Polio eradication efforts in regions of geopolitical strife: the Boko Haram threat to efforts in sub-Saharan Africa. ... Targets of Boko Haram aggression in these zones include violence against polio workers, disruption of polio immunization campaigns, with consequent reduced access to health care and immunization.
rous boundary, with a length of about 1690 km. The last cases of poliomyelitis were reported in Cameroon and. Nigeria on 9 and 24 July 2014 respectively6,16. The WHO has called for these countries to eradicate WPV and pre- vent its spread6,17. The commitment of both countries to eradicate it and stop its spread is clear, ...
Bahl, Sunil; Bhatnagar, Pankaj; Sutter, Roland W; Roesel, Sigrun; Zaffran, Michel
In 1988, the World Health Assembly resolved to eradicate poliomyelitis by the year 2000. Although substantial progress was achieved by 2000, global polio eradication proved elusive. In India, the goal was accomplished in 2011, and the entire South-East Asia Region was certified as polio-free in 2014. The year 2016 marks the lowest wild poliovirus type 1 case count ever, the lowest number of polio-endemic countries (Afghanistan, Nigeria and Pakistan), the maintenance of wild poliovirus type 2 eradication, and the continued absence of wild poliovirus type 3 detection since 2012. The year also marks the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) moving into the post-cessation of Sabin type 2, after the effort of globally synchronized withdrawal of Sabin type 2 poliovirus in April 2016. Sustained efforts will be needed to ensure polio eradication is accomplished, to overcome the access and security issues, and continue to improve the quality and reach of field operations. After that, surveillance (the "eyes and ears") will move further to the center stage. Sensitive surveillance will monitor the withdrawal of all Sabin polioviruses, and with facility containment, constitute the cornerstones for eventual global certification of wild poliovirus eradication. An emergency response capacity is essential to institute timely control measures should polio still re-emerge. Simultaneously, the public health community needs to determine whether and how to apply the polio-funded infrastructure to other priorities (after the GPEI funding has stopped). Eradication is the primary goal, but securing eradication will require continued efforts, dedicated resources, and a firm commitment by the global public health community.
Bigna, Jean Joel R
The World Health Organization aims to eradicate wild poliovirus worldwide by the end of 2018. Cameroon and Nigeria, neighboring countries, have been affected by the terrorist and militant activities of the Islamist sect Boko Haram. Impacted regions are mainly the far North of Cameroon and Northern Nigeria. Targets of Boko Haram aggression in these zones include violence against polio workers, disruption of polio immunization campaigns, with consequent reduced access to health care and immunization. In addition to this significant problem, Northern Nigeria has historically seen rejection of polio virus vaccine initiatives. It remains to know how health systems can continue operations against polio in areas where Boko Haram operates. If appropriate measures are not urgently taken, it will be not possible to meet the 2018 goal of polio virus eradication. The response should include specialized immunization activities in conflict zones, will engagement of leaders. Countries should also explore immunization activities by soldiers and military personnel.
Kimman, Tjeerd G; Boot, Hein J
The polio eradication campaign has greatly reduced the effects of this disease, but many new challenges have emerged. These challenges include the occurrence of polio outbreaks caused by wild-type polioviruses or circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) in areas where vaccination coverage
Thomassen, Y.E.; Oever, van 't A.G.; Oijen, van M.G.C.T.; Wijffels, R.H.; Pol, van der L.A.; Bakker, W.A.M.
Worldwide efforts to eradicate polio caused a tipping point in polio vaccination strategies. A switch from the oral polio vaccine, which can cause circulating and virulent vaccine derived polioviruses, to inactivated polio vaccines (IPV) is scheduled. Moreover, a manufacturing process, using
and surmount the intractable problem of sub- optimal vaccine coverage which has remained a critical bottleneck in the successful eradication of the polio virus in Nigeria. It becomes pertinent therefore, to appraise this latest effort to avoid a recurrence of failure in subsequent polio eradication programs. METHODS. A review ...
Rutter, Paul D; Hinman, Alan R; Hegg, Lea; King, Dennis; Sosler, Stephen; Swezy, Virginia; Hussey, Ann-Lee; Cochi, Stephen L
The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) has been in operation since 1988, now spends $1 billion annually, and operates through thousands of staff and millions of volunteers in dozens of countries. It has brought polio to the brink of eradication. After eradication is achieved, what should happen to the substantial assets, capabilities, and lessons of the GPEI? To answer this question, an extensive process of transition planning is underway. There is an absolute need to maintain and mainstream some of the functions, to keep the world polio-free. There is also considerable risk-and, if seized, substantial opportunity-for other health programs and priorities. And critical lessons have been learned that can be used to address other health priorities. Planning has started in the 16 countries where GPEI's footprint is the greatest and in the program's 5 core agencies. Even though poliovirus transmission has not yet been stopped globally, this planning process is gaining momentum, and some plans are taking early shape. This is a complex area of work-with difficult technical, financial, and political elements. There is no significant precedent. There is forward motion and a willingness on many sides to understand and address the risks and to explore the opportunities. Very substantial investments have been made, over 30 years, to eradicate a human pathogen from the world for the second time ever. Transition planning represents a serious intent to responsibly bring the world's largest global health effort to a close and to protect and build upon the investment in this effort, where appropriate, to benefit other national and global priorities. Further detailed technical work is now needed, supported by broad and engaged debate, for this undertaking to achieve its full potential. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.
S. M. Kharit
Full Text Available In 2013 WHO re-evaluated its main goals of the polio eradication program. A modernization program was accepted with regard to the National vaccination calendars worldwide which includes a step-by-step refusal from the living polio vaccine (OPV and a total transition to the inactivated polio vaccine (IPV starting in 2019. Because of the total eradication of the polio type 2 virus, as an intermediate step the 3-valence OPV was substituted with the 2-valence OPV, which does not contain the type 2 polio virus, in April 2016. The aim of the article is to present the history of polio prevention and to state the reasons for the adoption of 3rd edition of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative. The new approaches were defined for eradication of wild polio virus type 1 and vaccine related strains. A new strategy for global switch to inactivated polio vaccine by 2019 was suggested.
Cochi, Stephen L; Hegg, Lea; Kaur, Anjali; Pandak, Carol; Jafari, Hamid
The world is closer than ever to achieving global polio eradication, with record-low polio cases in 2015 and the impending prospect of a polio-free Africa. Tens of millions of volunteers, social mobilizers, and health workers have participated in the Global Polio Eradication Initiative. The program contributes to efforts to deliver other health benefits, including health systems strengthening. As the initiative nears completion after more than twenty-five years, it becomes critical to document and transition the knowledge, lessons learned, assets, and infrastructure accumulated by the initiative to address other health goals and priorities. The primary goals of this process, known as polio legacy transition planning, are both to protect a polio-free world and to ensure that investments in polio eradication will contribute to other health goals after polio is completely eradicated. The initiative is engaged in an extensive transition process of consultations and planning at the global, regional, and country levels. A successful completion of this process will result in a well-planned and -managed conclusion of the initiative that will secure the global public good gained by ending one of the world's most devastating diseases and ensure that these investments provide public health benefits for years to come. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
Kanwal, Sumaira; Hussain, Abrar; Mannan, Shazia; Perveen, Shazia
Polio is one out of 200 infections results to lasting paralysis, usually in the legs. The year 2014 has been the saddest year for the Pakistan when the World was about to eliminate Polio from all over the World. In year 1994 Pakistan took the initiative to eliminate Polio from the country. The efforts were going well until 2005, when Pakistan was on the wedge to overcome the Disease. The hopes were high that soon Pakistan will become a polio-virus-free country, but the drone strikes in FATA and the rise of different militant groups as a reaction of the drone attacks in FATA made it difficult for the health workers to continue their vaccination campaigns in these areas. However various factors ruined the efforts made to eradicate Polio. In Pakistan, polio is widespread to three sections. These are Karachi, Quetta block (Quetta, Pishin and Killah Abdullah district) and FATA and Peshawar district. Numerous things are accountable for polio flourishing in these regions. These comprise near to the ground socioeconomic rank of the families, not having the knowledge concerning hazard caused by polio and disinformation by limited significant people concerning how polio vaccines fabricate damage. In 2014, only 3 countries in the world remain polio-endemic: Nigeria, Pakistan and Afghanistan. From year 2012-2014 the number of registered Polio cases is on rise contrary to rest of the other two Polio-endemic countries. In spite of the extensive work done by Polio workers the number of Polio cases has broken the 16 year record. The situation is getting worse because it can also be threatening to the rest of the World.
Goodson, James L; Alexander, James P; Linkins, Robert W; Orenstein, Walter A
In 1988, an estimated 350,000 children were paralyzed by polio and 125 countries reported polio cases, the World Health Assembly passed a resolution to achieve polio eradication by 2000, and the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) was established as a partnership focused on eradication. Today, following eradication efforts, polio cases have decreased >99% and eradication of all three types of wild polioviruses is approaching. However, since polio resources substantially support disease surveillance and other health programs, losing polio assets could reverse progress toward achieving Global Vaccine Action Plan goals. Areas covered: As the end of polio approaches and GPEI funds and capacity decrease, we document knowledge, experience, and lessons learned from 30 years of polio eradication. Expert commentary: Transitioning polio assets to measles and rubella (MR) elimination efforts would accelerate progress toward global vaccination coverage and equity. MR elimination feasibility and benefits have long been established. Focusing efforts on MR elimination after achieving polio eradication would make a permanent impact on reducing child mortality but should be done through a 'diagonal approach' of using measles disease transmission to identify areas possibly susceptible to other vaccine-preventable diseases and to strengthen the overall immunization and health systems to achieve disease-specific goals.
Sathyamala, C; Mittal, Onkar; Dasgupta, Rajib; Priya, Ritu
The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) promised eradication of polio by the year 2000 and certification of eradication by 2005. The first deadline is already a matter of history. With the reporting of polio cases in 2004, the new deadline for polio eradication by 2004 is postponed further. This article seeks to argue that the scientific and technical bodies spear-heading the GPEI, including the WHO, UNICEF, and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control, have formulated a conceptually flawed strategy and that it is not weak political will that is the central obstacle in this final push for global eradication. The validity of the claims of "near success" by the proponents of the GPEI is also examined in detail. By taking India as a case study, the authors examine the achievements of the GPEI in nine years of intense effort since 1995. They conclude that the GPEI is yet another exercise in mismanaging the health priorities and programs in developing countries in the era of globalization.
In January 2012, polio eradication was declared a "programmatic emergency for global public health" by the Executive Board of the World Health Organization (WHO). Since the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) began in 1988, progress has been tracked by surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases and testing of linked stool specimens for polioviruses (PVs) in WHO-accredited Global Polio Laboratory Network (GPLN) laboratories, complemented by sewage testing (environmental surveillance) in selected areas. Monitoring AFP surveillance quality at national and subnational administrative levels using standard performance indicators identifies potential gaps where PV circulation might go undetected; monitoring specimen transport and laboratory reporting timeliness identifies areas where reporting delays could lead to late response, permitting ongoing transmission. This report provides an assessment of 2010-2011 performance indicators for AFP surveillance at national and subnational levels in polio-affected countries and laboratory reporting at the regional level, updated from 2009-2010. Overall, 16 (62%) of 26 countries with circulating wild PV (WPV) met national AFP surveillance indicator targets during both 2010 and 2011. All three countries with reestablished WPV transmission and 16 of 19 countries with WPV outbreaks had substantial proportions (>20%) of their respective populations living in areas with underperforming surveillance during 2010 or 2011. Targets for timely reporting of PV isolation and type characterization results were met in three of six WHO regions in 2010 and five regions in 2011. To achieve polio eradication, efforts are needed to improve AFP surveillance and laboratory performance.
By January 2012, 23 years after the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) was begun, indigenous wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission had been interrupted in all countries except Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Nigeria. However, importation of WPV into 29 previously polio-free African countries during 2003-2011 led to reestablished WPV transmission (i.e., lasting >12 months) in Angola, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), and Sudan (although the last confirmed case in Sudan occurred in 2009). This report summarizes progress toward polio eradication in Africa. In 2011, 350 WPV cases were reported by 12 African countries, a 47% decrease from the 657 cases reported in 2010. From 2010 to 2011, the number of cases decreased in Angola (from 33 to five) and DRC (from 100 to 93) and increased in Nigeria (from 21 to 62) and Chad (from 26 to 132). New WPV outbreaks were reported in 2011 in eight African countries, and transmission subsequently was interrupted in six of those countries. Ongoing endemic transmission in Nigeria poses a major threat to the success of GPEI. Vigilant surveillance and high population immunity levels must be maintained in all African countries to prevent and limit new outbreaks.
Yvonne E Thomassen
Full Text Available Worldwide efforts to eradicate polio caused a tipping point in polio vaccination strategies. A switch from the oral polio vaccine, which can cause circulating and virulent vaccine derived polioviruses, to inactivated polio vaccines (IPV is scheduled. Moreover, a manufacturing process, using attenuated virus strains instead of wild-type polioviruses, is demanded to enhance worldwide production of IPV, especially in low- and middle income countries. Therefore, development of an IPV from attenuated (Sabin poliovirus strains (sIPV was pursued. Starting from the current IPV production process based on wild type Salk strains, adaptations, such as lower virus cultivation temperature, were implemented. sIPV was produced at industrial scale followed by formulation of both plain and aluminium adjuvanted sIPV. The final products met the quality criteria, were immunogenic in rats, showed no toxicity in rabbits and could be released for testing in the clinic. Concluding, sIPV was developed to manufacturing scale. The technology can be transferred worldwide to support post polio-eradication biosafety goals.
Obregón, Rafael; Chitnis, Ketan; Morry, Chris; Feek, Warren; Bates, Jeffrey; Galway, Michael; Ogden, Ellyn
Since 1988, the world has come very close to eradicating polio through the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, in which communication interventions have played a consistently central role. Mass media and information dissemination approaches used in immunization efforts worldwide have contributed to this success. However, reaching the hardest-to-reach, the poorest, the most marginalized and those without access to health services has been challenging. In the last push to eradicate polio, Polio Eradication Initiative communication strategies have become increasingly research-driven and innovative, particularly through the introduction of sustained interpersonal communication and social mobilization approaches to reach unreached populations. This review examines polio communication efforts in India and Pakistan between the years 2000 and 2007. It shows how epidemiological, social and behavioural data guide communication strategies that have contributed to increased levels of polio immunity, particularly among underserved and hard-to-reach populations. It illustrates how evidence-based and planned communication strategies - such as sustained media campaigns, intensive community and social mobilization, interpersonal communication and political and national advocacy combined - have contributed to reducing polio incidence in these countries. Findings show that communication strategies have contributed on several levels by: mobilizing social networks and leaders; creating political will; increasing knowledge; ensuring individual and community-level demand; overcoming gender barriers and resistance to vaccination; and reaching out to the poorest and marginalized populations. The review concludes with observations about the added value of communication strategies in polio eradication efforts and implications for global and local public health communication interventions.
Baron, Emmanuel; Magone, Claire
The social rejection of the polio eradication campaign in endemic countries challenges an assumption underlying the goal itself: the full compliance of an entire population to a public health programme. The polio campaign, which has been an extraordinary public health enterprise, is at risk of becoming irremediably unpopular if the eradication goal is pursued at all costs. The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) should not be driven by the fear of failure, because the greatest benefit of the polio campaign is that it has demonstrated how simple, community-wide actions can contribute to a dramatic decrease in the incidence of a disease.
Methods A review of related and available literature was conducted on the subject matter using the Google search engine, Google Scholar, and PubMed using the key words polio; eradication; Nigeria; and Global Polio Eradication Initiative. Result Much progress has been made towards achieving the required coverage ...
Ganapathiraju, Pavan V; Morssink, Christiaan B; Plumb, James
In 1988, the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) was launched with the goal of eradicating polio by the year 2000. After 25 years, several dynamics still challenge this large public health campaign with new cases of polio being reported annually. We examine the roots of this initiative to eradicate polio, its scope, the successes and setbacks during the last 25 years and reflect on the current state of affairs. We examine the social and political factors that are barriers to polio eradication. Options are discussed for solving the current impasse of polio eradication: using force, respecting individual freedoms and gaining support from those vulnerable to fundamentalist 'propaganda'. The travails of the GPEI indicate the need for expanding the Convention on the Rights of the Child to address situations of war and civic strife. Such a cultural and structural reference will provide the basis for global stakeholders to engage belligerent local actors whose local political conflicts are barriers to the eradication of polio. Disregard for these actors will result in stagnation of polio eradication policy, delaying eradication beyond 2018.
Since the beginning of Global Polio Eradication Initiative in 1988, poliomyelitis cases caused by wild poliovirus (PV) have been drastically reduced, with only 74 cases reported in 2 endemic countries in 2015. The current limited PV transmission suggests that we are in the endgame of the polio eradication program. However, specific challenges have emerged in the endgame, including tight budget, switching of the vaccines, and changes in biorisk management of PV. To overcome these challenges, several PV studies have been implemented in the eradication program. Some of the responses to the emerging challenges in the polio endgame might be valuable in other infectious diseases eradication programs. Here, I will review challenges that confront the polio eradication program and current research to address these challenges.
Nadeem, Nighat Jahan
The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) has significantly reduced the worldwide incidence of poliomyelitis. However, polio remains endemic in Pakistan which poses a threat to the success of the GPEI. Issues faced by Pakistan relate to politics, terrorism, war, natural disasters, funding constraints, misconceptions and inadequate infrastructure. These contribute in hampering the aims of the GPEI and allow the deadly poliovirus to maintain its reservoir in Pakistan. Until polio is completely eradicated, all countries remain at risk of its re-emergence and this is of grave concern as potentially it could reverse the polio-free certified status of a whole World Health Organisation (WHO) region. With the increase in global travel and international migration, even the smallest potential risk should not be taken lightly. Recommendations are made to help to improve the state of polio in Pakistan to make full use of the GPEI investment and move towards a polio-free world.
Gentile, Ángela; Abate, Héctor
Poliovirus infects 100% of susceptible individuals and causes acute flaccid paralysis in one out of200 infections. Type 1 causes epidemic poliomyelitis; type 2 has been eradicated worldwide; and type 3 is close to being eradicated. In this region, the last case of wild poliovirus occurred in Peru in 1991. There are still two endemic countries: Afghanistan and Pakistan, but countries where there is no circulation of the wild poliovirus have also reported imported cases of polio. In May 2012, the World Health Assembly declared the polio eradication a programmatic emergency for global public health and, as a result, developed the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018. The Plan has four objectives: 1) Detect and interrupt all poliovirus transmission and maintain surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis in children polio vaccine by the first trimester of 2016. Replace the trivalent oral polio vaccine with the bivalent oral vaccine, containing serotypes 1 and 3, and introduce the inactivated polio vaccine in all immunization schedules to maintain immunity against poliovirus type 2. 3) Contain poliovirus and certify interruption of transmission. 4) Plan the exploitation of the fight against polio and its impact on public health. The plan is expected to reach its goals by 2018; all use of the oral polio vaccine will be interrupted thereafter. Change in immunization schedules will require pediatricians to provide advice and guidance to families depending on the varied situations of everyday practice. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.
Patel, Manish; Menning, Lisa; Bhatnagar, Pankaj
Since the launch of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) by the World Health Assembly (WHA) in 1988, the number of polio-endemic countries has decreased from 125 to 2 (Afghanistan and Pakistan). To secure the gains and to address the remaining challenges, the GPEI developed the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan, 2013-2018 (the Plan), endorsed by all Member States at the WHA in May 2013. One of the major elements that distinguishes this Plan from previous GPEI strategies is the approach to ending all polioviruses, both wild and vaccine-derived. Overall, the Plan outlines four main objectives: (1) to stop all wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission; (2) to introduce inactivated polio vaccine (IPV), withdraw all oral polio vaccines (OPV), and strengthen immunization systems in countries with weak immunization systems and strong polio infrastructure; (3) to certify all regions as polio-free and safely contain all poliovirus stocks; (4) and to mainstream the investment in polio eradication to benefit other priority public health initiatives for years to come. Implementing the Plan and meeting the milestones in a timely manner will help to ensure that that the world remains permanently polio-free.
Wagner, Bradley G; Behrend, Matthew R; Klein, Daniel J; Upfill-Brown, Alexander M; Eckhoff, Philip A; Hu, Hao
A priority of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) 2013-2018 strategic plan is to evaluate the potential impact on polio eradication resulting from expanding one or more Supplementary Immunization Activities (SIAs) to children beyond age five-years in polio endemic countries. It has been hypothesized that such expanded age group (EAG) campaigns could accelerate polio eradication by eliminating immunity gaps in older children that may have resulted from past periods of low vaccination coverage. Using an individual-based mathematical model, we quantified the impact of EAG campaigns in terms of probability of elimination, reduction in polio transmission and age stratified immunity levels. The model was specifically calibrated to seroprevalence data from a polio-endemic region: Zaria, Nigeria. We compared the impact of EAG campaigns, which depend only on age, to more targeted interventions which focus on reaching missed populations. We found that EAG campaigns would not significantly improve prospects for polio eradication; the probability of elimination increased by 8% (from 24% at baseline to 32%) when expanding three annual SIAs to 5-14 year old children and by 18% when expanding all six annual SIAs. In contrast, expanding only two of the annual SIAs to target hard-to-reach populations at modest vaccination coverage-representing less than one tenth of additional vaccinations required for the six SIA EAG scenario-increased the probability of elimination by 55%. Implementation of EAG campaigns in polio endemic regions would not improve prospects for eradication. In endemic areas, vaccination campaigns which do not target missed populations will not benefit polio eradication efforts.
John, T Jacob
Pioneering research has been conducted in India during the past five decades, comprehensively covering epidemiology of poliovirus infection and of polio, efficacy and effectiveness of oral and inactivated polio vaccines (OPV, IPV) as well as pathogenesis of wild and vaccine polioviruses. It was estimated, based on epidemiology data, that India had a very heavy burden of polio, with average 500-1000 cases per day. Prevention was an urgent need, but OPV showed unacceptably low vaccine efficacy (VE) for poliovirus types 1 and 3. Having learned that response to sequential doses followed arithmetic pattern and not prime-boost principle, multiple doses were tested and found to be a simple intervention to increase VE. Eventually this knowledge became critical for polio eradication. Indian research demonstrated that monovalent OPV (mOPV) had nearly three timed higher VE than trivalent OPV (tOPV). Eventually, mOPV type 1 became essential to interrupt wild type 1 infection in many locations where the VE of tOPV was very low. Indian research pointed to the epidemiologic importance of direct person-to-person spread of wild polio viruses and the need and potential of IPV to prevent and control polio. Research on vaccine responses led to the understanding that OPV would become wild-like through back mutations and to the definition of eradication as interrupting transmission of both wild and vaccine-derived polioviruses. By asking and answering the right questions insequence, Indian polio research presaged and guided polio eradication.
Chitnis, Ketan; Morry, Chris; Feek, Warren; Bates, Jeffrey; Galway, Michael; Ogden, Ellyn
Abstract Since 1988, the world has come very close to eradicating polio through the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, in which communication interventions have played a consistently central role. Mass media and information dissemination approaches used in immunization efforts worldwide have contributed to this success. However, reaching the hardest-to-reach, the poorest, the most marginalized and those without access to health services has been challenging. In the last push to eradicate polio, Polio Eradication Initiative communication strategies have become increasingly research-driven and innovative, particularly through the introduction of sustained interpersonal communication and social mobilization approaches to reach unreached populations. This review examines polio communication efforts in India and Pakistan between the years 2000 and 2007. It shows how epidemiological, social and behavioural data guide communication strategies that have contributed to increased levels of polio immunity, particularly among underserved and hard-to-reach populations. It illustrates how evidence-based and planned communication strategies – such as sustained media campaigns, intensive community and social mobilization, interpersonal communication and political and national advocacy combined – have contributed to reducing polio incidence in these countries. Findings show that communication strategies have contributed on several levels by: mobilizing social networks and leaders; creating political will; increasing knowledge; ensuring individual and community-level demand; overcoming gender barriers and resistance to vaccination; and reaching out to the poorest and marginalized populations. The review concludes with observations about the added value of communication strategies in polio eradication efforts and implications for global and local public health communication interventions. PMID:19705014
Closser, Svea; Cox, Kelly; Parris, Thomas M.; Landis, R. Matthew; Justice, Judith; Gopinath, Ranjani; Maes, Kenneth; Banteyerga Amaha, Hailom; Mohammed, Ismaila Zango; Dukku, Aminu Mohammed; Omidian, Patricia A.; Varley, Emma; Tedoff, Pauley; Koon, Adam D.; Nyirazinyoye, Laetitia; Luck, Matthew A.; Pont, W. Frank; Neergheen, Vanessa; Rosenthal, Anat; Nsubuga, Peter; Thacker, Naveen; Jooma, Rashid; Nuttall, Elizabeth
Background. After 2 decades of focused efforts to eradicate polio, the impact of eradication activities on health systems continues to be controversial. This study evaluated the impact of polio eradication activities on routine immunization (RI) and primary healthcare (PHC). Methods. Quantitative analysis assessed the effects of polio eradication campaigns on RI and maternal healthcare coverage. A systematic qualitative analysis in 7 countries in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa assessed impacts of polio eradication activities on key health system functions, using data from interviews, participant observation, and document review. Results. Our quantitative analysis did not find compelling evidence of widespread and significant effects of polio eradication campaigns, either positive or negative, on measures of RI and maternal healthcare. Our qualitative analysis revealed context-specific positive impacts of polio eradication activities in many of our case studies, particularly disease surveillance and cold chain strengthening. These impacts were dependent on the initiative of policy makers. Negative impacts, including service interruption and public dissatisfaction, were observed primarily in districts with many campaigns per year. Conclusions. Polio eradication activities can provide support for RI and PHC, but many opportunities to do so remain missed. Increased commitment to scaling up best practices could lead to significant positive impacts. PMID:24690667
Mbaeyi, Chukwuma; Kamadjeu, Raoul; Mahamud, Abdirahman; Webeck, Jenna; Ehrhardt, Derek; Mulugeta, Abraham
Since the 1988 resolution of the World Health Assembly to eradicate polio, significant progress has been made toward achieving this goal, with the result that only Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan have never successfully interrupted endemic transmission of wild poliovirus. However, one of the greatest challenges of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative has been that of maintaining the polio-free status of countries in unstable regions with weak healthcare infrastructure, a challenge exemplified by Somalia, a country in the Horn of Africa region. Somalia interrupted indigenous transmission of wild poliovirus in 2002, four years after establishing its national polio eradication programme. But political instability and protracted armed conflict, with significant disruption of the healthcare system, left the country vulnerable to two subsequent imported outbreaks of wild poliovirus. The first occurred during 2005–2007, resulting in over 200 cases of paralytic polio, while the second importation in 2013 is currently ongoing. Despite immense challenges, the country has a sensitive surveillance system that has facilitated prompt detection of outbreaks, but its weak routine immunization system means that supplementary immunization activities constitute the primary strategy for reaching children with polio vaccines. Conducting vaccination campaigns in a setting of conflict has been at times hazardous but the country’s polio programme has demonstrated resilience in overcoming many obstacles to ensure that children receive life-saving polio vaccines. Regaining and maintaining Somalia’s polio-free status will, however, depend on finding innovative and lasting solutions to the challenge of administering vaccines in a setting of ongoing conflict and instability. PMID:25316833
Mbaeyi, Chukwuma; Kamadjeu, Raoul; Mahamud, Abdirahman; Webeck, Jenna; Ehrhardt, Derek; Mulugeta, Abraham
Since the 1988 resolution of the World Health Assembly to eradicate polio, significant progress has been made toward achieving this goal, with the result that only Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan have never successfully interrupted endemic transmission of wild poliovirus. However, one of the greatest challenges of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative has been that of maintaining the polio-free status of countries in unstable regions with weak healthcare infrastructure, a challenge exemplified by Somalia, a country in the Horn of Africa region. Somalia interrupted indigenous transmission of wild poliovirus in 2002, 4 years after the country established its national polio eradication program. But political instability and protracted armed conflict, with significant disruption of the healthcare system, have left Somalia vulnerable to 2 imported outbreaks of wild poliovirus. The first occurred during 2005-2007, resulting in >200 cases of paralytic polio, whereas the second, which began in 2013, is currently ongoing. Despite immense challenges, the country has a sensitive surveillance system that has facilitated prompt detection of outbreaks, but its weak routine immunization system means that supplementary immunization activities constitute the primary strategy for reaching children with polio vaccines. Conducting vaccination campaigns in a setting of conflict has been at times hazardous, but the country's polio program has demonstrated resilience in overcoming many obstacles to ensure that children receive lifesaving polio vaccines. Regaining and maintaining Somalia's polio-free status will depend on finding innovative and lasting solutions to the challenge of administering vaccines in a setting of ongoing conflict and instability. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
Craig, Allen S; Haydarov, Rustam; O'Malley, Helena; Galway, Michael; Dao, Halima; Ngongo, Ngashi; Baranyikwa, Marie Therese; Naqvi, Savita; Abid, Nima S; Pandak, Carol; Edwards, Amy
The legacy of polio in Africa goes far beyond the tragedies of millions of children with permanent paralysis. It has a positive side, which includes the many well-trained polio staff who have vaccinated children, conducted surveillance, tested stool specimens in the laboratories, engaged with communities, and taken care of polio patients. This legacy also includes support for routine immunization services and vaccine introductions and campaigns for other diseases. As polio funding declines, it is time to take stock of the resources made available with polio funding in Africa and begin to find ways to keep some of the talented staff, infrastructure, and systems in place to work on new public health challenges. The partnerships that helped support polio eradication will need to consider funding to maintain and to strengthen routine immunization services and other maternal, neonatal, and child health programs in Africa that have benefitted from the polio eradication infrastructure. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.
Pirio, Gregory Alonso; Kaufmann, Judith
This study draws lessons from the resource mobilization experiences of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI). As the GPEI launched its eradication effort in 1988, it underestimated both the difficulty and the costs of the campaign. Advocacy for resource mobilization came as an afterthought in the late 1990s, when achieving eradication by the target date of 2000 began to look doubtful. The reality of funding shortfalls undercutting eradication leads to the conclusion that advocacy for resource mobilization is as central to operations as are scientific and technical factors.
Lopalco, P L
Polio cases due to wild virus are reported by only three countries in the world. Poliovirus type 2 has been globally eradicated and the last detection of poliovirus type 3 dates to November 2012. Poliovirus type 1 remains the only circulating wild strain; between January and September 2016 it caused 26 cases (nine in Afghanistan, 14 in Pakistan, three in Nigeria). The use of oral polio vaccine (OPV) has been the key to success in the eradication effort. However, paradoxically, moving towards global polio eradication, the burden caused by vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) becomes increasingly important. In this paper circulation of both wild virus and VDPVs is reviewed and implications for the polio eradication endgame are discussed. Between April and May 2016 OPV2 cessation has been implemented globally, in a coordinated switch from trivalent OPV to bivalent OPV. In order to decrease the risk for cVDPV2 re-emergence inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) has been introduced in the routine vaccine schedule of all countries. The likelihood of re-emergence of cVDPVs should markedly decrease with time after OPV cessation, but silent circulation of polioviruses cannot be ruled out even a long time after cessation. For this reason, immunity levels against polioviruses should be kept as high as possible in the population by the use of IPV, and both clinical and environmental surveillance should be maintained at a high level.
Cochi, Stephen L; Freeman, Andrew; Guirguis, Sherine; Jafari, Hamid; Aylward, Bruce
The world is on the verge of achieving global polio eradication. During >25 years of operations, the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) has mobilized and trained millions of volunteers, social mobilizers, and health workers; accessed households untouched by other health initiatives; mapped and brought health interventions to chronically neglected and underserved communities; and established a standardized, real-time global surveillance and response capacity. It is important to document the lessons learned from polio eradication, especially because it is one of the largest ever global health initiatives. The health community has an obligation to ensure that these lessons and the knowledge generated are shared and contribute to real, sustained changes in our approach to global health. We have summarized what we believe are 10 leading lessons learned from the polio eradication initiative. We have the opportunity and obligation to build a better future by applying the lessons learned from GPEI and its infrastructure and unique functions to other global health priorities and initiatives. In so doing, we can extend the global public good gained by ending for all time one of the world's most devastating diseases by also ensuring that these investments provide public health dividends and benefits for years to come. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
Michael, Charles A; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya; Gunnala, Rajni; Biya, Oladayo; Kretsinger, Katrina; Wiesen, Eric; Goodson, James L; Esapa, Lisa; Gidado, Saheed; Uba, Belinda; Nguku, Patrick; Cochi, Stephen
From 2012 to date, Nigeria has been the focus of intensified polio eradication efforts. Large investments made by multiple partner organizations and the federal Ministry of Health to support strategies and resources, including personnel, for increasing vaccination coverage and improved performance monitoring paid off, as the number of wild poliovirus (WPV) cases detected in Nigeria were reduced significantly, from 122 in 2012 to 6 in 2014. No WPV cases were detected in Nigeria in 2015 and as at March 2017, only 4 WPV cases had been detected. Given the momentum gained toward polio eradication, these resources seem well positioned to help advance other priority health agendas in Nigeria, particularly the control of vaccine-preventable diseases, such as measles. Despite implementation of mass measles vaccination campaigns, measles outbreaks continue to occur regularly in Nigeria, leading to high morbidity and mortality rates for children Polio (NSTOP) program was collaboratively established in 2012 to create a network of staff working at national, state, and district levels in areas deemed high risk for vaccine-preventable disease outbreaks. As an example of how the polio legacy can create long-lasting improvements to public health beyond polio, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention will transition >180 NSTOP officers to provide technical experience to improve measles surveillance, routine vaccination coverage, and outbreak investigation and response in high-risk areas. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.
In 1988, the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) was established through a partnership between the World Health Organization (WHO), Rotary International, CDC, and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). By 2012, the annual incidence of polio had decreased by >99%, compared with 1988, and the number of countries in which wild poliovirus (WPV) circulation has never been interrupted was reduced to three: Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan. However, because of the persistence of endemic WPV transmission and recurring outbreaks in polio-free countries after the original polio eradication target date of 2000, the World Health Assembly in 2012 declared the completion of polio eradication a programmatic emergency. A key component of GPEI is the Stop Transmission of Polio (STOP) program, which was developed and initiated by CDC with WHO in 1999 to mobilize additional human resources and technical assistance for countries affected by WPV transmission. During 1999-2013, 1,563 volunteers were identified, trained, and deployed for 2,221 assignments in 69 countries. The number of volunteers increased from 90-120 per year during 1999-2011 to 287 in 2012 and 378 in 2013, and the number of volunteer person-months in the field per year increased from 273 in 1999 to 1,456 in 2012. The STOP program has aided GPEI by strengthening the capacity of country-level immunization programs and by allowing a large cohort of volunteers to gain valuable field experience that prepares them well for subsequent work as staff members of WHO, UNICEF, and other public health agencies.
Levitt, Alexandra; Diop, Ousmane M; Tangermann, Rudolf H; Paladin, Fem; Kamgang, Jean Baptiste; Burns, Cara C; Chenoweth, Paul J; Goel, Ajay; Wassilak, Steven G F
In 2012, the World Health Assembly of the World Health Organization (WHO) declared completion of polio eradication a programmatic emergency. Polio cases are detected through surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases and subsequent testing of stool specimens for polioviruses (PVs) at WHO-accredited laboratories within the Global Polio Laboratory Network (GPLN). AFP surveillance is supplemented by environmental surveillance, testing sewage samples from selected sites for PVs. Virologic surveillance, including genomic sequencing to identify isolates by genotype and measure divergence between isolates, guides Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) activities by confirming the presence of PV, tracking chains of PV transmission, and highlighting gaps in AFP surveillance quality. This report provides AFP surveillance quality indicators at national and subnational levels during 2012-2013 for countries that experienced PV cases during 2009-2013 in the WHO African Region (AFR) and Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR), the remaining polio-endemic regions. It also summarizes the results of environmental surveillance and reviews indicators assessing the timeliness of reporting of PV isolation and of virus strain characterization globally. Regional-level performance indicators for timely reporting of PV isolation were met in five of six WHO regions in 2012 and 2013. Of 30 AFR and EMR countries that experienced cases of PV (wild poliovirus [WPV], circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus [cVDPV], or both) during 2009-2013, national performance indicator targets for AFP surveillance and collection of adequate specimens were met in 27 (90%) countries in 2012 and 22 (73%) in 2013. In 17 (57%) countries, ≥80% of the population lived in subnational areas meeting both AFP performance indicators in 2012, decreasing to 13 (43%) in 2013. To achieve polio eradication and certify interruption of PV transmission, intensive efforts to strengthen and maintain AFP surveillance are
Shah, Syed Zawar; Saad, Muhammad; Rahman Khattak, Mohammad Hasan; Rizwan, Muhammad; Haidari, Asma; Idrees, Fatima
Polio is a major health problem and a deadly infectious disease in the developing countries. It is a viral illness caused by polio virus that can lead to paralysis, limb deformities, breathing problems or even death. Polio virus resides only in humans and passes on to the environment in the faeces of someone who is infected. Polio is still endemic in three countries, i.e., Pakistan, Nigeria and Afghanistan and is eradicated from the rest of the world. Pakistan is considered as the exporter of Wild Polio Virus (WPV) with highest number of polio outbreaks among endemic countries. With the start of World Polio Eradication Initiative in 1988, the number of polio cases has been reduced up to 99% worldwide until now. In 2015, Pakistan has shown a decrease of 70-75% in number of polio cases as compare to last year which is the result of good government's initiatives. Militant organizations such as Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan, Al-Qaeda and Boko haram movement of northern Nigeria are a major hurdle in the eradication of polio from these countries. The misconception of people about polio vaccine, insecurity within the country and poor health system are the reasons of failure of polio eradication campaigns in these regions. Awareness campaigns about polio for locals and development of proper health system will help in the eradication of polio. Once polio is eradicated, about 40-50 billion dollars can be saved globally. With the strong commitment, seriousness and good initiatives, polio will be eradicated from Pakistan within two years more likely.
Aylward, Bruce; Tangermann, Rudolf
Following the rapid progress towards interrupting indigenous wild poliovirus transmission in the Americas in the early 1980s, the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) was launched with a resolution of the World Health Assembly (WHA) in 1988. The GPEI built on many lessons learned from smallpox eradication, including the large-scale deployment of technical assistance, implementing agendas of innovation and research and the use of professionally planned and guided advocacy. By the year 2000, the incidence of polio globally had decreased by 99% compared with the estimated >350,000 cases reported from 125 endemic countries in 1988. By 2002, three WHO Regions (the Americas, Western Pacific and European Regions) had been certified polio-free. By 2005, transmission of indigenous wild poliovirus (WPV) had been interrupted in all but 4 'endemic' countries: India, Nigeria, Pakistan and Afghanistan, where eradication efforts effectively stalled. WPV exported from northern Nigeria and northern India subsequently caused >50 outbreaks and paralysed >1500 children in previously polio-free countries across Asia and Africa. In each of the four remaining polio-endemic countries different challenges, or a combination of factors, prevented to build up sufficient levels of population immunity to stop transmission. Consequently, specific strategies were increasingly tailored to each setting. A new 2010-2012 GPEI Strategic Plan was developed which brought together several approaches to overcome the remaining hurdles to eradication, including the large-scale use of bivalent oral poliovaccine (bOPV) in supplementary immunization activities (SIAs). By the end of 2010, the impact of the new GPEI Strategic Plan 2010-2012 was apparent. Compared to 2009, the number of new polio cases in 2010 fell by 95% in both northern Nigeria and northern India, the world's largest remaining reservoirs of indigenous WPVs. By mid-2011, India had not reported a polio case for more than 5 months, and in
Selinger, Christian; McCarthy, Kevin A.; Eckhoff, Philip A.; Chabot-Couture, Guillaume
The oral polio vaccine (OPV) contains live-attenuated polioviruses that induce immunity by causing low virulence infections in vaccine recipients and their close contacts. Widespread immunization with OPV has reduced the annual global burden of paralytic poliomyelitis by a factor of 10,000 or more and has driven wild poliovirus (WPV) to the brink of eradication. However, in instances that have so far been rare, OPV can paralyze vaccine recipients and generate vaccine-derived polio outbreaks. To complete polio eradication, OPV use should eventually cease, but doing so will leave a growing population fully susceptible to infection. If poliovirus is reintroduced after OPV cessation, under what conditions will OPV vaccination be required to interrupt transmission? Can conditions exist in which OPV and WPV reintroduction present similar risks of transmission? To answer these questions, we built a multi-scale mathematical model of infection and transmission calibrated to data from clinical trials and field epidemiology studies. At the within-host level, the model describes the effects of vaccination and waning immunity on shedding and oral susceptibility to infection. At the between-host level, the model emulates the interaction of shedding and oral susceptibility with sanitation and person-to-person contact patterns to determine the transmission rate in communities. Our results show that inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) is sufficient to prevent outbreaks in low transmission rate settings and that OPV can be reintroduced and withdrawn as needed in moderate transmission rate settings. However, in high transmission rate settings, the conditions that support vaccine-derived outbreaks have only been rare because population immunity has been high. Absent population immunity, the Sabin strains from OPV will be nearly as capable of causing outbreaks as WPV. If post-cessation outbreak responses are followed by new vaccine-derived outbreaks, strategies to restore population
Full Text Available The oral polio vaccine (OPV contains live-attenuated polioviruses that induce immunity by causing low virulence infections in vaccine recipients and their close contacts. Widespread immunization with OPV has reduced the annual global burden of paralytic poliomyelitis by a factor of 10,000 or more and has driven wild poliovirus (WPV to the brink of eradication. However, in instances that have so far been rare, OPV can paralyze vaccine recipients and generate vaccine-derived polio outbreaks. To complete polio eradication, OPV use should eventually cease, but doing so will leave a growing population fully susceptible to infection. If poliovirus is reintroduced after OPV cessation, under what conditions will OPV vaccination be required to interrupt transmission? Can conditions exist in which OPV and WPV reintroduction present similar risks of transmission? To answer these questions, we built a multi-scale mathematical model of infection and transmission calibrated to data from clinical trials and field epidemiology studies. At the within-host level, the model describes the effects of vaccination and waning immunity on shedding and oral susceptibility to infection. At the between-host level, the model emulates the interaction of shedding and oral susceptibility with sanitation and person-to-person contact patterns to determine the transmission rate in communities. Our results show that inactivated polio vaccine (IPV is sufficient to prevent outbreaks in low transmission rate settings and that OPV can be reintroduced and withdrawn as needed in moderate transmission rate settings. However, in high transmission rate settings, the conditions that support vaccine-derived outbreaks have only been rare because population immunity has been high. Absent population immunity, the Sabin strains from OPV will be nearly as capable of causing outbreaks as WPV. If post-cessation outbreak responses are followed by new vaccine-derived outbreaks, strategies to restore
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study is based on EPI (Expanded Program on Immunization immunization surveys and surveillance of polio, its challenges in immunization and the way forward to overcome these challenges. Methods Several Government documents, survey reports and unpublished program documents were studied and online search was made to find information on EPI Pakistan. SPSS 16 and Microsoft Excel 2007 were used for the statistical analysis. Results Immunization against polio is higher in urban areas as compared to rural areas. Marked variation in vaccination has been observed in different provinces of Pakistan in the last decade. Secondly 10-20% of the children who have received their first dose of trivalent polio vaccine were deprived of their 2nd and 3rd dose because of poor performance of EPI and Lack of information about immunization. Conclusion In spite of numerous successes, such as the addition of new vaccines and raising immunization to over 100% in some areas, EPI is still struggling to reach its polio eradication goals. Inadequate service delivery, lack of information about immunization and limited number of vaccinators were found to be the key reason for poor performance of immunization and for large number of cases reported each year due to the deficiency of second and third booster dose.
Okeibunor, Joseph C; Ota, Martin C; Akanmori, Bartholomew D; Gumede, Nicksy; Shaba, Keith; Kouadio, Koffi I; Poy, Alain; Mihigo, Richard; Salla, Mbaye; Moeti, Matshidiso R
The World Health Organization, African Region is heading toward eradication of the three types of wild polio virus, from the Region. Cases of wild poliovirus (WPV) types 2 and 3 (WPV2 and WPV3) were last reported in 1998 and 2012, respectively, and WPV1 reported in Nigeria since July 2014 has been the last in the entire Region. This scenario in Nigeria, the only endemic country, marks a remarkable progress. This significant progress is as a result of commitment of key partners in providing the much needed resources, better implementation of strategies, accountability, and innovative approaches. This is taking place in the face of public emergencies and challenges, which overburden health systems of countries and threaten sustainability of health programmes. Outbreak of Ebola and other diseases, insecurity, civil strife and political instability led to displacement of populations and severely affected health service delivery. The goal of eradication is now within reach more than ever before and countries of the region should not relent in their efforts on polio eradication. WHO and partners will redouble their efforts and introduce better approaches to sustain the current momentum and to complete the job. The carefully planned withdrawal of oral polio vaccine type II (OPV2) with an earlier introduction of one dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV), in routine immunization, will boost immunity of populations and stop cVDPVs. Environmental surveillance for polio viruses will supplement surveillance for AFP and improve sensitivity of detection of polio viruses. Copyright © 2016 World Health Organization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Duintjer Tebbens, Radboud J; Pallansch, Mark A; Cochi, Stephen L; Wassilak, Steven G F; Linkins, Jennifer; Sutter, Roland W; Aylward, R Bruce; Thompson, Kimberly M
The global polio eradication initiative (GPEI), which started in 1988, represents the single largest, internationally coordinated public health project to date. Completion remains within reach, with type 2 wild polioviruses apparently eradicated since 1999 and fewer than 2000 annual paralytic poliomyelitis cases of wild types 1 and 3 reported since then. This economic analysis of the GPEI reflects the status of the program as of February 2010, including full consideration of post-eradication policies. For the GPEI intervention, we consider the actual pre-eradication experience to date followed by two distinct potential future post-eradication vaccination policies. We estimate GPEI costs based on actual and projected expenditures and poliomyelitis incidence using reported numbers corrected for underreporting and model projections. For the comparator, which assumes only routine vaccination for polio historically and into the future (i.e., no GPEI), we estimate poliomyelitis incidence using a dynamic infection transmission model and costs based on numbers of vaccinated children. Cost-effectiveness ratios for the GPEI vs. only routine vaccination qualify as highly cost-effective based on standard criteria. We estimate incremental net benefits of the GPEI between 1988 and 2035 of approximately 40-50 billion dollars (2008 US dollars; 1988 net present values). Despite the high costs of achieving eradication in low-income countries, low-income countries account for approximately 85% of the total net benefits generated by the GPEI in the base case analysis. The total economic costs saved per prevented paralytic poliomyelitis case drive the incremental net benefits, which become positive even if we estimate the loss in productivity as a result of disability as below the recommended value of one year in average per-capita gross national income per disability-adjusted life year saved. Sensitivity analysis suggests that the finding of positive net benefits of the GPEI remains
Since the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) began in 1988, progress has been tracked by 1) surveillance comprised of detection and investigation of cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP), coupled with environmental surveillance (sewage testing) in selected areas, and 2) timely testing of fecal specimens in accredited laboratories to identify polioviruses. The sensitivity of AFP case detection and the timeliness of AFP investigations are monitored with performance indicators. Polioviruses are isolated and characterized by the Global Polio Laboratory Network (GPLN). This report assesses the quality of polio surveillance and the timeliness of poliovirus isolation reporting and characterization worldwide during 2009--2010. During that period, 77% of countries affected by wild poliovirus (WPV) met national performance standards for AFP surveillance; underperforming subnational areas were identified in two of four countries with reestablished WPV transmission and in 13 of 22 countries with WPV outbreaks. Targets for timely GPLN reporting of poliovirus isolation results were met in five World Health Organization (WHO) regions in 2009 and in four of six regions in 2010; targets for timely poliovirus characterization were met in four WHO regions in 2009 and in five regions in 2010. Monitoring of surveillance performance indicators at subnational levels continues to be critical to identifying surveillance gaps that might allow WPV circulation to be missed in certain areas or subpopulations. To achieve polio eradication, efforts are needed to further strengthen AFP surveillance, implement targeted environmental surveillance, and ensure that GPLN quality is maintained.
This article investigates whether the United States' counterinsurgency operations have inhibited polio eradication efforts in northwestern Pakistan, the world's last major reservoir of polio. Anecdotal evidence suggests that militants disrupt polio vaccination programs because of suspicions that campaigns are a cover for gathering intelligence on Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) drone targets. This paper analyzes national-level quantitative data to test this argument. Between 2004 and 2012, the number of polio cases in Pakistan closely mirrored the number of drone strikes. But from 2013 onward, polio cases increased while drone strikes fell. This can be explained by the CIA's use of a fake immunization campaign in a failed attempt to obtain the DNA of Osama bin Laden's relatives prior to his assassination in 2011. This seemingly vindicated militants' suspicions that vaccination programs were a cover for espionage. Militants consequently intensified their disruption of immunization campaigns, resulting in an increase in polio cases in Pakistan, as well as in Afghanistan, Syria, and Iraq. For politicians and military planners, drones are attractive because they are said to harm fewer civilians than conventional methods of warfare. However, this paper demonstrates that drone strikes had negative effects on the well-being of civilians in Pakistan and further afield because they undermined global efforts to eradicate polio.
Hampton, Lee M; du Châtellier, Gaël Maufras; Fournier-Caruana, Jacqueline; Ottosen, Ann; Rubin, Jennifer; Menning, Lisa; Farrell, Margaret; Shendale, Stephanie; Patel, Manish
Eliminating the risk of polio from vaccine-derived polioviruses is essential for creating a polio-free world, and eliminating that risk will require stopping use of all oral polio vaccines (OPVs) once all types of wild polioviruses have been eradicated. In many ways, the experience with the global switch from trivalent OPV (tOPV) to bivalent OPV (bOPV) can inform the eventual full global withdrawal of OPV. Significant preparation will be needed for a thorough, synchronized, and full withdrawal of OPV, and such preparation would be aided by setting a reasonably firm date for OPV withdrawal as far in advance as possible, ideally at least 24 months. A shorter lead time would provide valuable flexibility for decisions about when to stop use of OPV in the context of uncertainty about whether or not all types of wild polioviruses had been eradicated, but it might increase the cost of OPV withdrawal. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.
Asghar, Humayun; Diop, Ousmane M; Weldegebriel, Goitom; Malik, Farzana; Shetty, Sushmitha; El Bassioni, Laila; Akande, Adefunke O; Al Maamoun, Eman; Zaidi, Sohail; Adeniji, Adekunle J; Burns, Cara C; Deshpande, Jagadish; Oberste, M Steve; Lowther, Sara A
This article summarizes the status of environmental surveillance (ES) used by the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, provides the rationale for ES, gives examples of ES methods and findings, and summarizes how these data are used to achieve poliovirus eradication. ES complements clinical acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance for possible polio cases. ES detects poliovirus circulation in environmental sewage and is used to monitor transmission in communities. If detected, the genetic sequences of polioviruses isolated from ES are compared with those of isolates from clinical cases to evaluate the relationships among viruses. To evaluate poliovirus transmission, ES programs must be developed in a manner that is sensitive, with sufficiently frequent sampling, appropriate isolation methods, and specifically targeted sampling sites in locations at highest risk for poliovirus transmission. After poliovirus ceased to be detected in human cases, ES documented the absence of endemic WPV transmission and detected imported WPV. ES provides valuable information, particularly in high-density populations where AFP surveillance is of poor quality, persistent virus circulation is suspected, or frequent virus reintroduction is perceived. Given the benefits of ES, GPEI plans to continue and expand ES as part of its strategic plan and as a supplement to AFP surveillance. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
Banerjee, K.; Hlady, W. G.; Andrus, J. K.; Sarkar, S.; Fitzsimmons, J.; Abeykoon, P.
Poliomyelitis surveillance in India previously involved the passive reporting of clinically suspected cases. The capacity for detecting the disease was limited because there was no surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP). In October 1997, 59 specially trained Surveillance Medical Officers were deployed throughout the country to establish active AFP surveillance; 11,533 units were created to report weekly on the occurrence of AFP cases at the district, state and national levels; timely case investigation and the collection of stool specimens from AFP cases was undertaken; linkages were made to support the polio laboratory network; and extensive training of government counterparts of the Surveillance Medical Officers was conducted. Data reported at the national level are analysed and distributed weekly. Annualized rates of non-polio AFP increased from 0.22 per 100,000 children aged under 15 years in 1997 to 1.39 per 100,000 in 1999. The proportion of cases with two adequate stools collected within two weeks of the onset of paralysis increased from 34% in 1997 to 68% in 1999. The number of polio cases associated with the isolation of wild poliovirus decreased from 211 in the first quarter of 1998 to 77 in the first quarter of 1999. Widespread transmission of wild poliovirus types 1 and 3 persists throughout the country; type 2 occurs only in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh. In order to achieve polio eradication in India during 2000, extra national immunization days and house-to-house mopping-up rounds should be organized. PMID:10812728
Taylor, Sebastian; Khan, Mahmud; Muhammad, Ado; Akpala, Okey; van Strien, Marit; Morry, Chris; Feek, Warren; Ogden, Ellyn
Vaccine hesitancy constitutes a major threat to the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI), and to further expansion of routine immunisation. Understanding hesitancy, leading in some cases to refusal, is vital to the success of GPEI. Re-emergence of circulating wild poliovirus in northern Nigeria in mid-2016, after 24months polio-free, gives urgency to this. But it is equally important to protect and sustain the global gains available through routine immunisation in a time of rising scepticism and potential rejection of specific vaccines or immunisation more generally. This study is based on a purposive sampling survey of 1653 households in high- and low-performing rural, semiurban and urban areas of three high-risk states of northern Nigeria in 2013-14 (Sokoto, Kano and Bauchi). The survey sought to understand factors at household and community level associated with propensity to refuse polio vaccine. Wealth, female education and knowledge of vaccines were associated with lower propensity to refuse oral polio vaccine (OPV) among rural households. But higher risk of refusal among wealthier, more literate urban household rendered these findings ambiguous. Ethnic and religious identity did not appear to be associated with risk of OPV refusal. Risk of vaccine refusal was highly clustered among households within a small sub-group of sampled settlements. Contrary to expectations, households in these settlements reported higher levels of expectation of government as service provider, but at the same time lesser confidence in the efficacy of their relations with government. Results suggest that strategies to address the micro-political dimension of vaccination - expanding community-level engagement, strengthening the role of local government in public health, and enhancing public participation of women - should be effective in reducing non-compliance, asan important set of strategies complementary to conventional didactic/educational approaches and working through
John, T Jacob; Vashishtha, Vipin M
India's success in eliminating wild polioviruses (WPVs) has been acclaimed globally. Since the last case on January 13, 2011 success has been sustained for two years. By early 2014 India could be certified free of WPV transmission, if no indigenous transmission occurs, the chances of which is considered zero. Until early 1990s India was hyperendemic for polio, with an average of 500 to 1000 children getting paralysed daily. In spite of introducing trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (tOPV) in the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) in 1979, the burden of polio did not fall below that of the pre-EPI era for a decade. One of the main reasons was the low vaccine efficacy (VE) of tOPV against WPV types 1 and 3. The VE of tOPV was highest for type 2 and WPV type 2 was eliminated in 1999 itself as the average per-capita vaccine coverage reached 6. The VE against types 1 and 3 was the lowest in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, where the force of transmission of WPVs was maximum on account of the highest infant-population density. Transmission was finally interrupted with sustained and extraordinary efforts. During the years since 2004 annual pulse polio vaccination campaigns were conducted 10 times each year, virtually every child was tracked and vaccinated - including in all transit points and transport vehicles, monovalent OPV types 1 and 3 were licensed and applied in titrated campaigns according to WPV epidemiology and bivalent OPV (bOPV, with both types 1 and 3) was developed and judiciously deployed. Elimination of WPVs with OPV is only phase 1 of polio eradication. India is poised to progress to phase 2, with introduction of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV), switch from tOPV to bOPV and final elimination of all vaccine-related and vaccine-derived polioviruses. True polio eradication demands zero incidence of poliovirus infection, wild and vaccine.
The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) was established in 1988 by the World Health Assembly to interrupt transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV); completion of this initiative was declared a programmatic emergency of public health in January 2012. Polio cases are detected through surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) with linked stool specimens tested for polioviruses (PVs) at accredited laboratories within the Global Polio Laboratory Network (GPLN). AFP surveillance findings are supplemented by testing sewage samples (environmental surveillance) collected at selected sites. Virologic data guide where targeted immunization activities should be conducted or improved. Key performance indicators are used to 1) monitor AFP surveillance quality at national and subnational levels to identify gaps where PV transmission could occur undetected; 2) provide evidence of where PV circulation has been interrupted; and 3) allow timely detection of an outbreak. Standardized surveillance indicators allow progress to be monitored over time and compared among countries. This report presents AFP surveillance performance indicators at national and subnational levels for countries affected by polio during 2011-2012, and trends in environmental surveillance, updating previous reports. In the 19 countries with transmission of PV (WPV and/or circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus [cVDPV]) during 2011-2012, national performance indicator targets were met in 12 (63%) countries in 2011 and 13 (68%) countries in 2012. Seven countries (37%) in 2011 had ≥80% of the population living in areas meeting performance indicators, increasing to nine countries (47%) in 2012. Performance indicators for timely reporting of PV isolation and characterization were met in four of six World Health Organization (WHO) regions in 2011 and five regions in 2012. To achieve global polio eradication, efforts are needed to improve and maintain AFP surveillance and laboratory performance.
Kretsinger, Katrina; Strebel, Peter; Kezaala, Robert; Goodson, James L
The Global Polio Eradication Initiative has built an extensive infrastructure with capabilities and resources that should be transitioned to measles and rubella elimination efforts. Measles continues to be a major cause of child mortality globally, and rubella continues to be the leading infectious cause of birth defects. Measles and rubella eradication is feasible and cost saving. The obvious similarities in strategies between polio elimination and measles and rubella elimination include the use of an extensive surveillance and laboratory network, outbreak preparedness and response, extensive communications and social mobilization networks, and the need for periodic supplementary immunization activities. Polio staff and resources are already connected with those of measles and rubella, and transitioning existing capabilities to measles and rubella elimination efforts allows for optimized use of resources and the best opportunity to incorporate important lessons learned from polio eradication, and polio resources are concentrated in the countries with the highest burden of measles and rubella. Measles and rubella elimination strategies rely heavily on achieving and maintaining high vaccination coverage through the routine immunization activity infrastructure, thus creating synergies with immunization systems approaches, in what is termed a "diagonal approach." © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.
Thompson, Kimberly M.
Drawing on over 20 years of experience modeling risks in complex systems, this talk will challenge SBP participants to develop models that provide timely and useful answers to critical policy questions when decision makers need them. The talk will include reflections on the opportunities and challenges associated with developing integrated models for complex problems and communicating their results effectively. Dr. Thompson will focus the talk largely on collaborative modeling related to global polio eradication and the application of system dynamics tools. After successful global eradication of wild polioviruses, live polioviruses will still present risks that could potentially lead to paralytic polio cases. This talk will present the insights of efforts to use integrated dynamic, probabilistic risk, decision, and economic models to address critical policy questions related to managing global polio risks. Using a dynamic disease transmission model combined with probabilistic model inputs that characterize uncertainty for a stratified world to account for variability, we find that global health leaders will face some difficult choices, but that they can take actions that will manage the risks effectively. The talk will emphasize the need for true collaboration between modelers and subject matter experts, and the importance of working with decision makers as partners to ensure the development of useful models that actually get used.
Blake, Isobel M; Chenoweth, Paul; Okayasu, Hiro; Donnelly, Christl A; Aylward, R Bruce; Grassly, Nicholas C
As the global eradication of poliomyelitis approaches the final stages, prompt detection of new outbreaks is critical to enable a fast and effective outbreak response. Surveillance relies on reporting of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases and laboratory confirmation through isolation of poliovirus from stool. However, delayed sample collection and testing can delay outbreak detection. We investigated whether weekly testing for clusters of AFP by location and time, using the Kulldorff scan statistic, could provide an early warning for outbreaks in 20 countries. A mixed-effects regression model was used to predict background rates of nonpolio AFP at the district level. In Tajikistan and Congo, testing for AFP clusters would have resulted in an outbreak warning 39 and 11 days, respectively, before official confirmation of large outbreaks. This method has relatively high specificity and could be integrated into the current polio information system to support rapid outbreak response activities.
