarily immediately extrapolatable to humans—nevertheless enabled us to test hypotheses under

  3. Awareness of pulse polio immunisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomber, S; Taneja, D K; Mohan, K

    1996-01-01

    Mass polio immunisation campaign was launched in the national capital territory of Delhi with 2 doses of polio vaccine to be administered to children upto 3 years of age on October and December 4, 1994 respectively. Massive information, education & communication (IEC) efforts through mass media and interpersonal communication preceded the dates of the campaign. A study to assess the awareness of general population was carried out by interviewing 225 adult residents of Delhi using a structured questionnaire. These were drawn by two stage stratified random sampling. Zonewise assembly segments in the first stage and census enumeration blocks in the second stage formed the sampling frame. The study, carried out 3 days prior to date of administration of first dose of oral polio, revealed that 60.4% of population was aware of the programme being launched and 31.6% about aim of the programme. None of the respondents were aware of all the specific parameters put together correctly viz., objective, immunisation days, age group & immunisation status of children. The higher level of awareness was directly proportional to the level of education. The overwhelming success of the programme was indicated by immunisation of > 90% children upto 3 years of age all over Delhi in the first phase of the programme. The key to success of the programme despite low awareness is explained on the basis of unflinching efforts put in by vaccine centre level committees, integrated child development scheme (ICDS) and urban basic service (UBS) functionaries in mobilising people to reach various vaccination centres. Other states planning to launch such mass campaigns should pay attention to social mobilisation in addition to IEC efforts for successful completion of the programme.

  4. Demonstration of cross-protective vaccine immunity against an emerging pathogenic Ebolavirus Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa E Hensley

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge in developing vaccines for emerging pathogens is their continued evolution and ability to escape human immunity. Therefore, an important goal of vaccine research is to advance vaccine candidates with sufficient breadth to respond to new outbreaks of previously undetected viruses. Ebolavirus (EBOV vaccines have demonstrated protection against EBOV infection in nonhuman primates (NHP and show promise in human clinical trials but immune protection occurs only with vaccines whose antigens are matched to the infectious challenge species. A 2007 hemorrhagic fever outbreak in Uganda demonstrated the existence of a new EBOV species, Bundibugyo (BEBOV, that differed from viruses covered by current vaccine candidates by up to 43% in genome sequence. To address the question of whether cross-protective immunity can be generated against this novel species, cynomolgus macaques were immunized with DNA/rAd5 vaccines expressing ZEBOV and SEBOV glycoprotein (GP prior to lethal challenge with BEBOV. Vaccinated subjects developed robust, antigen-specific humoral and cellular immune responses against the GP from ZEBOV as well as cellular immunity against BEBOV GP, and immunized macaques were uniformly protected against lethal challenge with BEBOV. This report provides the first demonstration of vaccine-induced protective immunity against challenge with a heterologous EBOV species, and shows that Ebola vaccines capable of eliciting potent cellular immunity may provide the best strategy for eliciting cross-protection against newly emerging heterologous EBOV species.

  5. Vaccines today, vaccines tomorrow: a perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucq, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Vaccines are considered as one of the major contributions of the 20th century and one of the most cost effective public health interventions. The International Vaccine Institute has as a mission to discover, develop and deliver new and improved vaccines against infectious diseases that affects developing nations. If Louis Pasteur is known across the globe, vaccinologists like Maurice Hilleman, Jonas Salk and Charles Mérieux are known among experts only despite their contribution to global health. Thanks to a vaccine, smallpox has been eradicated, polio has nearly disappeared, Haemophilus influenzae B, measles and more recently meningitis A are controlled in many countries. While a malaria vaccine is undergoing phase 3, International Vaccine Institute, in collaboration with an Indian manufacturer has brought an oral inactivated cholera vaccine to pre-qualification. The field of vaccinology has undergone major changes thanks to philanthropists such as Bill and Melinda Gates, initiatives like the Decade of Vaccines and public private partnerships. Current researches on vaccines have more challenging targets like the dengue viruses, malaria, human immunodeficiency virus, the respiratory syncytial virus and nosocomial diseases. Exciting research is taking place on new adjuvants, nanoparticles, virus like particles and new route of administration. An overcrowded infant immunization program, anti-vaccine groups, immunizing a growing number of elderlies and delivering vaccines to difficult places are among challenges faced by vaccinologists and global health experts.

  6. Potential use of salivary markers for longitudinal monitoring of inflammatory immune responses to vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lim, Pei Wen; Garssen, Johan; Sandalova, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Vaccination, designed to trigger a protective immune response against infection, is a trigger for mild inflammatory responses. Vaccination studies can address the question of inflammation initiation, levels, and resolution as well as its regulation for respective studied pathogens. Such studies

  7. Enhanced pulmonary immunization with aerosolized inactivated influenza vaccine containing delta inulin adjuvant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murugappan, Senthil; Frijlink, Henderik W.; Petrovsky, Nikolai; Hinrichs, Wouter L. J.

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination is the primary intervention to contain influenza virus spread during seasonal and pandemic outbreaks. Pulmonary vaccination is gaining increasing attention for its ability to induce both local mucosal and systemic immune responses without the need for invasive injections. However,

  8. Colostral immunity in piglets from sows vaccinated with inactivated Aujeszky disease virus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, G; Jakubik, J

    1979-01-01

    Neutralizing antibodies against ADV were transmitted from sows, vaccinated with inactivated ADV adjuvanted with DEAE dextran, to their offspring via colostrum. The suckling piglets were protected by colostral immunity against contact infection with ADV at week 1 p.p., however, they were not protected against i.n. infection (10(8) TCD50). At 2 and 3 weeks p.p. all the piglets were protected against both contact infection and i.n. infection. At 4 weeks p.p. 50 per cent of the litter were protected against i.n. infection, in spite of very low antibody titres (1:2--1:4). The colostral antibodies did not interfere with active antibody response when the piglets were vaccinated with the inactivated vaccine from 2 weeks p.p. onward. Lymphocytes from suckling piglets of a vaccinated sow showed in vitro reactivity (enhanced 3H-thymidine incorporation) against ADV and BHK antigen, both contained in the vaccine used for the immunization of the sow.

  9. [Analysis on the adverse events following immunization of 10 infants death after hepatitis B vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fu-Zhen; Cui, Fu-Qiang; Liu, Da-Wei

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate the safety of Hepatitis B vaccine by analyzing the 10 infants death after Hepatitis B vaccination. Collect the reporting data from the public health emergencies report system of China Disease Prevention and Control System. In the 10 death cases after hepatitis B vaccination, 2 cases would be acute anaphylactic shock caused by the vaccination, and the other 8 death cases were not related to vaccination. The hepatitis B vaccine of China were safety, there were very few death cases of allergic reactions following hepatitis B vaccination. We should standardize the vaccination in order to reduce the adverse events following immunization.

  10. Herd immunity and pneumococcal conjugate vaccine: a quantitative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Michael; Barskey, Albert; Baughman, Wendy; Barker, Lawrence; Whitney, Cynthia G; Shaw, Kate M; Orenstein, Walter; Stephens, David S

    2007-07-20

    Invasive pneumococcal disease in older children and adults declined markedly after introduction in 2000 of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine for young children. An empirical quantitative model was developed to estimate the herd (indirect) effects on the incidence of invasive disease among persons >or=5 years of age induced by vaccination of young children with 1, 2, or >or=3 doses of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, Prevnar (PCV7), containing serotypes 4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F and 23F. From 1994 to 2003, cases of invasive pneumococcal disease were prospectively identified in Georgia Health District-3 (eight metropolitan Atlanta counties) by Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs). From 2000 to 2003, vaccine coverage levels of PCV7 for children aged 19-35 months in Fulton and DeKalb counties (of Atlanta) were estimated from the National Immunization Survey (NIS). Based on incidence data and the estimated average number of doses received by 15 months of age, a Poisson regression model was fit, describing the trend in invasive pneumococcal disease in groups not targeted for vaccination (i.e., adults and older children) before and after the introduction of PCV7. Highly significant declines in all the serotypes contained in PCV7 in all unvaccinated populations (5-19, 20-39, 40-64, and >64 years) from 2000 to 2003 were found under the model. No significant change in incidence was seen from 1994 to 1999, indicating rates were stable prior to vaccine introduction. Among unvaccinated persons 5+ years of age, the modeled incidence of disease caused by PCV7 serotypes as a group dropped 38.4%, 62.0%, and 76.6% for 1, 2, and 3 doses, respectively, received on average by the population of children by the time they are 15 months of age. Incidence of serotypes 14 and 23F had consistent significant declines in all unvaccinated age groups. In contrast, the herd immunity effects on vaccine-related serotype 6A incidence were inconsistent. Increasing trends of non-vaccine

  11. Trained innate immunity as underlying mechanism for the long-term, nonspecific effects of vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blok, Bastiaan A; Arts, Rob J W; van Crevel, Reinout; Benn, Christine Stabell; Netea, Mihai G

    2015-09-01

    An increasing body of evidence shows that the innate immune system has adaptive characteristics that involve a heterologous memory of past insults. Both experimental models and proof-of-principle clinical trials show that innate immune cells, such as monocytes, macrophages, and NK cells, can provide protection against certain infections in vaccination models independently of lymphocytes. This process is regulated through epigenetic reprogramming of innate immune cells and has been termed "trained immunity." It has been hypothesized that induction of trained immunity is responsible for the protective, nonspecific effects induced by vaccines, such as BCG, measles vaccination, and other whole-microorganism vaccines. In this review, we will present the mechanisms of trained immunity responsible for the long-lasting effects of vaccines on the innate immune system. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  12. Vaccination Status of Pneumococcal and Other Vaccines in 444 Liver Transplant Patients Compared to a Representative Population Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltermann, Birgitta; Herwig, Anna; Dehnen, Dorothea; Herzer, Kerstin

    2016-04-07

    Studies have documented deficits of pneumococcal and other vaccinations in kidney and lung transplant patients, but the vaccination status of liver transplant (LT) recipients is unknown. This cross-sectional study investigated the prevalence of immunizations among LT patients at a large university medical center compared to a representative general population sample. In 2014, all LT patients (>18 years of age) were asked for their vaccination documents. The immunization rates for pneumococcal and other vaccine-preventable diseases were calculated. LT patients' rates for tetanus, diphtheria, and polio vaccinations were compared to a national reference group. Because these vaccinations are recommended for both groups, pneumococcal and influenza vaccination rates of LT patients were compared to those of seniors (>65 years of age) from a national sample. We found that 444 of 581 LT patients (76.4%) had evaluable vaccination documents. Only 60% of the patients received at least 1 pneumococcal vaccination. Insufficient immunization rates (≥1 vaccination/lifetime prevalence) were also documented for other vaccine-preventable diseases: hepatitis B 64%, hepatitis A 48%, tetanus 87%, diphtheria 79%, polio 72%, pertussis 38%, and seasonal influenza (the preceding season) 51%. Only 0.7% (n=3) of LT patients had received all vaccinations as recommended. Similar deficits were documented in the national sample: tetanus 96%, diphtheria 82%, polio 86%, and pertussis 35%. LT patients received pneumococcal vaccines twice as frequently compared to seniors (60% vs. 31%), while influenza vaccination rates were comparable (51% vs. 45%). In agreement with studies addressing other solid organ transplant recipients, vaccination coverage of LT patients and the general population needs to be improved.

  13. Vaccination elicits correlated immune and clinical responses in glioblastoma multiforme patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Christopher J; Black, Keith L; Liu, Gentao; Mazer, Mia; Zhang, Xiao-xue; Pepkowitz, Samuel; Goldfinger, Dennis; Ng, Hiushan; Irvin, Dwain; Yu, John S

    2008-07-15

    Cancer vaccine trials have failed to yield robust immune-correlated clinical improvements as observed in animal models, fueling controversy over the utility of human cancer vaccines. Therapeutic vaccination represents an intriguing additional therapy for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM; grade 4 glioma), which has a dismal prognosis and treatment response, but only early phase I vaccine trial results have been reported. Immune and clinical responses from a phase II GBM vaccine trial are reported here. IFN-gamma responsiveness was quantified in peripheral blood of 32 GBM patients given therapeutic dendritic cell vaccines. Posttreatment times to tumor progression (TTP) and survival (TTS) were compared in vaccine responders and nonresponders and were correlated with immune response magnitudes. GBM patients (53%) exhibited >or=1.5-fold vaccine-enhanced cytokine responses. Endogenous antitumor responses of similar magnitude occurred in 22% of GBM patients before vaccination. Vaccine responders exhibited significantly longer TTS and TTP relative to nonresponders. Immune enhancement in vaccine responders correlated logarithmically with TTS and TTP spanning postvaccine chemotherapy, but not with initial TTP spanning vaccination alone. This is the first report of a progressive correlation between cancer clinical outcome and T-cell responsiveness after therapeutic vaccination in humans and the first tracing of such correlation to therapeutically exploitable tumor alteration. As such, our findings offer unique opportunities to identify cellular and molecular components of clinically meaningful antitumor immunity in humans.

  14. Review of the Oral Polio Vaccineimmunization Coverage with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    routine and supplemental) in Zambia from 2000 to 2009, with the view of identifying opportunities for system strengthening, given that routine immunization is the “bed rock” for polio eradication. Design: A retrospective descriptive analysis design ...

  15. Uptake of oral rotavirus vaccine and timeliness of routine immunization in Brazil’s National Immunization Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Brendan; Samad, Samia; de Moraes, José Cássio; Tate, Jacqueline E.; Danovaro-Holliday, M. Carolina; de Oliveira, Lúcia Helena; Rainey, Jeanette J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In March, 2006, oral rotavirus vaccine was added to Brazil’s infant immunization schedule with recommended upper age limits for initiating (by age 14 weeks) and completing (by age 24 weeks) the two-dose series to minimize age-specific risk of intussusception following rotavirus vaccination. Several years after introduction, estimated coverage with rotavirus vaccine (83%) was lower compared to coverage for other recommended childhood immunizations (≥94%). Methods We analyzed data from Brazil’s national immunization program on uptake of oral rotavirus vaccine by geographic region and compared administrative coverage estimates for first and second doses of oral rotavirus vaccine (Rota1 and Rota2) with first and second doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (DTP-Hib1 and DTP-Hib2). For 27 Brazilian cities, we compared differences between estimated rotavirus and DTP-Hib coverage in 2010 with delayed receipt of DTP-Hib vaccine among a cohort of children surveyed before rotavirus introduction. Results In 2010, infant vaccination coverage was 99.0% for DTP-Hib1 versus 95.2% for Rota1 (3.8% difference), and 98.4% for DTP-Hib2 versus 83.0% for Rota2 (15.4% difference), with substantial regional variation. Differences between DTP-Hib and rotavirus vaccination coverage in Brazilian cities correlated with delay in DTP-Hib vaccination among children surveyed. Age restrictions for initiating and completing the rotavirus vaccination series likely contributed to lower coverage with rotavirus vaccine in Brazil. Conclusion To maximize benefits of rotavirus vaccination, strategies are needed to improve timeliness of routine immunizations; monitoring rotavirus vaccine uptake and intussusception risk is needed to guide further recommendations for rotavirus vaccination. PMID:23313652

  16. THE PRELIMINARY DATA ON NATIONAL IMMUNIZATION SCHEDULE VACCINES COMBINED APPLICATION IN CHILDREN OF 6–7 YEARS OLD

    OpenAIRE

    I. V. Konovalov; O. V. Shamsheva; G. A. El’shina

    2012-01-01

    In the study, safety for influenza vaccine in combination with diphtheria vaccine, tetanus and measles vaccine, rubella vaccine, and epidemic parotitis in children of 6–7 years old was assessed. All vaccines showed good tolerability and low reactogenicity for combined immunization. Influenza «Grippol plus» vaccine is safe and highly immunogenic, and does not cause cross antibody suppression being applied in combination with mentioned National Immunization Schedule vaccines.

  17. THE PRELIMINARY DATA ON NATIONAL IMMUNIZATION SCHEDULE VACCINES COMBINED APPLICATION IN CHILDREN OF 6–7 YEARS OLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Konovalov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the study, safety for influenza vaccine in combination with diphtheria vaccine, tetanus and measles vaccine, rubella vaccine, and epidemic parotitis in children of 6–7 years old was assessed. All vaccines showed good tolerability and low reactogenicity for combined immunization. Influenza «Grippol plus» vaccine is safe and highly immunogenic, and does not cause cross antibody suppression being applied in combination with mentioned National Immunization Schedule vaccines.

  18. System immune response to vaccination on FDG-PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingos, Mark; Howard, Stephanie; Giaclone, Micholas; Kozono, David; Jacene, Heather [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston (United States)

    2016-12-15

    A patient with newly diagnosed right lung cancer had transient 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-avid left axillary lymph nodes and intense splenic FDG uptake on positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT). History revealed that the patient received a left-sided influenza vaccine 2-3 days before the examination. Although inflammatory FDG uptake in ipsilateral axillary nodes is reported, to our knowledge, this is the first report of visualization of the systemic immune response in the spleen related to the influenza vaccination on FDG-PET/CT. The history, splenic uptake and time course on serial FDG-PET/CT helped to avoid a false-positive interpretation for progressing lung cancer and alteration of the radiation therapy plan.

  19. Meningococcal C specific immune responses: immunity in an era of immunization with vaccine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Voer, R.M.