Abdelwahab, Jalaa; Dietz, Vance; Eggers, Rudolf; Maher, Christopher; Olaniran, Marianne; Sandhu, Hardeep; Vandelaer, Jos
Since the launch of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) in 1988, the number of polio endemic countries has declined from 125 to 3 in 2013. Despite this remarkable achievement, ongoing circulation of wild poliovirus in polio-endemic countries and the increase in the number of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus cases, especially those caused by type 2, is a cause for concern. The Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018 (PEESP) was developed and includes 4 objectives: detection and interruption of poliovirus transmission, containment and certification, legacy planning, and a renewed emphasis on strengthening routine immunization (RI) programs. This is critical for the phased withdrawal of oral poliovirus vaccine, beginning with the type 2 component, and the introduction of a single dose of inactivated polio vaccine into RI programs. This objective has inspired renewed consideration of how the GPEI and RI programs can mutually benefit one another, how the infrastructure from the GPEI can be used to strengthen RI, and how a strengthened RI can facilitate polio eradication. The PEESP is the first GPEI strategic plan that places strong and clear emphasis on the necessity of improving RI to achieve and sustain global polio eradication. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
Kim, Sara S; Patel, Manish; Hinman, Alan
Reaching the children that are chronically missed by routine immunization services has been a key pillar of success in achieving progress toward polio eradication. The rapid advancement and accessibility of mobile technology ("mHealth") in low and lower middle income countries provides an important opportunity to apply novel, innovative approaches to provide vaccine services. We sought to document the use and effectiveness of mHealth in immunization programs in low and lower middle income countries. We particularly focused on mHealth approaches used in polio eradication efforts by the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) to leverage the knowledge and lessons learned that may be relevant for enhancing ongoing immunization services. In June 2016, the electronic database PubMed was searched for peer reviewed studies that focused on efforts to improve immunization programs (both ongoing immunization services and supplemental immunization activities or campaigns) through mobile technology in low and lower middle income countries. The search yielded 317 papers of which 25 met the inclusion criteria. One additional article was included from the hand searching process. mHealth was used for reminder and recall, monitoring and surveillance, vaccine acceptance, and campaign strategic planning. Mobile phones were the most common mobile device used. Of the 26 studies, 21 of 26 studies (80.8%) reported that mHealth improved immunization efforts. mHealth interventions can effectively enhance immunization services in low and lower middle income countries. With the growing capacity and access to mobile technology, mHealth can be a powerful and sustainable tool for enhancing the reach and impact of vaccine programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gumede, Nicksy; Coulibaly, Sheick Oumar; Yahaya, Ali Ahmed; Ndihokubwayo, Jean-Bosco; Nsubuga, Peter; Okeibunor, Joseph; Dosseh, Annick; Salla, Mbaye; Mihigo, Richard; Mkanda, Pascal; Byabamazima, Charles
The laboratory has always played a very critical role in diagnosis of the diseases. The success of any disease programme is based on a functional laboratory network. Health laboratory services are an integral component of the health system. Efficiency and effectiveness of both clinical and public health functions including surveillance, diagnosis, prevention, treatment, research and health promotion are influenced by reliable laboratory services. The establishment of the African Regional polio laboratory for the Polio Eradication Initiative (PEI) has contributed in supporting countries in their efforts to strengthen laboratory capacity. On the eve of the closing of the program, we have shown through this article, examples of this contribution in two countries of the African region: Côte d'Ivoire and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Descriptive studies were carried out in Côte d'Ivoire (RCI) and Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) from October to December 2014. Questionnaires and self-administered and in-depth interviews and group discussions as well as records and observation were used to collect information during laboratory visits and assessments. The PEI financial support allows to maintain the majority of the 14 (DRC) and 12 (RCI) staff involved in the polio laboratory as full or in part time members. Through laboratory technical staff training supported by the PEI, skills and knowledge were gained to reinforce laboratories capacity and performance in quality laboratory functioning, processes and techniques such as cell culture. In the same way, infrastructure was improved and equipment provided. General laboratory quality standards, including the entire laboratory key elements was improved through the PEI accreditation process. The Polio Eradication Initiative (PEI) is a good example of contribution in strengthening public health laboratories systems in the African region. It has established strong Polio Laboratory network that contributed to the
van den Ent, Maya M V X; Mallya, Apoorva; Sandhu, Hardeep; Anya, Blanche-Philomene; Yusuf, Nasir; Ntakibirora, Marcelline; Hasman, Andreas; Fahmy, Kamal; Agbor, John; Corkum, Melissa; Sumaili, Kyandindi; Siddique, Anisur Rahman; Bammeke, Jane; Braka, Fiona; Andriamihantanirina, Rija; Ziao, Antoine-Marie C; Djumo, Clement; Yapi, Moise Desire; Sosler, Stephen; Eggers, Rudolf
Nine polio areas of expertise were applied to broader immunization and mother, newborn and child health goals in ten focus countries of the Polio Eradication Endgame Strategic Plan: policy & strategy development, planning, management and oversight (accountability framework), implementation & service delivery, monitoring, communications & community engagement, disease surveillance & data analysis, technical quality & capacity building, and partnerships. Although coverage improvements depend on multiple factors and increased coverage cannot be attributed to the use of polio assets alone, 6 out of the 10 focus countries improved coverage in three doses of diphtheria tetanus pertussis containing vaccine between 2013 and 2015. Government leadership, evidence-based programming, country-driven comprehensive operational annual plans, community partnership and strong accountability systems are critical for all programs and polio eradication has illustrated these can be leveraged to increase immunization coverage and equity and enhance global health security in the focus countries. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.
Mallya, Apoorva; Sandhu, Hardeep; Anya, Blanche-Philomene; Yusuf, Nasir; Ntakibirora, Marcelline; Hasman, Andreas; Fahmy, Kamal; Agbor, John; Corkum, Melissa; Sumaili, Kyandindi; Siddique, Anisur Rahman; Bammeke, Jane; Braka, Fiona; Andriamihantanirina, Rija; Ziao, Antoine-Marie C.; Djumo, Clement; Yapi, Moise Desire; Sosler, Stephen; Eggers, Rudolf
Abstract Nine polio areas of expertise were applied to broader immunization and mother, newborn and child health goals in ten focus countries of the Polio Eradication Endgame Strategic Plan: policy & strategy development, planning, management and oversight (accountability framework), implementation & service delivery, monitoring, communications & community engagement, disease surveillance & data analysis, technical quality & capacity building, and partnerships. Although coverage improvements depend on multiple factors and increased coverage cannot be attributed to the use of polio assets alone, 6 out of the 10 focus countries improved coverage in three doses of diphtheria tetanus pertussis containing vaccine between 2013 and 2015. Government leadership, evidence-based programming, country-driven comprehensive operational annual plans, community partnership and strong accountability systems are critical for all programs and polio eradication has illustrated these can be leveraged to increase immunization coverage and equity and enhance global health security in the focus countries. PMID:28838187
Celentano, Lucia Pastore; Carrillo-Santisteve, Paloma; O'Connor, Patrick; Danielsson, Niklas; Huseynov, Shahin; Derrough, Tarik; Adel Ali, Karam; Butler, Robb; Greco, Donato
The world was never so close to reach the polio eradication: only 37 cases notified in 2016 in only three countries, but the game is not yet at the end. The risk of polio outbreaks in the EU is smaller than it has ever been in the past, but it is not so small that we can ignore it. The EU MS must remain alert and plan and prepare for managing polio events or outbreaks because of the possible dire consequences. The IPV only vaccination schedule universally applied in EU has achieved satisfactory coverage, but constantly leaving small accumulating pockets of susceptible individuals. Moreover the IPV only schedule is not an absolute barrier against poliovirus silent transmission as demonstrated in the recent Israel outbreak. The availability of annually revised S.O.P. from WHO GPEI on the identification and response of a polio event, without local poliovirus transmission or a polio outbreak with sustained transmission, helps and challenge EU countries to update their polio national preparedness plans. The EU/EEA area, in fact, is a peculiar area regarding the polio risk both for its vaccination policy, the large polio vaccines manufactures and the constant immigration from areas at polio high risk, but also EU include cultural and financial potentials crucial to sustain the polio end game strategy and reach the benefit of a world without polio risk. Poliovirus eradication will continue to be challenged as long as there is the worldwide presence of polioviruses in laboratories and vaccine production plants. Most of the world's OPV vaccines are produced in the EU and many laboratories and research centers store and handle polio viruses. EU Member States are engaged actively in implementing the poliovirus biocontainment plans that are part of the polio eradication strategy and to certify the destruction of poliovirus strains and potentially contaminated biological materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dong, S Z; Zhu, W B
Global polio eradication has entered its final phase, but still faces enormous challenges. The Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan (2013-2018) set the target for making the world polio-free by 2018. Meanwhile, the World Heath Organization Global Action Plan (GAP Ⅲ) recommended that polioviruses be stored under strict conditions after eradication of the wild poliovirus. At least one dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) would be required for each newborn baby in the world to ensure successful completion of the final strategy and GAP Ⅲ. The Sabin IPV has a high production safety and low production cost, compared with the wild-virus IPV and, therefore, can play an important role in the final stage of global polio eradication.
Mwengee, William; Okeibunor, Joseph; Poy, Alain; Shaba, Keith; Mbulu Kinuani, Leon; Minkoulou, Etienne; Yahaya, Ali; Gaturuku, Peter; Landoh, Dadja Essoya; Nsubuga, Peter; Salla, Mbaye; Mihigo, Richard; Mkanda, Pascal
Since the launch of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) in 1988, there has been a tremendous progress in the reduction of cases of poliomyelitis. The world is on the verge of achieving global polio eradication and in May 2013, the 66th World Health Assembly endorsed the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan (PEESP) 2013-2018. The plan provides a timeline for the completion of the GPEI by eliminating all paralytic polio due to both wild and vaccine-related polioviruses. We reviewed how GPEI supported communicable disease surveillance in seven of the eight countries that were documented as part of World Health Organization African Region best practices documentation. Data from WHO African region was also reviewed to analyze the performance of measles cases based surveillance. All 7 countries (100%) which responded had integrated communicable diseases surveillance core functions with AFP surveillance. The difference is on the number of diseases included based on epidemiology of diseases in a particular country. The results showed that the polio eradication infrastructure has supported and improved the implementation of surveillance of other priority communicable diseases under integrated diseases surveillance and response strategy. As we approach polio eradication, polio-eradication initiative staff, financial resources, and infrastructure can be used as one strategy to build IDSR in Africa. As we are now focusing on measles and rubella elimination by the year 2020, other disease-specific programs having similar goals of eradicating and eliminating diseases like malaria, might consider investing in general infectious disease surveillance following the polio example. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Deblina Datta, S; Tangermann, Rudolf H; Reef, Susan; William Schluter, W; Adams, Anthony
The Global Certification Commission (GCC), Regional Certification Commissions (RCCs), and National Certification Committees (NCCs) provide a framework of independent bodies to assist the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) in certifying and maintaining polio eradication in a standardized, ongoing, and credible manner. Their members meet regularly to comprehensively review population immunity, surveillance, laboratory, and other data to assess polio status in the country (NCC), World Health Organization (WHO) region (RCC), or globally (GCC). These highly visible bodies provide a framework to be replicated to independently verify measles and rubella elimination in the regions and globally. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.
... despite a worldwide effort to wipe out polio, poliovirus continues to affect children and adults in parts ... occurring should receive a booster dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV). Immunity after a booster lasts a ...
Closser, Svea; Rosenthal, Anat; Maes, Kenneth; Justice, Judith; Cox, Kelly; Omidian, Patricia A; Mohammed, Ismaila Zango; Dukku, Aminu Mohammed; Koon, Adam D; Nyirazinyoye, Laetitia
Many of medical anthropology's most pressing research questions require an understanding how infections, money, and ideas move around the globe. The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) is a $9 billion project that has delivered 20 billion doses of oral polio vaccine in campaigns across the world. With its array of global activities, it cannot be comprehensively explored by the traditional anthropological method of research at one field site. This article describes an ethnographic study of the GPEI, a collaborative effort between researchers at eight sites in seven countries. We developed a methodology grounded in nuanced understandings of local context but structured to allow analysis of global trends. Here, we examine polio vaccine acceptance and refusal to understand how global phenomena-in this case, policy decisions by donors and global health organizations to support vaccination campaigns rather than building health systems-shape local behavior. © 2016 by the American Anthropological Association.
Siddique, Anisur Rahman; Singh, Prem; Trivedi, Geetali
In 2009, India contributed to over half the global cases of poliomyelitis. Many believed that India would be the last country to be polio free. India proved them wrong and was certified polio free in 2014. In January 2016, India celebrated 5 years of being polio free. One of the major reasons behind the interruption of polio transmission in the Polio endemic states of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar was the deployment of Social Mobilization Network (SMNet). A three tiered structure, the 7300 strong SMNet is now the gold standard in public health communication. It mobilizes communities by spearheading civil society participation; and works at district, block and community levels. The SMNet's social mobilization has evolved into an accelerated approach for achieving results with principles of mobilization at its core. The SMNet targets resistance to polio immunization through a multipronged approach by using local religious leaders, community influencers, interpersonal communication, counseling, mothers meetings, announcements from religious institutions and rallies. The success of the SMNet has been its ability to identify and convert resistant families into advocates for polio immunization. Deeply respected in the community, the SMNet mobilizers (98 percent of whom are women) are themselves models for gender empowerment. The SMNet model shows how mobilization techniques can be harnessed for short term and long term goals and can be replicated in other health programs to achieve the same results as were achieved for Polio.
Rutter, Paul D; Donaldson, Liam J
The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) established its Independent Monitoring Board (IMB) in 2010 to monitor and guide its progress toward stopping polio transmission globally. The concept of an IMB is innovative, with no clear analogue in the history of the GPEI or in any other global health program. The IMB meets with senior program officials every 3-6 months. Its reports provide analysis and recommendations about individual polio-affected countries. The IMB also examines issues affecting the global program as a whole. Its areas of focus have included escalating the level of priority afforded to polio eradication (particularly by recommending a World Health Assembly resolution to declare polio eradication a programmatic emergency, which was enacted in May 2012), placing greater emphasis on people factors in the delivery of the program, encouraging innovation, strengthening focus on the small number of so-called sanctuaries where polio persists, and continuous quality improvement to reach every missed child with vaccination. The IMB's true independence from the agencies and countries delivering the program has enabled it to raise difficult issues that others cannot. Other global health programs might benefit from establishing similar independent monitoring mechanisms. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Full Text Available Poliomyelitis has nearly been eradicated through the efforts of the World Health Organization's Global Eradication Initiative raising questions on containment of the virus after it has been eliminated in the wild. Most manufacture of inactivated polio vaccines currently requires the growth of large amounts of highly virulent poliovirus, and release from a production facility after eradication could be disastrous; WHO have therefore recommended the use of the attenuated Sabin strains for production as a safer option although it is recognised that they can revert to a transmissible paralytic form. We have exploited the understanding of the molecular virology of the Sabin vaccine strains to design viruses that are extremely genetically stable and hyperattenuated. The viruses are based on the type 3 Sabin vaccine strain and have been genetically modified in domain V of the 5' non-coding region by changing base pairs to produce a cassette into which capsid regions of other serotypes have been introduced. The viruses give satisfactory yields of antigenically and immunogenically correct viruses in culture, are without measurable neurovirulence and fail to infect non-human primates under conditions where the Sabin strains will do so.
Knowlson, Sarah; Burlison, John; Giles, Elaine; Fox, Helen; Macadam, Andrew J; Minor, Philip D
Poliomyelitis has nearly been eradicated through the efforts of the World Health Organization's Global Eradication Initiative raising questions on containment of the virus after it has been eliminated in the wild. Most manufacture of inactivated polio vaccines currently requires the growth of large amounts of highly virulent poliovirus, and release from a production facility after eradication could be disastrous; WHO have therefore recommended the use of the attenuated Sabin strains for production as a safer option although it is recognised that they can revert to a transmissible paralytic form. We have exploited the understanding of the molecular virology of the Sabin vaccine strains to design viruses that are extremely genetically stable and hyperattenuated. The viruses are based on the type 3 Sabin vaccine strain and have been genetically modified in domain V of the 5' non-coding region by changing base pairs to produce a cassette into which capsid regions of other serotypes have been introduced. The viruses give satisfactory yields of antigenically and immunogenically correct viruses in culture, are without measurable neurovirulence and fail to infect non-human primates under conditions where the Sabin strains will do so.
Tangermann, Rudolf H; Lamoureux, Christine; Tallis, Graham; Goel, Ajay
Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance is a key strategy used by the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) to measure progress towards reaching the global eradication goal. Supported by a global polio laboratory network, AFP surveillance is conducted in 179 of 194 WHO member states. Active surveillance visits to priority health facilities are used to assure all children polio laboratories. The quality of AFP surveillance is regularly monitored with standardized surveillance quality indicators. In highest risk countries and areas, the sensitivity of AFP surveillance is enhanced by environmental surveillance (testing of sewage samples). Genetic sequencing of detected poliovirus isolates yields programmatically important information on polio transmission pathways. AFP surveillance is one of the most valuable assets of the GPEI, with the potential to serve as a platform to build integrated disease surveillance systems. Continued support to maintain AFP surveillance systems will be essential, to reliably monitor the completion of global polio eradication, and to assure that a key resource for building surveillance capacity is transitioned post-eradication to support other health priorities. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Benke, Amalia; Williams, Alford Joseph; MacNeil, Adam
The availability and use of high quality immunization and surveillance data are crucial for monitoring all components of the Global Polio Eradication Program (GPEI). The Stop Transmission of Polio (STOP) program was initiated in 1999 to train and mobilize human resources to provide technical support to polio endemic and at-risk countries and in 2002 the STOP data management (STOP DM) deployment was created to provide capacity development in the area of data management for immunization and sur...
Simpson, Diane M; Sadr-Azodi, Nahad; Mashal, Taufiq; Sabawoon, Wrishmeen; Pardis, Ajmal; Quddus, Arshad; Garrigos, Carmen; Guirguis, Sherine; Zahoor Zaidi, Syed Sohail; Shaukat, Shahzad; Sharif, Salmaan; Asghar, Humayan; Hadler, Stephen C
This article reviews the epidemiology of polio, acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance, and the implementation of supplemental immunization activities (SIAs) in Afghanistan from 1997 thru 2013. Published reports and unpublished national data on polio cases, AFP surveillance, and SIAs were analyzed. Recommendations from independent advisory groups and Afghan government informed the conclusions. From 1997 thru 2013, the annual number of confirmed polio cases fluctuated from a low of 4 in 2004 to a high of 80 in 2011. Wild poliovirus types 2 and 3 were last reported in 1997 and 2010, respectively. Circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 emerged in 2009. AFP surveillance quality in children aged 8 per 100,000 population. Since 2001, at least 6 SIAs have been conducted annually. Afghanistan has made progress moving closer to eliminating polio. The program struggles to reach all children because of management and accountability problems in the field, inaccessible populations, and inadequate social mobilization. Consequently, too many children are missed during SIAs. Afghanistan adopted a national emergency action plan in 2012 to address these issues, but national elimination will require consistent and complete implementation of proven strategies. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
Yehualashet, Yared G.; Mkanda, Pascal; Gasasira, Alex; Erbeto, Tesfaye; Onimisi, Anthony; Horton, Janet; Banda, Richard; Tegegn, Sisay G.; Ahmed, Haruna; Afolabi, Oluwole; Wadda, Alieu; Vaz, Rui G.; Nsubuga, Peter
Background. Following the 65th World Health Assembly (WHA) resolution on intensification of the Global Poliomyelitis Eradication Initiative (GPEI), the Nigerian government, with support from the World Health Organization (WHO) and other partners, implemented a number of innovative strategies to curb the transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV) in the country. One of the innovations successfully implemented since mid 2012 is the WHO's engagement of surge capacity personnel. Methods. The WHO reorganized its functional structure, adopted a transparent recruitment and deployment process, provided focused technical and management training, and applied systematic accountability framework to successfully manage the surge capacity project in close collaboration with the national counterparts and partners. The deployment of the surge capacity personnel was guided by operational and technical requirement analysis. Results. Over 2200 personnel were engaged, of whom 92% were strategically deployed in 11 states classified as high risk on the basis of epidemiological risk analysis and compromised security. These additional personnel were directly engaged in efforts aimed at improving the performance of polio surveillance, vaccination campaigns, increased routine immunization outreach sessions, and strengthening partnership with key stakeholders at the operational level, including community-based organizations. Discussion. Programmatic interventions were sustained in states in which security was compromised and the risk of polio was high, partly owing to the presence of the surge capacity personnel, who are engaged from the local community. Since mid-2012, significant programmatic progress was registered in the areas of polio supplementary immunization activities, acute flaccid paralysis surveillance, and routine immunization with the support of the surge capacity personnel. As of 19 June 2015, the last case of WPV was reported on 24 July 2014. The surge infrastructure has
Yehualashet, Yared G; Mkanda, Pascal; Gasasira, Alex; Erbeto, Tesfaye; Onimisi, Anthony; Horton, Janet; Banda, Richard; Tegegn, Sisay G; Ahmed, Haruna; Afolabi, Oluwole; Wadda, Alieu; Vaz, Rui G; Nsubuga, Peter
Following the 65th World Health Assembly (WHA) resolution on intensification of the Global Poliomyelitis Eradication Initiative (GPEI), the Nigerian government, with support from the World Health Organization (WHO) and other partners, implemented a number of innovative strategies to curb the transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV) in the country. One of the innovations successfully implemented since mid 2012 is the WHO's engagement of surge capacity personnel. The WHO reorganized its functional structure, adopted a transparent recruitment and deployment process, provided focused technical and management training, and applied systematic accountability framework to successfully manage the surge capacity project in close collaboration with the national counterparts and partners. The deployment of the surge capacity personnel was guided by operational and technical requirement analysis. Over 2200 personnel were engaged, of whom 92% were strategically deployed in 11 states classified as high risk on the basis of epidemiological risk analysis and compromised security. These additional personnel were directly engaged in efforts aimed at improving the performance of polio surveillance, vaccination campaigns, increased routine immunization outreach sessions, and strengthening partnership with key stakeholders at the operational level, including community-based organizations. Programmatic interventions were sustained in states in which security was compromised and the risk of polio was high, partly owing to the presence of the surge capacity personnel, who are engaged from the local community. Since mid-2012, significant programmatic progress was registered in the areas of polio supplementary immunization activities, acute flaccid paralysis surveillance, and routine immunization with the support of the surge capacity personnel. As of 19 June 2015, the last case of WPV was reported on 24 July 2014. The surge infrastructure has also been instrumental in building local capacity
Craig, Kehinde TemilolaOluwa; Verma, Harish; Iliyasu, Zubairu; Mkanda, Pascal; Touray, Kebba; Johnson, Ticha; Walla, Abdullahi; Banda, Richard; Tegegne, Sisay G; Yehualashet, Yared G; Abba, Bashir; Ahmad-Shehu, Amina; Takane, Marina; Sutter, Roland W; Nsubuga, Peter; Muhammad, Ado J G; Vaz, Rui G
Nigeria was one of 3 polio-endemic countries before it was de-listed in September 2015 by the World Health Organization, following interruption of transmission of the poliovirus. During 2011-2014, Nigeria conducted serial polio seroprevalence surveys (SPS) in Kano Metropolitan Area, comprising 8 local government areas (LGAs) in Kano that is considered very high risk (VHR) for polio, to monitor performance of the polio eradication program and guide the program in the adoption of innovative strategies. Study subjects who resided in any of the 8 local government areas of Kano Metropolitan Area and satisfied age criteria were recruited from patients at Murtala Mohammed Specialist Hospital (Kano) for 3 seroprevalence surveys. The same methods were used to conduct each survey. The 2011 study showed seroprevalence values of 81%, 75%, and 73% for poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3, respectively, among infants aged 6-9 months age. Among children aged 36-47 months, seroprevalence values were greater (91%, 87%, and 85% for poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3, respectively).In 2013, the results showed that the seroprevalence was unexpectedly low among infants aged 6-9 months, remained high among children aged 36-47 months, and increased minimally among children aged 5-9 years and those aged 10-14 years. The baseline seroprevalence among infants aged 6-9 months in 2014 was better than that in 2013. The results from the polio seroprevalence surveys conducted in Kano Metropolitan Area in 2011, 2013, and 2014 served to assess the trends in immunity and program performance, as well as to guide the program, leading to various interventions being implemented with good effect, as evidenced by the reduction of poliovirus circulation in Kano. © 2016 World Health Organization; licensee Oxford Journals.
Dunn, Glynis; Klapsa, Dimitra; Wilton, Thomas; Stone, Lindsay; Minor, Philip D; Martin, Javier
There are currently huge efforts by the World Health Organization and partners to complete global polio eradication. With the significant decline in poliomyelitis cases due to wild poliovirus in recent years, rare cases related to the use of live-attenuated oral polio vaccine assume greater importance. Poliovirus strains in the oral vaccine are known to quickly revert to neurovirulent phenotype following replication in humans after immunisation. These strains can transmit from person to person leading to poliomyelitis outbreaks and can replicate for long periods of time in immunodeficient individuals leading to paralysis or chronic infection, with currently no effective treatment to stop excretion from these patients. Here, we describe an individual who has been excreting type 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus for twenty eight years as estimated by the molecular clock established with VP1 capsid gene nucleotide sequences of serial isolates. This represents by far the longest period of excretion described from such a patient who is the only identified individual known to be excreting highly evolved vaccine-derived poliovirus at present. Using a range of in vivo and in vitro assays we show that the viruses are very virulent, antigenically drifted and excreted at high titre suggesting that such chronic excreters pose an obvious risk to the eradication programme. Our results in virus neutralization assays with human sera and immunisation-challenge experiments using transgenic mice expressing the human poliovirus receptor indicate that while maintaining high immunisation coverage will likely confer protection against paralytic disease caused by these viruses, significant changes in immunisation strategies might be required to effectively stop their occurrence and potential widespread transmission. Eventually, new stable live-attenuated polio vaccines with no risk of reversion might be required to respond to any poliovirus isolation in the post-eradication era.
Previsani, Nicoletta; Tangermann, Rudolph H; Tallis, Graham; Jafari, Hamid S
In 1988, the World Health Assembly of the World Health Organization (WHO) resolved to eradicate polio worldwide. Among the three wild poliovirus (WPV) types (type 1, type 2, and type 3), WPV type 2 (WPV2) has been eliminated in the wild since 1999, and WPV type 3 (WPV3) has not been reported since 2012. In 2015, only Afghanistan and Pakistan have reported WPV transmission. On May 25, 2015, all WHO Member States endorsed World Health Assembly resolution 68.3 on full implementation of the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018 (the Endgame Plan), and with it, the third Global Action Plan to minimize poliovirus facility-associated risk (GAPIII). All WHO Member States have committed to implementing appropriate containment of WPV2 in essential laboratory and vaccine production facilities* by the end of 2015 and of type 2 oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV2) within 3 months of global withdrawal of OPV2, which is planned for April 2016. This report summarizes critical steps for essential laboratory and vaccine production facilities that intend to retain materials confirmed to contain or potentially containing type-specific WPV, vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV), or OPV/Sabin viruses, and steps for nonessential facilities† that process specimens that contain or might contain polioviruses. National authorities will need to certify that the essential facilities they host meet the containment requirements described in GAPIII. After certification of WPV eradication, the use of all OPV will cease; final containment of all polioviruses after polio eradication and OPV cessation will minimize the risk for reintroduction of poliovirus into a polio-free world.
This study is premised on the increasing global concerns over the widespread resistance to polio eradication campaign in northern Nigeria. It aims to determine the level of campaign acceptance and compare the influences of mass media and interpersonal communication sources in Zaria local government area, being one of the high-risk (WPV-endemic) areas in northern Nigeria, where campaign resistance is known to be high. By way of quantitative survey, the study utilized 10% sample of the populations of eight out of the thirteen Wards in Zaria local government area, with a response rate of 78.6%. Findings reveal close ranks between campaign acceptance and resistance in the local government area, thus further confirming the difficulties still faced in polio eradication campaign in the region. This study also indicates higher performance of Interpersonal than Mass Media sources in influencing campaign acceptance and resistance in the local communities. Contact with friends and relations was rated the most influential interpersonal sources in the acceptance and resistance decision of individuals, while newspapers and magazines were rated most influential media sources that influenced campaign resistance in the local communities. The study concludes that a polio eradication campaign, backed with competent and sufficient communication expertise that utilizes knowledge-based indigenous interpersonal communication strategies will likely result in greater community acceptance in northern Nigeria.
Hussain, Rashid S; McGarvey, Stephen T; Fruzzetti, Lina M
Significant disparities in the incidence of polio existed during its eradication campaign in India. In 2006, Muslims, who comprise 16% of the population in affected states, comprised 70% of paralytic polio cases. This disparity was initially blamed on the Muslims and a rumor that the vaccination program was a plot to sterilize their children. Using the framework of structural violence, this paper describes how the socio-political and historical context of Muslim populations in India shaped the polio disparity. A qualitative study utilizing methods of rapid ethnography was conducted from May-August 2009 in Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India. Field methods included participant observation of vaccination teams, historical document research, and 107 interviews with both Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) stakeholders and families with vaccine-eligible children. Almost all respondents agreed that Aligarh was a highly segregated city, mostly due to riots after Partition and during the 1990s. Since the formation of segregated neighborhoods, most respondents described that "Muslim areas" had been underdeveloped compared to "Hindu areas," facilitating the physical transmission of poliovirus. Distrust of the government and resistance to vaccination were linked to this disparate development and fears of sterilization influenced by the "Family Planning Program" from 1976-1977. Ethnic violence and social marginalization since the Partition and during the rise of Hindu nationalism led to distrust of the government, the formation of segregated slums, and has made Muslims victims of structural violence. This led to the creation of disease-spreading physical environments, lowered vaccine efficacy, and disproportionately higher levels of resistance to vaccination. The causes of the polio disparity found in this study elucidate the nature of possible other health disparities affecting minorities in India. This study is limited by the manual coding of the transcribed data, size
Rashid S Hussain
Full Text Available Significant disparities in the incidence of polio existed during its eradication campaign in India. In 2006, Muslims, who comprise 16% of the population in affected states, comprised 70% of paralytic polio cases. This disparity was initially blamed on the Muslims and a rumor that the vaccination program was a plot to sterilize their children. Using the framework of structural violence, this paper describes how the socio-political and historical context of Muslim populations in India shaped the polio disparity.A qualitative study utilizing methods of rapid ethnography was conducted from May-August 2009 in Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India. Field methods included participant observation of vaccination teams, historical document research, and 107 interviews with both Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI stakeholders and families with vaccine-eligible children. Almost all respondents agreed that Aligarh was a highly segregated city, mostly due to riots after Partition and during the 1990s. Since the formation of segregated neighborhoods, most respondents described that "Muslim areas" had been underdeveloped compared to "Hindu areas," facilitating the physical transmission of poliovirus. Distrust of the government and resistance to vaccination were linked to this disparate development and fears of sterilization influenced by the "Family Planning Program" from 1976-1977.Ethnic violence and social marginalization since the Partition and during the rise of Hindu nationalism led to distrust of the government, the formation of segregated slums, and has made Muslims victims of structural violence. This led to the creation of disease-spreading physical environments, lowered vaccine efficacy, and disproportionately higher levels of resistance to vaccination. The causes of the polio disparity found in this study elucidate the nature of possible other health disparities affecting minorities in India.This study is limited by the manual coding of the
Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization (WHO and partners are collaborating to eradicate poliomyelitis. To monitor progress, countries perform surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP. The WHO African Regional Office (WHO-AFRO and the U.S Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are also involved in strengthening infectious disease surveillance and response in Africa. We assessed whether polio-eradication initiative resources are used in the surveillance for and response to other infectious diseases in Africa. Methods During October 1999-March 2000, we developed and administered a survey questionnaire to at least one key informant from the 38 countries that regularly report on polio activities to WHO. The key informants included WHO-AFRO staff assigned to the countries and Ministry of Health personnel. Results We obtained responses from 32 (84% of the 38 countries. Thirty-one (97% of the 32 countries had designated surveillance officers for AFP surveillance, and 25 (78% used the AFP resources for the surveillance and response to other infectious diseases. In 28 (87% countries, AFP program staff combined detection for AFP and other infectious diseases. Fourteen countries (44% had used the AFP laboratory specimen transportation system to transport specimens to confirm other infectious disease outbreaks. The majority of the countries that performed AFP surveillance adequately (i.e., non polio AFP rate = 1/100,000 children aged Conclusions Despite concerns regarding the targeted nature of AFP surveillance, it is partially integrated into existing surveillance and response systems in multiple African countries. Resources provided for polio eradication should be used to improve surveillance for and response to other priority infectious diseases in Africa.
VASHISHTHA, Vipin; NAVEEN, Thacker
More than two decade-old Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) has finally tasted success and wild poliovirus is now on the verge of eradication. The pre-eradication era was full of challenges and a great learning experience for all those involved with this tedious process. Many new phenomena emerged and new information about poliovirus learned during this campaign. Many new developments such as vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) were not anticipated and resulted in serious thinking re...
Chatterjee, Animesh; Vidyant, Sanjukta; Dhole, Tapan N
Poliomyelitis has appeared in epidemic form, become endemic on a global scale, and has been reduced to near elimination, all within the span of documented medical history. Nevertheless, effective vaccinations, global surveillance network, development of accurate viral diagnosis prompted the historical challenge, global polio eradication initiative (GPEI). Environmental surveillance of poliovirus means monitoring of wild polio virus (WPV) and vaccine derived polio virus (cVDPV) circulation in human populations by examining environmental specimens supposedly contaminated by human feces. The rationale for surveillance is based on the fact that PV-infected individuals, whether presenting with disease symptoms or not, shed large amounts of PV in the feces for several weeks. As the morbidity: infection ratio of PV infection is very low, and therefore this fact contributes to the sensitivity of poliovirus surveillance, which under optimal conditions can be better than that of the standard acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance. The World Health Organization (WHO) has included environmental surveillance of poliovirus in the new Strategic Plan of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative for years 2010-2012 to be increasingly used in PV surveillance, supplementing AFP surveillance and the strategic advisory group of experts on immunization (SAGE) recommended a switch from tOPV-bOPV to remove the threat of cVDPV2 and to accelerate the elimination of WPV type 1 and 3 as bOPV is a more immunogenic vaccine and to introduce one dose of IPV in their vaccination schedule prior to OPV cessation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tebbens, Radboud J Duintjer; Pallansch, Mark A; Alexander, James P; Thompson, Kimberly M
Eradication of a disease promises significant health and financial benefits. Preserving those benefits, hopefully in perpetuity, requires preparing for the possibility that the causal agent could re-emerge (unintentionally or intentionally). In the case of a vaccine-preventable disease, creation and planning for the use of a vaccine stockpile becomes a primary concern. Doing so requires consideration of the dynamics at different levels, including the stockpile supply chain and transmission of the causal agent. This paper develops a mathematical framework for determining the optimal management of a vaccine stockpile over time. We apply the framework to the polio vaccine stockpile for the post-eradication era and present examples of solutions to one possible framing of the optimization problem. We use the framework to discuss issues relevant to the development and use of the polio vaccine stockpile, including capacity constraints, production and filling delays, risks associated with the stockpile, dynamics and uncertainty of vaccine needs, issues of funding, location, and serotype dependent behavior, and the implications of likely changes over time that might occur. This framework serves as a helpful context for discussions and analyses related to the process of designing and maintaining a stockpile for an eradicated disease. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Okeibunor, Joseph; Nshimirimana, Deo; Nsubuga, Peter; Mutabaruka, Evariste; Tapsoba, Leonard; Ghali, Emmanuel; Kabir, Shaikh Humayun; Gassasira, Alex; Mihigo, Richard; Mkanda, Pascal
The African Region is set to achieving polio eradication. During the years of operations, the Polio Eradication Initiative [PEI] in the Region mobilized and trained tremendous amount of manpower with specializations in surveillance, social mobilization, supplementary immunization activities [SIAs], data management and laboratory staff. Systems were put in place to accelerate the eradication of polio in the Region. Standardized, real-time surveillance and response capacity were established. Many innovations were developed and applied to reaching people in difficult and security challenged terrains. All of these resulted in accumulation of lessons and best practices, which can be used in other priority public health intervention if documented. The World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa [WHO/AFRO] developed a process for the documentation of these best practices, which was pretested in Uganda. The process entailed assessment of three critical elements [effectiveness, efficiency and relevance] five aspects [ethical soundness, sustainability, involvement of partners, community involvement, and political commitment] of best practices. A scored card which graded the elements and aspects on a scale of 0-10 was developed and a true best practice should score >50 points. Independent public health experts documented polio best practices in eight countries in the Region, using this process. The documentation adopted the cross-sectional design in the generation of data, which combined three analytical designs, namely surveys, qualitative inquiry and case studies. For the selection of countries, country responses to earlier questionnaire on best practices were screened for potential best practices. Another criterion used was the level of PEI investment in the countries. A total of 82 best practices grouped into ten thematic areas were documented. There was a correlation between the health system performances with DPT3 as proxy, level of PEI investment in countries
Yehualashet, Yared G; Horton, Janet; Mkanda, Pascal; Vaz, Rui G; Afolabi, Oluwole; Gashu, Sisay G; Banda, Richard; O'Malley, Helena; Nsubuga, Peter
Since the World Health Assembly (WHA) resolved in 1988 to eradicate poliovirus, several rounds of immunization campaigns have been conducted by member states. By 2000, with the support of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) partners, the number of polio cases decreased by 99%. Eradicating the remaining 1% proved to be more challenging. Although the GPEI, being the largest public health project, required >$9 billion between 1988 and 2012, economic analysis showed the estimated incremental net benefits of $40 billion-$50 billion between 1988 and 2035. In 2012, the WHA declared that the completion of poliovirus eradication is a programmatic emergency for global public health. Nigeria, as one of 3 remaining polio-endemic countries, developed an emergency plan to interrupt the transmission of poliovirus. The plan included the introduction or scale-up of various new innovations and strategies, which had substantial financial implication. This is a retrospective study to document the intensified resource mobilization efforts made by the World Health Organization (WHO) in Nigeria to meet the increased financial requirements and bridge the remaining gap in funding. In addition to the established coordination platforms, the WHO Nigeria Country Office team directly engaged with national authorities, donors, and partners throughout the process of resource requirement analysis, project appraisals, proposal development, and implementation of activities, joint monitoring, and evaluation exercises. The office strengthened its capacity for direct funds disbursement and systematic implementation of a rigorous accountability framework. Between 2008 and May 2015, $538 million was mobilized locally, of which 82% was mobilized since 2012. The percentage of the total funding requirements that were locally mobilized averaged 31% between 2008 and 2011 and increased to 70% between 2012 and May 2015. During the same period, the WHO Nigeria Country Office team produced and
Yehualashet, Yared G.; Horton, Janet; Mkanda, Pascal; Vaz, Rui G.; Afolabi, Oluwole; Gashu, Sisay G.; Banda, Richard; O'Malley, Helena; Nsubuga, Peter
Background. Since the World Health Assembly (WHA) resolved in 1988 to eradicate poliovirus, several rounds of immunization campaigns have been conducted by member states. By 2000, with the support of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) partners, the number of polio cases decreased by 99%. Eradicating the remaining 1% proved to be more challenging. Although the GPEI, being the largest public health project, required >$9 billion between 1988 and 2012, economic analysis showed the estimated incremental net benefits of $40 billion–$50 billion between 1988 and 2035. In 2012, the WHA declared that the completion of poliovirus eradication is a programmatic emergency for global public health. Nigeria, as one of 3 remaining polio-endemic countries, developed an emergency plan to interrupt the transmission of poliovirus. The plan included the introduction or scale-up of various new innovations and strategies, which had substantial financial implication. Methods. This is a retrospective study to document the intensified resource mobilization efforts made by the World Health Organization (WHO) in Nigeria to meet the increased financial requirements and bridge the remaining gap in funding. In addition to the established coordination platforms, the WHO Nigeria Country Office team directly engaged with national authorities, donors, and partners throughout the process of resource requirement analysis, project appraisals, proposal development, and implementation of activities, joint monitoring, and evaluation exercises. The office strengthened its capacity for direct funds disbursement and systematic implementation of a rigorous accountability framework. Results. Between 2008 and May 2015, $538 million was mobilized locally, of which 82% was mobilized since 2012. The percentage of the total funding requirements that were locally mobilized averaged 31% between 2008 and 2011 and increased to 70% between 2012 and May 2015. During the same period, the WHO Nigeria
Hussain, Shoaib Fahad; Boyle, Peter; Patel, Preeti; Sullivan, Richard
Since the launch of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) in 1988 the global incidence of poliomyelitis has fallen by nearly 99 %. From a situation where wild type poliovirus was endemic in 125 countries across five continents, transmission is now limited to regions of just three countries - Pakistan, Afghanistan and Nigeria. A sharp increase in Pakistan's poliomyelitis cases in 2014 prompted the International Health Regulations Emergency Committee to declare the situation a 'public health emergency of international concern'. Global polio eradication hinges on Pakistan's ability to address the religious, political and socioeconomic barriers to immunisation; including discrepancies in vaccine coverage, a poor health infrastructure, and conflict in polio-endemic regions of the country. This analysis provides an overview of the GPEI, focusing on the historical and contemporary challenges facing Pakistan's polio eradication programme and the impact of conflict and insecurity, and sheds light on strategies to combat vaccine hesitancy, engage local communities and build on recent progress towards polio eradication in Pakistan.
Full Text Available Immunodeficiency-associated vaccine-derived polioviruses (iVDPVs have been isolated from primary immunodeficiency (PID patients exposed to oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV. Patients may excrete poliovirus strains for months or years; the excreted viruses are frequently highly divergent from the parental OPV and have been shown to be as neurovirulent as wild virus. Thus, these patients represent a potential reservoir for transmission of neurovirulent polioviruses in the post-eradication era. In support of WHO recommendations to better estimate the prevalence of poliovirus excreters among PIDs and characterize genetic evolution of these strains, 635 patients including 570 with primary antibody deficiencies and 65 combined immunodeficiencies were studied from 13 OPV-using countries. Two stool samples were collected over 4 days, tested for enterovirus, and the poliovirus positive samples were sequenced. Thirteen patients (2% excreted polioviruses, most for less than 2 months following identification of infection. Five (0.8% were classified as iVDPVs (only in combined immunodeficiencies and mostly poliovirus serotype 2. Non-polio enteroviruses were detected in 30 patients (4.7%. Patients with combined immunodeficiencies had increased risk of delayed poliovirus clearance compared to primary antibody deficiencies. Usually, iVDPV was detected in subjects with combined immunodeficiencies in a short period of time after OPV exposure, most for less than 6 months. Surveillance for poliovirus excretion among PID patients should be reinforced until polio eradication is certified and the use of OPV is stopped. Survival rates among PID patients are improving in lower and middle income countries, and iVDPV excreters are identified more frequently. Antivirals or enhanced immunotherapies presently in development represent the only potential means to manage the treatment of prolonged excreters and the risk they present to the polio endgame.
Benke, Amalia; Williams, Alford Joseph; MacNeil, Adam
The availability and use of high quality immunization and surveillance data are crucial for monitoring all components of the Global Polio Eradication Program (GPEI). The Stop Transmission of Polio (STOP) program was initiated in 1999 to train and mobilize human resources to provide technical support to polio endemic and at-risk countries and in 2002 the STOP data management (STOP DM) deployment was created to provide capacity development in the area of data management for immunization and surveillance data for these countries. Since 2002, Africa has received the majority of support from the STOP DM program, with almost 80% of assignments being placed in African countries. The STOP DM program has played a valuable role in improving the quality and use of data for the GPEI and has increasingly supported other immunization program data needs. In this report we provide an overview of the history, current status, and future of the STOP DM program, with a specific focus on the African continent.
Poy, Alain; Minkoulou, Etienne; Shaba, Keith; Yahaya, Ali; Gaturuku, Peter; Dadja, Landoh; Okeibunor, Joseph; Mihigo, Richard; Mkanda, Pascal
The PEI Programme in the WHO African region invested in recruitment of qualified staff in data management, developing data management system and standards operating systems since the revamp of the Polio Eradication Initiative in 1997 to cater for data management support needs in the Region. This support went beyond polio and was expanded to routine immunization and integrated surveillance of priority diseases. But the impact of the polio data management support to other programmes such as routine immunization and disease surveillance has not yet been fully documented. This is what this article seeks to demonstrate. We reviewed how Polio data management area of work evolved progressively along with the expansion of the data management team capacity and the evolution of the data management systems from initiation of the AFP case-based to routine immunization, other case based disease surveillance and Supplementary immunization activities. IDSR has improved the data availability with support from IST Polio funded data managers who were collecting them from countries. The data management system developed by the polio team was used by countries to record information related to not only polio SIAs but also for other interventions. From the time when routine immunization data started to be part of polio data management team responsibility, the number of reports received went from around 4000 the first year (2005) to >30,000 the second year and to >47,000 in 2014. Polio data management has helped to improve the overall VPD, IDSR and routine data management as well as emergency response in the Region. As we approach the polio end game, the African Region would benefit in using the already set infrastructure for other public health initiative in the Region. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Olufowote, James Olumide
Successful global health initiatives are executed on the recognition that globalization involves simultaneous pulls between global unification and fragmentation. This article responds to the need for more understanding of the role of fragmentation in global health initiatives through analyses of 52 northern Nigerian newspaper reports of the 2003-2004 northern Nigerian stoppage of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative. By 2009 the stoppage had resulted in an epidemic in Nigeria and polio importations in 20 previously polio-free countries. Findings pointed to beliefs in contemporary forms of Western control and abuse through global organizations (nongovernmental organizations and for-profits), understandings of the "philanthropy" of the West and global organizations as self-serving and malevolent, and doubts about the polio vaccine product.
Vashishtha, Vipin M; Kalra, Ajay; John, T Jacob; Thacker, Naveen; Agarwal, R K
Persistence of intense wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission, particularly type 3 in northern India necessitated the Indian Academy of Pediatrics (IAP) to convene a National Consultative Meeting to review its earlier recommendations on polio eradication and improvement of routine immunization. More than thirty experts were invited and intense deliberations were held over two days to draw consensus statements on various issues related with polio eradication. To review the ongoing strategy, identify the existing challenges, and suggest modifications to the current strategy for eradication of poliomyelitis in India. IAP reiterates its support to ongoing efforts on polio eradication but demand some flexibility in the strategy. The immediate challenges identified include persistent WPV type 1 transmission in Uttar Pradesh (UP) and Bihar, intense type 3 transmission also in UP and Bihar, and maintaining polio-free status of all other states. Circulating vaccine derived poliovirus (cVDPV), particularly type 2, was identified as a great future threat. Neglect of routine immunization (RI), poor efficacy of oral polio vaccine (OPV), operational issues, and inadequate uptake of OPV in the 2 endemic states are the main reasons of failure to interrupt transmission of WPV 1 and 3. However, for the first time in history the intensity of WPV 1 circulation is very low in western UP. IAP suggests that high-quality, uniform and consistent performance of supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) in all districts of western UP, particularly using mOPV1(monovalent OPV1) should be maintained to avoid reestablishment of circulation of type 1 poliovirus. A judicious mix of mOPV1 and mOPV3, given sequentially or even simultaneously (after validating the efficacies) will be necessary to address the upsurge of WPV3. Re-establishing routine immunization should be the foremost priority. IAP strongly recommends to Government of India (GOI) to take urgent measures to attain coverage of a minimum
Nandi, Arindam; Barter, Devra M; Prinja, Shankar; John, T Jacob
In March 2014, India, the country with historically the highest burden of polio, was declared polio free, with no reported cases since January 2011. We estimate the health and economic benefits of polio elimination in India with the oral polio vaccine (OPV) during 1982-2012. Based on a pre-vaccine incidence rate, we estimate the counterfactual burden of polio in the hypothetical absence of the national polio elimination program in India. We attribute differences in outcomes between the actual (adjusted for under-reporting) and hypothetical counterfactual scenarios in our model to the national polio program. We measure health benefits as averted polio incidence, deaths, and disability adjusted life years (DALYs). We consider two methods to measure economic benefits: the value of statistical life approach, and equating one DALY to the Gross National Income (GNI) per capita. We estimate that the National Program against Polio averted 3.94 million (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.89-3.99 million) paralytic polio cases, 393,918 polio deaths (95% CI: 388,897- 398,939), and 1.48 billion DALYs (95% CI: 1.46-1.50 billion). We also estimate that the program contributed to a $1.71 trillion (INR 76.91 trillion) gain (95% CI: $1.69-$1.73 trillion [INR 75.93-77.89 trillion]) in economic productivity between 1982 and 2012 in our base case analysis. Using the GNI and DALY method, the economic gain from the program is estimated to be $1.11 trillion (INR 50.13 trillion) (95% CI: $1.10-$1.13 trillion [INR 49.50-50.76 trillion]) over the same period. India accrued large health and economic benefits from investing in polio elimination efforts. Other programs to control/eliminate more vaccine-preventable diseases are likely to contribute to large health and economic benefits in India.
van der Sanden, Sabine M G; Wu, Weilin; Dybdahl-Sissoko, Naomi; Weldon, William C; Brooks, Paula; O'Donnell, Jason; Jones, Les P; Brown, Cedric; Tompkins, S Mark; Oberste, M Steven; Karpilow, Jon; Tripp, Ralph A
Vaccine manufacturing costs prevent a significant portion of the world's population from accessing protection from vaccine-preventable diseases. To enhance vaccine production at reduced costs, a genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) screen was performed to identify gene knockdown events that enhanced poliovirus replication. Primary screen hits were validated in a Vero vaccine manufacturing cell line using attenuated and wild-type poliovirus strains. Multiple single and dual gene silencing events increased poliovirus titers >20-fold and >50-fold, respectively. Host gene knockdown events did not affect virus antigenicity, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas9-mediated knockout of the top candidates dramatically improved viral vaccine strain production. Interestingly, silencing of several genes that enhanced poliovirus replication also enhanced replication of enterovirus 71, a clinically relevant virus to which vaccines are being targeted. The discovery that host gene modulation can markedly increase virus vaccine production dramatically alters mammalian cell-based vaccine manufacturing possibilities and should facilitate polio eradication using the inactivated poliovirus vaccine. Using a genome-wide RNAi screen, a collection of host virus resistance genes was identified that, upon silencing, increased poliovirus and enterovirus 71 production by from 10-fold to >50-fold in a Vero vaccine manufacturing cell line. This report provides novel insights into enterovirus-host interactions and describes an approach to developing the next generation of vaccine manufacturing through engineered vaccine cell lines. The results show that specific gene silencing and knockout events can enhance viral titers of both attenuated (Sabin strain) and wild-type polioviruses, a finding that should greatly facilitate global implementation of inactivated polio vaccine as well as further reduce costs for live-attenuated oral polio vaccines. This work
Closser, Svea; Rosenthal, Anat; Justice, Judith; Maes, Kenneth; Sultan, Marium; Banerji, Sarah; Amaha, Hailom Banteyerga; Gopinath, Ranjani; Omidian, Patricia; Nyirazinyoye, Laetitia
Nearly all global health initiatives give per diems to community health workers (CHWs) in poor countries for short-term work on disease-specific programs. We interviewed CHWs, supervisors, and high-level officials (n = 95) in 6 study sites across sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia in early 2012 about the per diems given to them by the Global Polio Eradication Initiative. These per diems for CHWs ranged from $1.50 to $2.40 per day. International officials defended per diems for CHWs with an array of arguments, primarily that they were necessary to defray the expenses that workers incurred during campaigns. But high-level ministry of health officials in many countries were concerned that even small per diems were unsustainable. By contrast, CHWs saw per diems as a wage; the very small size of this wage led many to describe per diems as unjust. Per diem polio work existed in the larger context of limited and mostly exploitative options for female labor. Taking the perspectives of CHWs seriously would shift the international conversation about per diems toward questions of labor rights and justice in global health pay structures.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary strategy to interrupt transmission of wild poliovirus in India is to improve supplemental immunization activities and routine immunization coverage in priority districts with a focus on 107 high-risk blocks of western Uttar Pradesh and central Bihar. Villages or urban areas with a history of wild poliovirus transmission, or hard-to-reach or resistant populations are categorized as high-risk areas within blocks. The Social Mobilization Network (SM Net was formed in Uttar Pradesh in 2003 to support polio eradication efforts through improved planning, implementation and monitoring of social mobilization activities in those high-risk areas. In this paper, we examine the vaccination outcomes in districts of SM Net where the CORE Group works. Methods We carried out a secondary data analysis of routine monitoring information collected by the SM Net and the Government of India. These data include information about vaccination outcomes in SM Net areas and non-SM Net areas within the districts where the CORE Group operates. Statistical analysis was used to compare, between SM Net and non-SM Net areas, vaccination outcomes considered sensitive to social mobilization efforts of the SM Net. We employed Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE statistical method to account for Intra-cluster Correlation (ICC, and used 'Quasi-likelihood under the independence model criterion (QIC' as the model selection method. Results Vaccination outcomes in SM Net areas were as high as or higher than in non-SM Net areas. There was considerable variation in vaccination outcomes between districts. Conclusions While not conclusive, the results suggest that the social mobilization efforts of the SM Net and the CORE Group are helping to increase vaccination levels in high-risk areas of Uttar Pradesh. Vaccination outcomes in CORE Group areas were equal or higher than in non-CORE, non-SM Net areas. This occurred even though SM Net areas are those with
Okeibunor, Joseph; Nsubuga, Peter; Salla, Mbaye; Mihigo, Richard; Mkanda, Pascal
As part of the efforts to eradicate polioviruses in the African Region, structures were put in place to ensure coordinated mobilization and deployment of resources within the framework of the global polio eradication initiative (PEI). The successes of these structures made them not only attractive to other public health interventions, but also caused them to be deployed to the response efforts of other diseases interventions, without any systematic documentation. This article documents the contributions of PEI coordination units to other public health interventions in the African Region of World Health Organization METHODS: We reviewed the contributions of PEI coordination units to other public health interventions in five countries in the African Region. The analysis identified significant involvement of PEI coordination structures in the implementation of routine immunization programs in all the countries analyzed. Similarly, maternal and child health programs were planned, implemented, monitored and evaluation the Inter-Agency Coordination Committees of the PEI programs in the different countries. The hubs system used in PEI in Chad facilitated the efficient coordination of resources for immunization and other public health interventions in Chad. Similarly, in the Democratic Republic of Congo PEI led coordination activities benefited other public health programs like disease control and the national nutrition program, the national malaria control program, and the tuberculosis control program. In Nigeria, the polio Expert Review Committee effectively deployed the Emergency Operation Center for the implementation of prioritized strategies and activities of the National Polio Eradication Emergency Plan, and it was utilized in the response to Ebola Virus Disease outbreak in the country. The PEI-led coordination systems are thus recognized as having made significant contribution to the coordination and delivery of other public health interventions in the African
Contribution of Global Polio Eradication Initiative-Funded Personnel to the Strengthening of Routine Immunization Programs in the 10 Focus Countries of the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan.
van den Ent, Maya M V X; Swift, Rachel D; Anaokar, Sameer; Hegg, Lea Anne; Eggers, Rudolf; Cochi, Stephen L
The Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan (PEESP) established a target that at least 50% of the time of personnel receiving funding from the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) for polio eradication activities (hereafter, "GPEI-funded personnel") should be dedicated to the strengthening of immunization systems. This article describes the self-reported profile of how GPEI-funded personnel allocate their time toward immunization goals and activities beyond those associated with polio, the training they have received to conduct tasks to strengthen routine immunization systems, and the type of tasks they have conducted. A survey of approximately 1000 field managers of frontline GPEI-funded personnel was conducted by Boston Consulting Group in the 10 focus countries of the PEESP during 2 phases, in 2013 and 2014, to determine time allocation among frontline staff. Country-specific reports on the training of GPEI-funded personnel were reviewed, and an analysis of the types of tasks that were reported was conducted. A total of 467 managers responded to the survey. Forty-seven percent of the time (range, 23%-61%) of GPEI-funded personnel was dedicated to tasks related to strengthening immunization programs, other than polio eradication. Less time was spent on polio-associated activities in countries that had already interrupted wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission, compared with findings for WPV-endemic countries. All countries conducted periodic trainings of the GPEI-funded personnel. The types of non-polio-related tasks performed by GPEI-funded personnel varied among countries and included surveillance, microplanning, newborn registration and defaulter tracing, monitoring of routine immunization activities, and support of district immunization task teams, as well as promotion of health behaviors, such as clean-water use and good hygiene and sanitation practices. In all countries, GPEI-funded personnel perform critical tasks in the strengthening of routine
Contribution of Global Polio Eradication Initiative–Funded Personnel to the Strengthening of Routine Immunization Programs in the 10 Focus Countries of the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan
Swift, Rachel D.; Anaokar, Sameer; Hegg, Lea Anne; Eggers, Rudolf; Cochi, Stephen L.
Abstract Background. The Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan (PEESP) established a target that at least 50% of the time of personnel receiving funding from the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) for polio eradication activities (hereafter, “GPEI-funded personnel”) should be dedicated to the strengthening of immunization systems. This article describes the self-reported profile of how GPEI-funded personnel allocate their time toward immunization goals and activities beyond those associated with polio, the training they have received to conduct tasks to strengthen routine immunization systems, and the type of tasks they have conducted. Methods. A survey of approximately 1000 field managers of frontline GPEI-funded personnel was conducted by Boston Consulting Group in the 10 focus countries of the PEESP during 2 phases, in 2013 and 2014, to determine time allocation among frontline staff. Country-specific reports on the training of GPEI-funded personnel were reviewed, and an analysis of the types of tasks that were reported was conducted. Results. A total of 467 managers responded to the survey. Forty-seven percent of the time (range, 23%–61%) of GPEI-funded personnel was dedicated to tasks related to strengthening immunization programs, other than polio eradication. Less time was spent on polio-associated activities in countries that had already interrupted wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission, compared with findings for WPV-endemic countries. All countries conducted periodic trainings of the GPEI-funded personnel. The types of non–polio-related tasks performed by GPEI-funded personnel varied among countries and included surveillance, microplanning, newborn registration and defaulter tracing, monitoring of routine immunization activities, and support of district immunization task teams, as well as promotion of health behaviors, such as clean-water use and good hygiene and sanitation practices. Conclusion. In all countries, GPEI-funded personnel
de Oliveira Pereira, Joseane Simone; da Silva, Lidiane Rodrigues; de Meireles Nunes, Amanda; de Souza Oliveira, Silas; da Costa, Eliane Veiga; da Silva, Edson Elias
Wild polioviruses still remain endemic in three countries (Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Nigeria) and re-emergency of wild polio has been reported in previously polio-free countries. Environmental surveillance has been used as a supplementary tool in monitoring the circulation of wild poliovirus (PVs) and/or vaccine-derived PVs even in the absence of acute flaccid paralysis cases. This study aimed to monitor the presence of polioviruses in wastewater samples collected at one wastewater treatment plant located in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. From December 2011 to June 2012 and from September to December 2012, 31 samples were collected and processed. RD and L20B cell cultures were able to isolate PVs and non-polio enteroviruses in 27/31 samples. Polioviruses were isolated in eight samples (type 1 Sabin = 1, type 2 Sabin = 5, and type 3 Sabin = 2). Vaccine-derived polioviruses were not detected nor evidence of recombination with other PVs or non-polio enterovirus serotypes were observed among the isolates. The Sabin-related serotypes 2 and 3 presented nucleotide substitutions in positions associated with the neurovirulent phenotype at the 5'-UTR. Changes in important Amino acid residues at VP1 were also observed in the serotypes 2 and 3. Environmental surveillance has been used successfully in monitoring the circulation of PVs and non-polio enteroviruses and it is of crucial importance in the final stages of the WHO global polio eradication initiative. Our results show the continuous circulation of Sabin-like PVs and non-polio enteroviruses in the analyzed area during the study period.
Garon, Julie R; Cochi, Stephen L; Orenstein, Walter A
In the United States during the 1950's, polio was on the forefront of every provider and caregiver's mind. Today, most providers in the United States have never seen a case. The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI), which began in 1988 has reduced the number of cases by over 99%. The world is closer to achieving global eradication of polio than ever before but as long as poliovirus circulates anywhere in the world, every country is vulnerable. The global community can support the polio eradication effort through continued vaccination, surveillance, enforcing travel regulations and contributing financial support, partnerships and advocacy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Martinez-Bakker, Micaela; King, Aaron A; Rohani, Pejman
Sustained and coordinated vaccination efforts have brought polio eradication within reach. Anticipating the eradication of wild poliovirus (WPV) and the subsequent challenges in preventing its re-emergence, we look to the past to identify why polio rose to epidemic levels in the mid-20th century, and how WPV persisted over large geographic scales. We analyzed an extensive epidemiological dataset, spanning the 1930s to the 1950s and spatially replicated across each state in the United States, to glean insight into the drivers of polio's historical expansion and the ecological mode of its persistence prior to vaccine introduction. We document a latitudinal gradient in polio's seasonality. Additionally, we fitted and validated mechanistic transmission models to data from each US state independently. The fitted models revealed that: (1) polio persistence was the product of a dynamic mosaic of source and sink populations; (2) geographic heterogeneity of seasonal transmission conditions account for the latitudinal structure of polio epidemics; (3) contrary to the prevailing "disease of development" hypothesis, our analyses demonstrate that polio's historical expansion was straightforwardly explained by demographic trends rather than improvements in sanitation and hygiene; and (4) the absence of clinical disease is not a reliable indicator of polio transmission, because widespread polio transmission was likely in the multiyear absence of clinical disease. As the world edges closer to global polio eradication and continues the strategic withdrawal of the Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV), the regular identification of, and rapid response to, these silent chains of transmission is of the utmost importance.
With recent outbreaks in Syria and Horn of Africa, silent circulation of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) in Israel, West Bank, and Gaza, and fresh spate of violence against vaccinators and their security personnel in Pakistan, the world is facing a turbulent final ascent to the summit of polio eradication. On the positive side, we may also be witnessing the end of wild poliovirus type 3 (WPV3) and defused programmatic crisis caused by funding gaps, while India registers third consecutive polio-free year. Having a cogent endgame plan 2013-2018, informed by some cardinal lessons learned from an eventful decade in India, is also a very significant development. Now, there is a parallel pursuit against WPV and vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV). Endgame would also involve integration of at least one dose of affordable inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) to up-scaled routine immunization (RI), switch from trivalent oral polio vaccine (tOPV) to bivalent oral polio vaccine (bOPV) in 144 countries before 2018, stockpiling of mOPV, and simultaneous global cessation of bOPV before 2020. Role of antivirals in post-eradication era is still unclear. Some specific threats emerging at this stage are as follows: Global buildup of new birth cohorts in non-endemic countries with weak RI and downscaled supplementary immunization activities (SIAs), tremendous pressure on peripheral health workers, and fatigued systems. Cultural resistance to transnational programs is taking a violent shape in some areas. Differential interpretations of 'right to say no', on both sides of the divide, are damaging a global cause. Amidst all these concerns, let us not forget to underline the sacrifice made by frontline vaccinators working in some of the most challenging circumstances.
Full Text Available With recent outbreaks in Syria and Horn of Africa, silent circulation of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1 in Israel, West Bank, and Gaza, and fresh spate of violence against vaccinators and their security personnel in Pakistan, the world is facing a turbulent final ascent to the summit of polio eradication. On the positive side, we may also be witnessing the end of wild poliovirus type 3 (WPV3 and defused programmatic crisis caused by funding gaps, while India registers third consecutive polio-free year. Having a cogent endgame plan 2013-2018, informed by some cardinal lessons learned from an eventful decade in India, is also a very significant development. Now, there is a parallel pursuit against WPV and vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV. Endgame would also involve integration of at least one dose of affordable inactivated polio vaccine (IPV to up-scaled routine immunization (RI, switch from trivalent oral polio vaccine (tOPV to bivalent oral polio vaccine (bOPV in 144 countries before 2018, stockpiling of mOPV, and simultaneous global cessation of bOPV before 2020. Role of antivirals in post-eradication era is still unclear. Some specific threats emerging at this stage are as follows: Global buildup of new birth cohorts in non-endemic countries with weak RI and downscaled supplementary immunization activities (SIAs, tremendous pressure on peripheral health workers, and fatigued systems. Cultural resistance to transnational programs is taking a violent shape in some areas. Differential interpretations of ′right to say no′, on both sides of the divide, are damaging a global cause. Amidst all these concerns, let us not forget to underline the sacrifice made by frontline vaccinators working in some of the most challenging circumstances.
Full Text Available In the year 1988, World Health Organization (WHO claims that polio viruses should be eradicated after year 2000. However, until year 2010 the world have not been free from polio viruses circulation. So many effort had been achieved and it is estimated that the world will be free from polio virus after the year 2013. Control of poliomyelitis in Indonesia has been commenced since 1982 with routine immunization of polio program and the National Immunization Days (NID has been commenced since 1995,1996,2005 and 2006. When the world is free from polio virus, WHO suggests several alternative effort to maintain the world free from polio viruses : I stop the OPV (Oral Polio Vaccine and no polio immunization, 2 stop OPV and stock pile mOPV (monovalent OPV, 3 use OPV and IPV (Inactivated Polio Vaccine in a certain times, 4 use IPV only in a certain times. IPV has been used routinely in develop countries but has not been used in the developing countries. Several studies in development countries has been conducted, but had not been done in the developing countries. Indonesia collaboration with WHO has conducted the study of IPV in Yogyakarta Province since year 2002 until year 2010. The overall aim of the study is to compile the necessary data that will inform global and national decision-making regarding future polio immunization policies for the OPV cessation era. The data generated from the study will be particularly important to make decisions regarding optimal IPV use in developing tropical countries. It is unlikely that this data can be assembled through other means than through this study. The tentative result of the study shows that OPV immunization coverage in the year 2004 is 99% in four district and 93 % in the Yogyakarta city. Environment surveillance shows that there are 65.7% polio virus detected from 137 sewage samples pre IPV swich, and 4.8% polio virus detected from 83 sewage samples post IPV swich. Survey polio antibody serologis shows
Aylward, R Bruce; Acharya, Arnab; England, Sarah; Agocs, Mary; Linkins, Jennifer
The Global Polio Eradication Initiative was launched in 1988. Assessment of the politics, production, financing, and economics of this international effort has suggested six lessons that might be pertinent to the pursuit of other global health goals. First, such goals should be based on technically sound strategies with proven operational feasibility in a large geographical area. Second, before launching an initiative, an informed collective decision must be negotiated and agreed in an appropriate international forum to keep to a minimum long-term risks in financing and implementation. Third, if substantial community engagement is envisaged, efficient deployment of sufficient resources at that level necessitates a defined, time-limited input by the community within a properly managed partnership. Fourth, although the so-called fair-share concept is arguably the best way to finance such goals, its limitations must be recognised early and alternative strategies developed for settings where it does not work. Fifth, international health goals must be designed and pursued within existing health systems if they are to secure and sustain broad support. Finally, countries, regions, or populations most likely to delay the achievement of a global health goal should be identified at the outset to ensure provision of sufficient resources and attention. The greatest threats to poliomyelitis eradication are a financing gap of US 210 million dollars and difficulties in strategy implementation in at most five countries.
R., Anggun Ariena; Ky, Ade Oktariatas
The rise of drugs criminal in Indonesia at this time, making Indonesia would be drugs emergency. Drugs is an extraordinary crime and need special attention in the eradication effort. Therefore it takes great strength to use legal action heaviest where Indonesia has a death penalty sentence. The purpose of the death penalty is to give hard effect for drugs criminal and as warning for the others. The reality of the death penalty in Indonesia shows the operation of the judicial system is not go...
Gostin, Lawrence O
The detection of wild poliovirus in Israeli sewage in May 2013 led the health authorities to vaccinate children with OPV (Oral Polio Vaccine). Shelly Kamin-Friedman explored the legal and ethical dimensions of this policy. This commentary makes three claims: (1) Mandatory vaccination is a valid exercise of the state's police powers to protect the common good. (2) A disease eradication campaign is a sufficient ground for the exercise of those powers. (3) The state is obliged to use the least restrictive/invasive measure to achieve community-wide vaccine coverage, but need not use less effective measures; further, determining which measure is most effective is a fact-specific determination. This commentary offers grounds to support state powers to protect the public's health and safety. It shows why governments have both the duty and power to safeguard the collective good. State powers also have limits, whose boundaries are determined by the public health necessity. If the state is reasonably using the least restrictive intervention to achieve an important public health objective, it is well within the limits of its authority. The commentary uses legal and ethical norms and evidence to support its conclusions. Governments have a duty and power to achieve population-based vaccine coverage sufficient to stem the spread of infectious diseases, including in isolated geographical areas with high numbers of individuals claiming religious and/or conscientious exemptions to vaccine requirements. Governments are obliged to reasonably seek the least restrictive/invasive measure to achieve valid public health objectives; and governments are not obliged to use less effective measures simply because they are voluntary or less invasive. Finding the most effective, least invasive intervention is fact-specific. The essence of public health law is to recognize the state's power and duty to safeguard the public's health and safety, and to establish and enforce limits on those powers
Kamso, Jean; Mvika, Eddy S; Ota, M O C; Okeibunor, Joseph; Mkanda, Pascal; Mihigo, Richard
The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) massively invested to overcome the crippling disease in countries of the WHO African Region. In the context of economic crisis, almost all countries in the Region lack an adequate health workforce. Large amounts were invested by GPEI in human resources. This paper shows how the human resources funded by polio contributed to narrowing the gaps in health workforce and helped strengthening and supporting other priority health programmes in Angola, Chad, DRC, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Togo. The health workforce strengthening methods used in the five different countries included the following: policy development and strategic planning, microplanning, capacity building of public health and community workers, implementation and services, monitoring and evaluation, advocacy and social mobilization, and programme review. Staff funded by polio helped with achieving good coverage in vitamin A and insecticide-treated mosquito nets (Angola, Chad); improvement of EPI and integrated disease surveillance indicators, improved quality of data (all five countries), administrative support, smooth introduction of new vaccines, increased case detection, and early isolation of patients suffering from the Guinea worm (Chad); reduction of cholera, extension of directly observed TB short course treatment (Democratic Republic of Congo); significant staff performance improvement (Nigeria). GPEI investment achieved far beyond its primary goal, and contributed to narrowing the gaps in the health workforce in countries of the African Region, as demonstrated by the best practice documentation exercise. We recommend that expertise and experience of polio funded staff should be leveraged to strengthen, expand and support other public health programmes. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Background Cases of polio in India declined after the implementation of the polio eradication programme especially in these recent years. The programme includes surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) to detect and diagnose cases of polio at early stage. Under this surveillance, over 40,000 cases of AFP are reported annually since 2007 regardless of the number of actual polio cases. Yet, not much is known about these children. We conducted a qualitative research to explore care and support for children with AFP after their diagnosis. Methods The research was conducted in a district of western Uttar Pradesh classified as high-risk area for polio. In-depth interviews with parents of children with polio (17), with non-polio AFP (9), healthcare providers (40), and key informants from community including international and government officers, religious leaders, community leaders, journalists, and academics (21) were performed. Results Minimal medicine and attention were provided at government hospitals. Therefore, most parents preferred private-practice doctors for their children with AFP. Many were visited at homes to have stool samples collected by authorities. Some were visited repetitively following the sample collection, but had difficulty in understanding the reasons for these visits that pertained no treatment. Financial burden was a common concern among all families. Many parents expressed resentment for their children's disease, notably have been affected despite receiving multiple doses of polio vaccine. Both parents and healthcare providers lacked information and knowledge, furthermore poverty minimised the access to available healthcare services. Medicines, education, and transportation means were identified as foremost needs for children with AFP and residual paralysis. Conclusions Despite the high number of children diagnosed with AFP as part of the global polio eradication programme, we found they were not provided with sufficient medical support
Yotsu Rie R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cases of polio in India declined after the implementation of the polio eradication programme especially in these recent years. The programme includes surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP to detect and diagnose cases of polio at early stage. Under this surveillance, over 40,000 cases of AFP are reported annually since 2007 regardless of the number of actual polio cases. Yet, not much is known about these children. We conducted a qualitative research to explore care and support for children with AFP after their diagnosis. Methods The research was conducted in a district of western Uttar Pradesh classified as high-risk area for polio. In-depth interviews with parents of children with polio (17, with non-polio AFP (9, healthcare providers (40, and key informants from community including international and government officers, religious leaders, community leaders, journalists, and academics (21 were performed. Results Minimal medicine and attention were provided at government hospitals. Therefore, most parents preferred private-practice doctors for their children with AFP. Many were visited at homes to have stool samples collected by authorities. Some were visited repetitively following the sample collection, but had difficulty in understanding the reasons for these visits that pertained no treatment. Financial burden was a common concern among all families. Many parents expressed resentment for their children's disease, notably have been affected despite receiving multiple doses of polio vaccine. Both parents and healthcare providers lacked information and knowledge, furthermore poverty minimised the access to available healthcare services. Medicines, education, and transportation means were identified as foremost needs for children with AFP and residual paralysis. Conclusions Despite the high number of children diagnosed with AFP as part of the global polio eradication programme, we found they were not provided with
Mushtaq, Muhammad Umair; Majrooh, Muhammad Ashraf; Ullah, Mohsin Zia Sana; Akram, Javed; Siddiqui, Arif Mahmood; Shad, Mushtaq Ahmad; Waqas, Muhammad; Abdullah, Hussain Muhammad; Ahmad, Waqar; Shahid, Ubeera; Khurshid, Usman
The success of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative was remarkable, but four countries - Afghanistan, Pakistan, India and Nigeria - never interrupted polio transmission. Pakistan reportedly achieved all milestones except interrupting virus transmission. The aim of the study was to establish valid and reliable estimate for: routine oral polio vaccine (OPV) coverage, logistics management and the quality of monitoring systems in health facilities, NIDs OPV coverage, the quality of NIDs service delivery in static centers and mobile teams, and to ultimately provide scientific evidence for tailoring future interventions. A cross-sectional study using lot quality assessment sampling was conducted in the District Nankana Sahib of Pakistan's Punjab province. Twenty primary health centers and their catchment areas were selected randomly as 'lots'. The study involved the evaluation of 1080 children aged 12-23 months for routine OPV coverage, 20 health centers for logistics management and quality of monitoring systems, 420 households for NIDs OPV coverage, 20 static centers and 20 mobile teams for quality of NIDs service delivery. Study instruments were designed according to WHO guidelines. Five out of twenty lots were rejected for unacceptably low routine immunization coverage. The validity of coverage was questionable to extent that all lots were rejected. Among the 54.1% who were able to present immunization cards, only 74.0% had valid immunization. Routine coverage was significantly associated with card availability and socioeconomic factors. The main reasons for routine immunization failure were absence of a vaccinator and unawareness of need for immunization. Health workers (96.9%) were a major source of information. All of the 20 lots were rejected for poor compliance in logistics management and quality of monitoring systems. Mean compliance score and compliance percentage for logistics management were 5.4 +/- 2.0 (scale 0-9) and 59.4% while those for quality of
Full Text Available Abstract Background The success of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative was remarkable, but four countries - Afghanistan, Pakistan, India and Nigeria - never interrupted polio transmission. Pakistan reportedly achieved all milestones except interrupting virus transmission. The aim of the study was to establish valid and reliable estimate for: routine oral polio vaccine (OPV coverage, logistics management and the quality of monitoring systems in health facilities, NIDs OPV coverage, the quality of NIDs service delivery in static centers and mobile teams, and to ultimately provide scientific evidence for tailoring future interventions. Methods A cross-sectional study using lot quality assessment sampling was conducted in the District Nankana Sahib of Pakistan's Punjab province. Twenty primary health centers and their catchment areas were selected randomly as 'lots'. The study involved the evaluation of 1080 children aged 12-23 months for routine OPV coverage, 20 health centers for logistics management and quality of monitoring systems, 420 households for NIDs OPV coverage, 20 static centers and 20 mobile teams for quality of NIDs service delivery. Study instruments were designed according to WHO guidelines. Results Five out of twenty lots were rejected for unacceptably low routine immunization coverage. The validity of coverage was questionable to extent that all lots were rejected. Among the 54.1% who were able to present immunization cards, only 74.0% had valid immunization. Routine coverage was significantly associated with card availability and socioeconomic factors. The main reasons for routine immunization failure were absence of a vaccinator and unawareness of need for immunization. Health workers (96.9% were a major source of information. All of the 20 lots were rejected for poor compliance in logistics management and quality of monitoring systems. Mean compliance score and compliance percentage for logistics management were 5.4 ± 2
Background: Poliomyelitis has remained endemic in Nigeria despite the efforts made by governments to eradicate the disease. The deformities arising from poliomyelitis (polio) make the establishment of rehabilitation centres a public health priority. Objective: To study the epidemiology, nature and distribution of polio ...
Poy, Alain; van den Ent, Maya M V X; Sosler, Stephen; Hinman, Alan R; Brown, Sidney; Sodha, Samir; Ehlman, Daniel C; Wallace, Aaron S; Mihigo, Richard
To monitor immunization-system strengthening in the Polio Eradication Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018 (PEESP), the Global Polio Eradication Initiative identified 1 indicator: 10% annual improvement in third dose of diphtheria- tetanus-pertussis-containing vaccine (DTP3) coverage in polio high-risk districts of 10 polio focus countries. A multiagency team, including staff from the African Region, developed a comprehensive list of outcome and process indicators measuring various aspects of the performance of an immunization system. The development and implementation of the dashboard to assess immunization system performance allowed national program managers to monitor the key immunization indicators and stratify by high-risk and non-high-risk districts. Although only a single outcome indicator goal (at least 10% annual increase in DTP3 coverage achieved in 80% of high-risk districts) initially existed in the endgame strategy, we successfully added additional outcome indicators (eg, decreasing the number of DTP3-unvaccinated children) as well as program process indicators focusing on cold chain, stock availability, and vaccination sessions to better describe progress on the pathway to raising immunization coverage. When measuring progress toward improving immunization systems, it is helpful to use a comprehensive approach that allows for measuring multiple dimensions of the system. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.
Guo, Jean; Bolivar-Wagers, Sara; Srinivas, Nivedita; Holubar, Marisa; Maldonado, Yvonne
Vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs), strains of poliovirus mutated from the oral polio vaccine, pose a challenge to global polio eradication. Immunodeficiency-related vaccine-derived polioviruses (iVDPVs) are a type of VDPV which may serve as sources of poliovirus reintroduction after the eradication of wild-type poliovirus. This review is a comprehensive update of confirmed iVDPV cases published in the scientific literature from 1962 to 2012, and describes clinically relevant trends in reported iVDPV cases worldwide. We conducted a systematic review of published iVDPV case reports from January 1960 to November 2012 from four databases. We included cases in which the patient had a primary immunodeficiency, and the vaccine virus isolated from the patient either met the sequencing definition of VDPV (>1% divergence for serotypes 1 and 3 and >0.6% for serotype 2) and/or was previously reported as an iVDPV by the World Health Organization. We identified 68 iVDPV cases in 49 manuscripts reported from 25 countries and the Palestinian territories. 62% of case patients were male, 78% presented clinically with acute flaccid paralysis, and 65% were iVDPV2. 57% of cases occurred in patients with predominantly antibody immunodeficiencies, and the overall all-cause mortality rate was greater than 60%. The median age at case detection was 1.4 years [IQR: 0.8, 4.5] and the median duration of shedding was 1.3 years [IQR: 0.7, 2.2]. We identified a poliovirus genome VP1 region mutation rate of 0.72% per year and a higher median percent divergence for iVDPV1 cases. More cases were reported from high income countries, which also had a larger age variation and different distribution of immunodeficiencies compared to upper and lower middle-income countries. Our study describes the incidence and characteristics of global iVDPV cases reported in the literature in the past five decades. It also highlights the regional and economic disparities of reported iVDPV cases. Copyright © 2015
Guirguis, Sherine; Obregon, Rafael; Coleman, Michael; Hickler, Benjamin; SteelFisher, Gillian
Today, acceptance of oral polio vaccine is the highest ever. Reaching this level of acceptance has depended on decades of engaging with communities, building trust amid extraordinary social contexts, and responding to the complex variables that trigger behavioral and social change. Drawing on both the successes and setbacks in the 28 years of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI), this article articulates what happened when the GPEI began to pay more attention to the dynamics of human and social behavior change. Three particular lessons for other health and immunization programs can be drawn from the experience of GPEI: change begins from within (ie, success needs institutional recognition of the importance of human behavior), good data are not enough for good decision-making, and health workers are important agents of behavior change. These lessons should be harnessed and put into practice to build demand and trust for the last stages of polio eradication, as well as for other life-saving health interventions. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.
An international campaign under the leadership of the. World Health Organisation is underway to eradicate polio from the world by the year 2000. South Africa may already be free of polio. However, to ensure eradication we need to move from a polio control programme to a polio eradication programme. This necessitates ...
Tafesse, Belete; Tekle, Ephrem; Wondwossen, Liya; Bogale, Mengistu; Fiona, Braka; Nsubuga, Peter; Tomas, Karengera; Kassahun, Aron; Kathleen, Gallagher; Teka, Aschalew
Introduction Ethiopia experienced several WPV importations with a total of 10 WPV1 cases confirmed during the 2013 outbreak alone before it is closed in 2015. We evaluated supplemental immunization activities (SIAs), including lessons learned for their effect on the routine immunization program during the 2013 polio outbreak in Somali regional state. Methods We used descriptive study to review documents and analyse routine health information system reports from the polio outbreak affected Som...
Tafesse, Belete; Tekle, Ephrem; Wondwossen, Liya; Bogale, Mengistu; Fiona, Braka; Nsubuga, Peter; Tomas, Karengera; Kassahun, Aron; Kathleen, Gallagher; Teka, Aschalew
Ethiopia experienced several WPV importations with a total of 10 WPV1 cases confirmed during the 2013 outbreak alone before it is closed in 2015. We evaluated supplemental immunization activities (SIAs), including lessons learned for their effect on the routine immunization program during the 2013 polio outbreak in Somali regional state. We used descriptive study to review documents and analyse routine health information system reports from the polio outbreak affected Somali regional state. All data and technical reports of the 15 rounds of polio SIAs from June 2013 through June 2015 and routine immunization coverages for DPT-Hib-HepB 3 and measles were observed. More than 93% of the SIAs were having administrative coverage above 95%. The trend of routine immunization for the two antigens, over the five years (2011 through 2015) did not show a consistent pattern against the number of SIAs. Documentations showed qualitative positive impacts of the SIAs strengthening the routine immunization during all courses of the campaigns. The quantitative impact of polio SIAs on routine immunization remained not so impressive in this study. Clear planning, data consistencies and completeness issues need to be cleared for the impact assessment in quantitative terms, in polio legacy planning as well as for the introduction of injectable polio vaccine through the routine immunization.
Mushtaq, Muhammad Umair; Shahid, Ubeera; Majrooh, Muhammad Ashraf; Shad, Mushtaq Ahmad; Siddiqui, Arif Mahmood; Akram, Javed
The success of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative was remarkable, but four countries - Afghanistan, Pakistan, India and Nigeria - never interrupted polio transmission. Pakistan reportedly achieved all milestones except interrupting virus transmission. This paper describes the perceptions of health workers and managers regarding constraints in the Polio Eradication Initiative (PEI) to ultimately provide evidence for designing future interventions. A qualitative cross-sectional study using focus group discussions and in-depth interviews was conducted in the Nankana Sahib District of Pakistan's Punjab province. Study subjects included staff at all levels in the PEI at district headquarters, in all 4 tehsils (sub-districts) and at 20 randomly selected primary health centers. In total, 4 FGD and 7 interview sessions were conducted and individual session summary notes were prepared and later synthesized, consolidated and subjected to conceptual analysis. The main constraints identified in the study were the poor condition of the cold chain in all aspects, poor skills and a lack of authority in resource allocation and human resource management, limited advocacy and communication resources, a lack of skills and training among staff at all levels in the PEI/EPI in almost all aspects of the program, a deficiency of public health professionals, poor health services structure, administrative issues (including ineffective means of performance evaluation, bureaucratic and political influences, problems in vaccination areas and field programs, no birth records at health facilities, and poor linkage between different preventive programs), unreliable reporting and poor monitoring and supervision systems, limited use of local data for interventions, and unclear roles and responsibilities after decentralization. The study highlights various shortcomings and bottlenecks in the PEI, and the barriers identified should be considered in prioritizing future strategies.
Mushtaq Muhammad Umair
Full Text Available Abstract Background The success of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative was remarkable, but four countries - Afghanistan, Pakistan, India and Nigeria - never interrupted polio transmission. Pakistan reportedly achieved all milestones except interrupting virus transmission. This paper describes the perceptions of health workers and managers regarding constraints in the Polio Eradication Initiative (PEI to ultimately provide evidence for designing future interventions. Methods A qualitative cross-sectional study using focus group discussions and in-depth interviews was conducted in the Nankana Sahib District of Pakistan's Punjab province. Study subjects included staff at all levels in the PEI at district headquarters, in all 4 tehsils (sub-districts and at 20 randomly selected primary health centers. In total, 4 FGD and 7 interview sessions were conducted and individual session summary notes were prepared and later synthesized, consolidated and subjected to conceptual analysis. Results The main constraints identified in the study were the poor condition of the cold chain in all aspects, poor skills and a lack of authority in resource allocation and human resource management, limited advocacy and communication resources, a lack of skills and training among staff at all levels in the PEI/EPI in almost all aspects of the program, a deficiency of public health professionals, poor health services structure, administrative issues (including ineffective means of performance evaluation, bureaucratic and political influences, problems in vaccination areas and field programs, no birth records at health facilities, and poor linkage between different preventive programs, unreliable reporting and poor monitoring and supervision systems, limited use of local data for interventions, and unclear roles and responsibilities after decentralization. Conclusion The study highlights various shortcomings and bottlenecks in the PEI, and the barriers identified should
Aug 20, 2013 ... Introduction. Although there are no confirmed polio cases in South. Sudan since June 2009, vital indicators for polio eradication activities are not satisfactory [1.]. Hence, the recent huge polio outbreak in Somalia, Kenya and Ethiopia demanded a safety net SNIDs for four States, including Upper Nile.
Kerr, Yinka; Mailhot, Melinda; Williams, Alford A J; Swezy, Virginia; Quick, Linda; Tangermann, Rudolf H; Ward, Kirsten; Benke, Amalia; Callaghan, Anna; Clark, Kathleen; Emery, Brian; Nix, Jessica; Aydlotte, Eleanor; Newman, Charlotte; Nkowane, Benjamin
In 1988, the by the World Health Assembly established the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, which consisted of a partnership among the World Health Organization (WHO), Rotary International, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the United Nations Children's Fund. By 2016, the annual incidence of polio had decreased by >99.9%, compared with 1988, and at the time of writing, only 3 countries in which wild poliovirus circulation has never been interrupted remain: Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan. A key strategy for polio eradication has been the development of a skilled and deployable workforce to implement eradication activities across the globe. In 1999, the Stop Transmission of Polio (STOP) program was developed and initiated by the CDC, in collaboration with the WHO, to train and mobilize additional human resources to provide technical assistance to polio-endemic countries. STOP has also informed the development of other public health workforce capacity to support polio eradication efforts, including national STOP programs. In addition, the program has diversified to address measles and rubella elimination, data management and quality, and strengthening routine immunization programs. This article describes the STOP program and how it has contributed to polio eradication by building global public health workforce capacity. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.
Patel, Manish; Cochi, Stephen
The Global Commission for the Certification of the Eradication of Poliomyelitis certified the eradication of type 2 poliovirus in September 2015, making type 2 poliovirus the first human pathogen to be eradicated since smallpox. The eradication of type 2 poliovirus, the absence of detection of type 3 poliovirus worldwide since November 2012, and cornering type 1 poliovirus to only a few geographic areas of 3 countries has enabled implementation of the endgame of polio eradication which calls for a phased withdrawal of oral polio vaccine beginning with the type 2 component, introduction of inactivated poliovirus vaccine, strengthening of routine immunization in countries with extensive polio resources, and initiating activities to transition polio resources, program experience, and lessons learned to other global health initiatives. This supplement focuses on efforts by global partners to successfully launch polio endgame activities to permanently secure and sustain the enormous gains of polio eradication forever. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.
Paralytic poliomyelitis is a disease that became a public health issue at the beginning of the twentieth century and was more or less eliminated in developed countries by the early 1970s. The Global Polio Eradication Initiative of WHO has now eradicated endemic polio from all but three countries although re-introductions occur. The progress in polio eradication is striking and has accelerated over the last few years. It is likely that it will be finally eradicated from the world soon, the looming issue will then be how to stop vaccinating or modify immunization programs safely so that poliomyelitis does not re-emerge. This review article discusses the history and pathogenesis of poliomyelitis. The progress made, and challenges in sustaining the eradication of this debilitating infectious disease are considered.
An international campaign under the leadership of the World Health Organisation is underway to eradicate polio from the world by the year 2000. South Africa may already be free of polio. However, to ensure eradication we need to move from a polio control programme to a polio eradication programme. This necessitates ...
Verma, Ramesh; Khanna, Pardeep; Chawla, Suraj
Polio is a communicable disease caused by poliovirus that may attack nerve cells of the brain and spinal cord. The victims develop neurological complications, likes stiffness of the neck, muscular weakness, or paralysis of one or more limbs. In severe cases, it may be fatal due to respiratory paralysis. The world has seen tremendous gains in polio eradication over the past year. India and Nigeria saw a reduction in cases of almost 95% from 2009 to 2010, and cases of wild poliovirus type 3 (WPV3) fell by 92% globally over the same period. In fact, no case has been reported in India since February 2011, such that India may be on the verge of eradicating polio. Nevertheless, polio control experts are particularly worried about Vaccine-Derived Poliovirus (VDPV). Global surveillance efforts picked up 430 cases of VDPV from several countries between July 2009 and March 2011. In India, 7 cases of VDPV were reported during the year 2011. As long as OPV is used, virologists say that the world is at risk of VDPV causing polio in unprotected children. Achieving a polio-free world will require the "cessation of all OPV" and with it the elimination of the risk of vaccine-associated paralytic polio (VAPP) or VDPV infections. To this effect, in 2011 the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) will produce and develop a new roadmap for VDPV Elimination. Several countries have shifted from all OPV to sequential OPV-IPV schedules and all-IPV schedules with elimination of live poliovirus. IPV will be indispensable in the post-eradication era when use of OPV has to stop but "vaccination against polio" cannot stop. IPV offers complete individual protection and has been considered as an additional tool at present for those who can afford the vaccine, and since we are nearing the eradication of polio, it is time to shift from OPV to sequential OPV-IPV schedule in India. Such a strategy will avoid inevitable problems with VAPP.
Liu, Yan; Wang, Jun; Liu, Shijun; Du, Jian; Wang, Liang; Gu, Wenwen; Xu, Yuyang; Zuo, Shuyan; Xu, Erping; An, Zhijie
China's Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) has provided 4 doses of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) since the 1970s. Inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) became available in 2010 in Hangzhou as a private-sector, parent-chosen alternative to OPV. In 2015, WHO recommended that countries with all-OPV vaccination schedules introduce at least one dose of IPV, to mitigate risk associated with the withdrawal of type 2 OPV. We analyzed polio vaccine coverage and utilization in Hangzhou to determine patterns of IPV use and the occurrence of vaccine-associated paralytic polio (VAPP) in the various patterns identified. Children born between 2010 and 2014 and registered in Hangzhou's Immunization Information System (HZIIS) were included. VAPP cases were detected through the acute flaccid paralysis surveillance system. We used descriptive epidemiological methods to determine IPV and OPV usage patterns and VAPP occurrence. HZIIS data from 566,894 children were analyzed. Coverage levels of polio vaccine were greater than 92% for each birth cohort. Percentages of children using OPV-only, IPV-only, and IPV/OPV sequential schedules were 70.57%, 27.01% and 2.41%, respectively. IPV-only schedule utilization increased by birth cohort regardless of geographical area or whether the child was locally-born. The highest use of an all-IPV schedule (79.85%) was among urban, locally-born children in the 2014 birth cohort. Five VAPP cases were identified during the study years; all cases occurred following the first polio vaccine dose, which was always OPV for the cases. Type 2 vaccine virus was isolated from 2 VAPP cases, and type 2 and type 3 vaccine virus was isolated from one VAPP case. The incidence of VAPP in the 2010-2014 birth cohorts was 3.76 per 1million doses of OPV. Children in Hangzhou had high polio vaccination coverage. IPV-only schedule use increased by year, and was highest in urban areas among locally-born children. All cases of VAPP were associated with the first dose of OPV
Garon, Julie; Patel, Manish
The decades long effort to eradicate polio is nearing the final stages and oral polio vaccine (OPV) is much to thank for this success. As cases of wild poliovirus continue to dwindle, cases of paralysis associated with OPV itself have become a concern. As type-2 poliovirus (one of three) has been certified eradicated and a large proportion of OPV-related paralysis is caused by the type-2 component of OPV, the World Health Assembly endorsed the phased withdrawal of OPV and the introduction of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) into routine immunisation schedules as a crucial step in the polio endgame plan. The rapid pace of IPV scale-up and uptake required adequate supply, planning, advocacy, training and operational readiness. Similarly, the synchronised switch from trivalent OPV (all three types) to bivalent OPV (types 1 and 3) involved an unprecedented level of global coordination and country commitment. The important shift in vaccination policy seen through global IPV introduction and OPV withdrawal represents an historical milestone reached in the polio eradication effort. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
of children below five years in Toluca, Mexico . This strategy serves as the foundation of today's global polio eradication initiative. The call for global eradication of ... year 2000 against six diseases: diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough, tuberculosis, measles, and polio. During 1997, 82% children were fully immunized - a.
Habib, Muhammad Atif; Soofi, Sajid Bashir; Ali, Noshad; Hussain, Imtiaz; Tabassum, Farhana; Suhag, Zamir; Anwar, Saeed; Ahmed, Imran; Bhutta, Zulfiqar Ahmed
Pakistan and Afghanistan remain the only countries where polio is endemic, and Pakistan reports the most cases in the world. Although the rate is lower than in previous years, the situation remains alarming. We conducted a mixed methods study in high-risk areas of Pakistan to identify knowledge, attitudes, and practices of target populations about polio vaccine and its eradication, and to estimate coverage of routine immunization and oral polio vaccine. We surveyed 10,685 households in Karachi, 2522 in Pishin, and 2005 in Bajaur. Some knowledge of polio is universal, but important misconceptions persist. The findings of this study carry strategic importance for program direction and implementation.
Kennedy, Jonathan; McKee, Martin; King, Lawrence
There is widespread agreement that civil war obstructs efforts to eradicate polio. It is suggested that Islamist insurgents have a particularly negative effect on vaccination programmes, but this claim is controversial. We analyse cross-national data for the period 2003-14 using negative binomial regressions to investigate the relationship between Islamist and non-Islamist insurgency and the global distribution of polio. The dependent variable is the annual number of polio cases in a country according to the WHO. Insurgency is operationalized as armed conflict between the state and an insurgent organization resulting in ≥25 battle deaths per year according to the Uppsala Conflict Data Programme. Insurgencies are divided into Islamist and non-Islamist insurgencies. We control for other possible explanatory variables. Islamist insurgency did not have a significant positive relationship with polio throughout the whole period. But in the past few years - since the assassination of Osama bin Laden in 2011- Islamist insurgency has had a strong effect on where polio cases occur. The evidence for a relationship between non-Islamist insurgency and polio is less compelling and where there is a relationship it is either spurious or driven by ecological fallacy. Only particular forms of internal armed conflict - those prosecuted by Islamist insurgents - explain the current global distribution of polio. The variation over time in the relationship between Islamist insurgency and polio suggests that Islamist insurgent's hostility to polio vaccinations programmes is not the result of their theology, as the core tenets of Islam have not changed over the period of the study. Rather, our analysis indicates that it is a plausibly a reaction to the counterinsurgency strategies used against Islamist insurgents. The assassination of Osama bin Laden and the use of drone strikes seemingly vindicated Islamist insurgents' suspicions that immunization drives are a cover for espionage
Vashishtha, Vipin M; Kamath, Sachidanand
Poliomyelitis, a dreaded disease of the last century that had already crippled millions of people across the globe, is now on the verge of eradication thanks mainly to two polio vaccines, inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) and oral polio vaccine (OPV). Ever since their development in late 1950s and early 1960s, the journey of their early development process, clinical trials, licensure and ultimately widespread clinical use in different countries provide a fascinating tale of events. Oral polio vaccine has been the mainstay of global polio eradication initiative (GPEI) in most of the countries. With the advent of 'polio endgame', the focus has now shifted back to IPV. However, there are certain issues associated with global cessation of OPV use and universal implementation of IPV in routine immunization schedules across the globe that need to be dealt with some urgency, before proclaiming the global victory over polio.
Wilson, John R.U.; Gairifo, Carla; Gibson, Michelle R.; Arianoutsou, Margarita; Bakar, Baki B.; Baret, Stephane; Celesti-Grapow, Laura; DiTomaso, Joseph M.; Dufour-Dror, Jean-Marc; Kueffer, Christoph; Kull, Christian A.; Hoffman, John H.; Impson, Fiona A.C.; Loope, Lloyd L.; Marchante, Elizabete; Harchante, Helia; Moore, Joslin L.; Murphy, Daniel J.; Tassin, Jacques; Witt, Arne; Zenni, Rafael D.; Richardson, David M.
Aim Many Australian Acacia species have been planted around the world, some are highly valued, some are invasive, and some are both highly valued and invasive. We review global efforts to minimize the risk and limit the impact of invasions in this widely used plant group. Location Global. Methods Using information from literature sources, knowledge and experience of the authors, and the responses from a questionnaire sent to experts around the world, we reviewed: (1) a generalized life cycle of Australian acacias and how to control each life stage, (2) different management approaches and (3) what is required to help limit or prevent invasions. Results Relatively few Australian acacias have been introduced in large numbers, but all species with a long and extensive history of planting have become invasive somewhere. Australian acacias, as a group, have a high risk of becoming invasive and causing significant impacts as determined by existing assessment schemes. Moreover, in most situations, long-lived seed banks mean it is very difficult to control established infestations. Control has focused almost exclusively on widespread invaders, and eradication has rarely been attempted. Classical biological control is being used in South Africa with increasing success. Main conclusions A greater emphasis on pro-active rather than reactive management is required given the difficulties managing established invasions of Australian acacias. Adverse effects of proposed new introductions can be minimized by conducting detailed risk assessments in advance, planning for on-going monitoring and management, and ensuring resources are in place for long-term mitigation. Benign alternatives (e.g. sterile hybrids) could be developed to replace existing utilized taxa. Eradication should be set as a management goal more often to reduce the invasion debt. Introducing classical biological control agents that have a successful track-record in South Africa to other regions and identifying new
Andre, McKenzie; Wolff, Chris G; Tangermann, Rudolf H; Chenoweth, Paul; Tallis, Graham; Kamgang, Jean Baptiste; Wassilak, Steven G F
Since 1988, when the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) began, the annual number of polio cases has decreased by >99%. Only three countries remain that have never interrupted wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission: Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan. Since 2001, outbreaks have occurred in 31 formerly polio-free counties in Africa, with outbreaks in 25 countries caused by WPV originating in Nigeria (2-4). After the declaration of the World Health Assembly of polio eradication as a programmatic emergency in 2012, efforts to identify areas at high risk for importation-associated outbreaks and to reduce that risk have been intensified. This report updates the 2013 assessment of the risk for outbreaks attributable to importation of poliovirus in 33 countries in Africa, using indicators of childhood susceptibility to poliovirus and proximity to countries currently affected by polio . From January 2013 to August 12, 2014, outbreaks occurred in five African countries. Four of the five (Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, and Somalia) have had recent transmission (cases within the previous 12 months). Based on the current risk assessment, 15 countries are considered to be at high risk for WPV outbreaks, five at moderate-to-high risk, seven at moderate risk, and six at low risk. In 15 of the 33 countries, less than half of the population resides in areas where surveillance performance indicators have met minimum targets. Enhanced, coordinated activities to raise childhood immunity are underway in 2014 to prevent additional WPV spread. Although substantial progress toward polio eradication has occurred in Nigeria, all African countries remain at risk for outbreaks as long as WPV continues to circulate anywhere on the continent.
Smallpox and polio eradication in India: comparative histories and lessons for contemporary policy Erradicação da varíola e da pólio na Índia: histórias comparativas e lições para políticas contemporâneas
Full Text Available This article argues that a detailed examination of factors contributing to the development of complex structures and strategies for smallpox eradication in South Asia in the 1970s can provide fruitful indications for the reformulation of the national chapters of the global polio eradication programme in this region. There is a magnificent archive in the WHO's Geneva offices, which details how smallpox eradication outbreaks were located and then contained in cities, small towns and remote rural areas in this region, by teams of international workers working closely with local officials. A systematic assessment of the global smallpox eradication efforts indicates parallels between the early stages of the global smallpox eradication programme and the present situation of the polio campaign; as we will see here, it can also provide useful indicators for future action in South Asia and beyond.O artigo argumenta que um exame detalhado dos fatores que contribuíram para o desenvolvimento de estruturas e estratégias complexas para a erradicação da varíola no Sul da Ásia nos anos 70 pode fornecer indicações proveitosas para a reformulação dos capítulos nacionais do programa global de erradicação da pólio nesta região. Existe um impressionante arquivo nos escritórios da OMS em Genebra que detalha como os ataques para a erradicação da varíola foram localizados e então contidos em cidades, pequenas vilas e áreas rurais remotas desta região, por equipes de profissionais internacionais trabalhando em conjunto com as autoridades locais. Uma avaliação sistemática dos esforços globais de erradicação da varíola indicam paralelos entre os estágios iniciais do programa global de erradicação da varíola e a atual situação da campanha contra a pólio. Como veremos aqui, o artigo também pode fornecer indicadores úteis para ações futuras no Sul da Ásia e em outros locais.
... Essays Photo Collections Videos Polio Today → Polio + Prevention Polio + Prevention Polio and prevention Polio is a crippling ... for poliovirus within 48 hours of onset. Bulbar polio More extensive paralysis, involving the trunk and muscles ...
Full Text Available Polio remains a global public health issue, and even though it has been eradicated from most countries of the world, countries like Nigeria, the largest black nation on earth, threatens the dream of total eradication of polio from the surface of the earth. Transmission of wild polio virus has never been eliminated in Nigeria, but even worse is the number of countries, both in Sub-Saharan Africa and all over the world that has become re-infected by polio virus strains from Northern Nigeria in recent past. Although a lot has been documented about the Nigerian polio struggle, one aspect that has received little attention on this issue is ethnic and geographic disparities between the Southern and the Northern parts of Nigeria. Understanding these disparities involved in polio virus transmission in Nigeria, as well as the social determinants of health prevalent in Northern Nigeria will help government and other stakeholders and policy makers to synergize their efforts in the fight against this perennial scourge.
Dunker, Kristine J; Sepulveda, Adam J; Massengill, Robert L; Olsen, Jeffrey B; Russ, Ora L; Wenburg, John K; Antonovich, Anton
Determining the success of invasive species eradication efforts is challenging because populations at very low abundance are difficult to detect. Environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling has recently emerged as a powerful tool for detecting rare aquatic animals; however, detectable fragments of DNA can persist over time despite absence of the targeted taxa and can therefore complicate eDNA sampling after an eradication event. This complication is a large concern for fish eradication efforts in lakes since killed fish can sink to the bottom and slowly decay. DNA released from these carcasses may remain detectable for long periods. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of eDNA sampling to detect invasive Northern pike (Esox lucius) following piscicide eradication efforts in southcentral Alaskan lakes. We used field observations and experiments to test the sensitivity of our Northern pike eDNA assay and to evaluate the persistence of detectable DNA emitted from Northern pike carcasses. We then used eDNA sampling and traditional sampling (i.e., gillnets) to test for presence of Northern pike in four lakes subjected to a piscicide-treatment designed to eradicate this species. We found that our assay could detect an abundant, free-roaming population of Northern pike and could also detect low-densities of Northern pike held in cages. For these caged Northern pike, probability of detection decreased with distance from the cage. We then stocked three lakes with Northern pike carcasses and collected eDNA samples 7, 35 and 70 days post-stocking. We detected DNA at 7 and 35 days, but not at 70 days. Finally, we collected eDNA samples ~ 230 days after four lakes were subjected to piscicide-treatments and detected Northern pike DNA in 3 of 179 samples, with a single detection at each of three lakes, though we did not catch any Northern pike in gillnets. Taken together, we found that eDNA can help to inform eradication efforts if used in conjunction with multiple lines of inquiry and sampling
Kristine J Dunker
Full Text Available Determining the success of invasive species eradication efforts is challenging because populations at very low abundance are difficult to detect. Environmental DNA (eDNA sampling has recently emerged as a powerful tool for detecting rare aquatic animals; however, detectable fragments of DNA can persist over time despite absence of the targeted taxa and can therefore complicate eDNA sampling after an eradication event. This complication is a large concern for fish eradication efforts in lakes since killed fish can sink to the bottom and slowly decay. DNA released from these carcasses may remain detectable for long periods. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of eDNA sampling to detect invasive Northern pike (Esox lucius following piscicide eradication efforts in southcentral Alaskan lakes. We used field observations and experiments to test the sensitivity of our Northern pike eDNA assay and to evaluate the persistence of detectable DNA emitted from Northern pike carcasses. We then used eDNA sampling and traditional sampling (i.e., gillnets to test for presence of Northern pike in four lakes subjected to a piscicide-treatment designed to eradicate this species. We found that our assay could detect an abundant, free-roaming population of Northern pike and could also detect low-densities of Northern pike held in cages. For these caged Northern pike, probability of detection decreased with distance from the cage. We then stocked three lakes with Northern pike carcasses and collected eDNA samples 7, 35 and 70 days post-stocking. We detected DNA at 7 and 35 days, but not at 70 days. Finally, we collected eDNA samples ~ 230 days after four lakes were subjected to piscicide-treatments and detected Northern pike DNA in 3 of 179 samples, with a single detection at each of three lakes, though we did not catch any Northern pike in gillnets. Taken together, we found that eDNA can help to inform eradication efforts if used in conjunction with multiple lines of
Dunker, Kristine J.; Sepulveda, Adam; Massengill, Robert L.; Olsen, Jeffrey B.; Russ, Ora L.; Wenburg, John K.; Antonovich, Anton
Determining the success of invasive species eradication efforts is challenging because populations at very low abundance are difficult to detect. Environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling has recently emerged as a powerful tool for detecting rare aquatic animals; however, detectable fragments of DNA can persist over time despite absence of the targeted taxa and can therefore complicate eDNA sampling after an eradication event. This complication is a large concern for fish eradication efforts in lakes since killed fish can sink to the bottom and slowly decay. DNA released from these carcasses may remain detectable for long periods. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of eDNA sampling to detect invasive Northern pike (Esox lucius) following piscicide eradication efforts in southcentral Alaskan lakes. We used field observations and experiments to test the sensitivity of our Northern pike eDNA assay and to evaluate the persistence of detectable DNA emitted from Northern pike carcasses. We then used eDNA sampling and traditional sampling (i.e., gillnets) to test for presence of Northern pike in four lakes subjected to a piscicide-treatment designed to eradicate this species. We found that our assay could detect an abundant, free-roaming population of Northern pike and could also detect low-densities of Northern pike held in cages. For these caged Northern pike, probability of detection decreased with distance from the cage. We then stocked three lakes with Northern pike carcasses and collected eDNA samples 7, 35 and 70 days post-stocking. We detected DNA at 7 and 35 days, but not at 70 days. Finally, we collected eDNA samples ~ 230 days after four lakes were subjected to piscicide-treatments and detected Northern pike DNA in 3 of 179 samples, with a single detection at each of three lakes, though we did not catch any Northern pike in gillnets. Taken together, we found that eDNA can help to inform eradication efforts if used in conjunction with multiple lines of inquiry and sampling
Thomassen, Y.E.; Oever, van 't R.; Vinke, C.M.; Spiekstra, A.; Wijffels, R.H.; Pol, van der L.A.; Bakker, W.A.M.
The anticipated increase in the demand for inactivated polio vaccines resulting from the success in the polio eradication program requires an increase in production capacity and cost price reduction of the current inactivated polio vaccine production processes. Improvement of existing production
Introduction: Polio eradication is now feasible after removal of Nigeria from the list of endemic countries and global reduction of cases of wild polio virus in 2015 by more than 80%. However, all countries must remain focused to achieve eradication. In August 2015, the Catholic bishops in Kenya called for boycott of a polio ...
Kaufmann, Judith R; Feldbaum, Harley
The boycott of polio vaccination in three Northern Nigerian states in 2003 created a global health crisis that was political in origin. This paper traces the diplomatic actions that were taken by the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, the United Nations, and the U.S. government, to restart polio vaccination and resolve the crisis. The polio vaccination boycott in Northern Nigeria provides a useful case study of the practice of global health diplomacy.
Nathanson, Neal; Kew, Olen M.
Poliomyelitis has appeared in epidemic form, become endemic on a global scale, and been reduced to near-elimination, all within the span of documented medical history. Epidemics of the disease appeared in the late 19th century in many European countries and North America, following which polio became a global disease with annual epidemics. During the period of its epidemicity, 1900–1950, the age distribution of poliomyelitis cases increased gradually. Beginning in 1955, the creation of poliovirus vaccines led to a stepwise reduction in poliomyelitis, culminating in the unpredicted elimination of wild polioviruses in the United States by 1972. Global expansion of polio immunization resulted in a reduction of paralytic disease from an estimated annual prevaccine level of at least 600,000 cases to fewer than 1,000 cases in 2000. Indigenous wild type 2 poliovirus was eradicated in 1999, but unbroken localized circulation of poliovirus types 1 and 3 continues in 4 countries in Asia and Africa. Current challenges to the final eradication of paralytic poliomyelitis include the continued transmission of wild polioviruses in endemic reservoirs, reinfection of polio-free areas, outbreaks due to circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses, and persistent excretion of vaccine-derived poliovirus by a few vaccinees with B-cell immunodeficiencies. Beyond the current efforts to eradicate the last remaining wild polioviruses, global eradication efforts must safely navigate through an unprecedented series of endgame challenges to assure the permanent cessation of all human poliovirus infections. PMID:20978089
Ado, J Mohammed; Etsano, Andrew; Shuaib, Faisal; Damisa, Eunice; Mkanda, Pascal; Gasasira, Alex; Banda, Richard; Korir, Charles; Johnson, Ticha; Dieng, Boubacar; Corkum, Melissa; Enemaku, Ogu; Mataruse, Noah; Ohuabunwo, Chima; Baig, Shahzad; Galway, Michael; Seaman, Vincent; Wiesen, Eric; Vertefeuille, John; Ogbuanu, Ikechukwu U; Armstrong, Gregory; Mahoney, Frank J
Transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV) has never been interrupted in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Nigeria. Since 2003, infections with WPV of Nigerian origin have been detected in 25 polio-free countries. In 2012, the Nigerian government created an emergency operations center and implemented a national emergency action plan to eradicate polio. The 2013 revision of this plan prioritized (1) improving the quality of supplemental immunization activities (SIAs), (2) implementing strategies to reach underserved populations, (3) adopting special approaches in security-compromised areas, (4) improving outbreak response, (5) enhancing routine immunization and activities implemented between SIAs, and (6) strengthening surveillance. This report summarizes implementation of these activities during a period of unprecedented insecurity and violence, including the killing of health workers and the onset of a state of emergency in the northeast zone. This report reviews management strategies, innovations, trends in case counts, vaccination and social mobilization activities, and surveillance and monitoring data to assess progress in polio eradication in Nigeria. Nigeria has made significant improvements in the management of polio eradication initiative (pei) activities with marked improvement in the quality of SIAs, as measured by lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS). Comparing results from February 2012 with results from December 2013, the proportion of local government areas (LGAs) conducting LQAS in the 11 high-risk states at the ≥90% pass/fail threshold increased from 7% to 42%, and the proportion at the 80%-89% threshold increased from 9% to 30%. During January-December 2013, 53 polio cases were reported from 26 LGAs in 9 states in Nigeria, compared with 122 cases reported from 13 states in 2012. No cases of WPV type 3 infection have been reported since November 2012. In 2013, no polio cases due to any poliovirus type were detected in the northwest sanctuaries of Nigeria. In
Verma, Amol A; Jimenez, Marcia P; Tangermann, Rudolf H; Subramanian, S V; Razak, Fahad
Pakistan is one of three countries in which endemic transmission of poliovirus has never been stopped. Insecurity is often cited but poorly studied as a barrier to eradicating polio. We analyzed routinely collected health data from 32 districts of northwest Pakistan and constructed an index of insecurity based on journalistic reports of the monthly number of deaths and injuries resulting from conflict-related security incidents. The primary outcomes were the monthly incidence of paralytic polio cases within each district between 2007 and 2014 and the polio vaccination percentage from 666 district-level vaccination campaigns between 2007 and 2009, targeting ∼5.7 million children. Multilevel Poisson regression controlling for time and district fixed effects was used to model the association between insecurity, vaccinator access, vaccination rates, and polio incidence. The number of children inaccessible to vaccinators was 19.7% greater (95% CI: 19.2-20.2%), and vaccination rates were 5.3% lower (95% CI: 5.2-5.3%) in "high-insecurity" campaigns compared with "secure" campaigns. The unadjusted mean vaccination rate was 96.3% (SD = 8.6) in secure campaigns and 88.3% (SD = 19.2) in high-insecurity campaigns. Polio incidence was 73.0% greater (95% CI: 30-131%) during high-insecurity months (unadjusted mean = 0.13 cases per million people, SD = 0.71) compared with secure months (unadjusted mean = 1.23 cases per million people, SD = 4.28). Thus, insecurity was associated with reduced vaccinator access, reduced polio vaccination, and increased polio incidence in northwest Pakistan. These findings demonstrate that insecurity is an important obstacle to global polio eradication.
Martinez, Maureen; Shukla, Hemant; Nikulin, Joanna; Wadood, Mufti Zubair; Hadler, Stephen; Mbaeyi, Chukwuma; Tangermann, Rudolph; Jorba, Jaume; Ehrhardt, Derek
Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Nigeria remain the only countries where the transmission of endemic wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) continues (1). This report describes polio eradication activities, progress, and challenges in Afghanistan during January 2016-June 2017 and updates previous reports (2,3). Thirteen WPV1 cases were confirmed in Afghanistan in 2016, a decrease of seven from the 20 cases reported in 2015. From January to June 2017, five WPV1 cases were reported, compared with six during the same period in 2016. The number of affected districts declined from 23 (including WPV1-positive acute flaccid paralysis [AFP] cases and positive environmental sewage samples) in 2015 to six in 2016. To achieve WPV1 eradication, it is important that Afghanistan's polio program continue to collaborate with that of neighboring Pakistan to track and vaccinate groups of high-risk mobile populations and strengthen efforts to reach children in security-compromised areas.
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Polio KidsHealth / For Parents / Polio What's in this article? ... of fluids and bed rest. The Future of Polio Health groups are working toward wiping out polio ...
Bolu, Omotayo; Nnadi, Chimeremma; Damisa, Eunice; Braka, Fiona; Siddique, Anisur; Archer, W Roodly; Bammeke, Philip; Banda, Richard; Higgins, Jeffrey; Edukugo, Aboyowa; Nganda, Gatei Wa; Forbi, Joseph C; Liu, Hongmei; Gidado, Saheed; Soghaier, Mohammed; Franka, Richard; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya; Burns, Cara C; Vertefeuille, John; Wiesen, Eric; Adamu, Usman
Nearly three decades after the World Health Assembly launched the Global Polio Eradication Initiative in 1988, four of the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions have been certified polio-free (1). Nigeria is one of three countries, including Pakistan and Afghanistan, where wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission has never been interrupted. In September 2015, after >1 year without any reported WPV cases, Nigeria was removed from WHO's list of countries with endemic WPV transmission (2); however, during August and September 2016, four type 1 WPV (WPV1) cases were reported from Borno State, a state in northeastern Nigeria experiencing a violent insurgency (3). The Nigerian government, in collaboration with partners, launched a large-scale coordinated response to the outbreak (3). This report describes progress in polio eradication activities in Nigeria during January-December 2017 and updates previous reports (3-5). No WPV cases have been reported in Nigeria since September 2016; the latest case had onset of paralysis on August 21, 2016 (3). However, polio surveillance has not been feasible in insurgent-controlled areas of Borno State. Implementation of new strategies has helped mitigate the challenges of reaching and vaccinating children living in security-compromised areas, and other strategies are planned. Despite these initiatives, however, approximately 130,000-210,000 (28%-45%) of the estimated 469,000 eligible children living in inaccessible areas in 2016 have not been vaccinated. Sustained efforts to optimize surveillance and improve immunization coverage, especially among children in inaccessible areas, are needed.
Patel, Manish; Zipursky, Simona; Orenstein, Walt; Garon, Julie; Zaffran, Michel
In 2013, the World Health Assembly endorsed a plan that calls for the ultimate withdrawal of oral polio vaccines (OPV) from all immunization programs globally. The withdrawal would begin in a phased manner with removal of the type 2 component of OPV in 2016 through a global switch from trivalent OPV to bivalent OPV (containing only types 1 and 3). To mitigate risks associated with immunity gaps after OPV type 2 withdrawal, the WHO Strategic Advisory Group of Experts has recommended that all 126 OPV-only using countries introduce at least one dose of inactivated polio vaccine into routine immunization programs by end-2015, before the trivalent OPV-bivalent OPV switch. The introduction of inactivated polio vaccine would reduce risks of reintroduction of type 2 poliovirus by providing some level of seroprotection, facilitating interruption of transmission if outbreaks occur, and accelerating eradication by boosting immunity to types 1 and 3 polioviruses.
Tangermann, R H; Hull, H F; Jafari, H; Nkowane, B; Everts, H; Aylward, R B
The global initiative to eradicate poliomyelitis is focusing on a small number of countries in Africa (Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan) and Asia (Afghanistan, Tajikistan), where progress has been hindered by armed conflict. In these countries the disintegration of health systems and difficulties of access are major obstacles to the immunization and surveillance strategies necessary for polio eradication. In such circumstances, eradication requires special endeavours, such as the negotiation of ceasefires and truces and the winning of increased direct involvement by communities. Transmission of poliovirus was interrupted during conflicts in Cambodia, Colombia, El Salvador, Peru, the Philippines, and Sri Lanka. Efforts to achieve eradication in areas of conflict have led to extra health benefits: equity in access to immunization, brought about because every child has to be reached; the revitalization and strengthening of routine immunization services through additional externally provided resources; and the establishment of disease surveillance systems. The goal of polio eradication by the end of 2000 remains attainable if supplementary immunization and surveillance can be accelerated in countries affected by conflict.
In 2012, the World Health Assembly of the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the completion of polio eradication a programmatic emergency. Indigenous wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission remains uninterrupted in Nigeria (in the WHO African Region [AFR]) and in Afghanistan and Pakistan (in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region [EMR]). In the WHO AFR, multiple WPV outbreaks have occurred since 2003 after importation of indigenous West African WPV into 21 previously polio-free countries in a "WPV importation belt"* that extends across the continent. The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) and WHO regional offices have used indicators of population immunity, surveillance quality, and other factors (e.g., high-risk subpopulations and proximity to WPV-affected countries) to assess the risk for outbreaks in polio-free countries and guide the implementation of risk mitigation measures to limit poliovirus transmission after WPV importation and prevent the emergence of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV). Despite risk mitigation efforts, a polio outbreak, first confirmed in May 2013, is ongoing; as of September 10, a total of 178 WPV type 1 (WPV1) cases have been reported in Somalia† (163 cases), Kenya (14 cases) and Ethiopia (1 case), after importation of WPV1 of West African origin. This report summarizes steps taken by the GPEI to assess and mitigate the risks for outbreaks after WPV importation or the emergence of cVDPV in polio-free countries within the WHO AFR's "WPV importation belt." All countries will continue to have some level of risk for WPV outbreaks as long as endemic circulation continues in Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan.
Full Text Available In a Perspective linked to the research article by Isobel Blake and colleagues, Elizabeth Miller and T. Jacob John discuss the path towards global polio eradication and the challenges, strategies, and necessary precautions around oral polio vaccine cessation.
Dian Puji Simatupang
Full Text Available Since eradicating corruption having been continously encouraged by late governments – and until now – , there would not be less important as to retracting the corrupted assets. There are many aspects to be considered in doing such action, such as manifesting the legal aspects of administrative law, and so other applied national regulations. By these regulations, such as Law No. 7 of 2006 on Ratification of United Nations Convention against Corruption, 2003 (Konvensi Perserikatan Bangsa Bangsa Anti-Korupsi, 2003, Law Number 25 of 2003 On Amendment to Law Number 15 of 2002 on Money Laundering, Act 30 of 2002 on Corruption Eradication Commission, Law Number 20 Year 2001 regarding Amendment to Law Number 31 Year 1999 on the Eradication of Corruption, and Government Regulation Number 65 of 1999 on Implementation Procedures for Examination of State Property, retraction the corrupted assets should be define in order to get known about eradicating corruption.
This article discusses the goal of eradicating poliomyelitis (polio) in Africa by the year 2000. Polio is a crippling disease that paralyzes hundreds of thousands of children yearly. Polio was endemic in Africa during the 1970s. Today, polio is confined to sub-Saharan Africa and, specifically, to the Congo, Ethiopia, Nigeria, Somalia, and the Sudan. Considerable progress is evident. Full eradication is necessary because of the ease with which the virus is transmitted. The World Health Organization (WHO) set the goal of eradication by the year 2000 at a 1988 assembly meeting. The Plan of Action for a Global Polio Eradication Initiative was approved in 1989. The WHO Regional Committee for Africa adopted the resolution and urged again in 1995 for vigorous implementation. The Organization of African Unity endorsed the initiative in 1996. South African President Mandela led a region-wide mobilization campaign to increase public awareness of the initiative. Since 1997, leading players from the African Football Confederation have participated in awareness campaigns by spreading the message through a variety of channels. The initiative includes routine immunization complemented by the National Immunization Days (NIDs), training at the local level, surveillance, and door-to-door campaigns. The initiative must assure functioning systems of cold storage of vaccines and must continue to educate communities about the importance of routine immunization. There must be a strong laboratory network for isolating the 3 types of the virus. NIDs will be scheduled for 1999 in countries with civil conflict. The polio model is useful for other disease eradication campaigns.
Use of Dedicated Mobile Teams and Polio Volunteer Community Mobilizers to Increase Access to Zero-Dose Oral Poliovirus Vaccine and Routine Childhood Immunizations in Settlements at High Risk for Polio Transmission in Northern Nigeria.