    2010-01-01

    Meningococcal serogroup C conjugate immunization was introduced in the Dutch national immunization schedule at the age of 14 months, together with a large catch-up campaign in 2002. After introduction of this MenC immunization, the incidence of MenC completely disappeared from the immunized

  20. Polio and Post-Polio Syndrome - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Polio and Post-Polio Syndrome URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... XYZ List of All Topics All Polio and Post-Polio Syndrome - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  1. Simplifying influenza vaccination during pandemics: sublingual priming and intramuscular boosting of immune responses with heterologous whole inactivated influenza vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugappan, Senthil; Patil, Harshad P; Frijlink, Henderik W; Huckriede, Anke; Hinrichs, Wouter L J

    2014-03-01

    The best approach to control the spread of influenza virus during a pandemic is vaccination. Yet, an appropriate vaccine is not available early in the pandemic since vaccine production is time consuming. For influenza strains with a high pandemic potential like H5N1, stockpiling of vaccines has been considered but is hampered by rapid antigenic drift of the virus. It has, however, been shown that immunization with a given H5N1 strain can prime the immune system for a later booster with a drifted variant. Here, we investigated whether whole inactivated virus (WIV) vaccine can be processed to tablets suitable for sublingual (s.l.) use and whether s.l. vaccine administration can prime the immune system for a later intramuscular (i.m.) boost with a heterologous vaccine. In vitro results demonstrate that freeze-drying and tableting of WIV did not affect the integrity of the viral proteins or the hemagglutinating properties of the viral particles. Immunization experiments revealed that s.l. priming with WIV (prepared from the H5N1 vaccine strain NIBRG-14) 4 weeks prior to i.m. booster immunization with the same virus strongly enhanced hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) titers against NIBRG-14 and the drifted variant NIBRG-23. Moreover, s.l. (and i.m.) immunization with NIBRG-14 also primed for a subsequent heterologous i.m. booster immunization with NIBRG-23 vaccine. In addition to HI serum antibodies, s.l. priming enhanced lung and nose IgA responses, while i.m. priming enhanced lung IgA but not nose IgA levels. Our results identify s.l. vaccination as a user-friendly method to prime for influenza-specific immune responses toward homologous and drifted variants.

  2. Studies on the immune response of previously infected lambs to vaccination with the radiation attenuated Dictyocaulus filaria vaccine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhar, D.N.; Sharma, R.L.

    1976-01-01

    The immune response of lambs infected with the lungworm, Dictyocaulus filaria to vaccination with the radiation attenuated D.filaria vaccine was studied under experimental conditions. Healthy, un-infected lambs, 4-6 months of age were randomly distributed into three groups. Group one lambs were previously exposed to single or trickle infections of D.filaria before being vaccinated, group two lambs were vaccinated only whereas the group three lambs received neither infection nor were vaccinated. All the lambs were subsequently challanged with normal infective D.filaria larvae. The results of the experiment indicate that the vaccine confers very little or practically no immunity in lambs already exposed to the infection. The significance of these findings in the use of the vaccine for the control of lungworm disease in sheep under field conditions is discussed. (author)

  3. Fewer Doses of HPV Vaccine Result in Immune Response Similar to Three-Dose Regimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Note Fewer doses of HPV vaccine result in immune response similar to three-dose regimen Posted: November 4, ... or three doses of Cervarix. They also measured immune responses of unvaccinated women who, at enrollment, were found ...

  4. Antibody response and maternal immunity upon boosting PRRSV-immune sows with experimental farm-specific and commercial PRRSV vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldhof, Marc F; Van Breedam, Wander; De Jong, Ellen; Lopez Rodriguez, Alfonso; Karniychuk, Uladzimir U; Vanhee, Merijn; Van Doorsselaere, Jan; Maes, Dominiek; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2013-12-27

    The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes reproductive failure in sows and respiratory disease in pigs of all ages. Despite the frequent use of vaccines to maintain PRRSV immunity in sows, little is known on how the currently used vaccines affect the immunity against currently circulating and genetically divergent PRRSV variants in PRRSV-immune sows, i.e. sows that have a pre-existing PRRSV-specific immunity due to previous infection with or vaccination against the virus. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the capacity of commercially available attenuated/inactivated PRRSV vaccines and autogenous inactivated PRRSV vaccines - prepared according to a previously optimized in-house protocol - to boost the antibody immunity against currently circulating PRRSV variants in PRRSV-immune sows. PRRSV isolates were obtained from 3 different swine herds experiencing PRRSV-related problems, despite regular vaccination of gilts and sows against the virus. In a first part of the study, the PRRSV-specific antibody response upon booster vaccination with commercial PRRSV vaccines and inactivated farm-specific PRRSV vaccines was evaluated in PRRSV-immune, non-pregnant replacement sows from the 3 herds. A boost in virus-neutralizing antibodies against the farm-specific isolate was observed in all sow groups vaccinated with the corresponding farm-specific inactivated vaccines. Use of the commercial attenuated EU type vaccine boosted neutralizing antibodies against the farm-specific isolate in sows derived from 2 farms, while use of the commercial attenuated NA type vaccine did not boost farm-specific virus-neutralizing antibodies in any of the sow groups. Interestingly, the commercial inactivated EU type vaccine boosted farm-specific virus-neutralizing antibodies in sows from 1 farm. In the second part of the study, a field trial was performed at one of the farms to evaluate the booster effect of an inactivated farm-specific vaccine and a commercial

  5. Use of DNA vaccination for determination of onset of adaptive immunity in rainbow trout fry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jesper Skou; Lorenzen, Ellen; Kjær, Torben Egil

    2013-01-01

    the duration and nature of the protective immunity induced by the vaccines in the fish. The present work aimed at determination of the smallest size at which specific immunity could be induced in rainbow trout fry by DNA vaccination against viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS). Earlier experiments revealed...... that intramuscular injection of the DNA vaccine encoding the viral glycoprotein G induced protective immunity to VHS in rainbow trout fry of 0.5g.However, the vaccine is known to induce both innate and adaptive protection. The present work therefore aimed at determination of which type of protection the DNA vaccine...... induced in such early life stages of rainbow trout. Vaccination trials were performed with fry at average sizes of 0.25 g and 0.5 g respectively and included both the homologous VHSV G-gene vaccine and a heterologous DNA vaccine encoding the G-protein of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV...

  6. The changing shape of vaccination: improving immune responses through geometrical variations of a microdevice for immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Michael Lawrence; Muller, David Alexander; Depelsenaire, Alexandra Christina Isobel; Pearson, Frances Elizabeth; Wei, Jonathan; Coffey, Jacob; Zhang, Jin; Fernando, Germain J. P.; Kendall, Mark Anthony Fernance

    2016-06-01

    Micro-device use for vaccination has grown in the past decade, with the promise of ease-of-use, painless application, stable solid formulations and greater immune response generation. However, the designs of the highly immunogenic devices (e.g. the gene gun, Nanopatch or laser adjuvantation) require significant energy to enter the skin (30-90 mJ). Within this study, we explore a way to more effectively use energy for skin penetration and vaccination. These modifications change the Nanopatch projections from cylindrical/conical shapes with a density of 20,000 per cm2 to flat-shaped protrusions at 8,000 per cm2, whilst maintaining the surface area and volume that is placed within the skin. We show that this design results in more efficient surface crack initiations, allowing the energy to be more efficiently be deployed through the projections into the skin, with a significant overall increase in penetration depth (50%). Furthermore, we measured a significant increase in localized skin cell death (>2 fold), and resultant infiltrate of cells (monocytes and neutrophils). Using a commercial seasonal trivalent human influenza vaccine (Fluvax 2014), our new patch design resulted in an immune response equivalent to intramuscular injection with approximately 1000 fold less dose, while also being a practical device conceptually suited to widespread vaccination.

  7. SAFETY AND IMMUNOLOGIC EFFICACY OF COMBINED IMMUNIZATION IN CHILDREN AGED 6—7 YEARS WITH VACCINES FROM THE NATIONAL CALENDAR OF PROPHYLACTICS VACCINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Konovalov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We estimated the safety of the vaccination for prevention of influenza with Grippol® plus vaccine alongside with vaccination with combined preparations for the prevention of diphtheria and tetanus (Td and measles, rubella, mumps in children aged 6—7 years. We determined that combined immunization with the indicated vaccines proves good tolerability and low reactogenicity. Vaccine Grippol® Plus shows low reactogenicity , high immunologenicity and does not cause cross-suppression of antibodies in co-administration with other vaccines on vaccination calendar. Also concomitant vaccination with Grippol® plus and other vaccines does not inhibit the development of a specific immune response against influenza.

  8. An Unusual Case of Vaccine-Associated Paralytic Poliomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Desai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article reports a case involving an immunocompetent, previously well child who, despite two previous doses of inactivated poliovirus vaccine, developed severe flaccid paralysis consistent with polio after receiving oral polio vaccine.

  9. [Immunizing is not only a children's matter! : Why vaccinations are also important for adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunze, Ursula; Groman, Ernest

    2017-09-13

    Vaccinations belong to the ten most effective public health achievements worldwide. While immunization programms for children are installed in Europe, vaccinations for adults are not established. However, adult vaccination is extremely meaningful: increasing age means a higher susceptibility to infectious diseases, health problems and multimorbidity will increase. The burden of vaccine-preventable diseases is still high in Europe. Due to immunosenescence (older) adults are less protected against pathogens, antibody titers after vaccinations are lower and immunity lasts shorter. There is striking lack of data of adult vaccination rates and an international consensus regarding adult vaccination recommendations or guidelines are not available in Europe. In only six countries a comprehensive document describing recommended vaccinations for adults is available, among them Austria. The awareness of the importance of adult vaccination over the whole lifetime is not present to the necessary extent in Europe and has to be promoted.

  10. Dengue vaccine safety signal: Immune enhancement, waning immunity, or chance occurrence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessner, Bradford D; Halsey, Neal

    2017-06-14

    A new dengue vaccine was associated with increased risk of hospitalized virologically-confirmed disease during year 3 of follow-up among children age 2-5years. Among hypotheses to explain this finding, we could not distinguish definitively between antibody dependent enhancement, waning immunity, or chance occurrence. However, any theory must account for the following: (a) the signal occurred mainly because of decreased dengue among controls rather than increased dengue among vaccinees; (b) among 48 data points, a statistically significant increase in hospitalization among vaccinated children occurred for only one age group, during one year, and in one region; (c) cumulative risk was similar for vaccinated vs. control children age 2-5years at the end of year 5 and lower for vaccinated vs. control children among older age groups; (d) the protective effect of vaccine against hospitalization decreased from years 1-2 to years 3-5 of follow-up for all age groups and regions. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. [Collective immunity against poliomyelitis among the population of several regions of Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seybil, V B; Malyshkina, L P; Ageeva, O T; Kosolapova, E I; Mnozhina, E G; Groshenkova, E V; Krivtsov, N V; Gurianova, N I; Daltsaeva, M K; Fomina, N S

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this work was to estimate the collective immunity against poliomyelitis among the population of 8 regions and republics of Russia. The rates of the collective immunity against poliomyelitis allow the polio vaccination quality to be estimated and the population protection rate to be simultaneously demonstrated. A total of 8 regions (2138 people) were tested. The antibodies to the polioviruses of 1-3 types were determined against the vaccine Sabin strains in the neutralization test in the RD cell line. As a result, we found that vaccination against poliomyelitis in all observed regions was maintained at the required high level. Thus, the number of people with antibodies to the polio in most regions and age groups approximates or reaches 100%, while GMT is also high. This work demonstrated the necessity of the continuation of vaccination against poliomyelitis and control over collective immunity.

  12. Long-term immune responses to pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in children previously vaccinated with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Nicola P; Ensor, Kathy; Jouve, Sylvie; Northington, Robert; Moscariello, Michele; McGovern, Paul C

    2013-09-01

    Seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) has reduced incidence of vaccine-serotype pneumococcal diseases. Using a single dose of 13-valent pneumoccal conjugate vaccine (PCV13), we evaluated late immune responses 10 years after vaccination with PCV7 in infancy, compared with a PCV7-naïve cohort. In this open-label study, we administered 1 dose of PCV13 to children aged 11-14 years who had previously received PCV7 (PCV7/PCV13) or meningococcal group C conjugate vaccine (MnCC/PCV13) during infancy. We evaluated serotype-specific immunoglobulin G concentrations and opsonophagocytic activity prevaccination and 1 week and 1 month postvaccination. We recorded local reactions and systemic events for 4 days postvaccination and adverse events for 6 months. Seventy-four subjects received PCV13 (PCV7/PCV13, n = 38; MnCC/PCV13, n = 36). Prevaccination with PCV13, >62.9% of subjects had immunoglobulin G concentrations ≥0.35 µg/mL for all serotypes except serotype 4 (28-29%); proportions increased at 1 month postvaccination to 100% for all serotypes except serotypes 3 (PCV7/PCV13, 94.7%; MnCC/PCV13, 97.0%) and 14 (MnCC/PCV13, 97.1%). Immunoglobulin G and opsonophagocytic activity concentrations for the 7 common and 6 additional serotypes were similar in both groups prevaccination and increased in both groups from prevaccination to 1 week and 1 month postvaccination. Local reactions and fever were mild or moderate; no serious adverse events were reported. Late immune responses after a single dose of PCV13 were similar in children aged 11-14 years regardless of previous vaccination with PCV7 or MnCC. PCV13 was immunogenic, safe and well tolerated.

  13. [Bovine neosporosis: general concepts, immunity and perspectives for vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D P; Odeón, A C; Venturini, M C; Campero, C M

    2005-01-01

    Neospora caninum causes abortions in cattle worldwide. The Neospora-cycle of life is heteroxenous. Dogs (Canis familiaris) and coyotes (Canis latrans) are the definitive hosts known at present. Although, transplacental infection is an efficiently mode of transmission in cattle; there are also experimental and field data that prove horizontal transmission. Several techniques are available for diagnosis since neosporosis is recognized as a disease that causes economic losses in cattle. The mechanisms that produce the abortion are not completely understood. The immunomodulation observed during the pregnancy, is associated with a susceptible period where Neospora-abortion can occur. Resistance to the parasite is dependent on T helper cell 1 cytokine responses. This has important repercussions for pregnant female bovine because strong T helper cell 1 cytokine responses are incompatible with successful pregnancy. However, it was demonstrated that chronically infected cows develop immune mechanisms against the abortion caused by a second Neospora-exposure. The comprehension of those mechanisms is needed for the formulation of Neospora-vaccines that prevent bovine neosporosis. General concepts about neosporosis with emphasis in the immune response and perspectives for vaccination are mentioned in the present review.

  14. Intradermal vaccination with un-adjuvanted sub-unit vaccines triggers skin innate immunity and confers protective respiratory immunity in domestic swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Luduec, Jean-Benoît; Debeer, Sabine; Piras, Fabienne; Andréoni, Christine; Boudet, Florence; Laurent, Philippe; Kaiserlian, Dominique; Dubois, Bertrand

    2016-02-10

    Intradermal (ID) vaccination constitutes a promising approach to induce anti-infectious immunity. This route of immunization has mostly been studied with influenza split-virion vaccines. However, the efficacy of ID vaccination for sub-unit vaccines in relation to underlying skin innate immunity remains to be explored for wider application in humans. Relevant animal models that more closely mimic human skin immunity than the widely used mouse models are therefore necessary. Here, we show in domestic swine, which shares striking anatomic and functional properties with human skin, that a single ID delivery of pseudorabies virus (PRV) glycoproteins without added adjuvant is sufficient to trigger adaptive cellular and humoral immune responses, and to confer protection from a lethal respiratory infection with PRV. Analysis of early events at the skin injection site revealed up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine genes, recruitment of neutrophils and monocytes and accumulation of inflammatory DC. We further show that the sustained induction of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes results from the combined effects of skin puncture, liquid injection in the dermis and viral antigens. These data highlight that immune protection against respiratory infection can be induced by ID vaccination with a subunit vaccine and reveal that adjuvant requirements are circumvented by the mechanical and antigenic stress caused by ID injection, which triggers innate immunity and mobilization of inflammatory DC at the immunization site. ID vaccination with sub-unit vaccines may thus represent a safe and efficient solution for protection against respiratory infections in swine and possibly also in humans, given the similarity of skin structure and function in both species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Bronchoalveolar lavage is an ideal tool in evaluation of local immune response of pigs vaccinated with Pasteurella multocida bacterin vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiney George

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to study the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL technique in evaluating the local immune response of pig immunized with Pasteurella multocida bacterin vaccine. Materials and Methods: Weaned piglets were immunized with formalin-inactivated P52 strain of P. multocida bacterin and evaluated for pulmonary immune response in BAL fluid. BAL was performed before vaccination and at different post vaccination days. The BAL fluid was assayed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to study the development of P. multocida specific antibody isotypes and also evaluated for different cell populations using standard protocol. Results: The average recovery percentage of BAL fluid varies from 58.33 to 61.33 in vaccinated and control group of piglets. The BAL fluid of vaccinated pigs showed increase in antibody titer up to 60th days post vaccination (8.98±0.33, IgG being the predominant isotype reached maximum titer of 6.12±0.20 on 45th days post vaccination, followed by IgM and a meager concentration of IgA could be detected. An increased concentration of the lymphocyte population and induction of plasma cells was detected in the BAL fluid of vaccinated pigs. Conclusion: Though intranasal vaccination with P. multocida plain bacterin vaccine could not provoke a strong immune response, but is promising as lymphocyte population was increased and plasma cells were detected. BAL can be performed repeatedly up to 3/4 months of age in pigs to study pulmonary immune response without affecting their health.