Ongwae, Kennedy M; Bawa, Samuel B; Shuaib, Faisal; Braka, Fiona; Corkum, Melissa; Isa, Hammanyero K
The Polio Eradication Initiative in Nigeria, which started >20 years ago, faced many challenges, including initial denial, resistance from communities, and prolonged regional safety concerns. These challenges led into the structuring of the response including the development of the National Emergency Action Plan, improved partner coordination and government engagement, and the establishment of a Polio Emergency Operations Centre. Although monthly supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) continued, the targeting of settlements at high risk for polio transmission with routine immunization (RI) and other selected primary healthcare (PHC) services using dedicated mobile teams and volunteer community mobilizers (VCMs) became a key strategy for interrupting polio transmission in the high-risk areas. These efforts could have contributed to the wild poliovirus-free 2-year period between 24 July 2014 and 11 August 2016, when 2 cases of the virus were reported from Borno State, Northern Nigeria. A narrative analysis of polio-related program and other official documents was conducted to identify the relevant human resources and their role in the Polio Eradication Initiative and in RI. The data used in the article was obtained from United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and World Health Organization project reports and a draft evaluation report of the dedicated mobile teams approach in Northern Nigeria. The data from 6 of the states that commenced the provision of polio, RI, and other selected PHC services using the dedicated mobile teams approach in 2014 showed an overall increase in the percentage of children aged 12-23 months in the settlements at high risk for polio transmission with a RI card seen, from 23% to 56%, and an overall increase in fully immunized children aged 12-23 months, from 19% to 55%. The number of newborns given the first dose of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) according to the RI schedule and the number of children given zero-dose OPV with the
Mushtaq, Asim; Mehmood, Sajid; Rehman, Muhammad Ateeq Ur; Younas, Asma; Rehman, Muhammad Saif Ur; Malik, Muhamamd Faheem; Hyder, Muhammad Zeeshan
The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) in Pakistan has faced failure despite being implemented successfully. Polio cases were successfully reduced by 99% until 2005. However, thereafter, new polio cases were registered, which continue to rise annually. This repeat polio outbreak has placed the country on watch by the World Health Organization (WHO) due to travelers, and Hajj and Umrah pilgrims. The present report reviews the published literature for determining the social constraints to the polio eradication initiative in Pakistan. Religion, politics, awareness, insecurity, inequity, governance, and social responsibility have been identified as key social factors in the failure of any vaccination campaign. Possible interventions have been proposed, which include effectively using modern mass media and educating vaccinators on the social and cultural background of the target community. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Voorman, Arend; Lyons, Hil M
The Global Polio Eradication Initiative is closer than ever to achieving a polio-free world. Immunization activities must still be carried out in non-endemic countries to maintain population immunity at levels which will stop poliovirus from spreading if it is re-introduced from still-infected areas. In areas where there is no active transmission of poliovirus, programs must rely on surrogate indicators of population immunity to determine the appropriate immunization activities, typically caregiver-reported vaccination history obtained from non-polio acute flaccid paralysis patients identified through polio surveillance. We used regression models to examine the relationship between polio vaccination campaigns and caregiver-reported polio vaccination history. We find that in many countries, vaccination campaigns have a surprisingly weak impact on these commonly used indicators. We conclude that alternative criteria and data, such as routine immunization indicators from vaccination records or household surveys, should be considered for planning polio vaccination campaigns, and that validation of such surrogate indicators is necessary if they are to be used as the basis for program planning and risk assessment. We recommend that the GPEI and similar organizations consider or continue devoting additional resources to rigorously study population immunity and campaign effectiveness in at-risk countries. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Ahmad, Mohammad; Bahl, Sunil; Kunwar, Abhishek
Evidence generated through research studies has guided programmatic actions and fine-tuned strategies for the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI). However, many gaps still persist in the understanding of a risk-free implementation of the polio endgame. Immediate concerns relate to the introduction of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) and switch from trivalent oral polio vaccine (tOPV) to bivalent oral polio vaccine (bOPV) in routine immunization schedule. A comprehensive understanding of mucosal immunity in populations and best response options against circulating vaccine derived poliovirus (cVDPV) outbreaks in post tOPV-bOPV switch is essential to mitigate the risks of wild and vaccine-derived poliovirus importations and emergence of cVDPVs in polio-free countries. A clearer picture is also needed on few operational issues, interference between polio vaccines and other EPI vaccines and products related to polio endgame. It is also extremely important to develop mechanisms to identify and manage long-term poliovirus excretors who may pose a risk of reintroduction into the population after global eradication of poliovirus.
Warigon, Charity; Mkanda, Pascal; Banda, Richard; Zakari, Furera; Damisa, Eunice; Idowu, Audu; Bawa, Samuel; Gali, Emmanuel; Tegegne, Sisay G; Hammanyero, Kulchumi; Nsubuga, Peter; Korir, Charles; Vaz, Rui G
The polio eradication initiative had major setbacks in 2003 and 2007 due to media campaigns in which renowned scholars and Islamic clerics criticized polio vaccines. The World Health Organization (WHO) partnered with journalists in 2007 to form the Journalists Initiatives on Immunisation Against Polio (JAP), to develop communication initiatives aimed at highlighting polio eradication activities and the importance of immunization in northern Nigeria. We evaluated the impact of JAP activities in Kaduna State by determining the total number of media materials produced and the number of newspaper clips and bulletins published in support of polio eradication. We also determined the number of households in noncompliant communities that became compliant with vaccination during 2015 supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) after JAP interventions and compared caregivers' sources of information about SIAs in 2007 before and after the JAP was formed. Since creation of the JAP, >500 reports have been published and aired, with most portraying polio vaccine positively. During June 2015 SIAs in high-risk wards of Kaduna STATE, JAP interventions resulted in vaccination of 5122 of 5991 children (85.5%) from noncompliant households. During early 2007, the number of caregivers who had heard about SIA rounds from the media increased from 26% in January, before the JAP was formed, to 33% in March, after the initiation of JAP activities. The formation of the JAP resulted in measurable improvement in the acceptance of polio vaccine in northern Nigeria. © 2016 World Health Organization; licensee Oxford Journals.
Wang, Hai-Bo; Luo, Hui-Ming; Li, Li; Fan, Chun-Xiang; Hao, Li-Xin; Ma, Chao; Su, Qi-Ru; Yang, Hong; Reilly, Kathleen H; Wang, Hua-Qing; Wen, Ning
The goal of polio eradication is to complete elimination and containment of all wild, vaccine-related and Sabin polioviruses. Vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) surveillance in China from 2001-2013 is summarized in this report, which has important implications for the global polio eradication initiative. Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases and their contacts with VDPVs isolated from fecal specimens were identified in our AFP surveillance system or by field investigation. Epidemiological and laboratory information for these children were analyzed and the reasons for the VDPV outbreak was explored. VDPVs were isolated from a total of 49 children in more than two-thirds of Chinese provinces from 2001-2013, including 15 VDPV cases, 15 non-polio AFP cases and 19 contacts of AFP cases or healthy subjects. A total of 3 circulating VDPVs (cVDPVs) outbreaks were reported in China, resulting in 6 cVDPVs cases who had not been vaccinated with oral attenuated poliomyelitis vaccine. Among the 4 immunodeficiency-associated VDPVs (iVDPVs) cases, the longest duration of virus excretion was about 20 months. In addition, one imported VDPV case from Myanmar was detected in Yunnan Province. Until all wild, vaccine-related and Sabin polioviruses are eradicated in the world, high quality routine immunization and sensitive AFP surveillance should be maintained, focusing efforts on underserved populations in high risk areas.
Banko, Paul C.; Peck, Robert W.; Donmoyer, Kevin; Kropidlowski, Stephan; Pollock, Amanda
The ecologically destructive yellow crazy ant (YCA; Anoplolepis gracilipes) was first detected on Johnston Atoll in January 2010. Within eight months, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service had mobilized its first crazy ant strike team (CAST), a group of biologists dedicated to testing and identifying insecticidal baits to be used to eradicate the ant on the atoll. During December 2014‒May 2015 CAST IX focused on testing hydrogel crystals saturated with sucrose solution (25%) carrying the insecticides thiamethoxam and dinotefuran against YCA. A series of experiments, including artificial nest box trials, and field-based palatability trials and eradication tests on small (500 m2 or 0.05 ha) and large plots (2500 m2 or 0.25 ha), were conducted to test concentrations of thiamethoxam ranging from 0.0005% to 0.01%, and dinotefuran at 0.05%. Additionally, the cat food-based matrix containing dinotefuran (0.05%), the standard bait used to suppress YCA on Johnston since 2011, and textured vegetable protein (TVP) carrying dinotefuran at 0.1% and 0.05% were included in large plot tests. Nest box trials were inconclusive due to a consistent loss of queen and worker ants in control boxes, so they were discontinued. Palatability trials suggested higher dosages of thiamethoxam (0.005 and 0.01%) were less attractive than lower dosages (0.0005 and 0.001%) and controls (sucrose only), but small and large plot experiments failed to identify a thiamethoxam concentration that was consistently effective at killing YCA. In contrast, hydrogel containing dinotefuran was consistently effective, killing >95% of YCA on small and large plots. As expected, the cat food bait effectively reduced YCA abundances, but was slightly less effective than hydrogel containing dinotefuran over time. Three successive, approximately weekly treatments of large plots with hydrogel bait, or other baits followed by hydrogel bait, suggest an increasing overall effectiveness, with no aversion of YCA to the bait
Grassly, Nicholas C.
The global incidence of poliomyelitis has dropped by more than 99 per cent since the governments of the world committed to eradication in 1988. One of the three serotypes of wild poliovirus has been eradicated and the remaining two serotypes are limited to just a small number of endemic regions. However, the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) has faced a number of challenges in eradicating the last 1 per cent of wild-virus transmission. The polio endgame has also been complicated by t...
... You are here Home » Disorders » All Disorders Post-Polio Syndrome Information Page Post-Polio Syndrome Information Page What research is being done? ... behavior of motor neurons many years after a polio attack. Others are looking at the mechanisms of ...
The creation of two different vaccines to eradicate polio stands out as one of modern science most important accomplishments. The current article examines Swedish polio vaccine research, the vaccination campaign and especially how the Cutter incident came to affect Swedish Science, scientists and society in the 1950s. Sweden is one of the few countries that came to produce its own inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) in the 1950s, a type of vaccine they never abandoned. This article highlights the...
As the war against poliomyelitis continues, eradication efforts must now succeed in some countries which have been subjected to natural disasters and in others which are enduring manmade disasters. Subnational immunization days (SNIDs) were most recently conducted in northern Somalia in two 5-day rounds last November and December amid widespread popular and political support. While villages in the arid, drought-plagued country are often inaccessible, flooding from heavy rains was the only real problem encountered by the vaccination campaign. More than 90% of the estimated 375,000 children under age 5 years in the target area were vaccinated and given vitamin A. Careful advance preparations contributed to the campaign's success. A 7-day campaign in mid-February got oral polio vaccine to more than 330,000 children in southern Sudan. Maintaining the vaccine cold chain was the major operational challenge in this setting. To that end, all available means were used, including placing vaccines into running streams to keep them cool. The program in Sudan was coordinated by the UN's Operation Lifeline Sudan. Heat, armed conflict, lack of infrastructure, the need to reach more than 80% of the population by air, infectious diseases, drought, and hungry packs of hyenas were some of the obstacles to overcome. A second round of vaccination is planned for southern Sudan in mid March.
Fahmy, Kamal; Hampton, Lee M; Langar, Houda; Patel, Manish; Mir, Tahir; Soloman, Chandrasegarar; Hasman, Andreas; Yusuf, Nasir; Teleb, Nadia
The Global Polio Eradication Initiative has reduced the global incidence of polio by 99% and the number of countries with endemic polio from 125 to 3 countries. The Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018 (Endgame Plan) was developed to end polio disease. Key elements of the endgame plan include strengthening immunization systems using polio assets, introducing inactivated polio vaccine (IPV), and replacing trivalent oral polio vaccine with bivalent oral polio vaccine ("the switch"). Although coverage in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) with the third dose of a vaccine containing diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis antigens (DTP3) was ≥90% in 14 countries in 2015, DTP3 coverage in EMR dropped from 86% in 2010 to 80% in 2015 due to civil disorder in multiple countries. To strengthen their immunization systems, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Somalia developed draft plans to integrate Polio Eradication Initiative assets, staff, structure, and activities with their Expanded Programmes on Immunization, particularly in high-risk districts and regions. Between 2014 and 2016, 11 EMR countries introduced IPV in their routine immunization program, including all of the countries at highest risk for polio transmission (Afghanistan, Pakistan, Somalia, and Yemen). As a result, by the end of 2016 all EMR countries were using IPV except Egypt, where introduction of IPV was delayed by a global shortage. The switch was successfully implemented in EMR due to the motivation, engagement, and cooperation of immunization staff and decision makers across all national levels. Moreover, the switch succeeded because of the ability of even the immunization systems operating under hardship conditions of conflict to absorb the switch activities. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.
Domingues, Carla Magda Allan S.; de Fátima Pereira, Sirlene; Marreiros, Ana Carolina Cunha; Menezes, Nair; Flannery, Brendan
In August 2012, the Brazilian Ministry of Health introduced inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) as part of sequential polio vaccination schedule for all infants beginning their primary vaccination series. The revised childhood immunization schedule included 2 doses of IPV at 2 and 4 months of age followed by 2 doses of oral polio vaccine (OPV) at 6 and 15 months of age. One annual national polio immunization day was maintained to provide OPV to all children aged 6 to 59 months. The decision to introduce IPV was based on preventing rare cases of vaccine-associated paralytic polio, financially sustaining IPV introduction, ensuring equitable access to IPV, and preparing for future OPV cessation following global eradication. Introducing IPV during a national multivaccination campaign led to rapid uptake, despite challenges with local vaccine supply due to high wastage rates. Continuous monitoring is required to achieve high coverage with the sequential polio vaccine schedule. PMID:25316829
In 1988, the World Health Assembly launched the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) to interrupt transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV). By January 2012, indigenous WPV transmission had been interrupted in all countries except Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Nigeria. However, importation of WPV caused outbreaks in 29 and reestablished transmission in four, previously polio-free African countries during 2003-2011. Transmission after WPV importation is considered reestablished when it continues for ≥ 12 months; in Chad, transmissions of WPV type 3 (WPV3) and WPV type 1 (WPV1) were reestablished. WPV3 was imported from Nigeria in 2007 and continued to circulate; the latest reported WPV3 case occurred on March 10, 2011. Transmission of WPV1 continued after a WPV1 case was imported from Nigeria in September 2010; the latest reported WPV1 occurred on June 14, 2012. This report updates previous reports and describes polio eradication activities and progress in Chad during January 2011-August 2012, as of October 2, 2012. Five WPV1 cases were reported during January-August 2012, compared with 111 WPV1 cases and three WPV3 cases reported during the same period in 2011. Five circulating type 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) cases occurred during July-August 2012. Current progress suggests that Chad could interrupt reestablished WPV transmission in 2012, although limitations in surveillance hamper the ability to detect ongoing transmission. Furthermore, with ongoing endemic WPV transmission in Nigeria, Chad remains at risk for new WPV importations. Efforts to strengthen surveillance and enhance routine and campaign immunization performance will need to continue in Chad to ensure interruption of reestablished WPV transmission, limit circulation after any WPV importation, and interrupt transmission of cVDPV.
Ramirez Gonzalez, Alejandro; Farrell, Margaret; Menning, Lisa; Garon, Julie; Everts, Hans; Hampton, Lee M; Dolan, Samantha B; Shendale, Stephanie; Wanyoike, Sarah; Veira, Chantal Laroche; Châtellier, Gaël Maufras du; Kurji, Feyrouz; Rubin, Jennifer; Boualam, Liliane; Chang Blanc, Diana; Patel, Manish
2015 had successfully withdrawn OPV2 by ceasing use of tOPV in their national immunization programs. This article provides an overview of the global efforts and challenges in successfully implementing this unprecedented global initiative, including (1) coordination and tracking of key global planning milestones, (2) guidance facilitating development of country specific plans, (3) challenges for planning and implementing the switch at the global level, and (4) best practices and lessons learned in meeting aggressive switch timelines. Lessons from this monumental public health achievement by countries and partners will likely be drawn upon when bOPV is withdrawn after polio eradication but also could be relevant for other global health initiatives with similarly complex mandates and accelerated timelines. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.
Ljubin-Sternak, Sunčanica; Kaić, Bernard; Vilibić-Čavlek, Tatjana; Mlinarić-Galinović, Gordana
Poliomyelitis is a very old disease of humans, caused by poliovirus. With appearance of the epidemics in the 20th century, poliomyelitis became a global public health issue. In 1988, the World Health Organization started a campaign for global eradication of poliomyelitis and till now poliomyelitis cases have been reduced by more than 99%. In Croatia, the introduction of vaccination in 1961 resulted in dramatic reduction of paralytic disease. The European region, including Croatia was certified polio free in 2002. However, the final goal of the "polio-free world" has not yet been reached. To reinforce the campaign, the global polio eradication initiative has come up with the Polio Eradication & Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018 with detailed program how to resolve the main challenges: (a) continued transmission of wild polioviruses in endemic reservoirs; (b) reinfection of polio-free areas; and (c) outbreaks due to the circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPV). Global oral polio vaccine cessation will follow, with the introduction of universal use of inactivated polio vaccine.
Sever, John L; McGovern, Michael; Scott, Robert; Pandak, Carol; Edwards, Amy; Goodstone, David
Hundreds of thousands of Rotary volunteers have provided support for polio eradication activities and continue to this day by making financial contributions to the Rotary PolioPlus program, participating in national immunization days, assisting with surveillance, working on local, national, and international advocacy programs for polio eradication, assisting at immunization posts and clinics, and mobilizing their communities for immunization activities (including poliovirus and other vaccines) and other health benefits. Rotary has contributed more than $1.61 billion for the global eradication of polio and has committed to provide an additional $35 million each year until 2018 (all dollar amounts represent US dollars). Its unwavering commitment to eradicate polio has been vital to the success of the program. Rotary is providing additional support for routine immunization and healthcare. When polio is finally gone, we will have the knowledge from the lessons learned with PolioPlus, such as the value of direct involvement by local Rotarians, the program for emergency funding, innovative tactics, and additional approaches for tackling other global issues, even those beyond public health. Rotary has already transitioned its grants program to include 6 areas of focus: disease prevention and treatment, water and sanitation, maternal and child health, basic education and literacy, economic and community development, and peace and conflict prevention/resolution. Funding for these grants in 2015-2016 was $71 million. The legacy of the polio program will be the complete eradication of poliovirus and the elimination of polio for all time. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.
Nasir, Usman Nakakana; Bandyopadhyay, Ananda Sankar; Montagnani, Francesca; Akite, Jacqueline Elaine; Mungu, Etaluka Blanche; Uche, Ifeanyi Valentine; Ismaila, Ahmed Mohammed
Nigeria has made tremendous strides towards eliminating polio and has been free of wild polio virus (WPV) for more than a year as of August 2015. However, sustained focus towards getting rid of all types of poliovirus by improving population immunity and enhancing disease surveillance will be needed to ensure it sustains the polio-free status. We reviewed the pertinent literature including published and unpublished, official reports and working documents of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) partners as well as other concerned organizations. The literature were selected based on the following criteria: published in English Language, published after year 2000, relevant content and conformance to the theme of the review and these were sorted accordingly. The challenges facing the Polio Eradication Initiative (PEI) in Nigeria were found to fall into 3 broad categories viz failure to vaccinate, failure of the Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) and epidemiology of the virus. Failure to vaccinate resulted from insecurity, heterogeneous political support, programmatic limitation in implementation of vaccination campaigns, poor performance of vaccination teams in persistently poor performing Local Government areas and sporadic vaccine refusals in Northern Nigeria. Sub optimal effectiveness of OPV in some settings as well as the rare occurrence of VDPVs associated with OPV type 2 in areas of low immunization coverage were also found to be key issues. Some of the innovations which helped to manage the threats to the PEI include a strong government accountability frame work, change from type 2 containing OPV to bi valent OPVs for supplementary immunization activities (SIA), enhancing environmental surveillance in key states (Sokoto, Kano and Borno) along with an overall improvement in SIA quality. There has been an improvement in coverage of routine immunization and vaccination campaigns, which has resulted in Nigeria being removed from the list of endemic countries
Khan, Tariq; Qazi, Javaria
The Global Polio Eradication Initiative to eradicate polio completely by the year 2000 has been successful, except for three endemic and some non-endemic countries. Pakistan, one of the three endemic polio reservoirs, is posing a serious threat to the success of the initiative. Currently, the expanded programme on immunisation has been geared to win the race over polio virus in Pakistan. After the remarkable decrease in polio cases from 198 in 2011 to only 58 in 2012, Pakistan seemed to be at the verge of success. However, hurdles continue to retard the campaign. The war against terrorism, misconceptions about polio vaccine, religious misinterpretations, frustration among vaccinators, lack of awareness, social considerations, natural calamities, inaccessibility, and inefficient vaccines and so on are continually rupturing the foundations of the worldwide initiative in the country. Weak health management is found at the hub of majority of the challenges. Stricter policies, well managed and supervised plans and strategic actions, risk analysis and enhanced communication may help giving the final punch to polio virus in the country. Analysis suggested that there is some literature available on the challenges to polio elimination, yet there is not a single publication up to date that considers all the possible hurdles in a single manuscript. This paper sorts out the breaches that hamper the goal of eliminating polio from Pakistan. We have evaluated all the possible barriers and explained them with a perspective that will help develop area specific strategies against polio virus and thus eradicate polio virus from the world.
Birukila, Gerida; Babale, Sufiyan M; Epstein, Helen; Gugong, Victor; Anger, Robert; Corkum, Melissa; Jehoshaphat Nebanat, Albarka; Musoke, Fredrick; Alabi, Olaniran
Since 1997, the Global Polio Eradication Initiative has sponsored regular door-to-door polio immunisation campaigns in northern Nigeria. On 30 July 2015, the country was finally declared poliofree, a hard won success. At various times, polio eradication has been threatened by rumours and community tensions. For example, in 2003, local Imams, traditional leaders and politicians declared a polio campaign boycott, due to the concerns about the safety of the polio vaccine. Although the campaigns resumed in 2004, many parents continued to refuse vaccination because of the persistence of rumours of vaccine contamination, and anger about the poor state of health services for conditions other than polio. To address this, UNICEF and Nigerian Government partners piloted two interventions: (1) mobile 'health camps' to provide ambulatory care for conditions other than polio and (2) an audiovisual clip about vaccine safety and other health issues, shareable on multimedia mobile phones via Bluetooth pairing. The mobile phone survey found that Bluetooth compatible messages could rapidly spread behavioural health messages in low-literacy communities. The health camps roughly doubled polio vaccine uptake in the urban ward where it was piloted. This suggests that polio eradication would have been accelerated by improving primary health care services.
In 1988, the World Health Assembly launched the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) and, in 2012, declared the completion of polio eradication a programmatic emergency for global public health. To date, wild poliovirus (WPV) cases reported worldwide in 2012 are at historically low levels. Nigeria is one of only three countries with uninterrupted WPV transmission (in addition to Pakistan and Afghanistan) and has been the origin of WPV imported into 25 previously polio-free countries since 2003. This report updates previous reports and describes polio eradication activities and progress in Nigeria during January 2011-September 2012, as of October 30, 2012. The number of reported WPV cases increased from 21 in 2010 to 62 in 2011. During January-September 2012, a total of 99 WPV cases were reported, more than doubling from the 42 cases reported during the same period in 2011. During 2011, a total of 32 circulating vaccine-derived polio virus type 2 (cVDPV2) cases were confirmed; six cVDPV2 cases were confirmed during January-September 2012, compared with 18 cVDPV2 cases during the same period in 2011. Nigeria's 2012 Polio Eradication Emergency Plan includes senior government leadership oversight, new program management and strategic initiatives, an accountability framework, and a surge in human resources to address chronically missed children during supplemental immunization activities (SIAs).* In 2012, indicators of immunization campaign quality show modest improvements; available data indicate gaps in surveillance. Continuing WPV transmission in Nigeria poses an ongoing risk for WPV reintroduction and outbreaks in polio-free countries and is a major obstacle to achieving global eradication.
... Polio Wellness Retreats For Health Professionals The Late Effects of Polio: An Overview FRENCH | GERMAN | PORTUGUESE POLIOMYELITIS ( ... largest and most inclusive category is called Late Effects of Polio or Polio Sequelae and is defined ...
Domingues, Carla Magda Allan S; de Fátima Pereira, Sirlene; Cunha Marreiros, Ana Carolina; Menezes, Nair; Flannery, Brendan
In August 2012, the Brazilian Ministry of Health introduced inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) as part of sequential polio vaccination schedule for all infants beginning their primary vaccination series. The revised childhood immunization schedule included 2 doses of IPV at 2 and 4 months of age followed by 2 doses of oral polio vaccine (OPV) at 6 and 15 months of age. One annual national polio immunization day was maintained to provide OPV to all children aged 6 to 59 months. The decision to introduce IPV was based on preventing rare cases of vaccine-associated paralytic polio, financially sustaining IPV introduction, ensuring equitable access to IPV, and preparing for future OPV cessation following global eradication. Introducing IPV during a national multivaccination campaign led to rapid uptake, despite challenges with local vaccine supply due to high wastage rates. Continuous monitoring is required to achieve high coverage with the sequential polio vaccine schedule. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
Randee J Kastner
Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis (LF, a neglected tropical disease (NTD preventable through mass drug administration (MDA, is one of six diseases deemed possibly eradicable. Previously we developed one LF elimination scenario, which assumes MDA scale-up to continue in all countries that have previously undertaken MDA. In contrast, our three previously developed eradication scenarios assume all LF endemic countries will undertake MDA at an average (eradication I, fast (eradication II, or instantaneous (eradication III rate of scale-up. In this analysis we use a micro-costing model to project the financial and economic costs of each of these scenarios in order to provide evidence to decision makers about the investment required to eliminate and eradicate LF.Costing was undertaken from a health system perspective, with all results expressed in 2012 US dollars (USD. A discount rate of 3% was applied to calculate the net present value of future costs. Prospective NTD budgets from LF endemic countries were reviewed to preliminarily determine activities and resources necessary to undertake a program to eliminate LF at a country level. In consultation with LF program experts, activities and resources were further reviewed and a refined list of activities and necessary resources, along with their associated quantities and costs, were determined and grouped into the following activities: advocacy and communication, capacity strengthening, coordination and strengthening partnerships, data management, ongoing surveillance, monitoring and supervision, drug delivery, and administration. The costs of mapping and undertaking transmission assessment surveys and the value of donated drugs and volunteer time were also accounted for. Using previously developed scenarios and deterministic estimates of MDA duration, the financial and economic costs of interrupting LF transmission under varying rates of MDA scale-up were then modelled using a micro-costing approach. The
Kastner, Randee J; Sicuri, Elisa; Stone, Christopher M; Matwale, Gabriel; Onapa, Ambrose; Tediosi, Fabrizio
Lymphatic filariasis (LF), a neglected tropical disease (NTD) preventable through mass drug administration (MDA), is one of six diseases deemed possibly eradicable. Previously we developed one LF elimination scenario, which assumes MDA scale-up to continue in all countries that have previously undertaken MDA. In contrast, our three previously developed eradication scenarios assume all LF endemic countries will undertake MDA at an average (eradication I), fast (eradication II), or instantaneous (eradication III) rate of scale-up. In this analysis we use a micro-costing model to project the financial and economic costs of each of these scenarios in order to provide evidence to decision makers about the investment required to eliminate and eradicate LF. Costing was undertaken from a health system perspective, with all results expressed in 2012 US dollars (USD). A discount rate of 3% was applied to calculate the net present value of future costs. Prospective NTD budgets from LF endemic countries were reviewed to preliminarily determine activities and resources necessary to undertake a program to eliminate LF at a country level. In consultation with LF program experts, activities and resources were further reviewed and a refined list of activities and necessary resources, along with their associated quantities and costs, were determined and grouped into the following activities: advocacy and communication, capacity strengthening, coordination and strengthening partnerships, data management, ongoing surveillance, monitoring and supervision, drug delivery, and administration. The costs of mapping and undertaking transmission assessment surveys and the value of donated drugs and volunteer time were also accounted for. Using previously developed scenarios and deterministic estimates of MDA duration, the financial and economic costs of interrupting LF transmission under varying rates of MDA scale-up were then modelled using a micro-costing approach. The elimination scenario
Shendale, Stephanie; Farrell, Margaret; Hampton, Lee M; Harris, Jennifer B; Kachra, Tasleem; Kurji, Feyrouz; Patel, Manish; Ramirez Gonzalez, Alejandro; Zipursky, Simona
The global switch from trivalent oral polio vaccine (tOPV) to bivalent oral polio vaccine (bOPV) ("the switch") presented an unprecedented challenge to countries. In order to mitigate the risks associated with country-level delays in implementing the switch, the Global Polio Eradication Initiative provided catalytic financial support to specific countries for operational costs unique to the switch. Between November 2015 and February 2016, a total of approximately US$19.4 million in financial support was provided to 67 countries. On average, country budgets allocated 20% to human resources, 23% to trainings and meetings, 8% to communications and advocacy, 9% to logistics, 15% to monitoring, and 5% to waste management. All 67 funded countries successfully switched from tOPV to bOPV during April-May 2016. This funding provided target countries with the necessary catalytic support to facilitate the execution of the switch on an accelerated timeline, and the mechanism offers a model for similar support to future global health efforts, such as the eventual global withdrawal of bOPV. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.
Rosencrans, Louie C; Sume, Gerald E; Kouontchou, Jean-Christian; Voorman, Arend; Anokwa, Yaw; Fezeu, Maurice; Seaman, Vincent Y
During the poliovirus outbreak in Cameroon from October 2013 to April 2015, the Ministry of Public Health's Expanded Program on Immunization requested technical support to improve mapping of health district boundaries and health facility locations for more effective planning and analysis of polio program data. In December 2015, teams collected data on settlements, health facilities, and other features using smartphones. These data, combined with high-resolution satellite imagery, were used to create new health area and health district boundaries, providing the most accurate health sector administrative boundaries to date for Cameroon. The new maps are useful to and used by the polio program as well as other public health programs within Cameroon such as the District Health Information System and the Emergency Operations Center, demonstrating the value of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative's legacy. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.
Zipursky, Simona; Vandelaer, Jos; Brooks, Alan; Dietz, Vance; Kachra, Tasleem; Farrell, Margaret; Ottosen, Ann; Sever, John L; Zaffran, Michel J
The Immunization Systems Management Group (IMG) was established to coordinate and oversee objective 2 of the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018, namely, (1) introduction of ≥1 dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine in all 126 countries using oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) only as of 2012, (2) full withdrawal of OPV, starting with the withdrawal of its type 2 component, and (3) using polio assets to strengthen immunization systems in 10 priority countries. The IMG's inclusive, transparent, and partnership-focused approach proved an effective means of leveraging the comparative and complementary strengths of each IMG member agency. This article outlines 10 key factors behind the IMG's success, providing a potential set of guiding principles for the establishment and implementation of other interagency collaborations and initiatives beyond the polio sphere. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.
This paper reviews the recent successes in the control of FMD in Europe, South America and southern Africa and highlights the lessons to be learnt from those experiences, which could be applied to Southeast Asia to promote the control and eradication of the disease in that region. (author)
Donaldson, A I [Institute for Animal Health, Pirbright, Woking, Surrey (United Kingdom)
This paper reviews the recent successes in the control of FMD in Europe, South America and southern Africa and highlights the lessons to be learnt from those experiences, which could be applied to Southeast Asia to promote the control and eradication of the disease in that region. (author)
Mbaeyi, Chukwuma; Ryan, Michael J; Smith, Philip; Mahamud, Abdirahman; Farag, Noha; Haithami, Salah; Sharaf, Magdi; Jorba, Jaume C; Ehrhardt, Derek
As the world advances toward the eradication of polio, outbreaks of wild poliovirus (WPV) in polio-free regions pose a substantial risk to the timeline for global eradication. Countries and regions experiencing active conflict, chronic insecurity, and large-scale displacement of persons are particularly vulnerable to outbreaks because of the disruption of health care and immunization services (1). A polio outbreak occurred in the Middle East, beginning in Syria in 2013 with subsequent spread to Iraq (2). The outbreak occurred 2 years after the onset of the Syrian civil war, resulted in 38 cases, and was the first time WPV was detected in Syria in approximately a decade (3,4). The national governments of eight countries designated the outbreak a public health emergency and collaborated with partners in the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) to develop a multiphase outbreak response plan focused on improving the quality of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance* and administering polio vaccines to >27 million children during multiple rounds of supplementary immunization activities (SIAs). † Successful implementation of the response plan led to containment and interruption of the outbreak within 6 months of its identification. The concerted approach adopted in response to this outbreak could serve as a model for responding to polio outbreaks in settings of conflict and political instability.
Blankenhorn, Anne-Line; Cernuschi, Tania; Zaffran, Michel J
In May 2012, the World Health Assembly declared the completion of poliovirus eradication a programmatic emergency for global public health and called for a comprehensive polio endgame strategy. The Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018 was developed in response to this call and demands that all countries using Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) only introduce at least 1 dose of Inactivated Polio Vaccine (IPV) into routine immunization schedules by the end of 2015. In November 2013, the Board of Gavi (the Vaccine Alliance) approved the provision of support for IPV introduction in the 72 Gavi-eligible countries. Following analytical work and stakeholder consultations, the IPV Immunization Systems Management Group (IMG) presented a proposal to provide exceptional financial support for IPV introduction to additional OPV-only using countries not eligible for Gavi support and that would otherwise not be able to mobilize the necessary financial resources within the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan timelines. In June 2014, the Polio Oversight Board (POB) agreed to make available a maximum envelope of US $45 million toward supporting countries not eligible for Gavi funding. This article describes the design of the funding mechanism that was developed, its implementation and the lessons learned through this process. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.
Troy, Stephanie B.; Kouiavskaia, Diana; Siik, Julia; Kochba, Efrat; Beydoun, Hind; Mirochnitchenko, Olga; Levin, Yotam; Khardori, Nancy; Chumakov, Konstantin; Maldonado, Yvonne
Background. Inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) is necessary for global polio eradication because oral polio vaccine can rarely cause poliomyelitis as it mutates and may fail to provide adequate immunity in immunocompromised populations. However, IPV is unaffordable for many developing countries. Intradermal IPV shows promise as a means to decrease the effective dose and cost of IPV, but prior studies, all using 20% of the standard dose used in intramuscular IPV, resulted in inferior antibody tit...
Ghafoor, Shazia; Sheikh, Nadeem
Pakistan is among the last three countries along with Afghanistan and Nigeria, where polio virus is still endemic. More or less, with some fluctuations, numbers of reported cases in the past few years have shown a rising trend. Year 2014 pushed the country into the deep sea of difficulties, as number of cases rose to red alert level of 328. Security situation has adversely affected the whole immunization coverage campaign. In a country where 40 polio vaccinators have been killed since 2012, such a big number of cases is not a surprising outcome. Worse perception of parents about polio vaccine as in Karachi and FATA, the high risk zones, makes 100% coverage a dream. Minor and perhaps delayed payments to polio workers make them frustrated, resulting in decline of trained manpower for vaccination. Strong implementation of policies is required and those found guilty of attack on polio workers need to be punished. Targeted community awareness programme, strong surveillance network, and involvement of influential religious entities can help to root out polio disease from country. Present review is aimed at analyzing all barriers on the road to success in eradication of polio from Pakistan.
Full Text Available Pakistan is among the last three countries along with Afghanistan and Nigeria, where polio virus is still endemic. More or less, with some fluctuations, numbers of reported cases in the past few years have shown a rising trend. Year 2014 pushed the country into the deep sea of difficulties, as number of cases rose to red alert level of 328. Security situation has adversely affected the whole immunization coverage campaign. In a country where 40 polio vaccinators have been killed since 2012, such a big number of cases is not a surprising outcome. Worse perception of parents about polio vaccine as in Karachi and FATA, the high risk zones, makes 100% coverage a dream. Minor and perhaps delayed payments to polio workers make them frustrated, resulting in decline of trained manpower for vaccination. Strong implementation of policies is required and those found guilty of attack on polio workers need to be punished. Targeted community awareness programme, strong surveillance network, and involvement of influential religious entities can help to root out polio disease from country. Present review is aimed at analyzing all barriers on the road to success in eradication of polio from Pakistan.
Profiles the elaborate attempts by the Roosevelt White House to hide his disability from the public. Early in his career, polio resulted in Franklin Roosevelt being paralyzed from the waist down. Although never officially denied, the White House went to extraordinary lengths to keep this knowledge from the public. (MJP)
Kraan, Heleen; Soema, Peter; Amorij, Jean-Pierre; Kersten, Gideon
Polio is on the brink of eradication. Improved inactivated polio vaccines (IPV) are needed towards complete eradication and for the use in the period thereafter. Vaccination via mucosal surfaces has important potential advantages over intramuscular injection using conventional needle and syringe, the currently used delivery method for IPV. One of them is the ability to induce both serum and mucosal immune responses: the latter may provide protection at the port of virus entry. The current study evaluated the possibilities of polio vaccination via mucosal surfaces using IPV based on attenuated Sabin strains. Mice received three immunizations with trivalent sIPV via intramuscular injection, or via the intranasal or sublingual route. The need of an adjuvant for the mucosal routes was investigated as well, by testing sIPV in combination with the mucosal adjuvant cholera toxin. Both intranasal and sublingual sIPV immunization induced systemic polio-specific serum IgG in mice that were functional as measured by poliovirus neutralization. Intranasal administration of sIPV plus adjuvant induced significant higher systemic poliovirus type 3 neutralizing antibody titers than sIPV delivered via the intramuscular route. Moreover, mucosal sIPV delivery elicited polio-specific IgA titers at different mucosal sites (IgA in saliva, fecal extracts and intestinal tissue) and IgA-producing B-cells in the spleen, where conventional intramuscular vaccination was unable to do so. However, it is likely that a mucosal adjuvant is required for sublingual vaccination. Further research on polio vaccination via sublingual mucosal route should include the search for safe and effective adjuvants, and the development of novel oral dosage forms that improve antigen uptake by oral mucosa, thereby increasing vaccine immunogenicity. This study indicates that both the intranasal and sublingual routes might be valuable approaches for use in routine vaccination or outbreak control in the period after
Tajaldin, Bachir; Almilaji, Khaled; Langton, Paul; Sparrow, Annie
By late 2012 the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) had nearly eradicated this ancient infectious disease. Successful surveillance programs for acute flaccid paralysis however rely on broad governmental support for implementation. With the onset of conflict, public health breakdown has contributed to the resurgence of polio in a number of regions. The current laboratory based case definition may be a contributory factor in these regions. We sought to compare case definition rates using strict laboratory based criteria to rates obtained using the clinical criteria in modern day Syria. We also sought to examine this distribution of cases by sub-region. We examined the World Health Organization (WHO) reported figures for Syria from 2013-2014 using laboratory based criteria. We compared these with cases obtained when clinical criteria were applied. In addition we sought data from the opposition controlled Assistance Coordination Unit which operates in non-Government controlled areas where WHO data maybe incomplete. Cases were carefully examined for potential overlap to avoid double reporting. Whilst the WHO data clearly confirmed the polio outbreak in Syria, it did so with considerable delay and with under reporting of cases, particularly from non-government controlled areas. In addition, laboratory based case definition led to a substantial underestimate of polio (36 cases) compared with those found with the clinically compatible definition (an additional 46 cases). Rates of adequate diagnostic specimens from suspected cases are well below target, no doubt reflecting the effect of conflict in these areas. We have identified a gap in the surveillance of polio, a global threat. The current laboratory based definition, in the setting of conflict and insecurity, leads to under diagnosis of polio with potential delays and inadequacies in coordinating effective responses to contain outbreaks and eradicate polio. Breakdown in public health measures as a contributing
Mbaeyi, Chukwuma; Mohamed, Abdinoor; Owino, Brian Ogola; Mengistu, Kumlachew F; Ehrhardt, Derek; Elsayed, Eltayeb Ahmed
Surveillance for cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) is a key strategy adopted for the eradication of polio. Detection of poliovirus circulation is often predicated on the ability to identify AFP cases and test their stool specimens for poliovirus infection in a timely manner. The Village Polio Volunteers (VPV) program was established in 2013 in a bid to strengthen polio eradication activities in Somalia, including AFP surveillance, given the country's vulnerability to polio outbreaks. To assess the impact of the VPV program on AFP surveillance, we determined case counts, case-reporting sources, and non-polio AFP rates in the years before and after program introduction, i.e., 2011-2016. We also compared the stool adequacy and timeliness of cases reported by VPVs to those reported by other sources. In the years following program introduction, VPVs accounted for a high proportion of AFP cases reported in Somalia. AFP case counts rose from 148 cases in 2012, the year before program introduction, to 279 cases in 2015, during which VPVs accounted for 40% of reported cases. Further, the non-polio AFP rate improved from 2.8 cases in 2012 to 4.8 cases per 100,000 persons Somalia, similar community-based programs could play a crucial role in enhancing surveillance activities in countries with limited healthcare infrastructure.
Menning, Lisa; Garg, Gaurav; Pokharel, Deepa; Thrush, Elizabeth; Farrell, Margaret; Kodio, Frederic Kunjbe; Veira, Chantal Laroche; Wanyoike, Sarah; Malik, Suleman; Patel, Manish; Rosenbauer, Oliver
The requirements under objective 2 of the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018-to introduce at least 1 dose of inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine (IPV); withdraw oral poliomyelitis vaccine (OPV), starting with the type 2 component; and strengthen routine immunization programs-set an ambitious series of targets for countries. Effective implementation of IPV introduction and the switch from trivalent OPV (containing types 1, 2, and 3 poliovirus) to bivalent OPV (containing types 1 and 3 poliovirus) called for intense global communications and coordination on an unprecedented scale from 2014 to 2016, involving global public health technical agencies and donors, vaccine manufacturers, World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund regional offices, and national governments. At the outset, the new program requirements were perceived as challenging to communicate, difficult to understand, unrealistic in terms of timelines, and potentially infeasible for logistical implementation. In this context, a number of core areas of work for communications were established: (1) generating awareness and political commitment via global communications and advocacy; (2) informing national decision-making, planning, and implementation; and (3) in-country program communications and capacity building, to ensure acceptance of IPV and continued uptake of OPV. Central to the communications function in driving progress for objective 2 was its ability to generate a meaningful policy dialogue about polio vaccines and routine immunization at multiple levels. This included efforts to facilitate stakeholder engagement and ownership, strengthen coordination at all levels, and ensure an iterative process of feedback and learning. This article provides an overview of the global efforts and challenges in successfully implementing the communications activities to support objective 2. Lessons from the achievements by countries and partners will likely be drawn upon when
In 1950s Hungary, with an economy and infrastructure still devastated from World War II and facing further hardships, thousands of children became permanently disabled and many died in the severe polio epidemic that shook the globe. The relatively new communist regime invested significantly in solving the public health crisis, initially importing a vaccine from the West and later turning to the East for a new solution. Through the history of polio vaccination in Hungary, this article shows how Cold War politics shaped vaccine evaluation and implementation in the 1950s. On the one hand, the threat of polio created a safe place for hitherto unprecedented, open cooperation among governments and scientific communities on the two sides of the Iron Curtain. On the other hand, Cold War rhetoric influenced scientific evaluation of vaccines, choices of disease prevention, and ultimately the eradication of polio.
The polio vaccine became available in 1955, due almost entirely to the efforts of the March of Dimes. In 1921, Franklin Roosevelt gave a public face to polio and mounted a campaign to prevent it, establishing the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis in 1938. During the Depression, U.S. citizens were asked to contribute one dime. Entertainer…
Full Text Available Background. Although rare, adverse events may associate with anti-poliovirus vaccination thus possibly hampering global polio eradication worldwide. Objective. To design peptide-based anti-polio vaccines exempt from potential cross-reactivity risks and possibly able to reduce rare potential adverse events such as the postvaccine paralytic poliomyelitis due to the tendency of the poliovirus genome to mutate. Methods. Proteins from poliovirus type 1, strain Mahoney, were analyzed for amino acid sequence identity to the human proteome at the pentapeptide level, searching for sequences that (1 have zero percent of identity to human proteins, (2 are potentially endowed with an immunologic potential, and (3 are highly conserved among poliovirus strains. Results. Sequence analyses produced a set of consensus epitopic peptides potentially able to generate specific anti-polio immune responses exempt from cross-reactivity with the human host. Conclusion. Peptide sequences unique to poliovirus proteins and conserved among polio strains might help formulate a specific and universal anti-polio vaccine able to react with multiple viral strains and exempt from the burden of possible cross-reactions with human proteins. As an additional advantage, using a peptide-based vaccine instead of current anti-polio DNA vaccines would eliminate the rare post-polio poliomyelitis cases and other disabling symptoms that may appear following vaccination.
Kanduc, Darja; Fasano, Candida; Capone, Giovanni; Pesce Delfino, Antonella; Calabrò, Michele; Polimeno, Lorenzo
Although rare, adverse events may associate with anti-poliovirus vaccination thus possibly hampering global polio eradication worldwide. To design peptide-based anti-polio vaccines exempt from potential cross-reactivity risks and possibly able to reduce rare potential adverse events such as the postvaccine paralytic poliomyelitis due to the tendency of the poliovirus genome to mutate. Proteins from poliovirus type 1, strain Mahoney, were analyzed for amino acid sequence identity to the human proteome at the pentapeptide level, searching for sequences that (1) have zero percent of identity to human proteins, (2) are potentially endowed with an immunologic potential, and (3) are highly conserved among poliovirus strains. Sequence analyses produced a set of consensus epitopic peptides potentially able to generate specific anti-polio immune responses exempt from cross-reactivity with the human host. Peptide sequences unique to poliovirus proteins and conserved among polio strains might help formulate a specific and universal anti-polio vaccine able to react with multiple viral strains and exempt from the burden of possible cross-reactions with human proteins. As an additional advantage, using a peptide-based vaccine instead of current anti-polio DNA vaccines would eliminate the rare post-polio poliomyelitis cases and other disabling symptoms that may appear following vaccination.
Mehmood, T.; Babar, A.
To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of Polio among people in Khyber PakhtunKhwa and to recommend measures in order to improve the awareness of disease. Study Design: Descriptive cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at CMH Nowshera, CMH Mardan and Kohat General Hospital from March to June 2013. Subjects and Methods: Persons presenting for consultation to tertiary care hospitals at medical reception rooms were approached by convenience sampling. Structured questionnaire was developed and data was collected by interviews. Results: The findings of the study revealed that out of 296 persons participated in study 57.4% were males while 42.2% were females. They were residents of Mardan, Nowshera, Kohat and Swabi districts of Khyber Pakhtukhwa. Persons who believed that vaccine is prohibited in religion were 13.9%, 81.1% persons knew about Polio disease and 84.5% persons believed that disease could be prevented by giving vaccines to children. Persons who gave vaccine to their children were 88.9% and 66.9% also knew the schedule of the vaccine. Pressure groups which included tribal elders stopped 19.3% people from giving vaccine to their children and for 11.1% persons the facility of giving vaccine was not available. Persons who believed that Polio can cause infertility were 11.5% and 20.9% believed that Polio vaccine cannot prevent Polio disease. Persons who have seen patient of Polio were 38.9% and 88.5 % persons wanted to eradicate disease from Pakistan. Conclusion: The results of the study revealed that people have adequate knowledge about Polio and wanted to eradicate it from Pakistan by participating in vaccination activities but still there are few people who believe that Polio vaccine cannot prevent disease resulting in failure to adminster vaccine for their children. (author)
Gendrowahyuhono, Gendrowahyuhono; Yulitasari, Yulitasari; Purnamawati, Sinta; Klino, Klino
Program BIAS-Polio sudah dilaksanakan pada bulan Nopember 1999 di seluruh SD di Indonesia dari kelas III sampai dengan kelas VI. Tujuan BIAS-Polio adalah untuk meningkatkan status imunitas anak terhadap infeksi virus polio sebingga dapat menghambat sirkulasi virus polio liar di masyarakat. Bias polio diberikan pada anak SD sebanyak 1 kali dosis.
Live Danbolt Drange
Full Text Available Analfabetizmo es considerado una de las razones principales de exclusión social, pobreza y desigualdad en una sociedad, y alfabetización es esencial para alcanzar los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio – ODM. Bolivia es uno de los paises más pobres de America Latina. También tiene una población mayor de indígenas caracterizada por poca asistencia escolar y un alto índice de analfabetizmo. Con el objetivo de erradicar el analfabetismo en treinta meses el Gobierno de Evo Morales lanzó en 2006 una campaña intensiva de alfabetización, Yo, si puedo. El articulo analiza la situación después de terminar la campaña y discute a qué punto el Gobierno ha logrado la meta. English: Illiteracy is considered one of the main reasons for social exclusion, poverty and inequity in a society and adult literacy is central to reach the Millennium Goals. Bolivia is one of the poorest countries in Latin America and one of those with the highest rate of indigenous population, a population that has been characterised by little schooling and a high rate of illiteracy. In 2006 the Evo Morales government launched an intensive literacy campaign, 'Yo, sí puedo', (Yes, I can, aiming at eradicating illiteracy within thirty months. The article analyses the situation after concluding the campaign and discusses to what extent the government has succeeded.
Full Text Available Research: 1. Can the student volunteers from schools be an important resource in IEC and social mobilisation for pulse polio programme? 2. What is the level of awareness regarding pulse polio among the households? Objectives: 1. To assess awareness among households about PPI. 2. To evaluate role of Polio Sena, besides other sources in IEC for PPI campaign. Study design: Intervention Setting: National Capital Territory of Delhi. Intervention: For the purpose of IEC and social mobilisation, an innovative scheme of involving school children from class 6th to 12th was launched in the Pulse Polio Immunization (PPI campaign of 1995 â€" 96 held in Delhi. This student volunteer force was named â€˜Polio Senaâ€ and the volunteers were assigned specific tasks. Participants: Households with a child under the age of three years. Statistical analysis: Proportions. Results: High level of awareness about PPI campaign was found. Majority were aware about the age group of eligible children, the dates and number of PPI doses to be given. Achievements of â€˜Polio Senaâ€ were significant. 24.9% of house - holds had received information about PPI from school children, which was maximum among interpersonal sources of communication. Television was the commonest medium of information. Conclusion: Polio sena was an important source of IEC and social mobilisation for PPI.
Mbaeyi, Chukwuma; Saatcioglu, Akif; Tangermann, Rudolf H; Hadler, Stephen; Ehrhardt, Derek
Despite recent progress toward global polio eradication, endemic transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV) continues to be reported in Afghanistan and Pakistan. The Afghanistan program must overcome many challenges to remain on track toward achieving the objectives set in the 2013–2018 strategic plan of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI). Cross-border transmission of WPV type 1 (WPV1) continues to occur among children traveling to and from Pakistan. The country's routine immunization system remains weak and unable to reach recommended benchmarks in most regions; hence, the national Polio Eradication Initiative (PEI) relies mainly on providing children aged <5 years with oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV), administered during supplementary immunization activities (SIAs). Because of ongoing conflict and insecurity, some children continue to be missed during SIAs in areas not under government control; however, the majority of missed children live in accessible areas and are often unreached because of a failure to plan, implement, and supervise SIAs efficiently. This report describes polio eradication activities and progress in Afghanistan during January 2014‒August 2015 and updates previous reports. During 2014, a total of 28 WPV1 cases were reported in Afghanistan, compared with 14 cases in 2013; nine cases were reported during January‒August 2015, the same number as during the same period in 2014. To eliminate poliovirus transmission in Afghanistan, emergency operations centers (EOCs) need to be established at the national level and in critical regions without delay to improve overall coordination and oversight of polio eradication activities. The recently revised National Emergency Action Plan for polio eradication needs to be fully implemented, including detailed microplanning and enhanced monitoring and supervision of SIAs, as well as improved cross-border coordination with Pakistan.
Abdulla, S.; Agre, P.; Alonso, P.L.; Arevalo-Herrera, M.; Bassat, Q.; Binka, F.; Chitnis, C.; Corradin, G.; Cowman, A. F.; Culpepper, J.; Portillo, H. del; Dinglasan, R.R.; Duffy, P.; Gargallo, D.; Greenwood, B.; Guinovart, C.; Hall, B.F.; Herrera, S.; Hoffman, S.; Lanzavecchia, A.; Leroy, O.; Levine, M.M.; Loucq, C.; Mendis, K.; Milman, J.; Moorthy, V.S.; Pleuschke, G.; Plowe, C.V.; Reed, S.; Sauerwein, R.W.; Saul, A.; Schofield, L.; Sinden, R.R.; Stubbs, J.; Villafana, T.; Wirth, D.; Yadav, P.; Ballou, R.; Brown, G.; Birkett, A.; Brandt, W.; Brooks, A.; Carter, T.; Golden, A.; Lee, C.; Nunes, J.; Puijalon, O.; Raphael, T.; Richards, H.; Warren, C.; Woods, C.
Vaccines could be a crucial component of efforts to eradicate malaria. Current attempts to develop malaria vaccines are primarily focused on Plasmodium falciparum and are directed towards reducing morbidity and mortality. Continued support for these efforts is essential, but if
Grassly, Nicholas C
The global incidence of poliomyelitis has dropped by more than 99 per cent since the governments of the world committed to eradication in 1988. One of the three serotypes of wild poliovirus has been eradicated and the remaining two serotypes are limited to just a small number of endemic regions. However, the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) has faced a number of challenges in eradicating the last 1 per cent of wild-virus transmission. The polio endgame has also been complicated by the recognition that vaccination with the oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) must eventually cease because of the risk of outbreaks of vaccine-derived polioviruses. I describe the major challenges to wild poliovirus eradication, focusing on the poor immunogenicity of OPV in lower-income countries, the inherent limitations to the sensitivity and specificity of surveillance, the international spread of poliovirus and resulting outbreaks, and the potential significance of waning intestinal immunity induced by OPV. I then focus on the challenges to eradicating all polioviruses, the problem of vaccine-derived polioviruses and the risk of wild-type or vaccine-derived poliovirus re-emergence after the cessation of oral vaccination. I document the role of research in the GPEI's response to these challenges and ultimately the feasibility of achieving a world without poliomyelitis.
Gasteen, Maxime; Stewart, Donte; Wenger, Jay
Background Since the introduction of polio vaccines in the 1950’s and 60’s, eradication of poliovirus from the world has been technically feasible. Progress towards this goal, however, has been uneven and influenced by social and political factors that challenge the implementation of robust immunization programs. While violence and insecurity are often cited as barriers to eradication, current global risk models are largely based on virologic and immunologic indicators measured at national levels. In this manuscript, we quantify the relevance of indicators of violence and insecurity on the risk of polio spread. Methods and findings Using logistic regression models and public data sources, we evaluate the relationship between measures of violence and instability and the location of poliomyelitis cases between 2006 and 2015 at the country-level, both individually and after controlling for more proximal determinants of disease, such as nearby circulating poliovirus and vaccination rates. We found that increases in a country’s Fragile States Index (FSI) and Global Peace Index (GPI), aggregate indicators of violence and instability, were associated with the occurrence of poliovirus cases in the subsequent year (ppolio eradication and other global health initiatives, and the policy implications of the need to reach vulnerable populations in conflict zones. PMID:29020086
Full Text Available Since the introduction of polio vaccines in the 1950's and 60's, eradication of poliovirus from the world has been technically feasible. Progress towards this goal, however, has been uneven and influenced by social and political factors that challenge the implementation of robust immunization programs. While violence and insecurity are often cited as barriers to eradication, current global risk models are largely based on virologic and immunologic indicators measured at national levels. In this manuscript, we quantify the relevance of indicators of violence and insecurity on the risk of polio spread.Using logistic regression models and public data sources, we evaluate the relationship between measures of violence and instability and the location of poliomyelitis cases between 2006 and 2015 at the country-level, both individually and after controlling for more proximal determinants of disease, such as nearby circulating poliovirus and vaccination rates. We found that increases in a country's Fragile States Index (FSI and Global Peace Index (GPI, aggregate indicators of violence and instability, were associated with the occurrence of poliovirus cases in the subsequent year (p< 0.01, even after controlling for established risk factors. These effects of violence and insecurity must be mediated through immunity and exposure to poliovirus, coarse measures of which are included in our model. This also implies that in our study, and in risk models in general, the interpretation depends on the quality and granularity of available data.National virologic and immunologic indicators understate the risk of poliovirus spread in areas with violence and insecurity, and the inclusion of such factors improves precision. In addition, the link between violence and incidence of disease highlights the broader challenge of implementing health interventions in conflict areas. We discuss practical implications of this work in understanding and measuring the risks to
Guarino, Kia; Voorman, Arend; Gasteen, Maxime; Stewart, Donte; Wenger, Jay
Since the introduction of polio vaccines in the 1950's and 60's, eradication of poliovirus from the world has been technically feasible. Progress towards this goal, however, has been uneven and influenced by social and political factors that challenge the implementation of robust immunization programs. While violence and insecurity are often cited as barriers to eradication, current global risk models are largely based on virologic and immunologic indicators measured at national levels. In this manuscript, we quantify the relevance of indicators of violence and insecurity on the risk of polio spread. Using logistic regression models and public data sources, we evaluate the relationship between measures of violence and instability and the location of poliomyelitis cases between 2006 and 2015 at the country-level, both individually and after controlling for more proximal determinants of disease, such as nearby circulating poliovirus and vaccination rates. We found that increases in a country's Fragile States Index (FSI) and Global Peace Index (GPI), aggregate indicators of violence and instability, were associated with the occurrence of poliovirus cases in the subsequent year (pinsecurity must be mediated through immunity and exposure to poliovirus, coarse measures of which are included in our model. This also implies that in our study, and in risk models in general, the interpretation depends on the quality and granularity of available data. National virologic and immunologic indicators understate the risk of poliovirus spread in areas with violence and insecurity, and the inclusion of such factors improves precision. In addition, the link between violence and incidence of disease highlights the broader challenge of implementing health interventions in conflict areas. We discuss practical implications of this work in understanding and measuring the risks to polio eradication and other global health initiatives, and the policy implications of the need to reach
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Albert B. Sabin, MD, developer of the oral polio vaccine, was also a major proponent of its use in annual vaccination campaigns aimed at the elimination of polio. Sabin argued that administering his vaccine simultaneously to every child in a country would break polio's chains of transmission. Although he was already promoting mass vaccination by the 1960s, Sabin's efforts expanded considerably when he became an adviser to groups fighting polio in the Americas in the 1980s. Sabin's experiences provide a window into both the formation of the coalition that eliminated poliomyelitis from the Western Hemisphere and what can happen when biomedical researchers become public health policy advisers. Although the polio elimination coalition succeeded in part because member groups often accommodated each other's priorities, Sabin was often limited by his indifference to the interests of those he was advising and to the shortcomings of his vaccine.
Yu, Wen-Zhou; Wen, Ning; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Hai-Bo; Fan, Chun-Xiang; Zhu, Shuang-Li; Xu, Wen-Bo; Liang, Xiao-Feng; Luo, Hui-Ming; Li, Li
Poliomyelitis has historically been endemic in China and has been considered an important cause of disability and death. We reviewed strategies and measures of poliomyelitis control and eradication from 1953 to 2012. Data from notifiable disease and routine immunization reporting systems and acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance were analyzed. About 20 000 poliomyelitis cases were reported annually in the prevaccine era. During 1965-1977, live, attenuated oral poliomyelitis vaccine (OPV) was administered to children through annual mass campaigns in the winter, and the number of poliomyelitis cases started to decline. A cold chain system was established during 1982, and OPV coverage increased during the early stage of the Expanded Programme on Immunization, from 1978 to 1988. Between 1989 and 1999, routine immunization was strengthened, supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) were conducted, and the AFP surveillance system was established. China reported a last indigenous poliomyelitis case in 1994 and was certified as free of polio in 2000. To maintain its polio-free status, China kept >90% coverage of 3 doses of OPV, conducted SIAs in high-risk areas, and maintained high-quality of AFP surveillance. China succeeded in stopping the outbreak in Xinjiang in 2011. China's polio-free status was achieved and maintained through strengthening routine immunization and implementing SIAs and AFP surveillance. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Kouadio, Koffi; Okeibunor, Joseph; Nsubuga, Peter; Mihigo, Richard; Mkanda, Pascal
The continuous deployments of polio resources, infrastructures and systems for responding to other disease outbreaks in many African countries has led to a number of lessons considered as best practice that need to be documented for strengthening preparedness and response activities in future outbreaks. We reviewed and documented the influence of polio best practices in outbreak preparedness and response in Angola, Nigeria and Ethiopia. Data from relevant programmes of the WHO African Region were also analyzed to demonstrate clearly the relative contributions of PEI resources and infrastructure to effective disease outbreak preparedness and response. Polio resources including, human, financial, and logistic, tool and strategies have tremendously contributed to responding to diseases outbreaks across the African region. In Angola, Nigeria and Ethiopia, many disease epidemics including Marburg Hemorrhagic fever, Dengue fever, Ebola Virus Diseases (EVD), Measles, Anthrax and Shigella have been controlled using existing polio Eradication Initiatives resources. Polio staffs are usually deployed in occasions to supports outbreak response activities (coordination, surveillance, contact tracing, case investigation, finance, data management, etc.). Polio logistics such vehicles, laboratories were also used in the response activities to other infectious diseases. Many polio tools including micro planning, dashboard, guidelines, SOPs on preparedness and response have also benefited to other epidemic-prone diseases. The Countries' preparedness and response plan to WPV importation as well as the Polio Emergency Operation Center models were successfully used to develop, strengthen and respond to many other diseases outbreak with the implication of partners and the strong leadership and ownership of governments. This review has important implications for WHO/AFRO initiative to strengthening and improving disease outbreak preparedness and responses in the African Region in respect
Genital ulcers are important cofactors of HIV transmission in the countries most severely affected by HIV/AIDS. Chancroid is a common cause of genital ulcer in all 18 countries where adult HIV prevalence surpasses 8% and is rare in countries with low-level HIV epidemics. Haemophilus ducreyi, the causative organism of chancroid, is biologically vulnerable and occupies a precarious epidemiological niche. Both simple, topical hygiene and male circumcision greatly reduce risk of infection and several classes of antibiotics--some of which can be administered in single-dose treatment regimens--provide rapid cure. H. ducreyi depends on sexual networks with high rates of partner change for its survival, thriving in environments characterized by male mobility and intensive commercial sex activity. Elimination of H. ducreyi infection from vulnerable groups results in disappearance of chancroid from the larger community. Once endemic in Europe and North America, chancroid began a steady decline early in the twentieth century, well before the discovery of antibiotics. Social changes--resulting in changing patterns of commercial sex--probably disrupted the conditions needed to sustain chancroid as an endemic disease. Sporadic outbreaks are now easily controlled when effective curative and preventive services are made available to sex workers and their clients. More recently, chancroid prevalence has declined markedly in countries such as the Philippines. Senegal, and Thailand, a development that may contribute to stabilization of the HIV epidemics in these countries. Eradication of chancroid is a feasible public health objective. Protecting sex workers and their clients from exposure to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and improving curative services for STDs are among the proven strategies that could be employed.
Genital ulcers are important cofactors of HIV transmission in the countries most severely affected by HIV/AIDS. Chancroid is a common cause of genital ulcer in all 18 countries where adult HIV prevalence surpasses 8% and is rare in countries with low-level HIV epidemics. Haemophilus ducreyi, the causative organism of chancroid, is biologically vulnerable and occupies a precarious epidemiological niche. Both simple, topical hygiene and male circumcision greatly reduce risk of infection and several classes of antibiotics--some of which can be administered in single-dose treatment regimens--provide rapid cure. H. ducreyi depends on sexual networks with high rates of partner change for its survival, thriving in environments characterized by male mobility and intensive commercial sex activity. Elimination of H. ducreyi infection from vulnerable groups results in disappearance of chancroid from the larger community. Once endemic in Europe and North America, chancroid began a steady decline early in the twentieth century, well before the discovery of antibiotics. Social changes--resulting in changing patterns of commercial sex--probably disrupted the conditions needed to sustain chancroid as an endemic disease. Sporadic outbreaks are now easily controlled when effective curative and preventive services are made available to sex workers and their clients. More recently, chancroid prevalence has declined markedly in countries such as the Philippines. Senegal, and Thailand, a development that may contribute to stabilization of the HIV epidemics in these countries. Eradication of chancroid is a feasible public health objective. Protecting sex workers and their clients from exposure to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and improving curative services for STDs are among the proven strategies that could be employed. PMID:11584729
... is taken in its entirety from the CDC Polio Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/ ... statements/ipv.html CDC review information for the Polio VIS: Page last reviewed: July 20, 2016 Page ...
Thacker, Naveen; Thacker, Deep; Pathak, Ashish
Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI, the Vaccine Alliance) is an international organization built through public-private partnership. GAVI has supported more than 200 vaccine introductions in the last 5 years by financing major proportion of costs of vaccine to 73 low-income countries using a co-financing model. GAVI has worked in close co-ordination with Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) since 2013, to strengthen health systems in countries so as to accelerate introduction of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV). GAVI is involved in many IPV related issues like demand generation, supply, market shaping, communications, country readiness etc. Most of the 73 GAVI eligible countries are also high priority countries for GPEI. GAVI support has helped India to accelerate introduction of IPV in all its states. However, GAVI faces challenges in IPV supply-related issues in the near future. It also needs to play a key role in global polio legacy planning and implementation.
Zipursky, Simona; Patel, Manish; Farrell, Margaret; Gonzalez, Alejandro Ramirez; Kachra, Tasleem; Folly, Yann; Kurji, Feyrouz; Veira, Chantal Laroche; Wootton, Emily; Hampton, Lee M
The Immunization Systems Management Group (IMG) was established as a time-limited entity, responsible for the management and coordination of Objective 2 of the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan. This objective called for the introduction of at least 1 dose of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) into the routine immunization programs of all countries using oral polio vaccine (OPV) only. Despite global vaccine shortages, which limited countries' abilities to access IPV in a timely manner, 105 of 126 countries using OPV only introduced IPV within a 2.5-year period, making it the fastest rollout of a new vaccine in history. This achievement can be attributed to several factors, including the coordination work of the IMG; high-level engagement and advocacy across partners; the strong foundations of the Expanded Programme on Immunization at all levels; Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance's vaccine introduction experiences and mechanisms; innovative approaches; and proactive communications. In many ways, the IMG's work on IPV introduction can serve as a model for other vaccine introductions, especially in an accelerated context. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.
RR Laila Ma’rifatun
Full Text Available Polio (Poliomielitis is an infectious disease caused by the polio virus. This disease attacks the entire body (including the muscles and nerves and can lead to muscle weakness that is permanent, paralysis or death. This paper will discuss on the influence of vaccination against polio disease spread in the human population that settled in the form of mathematical modeling.
Edens, Chris; Dybdahl-Sissoko, Naomi C; Weldon, William C; Oberste, M Steven; Prausnitz, Mark R
The phased replacement of oral polio vaccine (OPV) with inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) is expected to significantly complicate mass vaccination campaigns, which are an important component of the global polio eradication endgame strategy. To simplify mass vaccination with IPV, we developed microneedle patches that are easy to administer, have a small package size, generate no sharps waste and are inexpensive to manufacture. When administered to rhesus macaques, neutralizing antibody titers were equivalent among monkeys vaccinated using microneedle patches and conventional intramuscular injection for IPV types 1 and 2. Serologic response to IPV type 3 vaccination was weaker after microneedle patch vaccination compared to intramuscular injection; however, we suspect the administered type 3 dose was lower due to a flawed pre-production IPV type 3 analytical method. IPV vaccination using microneedle patches was well tolerated by the monkeys. We conclude that IPV vaccination using a microneedle patch is immunogenic in rhesus macaques and may offer a simpler method of IPV vaccination of people to facilitate polio eradication. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Al-Moujahed, Ahmad; Alahdab, Fares; Abolaban, Heba; Beletsky, Leo
The reappearance of polio in Syria in mid-2013, 18 years after it was eliminated from the country, manifests the public health catastrophe brought on by the civil war. Among the lessons learned, this outbreak emphasizes the importance of increasing the international financial and logistical support for vaccine and immunization efforts, especially in countries suffering from conflicts. The lack of access to polio accredited laboratory or outright lack of laboratories in settings of conflict should be recognized allowing international surveillance to be strengthened by supplementing the laboratory definition with the clinical definition. In addition, it illustrates the imperative for the United Nations (UN) agencies involved in global health to be able to operate independently from governments during conflicts in order to provide adequate and efficient medical and humanitarian relief for civilians. Proper communicable disease surveillance and control, delivery of vaccinations, and other pivotal healthcare services to these areas require independence from governments and all military actors involved. Moreover, it shows the necessity to adequately support and fund the front-line nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) that are implementing the delivery of medical and humanitarian aid in Syria.
Derrough, Tarik; Salekeen, Alexandra
Between 1973 and 2013, 12 outbreaks of paralytic poliomyelitis with a cumulative total of 660 cases were reported in the European Union, European Economic Area and candidate countries. Outbreaks lasted seven to 90 weeks (median: 24 weeks) and were identified through the diagnosis of cases of acute flaccid paralysis, for which infection with wild poliovirus was subsequently identified. In two countries, environmental surveillance was in place before the outbreaks, but did not detect any wild strain before the occurrence of clinical cases. This surveillance nonetheless provided useful information to monitor the outbreaks and their geographical spread. Outbreaks were predominantly caused by poliovirus type 1 and typically involved unvaccinated or inadequately vaccinated groups within highly immunised communities. Oral polio vaccine was primarily used to respond to the outbreaks with catch-up campaigns implemented either nationwide or in restricted geographical areas or age groups. The introduction of supplementary immunisation contained the outbreaks. In 2002, the European region of the World Health Organization was declared polio-free and it has maintained this status since. However, as long as there are non-vaccinated or under-vaccinated groups in European countries and poliomyelitis is not eradicated, countries remain continuously at risk of reintroduction and establishment of the virus. Continued efforts to reach these groups are needed in order to ensure a uniform and high vaccination coverage.
... and Teen Vaccine Resources Related Links Vaccines & Immunizations Polio and the Vaccine (Shot) to Prevent It Language: ... recommend all children get the vaccine. What is polio? Polio (or poliomyelitis) is a disease caused by ...
N. I. Romanenkova
Full Text Available The article describes the frequency of isolation of polioviruses and non polio enteroviruses from different categories of the investigated children. The percentage of detection of polioviruses from the patients with acute flaccid paralysis was lower than that from the children from groups at risk. Among the patients with the enterovirus infection the polioviruses were rarely revealed. The frequency of isolation of non polio enteroviruses from these patients was significantly higher than that from the other categories of investigated persons. The improvement of poliomyelitis surveillance and the reinforcement of virological surveillance of children from groups at risk and those with enterovirus infection will provide the important data for Global Polio Eradication Initiative and the maintenance of polio free status of the Russian Federation.
Full Text Available Live vaccination against polio has effectively prevented outbreaks in most developed countries for more than 40 years, and there remain only a few countries where outbreaks of poliomyelitis by the wild strain still threaten the community. It is expected that worldwide eradication will be eventually achieved through careful surveillance and a well-managed immunization program. The present paper argues, however, that based on a simple stochastic model the risk of outbreak by a vaccine-derived strain after the cessation of vaccination is quite high, even if many years have passed since the last confirmed case. As vaccinated hosts are natural reservoirs for virulent poliovirus, the source of the risk is the vaccination itself, employed to prevent the outbreaks. The crisis after stopping vaccination will emerge when the following two conditions are met: the susceptible host density exceeds the threshold for epidemics and the vaccinated host density remains large enough to ensure the occurrence of virulent mutants in the population. Our estimates for transmission, recovery, and mutation rates, show that the probability of an outbreak of vaccine-derived virulent viruses easily exceeds 90%. Moreover, if a small fraction of hosts have a longer infectious period, as observed in individuals with innate immunodeficiency, the risk of an outbreak rises significantly. Under such conditions, successful global eradication of polio is restricted to a certain range of parameters even if inactive polio vaccine (IPV is extensively used after the termination of live vaccination.
Tchoualeu, Dieula D; Hercules, Margaret A; Mbabazi, William B; Kirbak, Anthony L; Usman, Abdulmumini; Bizuneh, Ketema; Sandhu, Hardeep S
In 2009, the international Stop Transmission of Polio (STOP) program began supporting the Global Polio Eradication Initiative in the Republic of South Sudan to address shortages of human resources and strengthen acute flaccid paralysis surveillance. Workforce capacity support is provided to the South Sudan Expanded Program on Immunization by STOP volunteers, implementing partners, and non-governmental organizations. In 2013, the Polio Technical Advisory Group recommended that South Sudan transition key technical support from external partners to national staff as part of the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan, 2013-2018. To assist in this transition, the South Sudan Expanded Program on Immunization human resources development project was launched in 2015. This 3-year project aims to build national workforce capacity as a legacy of the STOP program by training 56 South Sudanese at national and state levels with the intent that participants would become Ministry of Health staff on their successful completion of the project. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.
Ghinai, Isaac; Willott, Chris; Dadari, Ibrahim; Larson, Heidi J
In 2003 five northern Nigerian states boycotted the oral polio vaccine due to fears that it was unsafe. Though the international responses have been scrutinised in the literature, this paper argues that lessons still need to be learnt from the boycott: that the origins and continuation of the boycott were due to specific local factors. We focus mainly on Kano state, which initiated the boycotts and continued to reject immunisations for the longest period, to provide a focused analysis of the internal dynamics and complex multifaceted causes of the boycott. We argue that the delay in resolving the year-long boycott was largely due to the spread of rumours at local levels, which were intensified by the outspoken involvement of high-profile individuals whose views were misunderstood or underestimated. We use sociological concepts to analyse why these men gained influence amongst northern Nigerian communities. This study has implications on contemporary policy: refusals still challenge the Global Polio Eradication Initiative; and polio remains endemic to Nigeria (Nigeria accounted for over half of global cases in 2012). This paper sheds light on how this problem may be tackled with the ultimate aim of vaccinating more children and eradicating polio.
Nijsten, D.R.E.; Carrilo-Santisteve, P.; Miglietta, A.; Ruitenberg, E.J.; Lopalco, P.L.
The WHO European Region has been declared polio-free since 2002. By 2010, inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) was the only polio vaccine in use in the EU/EEA for the primary vaccination of children. A systematic review of the literature on polio seroprevalence studies, complemented by the analysis of
Khetsuriani, Nino; Pfeifer, Dina; Deshevoi, Sergei; Gavrilin, Eugene; Shefer, Abigail; Butler, Robb; Jankovic, Dragan; Spataru, Roman; Emiroglu, Nedret; Martin, Rebecca
The European region, certified as polio free in 2002, had recent wild poliovirus (WPV) introductions, resulting in a major outbreak in Central Asian countries and Russia in 2010 and in current widespread WPV type 1 circulation in Israel, which endangered the polio-free status of the region. We assessed the data on the major determinants of poliovirus transmission risk (population immunity, surveillance, and outbreak preparedness) and reviewed current threats and measures implemented in response to recent WPV introductions. Despite high regional vaccination coverage and functioning surveillance, several countries in the region are at high or intermediate risk of poliovirus transmission. Coverage remains suboptimal in some countries, subnational geographic areas, and population groups, and surveillance (acute flaccid paralysis, enterovirus, and environmental) needs further strengthening. Supplementary immunization activities, which were instrumental in the rapid interruption of WPV1 circulation in 2010, should be implemented in high-risk countries to close population immunity gaps. National polio outbreak preparedness plans need strengthening. Immunization efforts to interrupt WPV transmission in Israel should continue. The European region has successfully maintained its polio-free status since 2002, but numerous challenges remain. Staying polio free will require continued coordinated efforts, political commitment and financial support from all countries. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
Control and reduction of infectious diseases is a key to attaining the Millennium Development Goals. An important element of this work is the successful immunisation, especially in resource-poor countries. Mass immunisation, most intensively in the case of eradication, depends on a combination of reliable demand (e.g. public willingness to comply with the vaccine protocol) and effective supply (e.g. robust, generally state-led, vaccine delivery). This balance of compliance and enforceability is, quintessentially, socio-political in nature - conditioned by popular perceptions of disease and risk, wider conditions of economic development and poverty, technical aspects of vaccine delivery, and the prevailing international norms regarding power relations between states and peoples. In the past 100 years, three out of six disease eradication programmes have failed. The explanations for failure have focused on biotechnical and managerial or financial issues. Less attention is paid to socio-political aspects. Yet socio-political explanations are key. Eradication is neither inherently prone to failure, nor necessarily doomed in the case of polio. However, eradication, and similar mass immunisation initiatives, which fail to address social and political realities of intervention may be. A comparison of the smallpox and polio eradication programmes illustrates the importance of disease-specific socio-political analysis in programme conceptualisation, design, and management.
Limia Sánchez, Aurora
Poliomyelitis was considered an important event for the public health since the end of XIX century when this disease became epidemic. As soon as vaccines were available member states of the World Health Organization (WHO) in the European Region started to implement vaccination programmes against polio with an important impact in the incidence in this disease. In May 1988, the World Health Assembly resolution for the global eradication of poliomyelitis was adopted and the mechanisms to oversee the progress in the different WHO Regions were established. This article briefly reviews the history of polio in the WHO European Region, the process for certification and maintenance, the strategies for eradication and the current situation in the European Region and globally. The European Region was certified polio-free in 2002. Nevertheless, there are still three endemic countries in the world, some others use live attenuated vaccines as well as countries in the Horn of Africa are recently suffering the reintroduction of wild poliovirus. Considering these circumstances, the risk of reintroduction of poliovirus and the generation of outbreaks in the European Region exists, therefore high vaccination coverage against polio and good quality surveillance systems are needed to be guaranteed in every member state.
In 1988, the World Health Assembly resolved to eradicate polio, which led to the establishment of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI). In 2012, however, the transmission of indigenous wild poliovirus (WPV) continued uninterrupted in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Nigeria, leading the World Health Assembly to declare completion of polio eradication a programmatic emergency for global public health. This report updates previous reports and describes polio eradication activities and progress in Afghanistan and Pakistan during January 2011-August 2012, as of September 9, 2012. During 2011, 80 WPV cases were confirmed in Afghanistan, compared with 25 WPV cases in 2010; 17 WPV cases were confirmed during January-August 2012, compared with 34 WPV cases for the same period in 2011. In Pakistan, 198 WPV cases were confirmed in 2011, compared with 144 WPV cases in 2010; 30 WPV cases were confirmed during January-August 2012, compared with 88 WPV cases during the same period in 2011. During January 2011-August 2012, no WPV type 3 (WPV3) cases were confirmed in Afghanistan, and four confirmed WPV3 cases and one case with coinfection of WPV3 and WPV type 1 (WPV1) were reported in Pakistan. Violence targeting vaccinators has occurred previously in Afghanistan and recently in Pakistan. To progress further toward interruption of WPV transmission within their countries and across their shared border, the governments of Afghanistan and Pakistan might consider reviewing the implementation of their national emergency action plans and determine how to enhance the safety of vaccination teams within conflict-affected areas of both countries.
Tsetse flies (Glossina sp.) continue to make livestock production difficult or impossible throughout a very large part of Africa. One of the most promising techniques for eradicating tsetse from certain locations is the environmentally safe Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). In collaboration with the Tanzanian authorities, the Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, to eradicate tsetse from Zanzibar using the SIT. (IAEA)
The World Initiative for the Eradication of Poliomyelitis (IMEP), launched in 1988, is based on two strategies: mass vaccination with oral polio vaccine (OPV) and surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP). The disease incidence was reduced by 99%, but eradication, originally scheduled for 2000, has still not been reached in 2010, and four countries continue to be endemic (India, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Nigeria). The obstacles to eradication are the difficulty in reaching all children to be vaccinated, especially in areas of insecurity; the imperfections of OPV--irregular efficacy and genetic instability; and the limitations of surveillance in detecting only the paralytic form of the disease, which often remains asymptomatic. The repeated postponements of the ending of the initiative, which greatly increased the cost of IMEP, spark debate about the actual feasibility of eradication and justification to continue funding in a difficult global economic context, so the initiative remains without significant impact on indicators of the Millennium Goals for Development.
Minor, Philip D
Poliomyelitis is caused by poliovirus, which is a positive strand non-enveloped virus that occurs in three distinct serotypes (1, 2, and 3). Infection is mainly by the fecal-oral route and can be confined to the gut by antibodies induced either by vaccine, previous infection or maternally acquired. Vaccines include the live attenuated strains developed by Sabin and the inactivated vaccines developed by Salk; the live attenuated vaccine (Oral Polio Vaccine or OPV) has been the main tool in the Global Program of Polio eradication of the World Health Organisation. Wild type 2 virus has not caused a case since 1999 and type 3 since 2012 and eradication seems near. However most infections are entirely silent so that sophisticated environmental surveillance may be needed to ensure that the virus has been eradicated, and the live vaccine can sometimes revert to virulent circulating forms under conditions that are not wholly understood. Cessation of vaccination is therefore an increasingly important issue and inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) is playing a larger part in the end game.
Elhamidi, Youness; Mahamud, Abdirahman; Safdar, Muhammad; Al Tamimi, Wasan; Jorba, Jaume; Mbaeyi, Chukwuma; Hsu, Christopher H; Wadood, Zubair; Sharif, Salmaan; Ehrhardt, Derek
In 1988, the World Health Assembly launched the Global Polio Eradication Initiative. Among the three wild poliovirus serotypes, only wild poliovirus (WPV) type 1 (WPV1) has been detected since 2012. Since 2014, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Nigeria remain the only countries with continuing endemic WPV1 transmission. This report describes activities conducted and progress made toward the eradication of poliovirus in Pakistan during January 2016-July 2017 and provides an update to previous reports (1,2). In 2016, Pakistan reported 20 WPV1 cases, a 63% decrease compared with 54 cases in 2015 (3). As of September 25, 2017, five WPV1 cases have been reported in 2017, representing a 69% decline compared with 16 cases reported during the same period in 2016 (Figure 1). During January-September 2017, WPV1 was detected in 72 of 468 (15%) environmental samples collected, compared with 36 of 348 (9%) samples collected during the same period in 2016. WPV1 was detected in environmental samples in areas where no polio cases are being reported, which indicates that WPV1 transmission is continuing in some high-risk areas. Interruption of WPV transmission in Pakistan requires maintaining focus on reaching missed children (particularly among mobile populations), continuing community-based vaccination, implementing the 2017-2018 National Emergency Action Plan (4), and improving routine immunization services.
The National Leprosy Eradication Program (NLEP), launched in 1986, has brought medicine for leprosy to more people than ever before, covering 200 of India's 455 districts. Since 1988, the number of leprosy patients discharged as cured each year has been greater than the number of newly detected, thus moving the country closer to its goal of eradicating leprosy from India. A substantial number of the 3 million people with leprosy in India are likely to come under the coverage of the NLEP. The author, however, argues that the fight against leprosy and the NLEP should be considered in their historical context. Leprosy is therefore used to illustrate how the perhaps interchangeable terms eradication and cure are charged with history and custom. Historically, the focus on eradicating leprosy has had terrible consequences for the patient. In England, perceptions about leprosy are relevant to the situation India, for colonial policy on leprosy was largely derivative. In the 1880s, especially, leprosy excited the public imagination. Asylums adopted segregation and confinement during this period for people with leprosy and the colonial government in India supported that approach from 1882. The author concludes that while the NLEP is laudable, the program must not focus upon eradicating leprosy. It should instead focus upon the leprosy patient, who has for so long been denied and discriminated against. The individual must be placed at the center of any program. Some steps in this direction have been taken.
Although other epidemics declined due to improved hygiene and sanitation, legislation, and vaccination, polio epidemics appeared in Sweden in 1881 and at the turn of the 20th century the disease became and annual feature in the Swedish epidemiological pattern. Due to the vaccination starting in 1957 epidemics ceased to exist in Sweden around 1965. This article deals with the history polio epidemics in Sweden, 1880-1965 and gives a brief description of: the demographical influence of polio, how did the medical authorities investigate and try to combat it, and the different comprehensions of how polio affected its victims.A study of polio incidence in Sweden at the national level during 1905-1962 reveals that the disease caused major epidemics in 1911-1913 and 1953. At the beginning of the 20th century polio primarily attacked children up to 10 years of age, and at the end of the period victims were represented in all age groups, but mainly in the ages 20-39. Due to its enigmatic appearance, polio was not considered as an epidemic infectious disease during the 19th century. Sweden's early epidemics enabled Swedish medical science to act and together with American research institutes it acquired a leading role in international medical research on the disease. In the 1955 Jonas Salk produced the first successful vaccine against polio but also Sweden developed its own vaccine, different in choice of methods and materials from the widely used Salk-vaccine.
Heinsbroek, E.; Ruitenberg, E.J.
This literature review identifies the factors that influence the decision to introduce inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) in developing countries as opposed to the policy of vaccine cessation. Attenuated viruses in the oral polio vaccine (OPV) can replicate, revert to neurovirulence and become
Full Text Available This presentation shows some of the consequences of the polio crisis in Costa Rica during the 1950’s, in order to preserve certain attitudes of Costa Ricans back then that are worth remembering: simplicity, solidarity and gratefulness. Hand in hand with highly service-oriented men and women, the country overcame the crisis and built one of the most iconic hospitals in Costa Rica: the National Children’s Hospital. It is worth rescuing the lessons learned and applying them to current times. This historical text was created based on the stories told by people who lived during the times of the crisis, on a 1956 notebook, on documents from the National Archive and the National Health and Social Security Library (BINASSS, for its name in Spanish, the Costa Rican Social Security System (CCSS, for its name in Spanish, Dr. Rodolfo Álvaro Murillo, and San Juan de Dios Hospital. National and international newspapers were also reviewed. The consulted material confirms how the work of Costa Ricans, led by committed and service-oriented individuals, allowed for the construction of the National Children’s Hospital to take place -an institution that has served the Costa Rican people for fifty years. Costa Ricans also succeeded in eradicating polio long before several other countries around the world. The reactions of people in the 1950’s are lessons of solidarity and humanity that should not be forgotten; they should be remembered in order to value team work over individual work and make sure, no matter what our role in society is, to always stand by common well-being, as mid-century Costa Ricans did by overcoming their personal limitations and acting for the benefit of society.
Fekadu, Lemma; Okeibunor, Joseph; Nsubuga, Peter; Kipela, Jean Marie; Mkanda, Pascal; Mihigo, Richard
Growing conflict and insecurity played a major role in precipitating polio outbreaks in the Horn of Africa and the Middle East. In Angola, the early post-conflict situation was characterized by the presence of many inaccessible zones and districts due to insecurity and poor infrastructure. Partnership with the Angolan Army health service (AAHS) was one of the innovative strategies that the Polio Eradication Initiative (PEI) introduced into the country to support the polio vaccination campaigns in insecure and hard to reach zones. Before embarking on creating a partnership with Angolan military it was essential to make high-level advocacy with top military decision makers to engage the leadership in the process for better and sustainable support to the strategy. The principal supports provided by the AAHS were the administration of oral polio vaccine, vitamin A, deworming agents, social mobilization, monitoring campaign quality, and surveillance. Distribution of logistics using military vehicles and helicopters to hard to reach and insecure zones was also part of the support. Using this partnership it was possible to reach a significant number of children in insecure and hard to reach areas with polio vaccine and other child survival interventions. The military partnership also contributed in increasing the demand and addressing rejection for the polio vaccine. Military is a potentially productive force that can be used for any development activities in any country. The Angolan experience has demonstrated that it is possible to form a partnership with the military for basic health intervention activities with little training and investment. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Focuses on lessons educators might learn from the Intensified Campaign for the Global Eradication of Smallpox. Outlines the history of smallpox eradication. Discusses the eradication effort's obstacles, campaign, and costs and benefits. Considers five factors relevant to the successful implementation of educational programs. (CMK)
Shirato, Haruko; Someya, Yuichi; Ochiai, Masaki; Horiuchi, Yoshinobu; Takahashi, Motohide; Takeda, Naokazu; Wakabayashi, Kengo; Ouchi, Yasumitsu; Ota, Yoshihiro; Tano, Yoshio; Abe, Shinobu; Yamazaki, Shudo; Wakita, Takaji
As one aspect of its campaign to eradicate poliomyelitis, the World Health Organization (WHO) has encouraged development of the inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) derived from the Sabin strains (sIPV) as an option for an affordable polio vaccine, especially in low-income countries. The Japan Poliomyelitis Research Institute (JPRI) inactivated three serotypes of the Sabin strains and made sIPV preparations, including serotypes 1, 2 and 3 D-antigens in the ratio of 3:100:100. The National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Japan, assessed the immunogenic stability of these sIPV preparations in a rat potency test, according to an evaluation method recommended by the WHO. The immunogenicity of the three serotypes was maintained for at least 4 years when properly stored under -70°C. Based on these data, the sIPV preparations made by JPRI have been approved as national reference vaccines by the Japanese national control authority and used for the quality control of the tetracomponent sIPV-containing diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis combination vaccines that were licensed for a routine polio immunization in Japan. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hubacek, Klaus; Baiocchi, Giovanni; Feng, Kuishuang; Patwardhan, Anand
The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change aims to keep warming below 2 °C while recognizing developing countries' right to eradicate extreme poverty. Poverty eradication is also the first of the Sustainable Development Goals. This paper investigates potential consequences for climate targets of achieving poverty eradication. We find that eradicating extreme poverty, i.e., moving people to an income above $1.9 purchasing power parity (PPP) a day, does not jeopardize the climate target even in the absence of climate policies and with current technologies. On the other hand, bringing everybody to a still modest expenditure level of at least $2.97 PPP would have long-term consequences on achieving emission targets. Compared to the reference mitigation pathway, eradicating extreme poverty increases the effort by 2.8% whereas bringing everybody to at least $2.97 PPP would increase the required mitigation rate by 27%. Given that the top 10% global income earners are responsible for 36% of the current carbon footprint of households; the discourse should address income distribution and the carbon intensity of lifestyles.
Gali, Emmanuel; Mkanda, Pascal; Banda, Richard; Korir, Charles; Bawa, Samuel; Warigon, Charity; Abdullahi, Suleiman; Abba, Bashir; Isiaka, Ayodeji; Yahualashet, Yared G; Touray, Kebba; Chevez, Ana; Tegegne, Sisay G; Nsubuga, Peter; Etsano, Andrew; Shuaib, Faisal; Vaz, Rui G
Remarkable progress had been made since the launch of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative in 1988. However endemic wild poliovirus transmission in Nigeria, Pakistan, and Afghanistan remains an issue of international concern. Poor microplanning has been identified as a major contributor to the high numbers of chronically missed children. We assessed the contribution of the revised household-based microplanning process implemented in Kano State from September 2013 to April 2014 to the outcomes of subsequent polio supplemental immunization activities using used preselected planning and outcome indicators. There was a 38% increase in the number of settlements enumerated, a 30% reduction in the number of target households, and a 54% reduction in target children. The reported number of children vaccinated and the doses of oral polio vaccine used during subsequent polio supplemental immunization activities showed a decline. Postvaccination lot quality assurance sampling and chronically missed settlement reports also showed a progressive reduction in the number of children and settlements missed. We observed improvement in Kano State's performance based on the selected postcampaign performance evaluation indicators and reliability of baseline demographic estimates after the revised household-based microplanning exercise. © 2016 World Health Organization; licensee Oxford Journals.
Bickerstaffe, Alice; Beelen, Anita; Nollet, Frans
Objectives: Many polio survivors have symptoms that are known risk factors for falls in elderly people. This study aims to determine the: (i) frequency; (ii) consequences; (iii) circumstances; and (iv) factors associated with falls in polio survivors. Methods: A survey was conducted among 376 polio
Burger, Helena; Franchignoni, Franco; Puzic, Natasa; Giordano, Andrea
The objective of this study was to evaluate by means of classical test theory and Rasch analysis the scaling characteristics and psychometric properties of the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) in polio survivors. A questionnaire, consisting of five general questions (sex, age, age at time of acute polio, sequelae of polio, and new symptoms), the FSS,…
Njeru, Ian; Ajack, Yusuf; Muitherero, Charles; Onyango, Dickens; Musyoka, Johnny; Onuekusi, Iheoma; Kioko, Jackson; Muraguri, Nicholas; Davis, Robert
Polio eradication is now feasible after removal of Nigeria from the list of endemic countries and global reduction of cases of wild polio virus in 2015 by more than 80%. However, all countries must remain focused to achieve eradication. In August 2015, the Catholic bishops in Kenya called for boycott of a polio vaccination campaign citing safety concerns with the polio vaccine. We conducted a survey to establish if the coverage was affected by the boycott. A cross sectional survey was conducted in all the 32 counties that participated in the campaign. A total of 90,157 children and 37,732 parents/guardians were sampled to determine the vaccination coverage and reasons for missed vaccination. The national vaccination coverage was 93% compared to 94% in the November 2014 campaign. The proportion of parents/guardians that belonged to Catholic Church was 31% compared to 7% of the children who were missed. Reasons for missed vaccination included house not being visited (44%), children not being at home at time of visit (38%), refusal by parents (12%), children being as leep (1%), and various other reasons (5%). Compared to the November 2014 campaign, the proportion of children who were not vaccinated due to parent's refusal significantly increased from 6% to 12% in August 2015. The call for boycott did not affect the campaign significantly. However, if the call for boycott is repeated in future it could have some significant negative implication to polio eradication. It is therefore important to ensure that any vaccine safety issues are addressed accordingly.
Cochi, S L; Sutter, R W; Aylward, R B
One of the challenges of the polio eradication initiative over the next few years will be the formulation of an optimal strategy for stopping poliovirus vaccination after global certification of polio eradication has been accomplished. This strategy must maximize the benefits and minimize the risks. A number of strategies are currently under consideration, including: (i) synchronized global discontinuation of use of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV); (ii) regional or subregional coordinated OPV discontinuation; and (iii) moving from trivalent to bivalent or monovalent OPV. Other options include moving from OPV to global use of IPV for an interim period before cessation of IPV use (to eliminate circulation of vaccine-derived poliovirus, if necessary) or development of new OPV strains that are not transmissible. Each of these strategies is associated with specific advantages (financial benefits for OPV discontinuation) and disadvantages (cost of switch to IPV) and inherent uncertainties (risk of continued poliovirus circulation in certain populations or prolonged virus replication in immunodeficient persons). An ambitious research agenda addresses the remaining questions and issues. Nevertheless, several generalities are already clear. Unprecedented collaboration between countries, regions, and indeed the entire world will be required to implement a global OPV discontinuation strategy Regulatory approval will be needed for an interim bivalent OPV or for monovalent OPV in many countries. Manufacturers will need sufficient lead time to produce sufficient quantities of IPV Finally, the financial implications for any of these strategies need to be considered. Whatever strategy is followed it will be necessary to stockpile supplies of a poliovirus-containing vaccine (most probably all three types of monovalent OPV), and to develop contingency plans to respond should an outbreak of polio occur after stopping vaccination.
Fruit exports account for 9% of Argentina's total agricultural exports and generate annually close to $450 million. This could be increased but for fruit flies that cause damage equivalent to 15% to 20% of present production value of fruit and also deny export access to countries imposing quarantine barriers. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, to eradicate the Mediterranean fruit fly using the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). (IAEA)
Yang, Chunting; Shi, Huiying; Zhou, Jun; Liang, Yanwen; Xu, Honglin
Poliovirus transmission is controlled globally through world-wide use of a live attenuated oral polio vaccine (OPV). However, the imminence of global poliovirus eradication calls for a switch to the inactivated polio vaccine (IPV). Given the limited manufacturing capacity and high cost of IPV, this switch is unlikely in most developing and undeveloped countries. Adjuvantation is an effective strategy for antigen sparing. In this study, we evaluated the adjuvanticity of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN) for an experimental IPV produced from Sabin strains of poliovirus. Our results showed that CpG-ODN, alone or in combination with alum, can significantly enhance both the humoral and cellular immune responses to IPV in mice, and, consequently, the antigen dose could be reduced substantially. Therefore, our study suggests that the global use of IPV could be facilitated by using CpG-ODN or other feasible adjuvants.
Pakhare, Abhijit P; Bali, Surya; Pawar, Radhakishan B; Lokhande, Ganesh S
India was certified polio free on 27 March 2014. Supplementary immunization activities, in the form of national immunization days, is one of the core strategies for eradication, where oral polio vaccine is administered to children aged under 5 years throughout the country. Oral polio vaccine is heat sensitive and requires maintenance of a stringent cold chain. Therefore, vaccine carriers with ice packs are used in the Pulse Polio Immunization (PPI) programme. This study assessed whether the cold chain is maintained during National Immunization Day in Beed district. A cross-sectional study was conducted at six randomly selected booths, one each from six primary health centres in Georai block of Beed district in Maharashtra. Electronic data loggers, configured to measure half-hourly temperatures, were kept in vaccine carriers throughout the day of PPI. The vaccine carrier temperature was below 8 °C at all six booths; minimum temperature recorded was -9.5 °C, while the maximum was 4.5 °C. The vaccine vial monitor did not reach discard point in any booth. A vaccine carrier with four ice packs very effectively maintains the cold chain required for oral polio vaccine.
Kamadjeu, Raoul; Mahamud, Abdirahman; Webeck, Jenna; Baranyikwa, Marie Therese; Chatterjee, Anirban; Bile, Yassin Nur; Birungi, Julianne; Mbaeyi, Chukwuma; Mulugeta, Abraham
For >2 decades, conflicts and recurrent natural disasters have maintained Somalia in a chronic humanitarian crisis. For nearly 5 years, 1 million children polio once again. A case of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) was defined as a child Polio cases were defined as AFP cases with stool specimens positive for WPV. From 9 May to 31 December 2013, 189 cases of WPV type 1 (WPV1) were reported from 46 districts of Somalia; 42% were from Banadir region (Mogadishu), 60% were males, and 93% were polio cases belonged to cluster N5A, which is known to have been circulating in northern Nigeria since 2011. In response to the outbreak, 8 supplementary immunization activities were conducted with oral polio vaccine (OPV; trivalent OPV was used initially, followed subsequently by bivalent OPV) targeting various age groups, including children aged polio outbreak erupted after a polio-free period of >6 years (the last case was reported in March 2007). Somalia interrupted indigenous WPV transmission in 2002, was removed from the list of polio-endemic countries a year later, and has since demonstrated its ability to control polio outbreaks resulting from importation. This outbreak reiterates that the threat of large polio outbreaks resulting from WPV importation will remain constant unless polio transmission is interrupted in the remaining polio-endemic countries. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
Full Text Available Eradication and elimination are increasingly a part of the global health agenda. Once control measures have driven infection to low levels, the ecology of disease may change posing challenges for eradication efforts. These challenges vary from identifying pockets of susceptibles, improving monitoring during and after the endgame, to quantifying the economics of disease eradication versus sustained control, all of which are shaped and influenced by processes of loss of immunity, susceptible build-up, emergence of resistance, population heterogeneities and non-compliance with control measures. Here we discuss how modelling can be used to address these challenges.
Werhagen, Lars; Borg, Kristian
Nowadays, polio survivors aged under 60 years are non-native Swedes which pose new aspects and challenges to a post-polio outpatient clinic. To analyze the medical data, walking aids, occupational, and family situation in non-native polio survivors aged less than 60 years at a Swedish post-polio outpatient clinic. Retrospective data analysis. Data were retrieved from medical records at the post-polio outpatient clinic. Actual age, age at acute polio infection, walking capacity, pain, concomitant diseases, working and family situation, and ethnical origin were analyzed. Data are presented in numbers and percentage. 153 patients were included. Mean age was 45 (17-60) years, and mean age at acute polio infection was 2 (0-12) years. Paresis of the lower extremities was the most common disability. 10 % were wheelchair dependent. Pain occurred in 70 % with a mean intensity of 55 measured with the visual analog scale. Hypertension was the most common concomitant disease. Half of the polio survivors were working at least part time, and roughly half were singles. Data were comparable with data earlier published in Swedish native polio survivors. Non-native polio survivors aged under 60 years showed similarities in age at acute polio infection, paresis, prevalence, and intensity of pain when compared with native Swedish polio survivors. They were, however, younger, and were less often working and married/cohabitants than native Swedish polio survivors. The results of this study underline the importance of social and vocational rehabilitation tailoring rehabilitation suitable for polio survivors with a foreign background.
Norris, Alison; Hachey, Kevin; Curtis, Andrew; Bourdeaux, Margaret
Designing effective public health campaigns in areas of armed conflict requires a nuanced understanding of how violence impacts the epidemiology of the disease in question. We examine the geographical relationship between violence (represented by the location of detonated Improvised Explosive Devices) and polio incidence by generating maps of IEDs and polio incidence during 2010, and by comparing the mean number of IED detonations in polio high-risk districts with non polio high-risk districts during 2004-2009. We demonstrate a geographic relationship between IED violence and incident polio. Districts that have high-risk for polio have highly statistically significantly greater mean numbers of IEDs than non polio high-risk districts (p-values 0.0010-0.0404). The geographic relationship between armed conflict and polio incidence provides valuable insights as to how to plan a vaccination campaign in violent contexts, and allows us to anticipate incident polio in the regions of armed conflict. Such information permits vaccination planners to engage interested armed combatants to co-develop strategies to mitigate the effects of violence on polio.
Full Text Available Designing effective public health campaigns in areas of armed conflict requires a nuanced understanding of how violence impacts the epidemiology of the disease in question.We examine the geographical relationship between violence (represented by the location of detonated Improvised Explosive Devices and polio incidence by generating maps of IEDs and polio incidence during 2010, and by comparing the mean number of IED detonations in polio high-risk districts with non polio high-risk districts during 2004-2009.We demonstrate a geographic relationship between IED violence and incident polio. Districts that have high-risk for polio have highly statistically significantly greater mean numbers of IEDs than non polio high-risk districts (p-values 0.0010-0.0404.The geographic relationship between armed conflict and polio incidence provides valuable insights as to how to plan a vaccination campaign in violent contexts, and allows us to anticipate incident polio in the regions of armed conflict. Such information permits vaccination planners to engage interested armed combatants to co-develop strategies to mitigate the effects of violence on polio.
Smith, James W.; Swink, William D.
Invasions of boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) into the United States and sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) into the Great Lakes were similar in many ways. Important species (American cotton, Gossypium hirsutum, and lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush) and the industries they supported were negatively affected. Initial control efforts were unsuccessful until pesticides and application technologies were developed. For boll weevils, controls relying on pesticides evolved into an integrated program that included recommended farming practices and poisoned baits. However, the discovery of a boll weevil sex pheromone in 1964 allowed adoption of an ongoing program of eradication. Despite opposition over concept and cost, insecticides, pheromone traps, poisoned baits, and approved farming practices were used to eradicate boll weevils from Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, and Alabama by 1999. Using the working back approach along the path of the original invasion, eradication was nearly completed by 2002 in Mississippi and eradication programs were underway in Arkansas, Tennessee, Oklahoma, Louisiana, and parts of Texas. Insecticide use for cotton production decreased 50 to 90%, and cotton yields and farm income increased an average of 78 kg/ha and $190 U.S./ha in areas where boll weevils were eradicated. For sea lampreys, integrated management uses lampricides, barriers to migration, trapping, and release of sterilized males. Although sea lamprey eradication is not currently feasible, recent research on larval and sex pheromones might provide the tools to make it possible. A successful eradication program for sea lampreys starting in Lake Superior and expanding to the lower Great Lakes would ultimately provide huge ecological and economic benefits by eliminating lampricide applications, removing barriers that block teleost fishes, and facilitating the recovery of lake trout. Should the opportunity arise, the concept of sea lamprey eradication should
Durand, Christine M.; Blankson, Joel N.; Siliciano, Robert F.
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) suppresses HIV-1 replication, transforming the outlook for infected patients. However, reservoirs of replication-competent forms of the virus persist during HAART, and when treatment is stopped, high rates of HIV-1 replication return. Recent insights into HIV-1 latency, as well as a report that HIV-1 infection was eradicated in one individual, have renewed interest in finding a cure for HIV-1 infection. Strategies for HIV-1 eradication include gene therapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, stimulating host immunity to control HIV-1 replication, and targeting latent HIV-1 in resting memory CD4+ T cells. Future efforts should aim to provide better understanding of how to reconstitute the CD4+ T cell compartment with genetically engineered cells, exert immune control over HIV-1 replication, and identify and eliminate all viral reservoirs. PMID:22867874
Sørup, Signe; Stensballe, Lone G; Krause, Tyra Grove
Background. Live vaccines may have nonspecific beneficial effects on morbidity and mortality. This study examines whether children who had the live-attenuated oral polio vaccine (OPV) as the most recent vaccine had a different rate of admissions for infectious diseases than children with inactiv......Background. Live vaccines may have nonspecific beneficial effects on morbidity and mortality. This study examines whether children who had the live-attenuated oral polio vaccine (OPV) as the most recent vaccine had a different rate of admissions for infectious diseases than children...... with inactivated diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-polio-Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (DTaP-IPV-Hib) or live measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR) as their most recent vaccine. Methods. A nationwide, register-based, retrospective cohort study of 137 403 Danish children born 1997-1999, who had received 3 doses...... of DTaP-IPV-Hib, were observed from 24 months (first OPV dose) to 36 months of age. Results. Oral polio vaccine was associated with a lower rate of admissions with any type of non-polio infection compared with DTaP-IPV-Hib as most recent vaccine (adjusted incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.85; 95% confidence...
Recent progress in reducing global measles mortality has renewed interest in measles eradication. Three biological criteria are deemed important for disease eradication: (1) humans are the sole pathogen reservoir; (2) accurate diagnostic tests exist; and (3) an effective, practical intervention is available at reasonable cost. Interruption of transmission in large geographical areas for prolonged periods further supports the feasibility of eradication. Measles is thought by many experts to meet these criteria: no nonhuman reservoir is known to exist, accurate diagnostic tests are available, and attenuated measles vaccines are effective and immunogenic. Measles has been eliminated in large geographical areas, including the Americas. Measles eradication is biologically feasible. The challenges for measles eradication will be logistical, political, and financial. PMID:21666201
Hopkins, D R; Azam, M; Ruiz-Tiben, E; Kappus, K D
In 1986 the World Health Organization targeted dracunculiasis (Guinea-worm disease), which seriously impairs socioeconomic development in 16 African countries, India, Pakistan, and Yemen, to be eradicated globally. The target date for eradication by the end of 1995 was established in 1991. Pakistan eradicated dracunculiasis from the country in October, 1993, after a national campaign which began in 1987 with a nationwide village-by-village search for cases. The infection, which is transmitted by drinking water from ponds containing infected water fleas, was eradicated by using health education, cloth filters, and the cyclopsicide, temephos; and in the later stages, by case containment. Methods pioneered in Pakistan's National Guinea Worm Eradication Program are now being applied in remaining endemic countries.
Thompson, Kimberly M; Tebbens, Radboud J Duintjer
Worldwide eradication of wild polioviruses is likely to yield substantial health and financial benefits, provided we finish the job. Challenges in the four endemic areas combined with continuing demands for financial resources for eradication have led some to question the goal of eradication and to suggest switching to a policy of control. We developed a dynamic model, based on modelling of the currently endemic areas in India, to show the importance of maintaining and increasing the immunisation intensity to complete eradication and to illustrate how policies based on perception about high short-term costs or cost-effectiveness ratios without consideration of long-term benefits could undermine any eradication effort. An extended model assesses the economic implications and disease burden of a change in policy from eradication to control. Our results suggest that the intensity of immunisation must be increased to achieve eradication, and that even small decreases in intensity could lead to large outbreaks. This finding implies the need to pay even higher short-run costs than are currently being spent, which will further exacerbate concerns about continued investment in interventions with high perceived cost-effectiveness ratios. We show that a wavering commitment leads to a failure to eradicate, greater cumulative costs, and a much larger number of cases. We further show that as long as it is technically achievable, eradication offers both lower cumulative costs and cases than control, even with the costs of achieving eradication exceeding several billion dollars more. A low-cost control policy that relies only on routine immunisation for 20 years with discounted costs of more than $3500 million could lead to roughly 200 000 expected paralytic poliomyelitis cases every year in low-income countries, whereas a low-case control policy that keeps the number of cases at about 1500 per year could cost around $10 000 million discounted over the 20 years. Focusing on the
Claudio Andre Barbosa de Lira
Full Text Available Poliomyelitis is an acute and infectious viral disease, transmitted primarily through oral-fecal contact or directly, person to person. Approximately 90% of the individuals infected by the polio virus do not present symptoms; however, the affected individuals can show a variety of symptoms if the virus reaches the bloodstream. In up to 2% of cases, the virus reaches the central nervous system preferably infecting and destroying the motor neurons, resulting in muscular weakness and acute flaccid paralysis. Despite the expressive reduction in the number of cases, many people live with the consequences of the acute illness, thus representing a burden to the public healthcare systems. Many of these people present new manifestations as signs and symptoms that are called post-polio syndrome. It can be defined and characterized by new neuromuscular symptoms, which occur at least 15 years after a period of clinical and functional stability in patients with previous history of symptomatic poliomyelitis. The signs and symptoms characterizing the post-polio syndrome include new muscular weakness, muscular fatigue and atrophy, pain in joints and muscles, sleep disorders, intolerance to cold, respiratory and swallowing difficulties, and recent weight gain. Therefore, the aim of this review is to present the physiological changes caused by the new manifestation of symptoms in individuals with poliomyelitis.
Full Text Available "nBackground: The long-term effects of poliomyelitis are known in many of countries. In despite of one accrue title for these signs and symptoms; there are similarity aspects in patients' problems. In the signs of explained, absence of strength and endurance, musculoskeletal difficulties, respiratory dysfunction, sleep disorders are more generalized. Prevalence of post polio syndrome (PPS is aim of this study. "nMethods: 150 subjects with history of poliomyelitis (80 male and 70 female in Tehran city contributes in this study and complete question forms. "nResults: Muscle pain was reported in 88% of subjects. Thigh muscle weakness was at 42/28%, also muscle spasm indicated at 66%. Recurrent falling of subjects appeared in 74/7%. Early fatigue reported 86%. Above five signs selected for PPS. In this study 85 subjects had four signs of above criteria or 56.66% of subjects had PPS. "nConclusion: Depended of evaluation and observation there is post polio syndrome in Tehran. Recommended for physical therapy of post polio syndrome attend to stages of progression of this syndrome. In aim to this procedure, physical treatment of these patients must limit to muscle fatigue and also severe physical and exercise activities must be reduce, also some mild aerobic activities without fatigue can be useful.
van der Sanden, Sabine M. G.; Wu, Weilin; Dybdahl-Sissoko, Naomi; Weldon, William C.; Brooks, Paula; O'Donnell, Jason; Jones, Les P.; Brown, Cedric; Tompkins, S. Mark; Oberste, M. Steven; Karpilow, Jon; Tripp, Ralph A.
Vaccine manufacturing costs prevent a significant portion of the world's population from accessing protection from vaccine-preventable diseases. To enhance vaccine production at reduced costs, a genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) screen was performed to identify gene knockdown events that enhanced
National immunization programs in the Americas are fine examples of what mankind can achieve through the appropriate use of technology, global collaboration, and political will for the benefit of all. Over the past 20 years, Western Hemisphere countries have led the world in the war against vaccine-preventable infectious diseases. In September 1985, the 31st Meeting of the Pan American Health Organization's (PAHO) Directing Council established the goal of eradicating the indigenous transmission of wild poliovirus from all countries of the Americas by 1990. Investigations of more than 4000 stool specimens by 1991 identified wild poliovirus transmission in only Colombia and Peru. In September 1994, and following an extensive review of surveillance information, key polio surveillance indicators and laboratory results throughout the region, the International Commission for the Certification of Poliomyelitis Eradication (ICCPE) declared that transmission of wild poliovirus had been interrupted in the Americas. PAHO's recommended measles vaccination strategy has led to the interruption of measles transmission in major geographic areas of the Americas, but the disease still circulates freely elsewhere in the world. Cases of neonatal tetanus (NNT) continue to decline due to PAHO's recommended strategy of vaccinating women of childbearing age with at least 2 doses of tetanus toxoid vaccine, especially in high-risk areas for the disease. NNT is endemic in 16 countries in the Americas.
Garon, Julie; Seib, Katherine; Orenstein, Walter A; Ramirez Gonzalez, Alejandro; Chang Blanc, Diana; Zaffran, Michel; Patel, Manish
Globally, polio cases have reached an all-time low, and type 2 poliovirus (one of three) is eradicated. Oral polio vaccine (OPV) has been the primary tool, however, in rare cases, OPV induces paralysis. In 2013, the World Health Assembly endorsed the phased withdrawal of OPV and introduction of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) into childhood routine immunization schedules. Type 2 OPV will be withdrawn through a globally synchronized "switch" from trivalent OPV (all three types) to bivalent OPV (types 1 and 3). The switch will happen in 155 OPV-using countries between April 17(th) and May 1(st), 2016. Planned activities to reduce type 2 outbreak risks post-switch include the following: tOPV campaigns to increase type 2 immunity prior to the switch, monovalent OPV2 stockpiling to respond to outbreaks should they occur, containment of both wild and vaccine type 2 viruses, enhanced acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) and environmental surveillance, outbreak response protocols, and ensured access to IPV and bivalent OPV.
Full Text Available Poliomielitis adalah penyakit menular yangditandai dengan kelumpuhan akibat kerusakanmotor neuron di kornu anterior sumsum tulangbelakang; disebabkan oleh tiga serotipe virus polioyaitu serotipe 1 (brunhilde, serotipe 2 (lansig danserotipe 3 (leon.1 Poliomielitis ditularkan secarafekal-oral atau oral-oral.Sebelum vaksin polio ditemukan, semua anakyang terinfeksi virus polio dan sekitar 1 dari 200anak yang terinfeksi akan menderita kelumpuhan.Setelah ditemukan vaksin polio inaktivasi (IPV,salk pada tahun 1955, vaksin polio oral monovalen(mOPV, sabin tahun 1961 dan vaksin polio oraltrivalen (tOPV pada tahun 1963, program imunisasipolio berlangsung di seluruh dunia. Vaksin IPVdiganti dengan tOPV karena pemberiannyamudah, lebih unggul dalam merangsang kekebalanmukosa usus, dan lebih murah. Vaksin tOPV masukdalam Program Pengembangan Imunisasi/PPI diIndonesia sejak tahun 1978. Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE
Wilson, Daniel J.
Full Text Available This essay explores the significance that rehabilitation physicians and polio patients in the United States put on recovering the ability to walk. Polio often paralyzed or severely weakened the legs of those who contracted the disease. Regaining the ability to walk was thus a significant measure of recovery from the disease. However, walking meant more than the physical act itself. Regaining the ability to walk meant, in a symbolic sense, that one was no longer disabled, that one had again become normal. This attitude was shared by rehabilitation specialists and patients alike. This essay examines this attitude and the cultural values it embodied through a study of the efforts of selected polio survivors to learn to walk again and of the rehabilitation literature that held walking as an ideal. It also explores what happened when polio patients were unable to walk again because of the severity of their paralysis.
En este artículo se analiza la importancia que tiene la recuperación de la capacidad de andar para los especialistas en rehabilitación y los pacientes de polio en los Estados Unidos. La polio iba a menudo acompañada de parálisis o de una grave debilitación de las piernas en aquellas personas que contraían la enfermedad. El recuperar la capacidad de andar era por lo tanto un importante factor indicativo de la recuperación de la enfermedad. Sin embargo, el andar significaba algo más que la simple acción física. El recuperar la movilidad significaba simbólicamente que uno dejaba de ser un minusválido y que volvía a ser una persona normal. Esta postura la compartían tanto los especialistas en rehabilitación como los pacientes. Este artículo analiza esta actitud y los valores culturales derivados de la misma, a través de un estudio sobre los esfuerzos llevados a cabo por un grupo seleccionado de supervivientes de polio para aprender a andar de nuevo así como de un análisis de la literatura sobre la rehabilitaci
Shuaib, Faisal M; Musa, Philip F; Muhammad, Ado; Musa, Emmanuel; Nyanti, Sara; Mkanda, Pascal; Mahoney, Frank; Corkum, Melissa; Durojaiye, Modupeoluwa; Nganda, Gatei Wa; Sani, Samuel Usman; Dieng, Boubacar; Banda, Richard; Ali Pate, Muhammad
Emergency Operations Centers (EOCs) have been credited with driving the recent successes achieved in the Nigeria polio eradication program. EOC concept was also applied to the Ebola virus disease outbreak and is applicable to a range of other public health emergencies. This article outlines the structure and functionality of a typical EOC in addressing public health emergencies in low-resource settings. It ascribes the successful polio and Ebola responses in Nigeria to several factors including political commitment, population willingness to engage, accountability, and operational and strategic changes made by the effective use of an EOC and Incident Management System. In countries such as Nigeria where the central or federal government does not directly hold states accountable, the EOC provides a means to improve performance and use data to hold health workers accountable by using innovative technologies such as geographic position systems, dashboards, and scorecards.
Alan Kanaskie; Ellen Goheen; Nancy Osterbauer; Mike McWilliams; Everett Hansen; Wendy Sutton
Sudden oak death (SOD), caused by Phytophthora ramorum, was first discovered in Oregon forests in July 2001. Since then an interagency team has been working with landowners to eradicate the pathogen by cutting and burning all infected and nearby host plants. During the first two years of the eradication effort, all host vegetation within 15 to 30 m...
transmission dynamics are well discussed in this review paper. ... A Review on Malaria Eradication. 783 ... The disease has engaged the attention of public ... century. Although, pragmatic efforts are made to reduce the scourge of the disease, ..... impregnated bed nets and the selective treatment of .... A Research Excursion.
Rout, T.M.; Kirkwood, R.J.; Sutherland, D.R.; Murphy, S.; McCarthy, M.
Imperfect detection methods make it difficult to tell whether an invasive species has been successfully eradicated. However, management cannot continue indefinitely when individuals are no longer detected – at some point, efforts must be reduced or ceased entirely. The risks of mistakenly inferring
Olives, Casey; Valadez, Joseph J; Pagano, Marcello
To assess the bias incurred when curtailment of Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) is ignored, to present unbiased estimators, to consider the impact of cluster sampling by simulation and to apply our method to published polio immunization data from Nigeria. We present estimators of coverage when using two kinds of curtailed LQAS strategies: semicurtailed and curtailed. We study the proposed estimators with independent and clustered data using three field-tested LQAS designs for assessing polio vaccination coverage, with samples of size 60 and decision rules of 9, 21 and 33, and compare them to biased maximum likelihood estimators. Lastly, we present estimates of polio vaccination coverage from previously published data in 20 local government authorities (LGAs) from five Nigerian states. Simulations illustrate substantial bias if one ignores the curtailed sampling design. Proposed estimators show no bias. Clustering does not affect the bias of these estimators. Across simulations, standard errors show signs of inflation as clustering increases. Neither sampling strategy nor LQAS design influences estimates of polio vaccination coverage in 20 Nigerian LGAs. When coverage is low, semicurtailed LQAS strategies considerably reduces the sample size required to make a decision. Curtailed LQAS designs further reduce the sample size when coverage is high. Results presented dispel the misconception that curtailed LQAS data are unsuitable for estimation. These findings augment the utility of LQAS as a tool for monitoring vaccination efforts by demonstrating that unbiased estimation using curtailed designs is not only possible but these designs also reduce the sample size. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Mills, Anne; Lubell, Yoel; Hanson, Kara
Malaria eradication raises many economic, financial and institutional challenges. This paper reviews these challenges, drawing on evidence from previous efforts to eradicate malaria, with a special focus on resource-poor settings; summarizes more recent evidence on the challenges, drawing on the literature on the difficulties of scaling-up malaria control and strengthening health systems more broadly; and explores the implications of these bodies of evidence for the current call for elimination and intensified control. Economic analyses dating from the eradication era, and more recent analyses, suggest that, in general, the benefits of malaria control outweigh the costs, though few studies have looked at the relative returns to eradication versus long-term control. Estimates of financial costs are scanty and difficult to compare. In the 1960s, the consolidation phase appeared to cost less than $1 per capita and, in 1988, was estimated to be $2.31 per capita (both in 2006 prices). More recent estimates for high coverage of control measures suggest a per capita cost of several dollars. Institutional challenges faced by malaria eradication included limits to the rule of law (a major problem where malaria was concentrated in border areas with movement of people associated with illegal activities), the existence and performance of local implementing structures, and political sustainability at national and global levels. Recent analyses of the constraints to scaling-up malaria control, together with the historical evidence, are used to discuss the economic, financial and institutional challenges that face the renewed call for eradication and intensified control. The paper concludes by identifying a research agenda covering: issues of the allocative efficiency of malaria eradication, especially using macro-economic modelling to estimate the benefits and costs of malaria eradication and intensified control, and studies of the links between malaria control and economic
Full Text Available Abstract Malaria eradication raises many economic, financial and institutional challenges. This paper reviews these challenges, drawing on evidence from previous efforts to eradicate malaria, with a special focus on resource-poor settings; summarizes more recent evidence on the challenges, drawing on the literature on the difficulties of scaling-up malaria control and strengthening health systems more broadly; and explores the implications of these bodies of evidence for the current call for elimination and intensified control. Economic analyses dating from the eradication era, and more recent analyses, suggest that, in general, the benefits of malaria control outweigh the costs, though few studies have looked at the relative returns to eradication versus long-term control. Estimates of financial costs are scanty and difficult to compare. In the 1960s, the consolidation phase appeared to cost less than $1 per capita and, in 1988, was estimated to be $2.31 per capita (both in 2006 prices. More recent estimates for high coverage of control measures suggest a per capita cost of several dollars. Institutional challenges faced by malaria eradication included limits to the rule of law (a major problem where malaria was concentrated in border areas with movement of people associated with illegal activities, the existence and performance of local implementing structures, and political sustainability at national and global levels. Recent analyses of the constraints to scaling-up malaria control, together with the historical evidence, are used to discuss the economic, financial and institutional challenges that face the renewed call for eradication and intensified control. The paper concludes by identifying a research agenda covering: ∘ issues of the allocative efficiency of malaria eradication, especially using macro-economic modelling to estimate the benefits and costs of malaria eradication and intensified control, and studies of the links between
Full Text Available This article traces the history of the growth and development of our National Leprosy Eradication Programme (NLEP. The aims, strategy, means of eradication, the organizational structure have been discussed. Since the beginning of this programme, the prevalence rate and disability rate have shown a sharp decline. The number of cases detected and under treatment have also increased. The achievement made has been possible due to an excellent organization of leprosy relief work under NLEP with the active cooperation of the non- governmental organizations. Now that leprosy is on the decline, the need of education and rehabilitation of patients assumes a greater importance.
The goals of this project are: 1) to study the temporal relationship between activity level and health status in polio survivors and to compare the results with those obtained from an age-matched control population and 2...
The goals of this project are: 1) to study the temporal relationship between activity level and health status in polio survivors and to compare the results with those obtained from an age matched control population and 2...
The goals of this project were: 1) to study the temporal relationship between activity level and health status in polio survivors and to compare the results with those obtained from an age-matched control population and 2...
The goals of this project are: 1) to study the temporal relationship between activity level and health status in polio survivors and to compare the results with those obtained from an age-matched control population and 2...
ISSN 1597-6343. Polio Virus Antibodies Prevalence Amongst Children In Kano State ... poliovirus serotypes (types 1, 2 or 3) which cause poliomyelitis. They are spread by ..... all those that have contributed to the overall success of this work.