  16. 'Combined vaccines are like a sudden onslaught to the body's immune system': parental concerns about vaccine 'overload' and 'immune-vulnerability'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Shona; Petticrew, Mark; Hunt, Kate

    2006-05-15

    The recent controversy surrounding the safety of the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR) has heightened parents' concerns about the safety of vaccines, and led some to believe that giving vaccines in a combined form may 'overload' children's immune systems. However, to date no studies have been published examining how British parents conceptualise the notion of 'immune-overload' or how they relate this concept to their own children. Eighteen focus groups were conducted with parents between November 2002 and March 2003. The literature on vaccine decision-making suggests that parents base their immunisation decisions on two key risks: those posed by the diseases, and those associated with the vaccines aimed at preventing those diseases. Our study suggested that for some parents a third factor plays an important role, namely their assessment of the ability of their child's immune system to 'cope' with the challenge of combined vaccines, or to fight the disease. We conclude that although there is no scientific evidence that supports parents' fears about combined vaccines causing 'immune-overload', policy makers need to recognise these concerns if they are to successfully persuade parents that combined vaccines are safe.

  17. Mediation of host immune responses after immunization of neonatal calves with a heat-killed Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    A major drawback of current whole-cell vaccines for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis(MAP) is the interference with diagnostic tests for bovine tuberculosis and paratuberculosis. The current study was designed to explore effects of immunization with a heat-killed whole cell vaccine (Mycop...

  18. Immune responses of bison and efficacy after booster vaccination with Brucella abortus strain RB51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, S C; McGill, J L; Sacco, R E; Hennager, S G

    2015-04-01

    Thirty-one bison heifers were randomly assigned to receive saline or a single vaccination with 10(10) CFU of Brucella abortus strain RB51. Some vaccinated bison were randomly selected for booster vaccination with RB51 at 11 months after the initial vaccination. Mean antibody responses to RB51 were greater (P RB51-vaccinated bison at 8, 16, and 24 weeks after the initial vaccination and at 8 weeks after the booster vaccination. The vaccinated bison had greater (P Brucella organisms in all tissues, except in retropharyngeal and supramammary lymph nodes. Our study suggests that RB51 booster vaccination is an effective vaccination strategy for enhancing herd immunity against brucellosis in bison. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Third generation DIVA vaccine towards classical swine fever virus. Efficacy in face of maternal immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangelova, Desislava Yordanova

    a new DIVA vaccine candidate. The vaccine candidate “CP7E2alf” is intended for either intramuscular vaccination of domestic pig or for bait vaccination of wild boar. In this thesis as part of the clinical testing of the injection vaccine the efficacy of “CP7E2alf” was evaluated in young piglets...... that were positive for maternally derived antibodies (MDA). These antibodies were obtained with colostrum from their mothers vaccinated with traditional live attenuated vaccine C-strain (Riems). The promising results concerning the safety and the efficacy of the candidate DIVA vaccine showed new......General purpose and objectives Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious disease that causes huge economical losses and animal welfare concerns worldwide. Generally, vaccination is an effective and safe method to control the disease. Following vaccination the pig’s immune system develops...

  20. Strategies to Improve Vaccine Efficacy against Tuberculosis by Targeting Innate Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich E. Schaible

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The global tuberculosis epidemic is the most common cause of death after infectious disease worldwide. Increasing numbers of infections with multi- and extensively drug-resistant variants of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, resistant even to newly discovered and last resort antibiotics, highlight the urgent need for an efficient vaccine. The protective efficacy to pulmonary tuberculosis in adults of the only currently available vaccine, M. bovis BCG, is unsatisfactory and geographically diverse. More importantly, recent clinical studies on new vaccine candidates did not prove to be better than BCG, yet. Here, we propose and discuss novel strategies to improve efficacy of existing anti-tuberculosis vaccines. Modulation of innate immune responses upon vaccination already provided promising results in animal models of tuberculosis. For instance, neutrophils have been shown to influence vaccine efficacy, both, positively and negatively, and stimulate specific antibody secretion. Modulating immune regulatory properties after vaccination such as induction of different types of innate immune cell death, myeloid-derived suppressor or regulatory T cells, production of anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10 may have beneficial effects on protection efficacy. Incorporation of lipid antigens presented via CD1 molecules to T cells have been discussed as a way to enhance vaccine efficacy. Finally, concepts of dendritic cell-based immunotherapies or training the innate immune memory may be exploitable for future vaccination strategies against tuberculosis. In this review, we put a spotlight on host immune networks as potential targets to boost protection by old and new tuberculosis vaccines.

  1. TANGGAP KEBAL ANAK-ANAK TERHADAP 2 DOSIS VAKSIN POLIO DI JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gendrowahyuhono Gendrowahyuhono

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Antibody response to two doses of oral polio vaccine was studied in children of Kebayoran Baru district, Jakarta. Trivalent liquid oral polio vaccine containing 105.6 to 106.1 TCID50 per dose was used ana vaccination was carried out twice with one month interval to 75 children of3 - 36 months of age. Another group of 94 children from the same district were unvaccinated for control. Serum neutralization test against 100 TCID50 polio virus, to measure antibody strength, was carried out on monkey kidney cell cultures in microplates. Identification of isolated virus is done also in monkey kidney cell culture, using virus neutralization technique in microplate, against 30 Units antibody of polio type 1, type 2 and type 3. The result showed that 80 % of vaccinated children developed antibody against three types of polio after they received 2 doses of oral polio vaccine; 96.7 % against type 1,88 % against type 2 and 64.7 % against type 3. Out of 75 specimens from vaccinated children; polio virus could be isolated from 15 specimens, while from no one specimen could be isolated Coxsackie and Echo virus. The significant of this findings are discussed and should be considered as a simpler alternative method to vaccinate children.

  2. Immunology of Gut Mucosal Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasetti, Marcela F.; Simon, Jakub K.; Sztein, Marcelo B.; Levine, Myron M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Understanding the mechanisms underlying the induction of immunity in the gastrointestinal mucosa following oral immunization and the cross-talk between mucosal and systemic immunity should expedite the development of vaccines to diminish the global burden caused by enteric pathogens. Identifying an immunological correlate of protection in the course of field trials of efficacy, animal models (when available), or human challenge studies is also invaluable. In industrialized country populations, live attenuated vaccines (e.g. polio, typhoid, and rotavirus) mimic natural infection and generate robust protective immune responses. In contrast, a major challenge is to understand and overcome the barriers responsible for the diminished immunogenicity and efficacy of the same enteric vaccines in underprivileged populations in developing countries. Success in developing vaccines against some enteric pathogens has heretofore been elusive (e.g. Shigella). Different types of oral vaccines can selectively or inclusively elicit mucosal secretory immunoglobulin A and serum immunoglobulin G antibodies and a variety of cell-mediated immune responses. Areas of research that require acceleration include interaction between the gut innate immune system and the stimulation of adaptive immunity, development of safe yet effective mucosal adjuvants, better understanding of homing to the mucosa of immunologically relevant cells, and elicitation of mucosal immunologic memory. This review dissects the immune responses elicited in humans by enteric vaccines. PMID:21198669

  3. Immunology of gut mucosal vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasetti, Marcela F; Simon, Jakub K; Sztein, Marcelo B; Levine, Myron M

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying the induction of immunity in the gastrointestinal mucosa following oral immunization and the cross-talk between mucosal and systemic immunity should expedite the development of vaccines to diminish the global burden caused by enteric pathogens. Identifying an immunological correlate of protection in the course of field trials of efficacy, animal models (when available), or human challenge studies is also invaluable. In industrialized country populations, live attenuated vaccines (e.g. polio, typhoid, and rotavirus) mimic natural infection and generate robust protective immune responses. In contrast, a major challenge is to understand and overcome the barriers responsible for the diminished immunogenicity and efficacy of the same enteric vaccines in underprivileged populations in developing countries. Success in developing vaccines against some enteric pathogens has heretofore been elusive (e.g. Shigella). Different types of oral vaccines can selectively or inclusively elicit mucosal secretory immunoglobulin A and serum immunoglobulin G antibodies and a variety of cell-mediated immune responses. Areas of research that require acceleration include interaction between the gut innate immune system and the stimulation of adaptive immunity, development of safe yet effective mucosal adjuvants, better understanding of homing to the mucosa of immunologically relevant cells, and elicitation of mucosal immunologic memory. This review dissects the immune responses elicited in humans by enteric vaccines. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Late Effects of Polio: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Polio Wellness Retreats For Health Professionals The Late Effects of Polio: An Overview FRENCH | GERMAN | PORTUGUESE POLIOMYELITIS ( ... largest and most inclusive category is called Late Effects of Polio or Polio Sequelae and is defined ...

  5. The influence of sex and gender on immunity, infection and vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggieri, Anna; Anticoli, Simona; D'Ambrosio, Antonella; Giordani, Luciana; Viora, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Sex/gender significantly contribute to shape the immune responses, contributing to differences in the pathogenesis of infectious diseases in males and females, the response to viral vaccines and the prevalence of autoimmune diseases. Females typically develop higher innate, humoral and cellular immune responses to viral infections and in response to vaccine. At the same time, women are more prone to autoimmune diseases and experience more adverse reactions to vaccination. Hormonal, genetic and environmental factors between males and females may affect the immune responses and the sex-related outcome of vaccination. Knowledge of the mechanisms involved in sex disparity in immune responses will contribute to identify the ways to reduce adverse reactions in females and to improve the immune responses in males. This is necessary to adequately protect both sexes against the immune-mediated and infectious diseases with the long-term goal of personalizing the therapies for males and females.

  6. Optimizing Reactive Responses to Outbreaks of Immunizing Infections: Balancing Case Management and Vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Klepac, Petra; Bjørnstad, Ottar N.; Metcalf, C. Jessica E.; Grenfell, Bryan T.

    2012-01-01

    For vaccine-preventable infections, immunization generally needs to be supplemented by palliative care of individuals missed by the vaccination. Costs and availability of vaccine doses and palliative care vary by disease and by region. In many situations, resources for delivery of palliative care are independent of resources required for vaccination; however we also need to consider the conservative scenario where there is some trade-off between efforts, which is of potential relevance for re...

  7. Vaccine Hesitancy in Children—A Call for Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabelle de St. Maurice

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Immunizations have made an enormous impact on the health of children by decreasing childhood morbidity and mortality from a variety of vaccine-preventable diseases worldwide. The eradication of polio from Nigeria and India is one of the most recent victories for one of the greatest technological advances in human history. Despite these international successes, the United States has experienced the re-emergence of measles, driven largely by increasing parental refusal of vaccines. Pediatricians should be trained to be very knowledgeable about vaccines and should continue to advocate for parents to immunize their children.

  8. The vaccination coverage required to establish herd immunity against influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plans-Rubió, Pedro

    2012-07-01

    1) To determine the influenza vaccination coverage required to establish herd immunity, and 2) to assess whether the percentages of vaccination coverage proposed and those registered in the United States and Europe are sufficient to establish herd immunity. The vaccination coverage required to establish herd immunity was determined by taking into account the number of secondary cases per infected case (R(o)) and the vaccine effectiveness. The required percentage that would have been required to establish herd immunity against previous influenza viruses ranged from 13% to 100% for the 1918-19, 1957-58, 1968-69 and 2009-10 pandemic viruses, and from 30% to 40% for the 2008-09 epidemic virus. The objectives of vaccination coverage proposed in the United States - 80% in healthy persons and 90% in high-risk persons - are sufficient to establish herd immunity, while those proposed in Europe - only 75% in elderly and high-risk persons - are not sufficient. The percentages of vaccination coverage registered in the United States and Europe are not sufficient to establish herd immunity. The influenza vaccination coverage must be increased in the United States and Europe in order to establish herd immunity. It is necessary to develop new influenza prevention messages based on herd immunity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of adjuvants on responses to skin immunization by microneedles coated with influenza subunit vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C Weldon

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of vaccine delivery to the skin by vaccine-coated microneedles; however there is little information on the effects of adjuvants using this approach for vaccination. Here we investigate the use of TLR ligands as adjuvants with skin-based delivery of influenza subunit vaccine. BALB/c mice received 1 µg of monovalent H1N1 subunit vaccine alone or with 1 µg of imiquimod or poly(I:C individually or in combination via coated microneedle patches inserted into the skin. Poly(I:C adjuvanted subunit influenza vaccine induced similar antigen-specific immune responses compared to vaccine alone when delivered to the skin by microneedles. However, imiquimod-adjuvanted vaccine elicited higher levels of serum IgG2a antibodies and increased hemagglutination inhibition titers compared to vaccine alone, suggesting enhanced induction of functional antibodies. In addition, imiquimod-adjuvanted vaccine induced a robust IFN-γ cellular response. These responses correlated with improved protection compared to influenza subunit vaccine alone, as well as reduced viral replication and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the lungs. The finding that microneedle delivery of imiquimod with influenza subunit vaccine induces improved immune responses compared to vaccine alone supports the use of TLR7 ligands as adjuvants for skin-based influenza vaccines.

  10. Variation in loss of immunity shapes influenza epidemics and the impact of vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolthuis, Rutger G; Wallinga, Jacco; van Boven, Michiel

    2017-09-19

    Protective antibody immunity against the influenza A virus wanes in 2-7 years due to antigenic drift of the virus' surface proteins. The duration of immune protection is highly variable because antigenic evolution of the virus is irregular. Currently, the variable nature of the duration of immunity has had little attention in analyses of the impact of vaccination, including cost-effectiveness studies. We developed a range of mathematical transmission models to investigate the effect of variable duration of immunity on the size of seasonal epidemics. The models range from simple conceptual to more realistic, by distinguishing between infection- versus vaccination-induced immunity, by inclusion of primary vaccine failure, by assuming a leaky vaccine, and by the inclusion of age-dependent contact patterns. We show that annual variation in the duration of immunity causes large variation in the size of epidemics, and affects the effectiveness of vaccination. Accumulation of susceptible individuals in one or more mild seasons results in a disproportionately large outbreak in a subsequent season. Importantly, variation in the duration of immunity increases the average infection attack rate when the vaccination coverage is around the outbreak threshold. Specifically, in a tailored age-stratified model with a realistic reproduction number (R 0 = 1.4) and vaccination coverage of 25%, we find that the attack rate in unvaccinated children (vaccination, and that vaccine effectiveness cannot be judged for each year in isolation. Our findings have implications for vaccination strategies that aim to maximize the vaccination coverage while extending the age range of persons eligible for vaccination.

  11. Does a monovalent inactivated human rotavirus vaccine induce heterotypic immunity?: Evidence from animal studies

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Baoming; Wang, Yuhuan; Glass, Roger I.

    2013-01-01

    There is substantial evidence for broad cross-reactive immunity and heterotypic protection among human rotavirus strains in children with natural infection or with monovalent Rotarix vaccination. In this commentary, we addressed this same topic by testing sera of guinea pigs and gnotobiotic piglets that were intramuscularly immunized with an inactivated human rotavirus vaccine and also demonstrated a broad cross-protective immunity among human rotavirus strains. Our findings from a single hum...

  12. Kinetics of antibody responses after primary immunization with meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine or secondary immunization with either conjugate or polysaccharide vaccine in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Voer, Richarda M.; van der Klis, Fiona R. M.; Engels, Carla W. A. M.; Schepp, Rutger M.; van de Kassteele, Jan; Sanders, Elisabeth A. M.; Rijkers, Ger T.; Berbers, Guy A. M.

    2009-01-01

    In the Netherlands the meningococcal serogroup C conjugate (MenCC) vaccine is administered as a single dose at 14 months. We evaluated the kinetics of isotype-specific antibodies in adults (n = 21) after primary immunization with MenCC or secondary immunization with MenCC or plain MenC

  13. Differential preference for pertussis and poliomyelitis vaccines in urban versus rural parents in Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The Global Polio Eradication Initiative is close to achieving its goal. Oral polio vaccines rarely cause vaccine-associated paralytic polio or circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus outbreaks. To diminish these risks, inactivated polio vaccine was reintroduced in most industrialized countries in the 1990s. Another vaccine, acellular pertussis, was also incorporated to circumvent the reactogenicity of whole-cell pertussis (wP); the latter is currently used in most developing countries. However...