Msangi, A.R.; Kiwia, N.; Malele, I.I.; Mramba, F.; Saleh, K.M.; Mussa, W.A.; Juma, K.G.; Dyck, V.A.; Vreysen, M.J.B.; Parker, A.G.; Feldmann, U.; Zhu, Z.R.; Pan, H.
There are about 22 species of tsetse flies found nowhere else in the world except in 36 countries of sub-Saharan Africa. Tsetse flies transmit a debilitating and often fatal disease, trypanosomosis, which causes tremendous losses of livestock, and severely limits agricultural production (it reduces output of milk and meat, causes mortality, infertility and abortion in livestock, deprives the rural population of draught power and manure to improve and increase crop production). Tsetse flies also transmit human trypanosomosis, commonly known as 'sleeping sickness'. It is estimated that over 55 million people living in rural sub-Saharan Africa are at risk from this fatal disease. Tanzania's Zanzibar Island is situated 35 km off the eastern coast and comprises two main islands, Unguja and Pemba. Previous surveys revealed that out of the seven tsetse species found on mainland Tanzania, only Glossina austeni Newstead infested Unguja Island. No tsetse fly was found on the island of Pemba. The fly is responsible for the cyclical transmission of trypanosomosis in livestock, the causative agents being mainly Trypanosoma congolense and, to a lesser extent, T. vivax. It is estimated that in Zanzibar, the disease causes annual losses of US$2 million. Since fly suppression by conventional techniques has often resulted in short-term success, Tanzania has always appreciated that the long-term solution to the trypanosomosis problem is the eradication of tsetse flies in the country. In 1994, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the United Republic of Tanzania embarked on a project with the objective of eradicating tsetse flies from Zanzibar Island by applying the sterile insect technique (SIT) (Dyck et al. 1995, in press). Previous tsetse eradication efforts in Tanzania using SIT, enabled the establishment of a modest capacity on tsetse mass rearing in Tanga (Williamson et al. 1983). The Zanzibar tsetse project was successfully completed in 1997. The estimated cost was
This article presents the World Health Organizations (WHO) evidence and recommendations for the use of polio vaccination from the WHO position paper on polio vaccines - January 2014 recently published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record . This position paper summarizes the WHO position on the introduction of at least one dose of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) into routine immunization schedules as a strategy to mitigate the potential risk of re-emergence of type 2 polio following the withdrawal of Sabin type 2 strains from oral polio vaccine (OPV). The current document replaces the position paper on the use of polio vaccines published in 2010 . Footnotes to this paper provide a number of core references. In accordance with its mandate to provide guidance to Member States on health policy matters, WHO issues a series of regularly updated position papers on vaccines and combinations of vaccines against diseases that have an international public health impact. These papers are concerned primarily with the use of vaccines in large-scale immunization programmes; they summarize essential background information on diseases and vaccines, and conclude with WHO's current position on the use of vaccines in the global context. This paper reflects the recommendations of WHO's Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) on immunization. These recommendations were discussed by SAGE at its November 2013 meeting. Evidence presented at the meeting can be accessed at http://www.who.int/immunization/sage/previous/en/index.html. Copyright © 2014 World Health Organization. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Nijsten, Dre; Carrillo-Santisteve, P; Miglietta, A; Ruitenberg, J; Lopalco, P L
The WHO European Region has been declared polio-free since 2002. By 2010, inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) was the only polio vaccine in use in the EU/EEA for the primary vaccination of children. A systematic review of the literature on polio seroprevalence studies, complemented by the analysis of available vaccine coverage data, has been carried out with the aim of assessing the level of protection against polio in the European population. A total of 52 studies, with data from 14 out of the 31 EU/EEA countries, were included in the analysis. This systematic review shows that, overall, seroprevalence for PV1 and PV3 is high in most countries, although seroimmunity gaps have been detected in several birth cohorts. In particular, relatively low immunity status was found in some countries for individuals born in the 60's and 70's. Discrepancies between reported vaccination coverage and immunity levels have been also highlighted. Countries should make sure that their population is being vaccinated for polio to reduce the risk of local poliovirus transmission in case of importation. Moreover, assessing immunity status should be priority for those traveling to areas where wild polioviruses are still circulating.
Hubacek, Klaus; Baiocchi, Giovanni; Feng, Kuishuang; Patwardhan, Anand
The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change aims to keep warming below 2 °C while recognizing developing countries’ right to eradicate extreme poverty. Poverty eradication is also the first of the Sustainable Development Goals. This paper investigates potential consequences for climate targets of achieving poverty eradication. We find that eradicating extreme poverty, i.e., moving people to an income above $1.9 purchasing power parity (PPP) a day, does not jeopardize the climate target even...
Estívariz, Concepción F; Molnár, Zsuzsanna; Venczel, Linda; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Zingeser, James A; Lipskaya, Galina Y; Kew, Olen M; Berencsi, György; Csohán, Agnes
Historical records of patients with vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) in Hungary during 1961-1981 were reviewed to assess the risk of VAPP after oral polio vaccine (OPV) administration. A confirmed VAPP case was defined as a diagnosis of paralytic poliomyelitis and residual paralysis at 60 days in a patient with an epidemiologic link to the vaccine. Archived poliovirus isolates were retested using polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of the viral protein 1 capsid region. This review confirmed 46 of 47 cases previously reported as VAPP. Three cases originally linked to monovalent OPV (mOPV) 3 and one case linked to mOPV1 presented after administration of bivalent OPV 1 + 3 (bOPV). The adjusted VAPP risk per million doses administered was 0.18 for mOPV1 (2 cases/11.13 million doses), 2.96 for mOPV3 (32 cases/10.81 million doses), and 12.82 for bOPV (5 cases/390,000 doses). Absence of protection from immunization with inactivated poliovirus vaccine or exposure to OPV virus from routine immunization and recent injections could explain the higher relative risk of VAPP in Hungarian children. In polio-endemic areas in which mOPV3 and bOPV are needed to achieve eradication, the higher risk of VAPP would be offset by the high risk of paralysis due to wild poliovirus and higher per-dose efficacy of mOPV3 and bOPV compared with trivalent OPV.
Adam Adem ANYEBE
Full Text Available Poverty situation in Nigeria has become so serious that in 2013 there were as many as 112 million or 70.0% of the country’s population was living below poverty line. It has realized that poverty anywhere is a threat to peace, security and prosperity everywhere hence the conscious efforts by successive administrations in Nigeria to eradicate all forms of extreme poverty and hunger in a country. In spite of these efforts to eradicate absolute poverty in the country, poverty incidence has been on the rise. This study, therefore, attempted to assess NAPEP as a programme to eradicate extreme poverty in the country. Personal interviews and documents were employed in data collection. The data were analyzed using tables, simple percentages and spearman rank correlation. The study showed among others, that NAPEP as a programme targeted at eradicating extreme poverty has not been effective leading to a mixed bag of limited success and continuing challenges. It was therefore, recommended that the programme should be re-examined and possibly re-designed for effective performance instead of scrapping it.
The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) was launched by the World Health Assembly in 1988. By 2006, transmission of indigenous wild poliovirus (WPV) was interrupted in all countries except Nigeria, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India. Among the 36 states and Federal Capital Territory of Nigeria, WPV transmission has persisted in eight northern states considered at high risk; in addition, four other northern states have been considered at high risk for WPV transmission. In these 12 high-risk states, type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) transmission also was observed during 2005-2011. This report updates GPEI progress in Nigeria during January 2010--June 2011 and describes activities required to interrupt transmission. In Nigeria, confirmed WPV cases decreased 95%, from 388 in 2009 to 21 in 2010; cVDPV2 cases decreased 82%, from 154 in 2009 to 27 in 2010. However, as of July 26, 2011, Nigeria had reported 24 WPV cases (including one WPV/cVDPV2 coinfection) and 11 cVDPV2 cases during January-June 2011, compared with six WPV cases and 10 cVDPV2 cases during January-June 2010. Despite substantial progress, immunization activities and surveillance sensitivity will need to be enhanced further to interrupt WPV transmission in Nigeria by the end of 2011.
Rehman, Inayat Ur; Bukhsh, Allah; Khan, Tahir Mehmood
World Health Organization (WHO) measles surveillance data report a reduction in cases of measles globally from 67,524 cases in 2015 to 16,846 in 2016, and a reduction in deaths from 546,800 to 114,900 during period of 2000-14. Pakistan is among the five nations where almost a million children did not receive their first dose of measles vaccination, and outbreaks of the disease resulted in 4386 cases in 2011, 14,687 cases in 2012 with 310 deaths. In 2013, about 25,401 cases of measles were reported and 321 affected children died. The measles vaccination coverage is very low in Pakistan for both 1st dose and booster dose. To prevent outbreaks of measles in Pakistan a national vaccination program should be launched side by side with a polio eradication program in each district and township and a campaign should be launched to educate parents on measles vaccination for childrens to reduce the measles case fatality rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Angez, Mehar; Shaukat, Shahzad; Zahra, Rabaab; Khurshid, Adnan; Sharif, Salmaan; Alam, Muhammad Masroor; Zaidi, Syed Sohail Zahoor
Human enteroviruses are associated with various clinical syndromes and severe neurological disorders. The aim of this study was to determine the molecular epidemiology of non polio enteroviruses and their correlation with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) patients living in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) and Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) of Pakistan. The stool samples collected from these patients were used for isolation of non polio enteroviruses (NPEVs). Out of 38 samples, 29 (76.3%) were successfully typed by microneutralization assay into eleven serotypes including echovirus (E)-3 (5.3%), E-7 (2.6%), E-11 (13.2%), E-12 (7.9%), E-13 (10.5%), E-20 (7.9%), E-27 (5.3%), E-29 (10.5%), E-30 (7.9%), E-33 (2.6%), coxsackievirus (CV) B5 (2.6%) and nine isolates (23.7%) remained untyped which were confirmed as NPEVs by real time RT-PCR. Complete VP1 genetic sequencing data characterized untypeable isolates into enterovirus B77 (EV-B77). Moreover, molecular phylogenetic analysis classified these viruses into two new genotypes having high genetic diversity (at least 17.7%) with prototype. This study provides valuable information on extensive genetic diversity of EV-B77 genotypes. Although, its association with neurological disorder has not yet been known but isolation of nine EV-B77 viruses from AFP cases highlights the fact that they may have a contributing role in the etiology of AFP. In addition, it is needed to establish enterovirus surveillance system and laboratory diagnostic facilities for early detection of NPEVs that may cause poliomyelitis like paralysis especially in the situation when we are at the verge of polio eradication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
SteelFisher, Gillian K; Blendon, Robert J; Guirguis, Sherine; Lodge, William; Caporello, Hannah; Petit, Vincent; Coleman, Michael; Williams, Matthew R; Parwiz, Sardar Mohammad; Corkum, Melissa; Gardner, Scott; Ben-Porath, Eran N
Eradication of poliovirus from endemic countries relies on vaccination of children with oral polio vaccine (OPV) many times a year until the age of 5 years. We aimed to determine caregivers' commitment to OPV in districts of Afghanistan at high risk for polio transmission and to examine what knowledge, attitudes, or experiences could threaten commitment. We designed and analysed a poll using face-to-face interviews among caregivers of children under 5 years of age. The sample was drawn via a stratified multistage cluster design with random route household selection. We calculated the percentage of committed and uncommitted caregivers. All percentages were weighted. We then compared percentages of uncommitted caregivers among those with varying knowledge, attitudes, and experiences, using logistic regression to control for possible demographic confounders. Between Dec 19, 2014, and Jan 5, 2015, we interviewed 1980 caregivers, 21% of whom were "uncommitted" to accepting OPV. Multiple measures of knowledge, attitudes, and experiences are associated with lack of commitment. For example, compared with their relevant counterparts, caregivers are more likely to be uncommitted if they did not trust vaccinators "a great deal" (54% vs 9%), if they do not know that polio spreads through contaminated water (41% vs 14%), or if they believe rumours that OPV is not halal (50% vs 21%). To enhance OPV commitment, it might be useful to consider a multifactorial approach that highlights building trust in vaccinators, providing facts about transmission, sharing positive messages to overcome key rumours, and strengthening community support for vaccination. Harvard T H Chan School of Public Health and UNICEF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
World Health Organization
This article presents the World Health Organization's (WHO) recommendations on the use of polio vaccine excerpted from the WHO position paper on polio vaccines - March 2016, published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record . This position paper on polio vaccines replaces the 2014 WHO position paper . The position paper summarizes the WHO position on the introduction of at least one dose of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) into routine immunization schedules as a strategy to mitigate the potential risk of re-emergence of type 2 polio following the withdrawal of Sabin type 2 strains from oral polio vaccine (OPV) . Footnotes to this paper provide a number of core references including references to grading tables that assess the quality of the scientific evidence, and to the evidence-to-recommendation table. In accordance with its mandate to provide guidance to Member States on health policy matters, WHO issues a series of regularly updated position papers on vaccines and combinations of vaccines against diseases that have an international public health impact. These papers are concerned primarily with the use of vaccines in large-scale immunization programmes; they summarize essential background information on diseases and vaccines, and conclude with WHO's current position on the use of vaccines in the global context. This position paper reflects the global switch from trivalent to bivalent OPV which took place in April 2016. Recommendations on the use of polio vaccines have been discussed on multiple occasions by SAGE, most recently in October 2016; evidence presented at these meetings can be accessed at: http://www.who.int/immunization/sage/previous/en/index.html. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brown, Alexandra E; Okayasu, Hiromasa; Nzioki, Michael M; Wadood, Mufti Z; Chabot-Couture, Guillaume; Quddus, Arshad; Walker, George; Sutter, Roland W
Monitoring the quality of supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) is a key tool for polio eradication. Regular monitoring data, however, are often unreliable, showing high coverage levels in virtually all areas, including those with ongoing virus circulation. To address this challenge, lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) was introduced in 2009 as an additional tool to monitor SIA quality. Now used in 8 countries, LQAS provides a number of programmatic benefits: identifying areas of weak coverage quality with statistical reliability, differentiating areas of varying coverage with greater precision, and allowing for trend analysis of campaign quality. LQAS also accommodates changes to survey format, interpretation thresholds, evaluations of sample size, and data collection through mobile phones to improve timeliness of reporting and allow for visualization of campaign quality. LQAS becomes increasingly important to address remaining gaps in SIA quality and help focus resources on high-risk areas to prevent the continued transmission of wild poliovirus. © Crown copyright 2014.
Bang, Hyun; Suh, Jee Hyun; Lee, Seung Yeol; Kim, Keewon; Yang, Eun Joo; Jung, Se Hee; Jang, Soong-Nang; Han, Soo Jeong; Kim, Wan-Ho; Oh, Min-Gyun; Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Lee, Sam-Gyu
Objective To obtain information on the socioeconomic, medical, and functional status of polio survivors, and to use these results as the preliminary data for establishing the middle-aged cohort of polio survivors. Methods The subjects were recruited based on the medical records of multiple hospitals and centers. They were assessed through a structured questionnaire over the phone. Post-poliomyelitis syndrome (PPS) was identified according to the specified diagnostic criteria. Differences between polio survivors with or without PPS were evaluated, and the risk factors for PPS were analyzed by the odds ratio (OR). Results Majority of polio survivors were middle-aged and mean age was 51.2±8.3 years. A total of 188 out of 313 polio survivors met the adopted criteria for PPS based on the symptoms, yielding a prevalence of 61.6%. Mean interval between acute poliomyelitis and the development of PPS was 38.5±11.6 years. Female gender (OR 1.82; confidence interval [CI] 1.09-3.06), the age at onset of poliomyelitis (OR 1.75; CI 1.05-2.94), the use of orthoses or walking aids (OR 2.46; CI 1.44-4.20), and the history of medical treatment for paralysis, pain or gait disturbance (OR 2.62; CI 1.52-4.51) represented independent risk factors for PPS. Conclusion We found that the majority of Korean polio survivors entered middle age with many medical, functional, and social problems. Female gender, early age of onset of poliomyelitis, the use of orthoses or walking aids, and the history of medical treatment for paralysis, pain or gait disturbance were identified as the significant risk factors for PPS. A comprehensive and multidisciplinary plan should be prepared to manage polio survivors considering their need for health care services and the risk factors for late effects, such as PPS. PMID:25379493
ten Have, R; Westdijk, J; Levels, L M A R; Koedam, P; de Haan, A; Hamzink, M R J; Metz, B; Kersten, G F A
This study addresses observations made in view of testing in practice the guideline in the European Pharmacopoeia (EP) on omitting the rat potency test for release of polio containing vaccines. In general, use of the guideline is valid and the D-antigen ELISA can indeed be used as an in vitro alternative for the in vivo test. However, the set-up of the ELISA is crucial and should include detection of antigenic site 1 in polio serotype 3 as destruction of that site by trypsin results in a reduced rat potency. Antigenic site 1 in polio serotype 2 may also be modified by trypsin, but the cleavage of viral protein 1 (VP1) did not affect the rat potency. Therefore, any antigenic site, except site 1, can be used for detection of polio serotype 2. It is advised to include testing of the effect of trypsin treatment in the EP-guideline. This allows polio vaccine manufacturers to check whether their in-house ELISA needs improvement. Copyright © 2015 The International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Culver, Carolynn; Lahr, Heather; Johnson, Leigh; Cassell, Jodi
Aquatic invasive species (AIS)continue to threaten coastal and marine habitats in California. The goal of this project is to conduct research and develop outreach materials that help agencies, groups and individuals prevent, eradication and control AIS. Current objectives include: 1) investigate recruitment dynamics of quagga mussels in southern California to provide baseline informaiton on infestations in various locations, inform monitoring efforts and to identify factors influencing the su...
Radziszewski, Franciszek; Janiec, Janusz; Henszel, Łukasz; Izdebski, Radosław; Polański, Piotr
Polio eradication programme was launched after World Health Assembly in 1988. Despite considerable decrease in reported cases it still constitutes a significant public health threat. All WHO member state is bound to appoint National IHR Focal Point, which operates based on International Health Regulations (2005), which were enacted during the World Health Assembly in 2005. In Poland National IHR Focal Point (IHR NFP in Poland) operates since 2007, and is located in the Department of Epidemiology, in National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene. Its aim is to acquire, assess and to transfer information on events which may constitute an international threat for the public health. IHR NFP in Poland has an access to WHO’s Event Information Site (EIS) as well as Early Warning and Response System (EWRS) with reading-only credentials. Both platforms are of limited access (1). Among recipients of IHR NFP notifications and information are experts from many fields such as epidemiology, virology, bacteriology and others- related to specific type of notification, as well as specific and appointed members of state’s administration and authorities in the field of public health. In this paper a review of notifications on the subject of poliomyelitis, sent to IHR NFP in Poland in the years 2010-2016 is presented, as well as references to poliomyelitis epidemiological situation were made based on the date from Global Polio Eradication Initiative.
Bakker, Wilfried A M; Thomassen, Yvonne E; van't Oever, Aart G; Westdijk, Janny; van Oijen, Monique G C T; Sundermann, Lars C; van't Veld, Peter; Sleeman, Eelco; van Nimwegen, Fred W; Hamidi, Ahd; Kersten, Gideon F A; van den Heuvel, Nico; Hendriks, Jan T; van der Pol, Leo A
Industrial-scale inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) production dates back to the 1960s when at the Rijks Instituut voor de Volksgezondheid (RIV) in Bilthoven a process was developed based on micro-carrier technology and primary monkey kidney cells. This technology was freely shared with several pharmaceutical companies and institutes worldwide. In this contribution, the history of one of the first cell-culture based large-scale biological production processes is summarized. Also, recent developments and the anticipated upcoming shift from regular IPV to Sabin-IPV are presented. Responding to a call by the World Health Organization (WHO) for new polio vaccines, the development of Sabin-IPV was continued, after demonstrating proof of principle in the 1990s, at the Netherlands Vaccine Institute (NVI). Development of Sabin-IPV plays an important role in the WHO polio eradication strategy as biocontainment will be critical in the post-OPV cessation period. The use of attenuated Sabin strains instead of wild-type Salk polio strains will provide additional safety during vaccine production. Initially, the Sabin-IPV production process will be based on the scale-down model of the current, and well-established, Salk-IPV process. In parallel to clinical trial material production, process development, optimization and formulation research is being carried out to further optimize the process and reduce cost per dose. Also, results will be shown from large-scale (to prepare for future technology transfer) generation of Master- and Working virus seedlots, and clinical trial material (for phase I studies) production. Finally, the planned technology transfer to vaccine manufacturers in low and middle-income countries is discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mercer, Laina D; Safdar, Rana M; Ahmed, Jamal; Mahamud, Abdirahman; Khan, M Muzaffar; Gerber, Sue; O'Leary, Aiden; Ryan, Mike; Salet, Frank; Kroiss, Steve J; Lyons, Hil; Upfill-Brown, Alexander; Chabot-Couture, Guillaume
Pakistan is one of only three countries where poliovirus circulation remains endemic. For the Pakistan Polio Eradication Program, identifying high risk districts is essential to target interventions and allocate limited resources. Using a hierarchical Bayesian framework we developed a spatial Poisson hurdle model to jointly model the probability of one or more paralytic polio cases, and the number of cases that would be detected in the event of an outbreak. Rates of underimmunization, routine immunization, and population immunity, as well as seasonality and a history of cases were used to project future risk of cases. The expected number of cases in each district in a 6-month period was predicted using indicators from the previous 6-months and the estimated coefficients from the model. The model achieves an average of 90% predictive accuracy as measured by area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, for the past 3 years of cases. The risk of poliovirus has decreased dramatically in many of the key reservoir areas in Pakistan. The results of this model have been used to prioritize sub-national areas in Pakistan to receive additional immunization activities, additional monitoring, or other special interventions.
Vreede, Katarina Skough; Sunnerhagen, Katharina S
Describe polio patients visiting a polio clinic in Sweden, a country where vaccination was introduced in 1957. A consecutive cohort study. Prior polio patients. All patients (n = 865) visiting the polio clinic at Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg Sweden, between 1994 and 2012 were included in this study. Data at first visit regarding patient characteristics, polio classification, data of electromyography, origin, assistive devices and gait speed as well as muscle strength were collected for these patients. Twenty-three patients were excluded because no polio diagnosis could be established. A total of 842 patients with confirmed polio remained in the study. More than twenty percent of the patients were from countries outside the Nordic region and considerably younger than those from the Nordic region. The majority of the emigrants were from Asia and Africa followed by Europe (outside the Nordic region). Of all patients included ninety-seven percent (n = 817) had polio in the lower extremity and almost 53% (n = 444) had polio in the upper extremity while 28% (n = 238) had polio in the trunk, according to clinical classification of polio. Compared with a sample of the normal population, the polio patients walked 61-71% slower, and were 53-77% weaker in muscle strength of the knee and foot as well as grip strength. The younger patients with polio emigrating from countries with different cultures may lead to a challenge for the multi professional teams working with post-polio rehabilitation and are of importance when planning for the care of polio patients the coming years.
Alawieh, Ali; Sabra, Zahraa; Langley, E Farris; Bizri, Abdul Rahman; Hamadeh, Randa; Zaraket, Fadi A
After the re-introduction of poliovirus to Syria in 2013, Lebanon was considered at high transmission risk due to its proximity to Syria and the high number of Syrian refugees. However, after a large-scale national immunization initiative, Lebanon was able to prevent a potential outbreak of polio among nationals and refugees. In this work, we used a computational individual-simulation model to assess the risk of poliovirus threat to Lebanon prior and after the immunization campaign and to quantitatively assess the healthcare impact of the campaign and the required standards that need to be maintained nationally to prevent a future outbreak. Acute poliomyelitis surveillance in Lebanon was along with the design and coverage rate of the recent national polio immunization campaign were reviewed from the records of the Lebanese Ministry of Public Health. Lebanese population demographics including Syrian and Palestinian refugees were reviewed to design individual-based models that predicts the consequences of polio spread to Lebanon and evaluate the outcome of immunization campaigns. The model takes into account geographic, demographic and health-related features. Our simulations confirmed the high risk of polio outbreaks in Lebanon within 10 days of case introduction prior to the immunization campaign, and showed that the current immunization campaign significantly reduced the speed of the infection in the event poliomyelitis cases enter the country. A minimum of 90% national immunization coverage was found to be required to prevent exponential propagation of potential transmission. Both surveillance and immunization efforts should be maintained at high standards in Lebanon and other countries in the area to detect and limit any potential outbreak. The use of computational population simulation models can provide a quantitative approach to assess the impact of immunization campaigns and the burden of infectious diseases even in the context of population migration.
Full Text Available Abstract Background After the re-introduction of poliovirus to Syria in 2013, Lebanon was considered at high transmission risk due to its proximity to Syria and the high number of Syrian refugees. However, after a large-scale national immunization initiative, Lebanon was able to prevent a potential outbreak of polio among nationals and refugees. In this work, we used a computational individual-simulation model to assess the risk of poliovirus threat to Lebanon prior and after the immunization campaign and to quantitatively assess the healthcare impact of the campaign and the required standards that need to be maintained nationally to prevent a future outbreak. Methods Acute poliomyelitis surveillance in Lebanon was along with the design and coverage rate of the recent national polio immunization campaign were reviewed from the records of the Lebanese Ministry of Public Health. Lebanese population demographics including Syrian and Palestinian refugees were reviewed to design individual-based models that predicts the consequences of polio spread to Lebanon and evaluate the outcome of immunization campaigns. The model takes into account geographic, demographic and health-related features. Results Our simulations confirmed the high risk of polio outbreaks in Lebanon within 10 days of case introduction prior to the immunization campaign, and showed that the current immunization campaign significantly reduced the speed of the infection in the event poliomyelitis cases enter the country. A minimum of 90% national immunization coverage was found to be required to prevent exponential propagation of potential transmission. Conclusions Both surveillance and immunization efforts should be maintained at high standards in Lebanon and other countries in the area to detect and limit any potential outbreak. The use of computational population simulation models can provide a quantitative approach to assess the impact of immunization campaigns and the burden of
Dogra, Sunil; Narang, Tarun; Kumar, Bhushan
Leprosy is among the world's oldest and most dreaded diseases and it has been synonymous with stigma and discrimination due to the hideous deformities it produced, mystery around its aetiology and transmission and lack of any effective remedy till recently. Leprosy control started with the use of chaulmoogra oil and for the last three decades, multi drug therapy (MDT) has been our main tool against leprosy. In the last two decades, the reported global prevalence of active leprosy infection has dropped by almost 90 per cent by the combined efforts of the World Health Organization (WHO), local governments, health professionals, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), however, a parallel drop in the incidence or new case detection rate (NCDR) has not occurred. From 1994 through 2011, more than 100,000 new cases are being detected annually, of whom maximum case load is from India. There is need for research on tools for early diagnosis, short and effective treatment, and prevention of deformities and disabilities. Evaluating the role of immunotherapy and immunoprophylaxis will also lead us to better understanding of their mode of action. Further molecular analysis of Mycobacterium leprae genome may provide the requisite basis for all this. The current reality is that there is a need to sustain and provide quality leprosy services to all persons through general health services, including good referral system. All these provisions in the integrated health care approach will go a long way in further reducing the stigma. Efforts need to be made to reduce deformity through early detection, self care, physiotherapy and reconstructive surgery and developing sound surveillance systems. With all the remarkable achievements in the fight against leprosy, the stage is now set for the final assault. It is hoped that with the efforts of all the stake holders and strong political will, the disease will be eradicated in the near future. PMID:23481049
Beelen, Anita; Nollet, Frans; de Visser, Marianne; de Jong, Bareld A.; Lankhorst, Gustaaf J.; Sargeant, Anthony J.
Quadriceps strength, maximal anatomical cross-sectional area (CSA), maximal voluntary activation (MVA), and maximal relaxation rate (MRR) were studied in 48 subjects with a past history of polio, 26 with and 22 without postpoliomyelitis syndrome (PPS), and in 13 control subjects. It was also
Nollet, F.; Beelen, A.; Sargeant, A. J.; de Visser, M.; Lankhorst, G. J.; de Jong, B. A.
OBJECTIVES: To compare the submaximal exercise capacity of polio subjects with postpoliomyelitis syndrome (PPS) and without (non-PPS) with that of healthy control subjects, to investigate the relationship of this capacity with maximal short-term power and quadriceps strength, and to evaluate
Mats, A N; Kuz'mina, M N; Cheprasova, E V
Analysis of publications about real and suggested contamination of polio vaccines produced in 1950s and 1960s with simian viruses--SV40 and SIV--is performed. Factual data are discussed and antivaccination fictions about calamitous consequences of really occurred contamination with SV40 and concocted contamination with SIV are refuted.
Rapid assessment as an evaluation tool for polio national immunisation days in Brong Ahafo region, Ghana. ... TM Akande, M Eshetu, G Bonsu ... Conclusion: Rapid assessment is a valuable tool for evaluation of NIDs; it enables timely intervention in covering missed children and helps in careful interpretation of the usual ...
The aim of this thesis was to expand the body of knowledge on the diminished aerobic capacity of individuals with post-polio syndrome (PPS). The studies described in this thesis were based on the assumption that, besides a reduced muscle mass, deconditioning contributes to the severely diminished
Arzu Yagiz On
Full Text Available Background: Post-polio syndrome (PPS is a condition that affects polio survivors decades after recovery from an initial acute attack. It is a well-known entity that limbs thought to be nonaffected by polio survivors commonly demonstrate electromyography (EMG evidence of prior polio. Although the diagnosis of PPS requires a remote history of acute paralytic polio, clinically unapparent damage caused by poliovirus can be associated with PPS later in life. Objective: To evaluate EMG abnormalities and late progressive symptoms in limbs thought to be nonaffected by polio survivors, in order to determine the prevalence of subclinical motor neuron involvement in those fulfilling criteria for PPS comparing to those without such symptoms. Materials and Methods: Clinical and EMG findings of 464 limbs in 116 polio survivors who had been admitted to our clinic were analyzed. Affection of the limbs by polio was classified based on the patient′s self-report on remote weakness during the acute phase of poliomyelitis, muscle strength measured by manual muscle testing, and four-limb needle EMG. Results: Seventy-six of the patients (65.5% met the criteria of PPS. Needle EMG studies revealed subclinical involvement in 122 out of 293 (42% limbs with no history of remote weakness during the acute phase of poliomyelitis. Prevalence of subclinical involvement was found 47% in polio survivors who met the criteria of PPS compared to 33% in those without PPS (P = 0.013. Among the limbs that had developed new weakness in PPS patients, 33.5% had subclinical involvement. Discussion and Conclusion: Subclinical involvement is common in limbs thought to be nonaffected by polio survivors, and this is especially present in those fulfilling criteria for PPS. New muscle weakness may develop in apparently nonaffected, subclinically involved muscles. Thus we believe that four-limb EMG studies should be performed in all polio survivors, especially in those with the symptoms of PPS.
Hadano, K; Nakamura, H; Hamanaka, T
We report three cases of effortful echolalia in patients with cerebral infarction. The clinical picture of speech disturbance is associated with Type 1 Transcortical Motor Aphasia (TCMA, Goldstein, 1915). The patients always spoke nonfluently with loss of speech initiative, dysarthria, dysprosody, agrammatism, and increased effort and were unable to repeat sentences longer than those containing four or six words. In conversation, they first repeated a few words spoken to them, and then produced self initiated speech. The initial repetition as well as the subsequent self initiated speech, which were realized equally laboriously, can be regarded as mitigated echolalia (Pick, 1924). They were always aware of their own echolalia and tried to control it without effect. These cases demonstrate that neither the ability to repeat nor fluent speech are always necessary for echolalia. The possibility that a lesion in the left medial frontal lobe, including the supplementary motor area, plays an important role in effortful echolalia is discussed.
Khan, Muhammad Umair; Ahmad, Akram; Salman, Saad; Ayub, Maria; Aqeel, Talieha; Haq, Noman-Ul; Saleem, Fahad; Khan, Muhammad Ubaid
Pakistan is one of the two countries where polio remains endemic. Among multiple reasons of polio prevalence, false religious beliefs are accounted as major barriers towards polio immunization in Pakistan. Within this context, religious scholars are now engaged in polio immunization campaigns to dismantle the myths and battle the resurgence of polio in Pakistan. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge, attitudes and perceived barriers of Muslim scholars towards polio immunization in Pakistan. A descriptive, cross-sectional survey of Muslim scholars was conducted in Quetta and Peshawar divisions of Pakistan. From October to December 2015, a convenience sample of 770 Muslim scholars was recruited from the local mosques and religious institutions to participate in this study. Knowledge, attitudes, and perceived barriers were assessed by using self-administered, anonymous and pretested questionnaire. Descriptive and regression analyses were used to express the results with p polio with a mean score of 7.16 ± 2.12 (based on 14 questions). Knowledge gaps were identified about the transmission (32.6 %) and consequences of poliovirus (39.9 %). Overall, 527 (68.4 %) participants showed positive attitudes towards polio immunization with a mean attitude score of 27.35 ± 2.68 (based on nine statements). The majority of participants agreed on the need of depoliticizing polio immunization issues (87.1 %), while reservations were noted about their willingness to participate in future polio immunization programs (44.6 %). Security (75.8 %) and vaccine management issues (64 %) were reported by the participants as the major barriers towards polio immunization in Pakistan. The findings showed poor knowledge of Muslim scholars towards polio; however, their attitudes were positive towards polio immunization. More studies are required to assess the knowledge and attitudes of Muslim scholars at the national level to validate the findings of this study.
Habib, Muhammad Atif; Soofi, Sajid; Cousens, Simon; Anwar, Saeed; Haque, Najib Ul; Ahmed, Imran; Ali, Noshad; Tahir, Rehman; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A
Pakistan faces huge challenges in eradicating polio due to widespread poliovirus transmission and security challenges. Innovative interventions are urgently needed to strengthen community buy-in, to increase the coverage of oral polio vaccine (OPV) and other routine immunisations, and to enhance immunity through the introduction of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) in combination with OPV. We aimed to evaluate the acceptability and effect on immunisation coverage of an integrated strategy for community engagement and maternal and child health immunisation campaigns in insecure and conflict-affected polio-endemic districts of Pakistan. We did a community-based three-arm cluster randomised trial in healthy children aged 1 month to 5 years that resided within the study sites in three districts of Pakistan at high risk of polio. Clusters were randomly assigned by a computer algorithm using restricted randomisation in blocks of 20 by an external statistician (1:1:1) to receive routine polio programme activities (control, arm A), additional interventions with community outreach and mobilisation using an enhanced communication package and provision of short-term preventive maternal and child health services and routine immunisation (health camps), including OPV (arm B), or all interventions of arm B with additional provision of IPV delivered at the maternal and child health camps (arm C). An independent team conducted surveys at baseline, endline, and after each round of supplementary immunisation activity for acceptability and effect. The primary outcome measures for the study were coverage of OPV, IPV, and routine extended programme on immunisation vaccines and changes in the proportion of unvaccinated and fully vaccinated children. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01908114. Between June 4, 2013, and May 31, 2014, 387 clusters were randomised (131 to arm A, 127 to arm B, and 129 to arm C). At baseline, 28 760 children younger than 5 years were
Smith, Kendall A
One of the most celebrated achievements of immunology and modern medicine is the eradication of the dreaded plague smallpox. From the introduction of smallpox vaccination by Edward Jenner, to its popularization by Louis Pasteur, to the eradication effort led by Donald Henderson, this story has many lessons for us today, including the characteristics of the disease and vaccine that permitted its eradication, and the obviousness of the vaccine as a vector for other intractable Infectious diseases. The disease itself, interpreted in the light of modern molecular immunology, is an obvious immunopathological disease, which occurs after a latent interval of 1-2 weeks, and manifests as a systemic cell-mediated delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) syndrome. The vaccine that slayed this dragon was given the name vaccinia, and was thought to have evolved from cowpox virus, but is now known to be most closely related to a poxvirus isolated from a horse. Of interest is the fact that of the various isolates of orthopox viruses, only variola, vaccinia and monkeypox viruses can infect humans. In contrast to the systemic disease of variola, vaccinia only replicates locally at the site of inoculation, and causes a localized DTH response that usually peaks after 7-10 days. This difference in the pathogenicity of variola vs. vaccinia is thought to be due to the capacity of variola to circumvent innate immunity, which allows it to disseminate widely before the adaptive immune response occurs. Thus, the fact that vaccinia virus is attenuated compared to variola, but is still replication competent, makes for its remarkable efficacy as a vaccine, as the localized infection activates all of the cells and molecules of both innate and adaptive immunity. Accordingly vaccinia itself, and not modified replication incompetent vaccina, is the hope for use as a vector in the eradication of additional pathogenic microbes from the globe.
Tsetse flies infest vast areas of Africa and transmit a parasitic disease which devastates livestock herds and spreads debilitating 'sleeping sickness' amongst people. Past efforts to control the disease - Trypanosomosis - and the carrier insects have met with only limited success. But now an environmentally friendly technology called the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) may provide a lasting solution to this scourge. Working with the Tanzanian Government and Zanzibar authorities, the Department of Technical Co-operation has sponsored a 'Model Project', with technical support from the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, to eradicate the tsetse fly completely from Zanzibar Island by applying SIT. (IAEA)
9.0%) and history of polio vaccination (75.0% vs. 0.0%). No wild-type ... serious threat to polio eradication program in Nigeria. ... (GPEI) is widespread use of oral polio vaccine at ..... concerted effort should be made by the government.
area he represents. There are three major lawsuits that had impact on the Texas Brucel - losis Program b6cause of questionable constitutional authority...I.- 20 3. Surveillance Prugram The surveillance program element has been a part of the brucel - losis eradication program since it originated in 1959...infected herds selected to participate in the survey. The survey questions were designed to determine if the brucel - losis eradication prugram
Yazar, Memet; Kurt Yazar, Sevgi; Kozanoğlu, Erol
Many things cause leg asymmetry and sequelae seen after poliomyelitis infections are still a cause of leg deformities. In this study, lipofilling and liposuction combinations are performed on patients with poliomyelitis sequelae. Volume deficiency is not the only leg problem with polio sequelae, leg length is also a problem. For this reason, the length deficiency must be addressed in order to achieve the desired symmetry. The aim of this study is correcting limb asymmetry by a method addressing both limb length deficiency by heel raise and volume deficiency by injection of fat based on corrected limb length. From 2011 through 2013, 10 female patients who had unilateral leg atrophy as a result of paediatric polio infections were included in our study. All of the patients were treated with liposuction and lipofilling combinations. During planning, a ridge was placed under the affected leg in order to equalize the lengths of both legs. The fat injection sites on the affected leg were marked to mimic the unaffected leg. All the patients stated that they were satisfied with the results. Transient hypoesthesia was seen in only one patient, but this was spontaneously resolved six months later. The study results indicate that the asymmetric fat injection procedure can be a good technique to use with patients who have polio sequelae, both with short legs and volume deformities. 4. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Troy, Stephanie B; Kouiavskaia, Diana; Siik, Julia; Kochba, Efrat; Beydoun, Hind; Mirochnitchenko, Olga; Levin, Yotam; Khardori, Nancy; Chumakov, Konstantin; Maldonado, Yvonne
Inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) is necessary for global polio eradication because oral polio vaccine can rarely cause poliomyelitis as it mutates and may fail to provide adequate immunity in immunocompromised populations. However, IPV is unaffordable for many developing countries. Intradermal IPV shows promise as a means to decrease the effective dose and cost of IPV, but prior studies, all using 20% of the standard dose used in intramuscular IPV, resulted in inferior antibody titers. We randomly assigned 231 adults with well-controlled human immunodeficiency virus infection at a ratio of 2:2:2:1 to receive 40% of the standard dose of IPV intradermally, 20% of the standard dose intradermally, the full standard dose intramuscularly, or 40% of the standard dose intramuscularly. Intradermal vaccination was done using the NanoPass MicronJet600 microneedle device. Baseline immunity was 87%, 90%, and 66% against poliovirus serotypes 1, 2, and 3, respectively. After vaccination, antibody titers increased a median of 64-fold. Vaccine response to 40% of the standard dose administered intradermally was comparable to that of the standard dose of IPV administered intramuscularly and resulted in higher (although not significantly) antibody titers. Intradermal administration had higher a incidence of local side effects (redness and itching) but a similar incidence of systemic side effects and was preferred by study participants over intramuscular administration. A 60% reduction in the standard IPV dose without reduction in antibody titers is possible through intradermal administration. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Kirkpatrick, Beth D; Colgate, E Ross; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C; Haque, Rashidul; Dickson, Dorothy M; Carmolli, Marya P; Nayak, Uma; Taniuchi, Mami; Naylor, Caitlin; Qadri, Firdausi; Ma, Jennie Z; Alam, Masud; Walsh, Mary Claire; Diehl, Sean A; Petri, William A
Oral vaccines appear less effective in children in the developing world. Proposed biologic reasons include concurrent enteric infections, malnutrition, breast milk interference, and environmental enteropathy (EE). Rigorous study design and careful data management are essential to begin to understand this complex problem while assuring research subject safety. Herein, we describe the methodology and lessons learned in the PROVIDE study (Dhaka, Bangladesh). A randomized clinical trial platform evaluated the efficacy of delayed-dose oral rotavirus vaccine as well as the benefit of an injectable polio vaccine replacing one dose of oral polio vaccine. This rigorous infrastructure supported the additional examination of hypotheses of vaccine underperformance. Primary and secondary efficacy and immunogenicity measures for rotavirus and polio vaccines were measured, as well as the impact of EE and additional exploratory variables. Methods for the enrollment and 2-year follow-up of a 700 child birth cohort are described, including core laboratory, safety, regulatory, and data management practices. Intense efforts to standardize clinical, laboratory, and data management procedures in a developing world setting provide clinical trials rigor to all outcomes. Although this study infrastructure requires extensive time and effort, it allows optimized safety and confidence in the validity of data gathered in complex, developing country settings. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
Khowaja, Asif Raza; Khan, Sher Ali; Nizam, Naveeda; Omer, Saad Bin; Zaidi, Anita
To assess parent's knowledge and perceptions surrounding polio and polio vaccination, self-reported participation in polio supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) targeting children aged questionnaire was administered to assess parental knowledge of polio and participation in polio SIAs conducted in September and October 2011. Additionally, 30 parents of Pashtun ethnicity (a high-risk group) who refused to vaccinate their children were interviewed in depth to determine why. Descriptive and bivariate analyses by ethnic and socioeconomic group were performed for quantitative data; thematic analysis was conducted for qualitative interviews with Pashtun parents. Of 1017 parents surveyed, 412 (41%) had never heard of polio; 132 (13%) did not participate in one SIA and 157 (15.4%) did not participate in either SIA. Among non-participants, 34 (21.6%) reported not having been contacted by a vaccinator; 116 (73.9%) reported having refused to participate, and 7 (4.5%) reported that the child was absent from home when the vaccinator visited. Refusals clustered in low-income Pashtun (43/441; 9.8%) and high-income families of any ethnic background (71/153; 46.4%). Low-income Pashtuns were more likely to not have participated in polio SIAs than low-income non-Pashtuns (odds ratio, OR: 7.1; 95% confidence interval, CI: 3.47-14.5). Reasons commonly cited among Pashtuns for refusing vaccination included fear of sterility; lack of faith in the polio vaccine; scepticism about the vaccination programme, and fear that the vaccine might contain religiously forbidden ingredients. In Karachi, interruption of polio transmission requires integrated and participatory community interventions targeting high-risk populations.
Sazzad, Hossain M S; Rainey, Jeanette J; Kahn, Anna-Lea; Mach, Ondrej; Liyanage, Jayantha B L; Alam, Ahmed Nawsher; Kawser, Choudhury A; Hossain, Asgar; Sutter, Roland; Luby, Stephen P
Persons with primary immune deficiency disorders (PIDD) who receive oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) may transmit immunodeficiency-associated vaccine-derived polioviruses (iVDPVs) and cause paralytic polio. The objective of this study was to identify children with PIDD in Bangladesh, and estimate the proportion with chronic poliovirus excretion. Patients admitted at 5 teaching hospitals were screened for PIDD according to standardized clinical case definitions. PIDD was confirmed by age-specific quantitative immunoglobulin levels. Stool specimens were collected from patients with confirmed PIDD. From February 2011 through January 2013, approximately 96 000 children were screened, and 53 patients were identified who met the clinical case definition for PIDD. Thirteen patients (24%) had age-specific quantitative immunoglobulins results that confirmed PIDD. Of these, 9 (69%) received OPV 3-106 months before stool specimen collection. Among 11 patients, stool specimens from 1 patient tested positive for polioviruses 34 months after OPV ingestion. However, the poliovirus isolate was not available for genetic sequencing, and a subsequent stool specimen 45 days later was negative. The risk of chronic poliovirus excretion among children with PIDD in Bangladesh seems to be low. The national polio eradication program should incorporate strategies for screening for poliovirus excretion among patients with PIDD. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Back ground. Post polio paralysis is a grave complication if poliomyelitis. The victims can be rehabilitated to ambulate erect by reconstructive operations, use of orthosis and physiotherapy. This study assesses the problems of post polio paralysis, rehabilitative interventions and calls for a surgical reawakening in this regard.
B C Ravikumar
Full Text Available Psoriasis being a common skin condition, atypical forms and unusual localizations of this disease are quite frequently seen. However, psoriasis sparing a polio-affected limb is extremely rare. We report a case of an adult male, who presented with psoriasis distributed all over the body but with almost complete sparing of the polio-affected left lower limb.
Ploeger, Hilde E.; Bus, Sicco A.; Brehm, Merel-Anne; Nollet, Frans
In polio survivors with calf muscle weakness, dorsiflexion-restricting ankle-foot orthoses (DR-AFOs) aim to improve gait in order to reduce walking-related problems such as instability or increased energy cost. However, evidence on the efficacy of DR-AFOs in polio survivors is lacking. We
Mohanty, Madhu C; Nalavade, Uma P; Deshpande, Jagadish M
IgG and IgA immunocompetence of children with wild poliovirus poliomyelitis and non-polio acute flaccid paralysis. 932 cases of acute flaccid paralysis, reported in 2008-2009, were tested for presence of polio and non-polio enteroviruses according to the WHO standards. Serum IgA and IgG levels were determined by sandwich ELISA. Mean (SD) IgA levels [0.87 (0.62)g/L; n=28] of virologically confirmed poliomyelitis cases were lower than those of virus negative [1.21 (0.83)g/L; n=612] and non-polio Enterovirus positive [1.22 (0.79)g/L; n=240] cases of acute flaccid paralysis. No significant difference was observed in the concentration of IgG among these groups. IgA plays an important role in protection against poliomyelitis.
Aaby, Peter; Hedegaard, Kathryn; Sodemann, Morten
Though previous studies have suggested a non-specific beneficial effect of oral polio vaccine (OPV), there has been no evaluation of the mortality impact of national polio immunization days. On the other hand, studies examining the effect of OPV and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccines...... with a register for the only paediatric ward in Bissau to determine the risk of hospitalisations. Among children under 5 years of age, 82% had received 1 or 2 doses of polio vaccines during the campaign. Though polio vaccination during the campaign was associated with slightly lower mortality, this difference...... was not significant for all children under 5 years of age (mortality ratio (MR)=0.46 (0.18-1.15)). However, oral polio vaccination was associated with a beneficial effect for children under 6 months of age at the time of the campaign, the mortality ratio being 0.09 (95% CI 0.01-0.85) in the 3 months before the war...
Xing, Sifei; Siliciano, Robert F.
The latent reservoir for HIV-1 in resting CD4+ T cells remains a major barrier to HIV-1 eradication, even though highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) can successfully reduce plasma HIV-1 levels to below the detection limit of clinical assays and reverse disease progression. Proposed eradication strategies involve reactivation of this latent reservoir. Multiple mechanisms are believed to be involved in maintaining HIV-1 latency, mostly through suppression of transcription. These include cytoplasmic sequestration of host transcription factors and epigenetic modifications such as histone deacetylation, histone methylation and DNA methylation. Therefore, strategies targeting these mechanisms have been explored for reactivation of the latent reservoir. In this review, we discuss current pharmacological approaches toward eradication, focusing on small molecule latency-reversing agents, their mechanisms, advantages and limitations. PMID:23270785
Tegegne, Ayesheshem Ademe; Braka, Fiona; Shebeshi, Meseret Eshetu; Aregay, Aron Kassahun; Beyene, Berhane; Mersha, Amare Mengistu; Ademe, Mohammed; Muhyadin, Abdulahi; Jima, Dadi; Wyessa, Abyot Bekele
Ethiopia joined the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) in 1996, and by the end of December 2001 circulation of indigenous Wild Polio Virus (WPV) had been interrupted. Nonetheless, the country experienced multiple importations during 2004-2008, and in 2013. We characterize the 2013 outbreak investigations and response activities, and document lessons learned. The data were pulled from different field investigation reports and from the national surveillance database for Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP). In 2013, a WPV1 outbreak was confirmed following importation in Dollo zone of the Somali region, which affected three Woredas (Warder, Geladi and Bokh). Between July 10, 2013, and January 5, 2014, there were 10 children paralyzed due to WPV1 infection. The majorities (7 of 10) were male and below 5 years of age, and 7 of 10 cases was not vaccinated, and 72% (92/129) of < 5 years of old children living in close proximity with WPV cases had zero doses of oral polio vaccine (OPV). The travel history of the cases showed that seven of the 10 cases had contact with someone who had traveled or had a travel history prior to the onset of paralysis. Underserved and inaccessibility of routine immunization service, suboptimal surveillance sensitivity, poor quality and inadequate supplemental immunization were the most crucial gaps identified during the outbreak investigations. Prior to the 2013 outbreak, Ethiopia experienced multiple imported polio outbreaks following the interruption of indigenous WPV in December 2001. The 2013 outbreak erupted due to massive population movement and was fueled by low population immunity as a result of low routine immunization and supplemental Immunization coverage and quality. In order to avert future outbreaks, it is critical that surveillance sensitivity be improved by establishing community-based surveillance systems and by assigning surveillance focal points at all level particularly in border areas. In addition, it is vital to set
Raghavendra D Kulkarni
Full Text Available Measles, a highly infectious viral disease is the next target for eradication following poliovirus. Decades of experience with highly effective vaccination has invigorated us to take on this virus. The task is not only Titanic but is laced with intricate issues. Recently, an outbreak of fever with rash occurred on a tertiary care teaching hospital campus and was confirmed serologically as measles outbreak by IgMELISA. Therefore, we searched the literature related to outbreaks, transmission of the measles virus, age groups involved, vaccination strategies, vaccination failure and epidemiological features of the disease and reviewed the possible reasons for such outbreaks and problems in the global eradication of the virus.
The New World Screwworm (NWS) is an insect pest affecting warm-blooded animals and also humans. It causes widespread economic losses in livestock production as well as pain and suffering to animals and to those people unfortunate enough to become infected. Although it is endemic in Jamaica, the screwworm can be eradicated from the island using the well proven and successful Sterile Insect Technique. In collaboration with the Jamaican authorities, the Department of Technical Co-operation of the IAEA is planning to sponsor a Model Project to eradicate screwworm from Jamaica. (IAEA)
Plemper, Richard K; Hammond, Anthea L
Introduction Measles virus is a major human pathogen responsible for approximately 150,000 measles deaths annually. The disease is vaccine preventable and eradication of the virus is considered feasible in principle. However, a herd immunity exceeding 95% is required to prevent sporadic viral outbreaks in a population. Declining disease prevalence combined with public anxieties about vaccination safety has increased vaccine refusal especially in the European region, which has resulted in measles resurgence in some areas. Areas covered Here, we discuss whether synergizing effective measles therapeutics with vaccination could contribute to solving an endgame conundrum of measles elimination by accelerating the eradication effort. Based on an anticipated use for protection of high-risk contacts of confirmed measles cases through post-exposure prophylaxis, we identify key elements of the desirable drug profile, review current disease management strategies and the state of experimental inhibitor candidates, evaluate the risk associated with viral escape from inhibition, and consider the potential of measles therapeutics for the management of persistent viral infection of the CNS. Assuming a post-measles world with waning measles immunity, we contemplate the possible impact of therapeutics on controlling the threat imposed by closely related zoonotic pathogens of the same genus as measles virus. Expert opinion Efficacious therapeutics given for post-exposure prophylaxis of high-risk social contacts of confirmed index cases may aid measles eradication by closing herd immunity gaps due to vaccine refusal or failure in populations with overall good vaccination coverage. The envisioned primarily prophylactic application of measles therapeutics to a predominantly pediatric and/or adolescent patient population dictates the drug profile; the article must be safe and efficacious, orally available, shelf-stable at ambient temperature, and amenable to cost-effective manufacture
Khan, M M; Sharma, S; Tripathi, B; Alvarez, F P
To conduct a budget impact analysis (BIA) of introducing the immunization recommendations of India Expert Advisory Group (IEAG) for the years 2015-2017. The recommendations include introduction of one inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine (IPV) dose in the regular child immunization programme along with reductions in oral polio vaccine (OPV) doses in supplemental programmes. This is a national level analysis of budget impact of new polio immunization recommendations. Since the states of India vary widely in terms of size, vaccine coverage and supplemental vaccine needs, the study estimated the budget impact for each of the states of India separately to derive the national level budget impact. Based on the recommendations of IEAG, the BIA assumes that all children in India will get an IPV dose at 14 weeks of age in addition to the OPV and DPT (or Pentavalent-3) doses. Cost of introducing the IPV dose was estimated by considering vaccine price and vaccine delivery and administration costs. The cost savings associated with the reduction in number of doses of OPV in supplemental immunization were also estimated. The analysis used India-specific or international cost parameters to estimate the budget impact. Introduction of one IPV dose will increase the cost of vaccines in the regular immunization programme from $20 million to $47 million. Since IEAG recommends lower intensity of supplemental OPV vaccination, polio vaccine cost of supplemental programme is expected to decline from $72 million to $53 million. Cost of administering polio vaccines will also decline from $124 million to $105 million mainly due to the significantly lower intensity of supplemental polio vaccination. The net effect of adopting IEAG's recommendations on polio immunization turns out to be cost saving for India, reducing total polio immunization cost by $6 million. Additional savings could be achieved if India adopts the new policy regarding the handling of multi-dose vials after opening
Terry, Paul M.
Educational administration programs have an obligation to link theory with practical applications. However, the content of programs must also emphasize that aspiring administrators have a moral responsibility to eradicate the "isms"--classism, racism, sexism, homophobia, ageism, and ableism. This paper asserts that administrators must develop a…
Patrick C. Tobin; John M. Kean; David Maxwell Suckling; Deborah G. McCullough; Daniel A. Herms; Lloyd D. Stringer
Despite substantial increases in public awareness and biosecurity systems, introductions of non-native arthropods remain an unwelcomed consequence of escalating rates of international trade and travel. Detection of an established but unwanted nonnative organism can elicit a range of responses, including implementation of an eradication program. Previous studies have...
Burgess, Colleen; Burgess, Andrew; McMullen, Kellie
Transmission of polio poses a threat to military forces when deploying to regions where such viruses are endemic. US-born soldiers generally enter service with immunity resulting from childhood immunization against polio; moreover, new recruits are routinely vaccinated with inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV), supplemented based upon deployment circumstances. Given residual protection from childhood vaccination, risk-based vaccination may sufficiently protect troops from polio transmission. This analysis employed a mathematical system for polio transmission within military populations interacting with locals in a polio-endemic region to evaluate changes in vaccination policy. Removal of blanket immunization had no effect on simulated polio incidence among deployed military populations when risk-based immunization was employed; however, when these individuals reintegrated with their base populations, risk of transmission to nondeployed personnel increased by 19%. In the absence of both blanket- and risk-based immunization, transmission to nondeployed populations increased by 25%. The overall number of new infections among nondeployed populations was negligible for both scenarios due to high childhood immunization rates, partial protection against transmission conferred by IPV, and low global disease incidence levels. Risk-based immunization driven by deployment to polio-endemic regions is sufficient to prevent transmission among both deployed and nondeployed US military populations.
Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Virus polio indigenous terakhir ditemukan di Indonesia tahun 1995 tetapi ancaman viruspolio impor dan mutasi virus dari Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV menjadi Vaccine Derived Poliovirus (VDPVmasih berlanjut. Tahun 1991 WHO mengembangkan Surveilans Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP dan tahun2014, identifikasi virus polio dengan real-time reverse transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (rRTPCRmulai digunakan di Laboratorium Nasional Polio Pusat Biomedis dan Teknologi Dasar Kesehatan.Tujuan dari penggunaan rRT-PCR untuk mendapatkan metode yang cepat dan lebih baik dalam memantausirkulasi dan mutasi virus polio.Metode: Isolat polio positif diidentifikasi menggunakanan rRT PCR dengan kombinasi primer dan probeyang ditetapkan WHO. RNA virus di konversi ke cDNA menggunakan reverse transcriptase lalu diamplifikasimenggunakan taq polymerase. Produk PCR di deteksi dan diidentifikasi dengan hibridisasi menggunakanprobe spesifik. Sintesis cDNA dan reaksi PCR menggunakan primer yang dilekatkan di probe. Kombinasiprimer dan probe menghasilkan identifikasi serotipe dan intratypic differentiation (ITD dari isolat virus.Hasil: Selama tahun 2014, NPL Jakarta menerima 604 kasus AFP dari surveilans dan lima kasusterdeteksi positif mengandung virus polio. Semua spesimen positif mengandung virus polio yang berasaldari vaksin. Dua kasus positif virus polio tipe P2 (40%, satu kasus jenis virus polio P1 (20%, 1 kasusjenis virus polio P3 (20% dan satu kasus virus polio campuran jenis P1 + P2 (20%.Kesimpulan: Real-time PCR dapat digunakan di Laboratorium Polio Jakarta untuk membantu identifikasivirus Polio secara cepat. Tes ini dapat digunakan untuk memantau sirkulasi virus polio pada populasiyang rutin diimunisasi dengan OPV. (Health Science Journal of Indonesia 2016;7:27-31Kata kunci: ITD, Poliovirus, Identification, rRT-PCR AbstractBackground: The last indigenous polio was detected in 1995 but the threat of wild type polio viruses and themutation of Oral
Luiza Helena Falleiros Carvalho
terms of worldwide eradication and the World Health Organization.s (WHO proposals in this transition period between global eradication and the post-eradication period. SOURCES OF DATA: Data for the period from 1955 to 2005 were searched in MEDLINE, LILACS, The Web, Doctor's Guide, WHO website and Pan American Health Organization (PAHO website and text book. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: In 1988, the WHO established the goal of eradicating the disease and interrupting transmission of the wild virus globally. Since then, there has been a dramatic decline of the disease, although in 2005 there were still some countries considered endemic and others where polio returned on account of imported viruses. The vaccines used worldwide are the classical tOPV and IPV, and in this eradication process, the use of mOPV vaccines has been encouraged in places where only one type of poliovirus circulates. In addition to spreading the virus in the community, the OPV vaccines may, however, cause paralyses by reversal of the neurovirulence process. CONCLUSIONS: For a world free of poliomyelitis disease, it would be necessary to interrupt circulation of the virus, which will only be possible if the OPV virus were to be discontinued, in accordance with the WHO proposals for this transition period and the post-eradication period.
Mohammad, Ausaf F
Since the polio epidemic in Ireland in the 1950s, most polio survivors are approaching into the 6th and 7th decade of their lives. There is little data about bone density and risk of fractures in these patients. In 2006, we undertook an audit of post-polio patients attending rheumatology and neurology outpatient clinics in a university teaching hospital. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of osteoporosis (OP), falls and fractures and to evaluate the association of bone density with other potential contributing factors to OP.
Mach, Ondrej; Tangermann, Rudolf H; Wassilak, Steve G; Singh, Simarjit; Sutter, Roland W
Despite substantial progress toward eradication of poliomyelitis, the risk of poliomyelitis outbreaks resulting from virus importations into polio-free areas persists. We reviewed the changing epidemiology of outbreaks in the final stages of the eradication initiative. Available literature on outbreaks of poliomyelitis caused by wild polioviruses between 1996 and 2012 was reviewed. During this period, there were 22 outbreaks involving 39 countries. Outbreaks ranged in size from 1 to 1335 cases. These outbreaks caused 4571 cases, representing 21% of all cases reported during this period. Five outbreaks involved multiple countries. In 76% of outbreaks (16/21) with a known age distribution, cases concentrated among children aged poliomyelitis had not occurred for many years. The changing epidemiology, with cases and higher case-fatality ratios among adults, increased the severity of these outbreaks. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Full Text Available In the February 2013 Revision of Insured Medical Treatment, bacterial eradication for all Helicobacter pylori-positive individuals in Japan was covered under the insurance scheme. However, reflux esophagitis is believed to occur in approximately 10% of Japanese patients who undergo eradication therapy. Hence, the risk of reflux esophagitis among such cases should be carefully considered, particularly in the treatment for H. pylori-positive patients who are otherwise healthy. The eradication of Helicobacter pylori in cases of H. pylori-positive gastritis markedly suppresses gastric inflammation, and inhibits gastric mucosal atrophy and its progression to intestinal metaplasia. In a long-term follow-up study (10-20 years, eradication treatment was found to reduce the risk of subsequent gastric cancer. However, the fact that eradication-induced reflux esophagitis could increase the long-term risk of Barrett’s esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma should also be considered in the Japanese population. Appropriate treatment with proton pump inhibitors should be taken into consideration for patients undergoing eradication therapy in clinical practice.
Quoc Cuong, Huong; Schlumberger, Martin; Garba Tchang, Salomon; Ould Cheikh, Dah; Savès, Marianne; Mallah, Barah; Demtilo Attilo, Jacques; Ngangro Mosurel, Ndeikoundam; Gamatié, Youssouf
SID (Supplemental Immunization Days) is a special strategy intended to accelerate eradication of poliomyelitis in countries where it is still endemic (India, Afghanistan, and Pakistan in Asia, and Nigeria in Africa). This strategy is also applied in Nigeria's neighbours (Cameroon, Chad, Niger and Benin). Since the poliomyelitis virus was imported from Nigeria in 2001, Chad has reported cases of poliomyelitis every year. After 30 SIDs in Chad and the inaccurate or false attribution of side-effects to polio vaccines, some groups persistently refuse polio vaccination. To ascertain the true coverage of SID, the Ministry of Health and several partners (WHO, UNICEF and Rotary) conduct external coverage evaluations, to identify the under-vaccinated areas where population may be refusing immunization. The nails of the children receiving vaccinations are marked with indelible ink and those markings are the best indicator of the area's actual SID coverage. When coverage investigators arrive and propose vaccination to all children not immunized during SID, mothers who wish to refuse vaccination may claim that the children's markings disappeared after a few days, due to bathing. WHO experts have found that markings applied to their own nails with the WHO-recommended markers persist a few weeks, but others suggested that the markings may disappear much faster among children living in a traditional tropical environment. Until now, the lifetime of these markings has not been tested among children in Africa. To determine the lifetime of the fingernail markings after SID and factors that influence this lifetime in children young than 5 years old in Chad. This prospective cohort study of 200 children (aged 0 to 59 months) took place from March to May 2009 in Milezi, a health zone north of Ndjamena, the capital of Chad, in central Africa. These children received nail markings on their left little finger with an indelible marker pen provided by WHO. The finger was monitored for 35
The author challenges the reader to make two mindshifts: from a focus on poverty relief to an emphasis on poverty eradication; and from viewing the poor as the objects of poverty alleviation to accepting them as the subjects of poverty eradication. The case is argued and a practical approach towards poverty eradication is ...
Delpeyroux, Francis; Colbère-Garapin, Florence; Razafindratsimandresy, Richter; Sadeuh-Mba, Serge; Joffret, Marie-Line; Rousset, Dominique; Blondel, Bruno
The oral poliovaccine, a live vaccine made of attenuated poliovirus strains, is the main tool of the vaccination campaigns organised for eradicating poliomyelitis. these campaigns had led to the decline and, thereafter, to the disappearance of wild poliovirus strains of the three serotypes (1-3) in most parts of the world. However, when the poliovaccine coverage becomes too low, vaccine polioviruses can circulate in insufficiently immunized populations and become then pathogenic by mutations and genetic recombination with other enteroviruses of the same species, in particular some coxsackievirus A. These mutated and recombinant vaccine strains have been implicated in several epidemics of paralytic poliomyelitis. Two polio outbreaks associated with these pathogenic circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) occurred in 2001-2002 and 2005 in the South of Madagascar where vaccine coverage was low. These cVDPV, of serotype 2 or 3, were isolated from paralyzed children and some of their healthy contacts. Other cVDPV were isolated in the same region from healthy children in 2011, indicating that these viruses were circulating again. Vaccination campaigns could stop the outbreaks in 2002 and 2005, and most probably prevent another one in 2011. Therefore, the genetic plasticity of poliovaccine strains that threatens the benefit of vaccination campaigns is the target of an accurate surveillance and an important theme of studies in the virology laboratories of the Institut Pasteur international network. © 2013 médecine/sciences – Inserm.
Dowdle, Walter R.; Gary, Howard E.; Sanders, Raymond; van Loon, Anton M.
The purpose of containment is to prevent reintroduction of wild polioviruses from laboratories into polio-free communities. In order to achieve global commitment to laboratory containment the rationale should be clear and compelling; the biosafety levels should be justified by the risks; and the objectives should be realistic. Absolute containment can never be assured. Questions of intentional or unintentional non-compliance can never be wholly eliminated. Effective laboratory containment is, however, a realistic goal. Prevention of virus transmission through contaminated laboratory materials is addressed by WHO standards for biosafety. The principal challenge is to prevent transmission through unrecognized infectious laboratory workers. Such transmission is possible only if the following conditions occur: infectious and potentially infectious materials carrying wild poliovirus are present in the laboratory concerned; a laboratory operation exposes a worker to poliovirus; a worker is susceptible to an infection that results in the shedding of poliovirus; and the community is susceptible to poliovirus infections. At present it is difficult to envisage the elimination of any of these conditions. However, the risks of the first three can be greatly reduced so as to create a formidable barrier against poliovirus transmission to the community. Final biosafety recommendations must await post-eradication immunization policies adopted by the international community. PMID:12075368
T. S. Saraswathy Subramaniam
Full Text Available Since 1992, surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP cases was introduced in Malaysia along with the establishment of the National Poliovirus Laboratory at the Institute for Medical Research. In 2008, the Ministry of Health, Malaysia, approved a vaccine policy change from oral polio vaccine to inactivated polio vaccine (IPV. Eight states started using IPV in the Expanded Immunization Programme, followed by the remaining states in January 2010. The objective of this study was to determine the viral aetiology of AFP cases below 15 years of age, before and after vaccine policy change from oral polio vaccine to inactivated polio vaccine. One hundred and seventy-nine enteroviruses were isolated from the 3394 stool specimens investigated between 1992 and December 2012. Fifty-six out of 107 virus isolates were polioviruses and the remaining were non-polio enteroviruses. Since 2009 after the sequential introduction of IPV in the childhood immunization programme, no Sabin polioviruses were isolated from AFP cases. In 2012, the laboratory AFP surveillance was supplemented with environmental surveillance with sewage sampling. Thirteen Sabin polioviruses were also isolated from sewage in the same year, but no vaccine-derived poliovirus was detected during this period.
Full Text Available Nowadays, corruption is still the most and biggest problem facing by Indonesian, due to its impacts on the nation. It caused huge loss to the state finance and even to the democratic life in this country. Various efforts have been resorted to fight corruption, but the results are unfruitful. Until recently, Indonesia is still the third most corrupt country in Asia according to the survey of Transparency International Indonesia (TII in 2015, with the Corruption Perceptions Index of 36 points. The fight in eradicating corruption cannot be separated from the effort to deter the criminals through severe punishment. However, ICW’s most recent data shows otherwise. During the first half of 2014, there were 261 accused of corruption, with 242 of them were convicted guilty by the Corruption Courts. Among them, 193 were sentenced lenient (between 1-4 years imprisonment, 44 moderate (4-10 years, and only 4 with over 10 years imprisonment. The average length of sentence is therefore 2,9 years. The lenient sentence can also be found in criminal restitution. Only in 87 of the total cases state compensation is imposed, amounting 87.04 billion rupiahs in total. The amount is only 0.022% of the total financial loss of 3.863 trillion rupiahs. The weak penalty triggered then the idea of impoverishing corruptors as a strategic step to accelerate the eradication of corruption while restoring the loss to the state. In contrast to the criminal restitution, which is restricted only to the state loss caused by the perpetrators, criminal confiscation of assets has no limit in amount.
Kraan, H.; Have, Ten R.; Maas, van der L.; Kersten, G.F.A.; Amorij, J.P.
A hexavalent vaccine containing diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, whole cell pertussis, Haemophilius influenza type B, hepatitis B and inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) may: (i) increase the efficiency of vaccination campaigns, (ii) reduce the number of injections thereby reducing needlestick
C.I. Oriahi; A.O. Aitufe
This study examines the possible education for the eradication of poverty in Nigeria. It defines poverty as a state pf shortage or deficiency of meeting basic needs. Majors causes of poverty are overpopulation, illiteracy, unemployment, environmental degradation and government insensitive to the welfare of the people. Effects of poverty include homelessness, malnutrition and starvation, illness, crime, violence and antisocial behaviour like Internet Fraud (Yahoo business) and Advance Fee Frau...
de Quadros, Ciro A
The smallpox eradication campaign operated in Ethiopia from 1970 until 1977. During this time Ethiopia had only 84 hospitals, 64 health centres and fewer than 400 physicians in a country of 25 million people. In 1970 smallpox vaccination was relatively unknown in the country, and the government actually contested the fact that smallpox was present in the country. Most of the resources of the Ministry of Health were used for malaria eradication. Initial pessimism from the Ministry of Health and others was eventually overcome as the smallpox eradication campaign continued to pick up steam but many remained unenthusiastic. Ethiopia was the first country in the world to start its smallpox eradication campaign from day one with the strategy of "Surveillance and Containment". Establishing a surveillance system in a country with a limited health infrastructure was a daunting challenge. At the end of the first year of the programme in 1971, 26,000 cases of smallpox had been registered through the growing surveillance system. Throughout revolution of 1974 the smallpox campaign was the only UN program to operate in the country; in fact it expanded with the hire of many locals leading to a "nationalized" program. This development ushered in the most successful final phase of the program. As the program progressed cases were diminishing in most regions, however transmission continued in the Ogaden desert. Over the course of the campaign approximately 14.3 million US dollars was spent. Working conditions were extremely challenging and a variety of chiefs, guerrillas, landowners and governments had to be appeased. The programme was successful due to the dedicated national and international staff on the ground and by having the full support of the WHO HQ in Geneva. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Reyes F, Jesus; Santiago M, Guillermo; Hernandez M, Porfirio [Comision Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria (Mexico)
The goal of the Mexican Fruit Fly Eradication Programme is to control, suppress or eradicate from Mexico four species of fruit flies of economic and quarantine importance (Anastrepha ludens Loew, A. obliqua Macquart, A. serpentina Wied. and A. striata Schiner). These pests cause damage amounting to US$710 million per year. In addition to this cost, there are other expenses from pest control actions and the loss of international markets, because fruit importing countries have established stringent quarantine measures to restrict the entry of these pests. For purposes of the programme's implementation, Mexico was divided into three working zones, defined by agro-ecological characteristics, the number of fruit fly species present and the size of fruit growing regions. In addition, a cost:benefit analysis was carried out which indicated that the rate of return, in a 12-year time frame, might be as much as 33:1 in Northern Mexico, and 17:1 in the rest of the country, for an area over 100,000 hectares. Eradication technology involves: 1) surveys of pest populations by trapping and host fruit harvesting to monitor the presence and density of fruit flies, 2) reduction of pest populations applying cultural practices and using selective bait sprays, 3) mass release of sterile flies and augmentative release of parasitoids to eliminate populations and, 4) enforcement of quarantine measures to protect fruit fly free areas.
Reyes F, Jesus; Santiago M, Guillermo; Hernandez M, Porfirio
The goal of the Mexican Fruit Fly Eradication Programme is to control, suppress or eradicate from Mexico four species of fruit flies of economic and quarantine importance (Anastrepha ludens Loew, A. obliqua Macquart, A. serpentina Wied. and A. striata Schiner). These pests cause damage amounting to US$710 million per year. In addition to this cost, there are other expenses from pest control actions and the loss of international markets, because fruit importing countries have established stringent quarantine measures to restrict the entry of these pests. For purposes of the programme's implementation, Mexico was divided into three working zones, defined by agro-ecological characteristics, the number of fruit fly species present and the size of fruit growing regions. In addition, a cost:benefit analysis was carried out which indicated that the rate of return, in a 12-year time frame, might be as much as 33:1 in Northern Mexico, and 17:1 in the rest of the country, for an area over 100,000 hectares. Eradication technology involves: 1) surveys of pest populations by trapping and host fruit harvesting to monitor the presence and density of fruit flies, 2) reduction of pest populations applying cultural practices and using selective bait sprays, 3) mass release of sterile flies and augmentative release of parasitoids to eliminate populations and, 4) enforcement of quarantine measures to protect fruit fly free areas
Malaria modeling can inform policy and guide research for malaria elimination and eradication from local implementation to global policy. A research and development agenda for malaria modeling is proposed, to support operations and to enhance the broader eradication research agenda. Models are envisioned as an integral part of research, planning, and evaluation, and modelers should ideally be integrated into multidisciplinary teams to update the models iteratively, communicate their appropriate use, and serve the needs of other research scientists, public health specialists, and government officials. A competitive and collaborative framework will result in policy recommendations from multiple, independently derived models and model systems that share harmonized databases. As planned, modeling results will be produced in five priority areas: (1) strategic planning to determine where and when resources should be optimally allocated to achieve eradication; (2) management plans to minimize the evolution of drug and pesticide resistance; (3) impact assessments of new and needed tools to interrupt transmission; (4) technical feasibility assessments to determine appropriate combinations of tools, an associated set of target intervention coverage levels, and the expected timelines for achieving a set of goals in different socio-ecological settings and different health systems; and (5) operational feasibility assessments to weigh the economic costs, capital investments, and human resource capacities required. PMID:21283605
Bedada, Selamawit Yilma; Gallagher, Kathleen; Aregay, Aron Kassahun; Mohammed, Bashir; Maalin, Mohammed Adem; Hassen, Hassen Abdisemed; Ali, Yusuf Mohammed; Braka, Fiona; Kilebou, Pierre M'pele
Communication is key for the successful implementation of polio vaccination campaigns. The purpose of this study is to review and analyse the sources of information utilized by caregivers during polio supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) in Somali, Ethiopia in 2014 and 2015. Data on sources of information about the polio campaign were collected post campaign from caregivers by trained data collectors as part of house to house independent monitoring. The sources of information analysed in this paper include town criers (via megaphones), health workers, religious leaders, kebele leaders (Kebele is the lowest administrative structure in Ethiopia), radio, television, text message and others. The repetition of these sources of information was analysed across years and zones for trends. Polio vaccination campaign coverage was also reviewed by year and zones within the Somali region in parallel with the major sources of information used in the respective year and zones. 57,745 responses were used for this analysis but the responses were received from polio SIAs. Zonal trends in using town criers as a major source of information in both study years remained consistent except in two zones. 87.5% of zones that reported at least 90% coverage during both study years had utilized town criers as a major source of information while the rest (12.5%) used health workers. We found that town criers were consistently the major source of information about the polio campaigns for Somali region parents and caregivers during polio immunization days held in 2014 and 2015. Health workers and kebele leaders were also important sources of information about the polio campaign for parents.
2014.  “United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, World Population Prospects, the 2015 Revision,” http...Research Article Modelling Risk to US Military Populations from Stopping Blanket Mandatory Polio Vaccination Colleen Burgess,1,2 Andrew Burgess,2 and...for polio transmission within military populations interacting with locals in a polio-endemic region to evaluate changes in vaccination policy
century. For decades, the mainstay of Colombia’s economic growth and stability revolved around the growing, production, and exportation of coffee ...which represented sixty percent of its exports. This all changed in the mid-1990s with the fall of coffee prices worldwide. Many farmers then sought...1970s, this agrarian deforestation was practiced heavily in Colombia by cannabis growers. Following successful eradication efforts, growers simply
Biswas, Gautam; Sankara, Dieudonne P; Agua-Agum, Junerlyn; Maiga, Alhousseini
Dracunculiasis, commonly known as guinea worm disease, is a nematode infection transmitted to humans exclusively via contaminated drinking water. The disease prevails in the most deprived areas of the world. No vaccine or medicine is available against the disease: eradication is being achieved by implementing preventive measures. These include behavioural change in patients and communities--such as self-reporting suspected cases to health workers or volunteers, filtering drinking water and accessing water from improved sources and preventing infected individuals from wading or swimming in drinking-water sources--supplemented by active surveillance and case containment, vector control and provision of improved water sources. Efforts to eradicate dracunculiasis began in the early 1980s. By the end of 2012, the disease had reached its lowest levels ever. This paper reviews the progress made in eradicating dracunculiasis since the eradication campaign began, the factors influencing progress and the difficulties in controlling the pathogen that requires behavioural change, especially when the threat becomes rare. The challenges of intensifying surveillance are discussed, particularly in insecure areas containing the last foci of the disease. It also summarizes the broader benefits uniquely linked to interventions against dracunculiasis.
Yaari, Rami; Kaliner, Ehud; Grotto, Itamar; Katriel, Guy; Moran-Gilad, Jacob; Sofer, Danit; Mendelson, Ella; Miller, Elizabeth; Huppert, Amit; Anis, E; Kopel, E; Manor, Y; Mor, O; Shulman, L; Singer, R; Weil, M
Polio eradication is an extraordinary globally coordinated health program in terms of its magnitude and reach, leading to the elimination of wild poliovirus (WPV) in most parts of the world. In 2013, a silent outbreak of WPV was detected in Israel, a country using an inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) exclusively since 2005. The outbreak was detected using environmental surveillance (ES) of sewage reservoirs. Stool surveys indicated the outbreak to be restricted mainly to children under the age of 10 in the Bedouin population of southern Israel. In order to curtail the outbreak, a nationwide vaccination campaign using oral polio vaccine (OPV) was conducted, targeting all children under 10. A transmission model, fitted to the results of the stool surveys, with additional conditions set by the ES measurements, was used to evaluate the prevalence of WPV in Bedouin children and the effectiveness of the vaccination campaign. Employing the parameter estimates of the model fitting, the model was used to investigate the effect of alternative timings, coverages and dosages of the OPV campaign on the outcome of the outbreak. The mean estimate for the mean reproductive number was 1.77 (95 % credible interval, 1.46-2.30). With seasonal variation, the reproductive number maximum range was between zero and six. The mean estimate for the mean infectious periods was 16.8 (8.6-24.9) days. The modeling indicates the OPV campaign was effective in curtailing the outbreak. The mean estimate for the attack rate in Bedouin children under 10 at the end of 2014 was 42 % (22-65 %), whereas without the campaign the mean projected attack rate was 57 % (35-74 %). The campaign also likely shortened the duration of the outbreak by a mean estimate of 309 (2-846) days. A faster initiation of the OPV campaign could have reduced the incidence of WPV even if a lower coverage was reached, at the risk of prolonging the outbreak. OPV campaigns are essential for interrupting WPV transmission, even in a
Lee, Hwee Ching; Tay, Joanne; Kwok, Cynthia Y H; Wee, Moi Kim; Ang, Li Wei; Kita, Yuske; Cutter, Jeffery L; Chan, Kwai Peng; Chew, Suok Kai; Goh, Kee Tai
This study reviewed the epidemiological trends of poliomyelitis from 1946 to 2010, and the impact of the national immunisation programme in raising the population herd immunity against poliovirus. We also traced the efforts Singapore has made to achieve certification of poliomyelitis eradication by the World Health Organisation. Epidemiological data on all reported cases of poliomyelitis were obtained from the Communicable Diseases Division of the Ministry of Health as well as historical records. Coverage of the childhood immunisation programme against poliomyelitis was based on the immunisation data maintained by the National Immunisation Registry, Health Promotion Board. To assess the herd immunity of the population against poliovirus, 6 serological surveys were conducted in 1962, 1978, 1982 to 1984, 1989, 1993 and from 2008 to 2010. Singapore was among the fi rst countries in the world to introduce live oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) on a mass scale in 1958. With the comprehensive coverage of the national childhood immunisation programme, the incidence of paralytic poliomyelitis declined from 74 cases in 1963 to 5 cases from 1971 to 1973. The immunisation coverage for infants, preschool and primary school children has been maintained at 92% to 97% over the past decade. No indigenous poliomyelitis case had been reported since 1978 and all cases reported subsequently were imported. Singapore was certified poliomyelitis free along with the rest of the Western Pacific Region in 2000 after fulfilling all criteria for poliomyelitis eradication, including the establishment of a robust acute flaccid paralysis surveillance system. However, post-certification challenges remain, with the risk of wild poliovirus importation. Furthermore, it is timely to consider the replacement of OPV with the inactivated poliovirus vaccine in Singapore's national immunisation programme given the risk of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis and circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses.
Full Text Available Nowadays the agenda of corruption eradication have been undertaken by various institutions such as the judiciary the police the Corruption Eradication Commission and other bodies related to the corruption eradication. The type of research used in this study is normative-jurisdiction and empirical-jurisdiction. To obtain the necessary data in this study the researcher conducted library research as a reference in some libraries are quite representative. Results shows that the effectiveness of corruption eradication that conducted by regulatory authorities in order to combat corruption has not been implemented maximally because each institution as a subsystem has not carried out an interdependent relationship both vertical and horizontal nature. If we expect the eradication of corruption can be implemented optimally it is recommended that the coordination between law enforcement agencies in the integrated criminal justice system is necessary to build their common vision interpretation and perception in the implementation of the duties for the institution authorized to eradicate corruption.
Smallpox eradication in South Asia was a result of the efforts of many grades of health-workers. Working from within the confines of international organisations and government structures, the role of the field officials, who were of various nationalities and also drawn from the cities and rural enclaves of the countries in these regions, was crucial to the development and deployment of policies. However, the role of these personnel is often downplayed in official histories and academic histories, which highlight instead the roles played by a handful of senior officials within the World Health Organization and the federal governments in the sub-continent. This article attempts to provide a more rounded assessment of the complex situation in the field. In this regard, an effort is made to underline the great usefulness of the operational flexibility displayed by field officers, wherein lessons learnt in the field were made an integral part of deploying local campaigns; careful engagement with the communities being targeted, as well as the employment of short term workers from amongst them, was an important feature of this work.
Hess, Steven C.; Muise, Jake; Schipper, Jan
In February 2011, a rancher in the rural southern part of Hawaii Island reported a large mammal on her land. Her call mobilized several agencies led by the Big Island Invasive Species Committee (BIISC), a partnership to prevent, detect, and control the establishment and spread of invasive species, to sit up and take notice. Agency biologists installed camera traps to identify the animal, and a few months later verified the diagnostic field marks of a chervid with spots. The animal in questions was a chital, or axis deer (Axis axis)--a species native to tropical and subtropical India. Although the deer are abundant on the islands of Molokai, Lānai, and Maui, officials knew they weren't capable of swimming across the notoriously treacherous ʻAlenuihāhā channel, and subsequently suspected human intervention.
Larry D. Howery; Bruce D. Munda; Dan G. Robinett; Harry H. Buck
Sweet resin bush (Euryops subcarnosus DC ssp. vulgaris B. Nord; or, Euryops multifidis (L. f.) DC.), a South African shrub introduced to Arizona in the 1930s, was discovered on the Santa Rita Experimental Range (SRER) in 1998. Due to the threat of spread of this invasive plant and its potential to cause adverse environmental and economic effects, and because it posed a...
Leontiadis, Grigorios I; Ford, Alexander Charles
The principal effect of Helicobacter pylori infection is lifelong chronic gastritis, affecting up to 20% of younger adults but 50% to 80% of adults born in resource-rich countries before 1950. We conducted a systematic overview, aiming to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of H pylori eradication treatment on the risk of developing gastric cancer? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to July 2014 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). At this update, searching of electronic databases retrieved 208 studies. After deduplication and removal of conference abstracts, 166 records were screened for inclusion in the overview. Appraisal of titles and abstracts led to the exclusion of 124 studies and the further review of 42 full publications. Of the 42 full articles evaluated, one systematic review was added at this update. We performed a GRADE evaluation for two PICO combinations. In this systematic overview, we categorised the efficacy for one intervention based on information about the effectiveness and safety of H pylori eradication treatment for the prevention of gastric cancer.
The Mediterranean fruit-fly (Medfly) is a serious pest in Agriculture. It causes damage primarily by its larvae, which feed on the host fruit or vegetable. Agricultural production of about 30 km 2 can be infested in 100 days by the progeny of 1000 females. In Mexico, the Medfly was first observed in 1977. It severely damages the agricultural economy and limits the trade balance and food supplies of the country. Realizing the gravity of the problem, the IAEA, in co-operation with the Governments of Mexico and the United States, implemented a joint pest management programme under the code-name of MOSCAMED. It utilized the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) on which the Agency has gained considerable experience from its previous involvements in many developing countries. The SIT is technically suitable and environmentally acceptable for Medfly eradication. A factory was built with all areas of SIT expertise. This factory could produce 2 thousand million Medfly eggs in 12 days. The Agency, including its Seibersdorf laboratory, was the primary back-up of the programme. As a result, the northward migration of the fly has been halted and the pest that had infested over 3 million hectares has been eradicated from Mexico as from early 1981
Seĭbil', V B; Malyshkina, L P
Problem of poliomyelitis eradication is examined in the review. After the eradication of wild poliovirus, vaccine poliomyelitis virus continues to circulate in the human population. In rare cases it can cause the development of the disease. The authors describe disadvantages of the use of oral and inactivated poliomyelitis vaccines and note that by using oral poliomyelitis vaccine and eradication only of wild poliovirus, eradication of poliomyelitis as an infection will not succeed. As one of the approaches to reach this goal the authors propose the use of various enterovirus interference. Use of live enterovirus vaccine is described and its advantages and disadvantages are examined.
Feare, Chris J; van der Woude, Jildou; Greenwell, Phill; Edwards, Hannah A; Taylor, Jenni A; Larose, Christine S; Ahlen, Per-Arne; West, Jack; Chadwick, Will; Pandey, Smita; Raines, Katherine; Garcia, Fernando; Komdeur, Jan; de Groene, Arjan
In Seychelles, the common myna has been shown to have a negative impact on endangered endemic birds on Denis Island, interfering with breeding attempts and attacking adult endemic birds at their nests. This stimulated an attempt to eradicate the island's mynas. The eradication was undertaken in three phases, overall killing 1186 mynas and lasting 5 years. Decoy trapping was the most effective method for catching mynas, but the last birds were shot. Decoy trapping was compromised by catches of non-target species. Data collection from killed birds indicated that trapping did not favour either sex, and that most breeding occurred during the wetter season, November to March. Eradication of mynas from small tropical islands is feasible. The Denis Island eradication was prolonged by difficulties in management and staffing. Using volunteers, the cost of the eradication was similar to that of eradicating rodents from the island. In future eradication attempts in Seychelles, possible food stress during the drier season (May to September) might facilitate trapping at this time. Habitat management, especially the removal of short mown grass, could enhance eradication progress. Continued monitoring is needed to confirm eradication and detect any immigration, and also to record responses in the endemic birds. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
Young Eun Kim
Full Text Available Onchocerciasis (river blindness is a parasitic disease transmitted by blackflies. Symptoms include severe itching, skin lesions, and vision impairment including blindness. More than 99% of all cases are concentrated in sub-Saharan Africa. Fortunately, vector control and community-directed treatment with ivermectin have significantly decreased morbidity, and the treatment goal is shifting from control to elimination in Africa.We estimated financial resources and societal opportunity costs associated with scaling up community-directed treatment with ivermectin and implementing surveillance and response systems in endemic African regions for alternative treatment goals--control, elimination, and eradication. We used a micro-costing approach that allows adjustment for time-variant resource utilization and for the heterogeneity in the demographic, epidemiological, and political situation.The elimination and eradication scenarios, which include scaling up treatments to hypo-endemic and operationally challenging areas at the latest by 2021 and implementing intensive surveillance, would allow savings of $1.5 billion and $1.6 billion over 2013-2045 as compared to the control scenario. Although the elimination and eradication scenarios would require higher surveillance costs ($215 million and $242 million than the control scenario ($47 million, intensive surveillance would enable treatments to be safely stopped earlier, thereby saving unnecessary costs for prolonged treatments as in the control scenario lacking such surveillance and response systems.The elimination and eradication of onchocerciasis are predicted to allow substantial cost-savings in the long run. To realize cost-savings, policymakers should keep empowering community volunteers, and pharmaceutical companies would need to continue drug donation. To sustain high surveillance costs required for elimination and eradication, endemic countries would need to enhance their domestic funding capacity
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Post-polio syndrome (PPS is a condition that affects polio survivors years after recovery from an initial acute attack of the poliomyelitis virus. Most often, polio survivors experience a gradual new weakening in muscles that were previously affected by the polio infection. The actual incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs in individuals suffering from PPS is not known. However, there is a reason to suspect that individuals with PPS might be at increased risk. Method A search for papers was made in the databases Bireme, Scielo and Pubmed with the following keywords: post polio syndrome, cardiorespiratory and rehabilitation in English, French and Spanish languages. Although we targeted only seek current studies on the topic in question, only the relevant (double-blind, randomized-controlled and consensus articles were considered. Results and Discussion Certain features of PPS such as generalized fatigue, generalized and specific muscle weakness, joint and/or muscle pain may result in physical inactivity deconditioning obesity and dyslipidemia. Respiratory difficulties are common and may result in hypoxemia. Conclusion Only when evaluated and treated promptly, somE patients can obtain the full benefits of the use of respiratory muscles aids as far as quality of life is concerned.
Yang, Eun Joo; Lee, Seung Yeol; Kim, Keewon; Jung, Se Hee; Jang, Soong-Nang; Han, Soo Jeong; Kim, Wan-Ho; Lim, Jae-Young
The purpose of this study is to assess health-related quality of life in polio survivors (PS) compared with that in the general population in Korea. Polio survivors (n = 120) from outpatient clinics at two hospitals, healthy controls (HC, n = 121) and members of the general population with activity limitations (AL, n = 121) recruited through a proportional-allocation, systematic sampling strategy from the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were surveyed with self-rated health-related quality of life (Euro QoL five-dimensions). The proportion of participants who reported problems in mobility, usual activity, and symptoms of anxiety/depression were higher in the PS group compared with the HC and AL groups. There was no significant difference in the self-care dimension across the groups. Polio-specific questionnaire, pain, depression, fatigue, Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI) and Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) were assessed in the PS group. Those with post-poliomyelitis syndrome had greater problems in mobility, usual activity, and depression/anxiety. Polio survivors, especially those with more pain and fatigue symptoms, and those who did not have access to medical services had poorer health-related quality of life. These findings afford useful information for potential intervention improving quality of life in polio survivors. PMID:26120843
Norrby, Erling; Prusiner, Stanley B
In 1954, John Enders, Thomas Weller, and Frederick Robbins were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue."5370 This discovery provided for the first time opportunities to produce both inactivated and live polio vaccines. By searching previously sealed Nobel Committee archives, we were able to review the deliberations that led to the award. It appears that Sven Gard, who was Professor of Virus Research at the Karolinska Institute and an adjunct member of the Nobel Committee at the time, played a major role in the events leading to the awarding of the Prize. It appears that Gard persuaded the College of Teachers at the Institute to decide not to follow the recommendation by their Nobel Committee to give the Prize to Vincent du Vigneaud. Another peculiar feature of the 1954 Prize is that Weller and Robbins were included based on only two nominations submitted for the first time that year. In his speech at the Nobel Prize ceremony, Gard mentioned the importance of the discovery for the future production of vaccines, but emphasized the implications of this work for growing many different, medically important viruses. We can only speculate on why later nominations highlighting the contributions of scientists such as Jonas Salk, Hilary Koprowski, and Albert Sabin in the development of poliovirus vaccines have not been recognized by a Nobel Prize.
Beyene, Habtamu Bedimo; Bekele, Abyot; Shifara, Amanu; Ebstie, Yehenew A; Desalegn, Zelalem; Kebede, Zeyede; Mulugeta, Abate; Deribe, Kebede; Tadesse, Zerihun; Abebe, Tamrat; Kebede, Biruck; Abrha, Getaneh; Jima, Daddi
intervention strategies that need further intensification to realize the endgame. Eradication strategies encompassing community education for behavioral change including raising awareness towards cash reward for reporting Guniea Worm Disease (GWD) and animal infection, case containment, surveillance systems, provision of safe water supply, and ABATE chemical application are discussed. It also summarizes challenges the end game faces and recommendations to strengthen the eradication effort.
Lashkevich, V A
against poliomyelitis. In some developing countries the vaccination data are falsified, thereby threatening the polio epidemics reappearance and the virus spreading to other countries. Methods must be developed for detection and dealing with extremely rare persistent virus carriers. Because of all these constraints the outcome of poliomyelitis eradication at present is uncertain and vaccination must be continued. The world has become poliovaccine dependent.
Namiot, D B; Namiot, Z; Kemona, A; Gołebiewska, M
Beside stomach Helicobacter pylori can colonize the oral cavity. One may think, therefore, that if H. pylori persists the eradication therapy in the oral cavity, it could infect the stomach again. Since in the oral cavity H. pylori occurs most frequently in a dental plaque gathering on teeth, the aim of the study was to investigate whether the natural teeth status is important for the efficacy of H. pylori eradication. The study was conducted on 45 peptic ulcer patients with natural teeth. They were eradicated with one of two regimens: 1/OAT-omeprazole (2 x 20 mg), amoxicillin (2 x 1000 mg), tinidazole (2 x 500 mg) (14-day course), 2/OAC-omeprazole (2 x 20 mg), amoxicillin (2 x 1000 mg), clarithromycin (2 x 250 mg) (7-day course). Dentistry examination was performed 4-6 weeks after the end of eradication therapy and consisted of determination of the number of teeth, caries index, dental treatment index, plaque index, and periodontal index. It was found that in successfully eradicated patients with OAT regimen, the number of teeth was higher and caries index lower than in those whose eradication therapy was unsuccessful; 24.8 +/- 5.2 vs 15.5 +/- 8.6 (p caries index were not associated with the efficacy of H. pylori eradication in OAC treated group. Irrespectively of the eradication regimen used, OAT or OAC, dental treatment index, plaque index, and periodontal index were not associated with the efficacy of H. pylori eradication. It is concluded that the natural teeth status may have influence on the outcome of H. pylori eradication. One should remember about this prescribing drugs for H. pylori eradication.
Suckling, David Maxwell; Kean, John M; Stringer, Lloyd D; Cáceres-Barrios, Carlos; Hendrichs, Jorge; Reyes-Flores, Jesus; Dominiak, Bernard C
The number of insect eradication programmes is rising in response to globalisation. A database of arthropod and plant pathogen eradications covers 1050 incursion responses, with 928 eradication programmes on 299 pest and disease taxa in 104 countries (global eradication database b3.net.nz/gerda). A subset of the database was assembled with 211 eradication or response programmes against 17 species of fruit flies (Tephritidae) in 31 countries, in order to investigate factors affecting the outcome. The failure rate for fruit fly eradication programmes was about 7%, with 0% for Ceratitis capitata (n = 85 programmes) and 0% for two Anastrepha species (n = 12 programmes), but 12% for 13 Bactrocera species (n = 108 programmes). A number of intended eradication programmes against long-established populations were not initiated because of cost and other considerations, or evolved during the planning phase into suppression programmes. Cost was dependent on area, ranged from $US 0.1 million to $US 240 million and averaged about $US 12 million (normalised to $US in 2012). In addition to the routine use of surveillance networks, quarantine and fruit destruction, the key tactics used in eradication programmes were male annihilation, protein bait sprays (which can attract both sexes), fruit destruction and the sterile insect technique. Eradication success generally required the combination of several tactics applied on an area-wide basis. Because the likelihood of eradication declines with an increase in the area infested, it pays to invest in effective surveillance networks that allow early detection and delimitation while invading populations are small, thereby greatly favouring eradication success. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.
Suckling, David Maxwell; Kean, John M.; Stringer, Lloyd D.; Cáceres-Barrios, Carlos; Hendrichs, Jorge; Reyes-Flores, Jesus; Dominiak, Bernard C.
BACKGROUND: The number of insect eradication programmes is rising in response to globalisation. A database of arthropod and plant pathogen eradications covers 1050 incursion responses, with 928 eradication programmes on 299 pest and disease taxa in 104 countries (global eradication database b3.net.nz/gerda). METHODS: A subset of the database was assembled with 211 eradication or response programmes against 17 species of fruit flies (Tephritidae) in 31 countries, in order to investigate factors affecting the outcome. RESULTS: The failure rate for fruit fly eradication programmes was about 7%, with 0% for Ceratitis capitata (n=85 programmes) and 0% for two Anastrepha species (n=12 programmes), but 12% for 13 Bactrocera species (n=108 programmes). A number of intended eradication programmesagainst long-established populations were not initiated because of cost and other considerations, or evolved during the planning phase into suppression programmes. Cost was dependent on area, ranged from $US 0.1 million to $US 240 million and averaged about $US 12 million (normalised to $US in 2012). In addition to the routine use of surveillance networks, quarantine and fruit destruction, the key tactics used in eradication programmes were male annihilation, protein bait sprays (which can attract both sexes), fruit destruction and the sterile insect technique. CONCLUSIONS: Eradication success generally required the combination of several tactics applied on an area-wide basis. Because the likelihood of eradication declines with an increase in the area infested, it pays to invest in effective surveillance networks that allow early detection and delimitation while invading populations are small, thereby greatly favouring eradication success. (author)
Barofsky, Jeremy; Anekwe, Tobenna D; Chase, Claire
This study evaluates the economic consequences of a 1959-1960 malaria eradication campaign in southwestern Uganda. The effort constitutes a rare, large-scale, and well-documented attempt to eliminate malaria in sub-Saharan Africa and produced an immediate disease reduction. We use this quasi-experimental health shock to identify long-term changes in educational and economic outcomes. Comparing the treatment district to a similar synthetic control, we find malaria eradication raised educational attainment by about a half year for both males and females, increased primary school completion among females and generated an almost 40% rise in the likelihood of male wage employment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Uthman, Olalekan A; Adedokun, Sulaimon T; Olukade, Tawa; Watson, Samuel; Adetokunboh, Olatunji; Adeniran, Adeyinka; Oyetoyan, Solomon A; Gidado, Saheed; Lawoko, Stephen; Wiysonge, Charles S
Nigeria has made remarkable progress against polio, but 2 wild polio virus cases were reported in August 2016; putting an end to 2 y without reported cases. We examined the extent of geographical disparities in childhren not vaccinated against polio and examined individual- and community-level predictors of non-vaccination in Nigeria. We applied multilevel logistic regression models to the recent Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. The percentage of children not routinely vaccinated against polio in Nigeria varied greatly and clustered geographically, mainly in north-eastern states, with a great risk of spread of transmission within these states and potential exportation to neighboring states and countries. Only about one-third had received all recommended 4 routine oral polio vaccine doses. Non-vaccinated children tended to have a mother who had no formal education and who was currently not working, live in poorer households and were from neighborhoods with higher maternal illiteracy rates.
Winberg, Cecilia; Carlsson, Gunilla; Brogårdh, Christina; Lexell, Jan
Maintaining regular physical activity (PA) can be challenging for persons with late effects of polio. This qualitative study of ambulatory persons with late effects of polio explored their perceptions of PA, as well as facilitators of and barriers to PA. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 15 persons and analyzed with content analysis using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a framework. The participants described positive perceptions of PA and its health benefits. PA was used to prevent further decline in functioning, and the type and frequency of activities had changed over time. Past experiences and personal characteristics impacted PA. Support from close relatives, knowledgeable health care professionals, mobility devices, and accessible environments facilitated PA, whereas impairments, inaccessible environments, and cold weather were the main barriers. To perform PA regularly, persons with late effects of polio may benefit from individualized advice based on their disability and personal and environmental factors.
For centuries, the Guinea worm parasite (Dracunculus medinensis) has caused disabling misery, infecting people who drink stagnant water contaminated with the worm's larvae. In 2012, there were 542 cases of Guinea worm reported globally, of which 521 (96.1%) were reported in South Sudan. Protracted civil wars, an inadequate workforce, neglect of potable water provision programs, suboptimal Guinea worm surveillance and case containment, and fragmented health systems account for many of the structural and operational factors encumbering South Sudan's Guinea worm eradication efforts. This article reviews the impacts of six established Guinea worm control strategies in South Sudan: (1) surveillance to determine actual caseload distribution and trends in response to control measures; (2) educating community members from whom worms are emerging to avoid immersing affected parts in sources of drinking water; (3) filtering potentially contaminated drinking water using cloth filters or filtered drinking straws; (4) treating potentially contaminated surface water with the copepod larvicide temephos (Abate); (5) providing safe drinking water from boreholes or hand-dug wells; and (6) containment of transmission through voluntary isolation of each patient to prevent contamination of drinking water sources, provision of first aid, and manual extraction of the worm. Surveillance, community education, potable water provision, and case containment remain weak facets of the program. Abate pesticide is not a viable option for Guinea worm control in South Sudan. In light of current case detection and containment trends, as well as capacity building efforts for Guinea worm eradication, South Sudan is more likely to eradicate Guinea worm by 2020, rather than by 2015. The author highlights areas in which substantial improvements are required in South Sudan's Guinea worm eradication program, and suggests improvement strategies. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Infectious
Compliance and side-effects were assessed 2 weeks after the start of therapy and H. pylori eradication was assessed by stool antigen tests 4 weeks after treatment. Results. Both the intention-to-treat (ITT; N=120) and per protocol (PP; N=97) analyses showed no significant differences between the eradication rates of EAC 7 ...
One of the key goals of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is the eradication of extreme poverty and hunger. In the Nigerian context, unemployment is a major cause of poverty which can be eradicated through empowerment and wealth creation. Printing technology, a technical based course offers benefits in this ...
I conducted an extensive literature review on the effective tsetse and trypanosomiasis eradication method strategies in Africa in 2010 as i embarked on my research that coincided with the formulation of the Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Eradication Strategy for Kenya spearheaded by Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis ...
Feare, Chris J.; van der woude, Jildou; Greenwell, Phill; Edwards, Hannah A.; Taylor, Jenni A.; Larose, Christine S.; Ahlen, Per-Arne; West, Jack; Chadwick, Will; Pandey, Smita; Raines, Katherine; Garcia, Fernando; Komdeur, Jan; de Groene, Arjan
BACKGROUND: In Seychelles, the common myna has been shown to have a negative impact on endangered endemic birds on Denis Island, interfering with breeding attempts and attacking adult endemic birds at their nests. This stimulated an attempt to eradicate the island's mynas. RESULTS: The eradication
Muhammad Umair Khan
Full Text Available Pakistan accounts for 85.2% of the total polio cases reported worldwide. Healthcare workers (HCWs are an integral part of immunization campaigns and source of education for the general public. This study aimed to assess the knowledge and attitudes towards polio vaccination among HCWs providing immunisation and education to general public in Quetta and Peshawar divisions of Pakistan.A cross-sectional survey of 490 HCWs was conducted in two major referral public teaching hospitals of Quetta and Peshawar divisions. During February to April, 2015, a random sample of 490 HCWs was invited to participate in this study. Knowledge and attitudes were assessed by using self-administered, anonymous and pretested questionnaire. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were used to express the results.A total of 468 participants responded to the questionnaire, giving a response rate of 95.5%. Overall, participants demonstrated good knowledge and positive attitudes towards polio vaccination. The mean knowledge score of HCWs about polio was 13.42 ± 2.39 (based on 18 knowledge questions while the mean attitude score was 28.75 ± 5.5 (based on 9 attitudes statements. Knowledge gaps were identified about the incubation period of poliovirus (19.5%, management issues (31.9%, use of polio vaccine in mild illnesses (34.7% and the consequences of the polio virus (36.9%. The majority of participants agreed that all children should be vaccinated for polio (95.1%, while reservations were noted about the need of a booster (38.9%, and sterility issues associated with polio vaccines (43.6%. Internet (n = 167, 37% and Posters (n = 158, 35% were the main sources used by HCWs to educate themselves about polio.Participants in this study had good knowledge and positive attitudes towards polio vaccination. Although the data are indicative of gaps in the knowledge of HCWs, the findings may not be generalized to other hospitals in Pakistan.
Kodama, Masaaki; Murakami, Kazunari; Okimoto, Tadayoshi; Fujioka, Toshio
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a major pathogen of chronic atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and gastric cancer. Atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia are recognized as precancerous lesion of gastric cancer. Many studies reported that H. pylori eradication had the preventive effect of gastric cancer. Moreover many studies mentioned the improvement of gastric atrophy and/or intestinal metaplasia. Two meta-analysis indicated the improvement of atrophic gastritis but not of intestinal metaplasia. In our study, intestinal metaplasia improved at lesser curvature of the corpus six years after eradication. H. pylori eradication has benefit for gastric cancer prevention provably due to improvement of the precancerous lesion such as atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia. Especially, H. pylori eradication before the appearance of atrophy and intestinal metaplasia has been considered to be effective in inhibiting the development of gastric cancer. Therefore, improvement or elimination of chronic gastritis with H. pylori eradication might have possibility of gastric cancer inhibition.
In 1826, the paradise that was the Hawaiian Islands was changed forever when the first mosquito species was accidentally introduced to the island of Maui. Though it has not lived up to its potential as a vector of human disease in the islands, Culex quinquefasciatus and the avian pathogens it transmits laid waste to perhaps the world's most remarkable insular avifauna. Today the lowland native forests, once deafening with birdsong, are largely devoid of native birds and Cx. quinquefasciatus has become an inextricable part of our natural areas. In the Hawaiian Islands, the conservation community struggles to keep invasive species out and to control a number of species that have become naturalized. Despite the millions of dollars spent, these efforts never seem enough to slow the erosion of our native biota. The restoration and long-term preservation of Hawaiian forest birds depend on the nearly complete control of mosquito-borne avian disease, an obstacle that to many land managers appears insurmountable. To rally hope in Hawai`i, the conservation community needs to see a success. As a Pacific island, Hawai`i shares similar conservation problems with New Zealand and has often looked to that nation for innovation and inspiration. Mosquito Eradication: The Story of Killing Campto may be our latest inspiration.
Sagy, Iftach; Novack, Victor; Gdalevich, Michael; Greenberg, Dan
During 2013, isolation of a wild type 1 poliovirus from routine sewage sample in Israel, led to a national OPV campaign. During this period, there was a constant cover of the outbreak by the mass media. To investigate the association of media exposure and OPV and non-OPV vaccines uptake during the 2013 silent polio outbreak in Israel. We received data on daily immunization rates during the outbreak period from the Ministry of Health (MoH). We conducted a multivariable time trend analysis to assess the association between daily media exposure and vaccines uptake. Analysis was stratified by ethnicity and socio-economic status (SES). During the MoH supplemental immunization activity, 138,799 OPV vaccines were given. There was a significant association between media exposure and OPV uptake, most prominent in a lag of 3-5 days from the exposure among Jews (R.R 1.79C.I 95% 1.32-2.41) and high SES subgroups (R.R 1.71C.I 95% 1.27-2.30). These subgroups also showed increased non-OPV uptake in a lag of 3-5 days from the media exposure, in all vaccines except for MMR. Lower SES and non-Jewish subgroups did not demonstrate the same association. Our findings expand the understanding of public behaviour during outbreaks. The public response shows high variability within specific subgroups. These findings highlight the importance of tailored communication strategies for each subgroup. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Balzien, B; Hofner, B; Harlander-Weikert, E; Frommelt, P; Bork, H; Forst, R; Fujak, A
The prevalence of the post-polio syndrome (PPS) is in estimated 50 % of persons with established poliomyelitis with a subsequently stable phase of at least 15 years. The basic mechanism is a loss of motoneuron cells in the spinal cord resulting in muscle weakness and fatigue. In addition pain, cold intolerance and a loss of stamina are frequently reported. There are few studies focusing on the orthopaedic symptoms in the PPS. This study should support the health-care professionals to the address the needs of PPS patients. A questionnaire was developed to collect data on patients who have been diagnosed by a neurologist as fulfilling the criteria of a PPS. It consists of two parts. In the first part, general patient data are collected. In the second part, details of health, pain, and activities of daily living are collected at two points in time: the time of the stable phase immediately after the acute phase of the disease and the phase after the PPS diagnosis. The questionnaires were sent to patients with a diagnosis of PPS. A total of 124 questionnaires were analysed (male: 45, female: 79). Parts of the data were used to calculate a score. It was hypothesised that the score would demonstrate a higher load of orthopaedic symptoms in the PPS phase. The results show that the phase after poliomyelitis (stable phase vs. PPS phase) was associated with significantly different sum score relating to the orthopaedic impairments. The score in the stable phase is on average 18.6 units lower than that in the post-PPS diagnosis phase (p cell pools, treatment is focused on the compensation of the functional limitations. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Why have the majority of recent polio cases occurred in countries affected by Islamist militancy? A historical comparative analysis of the political determinants of polio in Nigeria, Somalia, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Syria.
This article aims to understand why the last few areas where polio remains are affected by armed conflicts involving militant organizations that use Islam to legitimize their activities. The first section critically analyses the argument that Muslims' animosity towards polio vaccination programmes is a consequence of their irrational, backward, anti-Western theology. This argument is depoliticizing, ahistorical and orientalist. Moreover, it does not explain why Islamist militant groups' attitudes to polio vaccination campaigns vary between countries. The second section analyses official documents, newspaper articles, interviews and historical and ethnographic accounts to understand the relationship between Islamist militant groups and polio in five countries - Nigeria, Somalia, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Syria - that account for 95% of the world's polio cases since 2012. I demonstrate that specific political grievances related to the postcolonial state and/or foreign military intervention help to explain variations in militant groups' attitudes to polio vaccination programmes. The paper concludes by considering the policy implications of the analysis. Improved access for polio vaccinators is not predicated on military victory against the militants but securing support of de facto political leaders. This can be achieved by developing a better understanding of the specific sociopolitical contexts in which immunization programmes operate.
Lucia Ferro Bricks
, from January 2000 to December 2006. DATA SYNTHESIS: Acknowledgement of vaccine-associated paralysis and oral vaccine-derived circulating viruses’ paralysis shall certainly require discontinuation of oral vaccination for poliomyelitis use in a short time. After eradication of the wild viruses, oral vaccination for poliomyelitis should be discontinued, preferably in a synchronized manner in all the countries. After termination of vaccination programs, people will become susceptible again to poliomyelitis virus and disease outbreaks caused by wild viruses may occur (accidental escape from laboratories or bioterrorism. In countries already using inactivated poliovirus vaccine, it is unlikely that vaccination will be interrupted. Countries that currently use exclusively oral poliovirus vaccine will have to rely on epidemiological surveillance and on oral vaccine inventories to control potential polio outbreaks. If the oral poliovirus vaccine is reintroduced in those populations, there will be again a risk for vaccine-associated paralysis and oral vaccine-derived circulating viruses’ that may spread rapidly to other regions and to nearby countries. CONCLUSIONS: Inactivated poliovirus vaccine introduction in the routine Brazilian vaccination calendar should be programmed as well as acquisition of technology for inactivated poliovirus vaccine production since the latter is currently insufficient to cover global demand.
This podcast describes paralytic poliomyelitis infections acquired by immune-deficient Iranian children following their exposure to live-virus polio vaccine. Olen Kew, Associate Director for Global Laboratory Science at CDC, discusses implications of the use of live-virus vaccines in global polio eradication efforts.
An ideal antibiotic regimen for Helicobacter pylori should achieve eradication rates of approximately 90%. Current 7-day triple therapy is successful in about two-thirds of patients. A novel treatment is required to achieve higher eradication with minimal induction of bacterial resistance. The aim of this article is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a single triple capsule (Pylera) containing bismuth, metronidazole and tetracycline, given with omeprazole for the eradication of H. pylori infection. Extensive literature searches were conducted using PubMed data from 1982 to 2007. This search included headings of H. pylori, bismuth and eradication therapy. The triple capsule Pylera, when given with omeprazole, achieved eradication rates ranging between 84 and 97%. Eradication rates were similar for clarithromycin- and metronidazole-resistant strains. Eradication rates with an omeprazole, bismuth, metronidazole and tetracycline regimen appeared comparable for metronidazole-resistant and -sensitive strains. This effect is not seen with the use of triple therapy in cases of clarithromycin resistance. Clinical trials did not report any serious side effects from bismuth-based regimens and compliance was similar to standard triple therapy. Bismuth-based triple therapy using Pylera is a simplified, effective and well-tolerated regimen achieving cure rates of above 90%.
Although technical constraints to eradication of bovine tuberculosis are well-recognised, non-technical constraints can also delay progress towards eradication, leading to inefficiency and increased programme costs. This paper seeks to analyse the main non-technical constraints that can interfere with the successful implementation of tuberculosis eradication plans, based on experiences from an area of high tuberculosis prevalence in Regione Piemonte, Italy. The main social and economic constraints faced in the past 20 years are reviewed, including a social reluctance to recognise the importance of seeking eradication as the goal of disease control, effective communication of technical issues, the training and the organization of veterinary services, the relationship between the regional authority and farmers and their representatives, and data management and epidemiological reporting. The paper analyses and discusses the solutions that were applied in Regione Piemonte and the benefits that were obtained. Tuberculosis eradication plans are one of the most difficult tasks of the Veterinary Animal Health Services, and non-technical constraints must be considered when progress towards eradication is less than expected. Organizational and managerial resources can help to overcome social or economic obstacles, provided the veterinary profession is willing to address technical, but also non-technical, constraints to eradication.
Knowledge assessment regarding poliomyelitis among the caregivers of children who received oral polio vaccine reveals lack of awareness of the vaccine vial monitor (VVM): Implications extending beyond polio eradication.
Bhilwar, Meenakshi; Lal, Panna
Vaccine vial monitor (VVM) is now commonly used for vaccines that are included in the National Immunization Schedule in India. It helps to indicate the viability of the vaccine and of the proper functioning of the cold chain. This is useful as it prevents health personnel from administering damaged vaccine. Studies have shown a lack of awareness of health workers regarding the use and interpretation of a VVM. The current study, undertaken among the caregivers of children who were immunized, showed that this lack of information about the VVM also exists among the caregivers. This deficiency in knowledge, both in the health workers and the caregivers, can affect the health of the child and needs urgent attention.
Schneiderman, M.H.; Schneiderman, G.S.
A simple system consisting of cultured HeLa (human cancer) and WI38 (normal human fetal lung) cells and the control cultures of the individual cells were set up to test and compare the effects of the cell cycle-active agents /sup 125/I-iododeoxyuridine (/sup 125/IUdR) and hydroxyurea (HU) on cell survival. The presence of cells and growth after treatment were used as a positive indication of survival. The experimental cultures were first seeded with WI38 cells and allowed to grow to confluency before adding 1.0 x 10/sup 5/ HeLa cells. After two days of treatment-free growth, the co-cultures were continuously treated with /sup 125/IUdR (0.5-2.0 μCi/ml, carrier free) or HU (1.0 x 10/sup -9/ and 1.0 x 10/sup -3/M). At the termination of treatment the co-cultures were split 3 to 1 and incubated for seven days. As expected, there was little or no detectable effect on the growth of WI38 cells treated with HU or /sup 125/IUdR while the cells were confluent. However, HeLa cells were reduced by 1.0 x 10/sup -3/M HU and were eradicated after all concentrations of /sup 125/IUdR
After a four-year eradication programme including nuclear techniques, the Niayes region of Senegal is now almost free of the tsetse fly, which used to decimate livestock. “I have not seen a single tsetse fly for a year now,” said cattle farmer Oumar Sow. “This is in contrast to earlier, when they increased in numbers, especially during the cold season. The flies were really a nuisance to our animals and we had to carefully select the time for milking. Now, there is no problem with that.” The tsetse fly is a bloodsucking insect that kills more than three million livestock in sub-Saharan Africa every year, costing the agriculture industry more than US $4 billion annually. The tsetse fly transmits parasites that cause a wasting disease called nagana in cattle. In some parts of Africa the fly also causes over 75 000 cases of human ‘sleeping sickness’, which affects the central nervous system, and causes disorientation, personality changes, slurred speech, seizures, difficulty walking and talking, and ultimately death.
Nollet, F.; Beelen, A.; Prins, M. H.; de Visser, M.; Sargeant, A. J.; Lankhorst, G. J.; de Jong, B. A.
OBJECTIVES: To compare perceived health problems and disability in former polio subjects with postpolio syndrome (PPS) and those without postpolio syndrome (non-PPS), and to evaluate perceived health problems, disability, physical performance, and muscle strength. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey;
Eriksen, Helle Brander; Lund, Najaaraq; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie
BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that vaccines have an effect on general mortality which goes beyond specific disease protection. Oral polio vaccine (OPV) is widely used in low-income countries, but in observational studies in Guinea-Bissau we observed that not receiving OPV at birth...
Enrique GARCÍA MERINO
Full Text Available This paper, in accordance with educational purposes, analyzes acute paralytic poliomyelitis, its evolution and the rehabilitation of its sequels. All these aspects of the disease are reflected in the film Warm Springs, through the figure of Franklin Delano Roosevelt and his life between 1921 and 1928. Clinical, psychological, epidemiological, rehabilitative, family and social aspects of polio infection are examined.
Studies on the potency of oral polio vaccine using RD cell line and evaluation of growth using different serum concentration and volume of media. ... The culture flasks containing different volumes of growth medium with 10% serum concentration such as 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 ml were added to a series of culture flasks. All the ...
Nov 16, 2009 ... Oral polio vaccine (OPV) proved to be superior in administration eliminating the need of sterile syringes and making the vaccine more suitable for mass vaccination campaigns. Poliovirus is heat sensitive in nature, and thus OPV is stored at low temperature (frozen). The growth medium containing.
Voorn, Eric L.; Koopman, Fieke S.; Brehm, Merel A.; Beelen, Anita; de Haan, Arnold; Gerrits, Karin H. L.; Nollet, Frans
To explore reasons for the lack of efficacy of a high intensity aerobic exercise program in post-polio syndrome (PPS) on cardiorespiratory fitness by evaluating adherence to the training program and effects on muscle function. A process evaluation using data from an RCT. Forty-four severely fatigued
Full Text Available Invasive alien mammals are the major driver of biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation on islands. Over the past three decades, invasive mammal eradication from islands has become one of society's most powerful tools for preventing extinction of insular endemics and restoring insular ecosystems. As practitioners tackle larger islands for restoration, three factors will heavily influence success and outcomes: the degree of local support, the ability to mitigate for non-target impacts, and the ability to eradicate non-native species more cost-effectively. Investments in removing invasive species, however, must be weighed against the risk of reintroduction. One way to reduce reintroduction risks is to eradicate the target invasive species from an entire archipelago, and thus eliminate readily available sources. We illustrate the costs and benefits of this approach with the efforts to remove invasive goats from the Galápagos Islands. Project Isabela, the world's largest island restoration effort to date, removed >140,000 goats from >500,000 ha for a cost of US$10.5 million. Leveraging the capacity built during Project Isabela, and given that goat reintroductions have been common over the past decade, we implemented an archipelago-wide goat eradication strategy. Feral goats remain on three islands in the archipelago, and removal efforts are underway. Efforts on the Galápagos Islands demonstrate that for some species, island size is no longer the limiting factor with respect to eradication. Rather, bureaucratic processes, financing, political will, and stakeholder approval appear to be the new challenges. Eradication efforts have delivered a suite of biodiversity benefits that are in the process of revealing themselves. The costs of rectifying intentional reintroductions are high in terms of financial and human resources. Reducing the archipelago-wide goat density to low levels is a technical approach to reducing reintroduction risk in the short
Carrion, Victor; Donlan, C Josh; Campbell, Karl J; Lavoie, Christian; Cruz, Felipe
Invasive alien mammals are the major driver of biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation on islands. Over the past three decades, invasive mammal eradication from islands has become one of society's most powerful tools for preventing extinction of insular endemics and restoring insular ecosystems. As practitioners tackle larger islands for restoration, three factors will heavily influence success and outcomes: the degree of local support, the ability to mitigate for non-target impacts, and the ability to eradicate non-native species more cost-effectively. Investments in removing invasive species, however, must be weighed against the risk of reintroduction. One way to reduce reintroduction risks is to eradicate the target invasive species from an entire archipelago, and thus eliminate readily available sources. We illustrate the costs and benefits of this approach with the efforts to remove invasive goats from the Galápagos Islands. Project Isabela, the world's largest island restoration effort to date, removed >140,000 goats from >500,000 ha for a cost of US$10.5 million. Leveraging the capacity built during Project Isabela, and given that goat reintroductions have been common over the past decade, we implemented an archipelago-wide goat eradication strategy. Feral goats remain on three islands in the archipelago, and removal efforts are underway. Efforts on the Galápagos Islands demonstrate that for some species, island size is no longer the limiting factor with respect to eradication. Rather, bureaucratic processes, financing, political will, and stakeholder approval appear to be the new challenges. Eradication efforts have delivered a suite of biodiversity benefits that are in the process of revealing themselves. The costs of rectifying intentional reintroductions are high in terms of financial and human resources. Reducing the archipelago-wide goat density to low levels is a technical approach to reducing reintroduction risk in the short-term, and is being
Full Text Available Reversion and spread of vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV to cause outbreaks of poliomyelitis is a rare outcome resulting from immunisation with the live-attenuated oral poliovirus vaccines (OPVs. Global withdrawal of all three OPV serotypes is therefore a key objective of the polio endgame strategic plan, starting with serotype 2 (OPV2 in April 2016. Supplementary immunisation activities (SIAs with trivalent OPV (tOPV in advance of this date could mitigate the risks of OPV2 withdrawal by increasing serotype-2 immunity, but may also create new serotype-2 VDPV (VDPV2. Here, we examine the risk factors for VDPV2 emergence and implications for the strategy of tOPV SIAs prior to OPV2 withdrawal. We first developed mathematical models of VDPV2 emergence and spread. We found that in settings with low routine immunisation coverage, the implementation of a single SIA increases the risk of VDPV2 emergence. If routine coverage is 20%, at least 3 SIAs are needed to bring that risk close to zero, and if SIA coverage is low or there are persistently "missed" groups, the risk remains high despite the implementation of multiple SIAs. We then analysed data from Nigeria on the 29 VDPV2 emergences that occurred during 2004-2014. Districts reporting the first case of poliomyelitis associated with a VDPV2 emergence were compared to districts with no VDPV2 emergence in the same 6-month period using conditional logistic regression. In agreement with the model results, the odds of VDPV2 emergence decreased with higher routine immunisation coverage (odds ratio 0.67 for a 10% absolute increase in coverage [95% confidence interval 0.55-0.82]. We also found that the probability of a VDPV2 emergence resulting in poliomyelitis in >1 child was significantly higher in districts with low serotype-2 population immunity. Our results support a strategy of focused tOPV SIAs before OPV2 withdrawal in areas at risk of VDPV2 emergence and in sufficient number to raise population
The Explosive Release Atmospheric Dispersion (ERAD) model (Boughton and DeLaurentis 1992) is a three-dimensional numerical model for simulating atmospheric transport and dispersion. The ERAD code is particularly adept at handling explosive releases into the atmosphere and is being used by the Materials and Accountability Department at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to provide risk estimates. The Environmental Technology Section (ETS) was asked to provide meteorological data to be used for applying ERAD to some site facilities. The ERAD model requires a vertical profile of meteorological measurements. The 1993 data from the WJBF-TV tower has been processed and provided for this purpose. This document describes the steps taken to prepare and format the database
Full Text Available Porphyrio porphyrio (Fulica porphyrio Linnaeus was reported to the South Florida Water Management District in a Water Conservation Area and in constructed wetlands in the Everglades in 2006. A rapid assessment, including casual observations and surveys of land managers, indicated a limited number of P. porphyrio (~300 birds was present, and an eradication attempt was initiated. From 2006 – 2008, more than 3100 P. porphyrio were killed by shotgun from airboats during 73 hunts, suggesting the initial population assessment was severely underestimated. After removing nearly 1500 P. porphyrio in 2008, we concluded that eradication was not possible. Failure of this eradication attempt is attributed to P. porphyrio’s affinity with dense emergent vegetation, which greatly limited shooting effectiveness. Further, the failed eradication underscores the importance of a reporting network to improve early detection and the chance to eliminate naturalized or feral populations of non‐native species.