  14. Systemic and local immune response in pigs intradermally and intramuscularly injected with inactivated Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, P; Saleri, R; Cavalli, V; De Angelis, E; Ferrari, L; Benetti, M; Ferrarini, G; Merialdi, G; Borghetti, P

    2014-01-31

    The systemic and respiratory local immune response induced by the intradermal administration of a commercial inactivated Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae whole-cell vaccine (Porcilis(®) MHYO ID ONCE - MSD AH) in comparison with two commercial vaccines administered via the intramuscular route and a negative control (adjuvant only) was investigated. Forty conventional M. hyopneumoniae-free pigs were randomly assigned to four groups (ten animals each): Group A=intradermal administration of the test vaccine by using the needle-less IDAL(®) vaccinator at a dose of 0.2 ml; Group B=intramuscular administration of a commercially available vaccine (vaccine B); Group C=intramuscular administration of the adjuvant only (2 ml of X-solve adjuvant); Group D=intramuscular administration of a commercially available vaccine (vaccine D). Pigs were vaccinated at 28 days of age. Blood and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid samples were collected at vaccination (blood only), 4 and 8 weeks post-vaccination. Serum and BAL fluid were tested for the presence of antibodies by ELISA test. Peripheral blood monomorphonuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated to quantify the number of IFN-γ secreting cells by ELISpot. Moreover, cytokine gene expression from the BAL fluid was performed. Total antibodies against M. hyopneumoniae and specific IgG were detected in serum of intradermally and intramuscularly (vaccine B only) vaccinated pigs at 4 and 8 weeks post-vaccination. M. hyopneumoniae specific IgA were detected in BAL fluid from vaccinated animals (Groups A and B) but not from controls and animals vaccinated with the bacterin D (padministration of an adjuvanted bacterin induces both systemic and mucosal immune responses. Moreover, the intramuscularly administered commercial vaccines each had a different ability to stimulate the immune response both systemically and locally. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The polio eradication effort has been a great success--let's finish it and replace it with something even better.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimman, Tjeerd G; Boot, Hein J

    2006-01-01

    The polio eradication campaign has greatly reduced the effects of this disease, but many new challenges have emerged. These challenges include the occurrence of polio outbreaks caused by wild-type polioviruses or circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) in areas where vaccination coverage

  16. Assessment of The Immunization Status of Individuals Vaccinated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fortunately, an effective vaccine has been introduced to prevent infection with the virus. The rate of infection by HBV has been effectively reduced by universal vaccination with that vaccine. Post-vaccination concentration of vaccine induced neutralizing antibodies against HBsAg above 10 mlU is considered protective ...

  17. Timely measles vaccination in Tianjin, China: a cross-sectional study of immunization records and mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Abram L; Zhang, Ying; Montgomery, JoLynn P; Ding, Yaxing; Carlson, Bradley F; Boulton, Matthew L

    2014-08-29

    Measles is a highly infectious disease, and timely administration of two doses of vaccine can ensure adequate protection against measles for all ages in a population. This study aims to estimate the proportion of children aged 8 months to 6 years vaccinated on time with measles-containing vaccines (MCV) and vaccinated during the 2008 and 2010 measles supplementary immunization activities. This study also characterizes differences in mean age at vaccination and vaccination timeliness by demographic characteristics, and describes maternal knowledge of measles vaccination. Immunization records were selected from a convenience sample of immunization clinics in Tianjin, China. From the records, overall vaccination coverage and timely vaccination coverage were calculated for different demographic groups. Mothers were also interviewed at these clinics to ascertain their knowledge of measles vaccination. Within the 329 immunization clinic records, child's birth year and district of residence were found to be significant predictors of different measures of vaccine timeliness. Children born in 2009 had a lower age at MCV dose 2 administration (17.96 months) than children born in 2005 (22.00 months). Children living in Hebei, a district in the urban center of Tianjin were less likely to be vaccinated late than children living in districts further from the urban core of Tianjin. From the 31 interviews with mothers, most women believed that timely vaccination was very important and more than one dose was very necessary; most did not know whether their child needed another dose. When reviewing MCV coverage in China, most studies do not consider timeliness. However, this study shows that overall vaccination coverage can greatly overestimate vaccination coverage within certain segments of the population, such as young infants.

  18. Can VHS virus bypass the protective immunity induced by DNA vaccination in rainbow trout?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sepúlveda, Dagoberto; Lorenzen, Niels

    2016-01-01

    pathogenic VHSV isolate in a fish cell line in the presence of neutralizing fish serum (in vitro approach), and in rainbow trout immunized with the VHS DNA vaccine (in vivo approach). For the in vitro approach, the virus collected from the last passage (passaged virus) was as sensitive as the parental virus...... in vaccinated fish was observed in comparison with the parental virus. However, some of the vaccinated fish did get infected and could transmit the infection to naïve cohabitant fish. The results demonstrated that the DNA vaccine induced a robust protection, but also that the immunity was non......DNA vaccines encoding viral glycoproteins have been very successful for induction of protective immunity against diseases caused by rhabdoviruses in cultured fish species. However, the vaccine concept is based on a single viral gene and since RNA viruses are known to possess high variability...

  19. Neonatal BCG vaccination is associated with enhanced T-helper 1 immune responses to heterologous infant vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H. Libraty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal Bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG vaccination has been reported to have beneficial effects beyond preventing infantile tuberculous meningitis and miliary disease. We hypothesized that BCG vaccine given at birth would enhance T-helper 1 (Th1 immune responses to the first vaccines given later in infancy. We conducted a nested case-control study of neonatal BCG vaccination and its heterologous Th1 immune effects in 2–3 months old infants. BCG vaccination at birth was associated with an increased frequency of interferon-γ (IFN-γ producing spot-forming cells (SFC to tetanus toxoid 2–3 months later. The frequency of IFN-γ producing SFC to polioviruses 1–3 also trended higher among infants who received BCG vaccination at birth. The frequency of IFN-γ+/tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α+CD45RO+CD4+ T-cells upon stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA/Ionomycin was higher in 2–3 months old infants who received BCG vaccination at birth compared to those who did not. The circulating frequency of forkhead box P3 (FoxP3+ CD45RO+ regulatory CD4+ T-cells also trended lower in these infants. Neonatal BCG vaccination is associated with heterologous Th1 immune effects 2–3 months later.

  20. CAF01 potentiates immune responses and efficacy of an inactivated influenza vaccine in ferrets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martel, Cyril Jean-Marie; Agger, Else Marie; Poulsen, Julie Juul

    2011-01-01

    Trivalent inactivated vaccines (TIV) against influenza are given to 350 million people every year. Most of these are non-adjuvanted vaccines whose immunogenicity and protective efficacy are considered suboptimal. Commercially available non-adjuvanted TIV are known to elicit mainly a humoral immune...... response, whereas the induction of cell-mediated immune responses is negligible. Recently, a cationic liposomal adjuvant (dimethyldioctadecylammonium/trehalose 6,6'-dibehenate, CAF01) was developed. CAF01 has proven to enhance both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to a number of different...... experimental vaccine candidates. In this study, we compared the immune responses in ferrets to a commercially available TIV with the responses to the same vaccine mixed with the CAF01 adjuvant. Two recently circulating H1N1 viruses were used as challenge to test the vaccine efficacy. CAF01 improved...

  1. Gender-neutrality, herd effect and resilient immune response for sustainable impact of HPV vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtinen, Matti; Apter, Dan

    2015-10-01

    This review summarize the impact of various strategies of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination, such as vaccinating only girls or both girls and boys. Slow and inefficient implementation of HPV vaccination programmes has delayed the impact of the first human cancer vaccine. Vaccinating only girls, with a rather low coverage, has led to a limited herd effect and, thus, not full use of the HPV vaccine potential. Gender-neutral vaccination based on comparative effectiveness research will hopefully soon tackle the whole spectrum of HPV cancers in both sexes. The remaining challenges are how to ensure resilience of HPV vaccine-induced immunity and herd effect to guarantee population-level impact of HPV vaccination, and how to guard against HPV type replacement.

  2. Incremental impact of adding boys to current human papillomavirus vaccination programs: role of herd immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisson, Marc; van de Velde, Nicolas; Franco, Eduardo L; Drolet, Mélanie; Boily, Marie-Claude

    2011-08-01

    Our aim was to examine the potential incremental impact of vaccinating boys against human papillomavirus (HPV) on vaccine-type infection in females and males, using an individual-based HPV transmission-dynamic model. Under base assumptions (vaccine efficacy = 99%, duration of protection = 20 years, coverage = 70%), vaccinating 12-year-old boys, in addition to girls, resulted in an incremental reduction in HPV-16/18 (HPV-6/11) incidence over 70 years of 16% (3%) in females and 23% (4%) in males. The benefit of vaccinating boys decreased with improved vaccination coverage in girls. Given the important predicted herd immunity impact of vaccinating girls under moderate to high vaccine coverage, the potential incremental gains of vaccinating boys are limited.

  3. Sex-based differences in immune function and responses to vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Sabra L; Marriott, Ian; Fish, Eleanor N

    2015-01-01

    Females typically develop higher antibody responses and experience more adverse reactions following vaccination than males. These differences are observed in response to diverse vaccines, including the bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine, the measles, mumps and rubella vaccine, the yellow fever virus vaccine and influenza vaccines. Sex differences in the responses to vaccines are observed across diverse age groups, ranging from infants to aged individuals. Biological as well as behavioral differences between the sexes are likely to contribute to differences in the outcome of vaccination between the sexes. Immunological, hormonal, genetic and microbiota differences between males and females may also affect the outcome of vaccination. Identifying ways to reduce adverse reactions in females and increase immune responses in males will be necessary to adequately protect both sexes against infectious diseases. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Vaccines, our shared responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliusi, Sonia; Jain, Rishabh; Suri, Rajinder Kumar

    2015-05-05

    The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network (DCVMN) held its fifteenth annual meeting from October 27-29, 2014, New Delhi, India. The DCVMN, together with the co-organizing institution Panacea Biotec, welcomed over 240 delegates representing high-profile governmental and nongovernmental global health organizations from 36 countries. Over the three-day meeting, attendees exchanged information about their efforts to achieve their shared goal of preventing death and disability from known and emerging infectious diseases. Special praise was extended to all stakeholders involved in the success of polio eradication in South East Asia and highlighted challenges in vaccine supply for measles-rubella immunization over the coming decades. Innovative vaccines and vaccine delivery technologies indicated creative solutions for achieving global immunization goals. Discussions were focused on three major themes including regulatory challenges for developing countries that may be overcome with better communication; global collaborations and partnerships for leveraging investments and enable uninterrupted supply of affordable and suitable vaccines; and leading innovation in vaccines difficult to develop, such as dengue, Chikungunya, typhoid-conjugated and EV71, and needle-free technologies that may speed up vaccine delivery. Moving further into the Decade of Vaccines, participants renewed their commitment to shared responsibility toward a world free of vaccine-preventable diseases. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Characteristics of wild polio virus outbreak investigation and response in Ethiopia in 2013-2014: implications for prevention of outbreaks due to importations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegegne, Ayesheshem Ademe; Braka, Fiona; Shebeshi, Meseret Eshetu; Aregay, Aron Kassahun; Beyene, Berhane; Mersha, Amare Mengistu; Ademe, Mohammed; Muhyadin, Abdulahi; Jima, Dadi; Wyessa, Abyot Bekele

    2018-01-05

    Ethiopia joined the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) in 1996, and by the end of December 2001 circulation of indigenous Wild Polio Virus (WPV) had been interrupted. Nonetheless, the country experienced multiple importations during 2004-2008, and in 2013. We characterize the 2013 outbreak investigations and response activities, and document lessons learned. The data were pulled from different field investigation reports and from the national surveillance database for Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP). In 2013, a WPV1 outbreak was confirmed following importation in Dollo zone of the Somali region, which affected three Woredas (Warder, Geladi and Bokh). Between July 10, 2013, and January 5, 2014, there were 10 children paralyzed due to WPV1 infection. The majorities (7 of 10) were male and below 5 years of age, and 7 of 10 cases was not vaccinated, and 72% (92/129) of Child" approach, including periodic routine immunization intensification and supplemental immunization activities.

  6. The Estimated Health and Economic Benefits of Three Decades of Polio Elimination Efforts in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Arindam; Barter, Devra M; Prinja, Shankar; John, T Jacob

    2016-08-07

    In March 2014, India, the country with historically the highest burden of polio, was declared polio free, with no reported cases since January 2011. We estimate the health and economic benefits of polio elimination in India with the oral polio vaccine (OPV) during 1982-2012. Based on a pre-vaccine incidence rate, we estimate the counterfactual burden of polio in the hypothetical absence of the national polio elimination program in India. We attribute differences in outcomes between the actual (adjusted for under-reporting) and hypothetical counterfactual scenarios in our model to the national polio program. We measure health benefits as averted polio incidence, deaths, and disability adjusted life years (DALYs). We consider two methods to measure economic benefits: the value of statistical life approach, and equating one DALY to the Gross National Income (GNI) per capita. We estimate that the National Program against Polio averted 3.94 million (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.89-3.99 million) paralytic polio cases, 393,918 polio deaths (95% CI: 388,897- 398,939), and 1.48 billion DALYs (95% CI: 1.46-1.50 billion). We also estimate that the program contributed to a $1.71 trillion (INR 76.91 trillion) gain (95% CI: $1.69-$1.73 trillion [INR 75.93-77.89 trillion]) in economic productivity between 1982 and 2012 in our base case analysis. Using the GNI and DALY method, the economic gain from the program is estimated to be $1.11 trillion (INR 50.13 trillion) (95% CI: $1.10-$1.13 trillion [INR 49.50-50.76 trillion]) over the same period. India accrued large health and economic benefits from investing in polio elimination efforts. Other programs to control/eliminate more vaccine-preventable diseases are likely to contribute to large health and economic benefits in India.

  7. Type 1 immune-mediated polyarthritis in dogs and lack of a temporal relationship to vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idowu, O A; Heading, K L

    2018-03-01

    To investigate whether there is a temporal relationship between vaccination and the onset of type 1 immune-mediated polyarthritis in dogs. Retrospective case-control study: 39 dogs from a referral hospital with a diagnosis of type 1 immune-mediated polyarthritis were age-matched with 78 control dogs with other diagnoses. A temporal association between vaccination and polyarthritis was considered positive if recent vaccination had been performed within 28 days of the onset of clinical signs of immune-mediated polyarthritis. The odds ratio association of recent vaccination with immune-mediated polyarthritis was calculated using matched case-control methods. Of the 39 dogs in the type 1 immune-mediated polyarthritis group, four had been vaccinated within 28 days before onset of clinical signs compared to six dogs in the control group. The odds ratio for a dog developing type 1 immune-mediated polyarthritis if vaccinated within the last 28 days was estimated to be 1·44 (95% confidence interval 0·25 to 8·24, P = 0·88). There was no evidence of a temporal relationship between vaccination and type 1 immune-mediated polyarthritis, although the large confidence interval on the odds ratio suggests a need for larger studies to confirm this finding. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  8. Immune activation alters cellular and humoral responses to yellow fever 17D vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyanja, Enoch; Ssemaganda, Aloysius; Ngauv, Pearline; Cubas, Rafael; Perrin, Helene; Srinivasan, Divya; Canderan, Glenda; Lawson, Benton; Kopycinski, Jakub; Graham, Amanda S; Rowe, Dawne K; Smith, Michaela J; Isern, Sharon; Michael, Scott; Silvestri, Guido; Vanderford, Thomas H; Castro, Erika; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Singer, Joel; Gillmour, Jill; Kiwanuka, Noah; Nanvubya, Annet; Schmidt, Claudia; Birungi, Josephine; Cox, Josephine; Haddad, Elias K; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Fast, Patricia; Sekaly, Rafick-Pierre; Trautmann, Lydie; Gaucher, Denis

    2014-07-01

    Defining the parameters that modulate vaccine responses in African populations will be imperative to design effective vaccines for protection against HIV, malaria, tuberculosis, and dengue virus infections. This study aimed to evaluate the contribution of the patient-specific immune microenvironment to the response to the licensed yellow fever vaccine 17D (YF-17D) in an African cohort. We compared responses to YF-17D in 50 volunteers in Entebbe, Uganda, and 50 volunteers in Lausanne, Switzerland. We measured the CD8+ T cell and B cell responses induced by YF-17D and correlated them with immune parameters analyzed by flow cytometry prior to vaccination. We showed that YF-17D-induced CD8+ T cell and B cell responses were substantially lower in immunized individuals from Entebbe compared with immunized individuals from Lausanne. The impaired vaccine response in the Entebbe cohort associated with reduced YF-17D replication. Prior to vaccination, we observed higher frequencies of exhausted and activated NK cells, differentiated T and B cell subsets and proinflammatory monocytes, suggesting an activated immune microenvironment in the Entebbe volunteers. Interestingly, activation of CD8+ T cells and B cells as well as proinflammatory monocytes at baseline negatively correlated with YF-17D-neutralizing antibody titers after vaccination. Additionally, memory T and B cell responses in preimmunized volunteers exhibited reduced persistence in the Entebbe cohort but were boosted by a second vaccination. Together, these results demonstrate that an activated immune microenvironment prior to vaccination impedes efficacy of the YF-17D vaccine in an African cohort and suggest that vaccine regimens may need to be boosted in African populations to achieve efficient immunity. Registration is not required for observational studies. This study was funded by Canada's Global Health Research Initiative, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

  9. [Vaccination coverage of foreign children and their parents' views on immunization services in Gunma Prefecture, Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukui, Satoshi; Negishi, Yoshio; Sato, Yumi; Kashiwase, Mariko; Kawashima, Saeko; Fukuda, Takahiro

    2009-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate vaccination coverage among foreign children living in an urban area of Gunma Prefecture, Japan and to examine their parents' views concerning the local immunization services. A total of 321 foreign children aged 6 to 18 years in five international schools participated in school health examinations and provided vaccination information. Among the parents, 304 completed a questionnaire on their views about the immunization services. Another questionnaire survey was conducted in nursery schools for parents of 4629 Japanese children aged 0 to 6 years. Of the total, 3811 (82.3%) responded, and 2911 questionnaires answered by the parents who had children aged 3 years and older were eligible for the analysis. The study found a vaccination coverage of 86.2% for diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis (DTP), 86.5% for poliovirus vaccine, and 87.7% for BCG among the foreign children. Of their parents, 84% were born in Brazil. One third of the foreign children vaccinated for DTP, poliovirus and/or BCG had received each vaccine in Japan, while the others children had been vaccinated in their home countries. Among 162 parents with children immunized in Japan, 77% received the necessary information about immunization services from the local municipal office, and 80% had no major problems. However, 15% felt the language barrier. Among the Japanese children, non-vaccination rates for DTP, poliovirus vaccine, and BCG were 18.5%, 9.9%, and 3.5%, respectively. Of the Japanese parents, 85% knew immunization schedules from the municipal office, and 51% asked for night-time and holiday vaccination sites. These results suggest that vaccination coverage for DTP, poliovirus vaccine or BCG is relatively high among foreign children living in Japan. To promote higher rates of vaccination for those residents, however, accessibility of the municipal consultation services in foreign languages should be im-proved.