Kim, Sung Eun; Park, Young Soo; Kim, Min Soo; Jo, Hyun Jin; Shin, Cheol Min; Lee, Sang Hyub; Hwang, Jin-Hyeok; Kim, Jin-Wook; Jeong, Sook-Hyang; Lee, Dong Ho; Jung, Hyun Chae
Background/Aims This study evaluated the effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on functional dyspepsia (FD), and the relationship between the changes of histological gastritis and FD symptom responses. Methods A total of 213 FD patients diagnosed by Rome III criteria were consecutively enrolled. H. pylori tests and gastritis grade by the Sydney system were performed before and 1 year after the proton pump based-eradication therapy for 7 days. Serum levels of pepsinogen, and genetic polymorphisms IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 were investigated. Results Total of 91 patients completed the 1 year follow-up. When the response rate of dyspepsia was compared at 1 year between the non-eradicated group (n = 24) and eradicated group (n = 67), each group showed complete response of 62.5% and 62.7%; satisfactory response (≥ 50%) of 0.0% and 19.4%; partial response (gastritis at 1 year, suggesting that inflammation mediates FD. PMID:23667755
Eisele, Evelyn; Siliciano, Robert F.
Summary This review proposes definitions for key terms in the field of HIV-1 latency and eradication. In the context of eradication, a reservoir is a cell type that allows persistence of replication-competent HIV-1 on a time scale of years in patients on optimal antiretroviral therapy. Reservoirs act as a barrier to eradication in the patient population in whom cure attempts will likely be made. Halting viral replication is essential to eradication, and definitions and criteria for assessing whether this goal has been achieved are proposed. The cell types that may serve as reservoirs for HIV-1 are discussed. Currently, only latently infected resting CD4+ T cells fit the proposed definition of a reservoir, and more evidence is necessary to demonstrate that other cell types including hematopoietic stem cells and macrophages fit this definition. Further research is urgently required on potential reservoirs in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue and the central nervous system. PMID:22999944
Houe, Hans; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose
"Control and eradication of endemic infectious diseases in cattle" provides the key elements that should be addressed in the establishment of bovine disease control and eradication programmes. The book aims to reach a broad group of readers, including: students; professionals in veterinary practice...... "disease profiling", which is governed by the characteristics of the agent and its interaction with the host and environment. This profile, along with due consideration of the socioeconomic circumstances, can be used to determine how best to address the problem....
In March 1996, during its first meeting since the Fourth World Conference on Women, the UN Commission on the Status of Women (CSW), called for a gender perspective to be integrated into policies and programs dealing with poverty, child and dependent care, and the media. Three expert panels examined each of these areas through a format which encouraged dialogue and led to the adoption of 17 resolutions, decisions, and agreed conclusions as well as a recommendation that the UN adopt a multi-year work program for the CSW to allow it to review progress in elimination of the 12 main obstacles to women's advancement identified at Beijing. Among the resolutions adopted by the CSW were calls to 1) take a broad and integrated approach to poverty eradication, 2) enhance women's empowerment and autonomy, 3) promote equity and equality in the public domain, 4) promote women's employment, 5) give women social and economic protection when they are unable to work, 6) counteract negative images of women and sex-stereotyping in the media, 7) reduce the representation of violence against women in the media, 8) strengthen the role of women in global communications, 9) encourage the participation of men in child and dependent care, and 10) recognize women's double burden of work. The CSW also agreed to pursue further discussions about drafting an optional protocol to the 1979 Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women. Among its other actions, the CSW called for mechanisms to protect the rights of women migrant workers, to protect women and children during armed conflicts, to include gender-based human rights violations in UN activities, and to address the root factors which lead to social ills such as trafficking in women and girls. In addition, the CSW submitted a draft resolution demanding that Israel protect the rights of Palestinian women and their families.
A fundamental problem in cancer research is identification of the cells within a tumor that sustain the growth of the neoplastic clone. The concept that only a subpopulation of rare cancer stem cells (CSCs) is responsible for maintenance of the neoplasm emerged nearly 50 years ago: however, conclusive proof for the existence of a CSC was obtained only relatively recently. As definition, cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a sub-population of cancer cells (found within solid tumors or hematological malignancies) that possess characteristics normally associated with stem cells as high self-renewal potential. These cells are believed to be tumorige forming) in contrast to the bulk of cancer cells, which are thought to be non-tumorigenic. The first conclusive evidence for CSCs was published in 1997 in Nature Medicine by Bonnet and Dick who isolated a subpopulation of leukemic cells in AML that express a specific surface marker CD34 but lacks the CD38 marker. The authors established that the CD34+/CD38– subpopulation is capable of initiating leukemia in NOD/SCID mice that is histologically similar to the donor . This subpopulation of cells is termed SCID Leukemia-initiating cells (SLIC). A theory suggests that such cells act as a reservoir for disease recurrence, are the origin of metastasis and exert resistance towards classical antitumor regimens. This resistance was attributed to a combination of several factors , suggesting that conventional antitumor regimens are targeting the bulk of the tumor not the dormant stubborn CSCs. Purpose Better understanding of the leukemogenic process and the biology of CSCS to define the most applicable procedures for their identification and isolation in order to design specific targeted therapies aiming at reducing disease burden to very low levels .. up to eradication of the tumor
Full text: Two technology firms have launched asbestos tracking software, making bold claims that their programs will help rid Australia of asbestos by 2030. The move follows closely on the heels of the establishment of the Australian Asbestos Safety Eradication Agency (ASEA) last July. Asbestos-related deaths from diseases including lung cancer, asbestosis and mesothelioma are expected to continue until at least 2060, due to a latency period of 20-50 years before symptoms appear after initial exposure. Health experts predict there will be up to 40,000 deaths by 2020. Industry players, governments and trade unions are rightly concerned and have been working towards tracking and disposing of asbestos safely. In fact, just three weeks after ASEA began operations, then-Workplace Relations Minister Bill Shorten announced an additional $6.4 million in funding to implement the agency's national strategic plan for asbestos awareness and management. Now, two firms say they can fulfil the government's goal of eradicating asbestos by 2030 through the use of technology, while saving millions of dollars in the process. After three years of development, Octfolio, owned by investment firm Tulla Group, launched its Asbestos Management Software last September. It maps and manages asbestos by creating a centrally operated database bringing together asbestos stakeholders such as site assessors, removal workers, building owners and government agencies. Information from each stakeholder is recorded in a microformat — codes used to identify specific kinds of data in webpages — which is then processed to give users a big picture view of what is happening at asbestos-contaminated sites and buildings, as well as ongoing removal, disposal and storage of the material. The software also automatically generates reports from auditors who have submitted their inspection reports of asbestos-affected sites, which Octfoliosays will reduce the costs of auditing exercises by up to 75%. Managing
.... The muscle weakness experienced by many polio survivors puts this population in a unique position to serve as an accelerated model for the same weakness-overuse-injury cycle experienced by military recruits...
Wallace, Aaron S; Bohara, Rajendra; Stewart, Steven; Subedi, Giri; Anand, Abhijeet; Burnett, Eleanor; Giri, Jagat; Shrestha, Jagat; Gurau, Suraj; Dixit, Sameer; Rajbhandari, Rajesh; Schluter, W William
The potential to strengthen routine immunization (RI) services through supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) is an important benefit of global measles and rubella elimination and polio eradication strategies. However, little evidence exists on how best to use SIAs to strengthen RI. As part the 2012 Nepal measles-rubella and polio SIA, we developed an intervention package designed to improve RI processes and evaluated its effect on specific RI process measures. The intervention package was incorporated into existing SIA activities and materials to improve healthcare providers' RI knowledge and practices throughout Nepal. In 1 region (Central Region) we surveyed the same 100 randomly selected health facilities before and after the SIA and evaluated the following RI process measures: vaccine safety, RI planning, RI service delivery, vaccine supply chain, and RI data recording practices. Data collection included observations of vaccination sessions, interviews with the primary healthcare provider who administered vaccines at each facility, and administrative record reviews. Pair-matched analytical methods were used to determine whether statistically significant changes in the selected RI process measures occurred over time. After the SIA, significant positive changes were measured in healthcare provider knowledge of adverse events following immunization (11% increase), availability of RI microplans (+17%) and maps (+12%), and awareness of how long a reconstituted measles vial can be used before it must be discarded (+14%). For the SIA, 42% of providers created an SIA high-risk villages list, and >50% incorporated this information into RI outreach session site planning. Significant negative changes occurred in correct knowledge of measles vaccination contraindications (-11%), correct definition for a measles outbreak (-21%), and how to treat a child with a severe adverse event following immunization (-10%). Twenty percent of providers reported cancelling ≥1 RI
Haskew, John; Kenyi, Veronica; William, Juma; Alum, Rebecca; Puri, Anu; Mostafa, Yehia; Davis, Robert
Use of mobile information technology may aid collection of real-time, standardised data to inform and improve decision-making for polio programming and response. We utilised Android-based smartphones to collect data electronically from more than 8,000 households during a national round of polio immunisation in South Sudan. The results of the household surveys are presented here, together with discussion of the application of mobile information technology for polio campaign planning, implementation and evaluation in a real-time setting. Electronic questionnaires were programmed onto Android-based smartphones for mapping, supervision and survey activities during a national round of polio immunisation. National census data were used to determine the sampling frame for each activity and select the payam (district). Individual supervisors, in consultation with the local district health team, selected villages and households within each payam. Data visualisation tools were utilised for analysis and reporting. Implementation of mobile information technology and local management was feasible during a national round of polio immunisation in South Sudan. Red Cross visits during the polio campaign were equitable according to household wealth index and households who received a Red Cross visit had significantly higher odds of being aware of the polio campaign than those who did not. Nearly 95% of children under five were reported to have received polio immunisation (according to maternal recall) during the immunisation round, which varied by state, county and payam. A total of 11 payams surveyed were identified with less than 90% reported immunisation coverage and the least poor households had significantly higher odds of being vaccinated than the most poor. More than 95% of households were aware of the immunisation round and households had significantly higher odds of being vaccinated if they had prior awareness of the campaign taking place. Pre-campaign community education
Full Text Available Use of mobile information technology may aid collection of real-time, standardised data to inform and improve decision-making for polio programming and response. We utilised Android-based smartphones to collect data electronically from more than 8,000 households during a national round of polio immunisation in South Sudan. The results of the household surveys are presented here, together with discussion of the application of mobile information technology for polio campaign planning, implementation and evaluation in a real-time setting.Electronic questionnaires were programmed onto Android-based smartphones for mapping, supervision and survey activities during a national round of polio immunisation. National census data were used to determine the sampling frame for each activity and select the payam (district. Individual supervisors, in consultation with the local district health team, selected villages and households within each payam. Data visualisation tools were utilised for analysis and reporting.Implementation of mobile information technology and local management was feasible during a national round of polio immunisation in South Sudan. Red Cross visits during the polio campaign were equitable according to household wealth index and households who received a Red Cross visit had significantly higher odds of being aware of the polio campaign than those who did not. Nearly 95% of children under five were reported to have received polio immunisation (according to maternal recall during the immunisation round, which varied by state, county and payam. A total of 11 payams surveyed were identified with less than 90% reported immunisation coverage and the least poor households had significantly higher odds of being vaccinated than the most poor. More than 95% of households were aware of the immunisation round and households had significantly higher odds of being vaccinated if they had prior awareness of the campaign taking place
Ohfuji, Satoko; Ito, Kazuya; Ishibashi, Motoki; Shindo, Shizuo; Takasaki, Yoshio; Yokoyama, Takashi; Yokoyama, Takato; Yamashita, Yuji; Shibao, Keigo; Nakano, Takashi; Tsuru, Tomomi; Irie, Shin; Hirota, Yoshio
In Japan, the routine immunization program with oral polio vaccine (OPV) has been suspended since September 2012, when a program with 4 doses of inactivated monovalent polio vaccine (IPV) or quadrivalent vaccine against diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus with IPV (DTaP-IPV) was introduced. The aim of this study was to examine the interchangeability among these 3 types of polio vaccines.We conducted a prospective cohort study at 5 pediatric clinics in Japan. A total of 153 infants were assigned to 1 of the 4 groups by considering the vaccination history of OPV and trivalent vaccine against DTaP. Eleven infants with a history of OPV received 3 doses of DTaP-IPV; 49 infants with a history of OPV and DTaP received 3 doses of IPV; 50 polio vaccine-naïve infants received 2 doses of IPV followed by 2 doses of DTaP-IPV; and 43 polio vaccine-naive infants received 2 doses of DTaP-IPV followed by IPV. The immunogenicity after polio vaccination was evaluated among these 4 groups.After 2 doses of polio vaccination, more than 80% of the infants exhibited a neutralization antibody titer ≥1:8 for all Sabin strains and wild strains in all groups. After the third dose, the seroprotection proportion (i.e., a neutralization antibody titer ≥1:8) reached about 100%. After the fourth dose, a neutralization antibody titer exceeded the required protective levels (i.e., a neutralization antibody titer ≥1:8) considerably in all groups.Four doses of polio vaccines induced a sufficient level of immunity in Japanese infants, irrespective of vaccine combinations or order.
Khan, Muhammad Tahir; Zaheer, Sidra; Shafique, Kashif
To explore the association of maternal education and empowerment with childhood polio vaccination using nationally representative data of Pakistani mothers in a reproductive age group. Cross-sectional. Secondary analysis of Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey (PDHS), 2012-2013 data was performed. Of the 13 558 mothers included in the survey sample, 6982 mothers were able to provide information regarding polio vaccinations. Polio vaccination coverage among children aged up to 5 years was categorised as complete vaccination (all four oral polio vaccine (OPV) doses), incomplete vaccination, and no vaccination (zero OPV dose received). Mothers' empowerment status was assessed using standard 'Measure DHS' questions regarding their involvement in decision-making related to health, household possessions and visits among family and friends. Education was categorised as no education, primary, secondary and higher education. Results of multinomial regression analyses were reported as adjusted OR with 95% CI. We adjusted for age, wealth index, urban/rural residence, place of delivery, and antenatal and postnatal visits. Only 56.4% (n=3936) of the children received complete polio vaccination. Women with no education had significantly higher odds of their child receiving no polio vaccination (OR 2.34, 95% CI 1.05 to 5.18; pchild for any polio vaccination (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.17 to 2.12; p<0.01) and incomplete vaccination (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.41; p=0.04). Illiteracy, socioeconomic status and empowerment of women remained significant factors linked to poorer uptake of routine polio vaccination. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Full Text Available Giant African snail (Achatina fulica (Bowdich, 1822, an important invasive snail, was recently found in South Florida, USA. An extensive eradication effort was initiated consisting of pesticide applications, debris removal and hand collections. We studied the reproduction capacity and population dynamics of snails collected from 22 populations for two years to help evaluate the likely success of the eradication program. A total of 23,890 snails, ranging from 25-131 mm, were measured, dissected and the number of eggs in each snail counted. Gravid snails ranged from 48-128 mm. Only 5% of snails had eggs, which were found year round. As the snails increased in size, they were more likely to include reproducing individuals. However, the percentage of gravid snails peaked when snails were approximately 90 mm. Although more prevalent, small (1000 adult snails and used data from the two largest populations to investigate how environmental factors (temperature, humidity, and rainfall interacted with population dynamics and control measures. More snails were collected in weeks with high humidity and more gravid snails were collected when the temperature was higher. The addition of metaldehyde pesticides had the greatest impact on population dynamics by reducing snail numbers. In populations with fewer snails, their numbers were already declining before the use of metaldehyde, although the new treatment accelerated the process. As a consequence of the eradication program, egg-producing snails were no longer collected from most populations by the end of the study. The aggressive and persistent control efforts apparently lead to reduced populations of egg producing snails, eventually resulting in local extinctions of this important pest.
Giant African snail (Achatina fulica (Bowdich, 1822)), an important invasive snail, was recently found in South Florida, USA. An extensive eradication effort was initiated consisting of pesticide applications, debris removal and hand collections. We studied the reproduction capacity and population dynamics of snails collected from 22 populations for two years to help evaluate the likely success of the eradication program. A total of 23,890 snails, ranging from 25–131 mm, were measured, dissected and the number of eggs in each snail counted. Gravid snails ranged from 48–128 mm. Only 5% of snails had eggs, which were found year round. As the snails increased in size, they were more likely to include reproducing individuals. However, the percentage of gravid snails peaked when snails were approximately 90 mm. Although more prevalent, small (1000 adult snails and used data from the two largest populations to investigate how environmental factors (temperature, humidity, and rainfall) interacted with population dynamics and control measures. More snails were collected in weeks with high humidity and more gravid snails were collected when the temperature was higher. The addition of metaldehyde pesticides had the greatest impact on population dynamics by reducing snail numbers. In populations with fewer snails, their numbers were already declining before the use of metaldehyde, although the new treatment accelerated the process. As a consequence of the eradication program, egg-producing snails were no longer collected from most populations by the end of the study. The aggressive and persistent control efforts apparently lead to reduced populations of egg producing snails, eventually resulting in local extinctions of this important pest. PMID:27861504
Warigon, Charity; Mkanda, Pascal; Muhammed, Ado; Etsano, Andrew; Korir, Charles; Bawa, Samuel; Gali, Emmanuel; Nsubuga, Peter; Erbeto, Tesfaya B; Gerlong, George; Banda, Richard; Yehualashet, Yared G; Vaz, Rui G
Poliomyelitis remains a global threat despite availability of oral polio vaccine (OPV), proven to reduce the burden of the paralyzing disease. In Nigeria, children continue to miss the opportunity to be fully vaccinated, owing to factors such as unmet health needs and low uptake in security-compromised and underserved communities. We describe the implementation and evaluation of several activities to create demand for polio vaccination in persistently poor-performing local government areas (LGAs). We assessed the impact of various polio-related interventions, to measure the contribution of demand creation activities in 77 LGAs at very high risk for polio, located across 10 states in northern Nigeria. Interventions included provision of commodities along with the polio vaccine. There was an increasing trend in the number of children reached by different demand creation interventions. A total of 4 819 847 children were vaccinated at health camps alone. There was a reduction in the number of wards in which >10% of children were missed by supplementary immunization activities due to noncompliance with vaccination recommendations, a rise in the proportion of children who received ≥4 OPV doses, and a decrease in the proportion of children who were underimmunized or unimmunized. Demand creation interventions increased the uptake of polio vaccines in persistently poor-performing high-risk communities in northern Nigeria during September 2013-November 2014. © 2016 World Health Organization; licensee Oxford Journals.
Kalkan, Ismail Hakki; Sapmaz, Ferdane; Güliter, Sefa; Atasoy, Pınar
In several studies, different risk factors other than antibiotic resistance have been documented with Helicobacter pylori eradication failure. We aimed in this study to investigate the relationship of gastric density of H. pylori, the occurrence/degree of gastric atrophy, and intestinal metaplasia (IM) with success rate of H. pylori eradication. Two hundred consecutive treatment naive patients who received bismuth containing standart quadruple treatment due to H. pylori infection documented by histopathological examination of two antral or two corpal biopsies entered this retrospective study. The updated Sydney system was used to grade the activity of gastritis, density of H. pylori colonization, atrophy, and IM. Stages III and IV of operative link for gastritis assessment (OLGA) or the operative link on gastric intestinal metaplasia assessment (OLGIM) stages was considered as severe gastritis. H. pylori eradication was determined via stool H. pylori antigen test performed 4 weeks after the end of therapy. The presence of gastric atrophy and IM was significantly higher in patients with eradication failure (p = 0.001 and 0.01, respectively). Severe gastritis (OLGA III-IV and OLGIM III-IV) rates were higher in eradication failure group. A multiple linear regression analysis showed that OLGA and OLGIM stages were to be independent risk factors for eradication failure (p = 0.03 and 0.01, respectively). Our results suggested that histopathologically severe gastritis may cause H. pylori eradication failure. In addition, we found that H. pylori density was not a risk factor for treatment failure in patients who receive quadruple treatment.
Valero, Nereida; Maldonado, Mery
Vaccination has demonstrated the capacity for the drastic decrease of the prevalence and incidence of several diseases of viral etiology and it has allowed their eradication. Among these human immuno preventable diseases are included poliomyelitis, measles, mumps, chicken pox, rubella, hepatitis A and B, influenza A and yellow fever. In residents, travelers to endemic areas and personal at risk, the vaccines to Japanese and equine encephalitis, rabies and adenovirus can be applied. Venezuela has not escaped from the positive impact in the epidemiology of these illnesses as a consequence of the organization and implementation of big national vaccination campaigns; however, and in spite of these efforts, important outbreaks of measles, yellow fever, chicken pox and hepatitis have occurred in the last few years. The tools to eliminate the majority of these viral diseases exist in Venezuela as well as in other countries, and are readily available, effective and relatively not expensive, but require on the whole of an effort of authorities and communities. The implementation of these strategies should have the support of the World Health Organization and the Panamerican Health Organization. This is a priority for the next few years if our aim is the eradication of these illnesses from Venezuela, the continent and the world.
Mullen, M.F.; Wincek, M.A.
An overview of IAEA inspection activities is presented, and the problem of evaluating the effectiveness of an inspection is discussed. Two models are described - an effort model and an effectiveness model. The effort model breaks the IAEA's inspection effort into components; the amount of effort required for each component is estimated; and the total effort is determined by summing the effort for each component. The effectiveness model quantifies the effectiveness of inspections in terms of probabilities of detection and quantities of material to be detected, if diverted over a specific period. The method is applied to a 200 metric ton per year low-enriched uranium fuel fabrication facility. A description of the model plant is presented, a safeguards approach is outlined, and sampling plans are calculated. The required inspection effort is estimated and the results are compared to IAEA estimates. Some other applications of the method are discussed briefly. Examples are presented which demonstrate how the method might be useful in formulating guidelines for inspection planning and in establishing technical criteria for safeguards implementation
Olokoba, A B; Obateru, O A; Bojuwoye, M O
Helicobacter pylori has been implicated in the formation of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and gastric cancer. Eradication of H. Pylori has been recommended as treatment and prevention for these complications. This review is based on a search of Medline, the Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews, and citation lists of relevant publications. Subject heading and key words used include H. Pylori, current treatment and emerging therapy. Only articles in English were included. There has been a substantial decline in the H. pylori eradication rates over the years, despite the use of proton pump inhibitor and bismuth salts for triple and quadruple therapies respectively. The reasons for eradication failure are diverse, among them, antibiotic resistance is an important factor in the treatment failure. Primary resistance to clarithromycin or metronidazole significantly affects the efficacy of eradication therapy. This has led to the introduction of second line, third line "rescue," and sequential therapies for resistant cases. Subsequently, new antibiotic combinations with proton-pump inhibitors and bismuth salts are being studied in the last decade, to find out the antibiotics that are capable of increasing the eradication rates. Some of these antibiotics include Levofloxacin, Doxycycline, Rifaximin, Rifampicin, Furazolidone based therapies. Studies are ongoing to determine the efficacy of Lactoferrin based therapy.
Glaeser, Kathrin; Urban, Manuela; Fenech, Emma; Voloshanenko, Oksana; Kranz, Dominique; Lari, Federica; Christianson, John C; Boutros, Michael
Active regulation of protein abundance is an essential strategy to modulate cellular signaling pathways. Within the Wnt signaling cascade, regulated degradation of β-catenin by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) affects the outcome of canonical Wnt signaling. Here, we found that abundance of the Wnt cargo receptor Evi (Wls/GPR177), which is required for Wnt protein secretion, is also regulated by the UPS through endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD). In the absence of Wnt ligands, Evi is ubiquitinated and targeted for ERAD in a VCP-dependent manner. Ubiquitination of Evi involves the E2-conjugating enzyme UBE2J2 and the E3-ligase CGRRF1. Furthermore, we show that a triaging complex of Porcn and VCP determines whether Evi enters the secretory or the ERAD pathway. In this way, ERAD-dependent control of Evi availability impacts the scale of Wnt protein secretion by adjusting the amount of Evi to meet the requirement of Wnt protein export. As Wnt and Evi protein levels are often dysregulated in cancer, targeting regulatory ERAD components might be a useful approach for therapeutic interventions. © 2018 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.
Westdijk, Janny; Koedam, Patrick; Barro, Mario; Steil, Benjamin P; Collin, Nicolas; Vedvick, Thomas S; Bakker, Wilfried A M; van der Ley, Peter; Kersten, Gideon
Six different adjuvants, each in combination with inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) produced with attenuated Sabin strains (sIPV), were evaluated for their ability to enhance virus neutralizing antibody titres (VNTs) in the rat potency model. The increase of VNTs was on average 3-, 15-, 24-fold with adjuvants after one immunization (serotypes 1, 2, and 3, respectively). Also after a boost immunization the VNTs of adjuvanted sIPV were on average another 7-20-27 times higher than after two inoculations of sIPV without adjuvant. The results indicate that it is feasible to increase the potency of inactivated polio vaccines by using adjuvants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Smith, Derek R; Leggat, Peter A
Over ten years after his death, the Sabin oral vaccine continues its profound influence on public health throughout the world. The annual incidence of polio has fallen dramatically since its introduction, with more than 300,000 lives being spared each year and an annual global saving in excess of 1 billion US dollars. In many ways, the development of an effective oral vaccine and its subsequent regulation by the World Health Organization can serve as a model for medical researchers. Our review describes the contribution of Albert Sabin as a medical researcher, and how his vaccine had a profound impact on the global reduction of polio infections. As many different factors influenced health-care last century, we describe Sabin's involvement with respect to prevailing scientific paradigms and public health issues of the time. Our paper also outlines the basic epidemiology of poliovirus and the historical development of an effective vaccine, both with and without Albert Sabin.
Broderick M. Steven Oberste Deborah Moore Sandra Romero-Steiner Christian J. Hansen Dennis J. Faix Report No. 13-53 The views expressed in...email@example.com (M.P. Broderick ). 1 Current address: Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response, CDC, tlanta, GA 30333, USA. ttp...titers examined were those of polio, not of other vaccines givenM.P. Broderick et al. / V utcomes were associated with receipt of the same vaccinations
Winberg, Cecilia; Flansbjer, Ulla-Britt; Carlsson, Gunilla; Rimmer, James; Lexell, Jan
To promote a healthy and active lifestyle there is a need to increase our knowledge of the level of physical activity (PA) among people with late effects of polio. To examine PA in people with late effects of polio and to assess the relationship between PA, life satisfaction and various sociodemographic factors. PA was assessed in 81 persons with late effects of polio using the Physical Activity and Disability Survey (PADS) and by a pedometer. Life satisfaction was assessed with the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire (LiSat-11). The amount of PA varied considerably but on average the participants were physically active almost 3 h per day, mostly in household activities. The mean value of the pedometer counts was 6212 steps per day (SD = 3208). Sixty-nine percent of the participants rated themselves as satisfied with life as a whole. The sum of PADS was positively and significantly related to the number of steps (r = 0.39, p satisfaction with life (rho = 0.23, p satisfaction with life (rho = 0.37, p satisfaction and age further supports the general contention that an active lifestyle is an important factor for perceived well-being among older people. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Voorman, Arend; Hoff, Nicole A; Doshi, Reena H; Alfonso, Vivian; Mukadi, Patrick; Muyembe-Tamfum, Jean-Jacques; Wemakoy, Emile Okitolonda; Bwaka, Ado; Weldon, William; Gerber, Sue; Rimoin, Anne W
In order to prevent outbreaks from wild and vaccine-derived poliovirus, maintenance of population immunity in non-endemic countries is critical. We estimated population seroprevalence using dried blood spots collected from 4893 children 6-59months olds in the 2013-2014 Demographic and Health Survey in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Population immunity was 81%, 90%, and 70% for poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Among 6-59-month-old children, 78% reported at least one dose of polio in routine immunization, while only 15% had three doses documented on vaccination cards. All children in the study had been eligible for at least two trivalent oral polio vaccine campaigns at the time of enrollment; additional immunization campaigns seroconverted 5.0%, 14%, and 5.5% of non-immune children per-campaign for types 1, 2, and 3, respectively, averaged over relevant campaigns for each serotype. Overall polio immunity was high at the time of the study, though pockets of low immunity cannot be ruled out. The DRC still relies on supplementary immunization campaigns, and this report stresses the importance of the quality and coverage of those campaigns over their quantity, as well as the importance of routine immunization. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The term post-polio syndrome (PPS was introduced in 1985 by Halstead. It is characterized by sudden or progressive muscle weakness, new muscular atrophy, muscle pain, fatigue, functional impotence, cold intolerance, after a period of at least 15 years from acute polio virus infection, a period of neurological and functional stability, in the absence of other medical explanation . The reported prevalence of PPS is between 15% and 80% of all patients with previous polio virus infections [2, 3]. Poliomyelitis continues to be a public health problem, because the consequences of the disease last throughout life. In Europe, there are about 700,000 persons who survived the infection and are still alive. Non-randomized studies with kinesitherapy programs with a duration between 6 weeks and 7 months, involving isokinetic and isometric endurance muscle training, have demonstrated an increase of muscle strength in the case of patients with mild or moderate muscle weakness, and a reduction of muscle fatigue [7, 8, 9]. The differential diagnosis of PPS can be difficult because of the need to exclude both neurological and non-neurological conditions that aggravate the pre-existing motor deficit. Rehabilitation programs using therapeutic means: kinesitherapy, thermotherapy, hydrothermotherapy, occupational therapy represent the only way to limit functional deficit and to improve pain, playing an important role in the long-term management and care of patients.
Barau, Inuwa; Zubairu, Mahmud; Mwanza, Michael N; Seaman, Vincent Y
Historically, microplanning for polio vaccination campaigns in Nigeria relied on inaccurate and incomplete hand-drawn maps, resulting in the exclusion of entire settlements and missed children. The goal of this work was to create accurate, coordinate-based maps for 8 polio-endemic states in northern Nigeria to improve microplanning and support tracking of vaccination teams, thereby enhancing coverage, supervision, and accountability. Settlement features were identified in the target states, using high-resolution satellite imagery. Field teams collected names and geocoordinates for each settlement feature, with the help of local guides. Global position system (GPS) tracking of vaccination teams was conducted in selected areas and daily feedback provided to supervisors. Geographic information system (GIS)-based maps were created for 2238 wards in the 8 target states. The resulting microplans included all settlements and more-efficient team assignments, owing to the improved spatial reference. GPS tracking was conducted in 111 high-risk local government areas, resulting in improved team performance and the identification of missed/poorly covered settlements. Accurate and complete maps are a necessary part of an effective polio microplan, and tracking vaccinators gives supervisors a tool to ensure that all settlements are visited. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Full Text Available Although its prevalence is declining, gastric cancer remains a significant public health issue. The bacterium Helicobacter pylori is known to colonize the human stomach and induce chronic atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and gastric cancer. Results using a Mongolian gerbil model revealed that H. pylori infection increased the incidence of carcinogen-induced adenocarcinoma, whereas curative treatment of H. pylori significantly lowered cancer incidence. Furthermore, some epidemiological studies have shown that eradication of H. pylori reduces the development of metachronous cancer in humans. However, other reports have warned that human cases of atrophic metaplastic gastritis are already at risk for gastric cancer development, even after eradication of these bacteria. In this article, we discuss the effectiveness of H. pylori eradication and the morphological changes that occur in gastric dysplasia/cancer lesions. We further assess the control of gastric cancer using various chemopreventive agents.
Sweet potato weevil which is a harmful insect injuring sweet potatoes was found out at Yoron Island in 1915 for the first time in Kagoshima prefecture, Japan. Here the eradication of sweet potato weevils using cobalt 60 irradiation achieved at Kikai Island is described. The mass-reared male weevils in potatoes are in pasture after sterilized by gamma irradiation. If the sexually sterile male copulates with a wild female, the egg does not incubate. By the repeated sterilization during several generations, the eradication of sweet potato weevils was accomplished. (M.H.)
Brown, Peter James
Conservation of native fish is a pressing issue for fisheries managers. Conservation efforts often require eliminating threats posed by nonnative fish by eradicating them with piscicides. The piscicides rotenone and antimycin are used for eradication but their application is often inefficient or ineffective. My goal was to increase the efficiency and efficacy of nonnative fish eradication using piscicides. I identified environmental conditions affecting piscicide application, researched methods to overcome these problems, and provided tools that piscicide applicators can use to make piscicide application more efficient and effective. Rotenone and antimycin were exposed to varying levels of sunlight, turbulence, and dissolved organic matter (DOM) to determine the effect these environmental conditions have on piscicides. Bioassay fish were used to determine the toxicity of the piscicides. Sunlight and turbulence affected rotenone and antimycin but DOM did not. Increasing the concentration of chemical can increase the resistance to the effects of these environmental conditions; however, the effects of these conditions are considerable in natural settings. Observations of bioassay fish in stream applications of rotenone were used to develop a statistical model to predict the persistence of the piscicide. The model can be used to predict rotenone persistence in small montane streams and to estimate where rotenone concentrations need to be fortified. I measured the mixing rate of a chemical plume in different channel morphologies and at center or edge applications. Center application had a significantly shorter mixing distance than edge application, but mixing distance was not different among meandering, straight, and riffle/pool morphologies. Application of my findings will increase the efficiency and efficacy of native fish conservation using piscicides.
McLaren, Robin; Enemark, Stig
The global eradication of infectious diseases through highly coordinated campaigns has been successful. Although insecurity of tenure is not a disease, its impact is devastating in terms of trapping people in poverty, displacing communities and making them homeless, and reducing food security and...
Pluess, T.; Cannon, R.; Jarošík, Vojtěch; Pergl, Jan; Pyšek, Petr; Bacher, S.
Roč. 14, č. 7 (2012), s. 1365-1378 ISSN 1387-3547 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0563; GA AV ČR IAA600050811; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : eradication * invasions * management Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.509, year: 2012
May 22, 2017 ... pylori (H. pylori) eradication rates of standard triple, sequential and quadruple therapies including claritromycin regimes in this study. Materials and Methods: A total of 160 patients with dyspeptic symptoms were enrolled to the study. The patients were randomized to four groups of treatment protocols.
... the Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication rates of standard triple, sequential and quadruple therapies including claritromycin regimes in this study. Materials and Methods: A total of 160 patients with dyspeptic symptoms were enrolled to the study. The patients were randomized to four groups of treatment protocols.
Helicobacter pylori has been implicated in the formation of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, mucosa‑associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and gastric cancer. Eradication of H. Pylori has been recommended as treatment and prevention for these complications. This review is based on a search of Medline, the ...
Bos, E.J.; Leeuwen, van M.G.A.; Vlieger, de J.J.
Research project commissioned by the Ministery of Agriculture, Nature Management and Fisheries. With the help of desk-research and input-output analysis quantitative information is assembled about the differences in cost for agribusiness and tourism of two eradication scenarios for foot-and-mouth
To mitigate the growth of slums in the country, there is a need to implement and practice urban innovative approaches and strategies based on sustainability thinking. This paper proposes and recommends the collaboration of all urban development stakeholders in the national urban development process to eradicate slums ...
Reijers, M. H.; Noach, L. A.; Tytgat, G. N.
In a pilot study we have evaluated the clinical efficacy of bismuth sucralfate to eradicate H. pylori. Ten consecutive patients with chronic dyspepsia and H. pylori associated gastritis were treated with bismuth sucralfate (220 mg bismuth per tablet, 4 tablets per day for 4 weeks). If a 14C urea
Zhu, Xin Yan; Liu, Fei
Over 80% of individuals infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) are asymptomatic. Increased resistance to antibiotics and decreased compliance to the therapeutic regimens have led to the failure of eradication therapy. Probiotics, with direct and indirect inhibitory effects on H. pylori in both animal models and clinical trials, have recently been used as a supplementary treatment in H. pylori eradication therapy. Probiotics have been considered useful because of the improvements in H. pylori eradication rates and therapy-related side effects although treatment outcomes using probiotics are controversial due to the heterogeneity of species, strains, doses and therapeutic duration of probiotics. Thus, despite the positive role of probiotics, several factors need to be further considered during their applications. Moreover, adverse events of probiotic use need to be noted. Further investigations into the safety of adjuvant probiotics to H. pylori eradication therapy are required. © 2017 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Kelly, Michael; Behuria, Sarthak
LP Gas is an ideal solution for dealing with energy poverty. Clean burning, low carbon, extremely efficient, requiring minimal infrastructure or R and D investment and with plentiful long term global supply, LP Gas can be quickly introduced to play an important role in eradicating energy poverty and steering both industrialised and developing countries onto more sustainable energy development paths.
The objective of this study is to update the status of Guinea worm and Eradication Program in Borno State and to demonstrate the effectiveness of adopting appropriate intervention strategies. The assessment of the prevalence of Dracunculus medinensis was carried out by active case search. Three hundred and ten ...
Pattern of how they are applied in time was provided in the animation representation. Further information on areas where different techniques were applied on different years is interactively visualized. Visualization of infestation changes in time was also provided by animation representation. Visualization of eradication ...
Asaka, Masahiro; Kato, Mototsugu; Sakamoto, Naoya
In Japan, the annual number of deaths from gastric cancer is approximately 50,000 and there has been no change over the last 50 years. So far, all efforts have been directed toward improving the detection of early gastric cancer by barium X-ray and endoscopy, since early cancer has a good prognosis, resulting in Japan having the best diagnostic capability for early gastric cancer worldwide. The 5-year survival rate of gastric cancer patients exceeds 60 % in Japan and is much higher than that in Europe and the US (20 %) because of this superior diagnosis of early gastric cancer. In February 2013, national health insurance coverage for Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy to treat H. pylori-associated chronic gastritis became available in Japan. H. pylori-associated gastritis leads to development of gastric and duodenal ulcers and gastric polyps. Therefore, providing treatment for gastritis is likely to substantially decrease the prevalence of both gastric and duodenal ulcers and polyps. Because treatment for H. pylori-associated gastritis, which leads to atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer, is now covered by health insurance in Japan, a strategy to eliminate gastric cancer-related deaths by taking advantage of this innovation was planned. According to this strategy, patients with gastritis will be investigated for H. pylori infection and those who are positive will receive eradication therapy followed by periodic surveillance. If this strategy is implemented, deaths from gastric cancer in Japan will decrease dramatically after 10-20 years.
Ivanyi, Barbara; Nollet, E; Redekop, WK; De Haan, R; Wohlgemuht, M; van Wijngaarden, JK; de Visser, Marianne
Objective: To investigate the prevalence of new neuromuscular symptoms, disabilities, and handicaps in a group of polio survivors. Design: A self-constructed health questionnaire about neuromuscular complaints and disability and handicap levels during the stable period after recovery from polio and
Ivanyi, B.; Nollet, F.; Redekop, W. K.; de Haan, R.; Wohlgemuht, M.; van Wijngaarden, J. K.; de Visser, M.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of new neuromuscular symptoms, disabilities, and handicaps in a group of polio survivors. DESIGN: A self-constructed health questionnaire about neuromuscular complaints and disability and handicap levels during the stable period after recovery from polio and
Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy has a role in minimizing the complications of peptic ulcer disease, namely, bleeding, perforation, and obstruction. However, the precise role of H. pylori eradication therapy in the complicated ulcers remains inconclusive, especially in perforation and gastric outlet obstruction. The prevalence of H. pylori in peptic ulcer bleeding patients has been widely underestimated owing to the differences in diagnostic tests and patient characteristics, and hence, it is recommended that an initial negative test should be followed up by a delayed repeat testing to rule out false negativity. It is well established now that eradication of H. pylori in patients with bleeding ulcers reduces rebleeding and ulcer recurrence. Multiple studies have attributed high recurrence rates of duodenal ulcer following simple closure to a high prevalence of H. pylori infection. Eradication therapy decreases the recurrence rate of perforated ulcers, thus justifying the role of H. pylori eradication therapy following the primary surgical management of perforated ulcers. The role of H. pylori in duodenal ulcer with gastric outlet obstruction is yet to be evaluated clearly. There are some reports of resolution of gastric outlet obstruction following therapy for H. pylori, obviating the need for surgery. Clarithromycin-containing regimens are recommended as first-line in areas of low resistance, whereas bismuth-containing quadruple therapy is the first-line empirical treatment in areas of high clarithromycin resistance. Treatment of H. pylori is beneficial in most of the patients with complicated peptic ulcer disease, especially in reducing recurrence of ulcer with or without complications.
Buzás, György Miklós
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is still the most prevalent infection of the world. Colonization of the stomach by this agent will invariably induce chronic gastritis which is a low-grade inflammatory state leading to local complications (peptic ulcer, gastric cancer, lymphoma) and remote manifestations. While H. pylori does not enter circulation, these extragastric manifestations are probably mediated by the cytokines and acute phase proteins produced by the inflammed mucosa. The epidemiologic link between the H. pylori infection and metabolic changes is inconstant and controversial. Growth delay was described mainly in low-income regions with high prevalence of the infection, where probably other nutritional and social factors contribute to it. The timely eradication of the infection will lead to a more healthy development of the young population, along with preventing peptic ulcers and gastric cancer An increase of total, low density lipoprotein and high density liporotein cholesterol levels in some infected people creates an atherogenic lipid profile which could promote atherosclerosis with its complications, myocardial infarction, stroke and peripheral vascular disease. Well designed and adequately powered long-term studies are required to see whether eradication of the infection will prevent these conditions. In case of glucose metabolism, the most consistent association was found between H. pylori and insulin resistance: again, proof that eradication prevents this common metabolic disturbance is expected. The results of eradication with standard regimens in diabetics are significantly worse than in non-diabetic patients, thus, more active regimens must be found to obtain better results. Successful eradication itself led to an increase of body mass index and cholesterol levels in some populations, while in others no such changes were encountered. Uncertainities of the metabolic consequences of H. pylori infection must be clarified in the future. PMID:24833852
Lo, Julian K; Robinson, Lawrence R
Post-Polio Syndrome (PPS) is characterized by new muscle weakness and/or muscle fatigability that occurs many years following the initial poliomyelitis illness. There are many theories that exist on the pathogenesis of PPS, which remains incompletely understood. In contrast, the Late Effects of Poliomyelitis are often a consequence of biomechanical alterations that occur as a result of polio-related surgeries, musculoskeletal deformities or weakness. Osteoporosis and fractures of the polio-involved limbs are common. A comprehensive clinical evaluation with appropriate investigations is essential to fulfilling the established PPS diagnostic criteria. PPS is a diagnosis of exclusion, in which a key clinical feature required for the diagnosis is new muscle weakness and/or muscle fatigability that is persistent for at least one year. Electromyographic and muscle biopsy findings including evidence of ongoing denervation cannot reliably distinguish between patients with or without PPS. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available During the 1920s and 1930s, disabled polio survivors initiated a campaign which made them active, dissenting subjects in public discourse about disease and disability. Its source was a core of Warm Springs patients who wanted more than a healing refuge. They were well aware of the need to construct a new image of the disabled, and saw the resort’s high public profile as a potent weapon in a cultural war to remake popular images of the disabled, whether as pathetic charitable objects or as horrific movie villains. Drawing on their own, disheartening experiences, this group of activists boldly critiqued the medical care offered most disabled patients as well as the training and attitudes of doctors, nurses and physical therapists. Protesting the narrow, medicalized definition of rehabilitation, they provocatively posed the need to «rehabilitate» prejudiced, able-bodied employers and health professionals. And most of all, they consciously designed the polio center at Warm Springs to function not as an inward-looking refuge but as an exemplar of the way polio survivors and other disabled people should be allowed to live, work and love. This story begins and ends in the 1930s. It traces a rise and fall: the rise of an activist community at the rehabilitative center at Warm Springs; and its decline with the creation of the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis (known popularly as the March of Dimes in 1937.
Durante los años veinte y treinta, un grupo de supervivientes de polio minusválidos entablaron una campaña que los convirtió en sujetos activos y discrepantes en el discurso público sobre enfermedad y minusvalía. El origen se sitúa en un grupo de pacientes de Warm Springs que querían algo más que un simple refugio curativo. Eran conscientes de la necesidad de crear una nueva imagen de los minusválidos y vieron en la importante imagen pública del centro una potente arma en una guerra cultural destinada a cambiar la imagen
Upfill-Brown, Alexander M; Voorman, Arend; Chabot-Couture, Guillaume; Shuaib, Faisal; Lyons, Hil M
The world is closer than ever to a polio-free Africa. In this end-stage, it is important to ensure high levels of population immunity to prevent polio outbreaks. Here, we introduce a new method of assessing vaccination campaign effectiveness and estimating immunity at the district-level. We demonstrate how this approach can be used to plan the vaccination campaigns prospectively to better manage population immunity in Northern Nigeria. Using Nigerian acute flaccid paralysis surveillance data from 2004-2014, we developed a Bayesian hierarchical model of campaign effectiveness and compared it to lot-quality assurance sampling data. We then used reconstructed sero-specific population immunity based on campaign history and compared district estimates of immunity to the occurrence of confirmed poliovirus cases. Estimated campaign effectiveness has improved across northern Nigeria since 2004, with Kano state experiencing an increase of 40 % (95 % CI, 26-54 %) in effectiveness from 2013 to 2014. Immunity to type 1 poliovirus has increased steadily. On the other hand, type 2 immunity was low and variable until the recent use of trivalent oral polio vaccine. We find that immunity estimates are related to the occurrence of both wild and vaccine-derived poliovirus cases and that campaign effectiveness correlates with direct measurements using lot-quality assurance sampling. Future campaign schedules highlight the trade-offs involved with using different vaccine types. The model in this study provides a novel method for assessing vaccination campaign performance and epidemiologically-relevant estimates of population immunity. Small-area estimates of campaign effectiveness can then be used to evaluate prospective campaign plans. This modeling approach could be applied to other countries as well as other vaccine preventable diseases.
Amenu Wesen Denegetu
Full Text Available The recent polio outbreak in Somalia, Kenya and Ethiopia demanded a safety net Sub-National Immunization Days (SNIDs for four bordering States, including Upper Nile. Aiming to reach children aged 0-59 months, a house-to-house strategy was employed from 20-23 of August 2013 to vaccinate all children in Maban County. The post Campaign evaluation is conducted to assess coverage by finger mark (quality by proxy and help to ensure improvements for subsequent campaigns. The main objective of the evaluation was to assess the quality of the campaign to learn lessons for subsequent plans.
Lo, Julian K; Robinson, Lawrence R
Post-Polio Syndrome (PPS) is characterized by new muscle weakness and/or muscle fatigability that occurs many years following the initial poliomyelitis illness. An individualized approach to rehabilitation management is critical. Interventions may include rehabilitation management strategies, adaptive equipment, orthotic equipment, gait/mobility aids and a variety of therapeutic exercises. The progression of muscle weakness in PPS is typically slow and gradual; however, there is also variability in both the natural history of weakness and functional prognosis. Further research is required to determine the effectiveness of selected medical treatment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
In-seam seismic surveys were carried out over the last two weekends in January in order to assess two coal panels, one in seam Cuatro at Polio colliery between levels 4 and 5 of the Centella field and the other in the Mariana seam at Santiago colliery between levels 3,5, and 7 in the Desquite zone. Geological research called in-seam seismics, which is just being developed in Spain, is a geophysical method developed specially for detailed investigation of coal seams.
Boulay, C; Hamonet, C; Galaup, N; Djindjian, M; Montagne, A; Vivant, R
The physiatrist observes about his practice individuals with sequela of old poliomyelitics. A part of them have unusual fatigue and muscular pains and weakness. The hypothesis of an evolution of neuro-biological mechanism suggested by few authors isn't, actually, demonstrated. More probably, the modifications of lesional and, functional changes with disability observed are the consequence of elderly effects and decreasing of physical activites. We report a case of spinal cord compression by intramedullar tumor, associated with a post-polio syndrome.
Judge, Seth; Hess, Steven C.; Faford, Jonathan K.; Pacheco, Dexter; Leopold, Christina
European mouflon (Ovis gmelini musimon), the world's smallest wild sheep, have proliferated and degraded fragile native ecosystems in the Hawaiian Islands through browsing, bark stripping, and trampling, including native forests within Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park (HAVO). HAVO resource managers initiated ungulate control efforts in the 469 km2 Kahuku Unit after it was acquired in 2003. We tracked control effort and used aerial surveys in a 64.7 km2 area from 2004 to 2017 and more intensive ground surveys and camera-trap monitoring to detect the last remaining animals within a 25.9 km2 subunit after it was enclosed by fence in 2012. Aerial shooting yielded the most removals per unit effort (3.2 animals/ hour), resulting in 261 animals. However, ground-based methods yielded 4,607 removals overall, 3,038 of which resulted from assistance of volunteers. Ground shooting with dogs, intensive aerial shooting, ground sweeps, and forward-looking infrared (FLIR)-assisted shooting were necessary to find and remove the last remaining mouflon. The Judas technique, baiting, and trapping were not successful in attracting or detecting small numbers of remaining individuals. Effort expended to remove each mouflon increased nearly 15-fold during the last 3 yr of eradication effort from 2013 to 2016. Complementary active and passive monitoring techniques allowed us to track the effectiveness of control effort and reveal locations of small groups to staff. The effort and variety of methods required to eradicate mouflon from an enclosed unit of moderate size illustrates the difficulty of scaling up to entire populations of wild ungulates from unenclosed areas.
In January 2012, completion of polio eradication was declared a programmatic emergency for global public health by the Executive Board of the World Health Organization (WHO). Despite major progress since the launch of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) in 1988, circulation of indigenous wild poliovirus (WPV) continues in three countries (Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan). India has not reported a polio case since January 2011, and is considered polio-free since February 2012. This report highlights progress toward global polio eradication during January 2011-March 2012. The number of polio cases reported globally decreased by 52%, from 1,352 in 2010 to 650 in 2011. Those 650 cases included 341 (53%) reported from the four polio-endemic countries (Afghanistan, India, Nigeria, and Pakistan), 230 (35%) from previously polio-free countries in which WPV importations led to reestablished transmission for ≥12 months (Angola, Chad, and Democratic Republic of the Congo [DRC]), and 79 (12%) from nine countries affected by outbreaks. Compared with 2010, WPV cases increased in 2011 in Afghanistan (69%), Nigeria (66%), and Pakistan (27%), but decreased in India (98%). During January-March 2012, 59% fewer cases were reported worldwide (as of May 15) compared with the same period in 2011, and all cases in 2012 have been reported from Afghanistan, Chad, Nigeria, and Pakistan. Although progress toward polio eradication was substantial in 2011, persistent WPV circulation in 2012, particularly in Nigeria and Pakistan, poses an ongoing threat to eradication efforts, underscoring the need for emergency measures by polio-affected countries and those at risk for outbreaks after importation.
Grant, George H.; Wendell Snow, J.; Vargas Teran, Moises
. Real progress was not made until 1997, based principally on efforts by the Jamaican Veterinary Services Division (VSD) when cooperation was established with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) and the Animal and Plant Health Information Service of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA/APHIS/ARS) with respect to the preparation for an eradication programme. Preliminary organisational activities for this programme have been started with the expectation that the first sterile fly releases will be made in January, 1999 to initiate what is projected to be a 3-year eradication campaign. With respect to the rest of the Caribbean, FAO currently has a project in Cuba which is aimed at determining the extent of the problem and its economic impact. Concurrently, IAEA is developing a 'thematic' plan for the entire Caribbean as well as South America
Jones, Alexander H; Becknell, Steven; Withers, P Craig; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Hopkins, Donald R; Stobbelaar, David; Makoy, Samuel Yibi
From 2006 to 2012, the South Sudan Guinea Worm Eradication Program reduced new Guinea worm disease (dracunculiasis) cases by over 90%, despite substantial programmatic challenges. Program logistics have played a key role in program achievements to date. The program uses disease surveillance and program performance data and integrated technical-logistical staffing to maintain flexible and effective logistical support for active community-based surveillance and intervention delivery in thousands of remote communities. Lessons learned from logistical design and management can resonate across similar complex surveillance and public health intervention delivery programs, such as mass drug administration for the control of neglected tropical diseases and other disease eradication programs. Logistical challenges in various public health scenarios and the pivotal contribution of logistics to Guinea worm case reductions in South Sudan underscore the need for additional inquiry into the role of logistics in public health programming in low-income countries.
Richard H Hunt
Full Text Available In patients with diseases known to be associated with Helicobacter pylori infection, such as peptic ulcer, treatment of the underlying infection is the standard of care. However, in most major consensus management guidelines, including those published in Canada, widespread testing for H pylori infection is not recommended. This practice is not encouraged because of insufficient evidence of cost-benefit in gastric cancer prevention, the potential for increases in antibiotic resistance and the controversial hypothesis of potential negative effects of eradication in certain clinical entities. For example, there is insufficient evidence to recommend against eradicating H pylori discovered in a patient with symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease. The management guidelines designed specifically in Canada should, therefore, continue to be applied, with H pylori diagnosed and treated in appropriately selected patients.
Nhamo, Senia; Nhamo, Godwell
The Millennium Summit held in New York in September 2000 outlined the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The first of these involves the eradication of extreme poverty and hunger, setting two targets: halving by 2015 the percentage of the world's populace in 1990 with income less than US-1 a day (i.e., cutting this percentage from 27.9 to 14%); and halving the share of people who suffer from hunger. As for education, the MDGs seek to ensure that all children can complete primary schooling by 2015. Drawing on examples from selected southern African countries, the present study examines the need to strengthen economic support for (adult) education as an instrument of poverty eradication. It argues that human capital is one of the fundamental determinants of economic growth, and that this economic resource is essentially determined in both qualitative and quantitative regards by education.
Olsen, N. J.; Skall, Helle Frank; Jensen, B. B.
resources have been used to control and eradicate the disease. The control program included strict biosecurity and preventative measures, trade regulations, zoning and intensive inspections and laboratory testing. During the first decades of control and eradication programs the number of infected farms......Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) virus was first isolated in Denmark in 1962, when more than half of the approximately 800 Danish fish farms were considered to be infected. Today, 50 years later, the country obtained status as EU approved VHS free zone. In the years in between very significant...... was significantly reduced while the curve flattened the last 20 years. It was only after a large and costly coordinated action in 2009-2013 including all affected areas that the country managed to free itself totally from VHS. Molecular tracing of the origin of VHSV isolates revealed that despite strict trade...
Full Text Available The protective, eradicative and curative activities of the fungicides azoxystrobin, tebuconazole, pyraclostrobin+metiram, and ciproconazole against grapevine rust, were determined in greenhouse. To evaluate the protective activity, leaves of potted ´Niagara´ (Vitis labrusca vines were artificially inoculated with an urediniospore suspension of Phakopsora euvitis four, eight or forteen days after fungicidal spray; and to evaluate the curative and eradicative activities, leaves were sprayed with fungicides two, four or eight days after inoculation. Disease severity was assessed 14 days after each inoculation. All tested fungicides present excellent preventive activity against grapevine rust; however, tebuconazole and ciproconazole provide better curative activity than azoxystrobin and pyraclostrobin+metiram. It was observed also that all tested fungicides significantly reduced the germination of urediniospore produced on sprayed leaves.
Asheim, Leif Jarle; Hopp, Petter; Grøneng, Gry M; Nafstad, Ola; Hegrenes, Agnar; Vatn, Synnøve
In 2008, virulent footrot was detected in sheep in south-west Norway. Footrot is caused by Dichelobacter nodosus, and the outbreak was linked to live sheep imported from Denmark in 2005. A large-scale program for eradicating the disease was implemented as a joint industry and governmental driven eradication project in the years 2008-2014, and continued with surveillance and control measures by the Norwegian Food Safety Authority from 2015. The cost of the eradication program including surveillance and control measures until 2032 was assumed to reach approximately €10.8 million (NOK 90 million). A financial cost-benefit analysis, comparing costs in the eradication program with costs in two simulated scenarios, was carried out. In the scenarios, designated ModerateSpread (baseline) and SlowSpread, it was assumed that the sheep farmers would undertake some voluntary measures on their own that would slow the spread of the disease. The program obtained a positive NPV after approximately 12 years. In a stochastic analysis, the probabilities of a positive NPV were estimated to 1.000 and to 0.648 after 15 years and to 0.378 and 0.016 after ten years, for the ModerateSpread and SlowSpread scenarios respectively. A rapid start-up of the program soon after the detection of the disease was considered crucial for the economic success as the disease would have become more widespread and probably raised the costs considerably at a later start-up. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Access to education and its quality undoubtedly play a key role in eradicating poverty in developing countries. The benefits of education are long-term and are passed on generations to come. It is important to remember, however, that the phenomenon of poverty is a complex issue, and that the sole education of society may prove insufficient. It is also important to ensure universal health protection, access to high quality health care, addressing income inequality and access to natural resources.
Farming activities in Ethiopia, as in much of sub-Saharan Africa, are restricted by the presence of tsetse flies (Glossina spp.). These carry the livestock and human disease, trypanosomosis, which severely affects agricultural production and human well-being. In collaboration with the Ethiopian authorities, the International Atomic Energy Agency is sponsoring a Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) programme to eradicate tsetse from the Southern Rift Valley of Ethiopia. (IAEA)
Lacruz, Isabel; Carl, Michael; Yamada, Masaru
We introduce a notion of pause-word ratio computed using ranges of pause lengths rather than lower cutoffs for pause lengths. Standard pause-word ratios are indicators of cognitive effort during different translation modalities.The pause range version allows for the study of how different types...... remoteness. We use data from the CRITT TPR database, comparing translation and post-editing from English to Japanese and from English to Spanish, and study the interaction of pause-word ratio for short pauses ranging between 300 and 500ms with syntactic remoteness, measured by the CrossS feature, semantic...... remoteness, measured by HTra, and syntactic and semantic remoteness, measured by Literality....
Report III, Volume 1 contains those specifications numbered A through J, as follows: General Specifications (A); Specifications for Pressure Vessels (C); Specifications for Tanks (D); Specifications for Exchangers (E); Specifications for Fired Heaters (F); Specifications for Pumps and Drivers (G); and Specifications for Instrumentation (J). The standard specifications of Bechtel Petroleum Incorporated have been amended as necessary to reflect the specific requirements of the Breckinridge Project, and the more stringent specifications of Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. These standard specifications are available to the Initial Effort (Phase Zero) work performed by all contractors and subcontractors. Report III, Volume 1 also contains the unique specifications prepared for Plants 8, 15, and 27. These specifications will be substantially reviewed during Phase I of the project, and modified as necessary for use during the engineering, procurement, and construction of this project.
are being utilized? What medical disciplines are being addressed using telemedicine systems? Methods: All data was surveyed from the "Telemedicinsk Landkort", a newly created database designed to provide a comprehensive and systematic overview of all telemedicine technologies in Denmark. Results......Objectives: The aim of this study is to survey telemedicine services currently in operation across Denmark. The study specifically seeks to answer the following questions: What initiatives are deployed within the different regions? What are the motivations behind the projects? What technologies......: The results of this study suggest that a growing number of telemedicine initiatives are currently in operation across Denmark but that considerable variations existed in terms of regional efforts as the number of operational telemedicine projects varied from region to region. Conclusions: The results...
Basri Siti Aisyah
Full Text Available Whistleblowing is an internal control system that be a way to reduce or eradicate fraud. This paper focuses on investigating the reasons for whistleblowing is not a preferred method to eradicate fraud. This paper starts with defining the term “whistleblowing”. In its simplest form, whistleblowing involves the act of reporting improper conduct within an organisation to internal or external parties. This paper explains the issues and effects concerning whistleblowing. One of the issues is the violation of public trust. Lastly, this paper will describe the reasons for resistance of people to blow the whistle. Among the reasons is the fear of reprisal. This is a concept paper and it aims to conduct interview session with the Head for every local authority in Melaka. The findings of this paper can be used by the Government to create a new model related to whistleblowing to eradicate fraud in public sector. The Government could use this paper as the support to enhance the achievement of National Key Result Areas (NKRAs Against Corruption.