  10. Attitudes and beliefs of parents concerned about vaccines: impact of timing of immunization information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannice, Kirsten S; Salmon, Daniel A; Shui, Irene; Omer, Saad B; Kissner, Jennifer; Edwards, Kathryn M; Sparks, Robert; Dekker, Cornelia L; Klein, Nicola P; Gust, Deborah A

    2011-05-01

    To determine if giving vaccine-information materials before the 2-month vaccination visit to mothers with concerns about vaccine safety positively changed their attitudes and beliefs about vaccine safety. Mothers who indicated concerns about infant vaccinations were recruited from 2 separate sites in Tennessee and California and were given vaccine information at 1 of 3 times: during a prenatal visit; a 1-week postpartum well-child visit; or a 2-month vaccination visit. A separate group of concerned mothers was assigned to be followed longitudinally at all 3 time points and was analyzed separately. The mothers reviewed a new vaccine-information pamphlet and Vaccine Information Statements (VIS) from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Attitudes and beliefs about immunization were assessed both before and after the review of materials with written surveys. A total of 272 mothers with immunization concerns participated in the study. After review of the materials, mothers in all groups were significantly more likely to respond positively to questions and statements supporting the safety and importance of vaccines. Mothers who received this information at earlier visits were not significantly more likely to respond positively than mothers who received the information at the child's 2-month vaccination visit; however, participating mothers did indicate a preference for receiving vaccine information before the first vaccination visit. Distribution of the vaccine-information pamphlet and Vaccine Information Statements significantly improved attitudes about vaccination regardless of at what visit they were provided. Allowing adequate time to review vaccine information, even if done at the vaccination visit, may benefit concerned mothers.

  11. Surmounting tumor-induced immune suppression by frequent vaccination or immunization in the absence of B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oizumi, Satoshi; Deyev, Vadim; Yamazaki, Koichi; Schreiber, Taylor; Strbo, Natasa; Rosenblatt, Joseph; Podack, Eckhard R

    2008-05-01

    Tumor-induced immune suppression is one of the most difficult obstacles to the success of tumor immunotherapy. Here, we show that established tumors suppress CD8 T cell clonal expansion in vivo, which is normally observed in tumor-free mice upon antigen-specific glycoprotein (gp) 96-chaperone vaccination. Suppression of CD8 T-cell expansion by established tumors is independent of tumor-associated expression of the antigen that is recognized by the CD8-T-cell receptor. Vaccination of tumor-bearing mice is associated with increased cellular recruitment to the vaccine site compared with tumor-free mice. However, rejection of established, suppressive tumors required frequent (daily) gp96 vaccination. B cells are known to attenuate T helper cell-1 responses. We found that in B-cell deficient mice, tumor rejection of established tumors can be achieved by a single vaccination. Accordingly, in tumor-free B-cell deficient mice, cognate CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocyte clonal expansion is enhanced in response to gp96-chaperone vaccination. The data have implications for the study of tumor-induced immune suppression and for translation of tumor immunotherapy into the clinical setting. Frequent vaccination with cellular vaccines and concurrent B-cell depletion may greatly enhance the activity of anticancer vaccine therapy in patients.

  12. Vaccination and auto-immune rheumatic diseases: lessons learnt from the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus vaccination campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touma, Zahi; Gladman, Dafna D; Urowitz, Murray B

    2013-03-01

    To determine the safety and efficacy of adjuvant and nonadjuvant influenza A/H1NI vaccination in patients with rheumatic diseases. Due to immune abnormalities and the use of steroids and immunosuppressant treatment, patients with rheumatic diseases are susceptible to infections including influenza. Infections continue to be one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in rheumatic diseases, partly due to the disease processes and partly due to medications. Viral infections are particularly an issue, so vaccinations would be advisable. However, because of the abnormalities in immune mechanisms in many rheumatic diseases, it is not clear whether vaccinations are well tolerated and effective. A number of studies confirmed the efficacy and safety of adjuvant and nonadjuvant influenza A/H1NI vaccination in patients with rheumatic diseases. The potential side effects associated with H1N1 vaccines were not different from those observed with seasonal influenza vaccine. The use of steroids and immunosuppressant therapies may alter the efficacy of the vaccines. Adjuvant and nonadjuvant influenza A/H1NI vaccinations have no clinically important effect on production or levels of autoantibodies in patients with rheumatic diseases. H1N1 vaccination should be given to patients with rheumatic diseases.

  13. Outcomes of polio eradication activities in Uttar Pradesh, India: the Social Mobilization Network (SM Net and Core Group Polio Project (CGPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Vibha

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary strategy to interrupt transmission of wild poliovirus in India is to improve supplemental immunization activities and routine immunization coverage in priority districts with a focus on 107 high-risk blocks of western Uttar Pradesh and central Bihar. Villages or urban areas with a history of wild poliovirus transmission, or hard-to-reach or resistant populations are categorized as high-risk areas within blocks. The Social Mobilization Network (SM Net was formed in Uttar Pradesh in 2003 to support polio eradication efforts through improved planning, implementation and monitoring of social mobilization activities in those high-risk areas. In this paper, we examine the vaccination outcomes in districts of SM Net where the CORE Group works. Methods We carried out a secondary data analysis of routine monitoring information collected by the SM Net and the Government of India. These data include information about vaccination outcomes in SM Net areas and non-SM Net areas within the districts where the CORE Group operates. Statistical analysis was used to compare, between SM Net and non-SM Net areas, vaccination outcomes considered sensitive to social mobilization efforts of the SM Net. We employed Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE statistical method to account for Intra-cluster Correlation (ICC, and used 'Quasi-likelihood under the independence model criterion (QIC' as the model selection method. Results Vaccination outcomes in SM Net areas were as high as or higher than in non-SM Net areas. There was considerable variation in vaccination outcomes between districts. Conclusions While not conclusive, the results suggest that the social mobilization efforts of the SM Net and the CORE Group are helping to increase vaccination levels in high-risk areas of Uttar Pradesh. Vaccination outcomes in CORE Group areas were equal or higher than in non-CORE, non-SM Net areas. This occurred even though SM Net areas are those with

  14. Persistence of Immunity Acquired after a Single Dose of Rubella Vaccine in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafuji, Takao; Okafuji, Teruo; Nakayama, Tetsuo

    2016-05-20

    To date, Takahashi, Matsuura, and TO-336 strains of live-attenuated rubella vaccine have been used in Japan. Japan implemented a single-dose rubella vaccination program until 2006. However, few reports are available on the persistence of immunity after this vaccination program. We collected 276 serum samples from January 2009 to December 2011 at Okafuji Pediatric Clinic and assessed the immune status of these samples against rubella virus during 1-10 years after vaccination with a single dose of Takahashi rubella vaccine. Regional outbreak of rubella did not occur during 1999-2011. The collected serum samples were tested for antibodies against the rubella virus by performing a standard hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) test. Our results showed that all the tested serum samples contained antibodies against the rubella virus 10 years after the vaccination. Geometric mean titer of HAI antibodies was 1:180 and decreased to 1:68 at 10 years after the vaccination. The levels of HAI antibodies decreased logarithmically with time after the vaccination. In conclusion, vaccine-acquired immunity after vaccination with a single dose of live-attenuated Takahashi rubella vaccine was retained for at least 10 years when rubella was under regional control.

  15. Vaccine administration and the development of immune thrombocytopenic purpura in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecinati, Valerio; Principi, Nicola; Brescia, Letizia; Giordano, Paola; Esposito, Susanna

    2013-05-01

    The most important reasons cited by the opponents of vaccines are concerns about vaccine safety. Unlike issues such as autism for which no indisputable documentation of direct relationship with vaccine use is available, immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is an adverse event that can really follow vaccine administration, and may limit vaccine use because little is known about which vaccines it may follow, its real incidence and severity, the risk of chronic disease, or the possibility of recurrences after new doses of the same vaccine. The main aim of this review is to clarify the real importance of thrombocytopenia as an adverse event and discuss how it may interfere with recommended vaccination schedules. The available data clearly indicate that ITP is very rare and the only vaccine for which there is a demonstrated cause-effect relationship is the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine that can occur in 1 to 3 children every 100,000 vaccine doses. However, also in this case, the incidence of ITP is significantly lower than that observed during the natural diseases that the vaccine prevents. Consequently, ITP cannot be considered a problem limiting vaccine use except in the case of children suffering from chronic ITP who have to receive MMR vaccine. In these subjects, the risk-benefit ratio of the vaccine should be weighed against the risk of measles in the community.

  16. The Effect of Maternal Pertussis Immunization on Infant Vaccine Responses to a Booster Pertussis-Containing Vaccine in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maertens, Kirsten; Hoang, Thi Thu Ha; Nguyen, Trung Dac; Caboré, Raïssa Nadège; Duong, Thi Hong; Huygen, Kris; Hens, Niel; Van Damme, Pierre; Dang, Duc Anh; Leuridan, Elke

    2016-12-01

     Maternal vaccination with an acellular pertussis (aP)-containing vaccine is a recommended strategy in a growing number of industrialized countries, to protect young infants from disease. Little is known on the effect of this strategy in low- and middle-income countries. Following a previous report on the effect of adding a pertussis and diphtheria component to the tetanus vaccination program in pregnant women in Vietnam, we report on infant immune responses to a booster aP vaccine dose in this randomized controlled clinical trial.  Thirty infants of Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis)-vaccinated pregnant women and 37 infants of women vaccinated with a tetanus-only vaccine received a fourth aP-containing vaccine dose in the second year of life. Blood was taken 1 month after the fourth infant dose. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against pertussis toxin (PT), filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin (Prn), tetanus toxoid (TT), and diphtheria toxoid (DT) were measured using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA).  One month after the booster dose, significantly lower antibody titers were measured in the Tdap group for anti-TT IgG (P pertussis responses induced by maternal immunization, measured after a primary series of aP vaccines, was resolved with the booster aP vaccine dose. These results add to the evidence for national and international decision makers on maternal immunization as a vaccination strategy for protection of young infants against infectious diseases. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  17. Sublingual immunization with a subunit influenza vaccine elicits comparable systemic immune response as intramuscular immunization, but also induces local IgA and TH17 responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallorini, Simona; Taccone, Marianna; Bonci, Alessandra; Nardelli, Filomena; Casini, Daniele; Bonificio, Amanda; Kommareddy, Sushma; Bertholet, Sylvie; O'Hagan, Derek T; Baudner, Barbara C

    2014-04-25

    Influenza is a vaccine-preventable disease that remains a major health problem world-wide. Needle and syringe are still the primary delivery devices, and injection of liquid vaccine into the muscle is still the primary route of immunization. Vaccines could be more convenient and effective if they were delivered by the mucosal route. Elicitation of systemic and mucosal innate and adaptive immune responses, such as pathogen neutralizing antibodies (including mucosal IgA at the site of pathogen entry) and CD4(+) T-helper cells (especially the Th17 subset), have a critical role in vaccine-mediated protection. In the current study, a sublingual subunit influenza vaccine formulated with or without mucosal adjuvant was evaluated for systemic and mucosal immunogenicity and compared to intranasal and intramuscular vaccination. Sublingual administration of adjuvanted influenza vaccine elicited comparable antibody titers to those elicited by intramuscular immunization with conventional influenza vaccine. Furthermore, influenza-specific Th17 cells or neutralizing mucosal IgA were detected exclusively after mucosal immunization. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. "The Impact of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Immune Evasion on Protective Immunity: Implications for TB Vaccine Design" - Meeting report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggiano, Cesar; Eichelberg, Katrin; Ramachandra, Lakshmi; Shea, Jaqueline; Ramakrishnan, Lalita; Behar, Samuel; Ernst, Joel D; Porcelli, Steven A; Maeurer, Markus; Kornfeld, Hardy

    2017-06-14

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the major cause of death from infectious diseases around the world, particularly in HIV infected individuals. TB vaccine design and development have been focused on improving Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and evaluating recombinant and viral vector expressed Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) proteins, for boosting BCG-primed immunity, but these approaches have not yet yielded significant improvements over the modest effects of BCG in protecting against infection or disease. On March 7-8, 2016, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) convened a workshop on "The Impact of Mtb Immune Evasion on Protective Immunity: Implications for TB Vaccine Design" with the goal of defining immune mechanisms that could be targeted through novel research approaches, to inform vaccine design and immune therapeutic interventions for prevention of TB. The workshop addressed early infection events, the impact of Mtb evolution on the development and maintenance of an adaptive immune response, and the factors that influence protection against and progression to active disease. Scientific gaps and areas of study to revitalize and accelerate TB vaccine design were discussed and prioritized. These included a comprehensive evaluation of innate and Mtb-specific adaptive immune responses in the lung at different stages of disease; determining the role of B cells and antibodies (Abs) during Mtb infection; development of better assays to measure Mtb burden following exposure, infection, during latency and after treatment, and approaches to improving current animal models to study Mtb immunogenicity, TB disease and transmission. Copyright © 2017.

  19. HIV-infected children living in Central Africa have low persistence of antibodies to vaccines used in the Expanded Program on Immunization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathurin C Tejiokem

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI is the most cost-effective measures to control vaccine-preventable diseases. Currently, the EPI schedule is similar for HIV-infected children; the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART should considerably prolong their life expectancy. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To evaluate the persistence of antibodies to the EPI vaccines in HIV-infected and HIV-exposed uninfected children who previously received these vaccines in routine clinical practice, we conducted a cross-sectional study of children, aged 18 to 36 months, born to HIV-infected mothers and living in Central Africa. We tested blood samples for antibodies to the combined diphtheria, tetanus, and whole-cell pertussis (DTwP, the measles and the oral polio (OPV vaccines. We enrolled 51 HIV-infected children of whom 33 were receiving ART, and 78 HIV-uninfected children born to HIV-infected women. A lower proportion of HIV-infected children than uninfected children had antibodies to the tested antigens with the exception of the OPV types 1 and 2. This difference was substantial for the measles vaccine (20% of the HIV-infected children and 56% of the HIV-exposed uninfected children, p<0.0001. We observed a high risk of low antibody levels for all EPI vaccines, except OPV types 1 and 2, in HIV-infected children with severe immunodeficiency (CD4(+ T cells <25%. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Children were examined at a time when their antibody concentrations to EPI vaccines would have still not undergone significant decay. However, we showed that the antibody concentrations were lowered in HIV-infected children. Moreover, antibody concentration after a single dose of the measles vaccine was substantially lower than expected, particularly low in HIV-infected children with low CD4(+ T cell counts. This study supports the need for a second dose of the measles vaccine and for a booster dose of the DTwP and OPV vaccines to maintain the

  20. Does a monovalent inactivated human rotavirus vaccine induce heterotypic immunity? Evidence from animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Baoming; Wang, Yuhuan; Glass, Roger I

    2013-08-01

    There is substantial evidence for broad cross-reactive immunity and heterotypic protection among human rotavirus strains in children with natural infection or with monovalent Rotarix vaccination. In this commentary, we addressed this same topic by testing sera of guinea pigs and gnotobiotic piglets that were intramuscularly immunized with an inactivated human rotavirus vaccine and also demonstrated a broad cross-protective immunity among human rotavirus strains. Our findings from a single human strain in animal studies bode well for a low cost and efficacious inactivated vaccine to protect children against rotavirus disease throughout the world.

  1. Knowledge, attitude and practice of polio prevention among people in Khyber pakhtunkhwa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehmood, T.; Babar, A.

    2014-01-01

    To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of Polio among people in Khyber PakhtunKhwa and to recommend measures in order to improve the awareness of disease. Study Design: Descriptive cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at CMH Nowshera, CMH Mardan and Kohat General Hospital from March to June 2013. Subjects and Methods: Persons presenting for consultation to tertiary care hospitals at medical reception rooms were approached by convenience sampling. Structured questionnaire was developed and data was collected by interviews. Results: The findings of the study revealed that out of 296 persons participated in study 57.4% were males while 42.2% were females. They were residents of Mardan, Nowshera, Kohat and Swabi districts of Khyber Pakhtukhwa. Persons who believed that vaccine is prohibited in religion were 13.9%, 81.1% persons knew about Polio disease and 84.5% persons believed that disease could be prevented by giving vaccines to children. Persons who gave vaccine to their children were 88.9% and 66.9% also knew the schedule of the vaccine. Pressure groups which included tribal elders stopped 19.3% people from giving vaccine to their children and for 11.1% persons the facility of giving vaccine was not available. Persons who believed that Polio can cause infertility were 11.5% and 20.9% believed that Polio vaccine cannot prevent Polio disease. Persons who have seen patient of Polio were 38.9% and 88.5 % persons wanted to eradicate disease from Pakistan. Conclusion: The results of the study revealed that people have adequate knowledge about Polio and wanted to eradicate it from Pakistan by participating in vaccination activities but still there are few people who believe that Polio vaccine cannot prevent disease resulting in failure to adminster vaccine for their children. (author)

  2. Reducing resistance to polio immunisation with free health camps and Bluetooth messaging: An update from Kaduna, Northern, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birukila, Gerida; Babale, Sufiyan M; Epstein, Helen; Gugong, Victor; Anger, Robert; Corkum, Melissa; Jehoshaphat Nebanat, Albarka; Musoke, Fredrick; Alabi, Olaniran

    2017-01-01

    Since 1997, the Global Polio Eradication Initiative has sponsored regular door-to-door polio immunisation campaigns in northern Nigeria. On 30 July 2015, the country was finally declared poliofree, a hard won success. At various times, polio eradication has been threatened by rumours and community tensions. For example, in 2003, local Imams, traditional leaders and politicians declared a polio campaign boycott, due to the concerns about the safety of the polio vaccine. Although the campaigns resumed in 2004, many parents continued to refuse vaccination because of the persistence of rumours of vaccine contamination, and anger about the poor state of health services for conditions other than polio. To address this, UNICEF and Nigerian Government partners piloted two interventions: (1) mobile 'health camps' to provide ambulatory care for conditions other than polio and (2) an audiovisual clip about vaccine safety and other health issues, shareable on multimedia mobile phones via Bluetooth pairing. The mobile phone survey found that Bluetooth compatible messages could rapidly spread behavioural health messages in low-literacy communities. The health camps roughly doubled polio vaccine uptake in the urban ward where it was piloted. This suggests that polio eradication would have been accelerated by improving primary health care services.

  3. Duration of immunity in red wolves (Canis rufus) following vaccination with a modified live parvovirus and canine distemper vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kadie; Case, Allison; Woodie, Kathleen; Waddell, William; Reed, Holly H

    2014-09-01

    There is growing information available regarding duration of immunity for core vaccines in both domestic and nondomestic species. Vaccination protocols in nondomestic canids have frequently followed guidelines developed for the domestic dog; however, these protocols can be inappropriate for nondomestic canids such as the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus), leaving some animals susceptible to infectious disease and others at risk for contracting vaccine-induced disease. In this study, red wolves (Canis rufus) were vaccinated against canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine parvovirus (CPV) and vaccination titers were followed annually for 3 yr. One hundred percent of wolves developed and maintained a positive titer to CDV for 3 yr and 96.9% of wolves developed and maintained a positive titer to CPV for 3 yr. Seroconversion for canine adenovirus was sporadic. The results of this study support decreasing the frequency of vaccine administration in the red wolf population to a triennial basis.

  4. Effective vaccine safety systems in all countries: a challenge for more equitable access to immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasinghe, Ananda; Black, Steve; Bonhoeffer, Jan; Carvalho, Sandra M Deotti; Dodoo, Alexander; Eskola, Juhani; Larson, Heidi; Shin, Sunheang; Olsson, Sten; Balakrishnan, Madhava Ram; Bellah, Ahmed; Lambach, Philipp; Maure, Christine; Wood, David; Zuber, Patrick; Akanmori, Bartholomew; Bravo, Pamela; Pombo, María; Langar, Houda; Pfeifer, Dina; Guichard, Stéphane; Diorditsa, Sergey; Hossain, Md Shafiqul; Sato, Yoshikuni

    2013-04-18

    Serious vaccine-associated adverse events are rare. To further minimize their occurrence and to provide adequate care to those affected, careful monitoring of immunization programs and case management is required. Unfounded vaccine safety concerns have the potential of seriously derailing effective immunization activities. To address these issues, vaccine pharmacovigilance systems have been developed in many industrialized countries. As new vaccine products become available to prevent new diseases in various parts of the world, the demand for effective pharmacovigilance systems in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) is increasing. To help establish such systems in all countries, WHO developed the Global Vaccine Safety Blueprint in 2011. This strategic plan is based on an in-depth analysis of the vaccine safety landscape that involved many stakeholders. This analysis reviewed existing systems and international vaccine safety activities and assessed the financial resources required to operate them. The Blueprint sets three main strategic goals to optimize the safety of vaccines through effective use of pharmacovigilance principles and methods: to ensure minimal vaccine safety capacity in all countries; to provide enhanced capacity for specific circumstances; and to establish a global support network to assist national authorities with capacity building and crisis management. In early 2012, the Global Vaccine Safety Initiative (GVSI) was launched to bring together and explore synergies among on-going vaccine safety activities. The Global Vaccine Action Plan has identified the Blueprint as its vaccine safety strategy. There is an enormous opportunity to raise awareness for vaccine safety in LMIC and to garner support from a large number of stakeholders for the GVSI between now and 2020. Synergies and resource mobilization opportunities presented by the Decade of Vaccines can enhance monitoring and response to vaccine safety issues, thereby leading to more equitable

  5. Unravelling the genetic components involved in the immune response of pigs vaccinated against influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanella, Ricardo; Gava, Danielle; Peixoto, Jane de Oliveira; Schaefer, Rejane; Ciacci-Zanella, Janice Reis; Biondo, Natalha; da Silva, Marcos Vinicius Gualberto Barbosa; Cantão, Maurício Egídio; Ledur, Mônica Corrêa

    2015-12-02

    A genome-wide association study for immune response to influenza vaccination in a crossbred swine population was conducted. Swine influenza is caused by influenza A virus (FLUAV) which is considered one of the most prevalent respiratory pathogens in swine worldwide. The main strategy used to control influenza in swine herds is through vaccination. However, the currently circulating FLUAV subtypes in swine are genetically and antigenically diverse and their interaction with the host genetics poses a challenge for the production of efficacious and cross-protective vaccines. In this study, 103 pigs vaccinated with an inactivated H1N1 pandemic virus were genotyped with the Illumina PorcineSNP60V2 BeadChip for the identification of genetic markers associated with immune response efficacy to influenza A virus vaccination. Immune response was measured based on the presence or absence of HA (hemagglutinin) and NP (nucleoprotein) antibodies induced by vaccination and detected in swine sera by the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and ELISA assays, respectively. The ELISA test was also used as a measurement of antibody levels produced following the FLUAV vaccination. Associations were tested with x(2) test for a case and control data and using maximum likelihood method for the quantitative data, where a moderate association was considered if pimmune response. Using the response to vaccination measured by ELISA as a qualitative and quantitative phenotype, four genomic regions were associated with immune response: one on SSC12 and three on chromosomes SSC1, SSC7, and SSC15, respectively. Those regions harbor important functional candidate genes possibly involved with the degree of immune response to vaccination. These results show an important role of host genetics in the immune response to influenza vaccination. Genetic selection for pigs with better response to FLUAV vaccination might be an alternative to reduce the impact of influenza virus infection in the swine industry

  6. Effectiveness of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine introduction into routine childhood immunization in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowgill, Karen D.; Ndiritu, Moses; Nyiro, Joyce; Slack, Mary P. E.; Chiphatsi, Salome; Ismail, Amina; Kamau, Tatu; Mwangi, Isaiah; English, Mike; Newton, Charles R. J. C.; Feikin, Daniel R.; Scott, J. Anthony G.

    2006-01-01

    Context Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine is not perceived as a public health priority in Africa because data on Hib disease burden and vaccine effectiveness are scarce. Hib immunization was introduced in Kenyan infants in 2001. Objective to define invasive Hib disease incidence and Hib vaccine program effectiveness. Design, Setting, Patients culture-based surveillance for invasive Hib disease at Kilifi District Hospital from 2000 to 2005 was linked to demographic surveillance of 38,000 children aged <5 years in Kilifi District, Kenya. HIV infection and Hib vaccination status were determined for children with Hib disease admitted 2002–2005. Interventions Conjugate Hib vaccine within the routine childhood immunization program at ages 6, 10 and 14 weeks from November 2001 Main outcome measures Incidence of culture-proven Hib invasive disease before and after vaccine introduction and vaccine program effectiveness (1-incidence rate ratio) Results Prior to vaccine introduction the median age of Hib cases was 8 months; case fatality was 23%. Among children aged <5 years the annual incidence of invasive Hib disease 1 year before and 1 and 3 years after vaccine introduction was 66, 47 and 7.6 per 100,000, respectively. For children <2 years, incidence was 119, 82 and 16, respectively. In 2004–2005 vaccine effectiveness was 88% (95% CI 73–96%) among children <5 years and 87% (95% CI 66–96%) among children <2 years. Of 53 Hib cases admitted during 2002–2005, 29 (55%) were age-ineligible to have received vaccine, 12 (23%) had not been vaccinated despite being eligible, and 12 (23%) had received ≥2 doses of vaccine (2 were HIV-positive). Conclusions In Kenya, introduction of Hib vaccine into the routine childhood immunization program reduced Hib disease incidence among children aged <5 years to 12% of its baseline level. This impact was not observed until the third year after vaccine introduction. PMID:16896110

  7. Inhibition of priming for bovine respiratory syncytial virus-specific protective immune responses following parenteral vaccination of passively immune calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, John; Gow, Sheryl; Bolton, Michael; Burdett, William; Nordstrom, Scott

    2014-12-01

    The effect of maternal antibodies (MatAb) on immunological priming by neonatal parenteral vaccination for bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) was addressed for the first time in experimental infection in 34 Holstein calves. Both vaccinated and control calves developed moderate to severe respiratory disease characteristic of acute BRSV infection. There were no differences in clinical signs, BRSV shed, arterial oxygen concentrations, or mortality between vaccinated and control calves after BRSV challenge approximately 11 wk after vaccination. There were no anamnestic antibody or cytokine responses in the vaccinates after challenge. Lung lesions were extensive in both groups, and although there was a statistically significant (P = 0.05) difference between groups, this difference was considered not biologically significant. These data indicate that stimulation of protective immune responses was inhibited by maternal antibodies when a combination modified-live BRSV vaccine was administered parenterally to young passively immune calves. Alternate routes of administration or different vaccine formulations should be used to successfully immunize young calves with good passive antibody transfer.

  8. CAF01 potentiates immune responses and efficacy of an inactivated influenza vaccine in ferrets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Jean-Marie Martel

    Full Text Available Trivalent inactivated vaccines (TIV against influenza are given to 350 million people every year. Most of these are non-adjuvanted vaccines whose immunogenicity and protective efficacy are considered suboptimal. Commercially available non-adjuvanted TIV are known to elicit mainly a humoral immune response, whereas the induction of cell-mediated immune responses is negligible. Recently, a cationic liposomal adjuvant (dimethyldioctadecylammonium/trehalose 6,6'-dibehenate, CAF01 was developed. CAF01 has proven to enhance both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to a number of different experimental vaccine candidates. In this study, we compared the immune responses in ferrets to a commercially available TIV with the responses to the same vaccine mixed with the CAF01 adjuvant. Two recently circulating H1N1 viruses were used as challenge to test the vaccine efficacy. CAF01 improved the immunogenicity of the vaccine, with increased influenza-specific IgA and IgG levels. Additionally, CAF01 promoted cellular-mediated immunity as indicated by interferon-gamma expressing lymphocytes, measured by flow cytometry. CAF01 also enhanced the protection conferred by the vaccine by reducing the viral load measured in nasal washes by RT-PCR. Finally, CAF01 allowed for dose-reduction and led to higher levels of protection compared to TIV adjuvanted with a squalene emulsion. The data obtained in this human-relevant challenge model supports the potential of CAF01 in future influenza vaccines.

  9. The impact of access to immunization information on vaccine acceptance in three countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori K Handy

    Full Text Available Vaccine acceptance is a critical component of sustainable immunization programs, yet rates of vaccine hesitancy are rising. Increased access to misinformation through media and anti-vaccine advocacy is an important contributor to hesitancy in the United States and other high-income nations with robust immunization programs. Little is known about the content and effect of information sources on attitudes toward vaccination in settings with rapidly changing or unstable immunization programs.The objective of this study was to explore knowledge and attitudes regarding vaccines and vaccine-preventable diseases among caregivers and immunization providers in Botswana, the Dominican Republic, and Greece and examine how access to information impacts reported vaccine acceptance.We conducted 37 focus groups and 14 semi-structured interviews with 96 providers and 153 caregivers in Botswana, the Dominican Republic, and Greece. Focus groups were conducted in Setswana, English, Spanish, or Greek; digitally recorded; and transcribed. Transcripts were translated into English, coded in qualitative data analysis software (NVivo 10, QSR International, Melbourne, Australia, and analyzed for common themes.Dominant themes in all three countries included identification of health care providers or medical literature as the primary source of vaccine information, yet participants reported insufficient communication about vaccines was available. Comments about level of trust in the health care system and government contrasted between sites, with the highest level of trust reported in Botswana but lower levels of trust in Greece.In Botswana, the Dominican Republic, and Greece, participants expressed reliance on health care providers for information and demonstrated a need for more communication about vaccines. Trust in the government and health care system influenced vaccine acceptance differently in each country, demonstrating the need for country-specific data that focus

  10. Complex immune correlates of protection in HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaras, Georgia D; Plotkin, Stanley A

    2017-01-01

    Development of an efficacious HIV-1 vaccine is a major priority for improving human health worldwide. Vaccine-mediated protection against human pathogens can be achieved through elicitation of protective innate, humoral, and cellular responses. Identification of specific immune responses responsible for pathogen protection enables vaccine development and provides insights into host defenses against pathogens and the immunological mechanisms that most effectively fight infection. Defining immunological correlates of transmission risk in preclinical and clinical HIV-1 vaccine trials has moved the HIV-1 vaccine development field forward and directed new candidate vaccine development. Immune correlate studies are providing novel hypotheses about immunological mechanisms that may be responsible for preventing HIV-1 acquisition. Recent results from HIV-1 immune correlates work has demonstrated that there are multiple types of immune responses that together, comprise an immune correlate-thus implicating polyfunctional immune control of HIV-1 transmission. An in depth understanding of these complex immunological mechanisms of protection against HIV-1 will accelerate the development of an efficacious HIV-1 vaccine. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Herd immunity to Newcastle disease virus in poultry by vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boven, van M.; Bouma, A.; Fabri, T.H.F.; Katsma, E.; Hartog, L.; Koch, G.

    2008-01-01

    Newcastle disease is an economically important disease of poultry for which vaccination is applied as a preventive measure in many countries. Nevertheless, outbreaks have been reported in vaccinated populations. This suggests that either the vaccination coverage level is too low or that vaccination

  12. Kinetics of memory B cell and plasma cell responses in the mice immunized with plague vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X; Wang, Q; Bi, Y; Kou, Z; Zhou, J; Cui, Y; Yan, Y; Zhou, L; Tan, Y; Yang, H; Du, Z; Han, Y; Song, Y; Zhang, P; Zhou, D; Yang, R; Wang, X

    2014-03-01

    In our previous studies, we found that plague vaccines can induce long-term antibody response, but no significant antibody boost was observed when the immunized mice were challenged with virulent Yersinia pestis. However, a booster vaccination of subunit vaccine on week 3 after primary immunization elicited a significantly higher antibody titre than a single dose, whereas no significant antibody titre difference was observed between a single dose and two doses of EV76 vaccination. To address these issues, in this study, we first investigated the kinetics of memory B cells and plasma cells in the mice immunized with EV76 or F1 protein by flow cytometry and then determined antibody titre in five groups of mice immunized with various vaccination strategy. The results showed that memory B cells dropped to a low level at day 56 after primary immunization. In contrast, plasma cells were maintained for more than 98 days. The group with primary immunization of EV76 and booster of F1 antigen developed a higher antibody titre than the group with immunization of F1 antigen and booster of EV76. This result supports a hypothesis that an excess of antigens can neutralize pre-existing antibodies, and then the redundant antigen induces antibody boost. Taken together, a boost of antibody titre after revaccination may be dependent on the existence of memory B cells and an excess of antigen vaccination. In addition, this study showed an ideal immunization strategy that involves first immunization with a live attenuated vaccine, such as EV76, and then with a subunit vaccine. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Early DNA vaccination of puppies against canine distemper in the presence of maternally derived immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griot, Christian; Moser, Christian; Cherpillod, Pascal; Bruckner, Lukas; Wittek, Riccardo; Zurbriggen, Andreas; Zurbriggen, Rinaldo

    2004-01-26

    Canine distemper (CD) is a disease in carnivores caused by CD virus (CDV), a member of the morbillivirus genus. It still is a threat to the carnivore and ferret population. The currently used modified attenuated live vaccines have several drawbacks of which lack of appropriate protection from severe infection is the most outstanding one. In addition, puppies up to the age of 6-8 weeks cannot be immunized efficiently due to the presence of maternal antibodies. In this study, a DNA prime modified live vaccine boost strategy was investigated in puppies in order to determine if vaccinated neonatal dogs induce a neutralizing immune response which is supposed to protect animals from a CDV challenge. Furthermore, a single DNA vaccination of puppies, 14 days after birth and in the presence of high titers of CDV neutralizing maternal antibodies, induced a clear and significant priming effect observed as early as 3 days after the subsequent booster with a conventional CDV vaccine. It was shown that the priming effect develops faster and to higher titers in puppies preimmunized with DNA 14 days after birth than in those vaccinated 28 days after birth. Our results demonstrate that despite the presence of maternal antibodies puppies can be vaccinated using the CDV DNA vaccine, and that this vaccination has a clear priming effect leading to a solid immune response after a booster with a conventional CDV vaccine.

  14. Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine induces non-specific immune responses in Japanese flounder against Nocardia seriolae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Goshi; Kondo, Hidehiro; Aoki, Takashi; Hirono, Ikuo

    2012-08-01

    Nocardiosis caused by Nocardia seriolae has been causing severe loss of fish production, so that an effective vaccine is urgently needed. Mycobacterium bovis BCG (BCG) is a live attenuated vaccine for tuberculosis, which is effective against various infectious diseases including nocardiosis in mammals. In this study, the protective efficacy of BCG against N. seriolae was evaluated in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus and antigen-specific immune responses induced in BCG vaccinated fish were investigated. Cumulative mortality of BCG-vaccinated fish was 21.4% whereas that of PBS-injected fish was 56.7% in N. seriolae challenge. However, gene expression level of IFN-γ was only slightly up-regulated in BCG-vaccinated fish after injection of N. seriolae antigen. In order to reveal non-specific immune responses induced by BCG vaccination, transcriptome of the kidney after BCG vaccination was investigated using oligo DNA microarray. Gene expression levels of antimicrobial peptides such as C-type and G-type lysozyme were significantly up-regulated after BCG vaccination. Consistently, BCG vaccination appeared to increase the bacteriolysis activity of the serum against Micrococcus luteus and N. seriolae. These results suggest that BCG-vaccinated Japanese flounder fight N. seriolae infection mainly by non-specific immune responses such as by the production of bacteriolytic lysozymes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Study of the integrated immune response induced by an inactivated EV71 vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longding Liu

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71, a major causative agent of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD, causes outbreaks among children in the Asia-Pacific region. A vaccine is urgently needed. Based on successful pre-clinical work, phase I and II clinical trials of an inactivated EV71 vaccine, which included the participants of 288 and 660 respectively, have been conducted. In the present study, the immune response and the correlated modulation of gene expression in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of 30 infants (6 to 11 months immunized with this vaccine or placebo and consented to join this study in the phase II clinical trial were analyzed. The results showed significantly greater neutralizing antibody and specific T cell responses in vaccine group after two inoculations on days 0 and 28. Additionally, more than 600 functional genes that were up- or down-regulated in PBMCs were identified by the microarray assay, and these genes included 68 genes associated with the immune response in vaccine group. These results emphasize the gene expression profile of the immune system in response to an inactivated EV71 vaccine in humans and confirmed that such an immune response was generated as the result of the positive mobilization of the immune system. Furthermore, the immune response was not accompanied by the development of a remarkable inflammatory response.NCT01391494 and NCT01512706.

  16. Missed Opportunities for Hepatitis A Vaccination, National Immunization Survey-Child, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casillas, Shannon M; Bednarczyk, Robert A

    2017-08-01

    To quantify the number of missed opportunities for vaccination with hepatitis A vaccine in children and assess the association of missed opportunities for hepatitis A vaccination with covariates of interest. Weighted data from the 2013 National Immunization Survey of US children aged 19-35 months were used. Analysis was restricted to children with provider-verified vaccination history (n = 13 460). Missed opportunities for vaccination were quantified by determining the number of medical visits a child made when another vaccine was administered during eligibility for hepatitis A vaccine, but hepatitis A vaccine was not administered. Cross-sectional bivariate and multivariate polytomous logistic regression were used to assess the association of missed opportunities for vaccination with child and maternal demographic, socioeconomic, and geographic covariates. In 2013, 85% of children in our study population had initiated the hepatitis A vaccine series, and 60% received 2 or more doses. Children who received zero doses of hepatitis A vaccine had an average of 1.77 missed opportunities for vaccination compared with 0.43 missed opportunities for vaccination in those receiving 2 doses. Children with 2 or more missed opportunities for vaccination initiated the vaccine series 6 months later than children without missed opportunities. In the fully adjusted multivariate model, children who were younger, had ever received WIC benefits, or lived in a state with childcare entry mandates were at a reduced odds for 2 or more missed opportunities for vaccination; children living in the Northeast census region were at an increased odds. Missed opportunities for vaccination likely contribute to the poor coverage for hepatitis A vaccination in children; it is important to understand why children are not receiving the vaccine when eligible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Self-boosting vaccines and their implications for herd immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Arinaminpathy, Nimalan; Lavine, Jennie S.; Grenfell, Bryan T.

    2012-01-01

    Advances in vaccine technology over the past two centuries have facilitated far-reaching impact in the control of many infections, and today’s emerging vaccines could likewise open new opportunities in the control of several diseases. Here we consider the potential, population-level effects of a particular class of emerging vaccines that use specific viral vectors to establish long-term, intermittent antigen presentation within a vaccinated host: in essence, “self-boosting” vaccines. In parti...

  18. The polio endgame: rationale behind the change in immunisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garon, Julie; Patel, Manish

    2017-04-01

    The decades long effort to eradicate polio is nearing the final stages and oral polio vaccine (OPV) is much to thank for this success. As cases of wild poliovirus continue to dwindle, cases of paralysis associated with OPV itself have become a concern. As type-2 poliovirus (one of three) has been certified eradicated and a large proportion of OPV-related paralysis is caused by the type-2 component of OPV, the World Health Assembly endorsed the phased withdrawal of OPV and the introduction of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) into routine immunisation schedules as a crucial step in the polio endgame plan. The rapid pace of IPV scale-up and uptake required adequate supply, planning, advocacy, training and operational readiness. Similarly, the synchronised switch from trivalent OPV (all three types) to bivalent OPV (types 1 and 3) involved an unprecedented level of global coordination and country commitment. The important shift in vaccination policy seen through global IPV introduction and OPV withdrawal represents an historical milestone reached in the polio eradication effort. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Immunization against Genital Herpes with a Vaccine Virus That has Defects in Productive and Latent Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Xavier J.; Jones, Cheryl A.; Knipe, David M.

    1999-06-01

    An effective vaccine for genital herpes has been difficult to achieve because of the limited efficacy of subunit vaccines and the safety concerns about live viruses. As an alternative approach, mutant herpes simplex virus strains that are replication-defective can induce protective immunity. To increase the level of safety and to prove that replication was not needed for immunization, we constructed a mutant herpes simplex virus 2 strain containing two deletion mutations, each of which eliminated viral replication. The double-mutant virus induces protective immunity that can reduce acute viral shedding and latent infection in a mouse genital model, but importantly, the double-mutant virus shows a phenotypic defect in latent infection. This herpes vaccine strain, which is immunogenic but has defects in both productive and latent infection, provides a paradigm for the design of vaccines and vaccine vectors for other sexually transmitted diseases, such as AIDS.

  20. Maternal nutritional status during pregnancy and infant immune response to routine childhood vaccinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obanewa, Olayinka; Newell, Marie-Louise

    2017-09-01

    To systematically review the association between maternal nutritional status in pregnancy and infant immune response to childhood vaccines. We reviewed literature on maternal nutrition during pregnancy, fetal immune system and vaccines and possible relationships. Thereafter, we undertook a systematic review of the literature of maternal nutritional status and infant vaccine response, extracted relevant information, assessed quality of the nine papers identified and present findings in a narrative format. From limited evidence of average quality, intrauterine nutrition deficiency could lead to functional deficit in the infant's immune function; child vaccine response may thus be negatively affected by maternal malnutrition. Response to childhood vaccination may be associated with fetal and early life environment; evaluation of programs should take this into account.

  1. Increased humoral immunity by DNA vaccination using an alpha-tocopherol-based adjuvant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Ingrid; Borggren, Marie; Nielsen, Jens

    2017-01-01

    DNA vaccines induce broad immunity, which involves both humoral and strong cellular immunity, and can be rapidly designed for novel or evolving pathogens such as influenza. However, the humoral immunogenicity in humans and higher animals has been suboptimal compared to that of traditional vaccine...... approaches. We tested whether the emulsion-based and alpha-tocopherol containing adjuvant Diluvac Forte® has the ability to enhance the immunogenicity of a naked DNA vaccine (i.e., plasmid DNA). As a model vaccine, we used plasmids encoding both a surface-exposed viral glycoprotein (hemagglutinin......). The animals received two intracutaneous immunizations spaced 3 weeks apart. When combined with Diluvac Forte® or the emulsion containing alpha-tocopherol, the DNA vaccine induced a more potent and balanced immunoglobulin G (IgG)1 and IgG2c response, and both IgG subclass responses were significantly enhanced...

  2. Measuring Immune Response to Commonly Used Vaccinations in Adult Recipients of Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Lucy Boyce; Li, Zhuoyan; Savani, Bipin N; Ljungman, Per

    2017-10-01

    Recipients of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) are at risk for potentially preventable infectious complications because of defects in humoral and cell-mediated immunity. Studies of vaccine immunogenicity in HCT recipients have shown that antibody response rates depend on age, type of vaccine, and presence or absence of graft-versus-host disease. However, few large-scale studies have assessed the immune response to vaccination in HCT recipients. Additionally, HCT recipients have much higher rates of potentially preventable infections compared with the general population even after vaccination. This review evaluates the available studies and our view on the measurement of specific antibody titers, definition of an immune response, and durability of response in HCT recipients in both inactivated and live attenuated vaccines. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Infection-acquired versus vaccine-acquired immunity in an SIRWS model

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, Tiffany; Hughes, Barry D; Frascoli, Federico; Campbell, Patricia T; McCaw, James M

    2017-01-01

    Despite high vaccine coverage, pertussis has re-emerged as a public health concern in many countries. One hypothesis posed for re-emergence is the waning of immunity. In some disease systems, the process of waning immunity can be non-linear, involving a complex relationship between the duration of immunity and subsequent boosting of immunity through asymptomatic re-exposure. We present and analyse a model of infectious disease transmission to examine the interplay between infection and immuni...

  4. Immunogenicity and tolerability of recombinant serogroup B meningococcal vaccine administered with or without routine infant vaccinations according to different immunization schedules: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossger, Nicoletta; Snape, Matthew D; Yu, Ly-Mee; Finn, Adam; Bona, Gianni; Esposito, Susanna; Principi, Nicola; Diez-Domingo, Javier; Sokal, Etienne; Becker, Birgitta; Kieninger, Dorothee; Prymula, Roman; Dull, Peter; Ypma, Ellen; Toneatto, Daniela; Kimura, Alan; Pollard, Andrew J

    2012-02-08

    In the absence of an effective vaccine, serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis (MenB) remains a major cause of invasive disease in early childhood in developed countries. To determine the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of a multicomponent MenB vaccine (4CMenB) and routine infant vaccines when given either concomitantly or separately. Phase 2b, multicenter, open-label, parallel-group, randomized controlled study of 1885 infants enrolled at age 2 months from August 2008 to July 2010 in Europe. Participants were randomized 2:2:1:1 to receive (1) 4CMenB at 2, 4, and 6 months with routine vaccines (7-valent pneumococcal and combined diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, inactivated polio, hepatitis B, Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines); (2) 4CMenB at 2, 4, and 6 months and routine vaccines at 3, 5, and 7 months; (3) 4CMenB with routine vaccines at 2, 3, and 4 months; or (4) routine vaccines alone at 2, 3, and 4 months. Percentage of participants with human complement serum bactericidal activity (hSBA) titer of 1:5 or greater against 3 MenB strains specific for vaccine antigens (NZ98/254, 44/76-SL, and 5/99). After three 4CMenB vaccinations, 99% or more of infants developed hSBA titers of 1:5 or greater against strains 44/76-SL and 5/99. For NZ98/254, this proportion was 79% (95% CI, 75.2%-82.4%) for vaccination at 2, 4, and 6 months with routine vaccines, 86.1% (95% CI, 82.9%-89.0%) for vaccination at 2, 4, and 6 months without routine vaccines, and 81.7% (95% CI, 76.6%-86.2%) for vaccination at 2, 3, and 4 months with routine vaccines. Responses to routine vaccines given with 4CMenB were noninferior to routine vaccines alone for all antigens, except for the responses to pertactin and serotype 6B pneumococcal polysaccharide. Fever was seen following 26% (158/602) to 41% (247/607) of 4CMenB doses when administered alone, compared with 23% (69/304) to 36% (109/306) after routine vaccines given alone and 51% (306/605) to 61% (380/624) after 4CMenB and routine

  5. VACCINATION AGAINST YELLOW FEVER WITH IMMUNE SERUM AND VIRUS FIXED FOR MICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, W. A.; Kitchen, S. F.; Lloyd, Wray

    1932-01-01

    1. After preliminary experiments in monkeys, 15 persons were actively immunized by a single injection of a dried mixture of living yellow fever virus, fixed for mice, and human immune serum, with separate injections of enough additional serum to make up the amount required for protection. 2. One person was similarly immunized by injecting immune serum and dried virus separately. 3. By titration of the sera of vaccinated persons in mice, it was shown that the immunity rose in a few weeks to a height comparable to that reached after an attack of yellow fever, and remained there throughout an observation period of 6 months. 4. Yellow fever virus could not be recovered from the blood of vaccinated persons or monkeys, except when the latter had received less than the minimal effective amount of immune serum. 5. Neutralization of yellow fever virus by immune serum took place very slowly in vitro at room temperature in our experiments, and could not have been an appreciable factor in vaccination with the serum virus mixtures. 6. A mixture of fixed virus and immune serum retained its immunizing power for 8 months when dried in the frozen state and sealed in glass. 7. It appears that the immunizing reaction after yellow fever vaccination was a part of a true infectious process, as was also the observed leucopenia. PMID:19870044

  6. FNL Scientists Introduce Concept That Could Help the Immune System Respond to Vaccines | FNLCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientists have discovered an efficient and straightforward model to manipulate RNA nanoparticles, a new concept that could help trigger desirable activation of the immune system with vaccines and therapies. A multi-institutional team of researchers

  7. FNL Scientists Introduce Concept That Could Help the Immune System Respond to Vaccines | FNLCR Staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientists have discovered an efficient and straightforward model to manipulate RNA nanoparticles, a new concept that could help trigger desirable activation of the immune system with vaccines and therapies. A multi-institutional team of researchers

  8. Transgenic sickle cell disease mice have high mortality and dysregulated immune responses after vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepanek, Steven M; Secor, Eric R; Bracken, Sonali J; Guernsey, Linda; Rafti, Ektor; Matson, Adam; Thrall, Roger S; Andemariam, Biree

    2013-08-01

    Children with sickle cell disease (SCD) are susceptible to recurrent infections, which are often life threatening and necessitate frequent vaccinations. Given the altered baseline immunity and proinflammatory state associated with SCD, we sought to determine the relative safety and efficacy of vaccination in transgenic SCD mice. Eight-week-old SCD mice were vaccinated with ovalbumin and aluminum hydroxide weekly for 3 wk by the intraperitoneal or intramuscular route. One week after the third vaccination, serum cytokines/chemokines, immunoglobulins, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cytokines were measured. Only SCD mice were prone to mortality associated with vaccination, as 40% of the animals died after the intraperitoneal vaccinations and 50% died after the intramuscular vaccinations. Serum IgG2b and IgM were significantly lower in SCD mice than in C57BL/6 mice after vaccination, but ovalbumin-specific IgE was significantly higher. Serum interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-2, IL-5, macrophage inflammatory protein 1α, and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor were significantly lower in SCD mice than in C57BL/6 mice after vaccination, whereas bronchoalveolar lavage fluid IL-1β and IL-6 were increased. Mice with SCD appear to have a dysregulated immune response to vaccination. Thus, the relative safety and immunogenicity of vaccination should be studied in greater detail in the context of SCD.

  9. Vaccination with a Paramyosin-Based Multi-Epitope Vaccine Elicits Significant Protective Immunity against Trichinella spiralis Infection in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Gu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Trichinellosis is a worldwide zoonosis and remains a serious public health problem. Interrupting parasite transmission via vaccination of livestocks with a potent vaccine is a practical approach to prevent human Trichinellosis. Our previous studies have identified that paramyosin of Trichinella spiralis (Ts-Pmy is a good vaccine candidate against Trichinellosis. In this study, a novel multi-epitope vaccine (MEP was constructed by using four CD4+ T cell epitopes (P2, P3, P4, and P5 and one B cell epitope (YX1 from Ts-Pmy and expressed as a soluble recombinant protein (rMEP in Escherichia coli. Mice immunized with rMEP vaccine produced significant higher muscle larval reduction (55.4% than that induced by immunization of parental rTs-Pmy (34.4% against T. spiralis infection. The better protection is associated with rMEP induced high levels of anti-rMEP specific IgG and subclass IgG1/IgG2a, elevated T cell proliferation of splenocytes and secretion of IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-5. The cellular response to individual T cell epitope also showed that splenocytes from mice immunized with rMEP strongly response to the stimulation of synthetic epitope peptide P2, P3, and P4, but not to P5, suggesting that most of T cell epitopes are exposed and processed well during immunization that may contribute to the high protection induced by the immunization of rMEP. This study implies that epitope vaccine is a promising approach for the development of vaccines against Trichinellosis.

  10. Effect of ionizing radiation on humoral and cellular immunity in pigs vaccinated against Aujeszky's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartoszcze, M.; Roszkowski, J.

    1991-01-01

    An effect of ionizing radiation on the immune response in pigs of both sexes weighing 35 kg vaccinated with an attenuated Aujeszky's disease virus was investigated. Ionizing radiation in a dose of 200 or 400 r reduced the number of IgM and IgG antibodies produced in vaccinated pigs. Additionally, the 400 r dose delyed the cellular immune response. No effect of the radiation on a clinical course of postvaccinal reaction was found

  11. Gene-based neonatal immune priming potentiates a mucosal adenoviral vaccine encoding mycobacterial Ag85B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Guixiang; Rady, Hamada F; Huang, Weitao; Shellito, Judd E; Mason, Carol; Ramsay, Alistair J

    2016-12-07

    Tuberculosis remains a major public health hazard worldwide, with neonates and young infants potentially more susceptible to infection than adults. BCG, the only vaccine currently available, provides some protection against tuberculous meningitis in children but variable efficacy in adults, and is not safe to use in immune compromised individuals. A safe and effective vaccine that could be given early in life, and that could also potentiate subsequent booster immunization, would represent a significant advance. To test this proposition, we have generated gene-based vaccine vectors expressing Ag85B from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and designed experiments to test their immunogenicity and protective efficacy particularly when given in heterologous prime-boost combination, with the initial DNA vaccine component given soon after birth. Intradermal delivery of DNA vaccines elicited Th1-based immune responses against Ag85B in neonatal mice but did not protect them from subsequent aerosol challenge with virulent Mtb H37Rv. Recombinant adenovirus vectors encoding Ag85B, given via the intranasal route at six weeks of age, generated moderate immune responses and were poorly protective. However, neonatal DNA priming following by mucosal boosting with recombinant adenovirus generated strong immune responses, as evidenced by strong Ag85B-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses, both in the lung-associated lymph nodes and the spleen, by the quality of these responding cells (assessed by their capacity to secrete multiple antimicrobial factors), and by improved protection, as indicated by reduced bacterial burden in the lungs following pulmonary TB challenge. These results suggest that neonatal immunization with gene-based vaccines may create a favorable immunological environment that potentiates the pulmonary mucosal boosting effects of a subsequent heterologous vector vaccine encoding the same antigen. Our data indicate that immunization early in life with mycobacterial

  12. Protecting newborns from pertussis: The role of partner vaccination in the era of maternal immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaswamy, Sushena; Wallace, Euan M; Cheng, Allen C; Buttery, Jim; Giles, Michelle L

    2017-09-01

    arrival is an important consideration when maternal immunization does not occur. Cocooning remains an important approach to protect newborns of mothers vaccinated late or not vaccinated in pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Immune Response of Vaccination Against Hepatitis B virus in Iranian Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Meidani, Mohsen; Khorvash, Farzin; Hemati, Simin; Ashrafi, Farzaneh; Ataei, Behrouz; Daneshmand, Dana

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and its complications are major public health problems. As it is hard to treat and control the chronic state, control of disease depends on the prevention especially by vaccination. There is an impaired immune response to vaccinations including HBV in patients with some malignancies. The aim of this study is to assess the response rate of patients undergoing chemotherapy to HBV vaccination. Materials and Methods: All patients from two hematology...

  14. The Immunity Community: A Community Engagement Strategy for Reducing Vaccine Hesitancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeppe, Jennie; Cheadle, Allen; Melton, Mackenzie; Faubion, Todd; Miller, Creagh; Matthys, Juno; Hsu, Clarissa

    2017-09-01

    Parental concerns about vaccine safety have grown in the United States and abroad, resulting in delayed or skipped immunizations (often called "vaccine hesitancy"). To address vaccine hesitancy in Washington State, a public-private partnership of health organizations implemented and evaluated a 3-year community intervention, called the "Immunity Community." The intervention mobilized parents who value immunization and provided them with tools to engage in positive dialogue about immunizations in their communities. The evaluation used qualitative and quantitative methods, including focus groups, interviews, and pre and post online surveys of parents, to assess perceptions about and reactions to the intervention, assess facilitators and barriers to success, and track outcomes including parental knowledge and attitudes. The program successfully engaged parent volunteers to be immunization advocates. Surveys of parents in the intervention communities showed statistically significant improvements in vaccine-related attitudes: The percentage concerned about other parents not vaccinating their children increased from 81.2% to 88.6%, and the percentage reporting themselves as "vaccine-hesitant" decreased from 22.6% to 14.0%. There were not statistically significant changes in parental behaviors. This study demonstrates the promise of using parent advocates as part of a community-based approach to reduce vaccine hesitancy.

  15. Immune response to dna vaccine expressing transferrin binding protein a gene of Pasteurella multocida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satparkash Singh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Haemorrhagic Septicaemia (HS, an acute and fatal disease of cattle and buffalo is primarily caused by serotype B:2 or E:2 of Pasteurella multocida. The transferrin binding protein A (TbpA has been found to act as immunogen and potent vaccine candidate in various Gram negative bacteria including P. multocida. The present study was carried out to evaluate the potential of this antigen as a DNA vaccine against HS in mice model. The tbpA gene of P. multocida serotype B:2 was cloned in a mammalian expression vector alone and along with murine IL2 gene as immunological adjuvant to produce monocistronic and bicistronic DNA vaccine constructs, respectively. The immune response to DNA vaccines was evaluated based on serum antibody titres and lymphocyte proliferation assay. A significant increase in humoral and cell mediated immune responses was observed in mice vaccinated with DNA vaccines as compared to non immunized group. Additionally, the bicistronic DNA vaccine provided superior immune response and protection level following challenge as compared to monocistronic construct. The study revealed that DNA vaccine presents a promising approach for the prevention of HS.

  16. Cross-protective immune responses elicited by live attenuated influenza vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yo Han; Seong, Baik Lin

    2013-03-01

    The desired effect of vaccination is to elicit protective immune responses against infection with pathogenic agents. An inactivated influenza vaccine is able to induce the neutralizing antibodies directed primarily against two surface antigens, hemagglutinin and neuraminidase. These two antigens undergo frequent antigenic drift and hence necessitate the annual update of a new vaccine strain. Besides the antigenic drift, the unpredictable emergence of the pandemic influenza strain, as seen in the 2009 pandemic H1N1, underscores the development of a new influenza vaccine that elicits broadly protective immunity against the diverse influenza strains. Cold-adapted live attenuated influenza vaccines (CAIVs) are advocated as a more appropriate strategy for cross-protection than inactivated vaccines and extensive studies have been conducted to address the issues in animal models. Here, we briefly describe experimental and clinical evidence for cross-protection by the CAIVs against antigenically distant strains and discuss possible explanations for cross-protective immune responses afforded by CAIVs. Potential barriers to the achievement of a universal influenza vaccine are also discussed, which will provide useful guidelines for future research on designing an ideal influenza vaccine with broad protection without causing pathogenic effects such as autoimmunity or attrition of protective immunity against homologous infection.

  17. Development of vaccines against Plasmodium falciparum malaria: taking lessons from naturally acquired protective immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Lars

    2007-01-01

    The acquisition of substantial anti-malarial protection in people naturally exposed to P. falciparum is often cited as evidence that malaria vaccines can be developed, but is rarely used to guide the development. We are pursuing the development of vaccines based on antigens and immune responses...

  18. Tetanus vaccination with a dissolving microneedle patch confers protective immune responses in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, E Stein; Romanyuk, AndreyA; Vassilieva, Elena V; Jacob, Joshy; Prausnitz, Mark R; Compans, Richard W; Skountzou, Ioanna

    2016-08-28

    Maternal and neonatal tetanus claim tens of thousands lives every year in developing countries, but could be prevented by hygienic practices and improved immunization of pregnant women. This study tested the hypothesis that skin vaccination can overcome the immunologically transformed state of pregnancy and enhance protective immunity to tetanus in mothers and their newborns. To achieve this goal, we developed microneedle patches (MNPs) that efficiently delivered unadjuvanted tetanus toxoid to skin of pregnant mice and demonstrated that this route induced superior immune responses in female mice conferring 100% survival to tetanus toxin challenge when compared to intramuscular vaccination. Mice born to MNP-vaccinated mothers showed detectable tetanus-specific IgG antibodies up to 12weeks of age and complete protection to tetanus toxin challenge up at 6weeks of age. In contrast, none of the 6-week old mice born to intramuscularly vaccinated mothers survived challenge. Although pregnant mice vaccinated with unadjuvanted tetanus toxoid had 30% lower IgG and IgG1 titers than mice vaccinated intramuscularly with Alum®-adjuvanted tetanus toxoid vaccine, IgG2a titers and antibody affinity maturation were similar between these groups. We conclude that skin immunization with MNPs containing unadjuvanted tetanus toxoid can confer potent protective efficacy to mothers and their offspring using a delivery method well suited for expanding vaccination coverage in developing countries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Harnessing naturally occurring tumor immunity: a clinical vaccine trial in prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayu O Frank

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies of patients with paraneoplastic neurologic disorders (PND have revealed that apoptotic tumor serves as a potential potent trigger for the initiation of naturally occurring tumor immunity. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility, safety, and immunogenicity of an apoptotic tumor-autologous dendritic cell (DC vaccine.We have modeled PND tumor immunity in a clinical trial in which apoptotic allogeneic prostate tumor cells were used to generate an apoptotic tumor-autologous dendritic cell vaccine. Twenty-four prostate cancer patients were immunized in a Phase I, randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled study to assess the safety and immunogenicity of this vaccine. Vaccinations were safe and well tolerated. Importantly, we also found that the vaccine was immunogenic, inducing delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH responses and CD4+ and CD8+ T cell proliferation, with no effect on FoxP3+ regulatory T cells. A statistically significant increase in T cell proliferation responses to prostate tumor cells in vitro (p = 0.002, decrease in prostate specific antigen (PSA slope (p = 0.016, and a two-fold increase in PSA doubling time (p = 0.003 were identified when we compared data before and after vaccination.An apoptotic cancer cell vaccine modeled on naturally occurring tumor immune responses in PND patients provides a safe and immunogenic tumor vaccine.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00289341.

  20. Herd immunity effect of the HPV vaccination program in Australia under different assumptions regarding natural immunity against re-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korostil, Igor A; Peters, Gareth W; Law, Matthew G; Regan, David G

    2013-04-08

    Deterministic dynamic compartmental transmission models (DDCTMs) of human papillomavirus (HPV) transmission have been used in a number of studies to estimate the potential impact of HPV vaccination programs. In most cases, the models were built under the assumption that an individual who cleared HPV infection develops (life-long) natural immunity against re-infection with the same HPV type (this is known as SIR scenario). This assumption was also made by two Australian modelling studies evaluating the impact of the National HPV Vaccination Program to assist in the health-economic assessment of male vaccination. An alternative view denying natural immunity after clearance (SIS scenario) was only presented in one study, although neither scenario has been supported by strong evidence. Some recent findings, however, provide arguments in favour of SIS. We developed HPV transmission models implementing life-time (SIR), limited, and non-existent (SIS) natural immunity. For each model we estimated the herd immunity effect of the ongoing Australian HPV vaccination program and its extension to cover males. Given the Australian setting, we aimed to clarify the extent to which the choice of model structure would influence estimation of this effect. A statistically robust and efficient calibration methodology was applied to ensure credibility of our results. We observed that for non-SIR models the herd immunity effect measured in relative reductions in HPV prevalence in the unvaccinated population was much more pronounced than for the SIR model. For example, with vaccine efficacy of 95% for females and 90% for males, the reductions for HPV-16 were 3% in females and 28% in males for the SIR model, and at least 30% (females) and 60% (males) for non-SIR models. The magnitude of these differences implies that evaluations of the impact of vaccination programs using DDCTMs should incorporate several model structures until our understanding of natural immunity is improved. Copyright

  1. Natural Immunity to HIV: A Template for Vaccine Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourcade, Lyvia; Poudrier, Johanne; Roger, Michel

    2018-04-23

    Africa accounts for the majority of global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, most of which affect women through heterosexual intercourse. Currently, there is no cure for HIV and the development of vaccines and microbicides remains the best solution to eradicate the pandemic. We and others have identified HIV highly-exposed seronegative (HESN) individuals among African female commercial sex workers (CSWs). Analyses of genital samples from HESNs have demonstrated potent innate and anti-inflammatory conditions, HIV-specific CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ T-cells as well as immunoglobulins (Igs), and increased regulatory cell populations, all of which support a delicate balance between strength and control against HIV intrusion. Moreover, we have recently shown that frequencies of innate marginal zone (MZ) B-cells are decreased in the blood of HESNs when compared to HIV-uninfected non-CSW women, suggesting their recruitment to peripheral sites. This coincides with the fact that levels of B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS/BAFF), known to shape the MZ pool and whose overexpression leads to MZ deregulation in HIV-infected progressors, are significantly lower in the blood of HESNs when compared to both HIV-infected CSWs and HIV-uninfected non-CSW women. Interestingly, MZ B-cells can bind HIV gp120 and produce specific IgG and IgA, and have a propensity for B regulatory potential, which could help both the fight against HIV and maintenance of low inflammatory conditions in HESNs. HESN individuals provide an exceptional opportunity to identify important clues for the development of protective devices, and efforts should aim at soliciting immune responses observed in the context of their natural immunity to HIV.

  2. Natural Immunity to HIV: A Template for Vaccine Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyvia Fourcade

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Africa accounts for the majority of global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infections, most of which affect women through heterosexual intercourse. Currently, there is no cure for HIV and the development of vaccines and microbicides remains the best solution to eradicate the pandemic. We and others have identified HIV highly-exposed seronegative (HESN individuals among African female commercial sex workers (CSWs. Analyses of genital samples from HESNs have demonstrated potent innate and anti-inflammatory conditions, HIV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells as well as immunoglobulins (Igs, and increased regulatory cell populations, all of which support a delicate balance between strength and control against HIV intrusion. Moreover, we have recently shown that frequencies of innate marginal zone (MZ B-cells are decreased in the blood of HESNs when compared to HIV-uninfected non-CSW women, suggesting their recruitment to peripheral sites. This coincides with the fact that levels of B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS/BAFF, known to shape the MZ pool and whose overexpression leads to MZ deregulation in HIV-infected progressors, are significantly lower in the blood of HESNs when compared to both HIV-infected CSWs and HIV-uninfected non-CSW women. Interestingly, MZ B-cells can bind HIV gp120 and produce specific IgG and IgA, and have a propensity for B regulatory potential, which could help both the fight against HIV and maintenance of low inflammatory conditions in HESNs. HESN individuals provide an exceptional opportunity to identify important clues for the development of protective devices, and efforts should aim at soliciting immune responses observed in the context of their natural immunity to HIV.

  3. Immune Responses to Dengue and Zika Viruses—Guidance for T Cell Vaccine Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Roth

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite numerous efforts to identify the molecular and cellular effectors of the adaptive immunity that induce a long-lasting immunity against dengue or Zika virus infection, the specific mechanisms underlying such protective immunity remain largely unknown. One of the major challenges lies in the high level of dengue virus (DENV seroprevalence in areas where Zika virus (ZIKV is circulating. In the context of such a pre-existing DENV immunity that can exacerbate ZIKV infection and disease, and given the lack of appropriate treatment for ZIKV infection, there is an urgent need to develop an efficient vaccine against DENV and ZIKV. Notably, whereas several ZIKV vaccine candidates are currently in clinical trials, all these vaccine candidates have been designed to induce neutralizing antibodies as the primary mechanism of immune protection. Given the difficulty to elicit simultaneously high levels of neutralizing antibodies against the different DENV serotypes, and the potential impact of pre-existing subneutralizing antibodies induced upon DENV infection or vaccination on ZIKV infection and disease, additional or alternative strategies to enhance vaccine efficacy, through T cell immunity, are now being considered. In this review, we summarize recent discoveries about cross-reactive B and T cell responses against DENV and ZIKV and propose guidelines for the development of safe and efficient T cell vaccines targeting both viruses.

  4. Applying mathematical tools to accelerate vaccine development: modeling Shigella immune dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney L Davis

    Full Text Available We establish a mathematical framework for studying immune interactions with Shigella, a bacteria that kills over one million people worldwide every year. The long-term goal of this novel approach is to inform Shigella vaccine design by elucidating which immune components and bacterial targets are crucial for establishing Shigella immunity. Our delay differential equation model focuses on antibody and B cell responses directed against antigens like lipopolysaccharide in Shigella's outer membrane. We find that antibody-based vaccines targeting only surface antigens cannot elicit sufficient immunity for protection. Additional boosting prior to infection would require a four-orders-of-magnitude increase in antibodies to sufficiently prevent epithelial invasion. However, boosting anti-LPS B memory can confer protection, which suggests these cells may correlate with immunity. We see that IgA antibodies are slightly more effective per molecule than IgG, but more total IgA is required due to spatial functionality. An extension of the model reveals that targeting both LPS and epithelial entry proteins is a promising avenue to advance vaccine<